WorldWideScience

Sample records for related nuclear phenomena

  1. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  2. Basic researches on thermo-hydraulic non-equilibrium phenomena related to nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akira; Kataoka, Isao; Aritomi, Masanori.

    1989-01-01

    A review was made of recent developments of fundamental researches on thermo-hydraulic non-equilibrium phenomena related to light water reactor safety, in relation to problems to be solved for the improvement of safety analysis codes. As for the problems related to flow con ditions, fundamental researches on basic conservation equations and constitutive equations for transient two-phase flow were reviewed. Regarding to the problems related to thermal non-equilibrium phenomena, fundamental researches on film boiling in pool and forced convection, transient boiling heat transfer and flow behavior caused by pressure transients were reviewed. (author)

  3. Novel nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involve processes in nuclear targets at intermediate energies. A range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena-exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction were discussed as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Several areas were also reviewed where there has been significant theoretical progress determining the form of hadron and nuclear wave functions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. A possible interpretation was also discussed of the large spin correlation A/sub NN/ in proton-proton scattering, and how relate this effect to an energy and angular dependence of color transparency in nuclei. 76 refs., 24 figs

  4. Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Helliwell, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of

  5. Nuclear disarmament verification via resonant phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecla, Jake J; Danagoulian, Areg

    2018-03-28

    Nuclear disarmament treaties are not sufficient in and of themselves to neutralize the existential threat of the nuclear weapons. Technologies are necessary for verifying the authenticity of the nuclear warheads undergoing dismantlement before counting them toward a treaty partner's obligation. Here we present a concept that leverages isotope-specific nuclear resonance phenomena to authenticate a warhead's fissile components by comparing them to a previously authenticated template. All information is encrypted in the physical domain in a manner that amounts to a physical zero-knowledge proof system. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the system is shown to reveal no isotopic or geometric information about the weapon, while readily detecting hoaxing attempts. This nuclear technique can dramatically increase the reach and trustworthiness of future nuclear disarmament treaties.

  6. Nuclear methods applied for studies of contact phenomena in metal-fluid media and between metallic components in relative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racolta, P.M.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, Dana; Muntele, C. I.

    1997-01-01

    The two main goals of this research project were: establishing of an activation methodology for metallic structures using accelerated beams obtained at our cyclotron and adapting the spectrometric analysis methods of the gamma radiations for corrosion level determinations. The developed methods, including the calibration (relations between the radioactivity level and the thickness of removed layer due to corrosion), were based on the remnant radioactivity measuring method. The experiments were focused on a proper selection of the nuclear reaction to be utilised for measurements, depending on the type of metallic alloys investigated. This study also consisted of optimizing the irradiation (particle, energy and dose) and cooling time so as to obtain a measuring sensitivity of 0.1-1μm for Fe, Ti, V, Cr, Cu, Mo based alloys. A portable two-channel γ-spectrometric installation was adapted to a customer's corrosion testing stand. Corrosion levels of a Romanian-made injection pump working with different types of Diesel oils and Diesel oil + special additives + water mixtures were determined. The nuclear reactions used were 56 Fe (p,n) 56 Co and 56 Fe (d,n) 57 Co. A selected area of the pump's piston was activated up to 30 μm. The testing programme was made for 300 h working times on the test stand; corrosion levels of approx. 0.3 μm were observed. In cooperation with a group from Tribology Laboratory from the Bucharest Technical University, Ti-coated pallets of a water pump were tested in their near real working environment - salty and sandy water. The 48 Ti (p,n) 48 V nuclear reaction was used for labelling a Ti thickness up to 50 μm. In this experiment, the main interest was to determine the minimum detectable corroded thickness by this radiotracer - based method. Our measurements showed that sensitivities of 0.05 - 1 μm can be achieved. In 1996, in cooperation with the National Institute for Thermal Engines, the wear of the piston ring - cylinder jacket friction

  7. Nonlinear phenomena in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari, Alireza; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Mansouri, Reza

    2018-04-01

    The perturbation theory plays an important role in studying structure formation in cosmology and post-Newtonian physics, but not all phenomena can be described by the linear perturbation theory. Thus, it is necessary to study exact solutions or higher-order perturbations. Specifically, we study black hole (apparent) horizons and the cosmological event horizon formation in the perturbation theory. We emphasize that in the perturbative regime of the gravitational potential these horizons cannot form in the lower order. Studying the infinite plane metric, we show that, to capture the cosmological constant effect, we need at least a second-order expansion.

  8. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat.

  9. Nuclear chromodynamics: Novel nuclear phenomena predicted by QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Ji, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    With the acceptance of QCD as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, one of the basic problems in the analysis of nuclear phenomena became how to consistently account for the effects of the underlying quark/gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei. Besides providing more detailed understanding

  10. Extended RPA study of nuclear collective phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.

    1987-01-01

    A fully microscopic study of nuclear collective phenomena is presented within the framework of an extended RPA which includes 1p-1h and 2p-2h excitations in a consistent way. This theory allows us to obtain a very realistic description of various excitation spectra. As a result, a strong evidence of correlation effects beyond mean-field theory emerges. The effective interaction used is a G-matrix derived from the meson-exchange potential. The extended theory introduces also additional correlations which screen the long-large part of the effective interaction. This effect significantly enhances the stability of the ground state against density fluctuations. In this connection a possible importance of relativistic effects is also discussed. 99 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  11. Thermal phenomenae in nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigorria, Carlos.

    1983-12-01

    Thermal phenomenae occurring in a nuclear fuel rod under irradiation are studied. The most important parameters of either steady or transient thermal states are determined. The validity of applying the Fourier's approximation equations to these problems is also studied. A computer program TRANS is developed in order to study the transient cases. This program solves a system of coupled, non-linear partial differential equations, of parabolic type, in cylindrical coordinates with various boundary conditions. The benchmarking of the TRANS program is done by comparing its predictions with the analytical solution of some simplified transient cases. Complex transient cases such as those corresponding to characteristic reactor accidents are studied, in particular for typical pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuel rods, such as those of Atucha I. The Stefan problem emerging in the case of melting of the fuel element is solved. Qualitative differences between the classical Stefan problem, without inner sources, and that one, which includes sources are discussed. The MSA program, for solving the Stefan problem with inner sources is presented; and furthermore, it serves to predict thermal evolution, when the fuel element melts. Finally a model for fuel phase change under irradiation is developed. The model is based on the dimensional invariants of the percolation theory when applied to the connectivity of liquid spires nucleated around each fission fragment track. Suggestions for future research into the subject are also presented. (autor) [es

  12. Study Of Severe Accident Phenomena In Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyanto; Antariksawan; Anhar, R.; Arifal

    2001-01-01

    Several phenomena that occurred in the light water reactor type of nuclear power plant during severe accident were studied. The study was carried out based on the results of severe accident researches in various countries. In general, severe accident phenomena can be classified into in-vessel phenomena, retention in the reactor coolant system, and ex-vessel phenomena. In-vessel retention has been recommended as a severe accident management strategy

  13. Mechanical breakdown in the nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. Thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavin, L.A.; Cherevko, K.V.; Sysoev, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a similarity of the Van der Waals and nucleon-nucleon interaction the known thermodynamic relations for ordinary liquids are used to analyze the possible decay channels in the proton induced nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. The main features of the different phase trajectories in the P-V plane are compared with the experimental data on multifragmentation. It allowed choosing the phase trajectories with the correct qualitative picture of the phenomena. Based on the thermodynamic analysis of the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena the most appropriate decay channel corresponding to the realistic phase trajectory is chosen. Macroscopic analysis of the suggested decay channel is done in order to check the possibility of the mechanical breakdown of the heated system. Based on a simple thermodynamic model preliminary quantitative calculations of corresponding macroscopic parameters (energy, pressure) are done and therefore the model verification on macroscopic level is held. It is shown that on macroscopic level the chosen decay channel through the mechanical breakdown meets the necessary conditions for describing the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena

  14. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    innermost region of a galaxy. Furthermore an increasing number of apparently totally distinct phenomena and properties of the SMBH/host system appear to be related to each other, provoking unifying ideas and models to explain the galaxy formation and evolution. For example several different types of AGN are understood as projection or orientation effects, claiming that the same AGN looks totally different as viewed from different sides (e.g. Antonucci & Miller 1985). The thesis is structured to reflect this general perception. All scales of size, AGN luminosity, and nuclear activity appear. The thesis consists of six chapters. The first two compile astrophysical and technical background of the individual projects, which themselves are presented in the following four chapters. While the first project (Chapter 3) deals with observations of the innermost parsec of our Galaxy, Chapter 4 presents data of the inner kpc of an active galaxy. The subjects of Chapters 5 and 6 are very luminous AGN/host systems, so-called QSOs. Whereas Chapter 5 presents global, spatially unresolved properties of SMBH/host systems, the radio jet, analyzed in the final Chapter 6, combines all size scales. It is investigated from close to its origin out to several kpc. The accretion onto the black hole of the Milky Way (Chapter 3) is extremely inefficient (Genzel et al. 2003a) and the SMBH possibly interacts dominantly via tidal forces only. The next discussed system (Chapter 4) is the prototype of moderately luminous Seyfert 2 AGN, NGC 1068. Here a strong local influence of the nuclear X-ray radiation is observed (Usero et al. 2004). Chapter 5 deals with the possible global importance of radiative interaction between highly luminous QSO AGN and the host. The radio jet in Chapter 6 definitely shows signs of interaction with the matter of its host several kpc away from the nucleus. Chapters 3-6 include a dedicated introductory and a conclusive section, which put the results obtained in the larger

  15. Report of the workshop on nuclear polarization phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The third work shop on the study of the nuclear polarization was held in December 1984 at RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics). Osaka University, in advance of the comming international conference. About 80 researchers gathered and discussed both theoretical and experimental aspects of nuclear polarization phenomena. Forty eight papers were presented at the work shop and they are collected in this report. Although almost all of them are written in Japanese, the abstracts are prepared in English. (Aoki, K.)

  16. Nuclear phenomena and the short distance structure of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1979-09-01

    In certain cases, nuclear corrections to hadronic phenomena depend in detail on the nature of quark and gluon interactions, as well as the effects of jet development within the nuclear medium. Applications of quantum chromodynamics to fast particle production in nuclear collisions, nuclear form factors, and shadowing in deep inelastic lepton processes are reviewed. Also discussed is a new approach to particle production in hadron-nucleus, nucleus-nucleus and deep-inelastic nuclear reactions from the standpoint of a color-neutralization model. 74 references

  17. Some perspectives in nuclear astrophysics on non-thermal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatischeff, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to Supervise Researches) report, the author presents and comments his research activities on nuclear phenomena in stellar eruptions (solar eruptions, lithium nucleosynthesis in stellar eruptions), on particle acceleration in shock waves of stellar explosions (diffusive acceleration by shock wave, particle acceleration in symbiotic novae, particle acceleration in radio-detected supernovae), of research on low energy cosmic rays (galactic emission of nuclear gamma rays, non thermal soft X rays as new tracer of accelerated particles), and on the origin of short period radioactivities in the primitive solar system (extinguished radio-activities and formation of the solar system, origin of berylium-10 in the primitive solar system). The author concludes with some perspectives on non thermal phenomena in nuclear astrophysics, and on research and development for the future of medium-energy gamma astronomy [fr

  18. Exotic nuclear structures and decays: new nuclear collective phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the properties of exotic nuclei have revealed a surprising richness and diversity in their shapes, structures, and decay modes far exceeding our understandings and expectations of even a decay ago. From studies of far-off-stability exotic nuclei have come evidence for the coexistence of different nuclear shapes in the same nucleus, new regions of unusually large deformation, new ground-state phase transitions from one shape to another, new magic numbers but now for deformed shapes, and for the importance of reinforcing shell gaps. New exotic decay modes include a wide variety of beta delayed particle emission and heavy cluster emissions such as 14 C and 24 Ne. The new deformed magic numbers of 38 and 60 seen far off stability clearly support that there are likely other ''magic'' numbers for protons and neutrons which give stability to different deformed shapes. Perhaps these other new magic shell gap numbers at large deformation could influence the sticking of two very heavy nuclei in collisions such as U on Cm. Finally, another area which could have a bearing on the formation, motions, and structures of giant nuclear systems involves the recent observation of very energetic, light particle (proton, alpha) emission with up to 50% and more of the total incoming energy in a collision, for example in 300 MeV 32 S on Ta. 43 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Ludic Function of Precedent-Related Phenomena in Media Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Velykoroda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the ludic function of precedent-related phenomena as a type of intertextuality. The analysis is done on the basis of relevance theoretic approach, through which we aim to show the additional cognitive effect which is created by precedent-related phenomena in media discourse, and this comic effect serves as a foundation for the ludic function of these units.

  20. Scaling relations for eddy current phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, C.V.; Deeds, W.E.

    1975-11-01

    Formulas are given for various electromagnetic quantities for coils in the presence of conductors, with the scaling parameters factored out so that small-scale model experiments can be related to large-scale apparatus. Particular emphasis is given to such quantities as eddy current heating, forces, power, and induced magnetic fields. For axially symmetric problems, closed-form integrals are available for the vector potential and all the other quantities obtainable from it. For unsymmetrical problems, a three-dimensional relaxation program can be used to obtain the vector potential and then the derivable quantities. Data on experimental measurements are given to verify the validity of the scaling laws for forces, inductances, and impedances. Indirectly these also support the validity of the scaling of the vector potential and all of the other quantities obtained from it

  1. Clustering phenomena in nuclear matter below the saturation density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Hiroki; Fukushima, Masahiro; Chiba, Satoshi; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Akaishi, Yoshinori; Tohsaki, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    We investigate density-fluctuated states of nuclear matter as a result of clustering below the saturation density ρ 0 by description in terms of the Bloch function. The Bloch description has the advantage of a unified representation for a density-fluctuated state from an aggregate of uncorrelated clusters in extremely low-density regions to the plane-wave state of uniform matter in relatively high-density regions. We treat the density-fluctuated states due to α and 16 O clustering in symmetric nuclear matter and due to 10 He clustering in asymmetric nuclear matter. The density-fluctuated states develop as the density of matter decreases below each critical density around 0.2-0.4 ρ 0 which depends on what kind of effective force we use

  2. The human elements in phenomena giving rise to nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.; Raggenbass, A.

    1977-01-01

    In its search for a high degree of safety, the nuclear industry should take into account the human parameters, which play an important role. This role is reflected in the individual records kept on incidents and analysis of these records, as has been carried out in conventional industry, represents a first attempt to allow for this factor. The first inquiries covering the background of incidents led to a series of studies and action in respect of individual staff members: on the part of operators, education of personnel in relation to their duties (for example, simulation of reactor control) and attempts to find objective selection criteria for certain specific posts; on the part of those responsible for safety, ergonomic studies and studies on human reliability. For effective prevention of accidents it is necessary to move backwards along the causality chains and therefore to study a nuclear facility as a man-machine system in order to discover the greatest number of potential accident factors. The nuclear facility is introduced into an environment which imposes its rules, constraints and checks and a full study of the human element in safety implies that they should be taken into account. The programme of the Nuclear Safety Department of the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety includes not only systematic updating of incident records but also special ergonomic studies (maintenance in a radioactive environment), studies of human reliability and overall studies known as safety management studies. (author)

  3. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  4. In search of high density collective phenomena in nuclear collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1979-06-01

    The progress made toward uncovering signatures of collective phenomena is reviewed. Elements of the basic reaction mechanism leading to a complex background are first discussed. Possible hints of collective phenomena in proton and pion single and double inclusive spectra as well as π - multiplicity data are then described. 6 figures, 2 tables

  5. Conference report for nuclear fusion phenomena in ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.

    1975-10-01

    A summary of the Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, is given. In particular, the format of the conference and the content of the review papers are summarized

  6. Study of dissolution precipitation phenomena related to heat generated by underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabriol, R.

    1987-01-01

    This study is composed of two parts developed in two separated volumes. The first part is a bibliographical research concerning the behaviour of waste analog elements during hydrothermal alteration in active geothermal fields. The second part is an experimental and theoretical simulation of dissolution-precipitation phenomena related to heat generated in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository located in granitic formations. This work is part of the CEC project MIRAGE on natural geological migration systems [fr

  7. Causal relations among events and states in dynamic geographical phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaoqiang; Feng, Xuezhi; Xuan, Wenling; Chen, Xiuwan

    2007-06-01

    There is only a static state of the real world to be recorded in conventional geographical information systems. However, there is not only static information but also dynamic information in geographical phenomena. So that how to record the dynamic information and reveal the relations among dynamic information is an important issue in a spatio-temporal information system. From an ontological perspective, we can initially divide the spatio-temporal entities in the world into continuants and occurrents. Continuant entities endure through some extended (although possibly very short) interval of time (e.g., houses, roads, cities, and real-estate). Occurrent entities happen and are then gone (e.g., a house repair job, road construction project, urban expansion, real-estate transition). From an information system perspective, continuants and occurrents that have a unique identity in the system are referred to as objects and events, respectively. And the change is represented implicitly by static snapshots in current spatial temporal information systems. In the previous models, the objects can be considered as the fundamental components of the system, and the change is modeled by considering time-varying attributes of these objects. In the spatio-temporal database, the temporal information that is either interval or instant is involved and the underlying data structures and indexes for temporal are considerable investigated. However, there is the absence of explicit ways of considering events, which affect the attributes of objects or the state. So the research issue of this paper focuses on how to model events in conceptual models of dynamic geographical phenomena and how to represent the causal relations among events and the objects or states. Firstly, the paper reviews the conceptual modeling in a temporal GIS by researchers. Secondly, this paper discusses the spatio-temporal entities: objects and events. Thirdly, this paper investigates the causal relations amongst

  8. Trend analysis of troubles caused by thermal-hydraulic phenomena at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Safety System (INSS) is promoting researches to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. In the present study, our attention was focused on troubles attributed to thermal-hydraulic phenomena in particular, trend analysis were carried out to learn lessons from these troubles and to prevent their recurrence. Through our survey, we found the following two points. First, many thermal-hydraulics related troubles can be attributed to design faults, since we found some events in foreign countries took place after inadequate facility renovation. To ensure appropriate design verification, it is important to take account of state-of-the-art science and technology and at the same time to pay attention to the compatibility with the initial design concept. Second point, thermal-hydraulic related troubles are common and recurrent to nuclear power plants worldwide. Japanese utilities are planning to introduce some of overseas experiences to their plants, such as power uprate and renovations of aged facilities. It is important to learn lessons from experiences paying close attention continuously to overseas trouble events, including thermal-hydraulics related events, and to use them to improve safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Novel High Transverse Momentum Phenomena in Hadronic and Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2009-04-10

    I discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD in high transverse momentum reactions. The presence of direct higher-twist processes, where a proton is produced directly in the hard subprocess, can explain the 'baryon anomaly' - the large proton-to-pion ratio seen at RHIC in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Direct hadronic processes can also account for the deviation from leading-twist PQCD scaling at fixed x{sub T} = 2 p{sub T}/{radical}s. I suggest that the 'ridge' --the same-side long-range rapidity correlation observed at RHIC in high centrality heavy ion collisions is due to the imprint of semihard DGLAP gluon radiation from initial-state partons which have transverse momenta biased toward the trigger. A model for early thermalization of the quark-gluon medium is also outlined. Rescattering interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, nuclear shadowing--all leading-twist dynamics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. Anti shadowing is shown to be quark flavor specific and thus different in charged and neutral deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering. I also discuss other aspects of quantum effects in heavy ion collisions, such as tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and the important consequences of color-octet intrinsic heavy quark distributions in the proton for particle and Higgs production at high x{sub F}. I also discuss how the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories allows one to compute the analytic form of frame-independent light

  10. Collective phenomena in non-central nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshin, Sergei A.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Snellings, Raimond

    2008-10-20

    Recent developments in the field of anisotropic flow in nuclear collision are reviewed. The results from the top AGS energy to the top RHIC energy are discussed with emphasis on techniques, interpretation, and uncertainties in the measurements.

  11. Collective phenomena in non-central nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, Sergei A.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Snellings, Raimond

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of anisotropic flow in nuclear collision are reviewed. The results from the top AGS energy to the top RHIC energy are discussed with emphasis on techniques, interpretation, and uncertainties in the measurements

  12. 2nd Workshop on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Heinrich

    1972-01-01

    Paul Harteck Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York When the Maser and the Laser Were discovered, people were speculating if this was the beginning of a new page, or even a new chapter, in the Book of Physics. The Second Workshop on "Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena" held in Hartford made it clear that the perspective had changed, that people now question if the consequences of these discoveries constitute a new chapter, or possibly a new era in Physics. While the papers presented were all stimulating and of out­ standing quality, of special interest were the experiments which demonstrated that triggering of thermonuclear fusion by Laser techniques is indeed in the realm of the possible. Along these lines, I enjoy recalling an anecdote concerning the late F. G. Houtermans. I think that all who knew him will agree that he was an unusual genius and at the same time a very amusing colleague.

  13. Hall effects and related phenomena in disordered Rashba 2DEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Kato, Takashi; Bauer, Gerrit E W; Molenkamp, Laurens W

    2009-01-01

    We review our recent work on the spin and anomalous Hall effects and other related phenomena caused by the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction. We focus our attention on disorder effects on these transport properties by adopting a model of a two-dimensional electron gas with a Rashba-type spin–orbit interaction. A spin-polarized model is adopted to calculate the anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance. It is shown that the spin Hall conductivity in the ballistic transport regime is cancelled by the so-called vertex corrections for the disorder scattering, and that the anomalous Hall conductivity and anisotropic magnetoresistance vanish unless the lifetime is spin dependent. We further present results on spin accumulation under an electric field

  14. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1989-03-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1989. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  15. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.; Mattila, L.

    1990-08-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1990. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Utilities and industry also contribute to some projects

  16. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Vanttola, T.

    1991-10-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1991. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  17. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  18. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1988-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1988. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  19. Nuclear phenomena derived from quark-gluon strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, Constanca; Providencia, Joao da

    2005-01-01

    provided that the chiral fields are identified with the two-particle strings, which are natural in a QCD framework. Moreover, the model is able to reconcile qualitatively such aspects of hadronic physics as saturation density and binding energy of nuclear matter, surface density of finite nuclei, mass......, for the occurrence of the phases of nuclear matter. The model exhibits a quark deconfinement transition and chiral restoration, which are ingredients of QCD and give qualitatively correct numerics. The effective model is shown to be isomorphic to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and exhibits the correct chirality...

  20. Noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena in nuclear power plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Aoki, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Teruaki; Shida, Akira; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Nishikawa, Akira; Inagaki, Tetsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    In the case of the boiling water reactor, hydrogen and oxygen slightly exist in the main steam, because these noncondensable gases are generated by the radiolytic decomposition of the reactor water. BWR plants have taken measures to prevent noncondensable gas accumulation. However, in 2001, the detonation of noncondensable gases occurred at Hamaoka-1 and Brunsbuttel, resulting in ruptured piping. The accumulation phenomena of noncondensable gases in BWR closed piping must be investigated and understood in order to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Therefore, an experimental study on noncondensable gas accumulation was carried out. The piping geometries for testing were classified and modeled after the piping of actual BWR plants. The test results showed that 1) noncondensable gases accumulate in vertical piping, 2) it is hard for noncondensable gases to accumulate in horizontal piping, and 3) noncondensable gases accumulate under low-pressure conditions. A simple accumulation analysis method was proposed. To evaluate noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena, the three component gases were treated as a mixture. It was assumed that the condensation amount of the vapor is small, because the piping is certainly wrapped with heat insulation material. Moreover, local thermal equilibrium was assumed. This analysis method was verified using the noncondensable gas accumulation test data on branch piping with a closed top. Moreover, an experimental study on drain trap piping was carried out. The test results showed that the noncondensable gases dissolved in the drain water were discharged from the drain trap, and Henry's law could be applied to evaluate the amount of dissolved noncondensable gases in the drain water. (author)

  1. Signatures of new phenomena in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1983-11-01

    Three classes of observables are discussed which may shed light on the properties of the quark-gluon plasma formed in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. They are: (1) thermometers: the penetrating probes μ + μ - , γ, c, (2) barometers: transverse flow via , and (3) seismometers: fluctuations of dN/dy and dE perpendicular/dy. The need for reliable estimates of the background due to the non-equilibrium processes is emphasized. 49 references

  2. Theories of Variable Mass Particles and Low Energy Nuclear Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Variable particle masses have sometimes been invoked to explain observed anomalies in low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). Such behavior has never been observed directly, and is not considered possible in theoretical nuclear physics. Nevertheless, there are covariant off-mass-shell theories of relativistic particle dynamics, based on works by Fock, Stueckelberg, Feynman, Greenberger, Horwitz, and others. We review some of these and we also consider virtual particles that arise in conventional Feynman diagrams in relativistic field theories. Effective Lagrangian models incorporating variable mass particle theories might be useful in describing anomalous nuclear reactions by combining mass shifts together with resonant tunneling and other effects. A detailed model for resonant fusion in a deuterium molecule with off-shell deuterons and electrons is presented as an example. Experimental means of observing such off-shell behavior directly, if it exists, is proposed and described. Brief explanations for elemental transmutation and formation of micro-craters are also given, and an alternative mechanism for the mass shift in the Widom-Larsen theory is presented. If variable mass theories were to find experimental support from LENR, then they would undoubtedly have important implications for the foundations of quantum mechanics, and practical applications may arise.

  3. Nuclear public relations campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    A two-day hearing to investigate DOE's participation in a $30 million nuclear public relations program at a time when the country is asked to decrease spending and in conjunction with similar efforts by the nuclear industry focused on the issue of whether ratepayers or shareholders should finance the effort. Shelby Brewer, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, defended the expenditures as a response to public demand for information and the need to correct misinformation. The testimony of 14 other witnesses includes the views of citizen and professional groups, utilities, and government agencies. Their testimony is followed by additional material submitted for the record. (DCK)

  4. Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena: 13th International Conference. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.; Maille-Petersen, C.; Coppedge, H.; Montoya, E.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Thirteenth International Conference on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena held in Monterey, California in April, 1997. Topics covered in the conference included laser design, alternate concepts in volume ignition and advance fuels, beam/plasma interactions, nuclear-pumped lasers, alternate fast ignitors, heavy ion fusions, laser-ion beam interactions, extreme short-pulse interactions, high-energy-density plasma physics, and hydrodynamic instabilities. The conference was sponsored in part by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the United States Department of Energy. There were 80 papers presented and 23 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  5. Presenteeism and absenteeism: differentiated understanding of related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Eric; Lemyre, Louise; Corneil, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    In the past it was assumed that work attendance equated to performance. It now appears that health-related loss of productivity can be traced equally to workers showing up at work as well as to workers choosing not to. Presenteeism in the workplace, showing up for work while sick, seems now more prevalent than absenteeism. These findings are forcing organizations to reconsider their approaches regarding regular work attendance. Given this, and echoing recommendations in the literature, this study seeks to identify the main behavioral correlates of presenteeism and absenteeism in the workplace. Comparative analysis of the data from a representative sample of executives from the Public Service of Canada enables us to draw a unique picture of presenteeism and absenteeism with regards not only to the impacts of health disorders but also to the demographic, organizational, and individual factors involved. Results provide a better understanding of the similarities and differences between these phenomena, and more specifically, of the differentiated influence of certain variables. These findings provide food for thought and may pave the way to the development of new organizational measures designed to manage absenteeism without creating presenteeism.

  6. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Containment Technology Test Facility (CTTF) and the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are used to perform scaled experiments for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that simulate High Pressure Melt Ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) phenomena on the containment load. High-temperature, chemically reactive melt is ejected by high-pressure steam into a scale model of a reactor cavity. Debris is entrained by the steam blowdown into a containment model where specific phenomena, such as the effect of subcompartment structures, prototypic atmospheres, and hydrogen generation and combustion, can be studied

  7. Polarization phenomena of nuclear force and weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuma, Michitsugu

    1982-01-01

    As one of the projects at the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics (KEK), the measurement of parity non-conservation component in nuclear force was proposed. The theoretical survey of this proposal is reported. The non-relativistic parity non-conserving potential between nucleons can be obtained from the interaction between a quark and a gauge boson. The wave function of a nucleus, which includes the inverse components of the parity, can be written. A practical experiment was designed. The mixing of the inverse components and the interference of an inverse component in the 1042 keV and 1081 keV levels of F 18 may produce the parity non-conservation. The processes which suggest the existence of parity non-conservation were studied. The processes are the circular polarization of gamma-ray emitted from a nucleus, the angular distribution of gamma-ray emitted from polarized nuclei, the collision of the proton beam with helicity of plus and minus on other nuclei, the spin rotation of neutrons, and the alpha decay of the parity non-conservation. The preliminary results of the experiment on the effects of parity non-conservation in the collision process of polarized proton beam have been reported, and the theoretical analyses were performed. The violation of parity conservation in large momentum collision is discussed. The comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental ones is presented. (Kato, T.)

  8. DEMETER Observations of Equatorial Plasma Depletions and Related Ionospheric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelier, J.; Malingre, M.; Pfaff, R.; Jasperse, J.; Parrot, M.

    2008-12-01

    DEMETER, the first micro-satellite of the CNES MYRIAD program, was launched from Baikonour on June 29, 2004 on a nearly circular, quasi helio-synchronous polar orbit at ~ 715 km altitude. The DEMETER mission focuses primarily on the search for a possible coupling between seismic activity and ionospheric disturbances as well as on the effects of natural phenomena such as tropospheric thunderstorms and man-made activities on the ionosphere. The scientific payload provides fairly complete measurements of the ionospheric plasma, energetic particles above ~ 70 keV, and plasma waves, up to 20 kHz for the magnetic and 3.3 MHz for the electric components. Several studies related to space weather and ionospheric physics have been conducted over the past years. Following a brief description of the payload and the satellite modes of operation, this presentation will focus on a set of results that provide a new insight into the physics of instabilities in the night-time equatorial ionosphere. The observations were performed during the major magnetic storm of November 2004. Deep plasma depletions were observed on several night-time passes at low latitudes characterized by the decrease of the plasma density by nearly 3 orders of magnitude relative to the undisturbed plasma, and a significant abundance of molecular ions. These features can be best interpreted as resulting from the rise of the F-layer above the satellite altitude over an extended region of the ionosphere. In one of the passes, DEMETER was operated in the Burst mode and the corresponding high resolution data allowed for the discovery of two unexpected phenomena. The first one is the existence of high intensity monochromatic wave packets at the LH frequency that develop during the decay phase of intense bursts of broadband LH turbulence. The broadband LH turbulence is triggered by whistlers emitted by lightning from atmospheric thunderstorms beneath the satellite. The second unexpected feature is the detection of a

  9. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kilpi, K.

    1985-01-01

    This research programme plan for 1985 covers the nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT

  10. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1987-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the nuclear related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1987 and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  11. Lifetimes of #betta#'s and μ's and short-distance nuclear phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisslinger, L.S.

    1982-06-01

    It is shown that short distance phenomena and thus quark structure play vital roles in the theory of #betta# and μ decays in nuclei. A hybrid two-baryon-quark shell model is used to estimate the lifetimes for nonmesonic decays of #betta#'s and μ's in nuclear matter

  12. Preliminary results in the search of nuclear phenomena in electrolysis of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiano Sobrinho, Silvestre.

    1994-01-01

    Electrolytic experiments in Li O D solution 0,17 M were performed with a 40 g Pd and several Nb electrodes, aimed at observing radiation usually associated with cold fusion phenomena. Neutrons, tritium and gamma-rays were searched, having in mind the nuclear reactions. (author). 17 refs., 1 tab

  13. Gamma-ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, R.E.; Hudson, H.S.; Worrall, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop covered the study of the explosive phenomena responsible for the various gamma ray transients. X-ray burster observations and theories were also reviewed with emphasis on their relationship to gamma ray bursts. Recent observational data, particularly from the SMM, HEAO, and VENERA satellites made the workshop especially timely. Major headings include: gamma-ray transients, x-ray bursts, solar transients, and instrumental concepts. Individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  14. Interfacial phenomena as related to oil recovery mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melrose, J C

    1970-12-01

    Thermodynamic and hydrostatic principles are applied to commingled immiscible fluid phases occupying the interstices fo a porous solid. Particular attention is given to the conditions of hydrostatic equilibrium for systems which include both fluid-fluid interfacial and 3-phase contact line regions. The configurational stability of fluid interfaces also is examined. Some model pore systems are considered, and estimates obtained for the magnitude of the hysteresis in capillary pressure in such cases. These considerations define the role of interfacial phenomena in determining the extent to which a nonwetting fluid can be displaced from a porous solid. (31 refs.)

  15. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 4: High-Temperature Materials PIRTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Ballinger, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Weaver, K. D. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2008-03-01

    The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) technique was used to identify safety-relevant/safety-significant phenomena and assess the importance and related knowledge base of high-temperature structural materials issues for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). The major aspects of materials degradation phenomena that may give rise to regulatory safety concern for the NGNP were evaluated for major structural components and the materials comprising them, including metallic and nonmetallic materials for control rods, other reactor internals, and primary circuit components; metallic alloys for very high-temperature service for heat exchangers and turbomachinery, metallic alloys for high-temperature service for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), other pressure vessels and components in the primary and secondary circuits; and metallic alloys for secondary heat transfer circuits and the balance of plant. These materials phenomena were primarily evaluated with regard to their potential for contributing to fission product release at the site boundary under a variety of event scenarios covering normal operation, anticipated transients, and accidents. Of all the high-temperature metallic components, the one most likely to be heavily challenged in the NGNP will be the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). Its thin, internal sections must be able to withstand the stresses associated with thermal loading and pressure drops between the primary and secondary loops under the environments and temperatures of interest. Several important materials-related phenomena related to the IHX were identified, including crack initiation and propagation; the lack of experience of primary boundary design methodology limitations for new IHX structures; and manufacturing phenomena for new designs. Specific issues were also identified for RPVs that will likely be too large for shop fabrication and transportation. Validated procedures

  16. Workshop on Potentially Disruptive Phenomena for Nuclear Waste Repositories, July 27-28, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The workshop on Potentially Disruptive Phenomena for Nuclear Waste Repositories brought together experts in the geosciences to identify and evaluate potentially disruptive events and processes and to contribute ideas on how to extrapolate data from the past into the next one million years. The analysis is to be used to model a repository in geologic media for long-term safety assessments of nuclear waste storage. The workshop included invited presentations on the following items: an overview of the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP), simulation techniques, subjective probabilities and methodology of obtaining data, similar modeling efforts at Lawrence Livermore and Sandia Laboratories, and geologic processes or events

  17. The myth of interconnected plastids and related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattat, Martin H; Barton, Kiah A; Mathur, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Studies spread over nearly two and a half centuries have identified the primary plastid in autotrophic algae and plants as a pleomorphic, multifunctional organelle comprising of a double-membrane envelope enclosing an organization of internal membranes submerged in a watery stroma. All plastid units have been observed extending and retracting thin stroma-filled tubules named stromules sporadically. Observations on living plant cells often convey the impression that stromules connect two or more independent plastids with each other. When photo-bleaching techniques were used to suggest that macromolecules such as the green fluorescent protein could flow between already interconnected plastids, for many people this impression changed to conviction. However, it was noticed only recently that the concept of protein flow between plastids rests solely on the words "interconnected plastids" for which details have never been provided. We have critically reviewed botanical literature dating back to the 1880s for understanding this term and the phenomena that have become associated with it. We find that while meticulously detailed ontogenic studies spanning nearly 150 years have established the plastid as a singular unit organelle, there is no experimental support for the idea that interconnected plastids exist under normal conditions of growth and development. In this review, while we consider several possibilities that might allow a single elongated plastid to be misinterpreted as two or more interconnected plastids, our final conclusion is that the concept of direct protein flow between plastids is based on an unfounded assumption.

  18. Cerebral methodology based computing to estimate real phenomena from large-scale nuclear simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Our final goal is to estimate real phenomena from large-scale nuclear simulations by using computing processes. Large-scale simulations mean that they include scale variety and physical complexity so that corresponding experiments and/or theories do not exist. In nuclear field, it is indispensable to estimate real phenomena from simulations in order to improve the safety and security of nuclear power plants. Here, the analysis of uncertainty included in simulations is needed to reveal sensitivity of uncertainty due to randomness, to reduce the uncertainty due to lack of knowledge and to lead a degree of certainty by verification and validation (V and V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes. To realize this, we propose 'Cerebral Methodology based Computing (CMC)' as computing processes with deductive and inductive approaches by referring human reasoning processes. Our idea is to execute deductive and inductive simulations contrasted with deductive and inductive approaches. We have established its prototype system and applied it to a thermal displacement analysis of a nuclear power plant. The result shows that our idea is effective to reduce the uncertainty and to get the degree of certainty. (author)

  19. Heat transfer phenomena related to the boiling crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenveld, D.C.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of critical heat flux (CHF) and post-CHF heat transfer. Part I reviews the mechanisms controlling the boiling crisis. The observed parametric trends of the CHF in a heat flux controlled system are discussed in detail, paying special attention to parameters pertaining to nuclear fuel. The various methods of predicting the critical power are described. Part II reviews the published information on transition boiling and film boiling heat transfer under forced convective conditions. Transition boiling data were found to be available only within limited ranges of conditions. The data did not permit the derivation of a correlation; however, the parametric trends were isolated from these data. (author)

  20. Relation between physicomechanical properties and diffusion phenomena in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicaise, E.

    1984-06-01

    One of the procedures for storing low and medium activity nuclear waste consists of coating the contaminated material in a thermosetting resin. The drums thus constitued are stored in concreted underground trenches, then covered with cement, bitumen or clayey soil. Although the risk of water circulation is low, this element represents on the one hand the major cause of natural deterioration of the polymer, and on the other hand the most likely vehicle for conveying the radioactive ions confined in the drums. It is for this reason that the study of the behaviour of polyester or epoxide-based macromolecular materials with regard to water constitutes the first stage of this work. The second part of the thesis is directed towards the study of compound materials. Indeed, the charges are represented in the first case by the nuclear waste itself; in the second case, they are introduced into the polymer beforehand, on the one hand to reduce costs, and on the other hand to give the mixture suitable mechanical and rheological properties. In this study, three types of mineral charge are added in an epoxide resin: glass balls surface-treated or not, and sand. Various techniques are implemented in order to assess and characterize the interfacial adhesion, in the different systems. The strongest polymer-charge bonds are sought in order to resist natural deterioration. Finally, the object of the confinement process, is to avoid dispersion of low and medium activity substances ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co, 106 Ru..) in the environment. The final stage of this work therefore consists in assessing the barrier qualities of pure or charged polymers with regard to radioactive ion diffusion. We will show in particular that the use of fine resin membranes enables the diffusion coefficient of the 137 Cs to be calculated [fr

  1. Elucidation of complicated phenomena in nuclear power field by computation science techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryoichi

    1996-01-01

    In this crossover research, the complicated phenomena treated in nuclear power field are elucidated, and for connecting them to engineering application research, the development of high speed computer utilization technology and the large scale numerical simulation utilizing it are carried out. As the scale of calculation, it is aimed at to realize the three-dimensional numerical simulation of the largest scale in the world of about 100 million mesh and to develop the results into engineering research. In the nuclear power plants of next generation, the further improvement of economical efficiency is demanded together with securing safety, and it is important that the design window is large. The work of confirming quantitatively the size of design window is not easy, and it is very difficult to separate observed phenomena into elementary events. As the method of forecasting and reproducing complicated phenomena and quantifying design window, large scale numerical simulation is promising. The roles of theory, experiment and computation science are discussed. The system of executing this crossover research is described. (K.I.)

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Bratton, Rob; Marsden, Barry; Srinivasan, Makuteswara; Penfield, Scott; Mitchell, Mark; Windes, Will

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the outcome of the application of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process to the issue of nuclear-grade graphite for the moderator and structural components of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), considering both routine (normal operation) and postulated accident conditions for the NGNP. The NGNP is assumed to be a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), either a gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GTMHR) version (a prismatic-core modular reactor (PMR)] or a pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) version (a pebble bed reactor (PBR)] design, with either a direct- or indirect-cycle gas turbine (Brayton cycle) system for electric power production, and an indirect-cycle component for hydrogen production. NGNP design options with a high-pressure steam generator (Rankine cycle) in the primary loop are not considered in this PIRT. This graphite PIRT was conducted in parallel with four other NRC PIRT activities, taking advantage of the relationships and overlaps in subject matter. The graphite PIRT panel identified numerous phenomena, five of which were ranked high importance-low knowledge. A further nine were ranked with high importance and medium knowledge rank. Two phenomena were ranked with medium importance and low knowledge, and a further 14 were ranked medium importance and medium knowledge rank. The last 12 phenomena were ranked with low importance and high knowledge rank (or similar combinations suggesting they have low priority). The ranking/scoring rationale for the reported graphite phenomena is discussed. Much has been learned about the behavior of graphite in reactor environments in the 60-plus years since the first graphite rectors went into service. The extensive list of references in the Bibliography is plainly testament to this fact. Our current knowledge base is well developed. Although data are lacking for the specific grades being considered for Generation IV (Gen IV

  3. Comparison between experiment and theory for nuclear structure phenomena at extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Occam's razor can often be applied to various phenomena in nuclear physics to describe complex physics in a simple picture. In a nucleus various excitation modes are possible, which can be broadly classified into single or collective. Though these modes are interlinked, these are separable in the Hamiltonian. This is the primary reason; nuclear excitations can be treated in the semi classical approximation. In the semi classical picture, often there are only a few independent variables, which are sufficient to describe the experimental observation. In these cases, it is always important to consider the total picture and fix the free parameters according to the physics of the problem. Under this topic, two extreme scenarios of nuclear deformation, which are of current interest to the community are discussed

  4. Improvement in understanding of natural circulation phenomena in water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-Ho; Cleveland, John; Aksan, Nusret

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phenomena influencing natural circulation in passive systems. ► Behaviour in large pools of liquid. ► Effect of non-condensable gas on condensation heat transfer. ► Behaviour of containment emergency systems. ► Natural circulation flow and pressure drop in various geometries. - Abstract: The IAEA has organized a coordinated research project (CRP) on “Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling, and Reliability of Passive Systems That Utilize Natural Circulation.” Specific objectives of CRP were to (i) establish the status of knowledge: reactor start-up and operation, passive system initiation and operation, flow stability, 3-D effects, and scaling laws, (ii) investigate phenomena influencing reliability of passive natural circulation systems, (iii) review experimental databases for the phenomena, (iv) examine the ability of computer codes to predict natural circulation and related phenomena, and (v) apply methodologies for examining the reliability of passive systems. Sixteen institutes from 13 IAEA Member States have participated in this CRP. Twenty reference advanced water cooled reactor designs including evolutionary and innovative designs were selected to examine the use of natural circulation and passive systems in their designs. Twelve phenomena influencing natural circulation were identified and characterized: (1) behaviour in large pools of liquid, (2) effect of non-condensable gases on condensation heat transfer, (3) condensation on the containment structures, (4) behaviour of containment emergency systems, (5) thermo-fluid dynamics and pressure drops in various geometrical configurations, (6) natural circulation in closed loop, (7) steam liquid interaction, (8) gravity driven cooling and accumulator behaviour, (9) liquid temperature stratification, (10) behaviour of emergency heat exchangers and isolation condensers, (11) stratification and mixing of boron, and (12) core make-up tank behaviour. This paper summarizes the

  5. The discovery of nuclear compression phenomena in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    This article has attempted to review more than 15 years of research on shock compression phenomena, which is closely related to the goal of determining the nuclear EOS. Exciting progress has been made in this field over the last years and the fundamental physics of relativistic heavy ion-collisions has been well established. Overwhelming experimental evidence for the existence of shock compression has been extracted from the data. While early, inclusive measurements had been rather inconclusive, the advent of 4π-detectors like the GSI-LBL Plastic Ball had enabled the outstanding discovery of collective flow effects, as they were predicted by fluid-dynamical calculations. The particular case of conical Mach shock waves, anticipated for asymmetric collisions, has not been observed. What are the reasons? Surprisingly, the maximum energy of 2.1 GeV/nucleon for heavy ions at the BEVALAC had been found to be too low for Mach shock waves to occur. The small 20 Ne-nucleus is stopped in the heavy Au target. A Mach cone, however, if it had developed in the early stage of the collision will be wiped out by thermal motion in the process of slowing the projectile down to rest. A comparison of the data with models hints towards a rather hard EOS, although a soft one cannot be excluded definitively. A quantitative extraction is aggravated by a number in-medium and final-state effects which influence the calculated observables in a similar fashion as different choices of an EOS. Thus, as of now, the precise knowledge of the EOS of hot and dense matter is still an open question and needs further investigation. (orig.)

  6. New stationary detector for study of quick phenomena in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, J.C.

    1975-05-01

    A new type of scintillation camera, particularly adapted at the study of fast phenomena in Nuclear Medicine is studied. The first part is a review of the principal devices existing. Limitation of performance are criticized. Then device using a direct light amplification of the crystal scintillations is studied. New solutions are developed, particularly the coupling mode between the crystal and the photocathode, and the adaptation of a super esicon tube. Results of physical measurements, and transit cardiac pictures obtained at the Frederic Joliot Hospital in Orsay are presented [fr

  7. Dayside aurorae and their relation to other geophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontyev, S.V.; Starkov, G.V.; Vorobjev, V.G.; Zverev, V.L.; Feldstein, Ya.I.

    1992-01-01

    Principal morphological peculiarities of auroral luminosity are investigated on the basis of the data from multi-year aurorae observations in day hours at Spitzbergen and Franz Jozef Land. It is shown that in this region the typical forms of aurorae are moving poleward rayed arcs appearing at the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval and disappearing at its pole boundary. Discrete forms of aurorae are located inside a much broader red luminosity band in its equatorward part. Auroral pulsations with a period of 10 50 s are observed in the prenoon sector in a region of much harder precipitations found more equatorward with respect to the daytime red luminosity band. The influence of a B z IMF component upon daytime aurorae is exercised both directly through an equatorward (poleward) shift of daytime aurorae upon decreasing (increasing) B z and via an increase in planetary geomagnetic activity related to the appearance of substorms during which the whole region of the daytime luminosity is shifted to much lower latitudes. A decrease of intensity of daytime aurorae with duration of 5-10 min before the beginning of an expansive phase of a substorm on the night side is detected. The peculiarities of the daytime aurorae dynamics during substorms are also investigated. A scheme of the daytime auroral luminosity distribution is presented. Analytical expressions of the dependence of the daytime aurorae position on IMF are provided. Certain physical mechanisms that can explain the peculiarities of daytime aurorae dynamics are also discussed. (Author)

  8. European activities on crosscutting thermal-hydraulic phenomena for innovative nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X., E-mail: xu.cheng@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Batta, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Bandini, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) (Italy); Roelofs, F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) (Netherlands); Van Tichelen, K. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie – Centre d’étude de l’Energie Nucléaire (SCK-CEN) (Belgium); Gerschenfeld, A. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA) (France); Prasser, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) (Switzerland); Papukchiev, A. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Hampel, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (HZDR) (Germany); Ma, W.M. [Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH) (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • This paper serves as a guidance of the special issue. • The technical tasks and methodologies applied to achieve the objectives have been described. • Main results achieved so far are summarized. - Abstract: Thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key scientific subject in the development of innovative reactor systems. In Europe, a consortium is established consisting of 24 institutions of universities, research centers and nuclear industries with the main objectives to identify and to perform research activities on important crosscutting thermal-hydraulic issues encountered in various innovative nuclear systems. For this purpose the large-scale integrated research project THINS (Thermal-Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems) is launched in the 7th Framework Programme FP7 of European Union. The main topics considered in the THINS project are (a) advanced reactor core thermal-hydraulics, (b) single phase mixed convection, (c) single phase turbulence, (d) multiphase flow, and (e) numerical code coupling and qualification. The main objectives of the project are: • Generation of a data base for the development and validation of new models and codes describing the selected crosscutting thermal-hydraulic phenomena. • Development of new physical models and modeling approaches for more accurate description of the crosscutting thermal-hydraulic phenomena. • Improvement of the numerical engineering tools for the design analysis of the innovative nuclear systems. This paper describes the technical tasks and methodologies applied to achieve the objectives. Main results achieved so far are summarized. This paper serves also as a guidance of this special issue.

  9. Clarification of complex phenomena in nuclear plants present status and future trend of fluid analysis by cellular automaton methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yasuyoshi

    1999-01-01

    Since most of complex phenomena comprise of various elementary processes e.g., fluid flow, heat conduction, phase transition, chemical reaction, structural deformation, and these processes interact each other nonlinearly, the complex phenomena cannot be easily clarified by such the conventional topdown approaches as describe phenomena by using differential equations. In contrast to the topdown approaches where the differential equations are located at the top of the analysis procedures, these are bottomup approaches where phenomena are reproduced by local interaction of particles on cells. Cellular automata are one of the typical bottomup approaches. The basic principle, computer simulation results, and massively parallel processors for the cellular automata are reviewed and perspectives of the bottomup approach are discussed on clarification of the complex phenomena in nuclear plants. The computer simulations mainly deal with fluid flows and phase interfacial phenomena. (author)

  10. Evaluation of natural phenomena hazards as part of safety assessments for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Shin, Y.W.

    1995-02-01

    The continued operation of existing US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and laboratories requires a safety reassessment based on current criteria and guidelines. This also includes evaluations for the effects of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH), for which these facilities may not have been designed. The NPH evaluations follow the requirements of DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation (1993) which establishes NPH Performance Categories (PCs) for DOE facilities and associated target probabilistic performance goals. These goals are expressed as the mean annual probability of exceedance of acceptable behavior for structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to NPH effects. The assignment of an NPH Performance Category is based on the overall hazard categorization (low, moderate, high) of a facility and on the function of an SSC under evaluation (DOE-STD-1021, 1992). Detailed guidance for the NPH analysis and evaluation criteria are also provided (DOE-STD-1020, 1994). These analyses can be very resource intensive, and may not be necessary for the evaluation of all SSCs in existing facilities, in particular for low hazard category facilities. An approach relying heavily on screening inspections, engineering judgment and use of NPH experience data (S. J. Eder et al., 1993), can minimize the analytical effort, give reasonable estimates of the NPH susceptibilities, and yield adequate information for an overall safety evaluation of the facility. In the following sections this approach is described in more detail and is illustrated by an application to a nuclear laboratory complex

  11. Nuclear data and related services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuli, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) maintains a number of data bases containing bibliographic information and evaluated as well as experimental nuclear properties. An evaluated computer file maintained by the NNDC, called the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), contains nuclear structure information for all known nuclides. The ENSDF is the source for the journal Nuclear Data Sheets which is produced and edited by NNDC. The Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF), on the other hand is designed for storage and retrieval of such evaluated nuclear data as are used in neutronic, photonic, and decay heat calculations in a large variety of applications. The NNDC maintains three bibliographic files: NSR - for nuclear structure and decay data related references, CINDA - a bibliographic file for neutron induced reactions, and CPBIB - for charged particle reactions. Selected retrievals from evaluated data and bibliographic files are possible on-line or on request from NNDC

  12. Complex nuclear-structure phenomena revealed from the nuclide production in fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Kelic, A.; Napolitani, P.; Schmidt, K.H.; Yordanov, O.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Rejmund, F.

    2003-12-01

    Complex structural effects in the nuclide production from the projectile fragmentation of 1 A GeV 238 U nuclei in a titanium target are reported. The structure seems to be insensitive to the excitation energy induced in the reaction. This is in contrast to the prominent structural features found in nuclear fission and in transfer reactions, which gradually disappear with increasing excitation energy. Using the statistical model of nuclear reactions, relations to structural effects in nuclear binding and in the nuclear level density are demonstrated. (orig.)

  13. Sensory phenomena related to tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and global functioning in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yukiko; Matsuda, Natsumi; Nonaka, Maiko; Fujio, Miyuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kono, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Sensory phenomena, including premonitory urges, are experienced by patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The goal of the present study was to investigate such phenomena related to tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), and global functioning in Japanese patients with TS. Forty-one patients with TS were assessed using the University of São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale (USP-SPS), the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS), the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale. USP-SPS and PUTS total scores were significantly correlated with YGTSS total and vocal tics scores. Additionally, both sensory phenomena severity scores were significantly correlated with DY-BOCS total OCS scores. Of the six dimensional OCS scores, the USP-SPS scores were significantly correlated with measures of aggression and sexual/religious dimensions. Finally, the PUTS total scores were significantly and negatively correlated with GAF scores. By assessing premonitory urges and broader sensory phenomena, and by viewing OCS from a dimensional approach, this study provides significant insight into sensory phenomena related to tics, OCS, and global functioning in patients with TS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. AN INTEGRATED COMPUTER-AIDED APPROACH FOR MODELING DISINTEGRATION-RELATED PHENOMENA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CARAMELLA, C.; FERRARI, F.; RONCHI, M.; Smilde, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    Two phenomena have frequently been related to tablet disintegration: water uptake and disintegrating force development. The combination of these two measures allowed a step forward to understanding disintegration mechanisms. In the present work, multiple linear regression analysis was used to relate

  15. Natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants: Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e. those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. Further, the IAEA Conference on The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future which was convened in 1991 noted that for new plants 'the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate'. Considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to assure that the systems perform their intended functions. To support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive systems, investigations of natural circulation are an ongoing activity in several IAEA Member States. Some new designs also utilize natural circulation as a means to remove core power during normal operation. In response to the motivating factors discussed above, and to foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation was started in early 2004. Building on the shared expertise within the CRP, this publication presents extensive information on natural circulation phenomena, models, predictive tools and experiments that currently support design and analyses of natural circulation systems and highlights areas where additional research is needed. Therefore, this publication serves both to provide a description of the present state of knowledge on natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants and to guide the planning and conduct of the CRP in

  16. Fuel performance-REP, Seminars on nuclear fuel performance based on basic underlining phenomena, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Description: The need for further improving the understanding of basic phenomena underlying nuclear fuel behaviour has been recognised both by fuel vendors, experts in fuel research in the different laboratories and committees and working groups coordinating international activities. The OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee has established an Experts Group addressing this issue. This has led to establishing an International Fuel Performance Experiments Database (IFPE) that should help model evaluation and validation. Many years ago the IAEA established an International Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT) that led to the FUMEX-I and FUMEX-II (Fuel Modelling Exercise) which has had an important impact on code improvements. Both international organisations, with the support of national organisations, co-operate in establishing and maintaining the Database and to build confidence in the predictive power of the models through international comparison exercises. But above all the different parties have agreed that seminars focussed on specific phenomena would be beneficial to exchange current knowledge, identify outstanding problems and agree on common action that would lead to improved understanding of the phenomena. A series of three seminars has been initiated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France (EdF), Framatome and Cogema under the aegis of the OECD/NEA and the IAEA. 1. Thermal Performance of High Burn-Up LWR Fuel at Cadarache, France, from 3 to 6 of March 1998. Thermal performance occupies the most important aspect of the fuel performance modelling. Not only is it extremely important from a safety point of view, but also many of the material properties of interest and behaviour, such as transport properties like fuel creep and fission gas release are thermally activated processes. Thus, in order to model these processes correctly, it is critical to calculate temperatures and their distribution as accurately as

  17. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  18. Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Markus

    2007-12-01

    Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg 0.3 Cd 0.7 Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)

  19. Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Markus

    2007-12-15

    Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg{sub 0.3}Cd{sub 0.7}Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)

  20. Development of a 3D-Multigroup program to simulate anomalous diffusion phenomena in the nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleki Moghaddam, Nader; Afarideh, Hossein; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The new version of neutron diffusion equation for simulating anomalous diffusion is presented. • Application of fractional calculus in the nuclear reactor is revealed. • A 3D-Multigroup program is developed based on the fractional operators. • The super-diffusion and sub-diffusion phenomena are modeled in the nuclear reactors core. - Abstract: The diffusion process is categorized in three parts, normal diffusion, super-diffusion and sub-diffusion. The classical neutron diffusion equation is used to model normal diffusion. A new scheme of derivatives is required to model anomalous diffusion phenomena. The fractional space derivatives are employed to model anomalous diffusion processes where a plume of particles spreads at an inconsistent rate with the classical Brownian motion model. In the fractional diffusion equation, the fractional Laplacians are used; therefore the statistical jump length of neutrons is unrestricted. It is clear that the fractional Laplacians are capable to model the anomalous phenomena in nuclear reactors. We have developed a NFDE-3D (neutron fractional diffusion equation) as a core calculation code to model normal and anomalous diffusion phenomena. The NFDE-3D is validated against the LMW-LWR reactor. The results demonstrate that reactors exhibit complex behavior versus order of the fractional derivatives which depends on the competition between neutron absorption and super-diffusion phenomenon

  1. Primate empathy: three factors and their combinations for empathy-related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Empathy as a research topic is receiving increasing attention, although there seems some confusion on the definition of empathy across different fields. Frans de Waal (de Waal FBM. Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy. Annu Rev Psychol 2008, 59:279-300. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093625) used empathy as an umbrella term and proposed a comprehensive model for the evolution of empathy with some of its basic elements in nonhuman animals. In de Waal's model, empathy consists of several layers distinguished by required cognitive levels; the perception-action mechanism plays the core role for connecting ourself and others. Then, human-like empathy such as perspective-taking develops in outer layers according to cognitive sophistication, leading to prosocial acts such as targeted helping. I agree that animals demonstrate many empathy-related phenomena; however, the species differences and the level of cognitive sophistication of the phenomena might be interpreted in another way than this simple linearly developing model. Our recent studies with chimpanzees showed that their perspective-taking ability does not necessarily lead to proactive helping behavior. Herein, as a springboard for further studies, I reorganize the empathy-related phenomena by proposing a combination model instead of the linear development model. This combination model is composed of three organizing factors: matching with others, understanding of others, and prosociality. With these three factors and their combinations, most empathy-related matters can be categorized and mapped to appropriate context; this may be a good first step to discuss the evolution of empathy in relation to the neural connections in human and nonhuman animal brains. I would like to propose further comparative studies, especially from the viewpoint of Homo-Pan (chimpanzee and bonobo) comparison. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1431. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1431 For further resources related to this article

  2. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  3. Rethinking earthquake-related DC-ULF electromagnetic phenomena: towards a physics-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Huang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous electromagnetic changes possibly related with earthquakes have been independently reported and have even been attempted to apply to short-term prediction of earthquakes. However, there are active debates on the above issue because the seismogenic process is rather complicated and the studies have been mainly empirical (i.e. a kind of experience-based approach. Thus, a physics-based study would be helpful for understanding earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena and strengthening their applications. As a potential physics-based approach, I present an integrated research scheme, taking into account the interaction among observation, methodology, and physical model. For simplicity, this work focuses only on the earthquake-related DC-ULF electromagnetic phenomena. The main approach includes the following key problems: (1 how to perform a reliable and appropriate observation with some clear physical quantities; (2 how to develop a robust methodology to reveal weak earthquake-related electromagnetic signals from noisy background; and (3 how to develop plausible physical models based on theoretical analyses and/or laboratory experiments for the explanation of the earthquake-related electromagnetic signals observed in the field conditions.

  4. An approach to safety problems relating to ageing of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.; Deletre, G.; Henry, J.Y.; Le Meur, M.

    1989-10-01

    The safety of nuclear power plants, in France, is discussed. The attention is focused on the ageing phenomena, as a potential cause of the degradation of the systems functional capabilities. The allowance for ageing in design and its importance on safety, are analyzed. The understanding of phenomena relating to ageing and the components surveillance, are considered. As the effective ageing on the components of nuclear power plants is not fully understood, technical improvements and more accurate analysis are required

  5. Believing in paranormal phenomena: relations to asymmetry of body and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulter, Günter; Papousek, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between established measures of body and brain asymmetries and individual differences in paranormal beliefs. In addition to behavioural measures of cerebral laterality, measures of facial features and finger length were taken to calculate body asymmetry scores and indicators of fluctuating asymmetry (average absolute differences between left and right body features). Both the direction and degree of laterality measures were used. In addition to that, quantitative measures of inconsistency of cerebral lateralization were obtained. Results indicated that a stronger belief in paranormal phenomena was associated with fluctuating asymmetry of finger length, and that this aspect of body asymmetry may be related to greater intraindividual variability in the degree of 'atypical' functional lateralization. This intraindividual variability index, in turn, significantly predicted strength of belief in the paranormal. Belief in the paranormal was also higher in women than men and it was negatively correlated with the education level. In sum, these findings suggest that a part of the variance of strength of belief in paranormal phenomena can be explained by patterns of functional hemispheric asymmetry that may be related to perturbations during fetal development.

  6. New technology and neo-science on the nuclear fusion reactor engineering. ITER and super high speed phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This research meeting has been held under cooperation of the ''nuclear fusion reactor engineering research group'' and ''nuclear fusion reactor materials research group'' of the Yayoi Research Group. This meeting was planned and conducted for 2 days under the following predominant thema: Present status of research on thermo-nuclear fusion experimental reactor engineering design (ITER/EDA) and its promoting method in Japan, and a new scientific side in the research and development of nuclear fusion reactor materials or the super high speed phenomena. In the former item, the following reports were published: Creative period of R and D on the nuclear fusion reactor, present statue and future development of ITER/EDA, meanings of ITER under realization of the nuclear fusion energy, and others. And in the latter item, the following reports were published: Nuclear fusion materials engineering and system quantum engineering, dynamic imagination of atom and molecule using pulse snap shot method, laser wake field acceleration and ultra short x-ray pulse generation, development of T-cube laser in JAERI, and others. (G.K.)

  7. Experience in monitoring ageing phenomena for improving nuclear power plant availability. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    For more than thirty years nuclear power plants have been supplying electricity to national grids. Today, the nuclear power community is facing great challenges. The safe, reliable operation of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) must continue to be ensured. From an economic viewpoint, because of the long lead times associated with bringing new plants into service, securing the continued operation of existing plants for their planned lifetimes and possible life extension will be very important in the near term for meeting electrical power demands. The IAEA programmes in nuclear power plant ageing and life extension and in control and instrumentation promote technical information exchange between Member States with new programmes, offers assistance to Member States with an interest in reliability of NPP components, in-service inspection methods and programmes using on-line techniques, component monitoring and special technological topics of nuclear reactors. Significant experience already exists in the nuclear industry in developing and applying the monitoring techniques for different nuclear power plant applications, especially in monitoring of ageing phenomena for improving NPP availability. The purpose of this Specialists' Meeting was to bring together experts from operations, design, research and development and licensing to share their experience in: ageing mechanics of key structural components, methods of monitoring such ageing, tools for cost-effective implementation of the methods and methodologies, life management approaches and examples from current reactors, future direction for monitoring of key structural components in nuclear power plants. The meeting was organized by the IAEA International Working Groups on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) and Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in co-operation with the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission and Skoda concern. Around 40 participants from 10 countries

  8. Experience in monitoring ageing phenomena for improving nuclear power plant availability. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    For more than thirty years nuclear power plants have been supplying electricity to national grids. Today, the nuclear power community is facing great challenges. The safe, reliable operation of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) must continue to be ensured. From an economic viewpoint, because of the long lead times associated with bringing new plants into service, securing the continued operation of existing plants for their planned lifetimes and possible life extension will be very important in the near term for meeting electrical power demands. The IAEA programmes in nuclear power plant ageing and life extension and in control and instrumentation promote technical information exchange between Member States with new programmes, offers assistance to Member States with an interest in reliability of NPP components, in-service inspection methods and programmes using on-line techniques, component monitoring and special technological topics of nuclear reactors. Significant experience already exists in the nuclear industry in developing and applying the monitoring techniques for different nuclear power plant applications, especially in monitoring of ageing phenomena for improving NPP availability. The purpose of this Specialists' Meeting was to bring together experts from operations, design, research and development and licensing to share their experience in: ageing mechanics of key structural components, methods of monitoring such ageing, tools for cost-effective implementation of the methods and methodologies, life management approaches and examples from current reactors, future direction for monitoring of key structural components in nuclear power plants. The meeting was organized by the IAEA International Working Groups on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) and Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in co-operation with the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission and Skoda concern. Around 40 participants from 10 countries.

  9. Visibility Network Patterns and Methods for Studying Visual Relational Phenomena in Archeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Brughmans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the archeological and non-archeological use of visibility networks reveals the use of a limited range of formal techniques, in particular for representing visibility theories. This paper aims to contribute to the study of complex visual relational phenomena in landscape archeology by proposing a range of visibility network patterns and methods. We propose first- and second-order visibility graph representations of total and cumulative viewsheds, and two-mode representations of cumulative viewsheds. We present network patterns that can be used to represent aspects of visibility theories and that can be used in statistical simulation models to compare theorized networks with observed networks. We argue for the need to incorporate observed visibility network density in these simulation models, by illustrating strong differences in visibility network density in three example landscapes. The approach is illustrated through a brief case study of visibility networks of long barrows in Cranborne Chase.

  10. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  11. Summary of the works on blistering and related erosion phenomena in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kohji

    1980-01-01

    The works in JAERI on the blistering and related erosion phenomena on material surfaces have been made theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical studies were concerned with the blistering and flaking mechanisms from the standpoint of pressure driven model. A condition for blistering was introduced as a result of the theoretical work. Assuming ductile crack propagation in an ion-irradiated subsurface layer due to the presence of small spherical bubbles, blistering and flaking are reasonably discriminated on the basis of a single mechanism of gas driven model. Experimentally, the in-situ observations of blistered surfaces were carried out with a scanning electron microscope connected to a 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. Targets were single crystals of Nb, Mo, Cu and Al. The flaking in pyrolytic graphite due to He + , Ne + , Ar + and N + ion bombardments, and the hole-formation in glassy carbon by Ne + ion bombardment were also studied. The theoretical explanation gave satisfactory agreements with the experimental results. The in-situ observation of blistering and subsequent exfoliation during 100 keV He + bombardment on a polycrystalline Mo surface was carried with a 400 keV Cockcroft-Walton type ion accelerator. It was found by scanning electron microscopy that the surface erosion due to blistering was effectively reduced by the multi-groove structure. The phenomena named grain ejection were found by bombardment with pulsed intense beam of 25 keV H + , as well as H 2 + , in the temperature range of 150 to 250 degree C. (Kato, T.)

  12. Study of the thermo-hydrodynamic phenomena in the nuclear core during reflood phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Yoshio

    1983-03-01

    This paper describes the development of the core thermo-hydrodynamic model on the reflood phenomena during a loss-of-coolant accident in a light water reactor. This model was developed based on the physical understanding in order to obtain the flexibility of application to safety analysis. For this purpose, the flow pattern was modeled and the fundamental equations were derived. The equations were used to know the suitable variables for assembling the thermo-hydrodynamic model of each flow regime in a reflood analysis code. Then the hydrodynamic models and the heat transfer models of all flow regimes and the quench model were derived. Some of them were newly developed. It was found that water accumulation above the quench front occurred in some cases, however the criteria was not clarified. One-dimensional forced-feed reflood tests were performed and the models were assessed and partly improved by using the data of the tests. The verified models were built in a one-dimensional reflood analysis code and totally assessed with the data of the test mentioned above. Except for the location just below a grid spacer and cases of high flooding rate, the calculational results indicated good comparison with the experimental results when the water accumulation was assumed above the quench front. Additionally the test data from the other test facility were used for the verification of the model. The results also showed good comparison with the experimental results. It was found that better comparisons were obtained when the water accumulation was not assumed above quench front. From these assessment of the model, it was found that the model derived here describes the over-all reflood phenomena, while it has to be partly improved and the water accumulation phenomena should be further investigated. (author)

  13. THE ADOLESCENT FEELINGS RELATED TO THE BULLYING PHENOMENA: POSSIBILITIES TO THE NURSING ASSISTANCE IN THIS CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Schutz de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bullying is a devastating phenomenon that can affect the adolescent’s self-esteem and mental health. Generally occurs in school environment when the adolescent is more susceptible or vulnerable to verbal or moral aggressions that cause to them anguish and pain, meaning as a status of social exclusion. Most of time, health problems as anorexia, bulimia, depression, anxiety and also the suicide, appears. By the way, nurses are able to prevent injuries to various problems, and also concerns about this traumatic incident in adolescence. The aim of this study was to identify feelings that can be related to” bullying “in adolescent students in 5th to 8th classes. It is a descriptive research by qualitative approach, developed in a religious setting state school. Data was collected by taped interviews and, after transcribed, submitted to thematic analysis. The results showed that feelings related to this phenomena are multiple and varied, being categorized as positive aspects character, negative aspects character and necessary aspects character. KEY WORDS: School Health; Pediatric Nursing; Teen Health; Violence.

  14. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  15. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose Reyes

    2005-01-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''

  16. Biased resistor network model for electromigration failure and related phenomena in metallic lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennetta, C.; Alfinito, E.; Reggiani, L.; Fantini, F.; Demunari, I.; Scorzoni, A.

    2004-11-01

    Electromigration phenomena in metallic lines are studied by using a biased resistor network model. The void formation induced by the electron wind is simulated by a stochastic process of resistor breaking, while the growth of mechanical stress inside the line is described by an antagonist process of recovery of the broken resistors. The model accounts for the existence of temperature gradients due to current crowding and Joule heating. Alloying effects are also accounted for. Monte Carlo simulations allow the study within a unified theoretical framework of a variety of relevant features related to the electromigration. The predictions of the model are in excellent agreement with the experiments and in particular with the degradation towards electrical breakdown of stressed Al-Cu thin metallic lines. Detailed investigations refer to the damage pattern, the distribution of the times to failure (TTFs), the generalized Black’s law, the time evolution of the resistance, including the early-stage change due to alloying effects and the electromigration saturation appearing at low current densities or for short line lengths. The dependence of the TTFs on the length and width of the metallic line is also well reproduced. Finally, the model successfully describes the resistance noise properties under steady state conditions.

  17. CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS AND RELATED WEATHER PHENOMENA AT TÂRGU-MUREŞ, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUSZ OTTILIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cumulonimbus (Cb is a vertically developed cloud, associated with some several weather phenomena, such as hail. Yearly (and in some cases monthly meteorological data from the period 1971-2005 registered at the Târgu-Mureş weather station (lat. 46°32’, lon. 24°32’, elevation 308 m were studied. However, Altocumulus (relative frequency = 25% and Stratocumulus (14% are the most frequently clouds, in summer the presence of Cumulonimbus cloud is remarkable (18%. Mann-Kendall trend analysis and Sen’s slope estimate (Q show positive and statistically significant trend as regards number of Cumulonimbus clouds (Q=6.458, number of days with rain shower (Q=1.000, number of days with snow shower (Q=0.250 and a decreasing, statistically significant trend in the case of the number of days with hail (Q=-0.043 and number of days with thunderstorm (Q=-0.211. Moreover, monthly number of Cb also indicate an increasing, statistically significant trend in all 12 cases. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r is statistically significant between the number of Cb and the number of days with rain shower (r=0.827 respectively the number of Cb and the number of days with rain shower (r=0.541. Daily amount of precipitations exceeded 30 mm were registered mainly in summer. They are almost related to Cumulonimbus clouds and rain showers, and they occur most frequently during the presence of TRM (Trough over Central Europe, WZ (Cyclonic Westerly and BM (Zonal Ridge across Central Europe synoptic situations (Hess-Brezowsky classification.

  18. Research on new materials development and elucidation of degradation phenomena in nuclear environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    Advanced materials technologies are required to develop the pressure boundary materials used in nuclear corrosive environments under irradiation. The outline of the materials research for overcoming the requirements is described. The applicability and fusibility of new materials technology and major characteristics are shown with respect to several examples. A new-type coating method of diamond-like carbide films by using RF magnetron sputtering, mechanistic analysis on tritium release behavior from molten lithium-tin alloy in-reactor, neutron irradiation assisted change in pinning properties of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x single crystals are discussed as typical outputs concerning the research. (author)

  19. A Bayesian explanation of the "Uncanny Valley" effect and related psychological phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roger K.

    2012-11-01

    There are a number of psychological phenomena in which dramatic emotional responses are evoked by seemingly innocuous perceptual stimuli. A well known example is the `uncanny valley' effect whereby a near human-looking artifact can trigger feelings of eeriness and repulsion. Although such phenomena are reasonably well documented, there is no quantitative explanation for the findings and no mathematical model that is capable of predicting such behavior. Here I show (using a Bayesian model of categorical perception) that differential perceptual distortion arising from stimuli containing conflicting cues can give rise to a perceptual tension at category boundaries that could account for these phenomena. The model is not only the first quantitative explanation of the uncanny valley effect, but it may also provide a mathematical explanation for a range of social situations in which conflicting cues give rise to negative, fearful or even violent reactions.

  20. Surface phenomena and the evolution of radiating fluid spheres in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Jimenez, J.; Esculpi, M.; Ibanez, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method used to study the evolution of radiating spheres (Herrera, Jimenez, and Ruggeri) is extended to the case in which surface phenomena are taken into account. The equations have been integrated numerically for a model derived from the Schwarzschild interior solution, bringing out the effects of surface tension on the evolution of the spheres. 17 refs

  1. Switching Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).

  2. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed.

  3. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics are considered. P, T-breaking, neutron beta decay, neutron radiative capture and neutron polarizability are discussed. Reaction with fast neutrons, methodical aspect low-energy fission are considered too

  4. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  5. Paranormal phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  6. The Numerical Nuclear Reactor for High-Fidelity Integrated Simulation of Neutronic, Thermal-Hydraulic, and Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S.; Ju, H. G.; Jeon, T. H. and others

    2005-03-15

    A comprehensive high fidelity reactor core modeling capability has been developed for detailed analysis of current and advanced reactor designs as part of a US-ROK collaborative I-NERI project. High fidelity was accomplished by integrating highly refined solution modules for the coupled neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and thermo-mechanical phenomena. Each solution module employs methods and models that are formulated faithfully to the first-principles governing the physics, real geometry, and constituents. Specifically, the critical analysis elements that are incorporated in the coupled code capability are whole-core neutron transport solution, ultra-fine-mesh computational fluid dynamics/heat transfer solution, and finite-element-based thermo-mechanics solution, all obtained with explicit (fuel pin cell level) heterogeneous representations of the components of the core. The vast computational problem resulting from such highly refined modeling is solved on massively parallel computers, and serves as the 'numerical nuclear reactor'. Relaxation of modeling parameters were also pursued to make problems run on clusters of workstations and PCs for smaller scale applications as well.

  7. The Numerical Nuclear Reactor for High-Fidelity Integrated Simulation of Neutronic, Thermal-Hydraulic, and Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Ju, H. G.; Jeon, T. H. and others

    2005-03-01

    A comprehensive high fidelity reactor core modeling capability has been developed for detailed analysis of current and advanced reactor designs as part of a US-ROK collaborative I-NERI project. High fidelity was accomplished by integrating highly refined solution modules for the coupled neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and thermo-mechanical phenomena. Each solution module employs methods and models that are formulated faithfully to the first-principles governing the physics, real geometry, and constituents. Specifically, the critical analysis elements that are incorporated in the coupled code capability are whole-core neutron transport solution, ultra-fine-mesh computational fluid dynamics/heat transfer solution, and finite-element-based thermo-mechanics solution, all obtained with explicit (fuel pin cell level) heterogeneous representations of the components of the core. The vast computational problem resulting from such highly refined modeling is solved on massively parallel computers, and serves as the 'numerical nuclear reactor'. Relaxation of modeling parameters were also pursued to make problems run on clusters of workstations and PCs for smaller scale applications as well

  8. Virtual reality. Fundamentals and nuclear related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake

    2010-01-01

    Since the first virtual reality (VR) system was developed by Dr. Ivan Sutherland in the 1960s, various research and development have been conducted to apply VR to many fields. One promising applications is a nuclear-related one. VR is useful for control room design support, operation training, maintenance training, decommissioning planning support, nuclear education, work image sharing, telecollaboration, and even providing an experimental test-bed. In this lecture note, fundamental knowledge of VR is presented first, and various VR applications to nuclear fields are stated along with their advantages. Then appropriate cases for introducing VR are summarized and future prospects are given. (author)

  9. Localization and Related Phenomena in Multiply Connected Nanostructured Inverse Opal Bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiweiss, Michael; Saygi, Salih; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Datta, Timir; Lungu, Anca; Yin, Ming; Palm, Eric; Brandt, Bruce; Iqbal, Zafar

    2001-03-01

    The nanostructures were fabricated by pressure infiltration of bismuth into porous artificial opal and were characterized using SEM, EDX and XRD. These structures form a regular three-dimensional network in which the bismuth regions percolate in all directions between the close packed spheres of SiO_2. The sizes of the conducting regions are of the order of tens of nanometers. The static magnetic properties of both bismuth inverse opal and bulk bismuth were studied using a SQUID magnetometer. Transport measurements, including Hall, were done using standard ac four and six probe techniques in fields up to 17 T* and temperatures between 4.2 and 150 K. The results of these measurements, including the observation of localization phenomena, will be discussed. Comparisons will be made with published results on bismuth nanowires. *Performed at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) FSU, Tallahassee, FL. Partially supported by a grant from NASA.

  10. Solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events and the related solar-terrestrial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guiming; Yang, Xingxing; Ding, Liuguang; Liu, Yonghua; Lu, Yangping; Chen, Minhao

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events (SPEs, peak flux ≥1000 pfu) and the solar-terrestrial phenomena associated with the strong SPEs during solar cycles 21-23. The results show that 37 strong SPEs were registered over this period of time, where 20 strong SPEs were originated from the super active regions (SARs) and 28 strong SPEs were accompanied by the X-class flares. Most strong SPEs were not associated with the ground level enhancement (GLE) event. Most strong SPEs occurred in the descending phases of the solar cycles. The weaker the solar cycle, the higher the proportion of strong SPES occurred in the descending phase of the cycle. The number of the strong SPEs that occurred within a solar cycle is poorly associated with the solar cycle size. The intensity of the SPEs is highly dependent of the location of their source regions, with the super SPEs (≥20000 pfu) distributed around solar disk center. A super SPE was always accompanied by a fast shock driven by the associated coronal mass ejection and a great geomagnetic storm. The source location of strongest GLE event is distributed in the well-connected region. The SPEs associated with super GLE events (peak increase rate ≥100%) which have their peak flux much lower than 10000 pfu were not accompanied by an intense geomagnetic storm.

  11. Studies of the relativistic electron source and related phenomena in Petawatt Laser matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Cowan, T.E.; Hatchett, S.P.; Henry, E.A.; Koch, J.A.; Landgon, A.B.; Lasinski, B.F.; Lee, R.W.; MacKinnon, A.; Offenberger, A.; Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M.D.; Sangster, T.C.; Yasuike, K.; Snavely, R.; Roth, M.; Phillips, T.W.; Stoyer, M.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Singh, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of laser radiation with solid targets at 1 petawatt power and intensity up to 3x10 20 Wcm -2 has been studied with emphasis on relativistic electrons and high energy ions. Secondary effects including Bremsstrahlung radiation, nuclear interactions and heating have been characterized. A collimated beam of protons with up to 55 MeV energy is emitted normal to the rear surface of thin targets and its characteristics and origin are discussed. The significance of the data for radiography, fast ignition and proton beam applications is summarized

  12. Numerical simulation of multi-phase phenomena in IVR related processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xu [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Bereich Innovative Reaktorsysteme; Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering

    2016-05-15

    IVR (in-vessel retention) is one of the severe accident mitigation measures, which is widely applied in the advanced light water reactors (LWRs) such as KERENA of AREVA, AP1000 of Westinghouse and CAP1400 of SNPTC, and attracts extensive interests of the German and Chinese nuclear scientists. The ultimate target of IVR is to keep the core melt inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and to provide cooling capability via water flowing outside the RPV, the so called external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC). This paper summarizes some activities ongoing in both KIT and SJTU (Shanghai Jiao Tong University) with a few results examples.

  13. Inductive electric fields in the magnetotail and their relation to auroral and substorm phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen, R.J.; Heikkila, W.J.

    1982-11-01

    The paper reviews the importance of inductive electric fields in explaining different magnetospheric and auroral phenomena during moderately and highly distrubed conditions. Quiet-time particle energization and temporal development of the tail structure during the substorm growth phase are explained by the presence of a large-scale elctrostatic field directed from dawn to dusk over the magentotail. Conservation of the first adiabatic invariant in the neutral sheet with a small value of the gradient in the magnetic field implies that the longitudical energy increases at each crossing of the neutral sheet. At a certain moment, this may result in a rapid local growth of the current and in an instability that triggers the onset. During the growth phase energy is stored in the magnetic field, since the energy density in the electric field is negligible compared to that of the magnetic field. An analytical model is described in which the characteristic observations of a substorm onset are taken into account. One major feature is that the triggering is confined to a small local time sector. During moderate disturbances, the induction fields in the magnetotail are stronger by at least one order of magnitude than the average cross-tail field. Temporal development of the disturbed area results in X- and O-type neutral lines. Particles near to these neutral lines are energized to over 1 MeV energies within a few seconds, due to an effective combination of linear and betatron acceleration. The rotational property of the induction field promotes energization in a restricted area wiht dimensions equivalent to a few Earth's radii. The model also predicts the existence of highly localized cable-type field-aligned currents appearing on the eastern and western edges of the expanding auroral bulge

  14. Rewetting phenomena and their relation to intermolecular forces between a hot wall and the fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerweck, V.

    1989-12-01

    The rewetting phenomena and the different physical concepts which are used in their modelisation are reviewed. The present work studies the effect of the intermolecular forces between the hot wall and the fluid on this phase transition. Using suitable approximations, a local equation of state is obtained by the treatment of the fluid-fluid and fluid-wall intermolecular interactions. This local equation of state depends on the distance from the wall, and the critical pressure and temperature become a function of the distance from the wall, whereas the critical density is left constant throughout the fluid. At the wall, the critical pressure and temperature are half their bulk values and increase towards the bulk value as the distance from the wall increases. The penetration of a temperature profile in this fluid is studied by assuming that the liquid density is not strongly affected by this temperature profile as long as there is no phase transition. It is shown that the phase transition will occur extremely rapidly when the interfacial temperature upon contact is higher than the minimum of the local spinodal temperature, which varies with the distance from the wall. The result ist cast in the form of an interfacial rewetting temperature fT c above which rewetting of the surface by liquid-wall contacts is not expected because these contacts will be terminated in extremely short times. Comparing the theory with available data shows that in the usual rewetting situations the theory reduces to the use of the bulk spinodal temperature. For surfaces coated with poorly wetted materials the correction factor due to surface effects applies, reducing the rewetting temperature, in agreement with the experimental data. For liquid metals it appears that the theory is applied in a region where the basic theoretical approximations are very coarse; but even in that case the experimental trend is qualitatively predicted by the theory. (author) 43 figs., 11 tabs., 105 refs

  15. Experimental investigation of thermal conduction and related phenomena in a laser heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.R.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal conduction in plasmas is of major importance especially in controlled nuclear fusion studies. Direct measurements are rare. When the temperature gradient in a plasma becomes large enough classical thermal conduction (Heat flux q = -kΔT) no longer applies and it is thought that q is limited to some fraction of the free streaming limit qsub(m). The main experiment is the heating of a z-pinch plasma by a fast rising, intense carbon dioxide laser pulse. Electron temperature and density in time and space are diagnosed by ruby laser scattering. The profiles obtained were consistent with a flux limited to approximately 3% of the free streaming limit. Ion acoustic turbulence is observed along the temperature gradient. It is shown that the observed turbulence level is consistent with the heat flux limitation. At electron densities > 10 17 cm -3 backscattered light is observed from the plasma whose growth rate implies that it is Brillouin scattered. (author)

  16. Diffusive Phenomena and the Austenite/Martensite Relative Stability in Cu-Based Shape-Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrina, J. L.; Yawny, A.; Sade, M.

    2018-02-01

    The main characteristic of martensitic phase transitions is the coordinate movement of the atoms which takes place athermally, without the contribution of diffusion during its occurrence. However, the impacts of diffusive phenomena on the relative stability between the phases involved and, consequently, on the associated transformation temperatures and functional properties can be significant. This is particularly evident in the case of Cu-based shape-memory alloys where atomic diffusion in both austenite and martensite metastable phases might occur even at room-temperature levels, giving rise to a variety of intensively studied phenomena. In the present study, the progresses made in the understanding of three selected diffusion-related effects of importance in Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Be alloys are reviewed. They are the after-quench retained disorder in the austenitic structure and its subsequent reordering, the stabilization of the martensite, and the effect of applied stress on the austenitic order. It is shown how the experimental results obtained from tests performed on single crystal material can be rationalized under the shed of a model developed to evaluate the variation of the relative stability between the phases in terms of atom pairs interchanges.

  17. Nuclear energy: strategy of public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timell, S [Swedish Power Association, Stockholm, Sweden

    1981-02-21

    A referendum was held in Sweden on 23rd March 1980, stimulated by the Three Mile Island accident in USA, to determine the future nuclear power development policy. The electricity supply background is that in 1980, 65% of power was hydro, 25% nuclear and 10% coal and oil. In terms of total power consumption, the country is heavily dependent on oil, which represents about 75%. The intensive public relations activity previous to the referendum is described, and this involved fact accumulation and assimilation, dissemination through various media, including brochures, displays, films and leaflets. In the political arena three lines developed: (1) (Conservatives); continue nuclear power, building at least 12 reactors, (2) (Social democrats and liberals); similar to (1), but more cautious, with emphasis on energy conservation, (3) (Centre parties and communists); no more nuclear power, and prevention of uranium extraction in Sweden. The voting was (1) 18.9%, (2) 39.1%, (3) 38.7%, (No dec of the most topical is concerned with the inventory of risks due to each industrial energy sector. This session was in two parts, the first devoted to problems specific to each source of energy including nuclear, the second to commo The extension to longer distances may be made with caution and to the satisfaction of the regulatory authority.

  18. About role of 'Nuclear sciences' and other trends of scientific and technological works in innovation development of phenomena and globalization processes in XX and XXI centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifov, P.V.; Azimova, D.S.; Trostyanskij, D.V.; Umarov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    It is concluded, that just successful development of scientific and technological works in the field 'Nuclear Sciences' results economy advantages for USA and some West countries compared with USSR and the rest countries of East Europe. In the following decades this advantage allows to a leader-countries develop with success principally new trends of scientific, technological workings in the a wide-scale sphere of natural, technical, biomedical, and other related sciences. Here soon the USA gap from other world countries was achieved. In the field of fundamental sciences there are such fields: Computer Sciences (1940 and then), Space Sciences (1950 and then), Life Sciences (1960 and then), Computer tomography Sciences (1970 and then). Material Researches Sciences (1980 and then), Internet Sciences (1994 and then), Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies (1999 and then). In the end of XX century these advantages allow to USA to realize two known global innovation initiatives having National character: Ballistic Missile Defense - from 1983, Internet - from 1994, and to declare the third one - targeting to the XXI century - Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies - from 1999. It is noted, that due to unexampled high temps of development of phenomena and globalization in the XXI century the specialists and professionals of Uzbekistan in the shortest time have to learn the newest world experience in order to ensure worthy status for the young independent state in the world developed countries commonwealth in new age

  19. Tic-related cognition, sensory phenomena, and anxiety in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Tamar; Harush, Adva; Barnea, Meirav; Dar, Rueven; Piacentini, John; Woods, Doug; Shmuel-Baruch, Sharona; Apter, Alan

    2013-07-01

    Tourette syndrome is a protoypical example of developmental psychopathology, with the varying expressions of the disorder and its consequences appearing over time. Sensory urges typically appear after age 10 and are often followed by anxiety and depression. To study the associations among tic-related cognitions, premonitory urges, and tic severity in children with Tourette syndrome at different stages of the illness. Fifty-seven consecutive patients referred to a tic disorders clinic. A battery of instruments was completed: Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and Child Depression Inventory. To examine cognitions, a new measure was developed: the Beliefs About Tics Scale. Strong correlations were found between tic-related beliefs and both premonitory urges and tic-related impairments (as measured by the Yale Global Scale). Tic-related beliefs were also strongly correlated with depression in children older than 13 years but not in younger children. The significant correlations between tic-related cognitions, premonitory urges, and tic-related impairments in children emphasize the important role of psychological and sensory factors in the understanding of Tourette syndrome and in its treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear energy: strategy of public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timell, S.

    1981-01-01

    A referendum was held in Sweden on 23rd March 1980, stimulated by the Three Mile Island accident in USA, to determine the future nuclear power development policy. The electricity supply background is that in 1980, 65% of power was hydro, 25% nuclear and 10% coal and oil. In terms of total power consumption, the country is heavily dependent on oil, which represents about 75%. The intensive public relations activity previous to the referendum is described, and this involved fact accumulation and assimilation, dissemination through various media, including brochures, displays, films and leaflets. In the political arena three lines developed: (1) (Conservatives); continue nuclear power, building at least 12 reactors, (2) (Social democrats and liberals); similar to (1), but more cautious, with emphasis on energy conservation, (3) (Centre parties and communists); no more nuclear power, and prevention of uranium extraction in Sweden. The voting was (1) 18.9%, (2) 39.1%, (3) 38.7%, (No decision) 3.3%. (G.C.)

  1. Investigation of the ULF electromagnetic phenomena related to earthquakes. Contemporary achievements and the perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopytenko, Y.; Ismagilov, V. [SPbF Izmiran, St. Petersbourg (Russian Federation); Hayakawa, M [The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo (Japan); Smirnova, N.; Troyan, V. [St. Petersbourg Univ., St Petersbourg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physics; Peterson, T. [TFPLAB, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2001-04-01

    The results of ULF electromagnetic signal observations in seismoactive regions prior to earthquakes are presented and discussed. The new differential measurement technique developed in SPbF IZMIRAN for location of the ULF emission sources of space and lithosphere origin is described. The MVC-2DS geohphysical instrumentation is introduced as a promising tool for registration of ULF signals related to earthquakes (both seismic and electromagnetic ones). Methods are proposed for ULF data processing to investigate the preparation processes in the earthquake source regions and to distinguish seismogenic signals. on the background of space pulsations. Some examples of application of those methods for study of the earthquake precursory signatures are presented. Perspectives of seismo-electromagnetic tomography experiments in seismoactive regions, using MVC-2DS technique, are discussed in relation to the development of earthquake prediction methods.

  2. Focus on classical and quantum analogues for gravitational phenomena and related effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Maia, Clovis; Schützhold, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Hawking's prediction that black holes are not black but radiate has been one of the intellectually most influential results of theoretical physics, but Hawking's theory has not so far been testable. Recent developments in analogue models of gravity might change that. This focus issue assembles a series of papers that report on steps towards this goal and related physical effects in a variety of physical systems. (editorial)

  3. Drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance growth phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Garvey, T.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Smith, L.

    1991-04-01

    We have recently conducted a series of experiments on the MBE-4 heavy ion accelerator in which a velocity tilt was placed on the beam in the first accelerating section beyond the injector, followed by drift compression over the remaining 11 meters. Depending upon the magnitude of the velocity tilt and the accompanying mismatch in the focusing lattice, emittance growth was observed, manifested by ''butterfly'' shapes in x - x' phase space. We discuss various analytical limits on ion beam compression and relate them to these experiments and also to a driver for a heavy ion fusion reactor. We also present numerical simulations which investigate various aspects of compression and consequent emittance growth. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. The role of asymmetric frontal cortical activity in emotion-related phenomena: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Gable, Philip A; Peterson, Carly K

    2010-07-01

    Conceptual and empirical approaches to the study of the role of asymmetric frontal cortical activity in emotional processes are reviewed. Although early research suggested that greater left than right frontal cortical activity was associated with positive affect, more recent research, primarily on anger, suggests that greater left than right frontal cortical activity is associated with approach motivation, which can be positive (e.g., enthusiasm) or negative in valence (e.g., anger). In addition to reviewing this research on anger, research on guilt, bipolar disorder, and various types of positive affect is reviewed with relation to their association with asymmetric frontal cortical activity. The reviewed research not only contributes to a more complete understanding of the emotive functions of asymmetric frontal cortical activity, but it also points to the importance of considering motivational direction as separate from affective valence in psychological models of emotional space. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  6. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  7. Structural variation along the southwestern Nankai seismogenic zone related to various earthquake phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Kashiwase, K.; Fujimori, H.; Kaneda, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Shinohara, M.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2011-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In order to reduce a great deal of damage to coastal area from both strong ground motion and tsunami generation, it is necessary to understand rupture synchronization and segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. For a precise estimate of the rupture area of the Nankai megathrust event, it is important to know the geometry of the subducting Philippine Sea plate and deep subduction structure along the Nankai Trough. To obtain the deep subduction structure of the coseismic rupture area of the Nankai earthquake in 1946 off Shikoku area, the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle seismic study was conducted in 2009 and 2010. In this study, 201 and 200 ocean bottom seismographs were deployed off the Shikoku Island and the Kii channel respectively. A tuned airgun system (7800 cu. in.) shot every 200m along 13 profiles. Airgun shots were also recorded along an onshore seismic profile (prepared by ERI, univ. of Tokyo and NIED) prolonged from the offshore profile off the Kii Peninsula. Long-term observation was conducted for ~9 months by 21 OBSs off the Shikoku area and 20 OBSs off the Kii channel.This research is part of 'Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes' funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Structural images of the overriding plate indicate the old accreted sediments (the Cretaceous-Tertiary accretionary prism) with the velocity greater than 6km/s extend seaward from off the Shikoku to the Hyuga-nada. Moreover, the young accreted sediments become relatively thinner eastward from off the cape Ashizuri to Muroto. These structural variations might be related to the different rupture pattern of the Nankai event. Structural image of the deep low frequency earthquakes and tremors is shown by using the airgun shots recorded at onshore

  8. Soft x-ray emission from clusters of galaxies and related phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Mittaz, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Since the discovery of the cluster soft excess (CSE) over eight years ago, its properties and origin have been the subject of debate With the recent launch of new missions such as XMM-Newton and FUSE, we are beginning to answer some of the complex issues regarding the phenomenon This conference proceedings is an attempt to bring together the latest research results and covers both observational and theoretical work on the CSE and related topics One of the main topics is the possible relationship between the CSE and the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), which is believed to harbor 50% of the baryons in the near Universe New data from both XMM-Newton and FUSE have indicated a possible causal link between the WHIM and CSE Evidence is based on the apparent detection of O VII emission lines in the soft excess spectrum of the outskirts of several clusters, as well as reports of absorption lines at local and higher redshifts (seen in the spectra of distant sources) as signature of the WHIM However, while there h...

  9. Mid-latitude electron precipitation into the atmosphere and related geophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.C.

    1976-01-01

    Balloon observations of the x-ray flux of photons with energies greater than 25 keV, measured at an atmospheric depth of 8 g/cm at Roberval, Quebec (L=4.2) and satellite observations of the flux of electrons with energies greater than 35 keV in the dawn sector from L=4.2 to L=5.3 were analyzed. A differently structured cross-correlation curve was found during the first five minutes immediately after the onset of enhancement of the X-ray intensity. The technique of power spectral analysis was used to investigate periodicities in the flux. A dominant peak at the period of 0.83 second was found in the power spectral density of the counting rate of the greater than 200 keV channel during a relatively quiet-period of time from the point of view of electron precipitation. The precipitation of intermediate energy (250-500 keV) electrons responsible for the greater than 200 keV X rays was modulated at the bounce period of low energy (65-90 keV) electrons. The mechanism for the precipitation was pitch angle diffusion due to the electron-whistler mode wave interaction. Waves generated by low energy electrons in the equatorial region propagated outside of the region of growth. These waves could interact with higher energy electrons and modulate the flux of these electrons. A correlation study of the enhancement seen in the low energy channels of the S 3 satellite electron detector with the enhancement of X-ray fluxes during a substorm was made. The satellite data were used to locate where and when the injections occurred. Two sets of enhancements observed by the satellite were found to be injected at different local times at the same time which was within a few minutes of the onset of geomagnetic bays at several near-midnight ground stations. A model based on convection due to a static westward electric field and azimuthal drift due to the gradient and curvature of B was used to explain the energy dispersion and time delay of the substorm associated observations

  10. Reconsidering relations between nuclear energy and security concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2004-01-01

    Relations between nuclear energy and security concepts can be clarified through investigation into the multivocal nature of security concepts. While military uses of nuclear energy significantly influence national security, peaceful uses of nuclear energy contribute energy security, which is an expanded concept of national security. Military and peaceful uses of nuclear energy have reciprocal actions, thus influencing national security and energy security, respectively. Nuclear security, which means security of nuclear systems themselves, recently attracts the attention of the international society. Nuclear security directly influences national security issues. On the other hand, along with nuclear safety, nuclear security becomes a prerequisite for energy security through peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In investigating into relations between nuclear energy and security concepts, the difficulty of translating the English word of 'nuclear security' into Japanese as well as other languages is found. (author)

  11. Nuclear waste transmutation and related innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main topics of the summer school meeting were 1. Motivation and programs for waste transmutation: The scientific perspective roadmaps; 2. The physics and scenarios of transmutation: The physics of transmutation and adapted reactor types. Impact on the fuel cycle and possible scenarios; 3. Accelerator driven systems and components: High intensity accelerators. Spallation targets and experiments. The sub critical core safety and simulation physics experiments; 4. Technologies and materials: Specific issues related to transmutation: Dedicated fuels for transmutation. Fuel processing - the role of pyrochemistry. Materials of irradiation. Lead/lead alloys. 5. Nuclear data: The N-TOF facility. Intermediate energy data and experiments. (orig./GL)

  12. Earthquakes and associated topics in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. The main purpose of the text is to provide guidance on the determination of the design basis ground motions for a nuclear power plant at a chosen site and on the determination of the potential for surface faulting at that site. Additionally, the Guide discusses other permanent displacement phenomena (liquefaction, slope instability, subsidence and collapse) and introduces the topic of seismically induced flooding. Volcanic activity is not dealt with except in connection with tsunamis. 55 refs

  13. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  14. IAEA receives Iraq's nuclear-related declaration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mohamed ElBaradei, announced that the IAEA received this evening, Sunday, 8 December 2002, at its Headquarters in Vienna, an approximately 2400 page declaration on Iraq's nuclear programme. The declaration consists of about 2100 pages in English and 300 pages in Arabic. The declaration was submitted by the Government of Iraq in response to paragraph 3 of Security Council resolution 1441 (8 November 2002), which requires Iraq to provide to UNMOVIC, the IAEA and to the Security Council, not later than 30 days of the date of that resolution, with 'currently accurate, full, and complete declaration of all aspects of its programmes to develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles, and other delivery systems... as well as all other chemical, biological, and nuclear programmes, including any which it claims are for purposes not related to weapon production or material'. 'The IAEA will immediately begin to assess this important new document,' said Mr. ElBaradei, 'including the painstaking and systematic cross-checking of the information provided by Iraq against information which the IAEA already has, information that it expects to receive from other Member States, as contemplated in resolution 1441, and results of past and present Agency verification activities.' Complete assessment of the declaration will be time consuming, particularly in light of the need to translate the 300 pages of Arabic text into English. However, the IAEA expects to be able to provide a preliminary analysis of the document to the Security Council within the next ten days, with a fuller assessment to be provided when it reports to the Council at the end of January. (IAEA)

  15. Aging of nuclear safety related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, R.; Vydra, V.; Toman, J.; Vodak, F.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of aging processes in nuclear-safety-related concrete structures (NSRCS) is presented. The major environmental stressor and aging factors affecting the performance of NSRCS are summarized, as are drying and plastic shrinkage, expansion of water during the freeze-thaw cycle, water passing through cracks dissolving or leaching the soluble calcium hydroxide, attack of acid rain and ground water, chemical reactions between particular aggregates and the alkaline solution within cement paste, reaction of calcium hydroxide in cement paste hydration products with atmospheric carbon dioxide, and physical radiation effects of neutrons and gamma radiation. The current methods for aging management in NSRCS are analyzed and evaluated. A new treatment is presented for the monitoring, evaluation and prediction of aging processes, consisting in a combination of theoretical methods, laboratory experiments, in-situ measurements and numerical simulations. 24 refs

  16. Safety related events at nuclear installations in 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear safety related events of significance at least corresponding to level 2 of the International Nuclear Event Scale are described. In 1995 only two events occured at nuclear power plants, and four events occured at plants using ionizing radiation for processing or research.......Nuclear safety related events of significance at least corresponding to level 2 of the International Nuclear Event Scale are described. In 1995 only two events occured at nuclear power plants, and four events occured at plants using ionizing radiation for processing or research....

  17. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  18. Importance of the radioactive or nuclear component and its conjunction with conventional risks in social phenomena resulting from terrorist acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Francisco Miguel da Rocha Grave

    2009-01-01

    The current strategic environment has attenuated the traditional threats of military nature. However, several instability factors result on new risks and potential threats. A review is made on the current threats and risk scenarios and the capacities for intervention of the Portuguese Army in scenarios involving the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons

  19. Experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena among women in the general population: are they related to traumatic stress and dissociation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyüz, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena (PNP) in the general population and their possible relations to each other and to traumatic stress and dissociation. The study was conducted on a representative female sample recruited from a town in central eastern Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis-I and Personality Disorders, and the Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire were administered to 628 women. Of these, 127 (20.2%) women reported at least 1 type of PNP and 13 (2.1%) women reported possession. Women with a dissociative disorder reported all types of possession and PNP (except telepathy) more frequently than those without. Whereas women with a trauma history in childhood and adulthood or PTSD reported possession more frequently than those without, PNP were associated with childhood trauma only. Factor analysis yielded 4 dimensions: possession by and/or contact with nonhuman entities, extrasensory communications, possession by a human entity, and precognition. These factors correlated with number of secondary features of dissociative identity disorder and Schneiderian symptoms. Latent class analysis identified 3 groups. The most traumatized group, with predominantly dissociative and trauma-related disorders, had the highest scores on all factors. Notwithstanding their presence in healthy individuals, possession and PNP were associated with trauma and dissociation in a subgroup of affected participants. Both types of experience seem to be normal human capacities of experiencing that may be involved in response to traumatic stress. Given the small numbers, this study should be considered preliminary.

  20. Second DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This conference has been organized into ten presentation sessions which include an overview of the DOE Natural Phenomena Guidelines, Seismic Analysis, Seismic Design, Modifying Existing Facilities, DOE Orders, Codes, and Standards (2 sessions), Seismic Hazard (2 sessions), and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2 sessions). Two poster sessions were also included in the program to provide a different forum for communication of ideas. Over the past fourteen years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Safety Program, has been working with the US Department of Energy, Office of Safety Appraisals and their predecessors in the area of natural phenomena hazards. During this time we have developed seismic, extreme wind/tornado, and flood hazard models for DOE sites in the United States. Guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities for natural phenomena have been developed and are in interim use throughout the DOE community. A series of state-of-the practice manuals have also been developed to aid the designers. All of this material is listed in the Natural Phenomena Hazards Bibliography included in these proceedings. This conference provides a mechanism to disseminate current information on natural phenomena hazards and their mitigation. It provides an opportunity to bring together members of the DOE community to discuss current projects, to share information, and to hear practicing members of the structural engineering community discuss their experiences from past natural phenomena, future trends, and any changes to building codes. Each paper or poster presented is included in these proceedings. We have also included material related to the luncheon and dinner talks

  1. Positron production in superheavy collisional systems - a sensitive probe for new atomic as well as nuclear physical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsertos, H.

    1985-04-01

    In the present thesis a systematic study of the integral and spectral properties of the positron production in the collisional systems U+Pd, Pb+Th, U+Th and U+U for incident energies near the Coulomb threshold (5.9 MeV/u) was performed. Additionally for the system U+U the incident energy was varied between 5.7 MeV/u and 6.2 MeV/u with a constant step width of about 0.1 MeV/u. It could uniquely be shown that the positron production in the lighter system U+Pd can be solely explained by the nuclear production process while in the other three collisional systems both the dynamical and the nuclear positron production are experimentally verificable. The energy-integrated positron production in dependence both on the combined nuclear charge number of the collisional energy and on the impact parameter respectively the incident energy show the expected slope of a scattering process determined by the dynamics of the heavy ion collision which can be well described by the theoretical calculation. From this in the transition from the subcritical system Pb+Th to the supercritical systems U+Th and U+U no significant deviation can be observed, and so no statement about spontaneous positron emission in the supercritical system is possible. (orig./HSI) [de

  2. Environmental consequences of postulate plutonium releases from Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), Santa Susana, California, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1982-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), in the Santa Susana site, California. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the earthquake, and the 150-mph and 170-mph tornadoes are above the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 μCi/m 2 . The deposition values following the 110-mph and the 130-mph tornadoes are below the EPA proposed guideline

  3. Computer code system for the R and D of nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactor. 2. Development and application of analytical evaluation system for thermal striping phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2001-01-01

    Fluid-structure thermal interaction phenomena characterized by stationary random temperature fluctuations, namely thermal striping are observed in the downstream region such as a T-junction piping system of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). Therefore, the piping wall located in the downstream region must be protected against the stationary random thermal process, which might induce high-cycle fatigue. This paper describes the evaluation system based on numerical simulation methods consisting of three thermohydraulics computer programs AQUA, DINUS-3 and THEMIS and of three thermomechanical computer programs BEMSET, FINAS and CANIS, for the thermal striping developed at Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Verification results for each computer code and the system are also introduced based on out-of-pile experimental data using water and sodium as working fluids. (author)

  4. Relativity damps OPEP in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, M.K.

    1998-06-01

    Using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis the OPEP contribution to the ground state energy of nuclear matter is studied. In the study the pion is derivative-coupled. The author finds that the role of the tensor force in the saturation mechanism is substantially reduced compared to its dominant role in a usual nonrelativistic treatment. He shows that the damping of derivative-coupled OPEP is actually due to the decrease of M * /M with increasing density. He points out that if derivative-coupled OPEP is the preferred form of nuclear effective lagrangian nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter is in trouble. Lacking the notion of M * it cannot replicate the damping. He suggests an examination of the feasibility of using pseudoscalar coupled πN interaction before reaching a final conclusion about nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter

  5. Improvements in or relating to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A.V.; Batjukov, V.I.; Fadeev, A.I.; Shapkin, A.F.; Shikhiyan, T.G.; Ordynsky, G.V.; Drachev, V.P.; Pogodin, E.N.

    1980-01-01

    A refuelling installation for nuclear reactor complexes is described for recharging the reactor vessels of such complexes with new fuel assemblies and for removing spent fuel assemblies from the reactor vessel. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear power and related safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, Eulinia M.

    2009-01-01

    There are a cluster of trends that reinforce the importance of nuclear power on the world scene. Energy is the essential underpinning for economic and societal progress and, as the developing world advances, the demand for energy is growing significantly. At the same time, the carbon-intensive sources of energy on which the world has traditionally relied - in particular, coal, oil, and natural gas - pose grave threats because the growing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will bring about climate and ocean acidification. At the same time, rising and volatile fossil fuel prices, coupled with concerns about the security of supplies of oil and gas, enhance interest in sources of energy that do not pose the same costs and risks. As an important part of the world's response to these threats, many countries are embarking on either new or expanded nuclear power programs, more commonly referred to as a nuclear renaissance. The construction of nuclear power plants is under consideration in over thirty countries that do not currently use nuclear power. For new entrants that may have experience in constructing and operating large-scale industrial and infrastructure projects, they may not be fully familiar with the unique requirements of nuclear power and may not be fully recognize the major commitments and understandings that they must assume. Additionally, an understanding of the full range of obligations may have diminished in those countries with only one or a few reactors and where nuclear construction has not been undertaken for a long time. It is therefore in the interest of all to ensure that every country with a nuclear power program has the resources, expertise, authority and capacity to assure safety in a complete and effective manner and is committed to doing so. This presentation will outline some of the more important national infrastructure considerations including nuclear safety issues for launching a nuclear power program. An update on the

  7. Surface enhanced Raman scattering as an in-reactor monitor of phenomena of interest to the Nuclear Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is proposed as a technique for monitoring in situ the passive films and corrosion products that form on the surfaces of alloys of interest in nuclear power plants. The technique is a highly sensitive procedure for detecting even very small quantities of species present on surfaces, in particular the surface of metallic alloys. The data could, for example, identify the constituents in passive films that are less than a monolayer in average thickness. Processes such as 60 Co pick-up could be monitored in real time. In fact, if it is known that incorporation of 60 Co occurs when a particular oxide film forms on the surface of the alloy, then measurement of the SER spectra could indicate when such films are beginning to form and thereby provide an early indication that conditions inside the reactor are now suitable for 60 Co pick-up in the passive films

  8. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified.

  9. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified

  10. Estimation of nuclear power-related expenditures in fiscal 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In fiscal 1982 (April to March, 1983), the research and development on nuclear power should be promoted actively and extensively by taking the appropriate measures. In view of the importance, the budgetary expenditures are to be estimated duly for the purpose, considering also the stringent financial situation. The budgetary expenditures for nuclear power estimated for the fiscal year 1982 are about 292,800 Million in total and the obligation act limit is about 139,900 Million. The following matters are described: nuclear power-related measures for securing nuclear power safety, promotion of nuclear power generation, establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle, development of power reactors, research on nuclear fusion, strengthening of the foundation in nuclear power research, development and utilization, promotion of international cooperation, etc.; estimated budgetary expenditures; tables of budgetary demands in various categories. (J.P.N.)

  11. The development of a mobility analyzer for studying neutralization and particle-producing phenomena related to radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulju, L.M.; Chu, K.D.; Hopke, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    A continuous monitoring method has been developed to investigate 218 Po neutralization phenomena under various controlled conditions. In addition to previously reported work, an additional series of experiments were conducted to further understand the kinetics of the neutralization phenomena of polonium ions in various humidities and NO 2 concentrations. The results are satisfactory and show that continuous monitoring methods can be applied to various ambient conditions. By performing the studies under well controlled reaction conditions, the effects of trace gases (SO 2 , NO 2 , and organics) on cluster formation rates can be interpreted. The results of these studies will provide a fundamental understanding of the nature and formation mechanism for the ultrafine particle carriers of radioactivity

  12. Remediation of 137Cs contaminated concrete using electrokinetic phenomena and ionic salt washes in nuclear energy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew J; Joyce, Malcolm J; Boxall, Colin

    2017-10-15

    This work describes the first known the use of electrokinetic treatments and ionic salt washes to remediate concrete contaminated with 137 Cs. A series of experiments were performed on concrete samples, contaminated with K + and 137 Cs, using a bespoke migration cell and an applied electric field (60V potential gradient and current limit of 35mA). Additionally, two samples were treated with an ionic salt wash (≤400molm -3 of KCl) alongside the electrokinetic treatment. The results show that the combined treatment produces removal efficiencies three times higher (>60%) than the electrokinetic treatment alone and that the decontamination efficiency appears to be proportional to the initial degree of contamination. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies are equivalent to previous electrokinetic studies that utilised hazardous chemical enhancement agents demonstrating the potential of the technique for use on nuclear licensed site. The results highlight the relationship between the initial contamination concentration within the concrete and achievable removal efficiency of electrokinetic treatment and other treatments. This information would be useful when selecting the most appropriate decontamination techniques for particular contamination scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs

  14. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  15. United States - Japanese nuclear relations: implications for the pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of a new approach to non-proliferation policy by the United States in 1977 was the most upsetting development in the history of US-Japanese nuclear relations. The policy has seemingly altered Japanese views of its own nuclear future very little, yet it has altered the tone of the nuclear relationship with the United States. Recent Japanese nuclear power developments, both technical and administrative, are outlined and the prospects for the future of the United States-Japanese nuclear relationship and for Pacific regional cooperation assessed. Issues of importance in the relationship include reprocessing - enrichment, plutonium management, spent fuel and waste management and uranium supplies

  16. Press problem related to nuclear energy news reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Since the event of Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and the subsequent press reports on damage of nuclear power station after it, a stance of media is being questioned. In order to clear this problem, basic organizational structure of the press related to nuclear energy news was analyzed. Local news department, social news department, science news department and economical news department involve in nuclear energy news the accordance with their own situations and concerns. This structure makes problem of nuclear energy news reporting complicated. Changing this system is required but very difficult. It is concluded that the press problem around nuclear energy news is strange. (author)

  17. Nuclear safety regulation on nuclear safety equipment activities in relation to human and organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    Based on years of knowledge in nuclear safety supervision and experience of investigating and dealing with violation events in repair welding of DFHM, this paper analyzes major faults in manufacturing and maintaining activities of nuclear safety equipment in relation to human and organizational factors. It could be deducted that human and organizational factors has definitely become key features in the development of nuclear energy and technology. Some feasible measures to reinforce supervision on nuclear safety equipment activities have also been proposed. (author)

  18. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  19. Development of a graded approach to natural phenomena hazard design and evaluation of radioactive waste and spent fuel stored at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear safety related structures, systems and components, SSC, at large commercial nuclear power plants other than those applicable to reactor safety have in general not received the attention and detailed loading and behavior criteria use for reactor design safety. Such systems include spent fuel storage and radioactive waste storage and processing. In this paper is a suggested grading of design bases for natural hazards to be applied to such facilities commensurate with their radioactive risk. They are applicable to the full range of safety related SSC which are determined by the inventory of radioactive isotopes and the unmitigated doses at appropriate plant and site boundaries. (author)

  20. Improvements in or relating to nuclear shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.J.; Riley, K.; Powell, C.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear radiation shield comprises two pieces of steel held together edge to edge by a weld, the depth of which is less than the thickness of either of the edges. As the radiaion shielding effect of the weld will be less than the steel, an insert is bolted or welded over the weld. (U.K.)

  1. Improvements in or relating to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, N.I.; Khramov, D.A.; Filippov, V.J.; Bugrov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described, comprising a core accommodating a plurality of fuel assemblies and a refuelling device for replacing spent fuel assemblies. The design of the fuel assembly and of the refuelling device, and the method of carrying out the refuelling operation, are specified. (U.K.)

  2. On the nuclear crisis in public relations and corporate strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Fei

    2012-01-01

    Perilous and crisis-prone, which caused by economic globalization and information technology, are the characteristics of this era. In the face of crisis, some enterprises make the 'crises' as a 'chance' ride, while some businesses are facing bankruptcy. Crisis public relations in the modern enterprise management is an important issue, but the nuclear industry, which had involved less. By learning from other industries' good theories and experience. Combined with characteristics of the nuclear industry itself, proposed nuclear power companies public relations crisis should follow the basic principles and specific methods of operation, the nuclear industry for the promotion of healthy, rapid and safe development plays an important role. (author)

  3. Augmented reality. Fundamentals and nuclear related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) has attracted considerable interest from both academia and industry. Virtual Reality enables users to interact only with virtual objects in a virtual environment, but AR enables users to interact with both virtual objects and real objects in the real world. This feature supports application of AR to various fields such as education, driving, entertainment, and navigation. Especially, by application of AR to support workers in nuclear power plants, it is expected that working time and human error can be decreased. However, many problems remain unsolved to apply AR to real fields. In this lecture note, fundamental knowledge of AR is presented first including the overview of elemental technologies to realize AR. Then various AR applications to nuclear fields are described. Finally, future prospects are given. (author)

  4. Nuclear spectroscopy with direct relations II. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throw, F. E.

    1964-01-01

    The Symposium on Nuclear Spectroscopy with Direct Reactions, sponsored and organized by Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, was held on 9-11 March 1964 at the Center for Continuing Education, University of Chicago. The present volume contains the invited papers along with abstracts or summaries of the few short papers selected for their special relevance to the topics of the invited lecturers . Edited versions of the discussions are also included

  5. Nuclear relations with administrations of industry services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardez Garcia, A.

    2011-01-01

    The object of the article is to try to answer to the following question that can arise to the holder of a nuclear power station: What Administration of Industry must I myself direct to be able to support my complementary facilities of Industrial Security inside the in force legality?. The raised discussion arise between if the competent administration for the legal steps, is the Central Administration across his delegates and sub delegates of government, or is of the Territorial Services of Industry of Autonomous communities. (Author)

  6. Nuclear medicine and related radionuclide applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Symposium presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: Radioimmunoassay and related techniques (4 papers and 4 poster presentations); Radionuclide applications in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases (7 papers and 2 posters); Instrumentation (6 papers and 4 posters); Clinical nuclear medicine: liver, bones, thyroid, cardiovascular system, lungs, kidneys, brain (23 papers and 15 posters); Organization of nuclear medicine services in the developing countries (9 papers and 5 posters); Training in nuclear medicine (4 papers) and the panel discussion. Future of Nuclear Medicine in the developing countries. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers and posters

  7. Promotion of public awareness relating nuclear power in young generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Although nuclear power presents problems of waste, safety and non-proliferation, many people understand that it is an essential energy for addressing the global climate and reducing CO2. However, a vague negative-image to the radiation and nuclear power is deep-rooted among the public. Young generation is not an exception. It is very important to transfer many information from the experienced generation in the industry to young generations. In this paper, the research that applied the information intelligence to nuclear power, which involves of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the communication related activities for the social acceptance and improvement. (author)

  8. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in the Surtsey Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Blanchat, T.K.; Griffith, R.O.; Nichols, R.T.

    1994-05-01

    The Surtsey Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to perform scaled experiments that simulate hypothetical high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effect of specific phenomena associated with direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load, such as the effect of physical scale, prototypic subcompartment structures, water in the cavity, and hydrogen generation and combustion. In the Integral Effects Test (IET) series, 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion NPP structures were constructed in the Surtsey vessel. The RPV was modeled with a steel pressure vessel that had a hemispherical bottom head, which had a 4-cm hole in the bottom head that simulated the final ablated hole that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe NPP accident. Iron/alumina/chromium thermite was used to simulate molten corium that would accumulate on the bottom head of an actual RPV. The chemically reactive melt simulant was ejected by high-pressure steam from the RPV model into the scaled reactor cavity. Debris was then entrained through the instrument tunnel into the subcompartment structures and the upper dome of the simulated reactor containment building. The results of the IET experiments are given in this report

  9. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in the Surtsey Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Blanchat, T.K.; Griffith, R.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nichols, R.T. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Surtsey Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to perform scaled experiments that simulate hypothetical high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effect of specific phenomena associated with direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load, such as the effect of physical scale, prototypic subcompartment structures, water in the cavity, and hydrogen generation and combustion. In the Integral Effects Test (IET) series, 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion NPP structures were constructed in the Surtsey vessel. The RPV was modeled with a steel pressure vessel that had a hemispherical bottom head, which had a 4-cm hole in the bottom head that simulated the final ablated hole that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe NPP accident. Iron/alumina/chromium thermite was used to simulate molten corium that would accumulate on the bottom head of an actual RPV. The chemically reactive melt simulant was ejected by high-pressure steam from the RPV model into the scaled reactor cavity. Debris was then entrained through the instrument tunnel into the subcompartment structures and the upper dome of the simulated reactor containment building. The results of the IET experiments are given in this report.

  10. A new relation to estimate nuclear radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Y.; Gupta, K.K.; Varshney, A.K.; Gupta, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty found in Grodzins semi empirical relation may be due to the non - consideration of asymmetry in the relation. In the present work we propose a new relation connecting B(E2; 2 1 + → 0 1 + ) and E2 1 + with asymmetric parameter γ

  11. Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Hiroaki; Fujino, Takeo; Tateno, Jun

    1975-07-01

    Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of the compounds for nuclear fuels are presented, including melting point, thermal expansion, diffusion and magnetic and electric properties. Emphasis is on oxides, carbides and nitrides of thorium, uranium and plutonium. (auth.)

  12. Feedback phenomena in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiebig, R.

    1977-01-01

    It is investigated what influence the thermodynamic behaviour of the steam dome of a reactor with pressure autocontrol has on the dynamics of the reactor system. For automatic control, either the circuit water must be thermally coupled with the steam dome or, without coupling, there must be a sufficiently large subcooling of the reactor core. The coupling mechanisms between water and steam in the steam dome to be considered are heat conduction, boiling, and condensation. A heat sink in the steam dome enforces a thermodynamic equilibrium between water and steam and provides good autocontrol properties. Without a heat sink, thermal heat coupling is ended when the pressure rises. Nevertheless, with direct contact between circuit and steam dome the reactor remains controllable. At the reactor of the NCS-80, where the circuit is separated from the steam dome by a buffer volume, autocontrol takes place with a heat sink in the steam dome and with sufficient shifting of the working point into the subcooled region caused by the rising of bubbles. (orig.) [de

  13. The relations between de-alerting nuclear force and nuclear strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhimin

    2001-01-01

    De-alerting nuclear force is a hot-point issue in recent years. The relations between de-alerting and strategy (including nuclear force, target doctrine and use principle et al.), stability, advanced conventional force and NMD of the United States are analyzed, the impact of de-alerting on Chinese nuclear force were discussed and the proposal of de-alerting by stages is presented

  14. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  15. Nuclear halo and its related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huanqiao

    2005-01-01

    In order to search proton halo, the reaction cross sections of 27,28 P, 29 S and the corresponding isotones on Si target were measured at intermediate energies. The measured reaction cross sections of the N=12 and 13 isotones show an abrupt increase at Z=15. The experimental results for the isotones with Z=14 as well as 28 P can be well described by the modified Glauber theory of the optical limit approach. The enhancement of the reaction cross sections for 28 P could be explained in the modified Glauber theory with an enlarged core. Theoretical analysis with the modified Glauber theory of the optical limit and few-body approaches underpredicted the experimental data of 27 P. Our theoretical analysis shows that an enlarged core together with proton halo is probably the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of the cross sections for the reaction of 27 P+ 28 Si. In addition, we find from the experimental results that 29 S may have a moderate proton halo structure. Except the nuclei near or at drop-lines, halo may appear in the excited states of stable nuclei. By means of the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's) extracted from transfer reactions of 11 B(d, p) 12 B, 12 C(d, p) 13 C, and H( 6 He, n) 6 Li, we have verified that the second ( Jπ = 2 - ) and third (Jπ = 1 - ) excited states in 12 B and the first (Jπ =1/2 + ) excited state in 13 C are the neutron halo states, while the second excited state (3.56 MeV, Jπ = 0 + ) in 6 Li is a proton-neutron halo state. We have proposed a procedure to extract the probability for valence particle being out of the binding potential from the measured nuclear asymptotic normalization coefficients. With this procedure, available data regarding the nuclear halo candidates are systematically analyzed and a number of halo nuclei are confirmed. Based on these results we have got a much relaxed condition for nuclear halo occurrence. Furthermore, we have presented the scaling laws for the dimensionless quantity 2 >/R 2 of

  16. Study of relational nuclear databases and online services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Tieshuan; Guo Zhiyu; Liu Wenlong; Ye Weiguo; Feng Yuqing; Song Xiangxiang; Huang Gang; Hong Yingjue; Liu Tinjin; Chen Jinxiang; Tang Guoyou; Shi Zhaoming; Liu Chi; Chen Jiaer; Huang Xiaolong

    2004-01-01

    A relational nuclear database management and web-based services software system has been developed. Its objective is to allow users to access numerical and graphical representation of nuclear data and to easily reconstruct nuclear data in original standardized formats from the relational databases. It presents 9 relational nuclear libraries: 5 ENDF format neutron reaction databases (BROND), CENDL, ENDF, JEF and JENDL), the ENSDF database, the EXFOR database, the IAEA Photonuclear Data Library and the charged particle reaction data from the FENDL database. The computer programs providing support for database management and data retrievals are based on the Linux implementation of PHP and the MySQL software, and are platform-independent. The first version of this software was officially released in September 2001

  17. Predominance and Role of Myanmar Women in Nuclear Related Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyein, T.N.; Tharn Diang, A.

    2015-01-01

    This poster reflects the current and future endeavor of Myanmar women in nuclear science and technology related fields. Though Myanmar has not yet planned for nuclear power program, but strongly interested in nuclear energy due to rising awareness of future energy demand. The DAE is central in conducting career development, (E&T) as well as (R&D) in nuclear application fields, cooperating with the international societies and local institutions. According to survey, the status of women power in administration, rule and regulation sector is 62%, that in research, 34%, that in radiation application and protection, 57% and that in education and training, 46%. The current trend indicates that female are perceptibly wider participants in DAE. Qualified personnel and sufficient human resource are of essence in nuclear engineering and science. Thus, so as not to face the shortage of personnel, we aim to promote the interest of young generation ,to make competent and efficient manpower based on current and future national nuclear programmes since the parliament agreed on decision for acceleration of human resource development in nuclear field in order to urge government on June 23, 2014. Moreover, activities should be undertaken by the government and associated departments to persuade the interest of secondary and high school level student, to enhance academic programme for nuclear engineering and other sciences in private and government technical schools and training centre, to develop infrastructure according to near future nuclear programs, to enlighten people the benefits of nuclear science and technology and applications, and to raise public awareness of zero carbon emitting energy resource. These potential efforts should be extended, upgraded and encouraged not only by government, stakeholders and also by the help of nuclear network of other international organizations, since larger numbers of WiN Myanmar are required to access practically and globally integrated

  18. Safety-related occurrences at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Report for this period, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants (STUK-B-YTO 7), which is supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  19. Safety-related occurrences at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viitasaari, O.; Rantavaara, A.

    1984-03-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Report for this period, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants (STL-B-RTO-83/7), which is supplemented by this report intended principally for experts. (author)

  20. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  1. University students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi; Watabe, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of university students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power before and after Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant accident, and analyzed the difference between before and after the accident. The results show that university students' understanding level improved after the accident, especially in the case of reported words by mass media. Understanding level of some nuclear power security words which were not reported so much by mass media also improved. That may be caused by rising of people's concern about nuclear power generation after the accident, and there is a possibility that the accident motivated people to access such words via internet, journals, etc. (author)

  2. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  3. Analytical solution of dispersion relations for the nuclear optical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderKam, J.M. [Center for Communications Research, Thanet Road, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Weisel, G.J. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, and Duke University, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Penn State Altoona, 3000 Ivyside Park, Altoona, PA 16601-3760 (United States); Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, and Duke University, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Analytical solutions of dispersion integral relations, linking the real and imaginary parts of the nuclear optical model, have been derived. These are displayed for some widely used forms of the volume- and surface-absorptive nuclear potentials. When the analytical solutions are incorporated into the optical-model search code GENOA, replacing a numerical integration, the code runs three and a half to seven times faster, greatly aiding the analysis of direct-reaction, elastic scattering data. (author)

  4. Constitutive relations for nuclear reactor core materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaverl, F. Jr.; Lee, D.

    1978-01-01

    A strain rate dependent constitutive equation is proposed which is capable of describing inelastic deformation behavior of anisotropic metals, such as Zircaloys, under complex loading conditions. The salient features of the constitutive equations are that they describe history dependent inelastic deformation behaviour of anisotropic metals under three-dimensional stress states in the presence of fast neutron flux. It is shown that the general form of the constitutive relations is consistent with experimental observations made under both unirradiated and irradiated conditions. The utility of the model is demonstrated by examining the analytical results obtained for a segment of tubing undergoing different loading histories in a reactor. (Auth.)

  5. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  6. Relations among several nuclear and electronic density functional reactivity indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Luis, Josep M.; Duran, Miquel; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro; Solà, Miquel

    2003-11-01

    An expansion of the energy functional in terms of the total number of electrons and the normal coordinates within the canonical ensemble is presented. A comparison of this expansion with the expansion of the energy in terms of the total number of electrons and the external potential leads to new relations among common density functional reactivity descriptors. The formulas obtained provide explicit links between important quantities related to the chemical reactivity of a system. In particular, the relation between the nuclear and the electronic Fukui functions is recovered. The connection between the derivatives of the electronic energy and the nuclear repulsion energy with respect to the external potential offers a proof for the "Quantum Chemical le Chatelier Principle." Finally, the nuclear linear response function is defined and the relation of this function with the electronic linear response function is given.

  7. Relative evaluation on decommissioning accident scenarios of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Hyun, Dong-Jun; Kim, Geun-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Jo, Kyung-Hwa; Seo, Jae-Seok; Jeong, Seong-Young; Lee, Jung-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper suggests relative importance on accident scenarios during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. ► The importance of scenarios can be performed by using AHP and Sugeno fuzzy method. ► The AHP and Sugeno fuzzy method guarantee reliability of the importance evaluation. -- Abstract: This paper suggests the evaluation method of relative importance on accident scenarios during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The evaluation method consists of AHP method and Sugeno fuzzy integral method. This method will guarantee the reliability of relative importance evaluation for decommissioning accident scenarios.

  8. Peer Relations of Adolescents from Nuclear and Separated Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Peter; Krettek, Christine; Walper, Sabine

    2001-01-01

    Examined peer relations of young people from nuclear families, step families, and single-parent families. Findings suggest peer relations were affected by parental separation only to a minor extent as compared to, e.g. gender- or age-specific effects. A central aspect of friendship quality, however, namely admiration by friends, clearly suffered…

  9. Volcanoes and associated topics in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to provide draft guidance on the criteria and methods for the evaluation of a site for a nuclear power plant with respect to the potential effects of volcanic activity which may jeopardize its safety and to elicit feedback from Member States. Different types of phenomena associated with volcanism are discussed in terms of their influence on site acceptability and on derivation of design basis parameters. This report was developed for application to new nuclear power plant sites. It does not address the issue of the re-evaluation of existing nuclear power sites to the potential effects of volcanic activity, although it contains general information and criteria useful for this purpose. The guidelines and procedures discussed in this report can appropriately be used as the basis for the safe siting and design of nuclear power plants in different volcanic environments. In this report, the description of the phenomena associated with volcanism and the collection of required data and information are separated from the criteria for hazard assessment. Thus Section 2 gives the non-specialist a general description of the different types of volcanic phenomena and Section 4 provides indication on the acquisition of the database. Section 3 outlines the general requirements to be fulfilled during site selection and evaluation. Sections 5, 6 and 7 provide guidance to perform the hazard assessment and to derive the design basis parameters. Finally, Section 8 deals with monitoring systems. As general information for the non-specialist, Annex I provides the major divisions of geological time. With the same spirit, and recognizing that a complete consensus has not been reached in the scientific community on the use and meaning of some terms, a glossary of volcanological definitions is given in Annex II, applicable only to the use of this report. Finally, Annex III provides an example of a classification of volcanoes that may be used for capability

  10. Changing relations between civil and military nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy has inhabited two distinct environments since its inception - the environments of nuclear deterrence and of electricity supply. The relationships between the technologies and institutions inhabiting these environments have been both intimate and troublesome. As both nuclear weapons and nuclear power rely upon the fission energy of uranium and plutonium, and as both generate harmful by-products, they are bound to have technologies, materials and liabilities in common. However, nuclear deterrence belongs in the realm of high politics, whilst electricity production is part of the commercial world rooted in civil society. Establishing a political, industrial and regulatory framework that allows nuclear activities to develop safely and acceptably in both domains has been a difficult and contentious task. In this paper I wish to make some observations about the relations between military and civil nuclear technology at the end of this century, and about their likely character in years ahead. My main contention is that developments in the military sector and in international security will remain influential, but that their consequences will be of a different kind than in the past. (orig.)

  11. ISINN-2. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings contain the materials presented at the Second International Seminar on Neutron-Nucleus Interactions (ISINN-2) dealing with the problems of neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics. The Seminar took place in Dubna on April 26-28, 1994. Over 120 scientists from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Holland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, US and about 10 Russian research institutes took part in the Seminar. The main problems discussed are the following: P-odd and P-even angular correlation and T-reversal invariance in neutron reactions, nuclear structure investigations by neutron capture, the mechanism of neutron reactions, nuclear fission processes, as well as neutron data for nuclear astrophysics

  12. United Kingdom: Procurement Related Nuclear Experience (Operating Experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Procurement of nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom is subject to nuclear site licence conditions issued by the Government through the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). Each nuclear facility in the United Kingdom must have a nuclear site licence and must comply with the 36 general conditions that are set out in the Licence Condition Handbook (October 2014). In addition, the ONR has published a technical assessment guide for the procurement of nuclear safety related items or services; a guide on intelligent customers and a guide on records management also apply to the procurement phase, and ONR interventions look across all three of these documents. Procurement governance arrangements need to be developed (including a policy, manual, procedures and template documents) and approved within the utility company. The ONR monitors the arrangements via interventions and deems the arrangements to be ‘adequate’. Some procurement contracts become lifetime records for nuclear safety related systems and need to be retained while the plant is in place. A formal record retention schedule needs to be created and managed by the procurement organization. The utility company may elect to set hold points during the various procurement stages and, importantly, obtain approval for the contract and its content from all technical stakeholders (with particular emphasis on the engineering, project management and design authority quality functions before contract award). For contracts with high nuclear safety significance, the ONR may enforce additional hold points before and/or after contract award. There is a general requirement that the utility puts in place adequate arrangements to ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are employed to implement adequate management arrangements and to act as an intelligent customer. This includes being able to demonstrate that any contractor or supplier is suitable, capable and experienced, and has the necessary processes and

  13. Study of the dispersion phenomena connected with the absorption by recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence; Etude des phenomenes de dispersion lies a l'absorption resonnante sans recul des noyaux atomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbert, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-12-01

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence as in the optical field abnormal dispersion curves are related to the absorption lines. It is possible, by using quadrupolar or magnetic splitting of the line in the case of recoilless resonance fluorescence (Moessbauer effect) to obtain differential dispersion effects between the two orthogonal linear or the two inverse circular components of the incident gamma radiation. These effects induce bi-refraction phenomena or Faraday rotation on the gamma beam, which have been studied on Fe-57 enriched absorbers. (author) [French] Comme dans le domaine optique, aux raies d'absorption de fluorescence resonnante des noyaux atomiques sont associees des courbes de dispersion anormale. Les decompositions des raies d'absorption de fluorescence resonnante sans recul (raies Moessbauer) par couplage quadrupolaire ou effet Zeeman permettent d'obtenir des effets dispersifs differentiels entre composantes lineaires orthogonales ou circulaires inverses du rayonnement gamma incident. Ces effets se traduisent par des phenomenes de birefringence ou de rotation Faraday, qui ont pu etre etudies sur des milieux enrichis en fer-57. (auteur)

  14. Build of virtual instrument laboratory related to nuclear species specialized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jian; Zhao Guizhi; Zhao Xiuliang; Tang Lingzhi

    2009-01-01

    As rapid development of specialized related to nuclear science,the requirement of laboratory construct is analyzed in this article at first, One total conceive, One scheme deploy soft and hardware,three concrete characteristics targets and five different phases of put in practice of virtual instrument laboratory of specialized related to nuclear science are suggest in the paper,the concrete hardware structure and the headway of build of virtual instrument laboratory are described,and the first step effect is introduced.Lastly,the forward target and the further deliberateness that the virtual instrument laboratory construct are set forth in the thesis. (authors)

  15. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  16. Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined

  17. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  18. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence and related phenomena for 1D shallow-water waves in a finite basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruban, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Different regimes of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) recurrence are simulated numerically for fully nonlinear “one-dimensional” potential water waves in a finite-depth flume between two vertical walls. In such systems, the FPU recurrence is closely related to the dynamics of coherent structures approximately corresponding to solitons of the integrable Boussinesq system. A simplest periodic solution of the Boussinesq model, describing a single soliton between the walls, is presented in analytic form in terms of the elliptic Jacobi functions. In the numerical experiments, it is observed that depending on the number of solitons in the flume and their parameters, the FPU recurrence can occur in a simple or complicated manner, or be practically absent. For comparison, the nonlinear dynamics of potential water waves over nonuniform beds is simulated, with initial states taken in the form of several pairs of colliding solitons. With a mild-slope bed profile, a typical phenomenon in the course of evolution is the appearance of relatively high (rogue) waves, while for random, relatively short-correlated bed profiles it is either the appearance of tall waves or the formation of sharp crests at moderate-height waves.

  19. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence and related phenomena for 1D shallow-water waves in a finite basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruban, V. P., E-mail: ruban@itp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    Different regimes of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) recurrence are simulated numerically for fully nonlinear 'one-dimensional' potential water waves in a finite-depth flume between two vertical walls. In such systems, the FPU recurrence is closely related to the dynamics of coherent structures approximately corresponding to solitons of the integrable Boussinesq system. A simplest periodic solution of the Boussinesq model, describing a single soliton between the walls, is presented in analytic form in terms of the elliptic Jacobi functions. In the numerical experiments, it is observed that depending on the number of solitons in the flume and their parameters, the FPU recurrence can occur in a simple or complicated manner, or be practically absent. For comparison, the nonlinear dynamics of potential water waves over nonuniform beds is simulated, with initial states taken in the form of several pairs of colliding solitons. With a mild-slope bed profile, a typical phenomenon in the course of evolution is the appearance of relatively high (rogue) waves, while for random, relatively short-correlated bed profiles it is either the appearance of tall waves or the formation of sharp crests at moderate-height waves.

  20. IAEA activity related to safety of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, M.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear plants for desalination to be built in the future will have to meet the standards of safety required for the best nuclear power plants currently in operation or being designed. The current safety approach, based on the achievement of the fundamental safety functions and defence in depth strategy, has been shown to be a sound foundation for the safety and protection of public health, and gives the plant the capability of dealing with a large variety of sequences, even beyond the design basis. The Department of Nuclear Safety of the IAEA is involved in many activities, the most important of which are to establish safety standards, and to provide various safety services and technical knowledge in many Technical Co-operation assistance projects. The department is also involved in other safety areas, notably in the field of future reactors. The IAEA is carrying out a project on the safety of new generation reactors, including those used for desalination, with the objective of fostering an exchange of information on safety approaches, promoting harmonization among Member States and contributing towards the development and revision of safety standards and guidelines for nuclear power plant design. The safety, regulatory and environmental concerns in nuclear powered desalination are those related directly to nuclear power plants, with due consideration given to the coupling process. The protection of product water against radioactive contamination must be ensured. An effective infrastructure, including appropriate training, a legal framework and regulatory regime, is a prerequisite to considering use of nuclear power for desalination plants, also in those countries with limited industrial infrastructures and little experience in nuclear technology or safety. (author)

  1. Developments related to the National Nuclear Safety Authority of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, Florin

    1998-01-01

    The contribution presents the status of the National Commission for Nuclear Activity Control (CNCAN) as indicated by the provisions of a Romanian Government Decision of May 1998. As specified in the art.3 the main tasks of the Commission are the following: to issue authorization and exercise permits of activities in nuclear field; to supervise the applications of the provisions stipulated by the law concerning development in safety conditions of nuclear activities; to develop instructions as well as nuclear safety regulations to ensure the quality assurance and functioning in safety conditions of the nuclear facilities and plants, the protection against nuclear radiation of the professionally exposed personnel, of the population, of the environment and of the material goods, the physical protection, the records, preservation and transport of radioactive material and of fissionable materials as well as the management of radioactive waste; organizes expert and is responsible for the state control concerning the integrated application of the law provisions in the field of quality constructions in which nuclear installations of national interest are located, during all the phases and for all the components of the quality system in this field; issues specialty and information documentation specific to its own activity, provides the information of the public through official publication, official statements to the press and other specific form of information; carries out any other tasks provided by law in the field of regulations and control of nuclear activity. Author presents also the CNCAN staff number evolution, the new structure, the staff distribution at headquarters, local agencies and national radiation monitoring network. Finally, the author discusses the legal provisions related to management manual procedures

  2. Acoustic phenomena during boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Applied and theoretical significance of investigation into acoustic phenomena on boiling is discussed. Effect of spatial and time conditions on pressure vapour bubble has been elucidated. Collective effects were considered: acoustic interaction of bubbles, noise formation ion developed boiling, resonance and hydrodynamic autooscillations. Different methods for predicting heat transfer crisis using changes of accompanying noise characteristics were analysed. Principle peculiarities of generation mechanism of thermoacoustic autooscillations were analysed as well: formation of standing waves; change of two-phase medium contraction in a channel; relation of alternating pressure with boiling process as well as with instantaneous and local temperatures of heat transfer surface and liquid in a boundary layer

  3. Nuclear data for radiation damage assessment and related safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.

    1989-12-01

    The IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Assessment and Related Safety Aspects was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, 19-22 September 1989. This report contains the conclusions and recommendations of this meeting. The papers which the participants prepared for and presented at the meeting will be published as an IAEA Technical Document. (author)

  4. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei...

  5. Guidelines for the development of natural phenomena hazards design criteria for surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.A.; Hossain, Q.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the rationale behind the guidelines, criteria, and methodologies that are currently used for natural phenomena hazard design and evaluation of DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. The bases for the performance goals and usage categories specified in UCRL-15910 are examined, and the sources of intentional conservatism in the analyses, design, and evaluation methods and criteria are identified. Outlines of recent developments/changes in DOE Orders related to Natural Phenomena hazard mitigation are also presented. Finally, the authors recommend the use of DOE methodologies as embodied in UCRL-15910 for design and evaluation of surface facilities of the high level nuclear waste repository site

  6. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  7. Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1986-11-01

    The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ 0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum

  8. Material laws and related uncommon phenomena in the electromagnetic response of type-II superconductors in longitudinal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, H S; BadIa-Majos, A [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (ICMA), Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, MarIa de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez, C, E-mail: hsruizr@unizar.es [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, E-28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Relying on our theoretical approach for the superconducting critical state problem in 3D magnetic field configurations, we present an exhaustive analysis of the electrodynamic response for the so-called longitudinal transport problem in the slab geometry. A wide set of experimental conditions have been considered, including modulation of the applied magnetic field either perpendicular or parallel (longitudinal) to the transport current density. The main objective of our work was to characterize the role of the macroscopic material law that should properly account for the underlying mechanisms of flux cutting and depinning. The intriguing occurrence of negative current patterns and the enhancement of the transport current flow along the center of the superconducting sample are reproduced as a straightforward consequence of the magnetically induced internal anisotropy. Moreover, we show that, related to a maximal projection of the current density vector onto the local magnetic field, a maximal transport current density occurs somewhere within the sample. The elusive measurement of the flux cutting threshold (critical value of such parallel component J{sub c||}) is suggested on the basis of local measurements of the transport current density. Finally, we show that a high correlation exists between the evolution of the transport current density and the appearance of paramagnetic peak structures in terms of the applied longitudinal magnetic field.

  9. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L −1 ) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H 2 O 2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H + -ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H 2 O 2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H + -ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H 2 O 2 may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H + -ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the detoxification of PhACs in plants. • Results

  10. Simple probabilistic method for relative risk evaluation of nuclear terrorism events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songbai; Wu Jun

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the event-tree and probability analysis methods, a probabilistic method of nuclear terrorism risk was built, and the risk of terrorism events was analyzed. With the statistical data for and hypothetical data for relative events, the relative probabilities of the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events were obtained, as well as the relative risks of these four kinds of nuclear terrorism events were calculated by using this probabilistic method. The illustrated case show that the descending sequence of damages from the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events for single event is as following: nuclear explosive and improvised nuclear explosive, nuclear facility attacked, and 'dirty bomb'. Under the hypothetical condition, the descending sequence of possibilities for the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events is as following: 'dirty bomb', nuclear facility attacked, improvised nuclear explosive and nuclear explosive, but the descending sequence of risks is as following: 'dirty bomb', improvised nuclear explosive, nuclear facility attacked, and nuclear explosive . (authors)

  11. Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1988-03-01

    Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs

  12. JAEA's activities relating the Fukushima Nuclear Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    JAEA started the activities relating to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The Office of Fukushima Partnership Operations for Environmental Remediation was opened and the JAEA staff was stationed as the base of cooperation with other organizations. It is conducting environmental radiation monitoring, environmental radioactivity analyses, resident public consulting, and demonstration of decontamination technology. Experts of JAEA are providing technical advice and supports to the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan and the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. Furthermore, the water radiolysis leading to hydrogen gas evolution by Cs 137 adsorbed zeolite and the technique for radioactive waste process and its disposal of fuel debris are being studied. JAEA's Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) is acting as a center of these supporting activities of JAEA. (S. Ohno)

  13. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christou, Anastasis [Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus); Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas [NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fotopoulos, Vasileios, E-mail: vassilis.fotopoulos@cut.ac.cy [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus)

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L{sup −1}) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H{sup +}-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the

  14. Indian Nuclear Society annual conference-1994 on advanced technologies related to nuclear power: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The focal theme of the conference is advanced technologies related to nuclear power. Over the past three decades civilian nuclear power plants around the world have accumulated about 6000 reactor years of experience and have performed quite well. Overall safety record has been satisfactory. However, nuclear community is trying to compete with its own record by trying to enhance the safety characteristics of the best operating plant. A safety culture has been established in the nuclear establishments, which is providing impetus to advances in all aspects of nuclear technology all over the world. India has ongoing programmes for the development of advanced reactors and related advanced technologies. Evolution of pressurised heavy water reactors in India, developments made in the design of advanced heavy water reactor and the fast reactor programme, are some of the topics covered in addition to highlighting worldwide developments for the next generation of light water reactors. India is one of the few countries in the world where expertise about complete fuel cycle is available. Developments in the back end of the fuel cycle, use of thorium and plutonium and other related issues are also discussed. Technology control regimes being advocated and adopted by developed nations make it imperative for us to indigenise every equipment and component that goes into a power plant. In view of this, some aspects of manufacturing technologies, inspection techniques and maintenance problems are also covered. Relevant papers are processed separately for INIS. (M.K.V.)

  15. Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune

    Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... such dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...

  16. Quantification of natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero Alvarez, Javier

    1997-01-01

    The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories

  17. Report on estimated nuclear energy related cost for fiscal 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The report first describes major actions planned to be taken in Japan in fiscal 1991 in the field of nuclear energy utilization. Major activities to be made for comprehensive strengthening of safety assurance measures are described, focusing on improvement of nuclear energy related safety regulations, promotion of research for safety assurance, improvement and strengthening of disaster prevention measures, environmental radioactivity surveys, control of exposure of workers engaged in radioactivity related jobs, etc. The report then describes actions required for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the procurement of uranium resources, establishment of a uranium enrichment process, reprocessing of spent fuel, application of recovered uranium, etc. Other activities are required for the development of new type reactors, effective application of plutonium, development of basic techniques, international contributions, cooperation with the public. Then, the report summarizes estimated costs required for the activities to be performed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. (N.K.)

  18. Collective nuclear dynamics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanyuk, F.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects:liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities

  19. Collective nuclear dynamics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimov, V.I.; Kolomietz, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    The fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects: liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities

  20. Collective nuclear dynamics. Proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyuk, F A [eds.

    1994-12-31

    The Fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects:liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities.

  1. Debris Flows and Related Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancey, C.

    Torrential floods are a major natural hazard, claiming thousands of lives and millions of dollars in lost property each year in almost all mountain areas on the Earth. After a catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helen in the USA in May 1980, water from melting snow, torrential rains from the eruption cloud, and water displaced from Spirit Lake mixed with deposited ash and debris to produce very large debris flows and cause extensive damage and loss of life [1]. During the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia, more than 20,000 people perished when a large debris flow triggered by the rapid melting of snow and ice at the volcano summit, swept through the town of Armero [2]. In 1991, the eruption of Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines disperses more than 5 cubic kilometres of volcanic ash into surrounding valleys. Much of that sediment has subsequently been mobilised as debris flows by typhoon rains and has devastated more than 300 square kilometres of agricultural land. Even, in Eur opean countries, recent events that torrential floods may have very destructive effects (Sarno and Quindici in southern Italy in May 1998, where approximately 200 people were killed). The catastrophic character of these floods in mountainous watersheds is a consequence of significant transport of materials associated with water flows. Two limiting flow regimes can be distinguished. Bed load and suspension refer to dilute transport of sediments within water. This means that water is the main agent in the flow dynamics and that the particle concentration does not exceed a few percent. Such flows are typically two-phase flows. In contrast, debris flows are mas s movements of concentrated slurries of water, fine solids, rocks and boulders. As a first approximation, debris flows can be treated as one-phase flows and their flow properties can be studied using classical rheological methods. The study of debris flows is a very exciting albeit immature science, made up of disparate elements borrowed from geomorphology, geology, hydrology, soil mechanics, and fluid mechanics. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to physical aspects of debris flows, with specific attention directed to their rheological features. Despite attempts to provide a coherent view on the topic, coverage is incomplete and the reader is referred to a series of papers and books. Three books are particularly commendable [3-5]. Some review papers provide interesting overviews, introducing the newcomers to the field to the main concepts [6-8]. The background material in rheology can be found in Chaps. 2 and 3.

  2. Molecular nanomagnets and related phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Song (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering

    2015-07-01

    The series Structure and Bonding publishes critical reviews on topics of research concerned with chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience. Thus each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years should be presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. A description of the physical basis of the experimental techniques that have been used to provide the primary data may also be appropriate, if it has not been covered in detail elsewhere. The coverage need not be exhaustive in data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the new principles being developed that will allow the reader, who is not a specialist in the area covered, to understand the data presented. Discussion of possible future research directions in the area is welcomed. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Readership: research scientists at universities or in industry, graduate students Special offer for all customers who have a standing order to the print version of Structure and Bonding, we offer free access to the electronic volumes of the Series published in the current year via SpringerLink.

  3. Molecular nanomagnets and related phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Song

    2015-01-01

    The series Structure and Bonding publishes critical reviews on topics of research concerned with chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience. Thus each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years should be presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. A description of the physical basis of the experimental techniques that have been used to provide the primary data may also be appropriate, if it has not been covered in detail elsewhere. The coverage need not be exhaustive in data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the new principles being developed that will allow the reader, who is not a specialist in the area covered, to understand the data presented. Discussion of possible future research directions in the area is welcomed. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Readership: research scientists at universities or in industry, graduate students Special offer for all customers who have a standing order to the print version of Structure and Bonding, we offer free access to the electronic volumes of the Series published in the current year via SpringerLink.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy for Assessment of Morphological Changes in Hydrating Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose Matrix Tablets In Situ–Is it Possible to Detect Phenomena Related to Drug Dissolution Within the Hydrated Matrices?

    OpenAIRE

    Kulinowski, Piotr; Młynarczyk, Anna; Jasiński, Krzysztof; Talik, Przemysław; Gruwel, Marco L. H.; Tomanek, Bogusław; Węglarz, Władysław P.; Dorożyński, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose So far, the hydrated part of the HPMC matrix has commonly been denoted as a “gel” or “pseudogel” layer. No MRI-based results have been published regarding observation of internal phenomena related to drug dissolution inside swelling polymeric matrices during hydration. The purpose of the study was to detect such phenomena. Methods Multiparametric, spatially and temporally resolved T2 MR relaxometry, in situ, was applied to study formation of the hydration progress in HPMC mat...

  5. Brazilian nuclear politics in the context of contemporary international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpes, Mariana Montez

    2006-09-01

    The present dissertation analyses the retaking of the debate over Brazilian nuclear Program's recovery by Luis Inacio Lula da Silva government, based on the defense of the utilization of an already acquired technology of its own to enrich uranium. In spite of the intrinsic duality on this subject and having in mind the pacific ends concerning the utilization of such technology by Brazil, the hypothesis sustained in this work is that the Program's defense is considered a strategy of sovereign international insertion with relative autonomy and an instrument of national valorization against other powers. In order to verify the hypothesis outlined above, we will analyse the actual government, comparing it to, two other moments in Brazilian History in which the nuclear issue also acquired preponderance on the national agenda, namely, Geisel and Sarney governments. Although these three moments differ in relation to their internal political regime, our goal is to identify their similarities. (author)

  6. The role of the National INIS Center in presenting Macedonian nuclear and nuclear related sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejmenova-Gichevska, Marija

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Macedonia is 95th Member State of INIS and its participation in this cooperative decentralized system started in 1996 when the Macedonian INIS Center was established to be operated by the National and University Library 'Kliment Ohridski' in Skopje. The main objective of this study is to give an overview of the Macedonian nuclear and nuclear related scientific thought presented in the INIS Database. A statistical analysis of the Macedonian INIS Center's contribution to the INIS Database for the period of its constitution to 2006, by quantifying and reviewing the language, publication type and INIS subject categories of the submitted records is presented. (author)

  7. Analysis of field-plate effects on buffer-related lag phenomena and current collapse in GaN MESFETs and AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horio, Kazushige; Nakajima, Atsushi; Itagaki, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    A two-dimensional transient analysis of field-plate GaN MESFETs and AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is performed in which a deep donor and a deep acceptor are considered in a semi-insulating buffer layer, and quasi-pulsed current–voltage curves are derived from them. How the existence of a field plate affects buffer-related drain lag, gate lag and current collapse is studied. It is shown that in both MESFET and HEMT, the drain lag is reduced by introducing a field plate because electron injection into the buffer layer is weakened by it, and the buffer-trapping effects are reduced. It is also shown that the field plate could reduce buffer-related current collapse and gate lag in the FETs. The dependence of lag phenomena and current collapse on the field-plate length and on the SiN passivation layer thickness is also studied. The work suggests that in the field-plate structures, there is an optimum thickness of the SiN layer to minimize the buffer-related current collapse and drain lag in GaN MESFETs and AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

  8. Analysis of flashing and swelling phenomena in tanks of nuclear power plants; the importance of bubble growth dynamics and bubble transport models with size tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo A, E [University of Caribe, Department of Basics Sciences and Engineering, Lote 1, Manzana 1, Region 78, esq. Fracc. Tabachines, 77500 Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Munoz C, J L [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank.

  9. Analysis of flashing and swelling phenomena in tanks of nuclear power plants; the importance of bubble growth dynamics and bubble transport models with size tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo A, E. [University of Caribe, Department of Basics Sciences and Engineering, Lote 1, Manzana 1, Region 78, esq. Fracc. Tabachines, 77500 Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: ecerezo@unicaribe.edu.mx; Munoz C, J.L. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank.

  10. Electrical phenomena in breaking the adhesive contact and in the destruction of solids. Development stages: From the gas discharge to cold nuclear fusion (on the 90th anniversary of the Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, B. V. Deryagin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrustalev, Yu.A.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the research performed mainly by B. V. Deryagin and his coworkers into the electrophysical phenomena that accompany the breaking of an adhesive bond and of solids themselves by a mechanical action (the charging of fresh surfaces and gas discharge processes, caused by an excess charge, the emission of electrons and of x-ray radiation, as well as cold nuclear fusion). The relationship between the emission of electrons and mechanochemical processes in solids is pointed out. 118 refs

  11. Concerning major items in government ordinance requiring modification of part of enforcement regulation for law relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report describes major items planned to be incorporated into the enforcement regulations for laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The modifications have become necessary for the nation to conclude a nuclear material protection treaty with other countries. The modification include the definitions of 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection'. The modifications require that protective measures be taken when handling and transporting special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances requires approval from the Prime Minister or Transport Minister. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection should be conducted after notifying the prefectural Public Safety Commission. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection requires the conclusion of arrangements among responsible persons and approval of them from the Prime Minister. (N.K.)

  12. Modelling of near-field radionuclide transport phenomena in a KBS-3V type of repository for nuclear waste with Goldsim Code - and verification against previous methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H.

    2010-03-01

    Traditional radionuclide transport models overestimate significantly some phenomena, or completely ignore them. This motivates the development of new more precise models. As a result, this work is a description of commissioning of a new KBS-3V near-field radionuclide transport model, which has been done with a commercial software called GoldSim. According to earlier models, GoldSim model uses rz coordinates, but the solubilities of radionuclides have been treated more precisely. To begin with, the physical phenomena concerning near-field transport have been introduced according to GoldSim way of thinking. Also, the computational methods of GoldSim have been introduced and compared to methods used earlier. The actual verification of GoldSim model has been carried out by comparing the GoldSim results from simple cases to the corresponding results obtained with REPCOM, a software developed by VTT and used in several safety assessments. The results agree well. Finally, a few complicated cases were studied. In these cases, the REPCOM's limitations in handling of some phenomena become evident. The differences in the results are caused especially by the extension of the solubility limit to the whole computational domain, and the element-wise treatment of the solubilities which was used instead of nuclide-wise treatment. This work has been carried out as a special assignment to the former laboratory of Advanced Energy Systems in Helsinki University of Technology. The work was done at VTT. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  14. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  15. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  16. Nuclear medium effects in the evaluation of Callan Gross relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, F.; Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    JLab has recently measured F 1 (x) and F 2 (x) structure functions separately as well as studied the difference F 2 (x) - 2 xF 1 (x) (Callan-Gross relation) using electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the energy region of 2-6 GeV of the electron beam. Theoretically, it is important to understand nuclear medium effects for a fundamental process eN → eX (N is the nucleon and X is jet of hadrons) taking place with a nucleon bound inside the nucleus. Generally, nuclear medium effects in the DIS region are understood due to shadowing and antishadowing effects, mesonic cloud contributions, Fermi motion and binding energy etc. In the present paper we have studied nuclear medium effects in microscopic model using relativistic nucleon spectral function to describe nucleon momentum distribution. The Fermi motion, binding energy effect and nucleon-nucleon correlations are taken into account using spectral functions. The spectral functions that describe energy and momentum distribution of nucleon is obtained by using the Lehmann's representation for the relativistic nucleon propagator and nuclear many body theory is used to calculate it for an interacting Fermi sea in nuclear matter. A local density approximation is then applied to translate these results to a finite nucleus. We have taken into account pion and rho mesons cloud contributions which are found to have important contribution in the intermediate region of Bjorken variable x. Furthermore, shadowing and antishadowing effects are also taken into account using phenomenological model of Kulagin and Petti. Numerical evaluation have been performed both at the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO)

  17. Exploiting Semantic Search Methodologies to Analyse Fast Nuclear Reactor Nuclear Related Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, L.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes an experiment to evaluate the outcomes of using the semantic search engine together with the entity extraction approach and the visualisation tools in large set of nuclear data related to fast nuclear reactors (FNR) documents originated from INIS database and the IAEA web publication. The INIS database has been used because is the larger collection of nuclear related data and a sub-set of it can be utilised to verify the efficiency and the effectiveness of this approach. In a nutshell, the goal of the study was to: 1) find and monitor documents dealing with FNR; 2) building knowledge base (KB) according to the FNR nuclear components and populate the KB with relevant documents; 3) communicate the conclusion of the analysis by utilising visualisation tools. The semantic search engine used in the case study has the capability to perform what is called evidential reasoning: accruing, weighing and evaluating the evidence to determinate a mathematical score for each article that measures its relevance to the subject of interest. This approach provides a means to differentiate between articles that closely meet the search criteria versus those less relevant articles. Tovek software platform was chosen for this case study. (author

  18. Foot morphometric phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  19. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  20. ISINN-3. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings contain the materials presented at the Third International Seminar on Neutron-Nucleus Interactions (ISINN-3) dealing with the problems of neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics. The Seminar took place in Dubna on April 26-28, 1995. Over 100 scientists from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA and from more than 10 Russian research institutes took part in the Seminar. The Seminar is dedicated to the memory of the founder of the Neutron Physics Laboratory of JINR, the famous soviet scientist Professor Fedor L. Shapiro, whose 80th anniversary is being observed. The main problems discussed are the following: fundamental interactions and symmetries in neutron-induced reactions, fundamental properties of the neutron, properties of excited nuclei after neutron capture and some other ones. Special emphasis is laid upon γ decay and neutron induced nuclear fission as well as upon the methodical aspects of new experiments

  1. Application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurements is discussed. The ''Can Technique'', used for measuring radon emanation from building materials, walls and soil; the ''Working Level Monitor'', used for measuring short period working levels of radon daughters in houses; and ''Passive Radon Dosimeters'', used to measure radon levels in houses for long term (few months) periods are described. Application of nuclear track detectors for measuring the radon daughters plate-out on the surface of mixing fan blades and walls are discussed. The uranium content of some wall papers was found to be 6 ppm. The variation of radon progeny concentration in the same room was measured and supported by another study through Gas Chromatograph measurements. The independence of radon concentration on room level in high-rise buildings was established. The effect of sub-floor radon emanation on radon concentration in houses is dependent on whether there is sub-floor ventilation or not. (author)

  2. Public relations in the State Office for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazkova, Radka

    2000-01-01

    The State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is a government agency. The Office is headed by a chairperson who is appointed by the Czech Government. The Office has got its own budget and reports directly to the Czech Government. SONS was established in 1993 and continued activities of the former Czechoslovak Commission for Atomic Energy. SONS main activity is the central administration and supervision of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power and ionizing radiation and in the field of radiation protection. SONS is regulated mainly by the Atomic Act. A separate department of Public Relations was established last year in SONS especially due to the enactment of the statutory obligation of government agencies to render information. Basic P.R. communication means in the field of external communication include: Information Center; Internet; Press Releases; Publications - publishing regularly or for topical events; Seminars; Meetings; Press conferences; Editorial articles; Answering questions

  3. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1235, ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants... entitled ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily...

  4. Critical Phenomena in Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundlach Carsten

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term 'critical phenomena'. They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold, that is, attractors of codimension one in phase space, and which are typically self-similar. This review gives an introduction to the phenomena, tries to summarize the essential features of what is happening, and then presents extensions and applications of this basic scenario. Critical phenomena are of interest particularly for creating surprising structure from simple equations, and for the light they throw on cosmic censorship and the generic dynamics of general relativity.

  5. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  6. Large fire scenarios in relation to sabotage of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contri, P.; Guerpinar, A.; ); Schneider, U.

    2005-01-01

    The analyses of sabotage scenarios carried out in recent years identified two major damaging mechanisms associated with such scenarios, namely: the mechanical interaction of solid bodies or pressure waves with the installations and the fire-related effects from burning substances. While the former effect may be addressed by available analytical tools developed for accidental scenarios, the latter deserves a new, specific engineering effort. In fact, all nuclear facilities are designed in relation to accidental fires; even so, they need to be assessed in relation to sabotage induced fire scenarios due to the special characteristics of such scenarios, not addressed by the current engineering practice for the design of nuclear installations. Conventional fire hazard analysis is based on the hypothesis of the presence of combustible materials in the buildings and limited number of contemporaneous sources of fire. In addition, conventional fire safety assessment relies upon the presence of mitigation measures and fire related operational procedures. In a sabotage event the validity of all these assumptions need to be checked and if the assumptions cannot be supported, then the analysis should be revised and other alternatives of protection should be developed. Also the implementation of emergency planning should be reviewed to take account of this concern. This paper collects state-of-the-art experience from some Countries, which represents the background information for the development of new IAEA documents in this field. The paper reviews how the current design practice for nuclear installations can cope with large fire scenarios caused by malevolent actions and provides recommendations to designers and operators on how to address these issues in a reasonable framework. (authors)

  7. Comments on future tasks for Romanian research related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrache, I.

    2000-01-01

    Four main research areas are identified: - nuclear safety, - waste management, - fuel cycles and - plant life management. A significant number of tasks are related to each of these areas. Unfortunately, the cost of the needed research is much too high for the current electricity planning of Romania. Up to now, the international co-operation in CANDU field was not very efficient. Canada, India, Korea and Argentina have distinct intentions related to the use of nuclear power potential. Romania is the only European country interested to investigate CANDU reactor problems. Consequently, the author believes that the future Romanian nuclear power research effort must be clearly divided in two main classes: a. CR = 'Concentrated Research' on specific subjects, aimed to a better understanding, and to a complete solving of the associated problems, when possible, and b. CAR = 'Covering Areas Research' to maintain and update the know-how needed in the nuclear power activities. A given research subject may successively pass from one class to another, if needed; however, for a given period of one-to-five years, the class must be stated for each project, from the beginning. No research effort must be planned in the first class, CR, if the needed resources (human, technical and financial) are not ensured. Usually, the power plant leaders and the Institute researchers wish to dedicate their efforts to investigation of the 'hot problems'. Apparently, they are always right. In fact, the allocation of human and financial resources must be based on a very careful evaluation of the 'conditions required for success'. Otherwise, instead of the needed solution, the research will probably offer' a significant number of original methods, successfully applied', 'a more detailed knowledge of phenomena', 'several patents', a few papers 'published or accepted for publication in world over recognized scientific journals' etc. Although valuable, such results are not accepted instead of the needed

  8. Proceedings of VII International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. XIII Workshop on Nuclear Physics. WONP-NURT 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This year the XIII Workshop on Nuclear Physics (WONP) and the VII Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques (NURT) are organized jointly, by Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas and Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. Both events gather scientists from several countries with top research work on nuclear physics and its applications. WONP has been carried out since 1994 promoting an ever-exchanging exchange between professionals of various nuclear and applied physics fields, those related to environmental and health care. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM

  9. Proceedings of VI International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. XII Workshop on Nuclear Physics. WONP-NURT 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    This year the XII Workshop on Nuclear Physics (WONP) and the VI Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques (NURT) are organized jointly, by Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas and Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. Both events gather scientists from several countries with top research work on nuclear physics and its applications. WONP has been carried out since 1994 promoting an ever-exchanging exchange between professionals of various nuclear and applied physics fields, those related to environmental and health care. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM

  10. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki [CRC Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public`s attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public`s attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author).

  11. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1996-01-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public's attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public's attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author)

  12. Radiation-related impacts for nuclear plant physical modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.; Knudson, R.; Simion, G.; Baca, G.; Behling, H.; Behling, K.; Britz, W.; Cohen, S.

    1989-10-01

    The radiation fields in nuclear power plants present significant obstacles to accomplishing repairs and modifications to many systems and components in these plants. The NRC's generic cost estimating methodology attempts to account for radiation-related impacts by assigning values to the radiation labor productivity factor. This radiation labor productivity factor is then used as a multiplier on the greenfield or new nuclear plant construction labor to adjust for the actual operating plant conditions. The value assigned to the productivity factor is based on the work-site radiation levels. The relationship among ALARA practices, work-place radiation levels, and radiation-related cost impacts previously had not been adequately characterized or verified. The assumptions made concerning the use and application of radiation-reduction measures such as system decontamination and/or the use of temporary shielding can significantly impact estimates of both labor requirements and radiation exposure associated with a particular activity. Overall guidance was needed for analysts as to typical ALARA practices at nuclear power plants and the effects of these practices in reducing work-site dose rates and overall labor requirements. This effort was undertaken to better characterize the physical modification cost and radiological exposure impacts related to the radiation environment of the work place. More specifically, this work sought to define and clarify the quantitative relationships between or among: radiation levels and ALARA practices, such as the use of temporary shielding, decontamination efforts, or the use of robots and remote tools; radiation levels and labor productivity factors; radiation levels, in-field labor hours, and worker radiation exposure; radiation levels and health physics services costs; and radiation levels, labor hours, and anti-contamination clothing and equipment. 48 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Optimal improvement of graphs related to nuclear safeguards problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, S.E.

    1977-08-01

    This report develops the methodology for optimally improving graphs related to nuclear safeguards issues. In particular, given a fixed number of dollars, the report provides a method for optimally allocating such dollars over the arcs of a weighted graph (the weights vary as a function of dollars spent on arcs) so as to improve the system effectiveness measure which is the shortest of all shortest paths to several targets. Arc weights can be either clock times or detection probabilities and the algorithm does not explicitly consider all paths to the targets

  14. Statistical evaluation of design-error related nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, general methodology for the statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents is proposed that can be applied to a variety of systems that evolves during the development of large-scale technologies. The evaluation aims at an estimate of the combined ''residual'' frequency of yet unknown types of accidents ''lurking'' in a certain technological system. A special categorization in incidents and accidents is introduced to define the events that should be jointly analyzed. The resulting formalism is applied to the development of U.S. nuclear power reactor technology, considering serious accidents (category 2 events) that involved, in the accident progression, a particular design inadequacy. 9 refs

  15. Safety-related decision making at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    The decision making environment of an operating nuclear power plant is presented. The organizations involved, their roles and interactions as well as the main influencing factors and decision criteria are described. The focus is on safety-related decisions, and the framework is based on the situation at Loviisa power station. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is illustrated with decisions concerning plant modifications, optimization, acceptance of temporary configurations and extended repair times. Suggestions are made for rational and flexible risk-based control of allowed times to operate the plant with some components out of service. (orig.)

  16. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Activities Related to Fast Reactor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dujardin, Thierry; Gulliford, Jim

    2013-01-01

    • Despite impact of Fukushima, there remains a high level of interest in continued development of advanced nuclear systems and fuel cycles: – better use of natural resources; – minimisation of waste and reduction of constraints on deep geological repositories. • Ambitious R&D programmes on-going at national level in many countries, also through international projects: – expected to lead to development of advanced reactors and fuel cycle facilities. • OECD/NEA will continue to support member countries in field of fast reactor development and related advanced fuel cycles: – forum for exchange of information; – collaborative activities

  17. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  18. Progress on study of nuclear data theory and related fields at the Theory Group of CNDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhigang, Ge [China Nuclear Data Center, CIAE (China)

    1996-06-01

    The Theory Group of CNDC (China Nuclear Data Center) has made a lot of progress in nuclear reaction theory and its application as well as many other related fields in 1995. The recent progress in nuclear reaction theory study and its applications, the recent progress in the nuclear data calculation and related code development are introduced. The production rate of radioactive nuclear beam induced by 70 MeV protons on {sup 72}Ge target were calculated. The calculated results are presented.

  19. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

  20. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants; Terminos relacionados con la seguridad para centrales nucleares avanzadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety.

  1. Problems relating to international transport of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, U.E.

    1985-01-01

    Owing to the tremendous geographic distances between uranium deposits of interest, to the various degrees of sophistication of nuclear industry in industrialized countries and to the close international cooperation in the field of nuclear energy, safe international transports, physical protection and transport handling play an important role. It is suggested to better coordinate the activities of nuclear power plant operators, the nuclear industry and specialized transport companies with respect to all national and international issues of nuclear fuel transports. (DG) [de

  2. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Revision to regulatory guide; issuance..., ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide... Operators Installed Inside the Containment of Nuclear Power Plants,'' dated January 1974. ADDRESSES: Please...

  3. Resource Letter MP-1: The Manhattan Project and related nuclear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2005-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, the German nuclear program, and technical papers of historical interest. A list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues is also given.

  4. CdCl{sub 2} treatment related diffusion phenomena in Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartopu, G., E-mail: giray.kartopu@glyndwr.ac.uk; Clayton, A. J.; Barrioz, V.; Lamb, D. A.; Irvine, S. J. C. [Centre for Solar Energy Research (CSER), Glyndŵr University, OpTIC, St. Asaph Business Park, St. Asaph LL17 0JD (United Kingdom); Taylor, A. A. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-14

    Utilisation of wide bandgap Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S alloys as an alternative to the CdS window layer is an attractive route to enhance the performance of CdTe thin film solar cells. For successful implementation, however, it is vital to control the composition and properties of Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S through device fabrication processes involving the relatively high-temperature CdTe deposition and CdCl{sub 2} activation steps. In this study, cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy and depth profiling methods were employed to investigate chemical and structural changes in CdTe/Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdS superstrate device structures deposited on an ITO/boro-aluminosilicate substrate. Comparison of three devices in different states of completion—fully processed (CdCl{sub 2} activated), annealed only (without CdCl{sub 2} activation), and a control (without CdCl{sub 2} activation or anneal)—revealed cation diffusion phenomena within the window layer, their effects closely coupled to the CdCl{sub 2} treatment. As a result, the initial Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdS bilayer structure was observed to unify into a single Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S layer with an increased Cd/Zn atomic ratio; these changes defining the properties and performance of the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdTe device.

  5. Students Designing Their own Experiments on Heat Transfer Phenomena Using Sensors and ICT: An Educational Trial to Consolidate Related Scientific concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Vavougios

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Following our previous research effort, the present study focuses on a laboratory practice utilizing sensors and ICT, and follows the change in the perceptions students have in relation to the concept of heat transfer. The present paper builds on the experience gained and refines the techniques used. The new sample consists of a larger group of 16-20 year old students, all studying mechanical engineering in a vocational school. A novel and creative research approach was followed. Students were asked to use their experience so as to design, create, calibrate, and use an experimental setup so as to demonstrate heat transfer phenomena. All students used heat sensors and appropriate ICT-systems. Our aim was to improve students’ comprehension concerning heat transfer. The 122 students forming the total sample were split into an experimental group of 64, which is the one that was asked to design, create, calibrate, and subsequently use a school-experiment, while a control group of 58 of student-users only used the experimental set-ups of the experimental group (without any creative design. Both questionnaires and personal interviews were used to collect the research-data. Subsequent data analysis indicates that, when the questions are relevant to the creation of the experimental setup, the experimental group exhibits a higher percentage of correct or partly correct answers in comparison to those of the control group, whereas any differences observed in the rest of the questions lie within the limits of the total measurement errors. The use of ICT-systems in the present educational effort is proving invaluable. Some interesting conclusion are drawn which are discussed herein.

  6. Chemistry and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The underlying principles of nuclear sciece and technology as based on the two basic phenomena, namely, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, with their relatively large associated energy changes, are outlined. The most important contributions by chemists in the overall historical development are mentioned and the strong position chemistry has attained in these fields is indicated. It is concluded that chemistry as well as many other scientific discplines (apart from general benefits) have largely benefitted from these nuclear developments [af

  7. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  8. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-06-03

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.

  9. Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A Surjalal

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.

  10. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  11. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.

  12. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  13. Introduction to wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indekeu, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)

  14. Provisions relating to Nuclear Energy. II - International Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book published by the Portuguese Junta de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Energy Commission) reproduces in Portuguese and in the original language (English or French), texts of a series of international conventions in the nuclear field and the Statutes of international nuclear organisations and undertakings. The following are among the texts included: the Statutes of the IAEA, NEA, Eurochemic; the Euratom Treaty; the Tlatelolco Treaty; the co-operation agreement between Portugal and the United States on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. (NEA) [fr

  15. A Connection between Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, Ross; Bird, R. Byron

    2017-01-01

    Although students take courses in transport phenomena and thermodynamics, they probably do not ask whether these two subjects are related. Here we give an answer to that question. Specifically we give relationships between the equations of change for total energy, internal energy, and entropy of transport phenomena and key equations of equilibrium…

  16. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  17. Dismantling of nuclear facilities and related problems - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournebize, Frederic; Bordet, Didier; Charlety, Philippe; Gore, Thierry; Estrade, Jerome; Lemaire, Hermine; Ginet, Annick; Fabrier, Lionel; Evrard, Lydie; Furois, Timothee; Butez, Marc; Dutzer, Michel; Faure, Vincent; Billarand, Yann; Menuet, Lise; Lahaye, Thierry; Pin, Alain; Mougnard, Philippe; Charavy, Sylvain; Poncet, Philippe; Moggia, Fabrice; Dochy, Arnaud; Benjamin, Patrick; Poncet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Beneteau, Yannick; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Pellenz, Gilles; Ollivier Dehaye, Catherine; Gerard, Stephane; Denissen, Luc; Davain, Henri; Duveau, Florent; Guyot, Jean-Luc; Ardellier, Luc

    2012-11-01

    The oldest French nuclear facilities, built for some of them in the 1950's for research or power generation purposes, have reached more or less the end of their life. More than 30 facilities have entered the shutdown or dismantling phase, among which 8 reactors of the very first generations of Electricite de France (EdF) reactors. The aim of this two-days conference is to take stock of the present day status and perspectives of the dismantling activity, to approach the question of the management of the wastes produced, and to share experience about large scale operations already carried out. This document gathers the available presentations given during this conference: 1 - the 'Passage' project (F. Tournebize); 2 - CEA-Grenoble: from Louis Neel to key enabling technologies (D. Bordet); 3 - Dismantling actions in France (L. Evrard); 4 - Securing control of long-term charges funding (T. Furois); 5 - Waste disposal projects and their contribution to the management of dismantling wastes (M. Butez); 6 - Specificities linked with dismantling activities (Y. Billarand); 7 - Dismantling safety: the ASN's point of view (L. Evrad); 8 - Labor Ministry viewpoint about the dismantling related questions (T. Lahaye); 9 - Consideration of organizational and human factors in dismantling operations: a new deal in the operators-service providers relation (L. Menuet); 10 - Diploma and training experience (A. Pin); 11 - Glove-boxes dismantling at La Hague plant - status and experience feedback (P. Mougnard); 12 - Dismantling of Siloe reactor (CEA-Grenoble): application of the ALARA approach (P. Charlety); 13 - BR3 - a complex dismantling: the neutron shield tank (NST) in remote operation and indirect vision (L. Denissen); 14 - Cleansing and dismantling of the Phebus PF containment (S. Charavy); 15 - Integration of dismantling at the design and exploitation stages of nuclear facilities (P. Poncet); 16 - Consideration during the design and exploitation stages of dispositions aiming at

  18. IAEA activities in nuclear medicine and related medical applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as specified in its Statute, is to ''enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.'' Its programmes in human health include both the exploitation and measurement of radiation fields (radiotherapy and dosimetry) and the use of radionuclides in an investigative or tracer role (the primary subject of this Symposium). The Agency carries out its programmes by means of several mechanisms. The technical co-operation programme, responding to requests for support from governments of Member States, is the dominant mechanism. Through it, experts may be made available to introduce new skills to a laboratory; essential equipment may be provided; and training may be organized in various forms. A second mechanism is the research contract programme, providing financial support to individual laboratories for particular research projects. A third mechanism is information exchange: scientific meetings, publications and the nuclear abstracts service of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). In the field covered by this Symposium, the technical content of the projects supported by the Agency using these mechanisms may be classed in several categories. One domain that penetrates all others is instrumentation: selection, quality control and maintenance to prevent or correct breakdowns. Another category of activity, requiring the least sophisticated technology, is radioimmunoassay and related procedures. A third category involves the use of radionuclides in vivo, notably the classic applications of nuclear medicine in diagnosing the health status of individual patients, but including also investigation of the nature and aetiology of disease. A fourth category of project includes the study of the biological role of trace elements, especially by neutron activation analysis

  19. Transport phenomena in multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy.  It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...

  20. Assessment of Used Nuclear Fuel Inventory Relative to Disposition Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, John C.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Mueller, Don; Gehin, Jess C.; Worrall, Andrew; Taiwo, Temitope; Nutt, Mark; Williamson, Mark A.; Todosow, Mike; Wigeland, Roald; Halsey, William; Omberg, Ronald; Swift, Peter; Carter, Joe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of the current inventory [∼70,150 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) as of 2011] of U.S.-discharged used nuclear fuel (UNF) to support decisions regarding fuel cycle strategies and research, development and demonstration (RD and D) needs. The assessment considered discharged UNF from commercial nuclear electricity generation and defense and research programs and determined that the current UNF inventory can be divided into the following three categories: 1. Disposal - excess material that is not needed for other purposes; 2. Research - material needed for RD and D purposes to support waste management (e.g., UNF storage, transportation, and disposal) and development of alternative fuel cycles (e.g., separations and advanced fuels/reactors); and 3. Recycle/Recovery - material with inherent and/or strategic value. A set of key assumptions and attributes relative to the disposition options was used to categorize the current UNF inventory. Based on consideration of RD and D needs, time frames and material needs for deployment of alternative fuel cycles, characteristics of the current UNF inventory, and possible uses to support national security interests, it was determined that the vast majority of the category, without the need for retrieval for reuse or research purposes. Access to the material in the Research and Recycle/Recovery categories should be retained to support RD and D needs and national security interests. This assessment does not assume any decision about future fuel cycle options or preclude any potential options, including those with potential recycling of commercial UNF, since the ∼2,000 MTHM that is generated annually could provide the feedstock needed for deployment of alternative fuel cycles.

  1. Review of concrete biodeterioration in relation to nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turick, Charles E; Berry, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Storage of radioactive waste in concrete structures is a means of containing wastes and related radionuclides generated from nuclear operations in many countries. Previous efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that are used to contain radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete structures used to store or dispose of radioactive waste. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources such as components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The microbial contribution to degradation of the concrete structures containing radioactive waste is a constant possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Parameters to focus on for modeling activities and possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation are discussed and include key conditions that drive microbial activity on concrete surfaces. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Survey on Issues related to National Nuclear Promotion Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Lee, Youngcheol; Jeong, I. K.; Kim, Hyunjun; Kim, Youngsoo; Yun, Sungwon; Moon, Keehwan; Chung, Whansam

    2013-06-01

    Ο Major issues surrounding nuclear are including suspicions about nuclear safety, spent-fuel management, acquiring the advanced R and D capabilities and making the nuclear a creative industry Ο Solid measures for securing safety should be formulated and implemented for reducing public anxiety of nuclear use Ο The long-term R and D performance system from a scientific perspective should be established for expanding Research and Development for safer use of nuclear Ο The spent-fuel management policy should be determined through publicizing process Ο Establishing small and medium enterprises-oriented supply system of reactors and SMRs and Encouraging the radiation fusion technology industrialization for promoting creative industry utilizing nuclear

  3. Review of Soviet studies related to peaceful underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies of contained and crater-forming underground nuclear explosions by USSR investigators are reviewed and summarized. Published data on U.S., USSR, and French cavity-forming nuclear explosions are compared with those predicted by the formula. Empirical studies on U.S. and USSR cratering explosions, both high explosions, both high explosive and nuclear are summarized. The parameters governing an excavation explosion are reviewed

  4. The nuclear present. A guide to recent books on nuclear war, weapons, the peace movement, and related issues, with a chronology of nuclear events, 1789-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Present brings the interested reader up-to-date on significant English-language books about nuclear weapons and related topics, identifying primarily important works of nuclear non-fiction that have come out since 1984. Each reference has a paragraph of comment about its subject and value. General organizational areas include the following: Reference Works; Nuclear weapons and Nuclear war (14 sub-headings including overviews, development, effects, tests, arms race, prospectives, legal considerations etc.); Strategy; proliferation; Stratigic Defense; Arms control and disarmament; ethical, pholosophical and religous perspectives; new paths to peace; periodic guide; the Chernobyl Disaster. An extensive Nuclear Chronology (1789-1991) written by the author allows a fairly detailed sense of the historical record of nuclear weapons, including testing, manufacture, use and movements for arms control and disarmament

  5. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  6. Heat transfer phenomena revelant to severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression

  7. Heat transfer phenomena relevant to severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression. 26 refs

  8. Nuclear energy in relation to the elimination of social conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, A.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that, in Austria, employers and labour have both been in favour of nuclear energy and that nuclear energy problems have been the main causes of political disagreement. The importance of maintaining employment and stable currency is noted and the question is raised whether technical progress can endanger political stability. Reference is made to the 1979 European nuclear energy conference and the need for finding solutions which do not endanger the political system is emphasised. The importance of a decision on the Zwentendorf nuclear power station is stated. (G.M.E.)

  9. Third party liability cover for nuclear damage and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Ferdinando; Gambardella, Elio.

    1974-06-01

    This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA) [fr

  10. Nuclear Security Management for Research Reactors and Related Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    This publication provides a single source guidance to assist those responsible for the implementation of nuclear security measures at research reactors and associated facilities in developing and maintaining an effective and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of nuclear security on the site. It is based on national experience and practices as well as on publications in the field of nuclear management and security. The scope includes security operations, security processes, and security forces and their relationship with the State’s nuclear security regime. The guidance is provided for consideration by States, competent authorities and operators

  11. SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.

  12. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  13. Model of influence of nuclear education on public relations to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    1996-01-01

    Method for evaluating the effect of the pupils nuclear education, as part of activities for improving the attitude of the population to nuclear power engineering is proposed. Results of calculations, made with constants values, obtained from Japan, are discussed. It is shown that the attitude to nuclear energy, formed at school, plays an essential role in formation of the future public opinion

  14. Public relations campaign for shipping spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushee, Tom [Northern States Power Company, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1989-07-01

    An example of positive outcome of proper attitude of the media and public on the occasion of shipping of nuclear fuel is described. Nothing new was invented in the way of public relations issue management. But a combination of a number of proven techniques were put together and the public relations plan that was highly successful. early planning was of great help. Public officials were well informd by means of ANS organized seminars. ANS had experts from Sandia Labs (a major government research facility), General Electric (the cask supplier), the railroad we planned to use and Northern States Power Company on the program to describe what was going to happen and why it was safe. These sessions are believed to head off a major portion of the local opposition. A cooperation was established with the states of Wisconsin and Minnesota in providing shipment-specific training for emergency response personnel along the route. Safety, obviously, was the number one concern expressed by public officials. Knowing that would be the case, it was decided to provide some optional extras to go with the shipments. There was a consultant yo do a safety analysis of all the possible rail routes between the plant and storage facility. Though none was required by law, a shipment-specific emergency response plan which was prepared. Another important effort which was maintained from the beginning was sharing information among the participants. In dealing with the news media, an attemp was made to stick to a single source of information as much as possible. When dealing with the news media, one should refuse to apologize for modern technology. One should attack, at every opportunity, the idea that a ''risk-free'' society is worth the price of returning to the Dark Ages. The contributions of nuclear technology are numerous and far-reaching. Its negative impacts on health and safety have been minor compared with most other major industrial technologies. Certainly there is risk in stepping out

  15. Public relations campaign for shipping spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushee, Tom

    1989-01-01

    An example of positive outcome of proper attitude of the media and public on the occasion of shipping of nuclear fuel is described. Nothing new was invented in the way of public relations issue management. But a combination of a number of proven techniques were put together and the public relations plan that was highly successful. early planning was of great help. Public officials were well informd by means of ANS organized seminars. ANS had experts from Sandia Labs (a major government research facility), General Electric (the cask supplier), the railroad we planned to use and Northern States Power Company on the program to describe what was going to happen and why it was safe. These sessions are believed to head off a major portion of the local opposition. A cooperation was established with the states of Wisconsin and Minnesota in providing shipment-specific training for emergency response personnel along the route. Safety, obviously, was the number one concern expressed by public officials. Knowing that would be the case, it was decided to provide some optional extras to go with the shipments. There was a consultant yo do a safety analysis of all the possible rail routes between the plant and storage facility. Though none was required by law, a shipment-specific emergency response plan which was prepared. Another important effort which was maintained from the beginning was sharing information among the participants. In dealing with the news media, an attemp was made to stick to a single source of information as much as possible. When dealing with the news media, one should refuse to apologize for modern technology. One should attack, at every opportunity, the idea that a r isk-freesociety is worth the price of returning to the Dark Ages. The contributions of nuclear technology are numerous and far-reaching. Its negative impacts on health and safety have been minor compared with most other major industrial technologies. Certainly there is risk in stepping out of

  16. Proceedings of XIV Workshop on Nuclear Physics. VIII International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. WONP-NURT 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    This year 2013, the XIV Workshop on Nuclear Physics and VIII International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques, WONP-NURT 2013 organized by the Center of Technological Applications and Nuclear Development from 5 to 8 February at the National Museum of Fine Arts. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM

  17. Proceedings of XV Workshop on Nuclear Physics. IX International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. WONP-NURT 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This year 2015, the XV Workshop on Nuclear Physics and IX International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques, WONP-NURT 2015 organized by the Center of Technological Applications and Nuclear Development from 9 to 13 February at the National Museum of Fine Arts. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM.

  18. Legal approaches to transboundary pollution - relating to nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintsteiner, G.

    2000-05-01

    This work examines the legal approaches to pollution in a transboundary context. Particular consideration is given to transboundary pollution that is related to the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Since I have chosen to approach the very topic not so much in the hope of finding a single and unequivocal answer but rather by building a circumstantial case, the present work naturally relies to a great extent on decisions of international courts and tribunals, as well as on principles and rules stemming from international law in general. The international norm that basically guides the topic is the prohibition of transboundary pollution, or, expressed as a positive duty, i.e. the obligation to prevent transboundary harm, which has found expression in Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment. The very obligation is relevant from the perspective of prevention of environmental harm, as well as reparation when harm has actually occurred. One of the primary issues of this work accordingly relates to the obligation's preventive function, thus its extent, meaning and scope are examined, and in particular its approach to transboundary risk-creation. In the overall context of transboundary pollution the principle of the sovereign equality of states and other basic rules that directly emanate from it are of continuos importance. This work is further strongly impacted by notions of equity together with the establishment of a balancing of interests test which application merits special consideration in cases where a conflict between two states cannot be solved by mere reliance on their sovereign rights. Rules relating to the prevention of environmental harm, now increasingly guided by the Precautionary Principle, are also relevant under the law of state responsibility for wrongful acts and in the context of defining obligations erga omnes. (author)

  19. Diffusional mass transport phenomena in the buffer material and damaged zone of a borehole wall in an underground nuclear fuel waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, S.; Cheung, S.C.H.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of the geometry of the borehole and the characteristics of the damaged borehole rock wall on the movement of the radionuclides from an underground nuclear waste vault have been studied. The results show that radionuclide transport will occur mainly through the buffer into the damaged zone of the borehole wall. As the degree of facturing of the damaged zone increases, the total radionuclide flux will increase up to a limit which can be approximated by a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. For large degrees of fracturing of the damaged zone, an increase in the radial buffer material thickness will decrease the total flux, whereas, for small degrees of fracturing, an increase in the radial buffer thickness may slightly increase the total flux. Increasing the vertical buffer thickness will significantly decrease the total flux when the degree of fracturing of the damaged zone is small. An increase in the vertical extent of the damaged zone will cause an increase in total flux

  20. Nuclear power and related issues: the US outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.

    1989-01-01

    The author notes there are now 108 nuclear units licensed to operate in the US and another 18 under construction or completed but not licensed; nuclear power provided 19.5% of US total electrical energy as of May 1988. One of the most disturbing items is the increase in operating and maintenance costs of US nuclear plants which, in some cases, exceed costs of coal-fired plants. US leadership in nuclear power has lost much momentum due primarily to institutional rather than technological problems. There are some indications, however, that the anti-nuclear fever of the past is receding, namely: (1) President Reagan recently endorsing the need for nuclear power by signing legislation extending Price-Anderson nuclear insurance protection; (2) a more favorable regulatory climate; (3) some progress on the nuclear waste problem; (4) more supportive public acceptance; (5) decommissioning activities; (6) increased attention of plant aging and 40-yr. license requirement; (7) radon concerns, ironically, because of conservation practices; and (8) substantial progress in advanced reactor technology

  1. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matel, L.; Dulanska, S.

    2013-01-01

    This text-book is an introductory text in nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry, aimed on university undergraduate students in chemistry and related disciplines (physics, nuclear engineering). It covers the key aspects of modern nuclear chemistry. The text begins with basic theories in contemporary physics. It relates nuclear phenomena to key divisions of chemistry such as atomic structure, spectroscopy, equilibria and kinetics. It also gives an introduction to sources of ionizing radiation, detection of ionizing radiation, nuclear power industry and accident on nuclear installations as well as basic knowledge's of radiobiology. This book is essential reading for those taking a first course in nuclear chemistry and is a useful companion to other volumes in physical and analytical chemistry. It will also be of use to those new to working in nuclear chemistry or radiochemistry.

  2. Nuclear energy and public relation in the Czech Republic and its neighbours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents issues of the nuclear power industry in relations to opinions and feelings of the general public on the obtaining electricity from nuclear power sources. The presentation introduces these matters in a historical context and specifically it focuses on the situation around the CEZ's nuclear power plants. In addition, it shows tools that have been used for the promotion of safe and reliable operations of both NPPs. As a separate part, it introduces the World Association of Nuclear Operators and its contribution to improvement of NPPs' safety. In conclusion, call appeal for active approach to propagation of nuclear power industry is formulated for all nuclear associated stakeholders. (author)

  3. Decree no 2007-1557 from November 2, 2007, relative to basic nuclear facilities and to the nuclear safety control of nuclear materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-11-01

    This decree concerns the enforcement of articles 5, 17 and 36 of the law 2006-686 from June 13, 2006, relative to the transparency and safety in the nuclear domain. A consultative commission of basic nuclear facilities is established. The decree presents the general dispositions relative to basic nuclear facilities, the dispositions relative to their creation and operation, to their shutdown and dismantling. It precises the dispositions in the domain of public utility services, administrative procedures and sanctions. It stipulates also the particular dispositions relative to other facilities located in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, relative to the use of pressure systems, and relative to the transport of radioactive materials. (J.S.)

  4. Relativity evaluation of reliability on operation in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inata, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    The report presents a quantitative method for evaluating the reliability of operations conducted in nuclear power plants. The quantitative reliability evaluation method is based on the 'detailed block diagram analysis (De-BDA)'. All units of a series of operations are separately displayed for each block and combined sequentially. Then, calculation is performed to evaluate the reliability. Basically, De-BDA calculation is made for pairs of operation labels, which are connected in parallel or in series at different subordination levels. The applicability of the De-BDA method is demonstrated by carrying out calculation for three model cases: operations in the event of malfunction of the control valve in the main water supply system for PWR, switching from an electrically-operated water supply pump to a turbin-operated water supply pump, and isolation and water removal operation for a low-pressure condensate pump. It is shown that the relative importance of each unit of a series of operations can be evaluated, making it possible to extract those units of greater importance, and that the priority among the factors which affect the reliability of operations can be determined. Results of the De-BDA calculation can serve to find important points to be considered in developing an operation manual, conducting education and training, and improving facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    A review of experimental and theoretical investigaions of sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks is presented. Different types of sawtooth oscillations, scaling laws and methods of interanl disruption stabilization are described. Theoretical models of the sawtooth instability are discussed. 122 refs.; 4 tabs

  6. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  7. Investigation of potential fire-related damage to safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanless, J.

    1985-11-01

    Based on a review of vendor information, fire damage reports, equipment qualification and hydrogen burn test results, and material properties, thirty-three types of equipment found in nuclear power plants were ranked in terms of their potential sensitivity to fire environments. The ranking considered both the functional requirements and damage proneness of each component. A further review of the seven top-ranked components was performed, considering the relative prevalence and potential safety significance of each. From this, relays and hand switches dominate as first choices for fire damage testing with logic equipment, power supplies, transmitters, and motor control centers as future candidates

  8. Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, St.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

  9. DOE Manpower Assessment Brief. No. 37: Nuclear-related employment declines in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The 1993-1995 period represents a time of significant transition for workers engages in nuclear-related activities. Total nuclear-related employment fell markedly from about 300,000 workers in 1993 to 265, 000 in 1995, a 12% decline. This is the lowest level since the 1970s. In 1995, a third of all nuclear-related employment was in the reactor operation and maintenance segment. 6 figs, 1 table

  10. USNRC licensing process as related to nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzlach, N.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations establishes procedures and criteria for the issuance of licenses to receive title to, own, acquire, deliver, receive, possess, use, and initially transfer special nuclear material; and establishes and provides for the terms and conditions upon which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will issue such licenses. Section 70.22 of the regulations, ''Contents of Applications'', requires that applications for licenses contain proposed procedures to avoid accidental conditions of criticality. These procedures are elements of a nuclear criticality safety program for operations with fissionable materials at fuels and materials facilities (i.e., fuel cycle facilities other than nuclear reactors) in which there exists a potential for criticality accidents. To assist the applicant in providing specific information needed for a nuclear criticality safety program in a license application, the NRC has issued regulatory guides. The NRC requirements for nuclear criticality safety include organizational, administrative, and technical requirements. For purely technical matters on nuclear criticality safety these guides endorse national standards. Others provide guidance on the standard format and content of license applications, guidance on evaluating radiological consequences of criticality accidents, or guidance for dealing with other radiation safety issues. (author)

  11. Costs related to radioactive residues from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The nuclear power enterprises are responsible for proper actions for safe handling and final storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from Swedish nuclear power facilities. The most important actions are to plan, build and operate necessary plants and systems. The nuclear power enterprises have designated Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., (SKB), to perform these tasks. In this report calculations concerning costs to carry out these tasks are presented. The calculations are based upon a plan prepared by SKB. The plan is described in the report. As final storage of the long lived and highly radioactive waste is planned to take place in the 21st century continuing research and development may indicate new methods which may affect system design as well as costs in a simplifying way. Plants and systems already operational are: Transport systems for radioactive waste products; A central temporary storage for spent nuclear fuel, 'CLAB'; A final storage for radioactive waste from operating nuclear facilities, 'SFR 1'. (L.F.)

  12. The future of nuclear energy in relation with climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautray, R.

    2001-01-01

    especially of the potentially most dangerous and difficult to treat, that is plutonium (and its daughters), leads thus necessarily to a 'plutonium (and its daughters) plan'. Nuclear safety is a major preoccupation. The French electronuclear stock is a recognized success and when it will be necessary to replace the latter, it will be possible to use the European Pressurized Reactor French-German project; the latter includes protections against very unlikely events and its implementation would be a factor of substantial progress for nuclear safety. Radioprotection, as well as its scientific bases, epidemiology and radiobiology, have funding that is not at the level of the funding devoted to the technical and industrial realizations. As for proliferation, it can be noticed that the countries that have recently at their disposal nuclear weapons have done it independently of their eventual electronuclear stock and furthermore each of the latter used a different scientific and technical process. As for the eventual relations between reprocessing and proliferation, the problem should be solved if the total produced plutonium could be denatured in the reactors of the electronuclear stock. It must be noticed that the major potential danger would rather be the dispersion of radio-toxic products about which the department of ONU in charge of all of these questions is aware of increasing contraband from eastern Europe since some years. (author)

  13. Novel QCD Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions

  14. A statement on safety and related topics respecting nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    It is stated that nuclear power is remarkably safe and certainly safer than power from coal or oil. Waste presents no genuine problem in terms of storage, disposal or quantity while the ecological environmental impact is less than that of virtually all possible alternatives. Use of nuclear power can make the UK independent of external politically unreliable sources of energy. There are ethical arguments for choosing it in preference to coal or oil and it is broadly irrelevant to the question of nuclear proliferation. (U.K.)

  15. Transport phenomena in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Ingham, Derek B

    1998-01-01

    Research into thermal convection in porous media has substantially increased during recent years due to its numerous practical applications. These problems have attracted the attention of industrialists, engineers and scientists from many very diversified disciplines, such as applied mathematics, chemical, civil, environmental, mechanical and nuclear engineering, geothermal physics and food science. Thus, there is a wealth of information now available on convective processes in porous media and it is therefore appropriate and timely to undertake a new critical evaluation of this contemporary information. Transport Phenomena in Porous Media contains 17 chapters and represents the collective work of 27 of the world's leading experts, from 12 countries, in heat transfer in porous media. The recent intensive research in this area has substantially raised the expectations for numerous new practical applications and this makes the book a most timely addition to the existing literature. It includes recent major deve...

  16. International legislation relative to nuclear pollution of the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birot, Chantal.

    1973-01-01

    The part played by various competent international bodies in the establishment of international rules concerning the nuclear pollution of oceans is analysed. As it stands this legislation distinguishes clearly between pollution caused by peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy. In studying the former type of pollution the problems of radioactive wastes, sea transport of radioactive substances, ships propelled by nuclear energy and isotopic generators in a marine environment are considered in turn. From the military viewpoint the legislation seems more complicated and the problems are of two kinds: that of nuclear armaments in a marine environment and the consequent risks, and that of fall-out from experimental atmospheric explosions carried out in peace time but for military purposes [fr

  17. Human resource issues related to an expanding nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that the IAEA develop guidelines on human resource management (including staffing) and training/education programmes for new nuclear power plant (NPP) designs. This recommendation was made in recognition that these future NPPs may have significantly different needs in this area compared to operating plants, and if so, NPP operating organizations should integrate these needs into their planning for future NPP projects. This report is primarily intended for use by NPP operating organizations that already have units in operation and that are considering adding to their fleet. Therefore, the addition of both new and current designs are addressed in this report. However, it should also be of value to those organizations that are considering the initial implementation of nuclear power, as well as decision makers in government, and in other nuclear industry organizations

  18. Aspects related to the decommissioning of the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goicea, Andrei; Andrei, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    All power plants, either coal, gas or nuclear, at the end of their life needs to be decommissioned and demolished and thus, to made the site available for other uses. The first generation nuclear power plants were designed for a life of about 30 years and some of them proved capable of continuing well beyond this term. Newer plants have been designed for a 40 to 60 years operating life. To date, other 90 commercial power reactors have been retired from operation. For nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities in general the decommissioning process consists of some or all of the following activities: the safe management of nuclear materials held in the facility, cleaning-up of radioactivity (decontamination), plant dismantling, progressive demolition of the plant and site remediation. Following the decommissioning, the regulatory controls covering facility end, partially or totally, and the safe site is released for appropriate alternative use. Cernavoda NPP is a young plant and it can benefit from the continuously developing experience of the decommissioning process at the international level. The current experience allows the most metallic parts of a nuclear power to be decontaminated and recycled and makes available proven techniques and equipment to dismantle nuclear facilities safely. As experience is gained, decommissioning costs for nuclear power plants, including disposal of associated wastes, are reducing and thus, contribute in a smaller fraction to the total cost of electricity generation. The new specific Romanian regulations establish a funding system for decommissioning and provisions for long-term radioactive waste management. In the near future a decommissioning plan will be made available for Cernavoda NPP. Since the plant has only 7 years operation, that plan can be improved in order to benefit from international experience that is growing. (authors)

  19. Survey of threat studies related to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, N.R.

    1977-08-01

    A considerable effort has been directed toward the determination of threat characteristics, resulting in a voluminous collection of documents. This report summarizes several of the major studies in order to make the information more accessible. This summary includes only studies involving attacks on nuclear material, plus those incidents which because of their objectives, resources, or motivations may lend insight into potential threat against nuclear facilities or material

  20. Development Trends in Nuclear Technology and Related Safety Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Juhn, P.E.; Fukuda, K.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA Safety Standards Series include, in a hierarchical manner, the categories of Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides, which define the elements necessary to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. In the same way as nuclear technology and scientific knowledge advance continuously, also safety requirements may change with these advances. Therefore, in the framework of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) one important aspect among others refers to user requirements on the safety of innovative nuclear installations, which may come into operation within the next fifty years. In this respect, the major objectives of the INPRO sub-task 'User Requirements and Nuclear Energy Development Criteria in the Area of Safety' have been: a. to overview existing national and international requirements in the safety area, b. to define high level user requirements in the area of safety of innovative nuclear technologies, c. to compile and to analyze existing innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology enhancement concepts and approaches intended to achieve a high degree of safety, and d. to identify the general areas of safety R and D needs for the establishment of these technologies. During the discussions it became evident that the application of the defence in depth strategy will continue to be the overriding approach for achieving the general safety objective in nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, where the emphasis will be shifted from mitigation of accident consequences more towards prevention of accidents. In this context, four high level user requirements have been formulated for the safety of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. On this basis safety strategies for innovative reactor designs are highlighted in each of the five levels of defence in depth and specific requirements are discussed for the individual components of the fuel cycle. (authors)

  1. Issues related to EM management of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.G.; Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Roberson, K.; Meloin, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    This document is a summary of the important issues involved in managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). Issues related to civilian SNF activities are not discussed. DOE-owned SNF is stored primarily at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and West Valley Demonstration Project. Smaller quantities of SNF are stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There is a wide variety of fuel types, including both low and high enrichment fuels from weapons production, DOE reactors, research and development programs, naval programs, and universities. Most fuel is stored in pools associated with reactor or reprocessing facilities. Smaller quantities are in dry storage. Physical conditions of the fuel range from excellent to poor or severely damaged. An issue is defined as an important question that must be answered or decision that must be made on a topic or subject relevant to achieving the complimentary objectives of (a) storing SNF in compliance with applicable regulations and orders until it can be disposed, and (b) safely disposing of DOE's SNF. The purpose of this document is to define the issues; no recommendations are made on resolutions. As DOE's national SNF management program is implemented, a system of issues identification, documentation, tracking, and resolution will be implemented. This document is an initial effort at issues identification. The first section of this document is an overview of issues that are common to several or all DOE facilities that manage SNF. The common issues are organized according to specific aspects of spent fuel management. This is followed by discussions of management issues that apply specifically to individual DOE facilities. The last section provides literature references

  2. Review Of Concrete Biodeterioration In Relation To Buried Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turick, C.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  3. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Berry, C.

    2012-10-15

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  4. Radiation damage studies related to nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.; Wald, J.W.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1981-12-01

    Much of the previously reported work on alpha radiation effects on crystalline phases of importance to nuclear waste forms has been derived from radiation effects studies of composite waste forms. In the present work, two single-phase crystalline materials, Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 (pyrochlore) and CaZrTi 2 O 7 (zirconolite), of relative importance to current waste forms were studied independently by doping with 244 Cm at the 3 wt % level. Changes in the crystalline structure measured by x-ray diffraction as a function of dose show that damage ingrowth follows an expected exponential relationship of the form ΔV/V 0 = A[1-exp(-BD)]. In both cases, the materials became x-ray amorphous before the estimated saturation value was reached. The predicted magnitudes of the unit cell volume changes at saturation are 5.4% and 3.5%, respectively, for Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 and CaZrTi 2 O 7 . The later material exhibited anisotropic behavior in which the expansion of the monoclinic cell in the c 0 direction was over five times that of the a 0 direction. The effects of transmutations on the properties of high-level waste solids have not been studied until now because of the long half-lives of the important fission products. This problem was circumvented in the present study by preparing materials containing natural cesium and then irradiating them with neutrons to produce 134 Cs, which has only a 2y half-life. The properties monitored at about one year intervals following irradiation have been density, leach rate and microstructure. A small amount of x-ray diffraction work has also been done. Small changes in density and leach rate have been observed for some of the materials, but they were not large enough to be of any consequence for the final disposal of high level wastes

  5. Chaotic phenomena in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.

    1991-08-01

    It has recently been recognized that the research on various aspects of chaotic dynamics grows rapidly as one of some areas in nonlinear science. On the other hands, the plasma has long been called a treasure-house of nonlinear phenomena, so it is easy to imagine that the plasma is abundant in chaotic phenomena. In fact, the research on plasma chaos is going on, such as the research on the stochastic magnetic field and the chaotic orbit in the toroidal helical system, as well as the research in other experiments. To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos and to make clear the basic common physics, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science. This is the report on its activity in 1990, with a stress on experimental data obtained in basic plasma experiments and RFP, and on the relaxed theories and computer simulations. (author)

  6. Wolf-Rayet phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews in broad terms the concept of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) phenomena, outlines what we currently know about the properties of stars showing such phenomena and indicates the directions in which future work is leading. He begins by listing the characteristics of W-R spectra and then considers the following specific problems: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions; the mass loss rates; the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. He discusses briefly our current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R stars. (Auth.)

  7. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  8. Nuclear-related training and education offered by nonacademic organizations (preliminary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, L.

    1981-11-01

    The results of a survey of nuclear-related training and education provided by nonacademic training organizations are presented in this report. The survey instrument was distributed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations to 136 training organizations. The scope of the survey was not intended to be comprehensive, but rather to include the primary sources of nonacademic nuclear-related training and education offered to utility personnel. The survey universe was compiled from training organizations listed in the 1981 Nuclear News Buyer's Guide. Forty-three percent of the survey population (59 organizations) responded to the questionnaire of which 31 percent (42) reported they offered nuclear-related training programs and 12 percent (17) reported they did not offer any nuclear-related training

  9. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  10. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology. Nuclear Transfers and Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 5 March 1993 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic. The purpose of the Note Verbale is to provide information on that Governments' guidelines for Nuclear Transfers and for Transfers of of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Note Verbale is annexed hereto [fr

  11. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology. Nuclear Transfers and Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Director General has received a Note Ver bale dated 5 March 1993 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic. The purpose of the Note Ver bale is to provide information on that Governments' guidelines for Nuclear Transfers and for Transfers of of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Ver bale, the text of the Note Ver bale is annexed hereto

  12. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology. Nuclear Transfers and Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 5 March 1993 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic. The purpose of the Note Verbale is to provide information on that Governments' guidelines for Nuclear Transfers and for Transfers of of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Note Verbale is annexed hereto [es

  13. Japan's compensation system for nuclear damage - As related to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Toyohiro; Matsuura, Shigekazu; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Takenaka, Chihiro; Hokugo, Taro; Kamada, Toshihiko; Kamai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Following the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, extraordinary efforts were undertaken in Japan to implement a compensation scheme for the proper and efficient indemnification of the affected victims. This publication provides English translations of key Japanese legislative and administrative texts and other implementing guidance, as well as several commentaries by Japanese experts in the field of third party nuclear liability. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has prepared this publication in co-operation with the government of Japan to share Japan's recent experience in implementing its nuclear liability and compensation regime. The material presented in the publication should provide valuable insights for those wishing to better understand the regime applied to compensate the victims of the accident and for those working on potential improvements in national regimes and the international framework for third party nuclear liability

  14. Assistance in chemistry and chemical processes related to primary, secondary and ancillary systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio A.; Becquart, Elena T.; Iglesias, Alberto M.; La Gamma, Ana M.; Villegas, Marina

    2003-01-01

    Argentina is currently running two nuclear power plants: Atucha I (CNA I) and Embalse (CNE) operated by Nucleoelectrica Argentina (NASA) whereas the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), among other activities, is responsible for research and development in the nuclear field, operates research reactors and carries out projects related to them. In particular, the Reactor Chemistry Section personnel (currently part of the Chemistry Dept.) has been working on the field of reactor water chemistry for more than 25 years, on research and support to the NPPs chemistry department. Though the most relevant tasks have been connected to primary and secondary circuits chemistry, ancillary systems show along the time unexpected problems or feasible improvements originated in the undergoing operating time as well as in phenomena not foreseen by the constructors. In the present paper are presented the tasks performed in relation to the following systems of Embalse NPP: 1) Heavy water upgrade column preliminary water treatment; 2) Liquid waste system preliminary water treatment; and 3) Primary heat transport system coolant crud composition. (author)

  15. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik [National Nuclear Management and Control Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material.

  16. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik

    2005-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  17. Accidents and failures related to nuclear fuel facilities and nuclear power stations in fiscal 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In the chemical preparation room of the reprocessing plant in the Tokai Establishment, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., the nasal contamination of small amount (3.6 pCi at maximum) was detected on two workers in June, 1982, but abnormality was not observed in the Lung-monitor of the workers themselves. There was not the effect to the surrounding environment. The failures reported by electric power companies to the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy in accordance with the laws related to atomic energy were 26 cases. The main causes were 5 cases due to improper design management, 2 cases due to improper manufacture management, 4 cases due to improper construction management, 11 cases due to improper maintenance management and 4 other cases. Among those 26 cases, 17 cases occurred in operation, and 9 cases occurred or were detected during shutdown such as regular inspection. Among the 17 cases, 7 cases were the automatic stop by reactor protection system, and 10 cases were the finding by regular in-operation inspection. Among the 9 cases, 5 cases were the breaking of steam generator tubes, 2 cases the breaking of bumper plates at feed heater entrance, and 2 cases other troubles. Moreover, there were 41 minor troubles. (Kako, I.)

  18. Magnetic resonance microscopy for assessment of morphological changes in hydrating hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix tablets in situ-is it possible to detect phenomena related to drug dissolution within the hydrated matrices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinowski, Piotr; Młynarczyk, Anna; Jasiński, Krzysztof; Talik, Przemysław; Gruwel, Marco L H; Tomanek, Bogusław; Węglarz, Władysław P; Dorożyński, Przemysław

    2014-09-01

    So far, the hydrated part of the HPMC matrix has commonly been denoted as a "gel" or "pseudogel" layer. No MRI-based results have been published regarding observation of internal phenomena related to drug dissolution inside swelling polymeric matrices during hydration. The purpose of the study was to detect such phenomena. Multiparametric, spatially and temporally resolved T2 MR relaxometry, in situ, was applied to study formation of the hydration progress in HPMC matrix tablets loaded with L-dopa and ketoprofen using a 11.7 T MRI system. Two spin-echo based pulse sequences were used, one of them specifically designed to study short T2 signals. Two components in the T2 decay envelope were estimated and spatial distributions of their parameters, i.e. amplitudes and T2 values, were obtained. Based on the data, different region formation patterns (i.e. multilayer structure) were registered depending on drug presence and solubility. Inside the matrix with incorporated sparingly soluble drug a specific layer formation due to drug dissolution was detected, whereas a matrix with very slightly soluble drug does not form distinct external "gel-like" layer. We have introduced a new paradigm in the characterization of hydrating matrices using (1)H MRI methods. It reflects molecular mobility and concentration of water inside the hydrated matrix. For the first time, drug dissolution related phenomena, i.e. particular front and region formation, were observed by MRI methods.

  19. Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Morandotti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena contains contributed chapters from leading experts in nonlinear optics and photonics, and provides a comprehensive survey of fundamental concepts as well as hot topics in current research on nonlinear optical waves and related novel phenomena. The book covers self-accelerating airy beams, integrated photonics based on high index doped-silica glass, linear and nonlinear spatial beam dynamics in photonic lattices and waveguide arrays, polariton solitons and localized structures in semiconductor microcavities, terahertz waves, and other novel phenomena in different nanophotonic and optical systems.

  20. Hypernuclei and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayet, M.

    1977-01-01

    The relations between several aspects of nuclear structure and the Λ hyperon properties inside nuclei are discussed, particularly in connexion with the possibilities offered by the development of new experimental techniques. It is emphasized that Hartree-Fock methods provide an interesting tool for predicting hypernuclear phenomena where the Λ hyperon may be used as a probe of the nucleus [fr

  1. Relative radiation hazards of coal based and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.

    1983-04-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides. However, low concentrations may become important if large quantities of coal are burnt in thermal power plants. Therefore a study was performed to determine the radioactivity in coal, in fly-ash and slag and assess the importance of radioactive emissions from thermal power plants. The results were compared to the radiological impact of nuclear power stations. Based on these data, theoretical estimates for the population living within 80km from power stations indicate that the collective dose commitments of coal-fired plants are one order of magnitude higher than those for BWR-type nuclear plants. Measurements taken in the vicinity of coal-fired plants were comparable to those for nuclear plants, i.e. within the range of variation of natural background radiation in India

  2. Nuclear energy related capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, Susan Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' technology solutions are depended on to solve national and global threats to peace and freedom. Through science and technology, people, infrastructure, and partnerships, part of Sandia's mission is to meet the national needs in the areas of energy, climate and infrastructure security. Within this mission to ensure clean, abundant, and affordable energy and water is the Nuclear Energy and Fuel Cycle Programs. The Nuclear Energy and Fuel Cycle Programs have a broad range of capabilities, with both physical facilities and intellectual expertise. These resources are brought to bear upon the key scientific and engineering challenges facing the nation and can be made available to address the research needs of others. Sandia can support the safe, secure, reliable, and sustainable use of nuclear power worldwide by incorporating state-of-the-art technologies in safety, security, nonproliferation, transportation, modeling, repository science, and system demonstrations.

  3. 78 FR 8202 - Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and...

  4. The influence of nuclear risk sense to atomic industry's public relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryukova, P.; Kazakevich, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this report is estimation of the influence of sensing of nuclear risk to atomic industry's public relation. In this report the reasons of the negative relation to nuclear energetic owing to inadequate sensing of the risk dealing with this fields have been represented. (authors)

  5. Proceedings of firsts workshop on Nuclear and related techniques in health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The book presents papers submitted to the first Workshop on Nuclear and related techniques in health that was holder at the first International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques in Agriculture, held in Havana, Cuba, on October 28 th and 30 th, 1997

  6. Characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, G.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion relation for nuclear fission is written in the two part fragmentation approach which allows to obtain the characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products. One explains the resonance approximation in the mass distribution of the fission products taking into account the high order resonances too. (author)

  7. On accounting difficulties: Risks related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plot, Emmanuelle; Vidal, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    An extreme risk has a very slight probability but potentially heavy consequences. Despite the existence of three accountancy methods for dealing with them (provisions, contingent liabilities and insurance), the transposition of such risks into financial statements is based on a sequential analysis of both the probability of the risk happening and the ability to estimate the effects. This method keeps us from taking into account risks with a highly uncertain probability of occurrence, such as accidents at nuclear power plants - independently of the 'amount' at stake. As management reports from firms concerned by nuclear risks show, the diffusion of qualitative information does not offset this gap in bookkeeping

  8. On accounting difficulties: risks related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plot, E.; Vidal, O.

    2014-01-01

    An extreme risk has a very slight probability but potentially heavy consequences. Despite the existence of 3 accountancy methods for dealing with them (provisions, contingent liabilities and insurance), the transposition of such risks into financial statements is based on a sequential analysis of both the probability of the risk happening and the ability to estimate the effects. This method keeps us from taking into account risks with a highly uncertain probability of occurrence, such as accidents at nuclear power plants - independently of the 'amount' at stake. As management reports from firms concerned by nuclear risks show, the diffusion of qualitative information does not offset this gap in bookkeeping. (authors)

  9. Nuclear-related training and education offered by academic institutions (less than baccalaureate degree) (preliminary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, L.

    1981-11-01

    This study presents the results of a survey of academic institutions offering nuclear-related training and education at the less than baccalaureate degree level. The scope of the survey includes only those programs which have a nuclear power industry application, and excludes all programs which are affiliated with nuclear medicine. The survey instrument was distributed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations to 262 academic institutions. The survey universe was compiled from a number of publications that listed nuclear-related academic programs. Since the initial mailing in May 1981, ten of the institutions have been determined to no longer exist and eight other listings have been identified as duplications, thus reducing the universe to 244 institutions. Fifty-five percent of the survey population (134 institutions) responded to the questionnaire, of which 45 percent (109) were out of the survey scope and 10 percent (25) indicated they offered less than baccalaureate degree, nuclear-related programs

  10. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, Th.

    2007-10-01

    The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

  11. Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

  12. Importance of the radioactive or nuclear component and its conjunction with conventional risks in social phenomena resulting from terrorist acts; Importancia da componente radioactiva e ou nuclear e sua conjuncao com riscos convencionais, em fenomenos sociais decorrentes de accoes terroristas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Francisco Miguel da Rocha Grave [Coronel, Portuguese Army, Ministerio da Defesa Nacional (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    The current strategic environment has attenuated the traditional threats of military nature. However, several instability factors result on new risks and potential threats. A review is made on the current threats and risk scenarios and the capacities for intervention of the Portuguese Army in scenarios involving the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

  13. Compilation of benchmark results for fusion related Nuclear Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Wada, Masayuki; Oyama, Yukio; Ichihara, Chihiro; Makita, Yo; Takahashi, Akito

    1998-11-01

    This report compiles results of benchmark tests for validation of evaluated nuclear data to be used in nuclear designs of fusion reactors. Parts of results were obtained under activities of the Fusion Neutronics Integral Test Working Group organized by the members of both Japan Nuclear Data Committee and the Reactor Physics Committee. The following three benchmark experiments were employed used for the tests: (i) the leakage neutron spectrum measurement experiments from slab assemblies at the D-T neutron source at FNS/JAERI, (ii) in-situ neutron and gamma-ray measurement experiments (so-called clean benchmark experiments) also at FNS, and (iii) the pulsed sphere experiments for leakage neutron and gamma-ray spectra at the D-T neutron source facility of Osaka University, OKTAVIAN. Evaluated nuclear data tested were JENDL-3.2, JENDL Fusion File, FENDL/E-1.0 and newly selected data for FENDL/E-2.0. Comparisons of benchmark calculations with the experiments for twenty-one elements, i.e., Li, Be, C, N, O, F, Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, W and Pb, are summarized. (author). 65 refs

  14. Relations between scientists and government: the case of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J E

    1982-05-01

    This article discusses the role and influence of the scientific communities in less-developed countries (LDC) on national high-technology policy by examining the particular case of nuclear energy. This area has been largely overlooked by other literature on LDC's scientific development. Based on an examination of scientific involvement in nuclear energy policy in selected countries, it becomes clear that the influence of scientists can range from making cardinal decisions about programs to simply legitimating or implementing decisions made by political or bureaucratic leaders. Within governmental structures, there are opportunities for scientists to incrementally shape technology policies, despite the fact that the magnitude of this influence is circumscribed by domestic considerations, not only of physical resources, but also intangibles such as national prestige and security. While a scientist can on rare occasion seize opportunities to dramatically restructure a nation's scientific or nuclear program, the overwhelming majority of scientists never exercise any such power. But even in day-to-day operations of government scientists can exert subtle influence, not only on nuclear energy programs, but also in an indirect way on the fabric of a nation's culture. Despite this significant impact, in any direct contest between the scientist and the politician, the scientist inevitably loses. In conclusion, scientists seem much more aware of their limitations rather than their potential to influence national technology policy, and tend to act in accord with priorities and goals as defined by their nation-state. 18 references.

  15. Polarization phenomena in two body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of strong interactions at very low, low, intermediate, and high energies over the range 6.14 MeV to 150 GeV/c with regard to polarization phenomena in two-body systems. From the one-pion-exchange model to the theory that can possibly relate to all the phenomena, namely, quantum electrodynamics the review pointed to a unified explanation for the interactions under study. 46 references

  16. Earthquakes and associated topics in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The main emphasis of the Guide is on the determination of the design basis ground motions for the nuclear power plant and on the determination of the potential for surface faulting at the site. Additionally, the Guide treats initiation of seismically induced flooding and the ground failure phenomena of subsidence and collapse. Volcanic activity is not dealt with except in connection with tsunamis. The methods and procedures discussed in this Guide should be taken as the basis for the design of seismically safe nuclear power plants and are primarily suited to areas of high and medium seismicity; for areas of low seismicity the Guide may not be applicable in its entirety and may need to be supplemented by other methods

  17. Electronics Related to Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, R. J. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear medicine imaging is generally based on the detection of X rays and γ rays emitted by radionuclides injected into a patient. In the previous chapter, the methods used to detect these photons were described, based most commonly on a scintillation counter although there are imaging devices that use either gas filled ionization detectors or semiconductors. Whatever device is used, nuclear medicine images are produced from a very limited number of photons, due mainly to the level of radioactivity that can be safely injected into a patient. Hence, nuclear medicine images are usually made from many orders of magnitude fewer photons than X ray computed tomography (CT) images, for example. However, as the information produced is essentially functional in nature compared to the anatomical detail of CT, the apparently poorer image quality is overcome by the nature of the information produced. The low levels of photons detected in nuclear medicine means that photon counting can be performed. Here each photon is detected and analysed individually, which is especially valuable, for example, in enabling scattered photons to be rejected. This is in contrast to X ray imaging where images are produced by integrating the flux entering the detectors. Photon counting, however, places a heavy burden on the electronics used for nuclear medicine imaging in terms of electronic noise and stability. This chapter will discuss how the signals produced in the primary photon detection process can be converted into pulses providing spatial, energy and timing information, and how this information is used to produce both qualitative and quantitative images.

  18. Perturbation Expansion in Dynamical Nuclear Field Theory and Its Relation with Boson Expansion Theory : Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Teruo, KISHIMOTO; Tetsuo, KAMMURI; Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba; Department of Physics, Osaka University

    1990-01-01

    With the Dynamical Nuclear Field Theory (DNFT) in the Tamm-Dancoff representation we examine higher order corrections in the vibrational mode of a spherical nuclear system. Due to the effects of bubble diagrams, the perturbation expansion in terms of the unrenormalized coupling strength and boson energy fails at full self-consistency. On the other hand, it becomes applicable in the form of linked-cluster expansion when we use thses constants renormalized by the effect of bubble diagrams, in t...

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic flow phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Eckert, S.

    1995-01-01

    The MHD group of the Institute of Safety Research performs basic studies on fluid dynamics and heat/mass transfer in fluids, particularly for electrically conducting fluids (liquid metals) exposed to external magnetic fields (Magnetohydrodynamics - MHD). Such a contactless influence on transport phenomena is of principal importance for a variety of applied problems including safety and design aspects in liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, fast reactors, and chemical systems. Any electrically conducting flow can be influenced without any contact by means of an external electromagnetic field. This, of course, can change the known hydromechanically flow patterns considerably. In the following two examples of such magnetic field influence are presented. (orig.)

  20. Random phenomena; Phenomenes aleatoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, G. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C.E.N.G., Service d' Electronique, Section d' Electronique, Grenoble (France)

    1963-07-01

    This document gathers a set of conferences presented in 1962. A first one proposes a mathematical introduction to the analysis of random phenomena. The second one presents an axiomatic of probability calculation. The third one proposes an overview of one-dimensional random variables. The fourth one addresses random pairs, and presents basic theorems regarding the algebra of mathematical expectations. The fifth conference discusses some probability laws: binomial distribution, the Poisson distribution, and the Laplace-Gauss distribution. The last one deals with the issues of stochastic convergence and asymptotic distributions.

  1. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  2. Safeguards considerations related to the decontamination and decommissioning of former nuclear weapons facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the post-Cold War environment and the changes in the U. S. Department of Energy defense mission, many former nuclear operations are being permanently shut down. These operations include facilities where nuclear materials production, processing, and weapons manufacturing have occurred in support of the nation's defense industry. Since defense-related operations have ceased, many of the classification and sensitive information concerns do not exist. However, nuclear materials found at these sites are of interest to the DOE from environmental, safety and health, and materials management perspectives. Since these facilities played a role in defense activities, the nuclear materials found at these facilities are considered special nuclear materials, primarily highly enriched uranium and/or plutonium. Consequently, these materials pose significant diversion, theft, and sabotage threats, and significant nuclear security issues exist that must be addressed. This paper focuses on the nuclear materials protection issues associated with facility decommissioning and decontamination, primarily safeguards

  3. QCD and short-range nuclear phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankfurt, L.L.; Strikman, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    In terms of pertubative QCD we estimate the shape of the high-momentum tail of the nucleus wave function. We derive QCD predictions for the yield of leading particles in nucleus fragmentation processes. The predicted yield is much larger than the expectations of the quark counting rules. Obtained formulae are in reasonable agreement with the momentum and angular dependence of cumulative particle production. We derive general expressions for deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering using the LSZ representation for the amplitude and use it to calculate the scaling violation in high Q 2 near threshold eD scattering at x >= 1. It is shown that the existence of few-nucleon correlations explains the large cross section of the deep inelastic process e + 3 He → e +... and leads to a larger effect for heavier nuclei. We demonstrate that the observed features of ν(anti ν) + A → μsup(+-) + backward proton + X data indicate the dominance of few-nucleon correlations in the nucleus wave function over average field configurations at momenta > 0.4 GeV/c. Implications of these data for the magnitude of smearing in deep inelastic processes are also considered. (orig.)

  4. Supercritical heat transfer phenomena in nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyoung Woo; Kim, Moo Hwan; Anderson, Mark H.; Corradini, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    A supercritical water (SCW) power cycle has been considered as one of the viable candidates for advanced fission reactor designs. However, the dramatic variation of thermo-physical properties with a modest change of temperature near the pseudo-critical point make existing heat transfer correlations such as the Dittus-Boelter correlation not suitably accurate to calculate the heat transfer in supercritical fluid. Several other correlations have also been suggested but none of them are able to predict the heat transfer over a parameter range, needed for reactor thermal-hydraulics simulation and design. This has prompted additional research to understand the characteristic of supercritical fluid heat transfer

  5. A statistical approach to strange diffusion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligen, B.Ph. van; Carreras, B.A.; Sanchez, R.

    2005-01-01

    The study of particle (and heat) transport in fusion plasmas has revealed the existence of what might be called 'unusual' transport phenomena. Such phenomena are: unexpected scaling of the confinement time with system size, power degradation (i.e. sub-linear scaling of energy content with power input), profile stiffness (also known as profile consistency), rapid transient transport phenomena such as cold and heat pulses (travelling much faster than the diffusive timescale would allow), non-local behaviour and central profile peaking during off-axis heating, associated with unexplained inward pinches. The standard modelling framework, essentially equal to Fick's Law plus extensions, has great difficulty in providing an all-encompassing and satisfactory explanation of all these phenomena. This difficulty has motivated us to reconsider the basics of the modelling of diffusive phenomena. Diffusion is based on the well-known random walk. The random walk is captured in all its generality in the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) formalism. The CTRW formalism is directly related to the well-known Generalized Master Equation, which describes the behaviour of tracer particle diffusion on a very fundamental level, and from which the phenomenological Fick's Law can be derived under some specific assumptions. We show that these assumptions are not necessarily satisfied under fusion plasma conditions, in which case other equations (such as the Fokker-Planck diffusion law or the Master Equation itself) provide a better description of the phenomena. This fact may explain part of the observed 'strange' phenomena (namely, the inward pinch). To show how the remaining phenomena mentioned above may perhaps find an explanation in the proposed alternative modelling framework, we have designed a toy model that incorporates a critical gradient mechanism, switching between rapid (super-diffusive) and normal diffusive transport as a function of the local gradient. It is then demonstrated

  6. Concerning the application of the nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin Garcia, Luis Felipe

    1997-01-01

    The present work intends to describe briefly, some of the nuclear and connected techniques of greater application in the conditions of developing countries, which are employed in the Center of Studies Applied to the Nuclear Development, and that can be of interest for the Latin-American countries. Within those techniques we have: radiobiology, that consists of the employment of ionizing radiations to induce mutations oriented to the improvement of the cultivations. It mentions the atmospheric contamination generated by the industry of the exposition to metals and toxic waste, and of mortiferous parasites that adapt quickly to the unhealthy environmental conditions. It also enumerates some advantages of the utilization of instruments based on radioisotopic fountains. (S. Grainger) [es

  7. JENDL special purpose data files and related nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Shungo

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of JENDL Special Purpose Data Files under development are the applications of nuclear data to the evaluation of the fuel cycle, nuclear activation, and radiation damage. The files in plan consist of 9 types of data, viz., the actinide cross sections, the decay data, the activation cross sections, the (α,n) cross sections, the photo-reaction cross sections, the dosimetry cross sections, the gas production cross sections, the primary knock-on atom spectra and KERMA factors, and the data for standard. The status of the compilation and the evaluation of these data are briefly reviewed. In particular, the features of the data required for the evaluation of the activation cross sections, (α,n) cross sections, photo-reaction cross sections, and PKA data are discussed in some detail. The need for the realistic definition of the scope of the work is emphasized. (author)

  8. Legal questions relating to nuclear installations close to national frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1983-01-01

    Main emphasis is placed on the criteria to decide whether the construction and operation of a nulcear power plant close to a national frontier is permissible or not. The author discusses the relevant provisions of the international law and those of the Treaty of Rome pertaining to the settlement of conflicts between neighbour states. According to the opinion of the author, nuclear installations close to borders are incompatible with international law only if they do not comply with accepted safety standards. The international agreements do not prohibit the construction of nuclear installations close to frontiers. It would be desirable, however, the author says, to conclude international treaties providing for mutual consultation and information, thus offering a platform for discussing controversial national interests; this idea already being put into practice in customary international law. (WB) [de

  9. Fuel handling, reprocessing, and waste and related nuclear data aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Lalovic, M.; Wiese, H.W.

    1979-06-01

    The essential processes in the out-of-pile nuclear fuel cycle are described, i.e. mining and milling of uranium ores, enrichment, fuel fabrication, storage, transportation, reprocessing of irradiated fuel, waste treatment and waste disposal. The aspects of radiation (mainly gammas and neutrons) and of heat production, as well as special safety considerations are outlined with respect to their potential operational impacts and long-term hazards. In this context the importance of nuclear data for the out-of-pile fuel cycle is discussed. Special weight is given to the LWR fuel cycle including recycling; the differences of LMFBR high burn-up fuel with large PuO 2 content are described. The HTR fuel cycle is discussed briefly as well as some alternative fuel cycle concepts. (orig.) [de

  10. Some studies related to decommissioning of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.; Menon, S.

    1990-02-01

    Decommissioning of large nuclear reactors has not yet taken place in the Nordic countries. Small nuclear installations, however, have been dismantled. This NKA-programme has dealt with some interesting and important factors which have to be analysed before a large scale decommissioning programme starts. Prior to decommissioning, knowledge is required regarding the nuclide inventory in various parts of the reactor. Measurements were performed in regions close to the reactor tank and the biological shield. These experimental data are used to verify theoretical calculations. All radioactive waste generated during decommissioning will have to be tansported to a repository. Studies show that in all the Nordic countries there are adequate transport systems with which decommissioning waste can be transported. Another requirement for orderly decommissioning planning is that sufficient information about the plant and its operation history must be available. It appears that if properly handled and sorted, all such information can be extracted from existing documentation. (authors)

  11. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  12. Difficulties are multiplying - topical legal issues relating to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W.

    1985-01-01

    The report points out topical legal issues relating to nuclear waste disposal, yet leaves no doubt that the technical-scientific concept for nuclear waste disposal incorporated into the nuclear energy law in 1976 was a success. Nonetheless it is desirable that there should be persistent efforts especially on the part of parliament when issuing legislation or statutory orders to reach greater clearness and thus predictability in areas where technology has been proven by many years of practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Relation between Romanian NGOs Acting in Nuclear Field and Other Stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Pantazi, D.; Radulescu, G.; Bucur, C.; Stanciu, L.; Apostol Minodora, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Romania, three main NGOs act in promoting peaceful use of nuclear energy. The organization with the longest road is the Romanian Association for Nuclear Energy (AREN), created by individual persons acting in nuclear field in 1990. In 2001, a number of Romanian and foreign legal entities having core competence or unfolding nuclear energy related industrial and research activities created the Romanian Industrial Forum (Romatom). Both AREN and Romatom are active parts of European nuclear world: AREN is European Nuclear Society member and Romatom is Foratom member. The 3rd NGO is Women in Nuclear Romania (WiNRo) which registered in 2011. However, the women acting in nuclear field have become earlier active independent voices particularly in public communication on nuclear field matters. The debut was in 1993 when the women group acting in AREN became members of WiN Global, the organization that they trust would become a real opportunity to share their professional competences and improve their communication knowledge and skills in the light of the mission they decided to embrace, namely, that of clear, transparent and trustful communication with stakeholders, particularly the general public on peaceful use of nuclear energy. Today, WiN Ro is also part of WiN Europe where common European desiderates aim to establish and achieve. Today, Romanian NGOs act to continue the trustful relations they have built with a large portfolio of stakeholders adapting their endeavors for answering to various stakeholders needs for transparency and effective communication on nuclear matters at national level. At international level, the Romanian NGOs aim to register benefic experience for their organizational works and opportunities for promotion of the national good approaches, from relations with stakeholders acting in the international arena of nuclear world. Relevant aspects on how the Romanian NGOs have approached relations with stakeholders will be presented. (author)

  14. Resource Letter MP-2: The Manhattan project and related nuclear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2011-02-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to my earlier Resource Letter MP-1 and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: General works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime programs and allied intelligence, technical papers of historical interest, and postwar policy and technical developments. I also give a list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues.

  15. Engineering and maintenance applied to safety-related valves in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, M. F.; Perez-Aranda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Division in Iberdrola engineering and Construction has a team with extensive experience on engineering and services works related to valves. Also, this team is linked to UNESA as Technical support and Reference Center. Iberdrola engineering and construction experience in nuclear power plants valves, gives effective response to engineering and maintenance works that can be demanded in a nuclear power plant and it requires a high degree of qualification and knowledge both in Operation and Outages. (Author)

  16. IAEA specialists' meeting on the fusion evaluated nuclear data library related to the ITER activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulo, V.; Lorenz, A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the summary report of an IAEA Specialists' Meeting on the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library Related to the ITER Activity, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in Vienna from 16 to 18 November 1987. The objective of the meeting was to formulate a detailed programme and time schedule for the development of the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) to meet the future needs of the ITER activity

  17. IAEA, EU Senior Officials Review Nuclear-Related Cooperation, Chart Way Ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2014-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Union officials met this week for the second annual Senior Officials Meeting to review and further strengthen their nuclear-related cooperation. In the past year, the two institutions have improved collaboration in nuclear safety, security, safeguards and peaceful use of nuclear energy through implementing a number of initiatives. In 2013, new contracts for projects have been signed amounting to approximately 24 million euros. These included an EU Council decision to support IAEA nuclear security and verification activities worth of 8.05 million euros. Furthermore, a Memorandum of Understanding establishing a framework for cooperation to help improve nuclear safety was signed, as well as the Practical Arrangement on technical nuclear security issues. The EU and the IAEA have also worked to explore and identify new areas for cooperation such as using nuclear applications for socio-economic development. The meeting addressed enhanced cooperation in the areas of nuclear safety, nuclear security, nuclear applications, nuclear energy and safeguards. Participants agreed on the following steps, including holding a Senior Officials Meeting planned in early 2015 in the premises of the European Commission in Luxembourg

  18. Classifying prion and prion-like phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbi, Djamel; Harrison, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The universe of prion and prion-like phenomena has expanded significantly in the past several years. Here, we overview the challenges in classifying this data informatically, given that terms such as "prion-like", "prion-related" or "prion-forming" do not have a stable meaning in the scientific literature. We examine the spectrum of proteins that have been described in the literature as forming prions, and discuss how "prion" can have a range of meaning, with a strict definition being for demonstration of infection with in vitro-derived recombinant prions. We suggest that although prion/prion-like phenomena can largely be apportioned into a small number of broad groups dependent on the type of transmissibility evidence for them, as new phenomena are discovered in the coming years, a detailed ontological approach might be necessary that allows for subtle definition of different "flavors" of prion / prion-like phenomena.

  19. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  20. Medical lessons learned from chernobyl relative to nuclear detonations and failed nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Cham E

    2012-12-01

    The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 involved the largest airborne release of radioactivity in history, more than 100 times as much radioactivity as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs together. The resulting emergency response, administrative blunders, and subsequent patient outcomes from this large-scale radiological disaster provide a wealth of information and valuable lessons for those who may find themselves having to deal with the staggering consequences of nuclear war. Research findings, administrative strategies (successful and otherwise), and resulting clinical procedures from the Chernobyl experience are reviewed to determine a current utility in addressing the appropriate protocols for a medical response to nuclear war. As various myths are still widely associated with radiation exposure, attention is given to the realities of a mass casualty medical response as it would occur with a nuclear detonation.

  1. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  2. Analytical relations between nuclear symmetry energy and single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming

    2011-01-01

    Using the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, we derive general expressions for the quadratic and quartic symmetry energies in terms of the isoscalar and isovector parts of single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. These expressions are useful for gaining deeper insights into the microscopic origins of the uncertainties in our knowledge on nuclear symmetry energies especially at supra-saturation densities. As examples, the formalism is applied to two model single-nucleon potentials that are widely used in transport model simulations of heavy-ion reactions.

  3. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  4. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  5. Fast fission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Christian.

    1982-03-01

    Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted [fr

  6. UNEP-IOC-WMO-IUCN meeting of experts on a long-term global monitoring system of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, pilot projects and mangroves and coral reefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting was held to develop strategies for long-term global monitoring of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, specifically mangroves and coral reefs. The agenda included an overview of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) initiative, modules and pilot phase activities. Action plans for the implementation of long-term monitoring of mangrove and coral reef ecosystems were developed including; potential impacts of climate change and sea level rise on mangroves and coral reefs, consideration of parameters, consideration of methodologies, relationships of proposed activities to relevant national, regional and international developments, consideration of monitoring sites, and future implementation.

  7. Oil shale research related to proposed nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, H C; Sohns, H W; Dinneen, G U [Laramie Petroleum Research Center, Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop data pertinent to in situ retorting of oil shale fractured by a nuclear explosion or other means. Maximum utilization of the Green River oil shale found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, at depths ranging from outcrops to several thousand feet, requires development of several methods of processing. Early research was devoted to developing processes for application to oil shale occurring at depths suitable for mining. In present research, the emphasis is on in situ retorting and recovery processes that would be more satisfactory for oil shales occurring at greater depths. Development of an in situ process depends upon finding or establishing sufficient permeability in the oil shale beds for the passage of fluids which serve as a heat carrier in bringing the oil shale to retorting temperature. Use of a nuclear explosive seems to offer the best chance for successfully fracturing the thicker and more deeply buried portions of the deposit to give the required permeability. Processing the very large quantity of broken and fractured oil shale that would be produced presents many problems which require new background data for their solution. This paper describes research the Bureau of Mines is conducting to develop pertinent data. Primarily this research involves laboratory determination of properties of oil shale, pilot scale investigation of retorting characteristics of ungraded broken shale, and underground combustion of shale fractured by pressure and chemical explosives. Application of the research results should aid in designing the oil recovery phase and provide an estimate of the quantity of oil that may be obtained in a nuclear experiment in oil shale. (author)

  8. Oil shale research related to proposed nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, H.C.; Sohns, H.W.; Dinneen, G.U.

    1970-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop data pertinent to in situ retorting of oil shale fractured by a nuclear explosion or other means. Maximum utilization of the Green River oil shale found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, at depths ranging from outcrops to several thousand feet, requires development of several methods of processing. Early research was devoted to developing processes for application to oil shale occurring at depths suitable for mining. In present research, the emphasis is on in situ retorting and recovery processes that would be more satisfactory for oil shales occurring at greater depths. Development of an in situ process depends upon finding or establishing sufficient permeability in the oil shale beds for the passage of fluids which serve as a heat carrier in bringing the oil shale to retorting temperature. Use of a nuclear explosive seems to offer the best chance for successfully fracturing the thicker and more deeply buried portions of the deposit to give the required permeability. Processing the very large quantity of broken and fractured oil shale that would be produced presents many problems which require new background data for their solution. This paper describes research the Bureau of Mines is conducting to develop pertinent data. Primarily this research involves laboratory determination of properties of oil shale, pilot scale investigation of retorting characteristics of ungraded broken shale, and underground combustion of shale fractured by pressure and chemical explosives. Application of the research results should aid in designing the oil recovery phase and provide an estimate of the quantity of oil that may be obtained in a nuclear experiment in oil shale. (author)

  9. Morality and Nuclear Energy : Perceptions of Risks and Benefits, Personal Norms, and Willingness to Take Action Related to Nuclear Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    We examined factors underlying people's willingness to take action in favor of or against nuclear energy from a moral perspective. We conducted a questionnaire study among a sample of the Dutch population (N = 123). As expected, perceptions of risks and benefits were related to personal norms (PN),

  10. Numerical simulation design of nuclear safety related expansion muffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Bingchen; Shen Wei; Yang Tieming; Luo Jianping; Jing Feng

    2014-01-01

    According to the working conditions and technical requirements for pipe discharge muffler in passive nuclear power plant, the numerical simulation was used in analyzing sound transmission loss and fluid pressure loss of multi-section expansion muffler by finite element analysis (FEA) software ANSYS. The effect of different muffler structural parameters on sound transmission loss, passing frequency and pressure loss was also analyzed. Based on the analysis results, a reasonable combination of the muffler structural parameters was determined, and a pipe discharge muffler with good performance was obtained. (authors)

  11. Cost related to nuclear power plants: the international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This report about the international costs of nuclear electricity generations is divided in two distinct parts: the first one shows the competitiveness of the main sources of electricity generation for base load operation according to studies carried on by OECD and UNIPEDE since 1983; the second one discusses the most recent OECD study about the different types of power plants to be constructed in its number states, based on the experience of each country and the technology evolution of the different fuels used. (F.E.). 4 refs, 2 figs, 27 tab

  12. Regulatory trends and practices related to nuclear reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the next several decades, the electric utility industry will be faced with the retirement of 50,000 megawatts (mW) of nuclear capacity. Responsibility for the financial and technical burdens this activity entails has been delegated to the utilities operating the reactors. However, the operators will have to perform the tasks of reactor decommissioning within the regulatory environment dictated by federal, state and local regulations. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the current and likely trends in regulations and regulatory practices that will significantly affect the costs, technical alternatives and financing schemes encountered by the electric utilities and their customers

  13. Nuclear and related techniques in the control of communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The IAEA has a programme component entitled ''Nuclear Techniques in Communicable Diseases'', the aims of which are to encourage research in the development of new methods of controlling communicable diseases and to transfer the technology to institutes in endemic regions. Implementation of the programme component includes information exchange through publications, symposiums and seminars. The two most recent seminars were held in Bombay in November 1988 and Belo Horizonte in November 1989, and a selection of the papers presented have been published in this Technical Document. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. NESSY, a relational PC database for nuclear structure and decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boboshin, I.N.; Varlamov, V.V.; Trukhanov, S.K.

    1994-11-01

    The universal relational database NESSY (New ENSDF Search SYstem) based on the international ENSDF system (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) is described. NESSY, which was developed for IBM compatible PC, provides high efficiency processing of ENSDF information for searches and retrievals of nuclear physics data. The principle of the database development and examples of applications are presented. (author)

  15. Note n. SD3-DEM-01 regulations procedures relative to the based nuclear installations dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This note aims to define the regulations procedures relative to the safety of based nuclear installations dismantling defined by the decree of the 11 december 1963 modified. The first part describes the two main phases of a based nuclear installation life, the operating and the dismantling phase. The second part is devoted to the procedures. (A.L.B.)

  16. Underwater inspection and maintenance programs within nuclear and non-nuclear related operating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallance, C.; Goulet, B.; Black, S.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing age of the nuclear and non-nuclear power generating facilities requires extended inspection, repair and maintenance (IRM) activities to prolong the operation of these facilities past their original design life. Commercial divers are often utilized to perform critical work at nuclear power plants, fuel reprocessing plants, waste storage facilities, and research institutions. These various tasks include inspection, welding, mechanical modifications and repairs, coating applications, and work associated with plant decommissioning. Programs may take place in areas such as the reactor vessel, equipment pool, spent fuel pool, and suppression chamber using manned intervention and remotely operated vehicles. Some of these tasks can also be conducted using remotely operated vehicles (ROV's). Although specialist robots are not uncommon to the nuclear industry, the use of free-swimming vehicle's and remote systems for the inspection of underwater assets has increased due to improvements of the supporting technologies and information requirements needed to extend the life of these facilities. This paper will provide an overview of the procedures and equipment necessary to perform unique work tasks using manned and unmanned techniques. (author)

  17. Water resources research program. Volume I. Measurements of physical phenomena related to power plant waste heat discharges: Lake Michigan, 1973--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokar, J.V.; Zivi, S.M.; Frigo, A.A.; Van Loon, L.S.; Frye, D.E.; Tome, C.

    1975-03-01

    Methodology developed for the prediction of the temporal and spatial extent of thermal plumes resulting from heated discharges as a function of environmental and power plant design and operating conditions is described. Plume temperature measurements acquired from the Point Beach and Zion Nuclear Power Plants, both located on Lake Michigan, during the past several years show the effects of two-unit operation at the plant site. The Zion plant, in contrast to the shoreline surface discharge of the Point Beach station, has offshore submerged outfalls. Measuring techniques discussed include: fluorescent dye studies of the magnitude of lateral and vertical turbulent transport in plume dispersal; simultaneous aerial infrared scanning and in situ boat measurements for thermal plume mapping; a study of the dynamic characteristics of heated discharges; and a review of data from a two-year study of nearshore ambient currents at the Point Beach plant. (U.S.)

  18. Coordination chemistry of technetium as related to nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.

    1982-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the area of technetium coordination chemistry during the last five years. The main driving force behind this recent surge of interest in the field has been due to the practical application of technetium-99m in the rapidly growing speciality of nuclear medicine. Technetium-99 is one of the products of nuclear fission reactions, but it was the development of the molybdenum-99-technetium-99m generator about two decades ago that provided the basis for the development of radiopharmaceuticals routinely used in modern diagnostic applications. The chemistry of this element has proven to be quite rich owing to its multiple oxidation states and variable geometry. This can be attributed to its position in the middle of the periodic table. Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals comprise predominantly III, IV and V oxidation states of Tc and involve a variety of coordination complexes. Even though the chemistry of Tc has been slow to evolve, recent synthetic advances have provided a more scientific basis for the study of a number of compounds with diverse coordination geometries and structures. Ligands with oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur donor atoms have been utilized to elucidate various aspects of the coordination chemistry of Tc. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis has been extensively used to characterize Tc complexes and thus construct a firm foundation for the study of synthetic and mechanistic aspects of the chemistry of this element. (author)

  19. The approach of nuclear related issues by the press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manetti, Cristiane Teixeira; Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy has always been a polemic issue, and it is usually more intensely associated, by the general public, to the risks than to the benefits from its use; in this sense, the mass media have clearly had its share of responsibility for public opinion formation. This paper presents a report on the coverage of the nuclear issue in the press, identifying the amount of negative and positive views on the subject, as well as the people involved in the process. The analysis comprises the period from February 2007 to February 2008, right after the edition of the 4th IPCC Report. From that sample, 172 texts published in widely known newspapers and magazines, most of them from Sao Paulo State, were identified. The analyzed speeches were classified according to five information sources: specialists, users, authorities, protagonists and entrepreneurs. It was noted the predominance of positive articles, mainly due to the weight of the favorable speeches by authorities, cited as the most frequent in this paper. (author)

  20. Nuclear spin dynamics in soap solutions and related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, M.

    1973-01-01

    Soap molecules consist of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic lipid tail. For example, potassium laureate, the soap molecule on which the most complete study of nuclear spin dynamics has been made has the chemical formula KCOO(CH 2 ) 10 CH 3 . High concentration (greater than or approximately equal to 20% soap molecules by weight) soap solutions in water form ordered, liquid crystal structures in which the polar heads are arranged on regular surfaces which define a lattice having long range order. The soap molecules diffuse very rapidly parallel to the surfaces and undergo rapid conformational changes. Studies of T 1 , Tsub(1p) and Tsub(D) have indicated a wide spectrum of correlation times associated with these changes. Because of the orientational order of the soap molecules, the dipolar interactions between nuclear spins on a single molecule are not averaged to zero by the molecular motions. Thus, it is possible to use NMR techniques normally applied to solids (i.e. transfer of Zeeman into dipolar order, etc.) to study their static and dynamical properties. These systems are unusual in that they are basically one-dimensional systems in which the effective, time-averaged, dipolar coupling constants become progressively stronger for protons closer to the polar heads ot the molecules. A review will be presented of the experimental and theoretical NMR work performed on such systems to date. (author)

  1. The approach of nuclear related issues by the press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manetti, Cristiane Teixeira; Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: cristianemanetti@hotmail.com, e-mail: katia_tanimoto@hotmail.com, e-mail: hiromoto@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has always been a polemic issue, and it is usually more intensely associated, by the general public, to the risks than to the benefits from its use; in this sense, the mass media have clearly had its share of responsibility for public opinion formation. This paper presents a report on the coverage of the nuclear issue in the press, identifying the amount of negative and positive views on the subject, as well as the people involved in the process. The analysis comprises the period from February 2007 to February 2008, right after the edition of the 4th IPCC Report. From that sample, 172 texts published in widely known newspapers and magazines, most of them from Sao Paulo State, were identified. The analyzed speeches were classified according to five information sources: specialists, users, authorities, protagonists and entrepreneurs. It was noted the predominance of positive articles, mainly due to the weight of the favorable speeches by authorities, cited as the most frequent in this paper. (author)

  2. Safety related requirements on future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power has the potential to significantly contribute to the future energy supply. However, this requires continuous improvements in nuclear safety. Technological advancements and implementation of safety culture will achieve a safety level for future reactors of the present generation of a probability of core-melt of less than 10 -5 per year, and less than 10 -6 per year for large releases of radioactive materials. There are older reactors which do not comply with present safety thinking. The paper reviews findings of a recent design review of WWER 440/230 plants. Advanced evolutionary designs might be capable of reducing the probability of significant off-site releases to less than 10 -7 per year. For such reactors there are inherent limitations to increase safety further due to the human element, complexity of design and capability of the containment function. Therefore, revolutionary designs are being explored with the aim of eliminating the potential for off-site releases. In this context it seems to be advisable to explore concepts where the ultimate safety barrier is the fuel itself. (orig.) [de

  3. Description of steam condensation phenomena during the loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.; Aust, E.; Furst, H.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1981-01-01

    Study of results from the full scale multivent pressure suppression experiment conducted by the GKSS Laboratory has developed an improved understanding of the dynamic, oscillatory steam condensation events and related loading functions which occur during the hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident in a boiling water nuclear reactor. Due to the unique measurements systems which combines both cinematic and digital data, qualified correlation between the dynamic physical variables and the associated two-phase thermo-hydraulic phenomena has been obtained

  4. Nuclear-related budget for fiscal 1982 increased by 7.1 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In the budget draft for fiscal 1982, highest priority is given to the cost of energy countermeasures, and 563,200 million yen is earmarked, which is 13.2 % increase as compared with the budget for 1981. Emphasis is placed on the stable supply of oil and the development of the alternative sources of energy. The main pillar of the measures for alternative energy sources is nuclear power development. 290,448 million yen is allocated to the nuclearrelated budget, which is 7.1 % increase as compared with that for 1981. Besides, in order to develop overseas uranium resources and to promote nuclear fuel cycle industries and the domestic production of nuclear power equipments, the fiscal loans and investments of 159,000 million yen are available. The budget draft for the nuclear power development in the Science and Technology Agency is 243,038 million yen, which amounts to 83.7 % of the nuclear-related budget mentioned above. The budget for the STA is roughly classified into the expansion and reinforcement of nuclear safety measures, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, the development of advenced power reactors, the R and D on nuclear fusion and HTGRs, the R and D on nuclear ships, the smooth siting of nuclear facilities, etc. (Kako, I.)

  5. Present situation and problems of nuclear-security-related legislation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows surveys of current Japanese regulations relevant to nuclear security, including regulations for nuclear damage compensation. It also shows the regulatory issues still left unresolved, particularly the question of whether existing laws are broad enough, or whether new legislation will be needed. The largest unresolved issue is how to establish a system of physical protection of nuclear materials for broader nuclear security purposes within a system that was originally introduced only to control nuclear proliferation. Such a system will necessitate a radical revision of the relevant law. Moreover, the current regulations have left unresolved the physical protection of radioactive materials used in research, medical, and non-nuclear-power-related industrial operations. Japanese legislation has already authorized an integrated Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Its mandate should include introduction of a physical protection system for currently unregulated radioactive materials. This will also necessitate a radical revision of the relevant law. Comprehensive consideration should also be given to transportation of nuclear materials away from the site of nuclear material processing businesses. Current regulation also leaves this issue unresolved. There is a possibility that consistent protective measures may not be possible across transportation modes even under the recent legislation that authorized reorganization of nuclear regulatory authorities. (author)

  6. Estimation of the fiscal year 1985 expenditures in nuclear energy relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In Japan, the electric power by nuclear energy accounts for about 20 % of the total power at present. Then, radiation is utilized extensively in such fields as industries, agriculture and medicine. The expenditures (budgets) estimated for the fiscal year 1985 are about 343.8 billion yen plus contract authorization limitation about 146.7 billion yen. In connection with the expenditures estimation (of which a breakdown is given in tables), the research and development plans for nuclear energy relation for fiscal year 1985 are presented: strengthening in nuclear energy safety, promotion of nuclear power generation, establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle, development of advanced power reactors, research on nuclear fusion, promotion of radiation utilizations, strengthening in the research and development infrastructure, promotion of international cooperation, etc. (Mori, K.)

  7. Nuclear-related training and education offered by academic institutions (less-than-baccalaureate degree)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, L.

    1982-01-01

    Current projections indicate that in addition to the 10,100 technician positions and 6100 existing operator positions in the nuclear power industry, another 9100 technicians and 9700 operators will be required over the next decade. With 56 nuclear plants currently in operation and an additional 35 plants under construction, it is essential that trained technical personnel be available for employment in the nuclear utilities. Because of the growing demand for technicians in the nuclear utility industry, this report has been prepared to identify the nuclear-related, less-than-baccalaureate, technical educational programs provided by academic institutions and to ascertain both the current number of students and the maximum number that could be trained, given present staff and facilities. The data serve as a gauge for the proportion of technician training required by the nuclear industry that can be provided by academic institutions

  8. Global nuclear renaissance - today's issues, challenges and differences relative to the first wave of nuclear plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, William N.

    2010-01-01

    The development and negotiation of an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract is a multi-disciplined and time consuming process. Relative to the first wave on new nuclear build projects of the 1950's - 1970's, today's EPC contracts are more complex for a variety of reasons including more demanding regulatory and environmental requirements, global supply chain versus localization issues and different world wide economic considerations. This paper discusses the impacts of some of these challenges on developing an EPC contract in today's Nuclear Renaissance. (authors)

  9. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of generators for nuclear safety related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, R.K.; Hajos, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The number of nuclear safety related equipment suppliers and the availability of spare and replacement parts designed specifically for nuclear safety related application are shrinking rapidly. These have made it necessary for utilities to apply commercial grade spare and replacement parts in nuclear safety related applications after implementing proper acceptance and dedication process to verify that such items conform with the requirements of their use in nuclear safety related application. The general guidelines for the commercial grade item (CGI) acceptance and dedication are provided in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letters and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report NP-5652, Guideline for the Utilization of Commercial Grade Items in Nuclear Safety Related Applications. This paper presents an application of these generic guidelines for procurement, acceptance, and dedication of a commercial grade generator for use as a standby generator at Salem Generating Station Units 1 and 2. The paper identifies the critical characteristics of the generator which once verified, will provide reasonable assurance that the generator will perform its intended safety function. The paper also delineates the method of verification of the critical characteristics through tests and provide acceptance criteria for the test results. The methodology presented in this paper may be used as specific guidelines for reliable and cost effective procurement and dedication of commercial grade generators for use as standby generators at nuclear power plants

  10. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  11. Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Miyashita, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    It is essential to establish a marine reactor having excellent safety and reliability, which is capable of competing economically with conventional ships, and which can be accepted by international society, in order to be prepared for practical application of future nuclear-powered ships. For this purpose, it is important not only to demonstrate a marine reactor using a model or test device to simulate actual operation, but also to establish the environmental requirements for operation of a nuclear-powered ship, such as safety standards that are operationally and internationally common for ships, and to establish a repair base for nuclear-powered ships. Systems research for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships was conducted for five years, fiscal years 1992 through 1996, by a group in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the project title 'Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ships.' The project sought to summarize requirements for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships from the standpoint of the need side, e.g., what nuclear-powered ships will be requested, and what functions will be provided under the expected future social environment; to show a complete system concept for the operation of nuclear-powered ships; and to clarify the situations creating demand for nuclear-powered ships, as well as the system and environmental conditions to be established for operation of practical nuclear-powered ships. Study considerations included the size of the operation system for a nuclear-powered ship, a scenario for introducing a nuclear-powered container ship, and economic evolution from the effects on the whole shipping system, based on container ships, of introducing a nuclear-powered ship. The results of these considerations were made the framework for constructing an entire system and evaluating its economy. The treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from a nuclear-powered ship, and the

  12. OECD/NEA Ongoing activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornet, S.M.; McCarthy, K.; Chauvin, N.

    2013-01-01

    As part of its role in encouraging international collaboration, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is coordinating a series of projects related to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (WPFC) comprises five different expert groups covering all aspects of the fuel cycle from front to back-end. Activities related to fuels, materials, physics, separation chemistry, and fuel cycles scenarios are being undertaken. By publishing state-of-the-art reports and organizing workshops, the groups are able to disseminate recent research advancements to the international community. Current activities mainly focus on advanced nuclear systems, and experts are working on analyzing results and establishing challenges associated to the adoption of new materials and fuels. By comparing different codes, the Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios is aiming at gaining further understanding of the scientific issues and specific national needs associated with the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. At the back end of the fuel cycle, separation technologies (aqueous and pyrochemical processing) are being assessed. Current and future activities comprise studies on minor actinides separation and post Fukushima studies. Regular workshops are also organized to discuss recent developments on Partitioning and Transmutation. In addition, the Nuclear Development Committee (NDC) focuses on the analysis of the economics of nuclear power across the fuel cycle in the context of changes of electricity markets, social acceptance and technological advances and assesses the availability of the nuclear fuel and infrastructure required for the deployment of existing and future nuclear power. The Expert Group on the Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (EBENFC), in particular, is looking at assessing economic and financial issues related to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel. (authors)

  13. Identification of High Confidence Nuclear Forensics Signatures. Results of a Coordinated Research Project and Related Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    The results of a Coordinated Research Project and related research on the identification of high confidence nuclear forensic isotopic, chemical and physical data characteristics, or signatures, provides information on signatures that can help identify the origin and history of nuclear and other radioactive material encountered out of regulatory control. This research report compiles findings from investigations of materials obtained from throughout the nuclear fuel cycle to include radioactive sources. The report further provides recent results used to identify, analyse in the laboratory, predict and interpret these signatures relative to the requirements of a nuclear forensics examination. The report describes some of the controls on the incorporation and persistence of these signatures in these materials as well as their potential use in a national system of identification to include a national nuclear forensics library.

  14. Final argument relating to the Canadian nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1978-05-01

    This report is the second brief, and one of a number of documents, submitted by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to the Ontario Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning. It is intended to update the original brief (AECL--5800) with respect to those matters that emerged during the course of the hearings and which had not been fully anticipated in that brief, as well as to summarize the AECL position on the various issues. To enable it to qualify as a ''final argument'' it contains only evidence or material that has been presented to the Royal Commission and is provided with marginal notations identifying the source of each section. It is AECL's position that the Canadian nuclear power program provides a safe, proven and efficient means of making a needed contribution to electricity supply, while strengthening the economy through the deployment of indigenous technology and resources. (author)

  15. Elevated temperature weldment behavior as related to nuclear design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.T.; Canonico, D.A.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Factors affecting the physical and mechanical properties of weldments are reviewed. Data are presented that show wide variability in the properties of weld metal and heat-affected zones both within a given weldment and from weldment to weldment. The weld metal or heat-affected zone may be stronger or weaker, and more or less ductile than the base metal joined. This implies that current design rules, which are presumed to have well-known safety factors based on the properties of base metals, may have other actual safety factors in welded construction, due to the differences between weld metal and base metal properties. Suggestions for obtaining further data that can subsequently be used to improve confidence in design rules or to change design rules for nuclear application are presented

  16. Manual on quality assurance for computer software related to the safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Manual is to provide guidance in the assurance of quality of specification, design, maintenance and use of computer software related to items and activities important to safety (hereinafter referred to as safety related) in nuclear power plants. This guidance is consistent with, and supplements, the requirements and recommendations of Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants: A Code of Practice, 50-C-QA, and related Safety Guides on quality assurance for nuclear power plants. Annex A identifies the IAEA documents referenced in the Manual. The Manual is intended to be of use to all those who, in any way, are involved with software for safety related applications for nuclear power plants, including auditors who may be called upon to audit management systems and product software. Figs

  17. Morality and nuclear energy: perceptions of risks and benefits, personal norms, and willingness to take action related to nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda

    2010-09-01

    We examined factors underlying people's willingness to take action in favor of or against nuclear energy from a moral perspective. We conducted a questionnaire study among a sample of the Dutch population (N = 123). As expected, perceptions of risks and benefits were related to personal norms (PN), that is, feelings of moral obligation toward taking action in favor of or against nuclear energy. In turn, PN predicted willingness to take action. Furthermore, PN mediated the relationships between perceptions of risk and benefits and willingness to take action. In line with our hypothesis, beliefs about the risks and benefits of nuclear energy were less powerful in explaining PN for supporters compared to PN of opponents. Also, beliefs on risks and benefits and PN explained significantly more variance in willingness to take action of opponents than of supporters. Our results suggest that a moral framework is useful to explain willingness to take action in favor of and against nuclear energy, and that people are more likely to protest in favor of or against nuclear energy when PN are strong. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Public relations activities of the Service Hall for Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, T.

    1998-01-01

    This article includes information of the Service Hall for Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station. About 30% of the total electricity production in Japan is due to 16 power stations and 52 reactors. The service hall is a kind of atomic power pavilion for public relations. In Japan, each nuclear power station has such a pavilion, which acts a a center of public relations activities for the atomic power. (S. Grainger)

  19. Research study on public relations and public participation in the nuclear energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko; Tabata, Rimiko; Otoshi, Sachio; Kuwagaki, Reiko; Ishibashi, Yoichiro

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the effect of public relations activities in the nuclear energy field and public participation toward the improvement of the risk literacy of nuclear energy. According to the survey results of the actual public relations activities taken by nuclear energy industry, the opportunity for interactive communications between the public and the industry is insufficient. Consequently, we propose building up more opportunities for participation and collaboration of citizens and industries in order to improve interactive communications reflecting public opinions and points of view. (author)

  20. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  1. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  2. Public opinion on age-related degradation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Toshihiro

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to shed light on the public opinion on age-related degradation at nuclear power plants, namely, on how the general public recognizes or views age-related degradation, which is a safety-related issue and one of the factors contributing to accidents and failures which occur at nuclear power plants. The second objective is to look into the impacts of the accident at Mihama Unit 3, which was caused by a failure to check on the piping wall thickness, on the public opinion on age-related degradation. The first survey was conducted in August 2003, followed by the second survey in October 2004, two months after the accident. The surveys found that the age-related degradation is being perceived by people as one of the risk factors that affect the safety of nuclear power plants. The characteristics of the citizens' perceptions toward age-related degradation in the form of piping cracks are that: (a) many respondents feel uneasy but a relatively few people consider that nuclear operators are technologically capable of coping with this problem; (b) many people believe that radioactivity may be released; and (c) numerous respondents consider that signs of cracks must be thoroughly detected through inspections, while on the other hand, a large percentage of the respondents attribute the accident to improper inspections/maintenance. Based on these results, the government and nuclear operators are expected to give most illuminating explanation on the current situation of and remedial measures against age-related degradation at nuclear power plants. As for the effects of the Mihama-3 accident on the public opinion on age-related degradation, it was revealed that the accident has not so significantly affected the general view for the safety of nuclear power plants, but has newly or strongly aroused people's consciousness of two of the risk factors - improper inspections/maintenance and the age-related degradation of piping. (author)

  3. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Important issues to be considered for design of future reactors are: extrapolation of stress rupture data, creep-fatigue, negligible creep, damage monitoring. The paper highlights some new developments taking examples from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Traditional approaches to extrapolation of (thermal) stress rupture data like Larson-Miller Parameter or Monkman-Grant rule seem to be valid concepts also for advanced reactors. However, a significant influence of cyclic softening on creep rates and stress rupture data can be expected as shown for grade 91. This is particularly true for creep-fatigue interactions. Based on cyclic stress-strain behaviour it is also possible to get very good life-time predictions under creep-fatigue with a strain range separation (inelastic fatigue and creep ranges) technique which could replace the currently used linear life fraction rule. Results from in-beam irradiation creep reveal no significant influence of dispersoid size. It can be assumed that irradiation creep is a matrix property. Finally it is shown that micro-sample testing of exposed material could be used as an advanced method for damage assessment in future nuclear power plants.

  4. Effectiveness of cleanup criteria relative to an accidental nuclear release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of an accidental nuclear release, the associated long-term radiological risks would result primarily from ground contamination pathways. Cleanup of the contaminated ground surfaces is a necessary step toward reducing the radiological risk to the general population. Ideally, the radiological risk decreases as the level of cleanup effort increases; however, as the cleanup criterion (i.e., the required contaminant concentration after cleanup) becomes more stringent, the cleanup effort may become prohibitively costly. This study examines several factors that are important in determining the effectiveness of the cleanup criteria for selected radionuclides: (a) annual individual dose commitment (mrem/yr), (b) total population environmental dose commitment (person-rem), and (c) total area (km 2 ) requiring cleanup following an accident. To effectively protect the general population, the benefits of cleanup should be weighed against the potentially large increase in cleanup area (and the associated costs) as the cleanup criterion becomes more stringent. The effectiveness of cleanup will vary, depending largely on site-specific parameters such as population density and agricultural productivity as well as on the amount and type of radionuclide released. Determination of an optimum cleanup criterion should account for all factors, including a comprehensive cost/benefit analysis

  5. Management of age-related degradation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, Frank E.

    2004-01-01

    Life extension for nuclear power plants has been studied in the USA for the last six years, largely supported by EPRI, DOE and the USNRC. Though there are diverse opinions for the strategies and priorities of life extension and aging management, one common conclusion has been formulated regarding the need of current maintenance programs having to focus on aging and degradation management. Such program, called 'Maintenance Effectiveness Evaluation and Enhancement' or M3E for short, has been developed to assist plant operators to upgrade and enhance existing programs by integrating aging/degradation management activities for important or critical equipment and components. The key elements of the M3E program consist of the definition and selection of the critical components or commodities to be included in the scope, the survey/inventory of the current programs and their respective action steps, frequencies, corrective measures and extent of coverage, the component/commodity degradation mechanism, sites and severity, safety functions and service environments and lastly, the correlation of degradation/aging with the individual maintenance activities. The degree of correlation provides a measure of effectiveness and the opportunity to identify/specify needed enhancements, abandonment or generation of new maintenance activities. Implementation of the activities can then be prioritized at the option of the plant staff. (author)

  6. A study of core melting phenomena in reactor severe accident of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Park, Shane; Kim, Jong Sun; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Man [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In the 4th year, SCDAP/RELAP5 best estimate input data obtained from the TMI-2 accident analysis were applied to the analysis of domestic nuclear power plant. Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 3, 4 were selected as reference plant and steam generator tube rupture, station blackout SCDAP/RELAP5 calculation were performed to verify the adequacy of the best estimate input parameters and the adequacy of related models. Also, System 80+ EVSE simulation was executed to study steam explosion phenomena in the reactor cavity and EVSE load test was performed on the simplified reactor cavity geometry using TRACER-II code.

  7. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? Sections 170.900 through 170.907 on transportation of nuclear and...

  8. Impacts of age-related failures on nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meale, B.M.; Satterwhite, D.G.; Krantz, E.A.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aging-related failure data from nine light water reactor safety, support, and power conversion systems have been extracted from an operational data base. Systems and components within the systems that are most affected by aging are identified. In addition, information on aging-related root causes of component failures has been extracted for service water and Class 1E electrical power distribution systems. Engineering insights are presented, and preliminary quantification of the importance of aging-related root causes for a service water system is provided

  9. Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety No. 147/1997 of 17 June 1997 specifying lists of selected nuclear-related items and dual-use nuclear-related items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The core of the Decree consists of 2 lists, viz (a) the List of Selected Items (selected nuclear-related materials, equipment and technologies) which are subject to control regimes during imports, exports and transit; and (b) the List of Dual-Use Items (dual-use nuclear-related materials, equipment and technologies) which are subject to control regimes during imports and exports. Both Lists are based on the IAEA document INFCIRC/254/Rev.2/Part 2/Mod.1. (P.A.)

  10. Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, H J; Farhat, M; Luo, X W; Chen, Y L; Xu, H Y

    2012-01-01

    Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

  11. Haters Phenomena in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Pradipta, Angga; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul

    2016-01-01

    Social media is internet-basic media, functioned as interaction media room based on multimedia technology. And social media created some effects. One of the negative effects of social media is haters phenomena. Haters are a person who easily said dirty words, harass, and humiliate to others. This phenomena causes anxiety—especially in Indonesia, even the Government issued public policy and letter of regulation about this phenomena, through Paragraph 27 verse (3) IT Constitution, Paragraph 45 ...

  12. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  13. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies

  14. Experience on environmental qualification of safety-related components for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, A.S.; Kukreti, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    The proliferation of Nuclear Power Plant safety concerns has lead to increasing attention over the Environmental Qualification (EQ) of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Components to provide the assurance that the safety related equipment will meet their intended functions during normal operation and postulated accident conditions. The environmental qualification of these components is also a Licensing requirement for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station. This paper provides an overview of EQ and the experience of a pilot project, in the qualification of the Main Moderator System safety-related functions for the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station currently under construction. It addresses the various phases of qualification from the identification of the EQ Safety-Related Components List, definition of location specific service conditions (normal, adbnormal and accident), safety-related functions, Environmental Qualification Assessments and finally, an EQ system summary report for the Main Moderator System. The results of the pilot project are discussed and the methodology reviewed. The paper concludes that the EQ Program developed for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, as applied to the qualification of the Main Moderator System, contained all the elements necessary in the qualification of safety-related equipment. The approach taken in the qualification of the Moderator safety-related equipment proves to provide a sound framework for the qualification of other safety-related components in the station

  15. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M NC , correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M NC = (2.11 ± 0.31)log (σ/54) + (6.63 ± 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M NC ∝M 0.55±0.15 Gal,dyn ; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  16. Transport phenomena in environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Aleksandra; Kardum, Jasna Prlić; Matijašić, Gordana; Žižek, Krunoslav

    2018-01-01

    A term transport phenomena arises as a second paradigm at the end of 1950s with high awareness that there was a strong need to improve the scoping of chemical engineering science. At that point, engineers became highly aware that it is extremely important to take step forward from pure empirical description and the concept of unit operations only to understand the specific process using phenomenological equations that rely on three elementary physical processes: momentum, energy and mass transport. This conceptual evolution of chemical engineering was first presented with a well-known book of R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart and Edwin N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, published in 1960 [1]. What transport phenomena are included in environmental engineering? It is hard to divide those phenomena through different engineering disciplines. The core is the same but the focus changes. Intention of the authors here is to present the transport phenomena that are omnipresent in treatment of various process streams. The focus in this chapter is made on the transport phenomena that permanently occur in mechanical macroprocesses of sedimentation and filtration for separation in solid-liquid particulate systems and on the phenomena of the flow through a fixed and a fluidized bed of particles that are immanent in separation processes in packed columns and in environmental catalysis. The fundamental phenomena for each thermal and equilibrium separation process technology are presented as well. Understanding and mathematical description of underlying transport phenomena result in scoping the separation processes in a way that ChEs should act worldwide.

  17. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  18. Efficient algorithms for flow simulation related to nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornak, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Safety analysis is of ultimate importance for operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The overall modeling and simulation of physical and chemical processes occuring in the course of an accident is an interdisciplinary problem and has origins in fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, reactor technology and computer programming. The aim of the study is therefore to create the foundations of a multi-dimensional non-isothermal fluid model for a NPP containment and software tool based on it. The numerical simulations allow to analyze and predict the behavior of NPP systems under different working and accident conditions, and to develop proper action plans for minimizing the risks of accidents, and/or minimizing the consequences of possible accidents. A very large number of scenarios have to be simulated, and at the same time acceptable accuracy for the critical parameters, such as radioactive pollution, temperature, etc., have to be achieved. The existing software tools are either too slow, or not accurate enough. This thesis deals with developing customized algorithm and software tools for simulation of isothermal and non-isothermal flows in a containment pool of NPP. Requirements to such a software are formulated, and proper algorithms are presented. The goal of the work is to achieve a balance between accuracy and speed of calculation, and to develop customized algorithm for this special case. Different discretization and solution approaches are studied and those which correspond best to the formulated goal are selected, adjusted, and when possible, analysed. Fast directional splitting algorithm for Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries, in presence of solid and porous obstacles, is in the core of the algorithm. Developing suitable pre-processor and customized domain decomposition algorithms are essential part of the overall algorithm amd software. Results from numerical simulations in test geometries and in real geometries are presented and discussed.

  19. The Nuclear Shell Model and its Relation with Other Nuclear Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J. P. [University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1963-01-15

    The starting point of all versions of the shell model is the physical idea that the interaction between a given nucleon and all the others resembles that between a nucleon and a fixed field. From this starting point one might attempt to construct a field which is self-consistent but this approach is not followed in most shell-model calculations because of the complications that arise. The more usual approach has been to use the idea of an average field to provide a complete set of sin gle-particle wave functions. Then, if the parameters of the field (e.g. its size) are correctly chosen, we would expect to reach a good approximation to the nuclear-wave function by taking that configuration of single-particle wave functions which has lowest energy in this field. The wave functions could clearly be improved by allowing the mixing of excited configurations but this is rarely done because of the resulting complexity of the problem. Even in the lowest configuration there are in general many independent wave functions for a many-particle system which would all be degenerate in the average field. To find the nuclear energy levels and wave functions we must therefore build up the energy matrix in this degenerate set, using the inter-nucleon two-body forces, and then diagonalize this matrix. If the detailed form of the nuclear forces was known we might regard such calculations as the first step towards an exact calculation in which higher configurations were included but every indication is that the convergence would be extremely slow. It is more usual to treat an energy calculation in the lowest configuration unashamedly as a model calculation and to attempt to deduce, by comparisons with experimental data in the many-particle nuclei, the nature of the effective nuclear forces required in that configuration. If the model is realistic then we should not expect these effective forces to change very much in going from one nucleus to its neighbour and since there are many more

  20. Role of the nuclear envelope in the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Christopher; Bermeo, Sandra; Fatkin, Diane; Duque, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is the most important border in the eukaryotic cell. The role of the nuclear envelope in cell differentiation and function is determined by a constant interaction between the elements of the nuclear envelope and the transcriptional regulators involved in signal transcription pathways. Among those components of the nuclear envelope, there is a growing evidence that changes in the expression of A-type lamins, which are essential components of the nuclear lamina, are associated with age-related changes in bone affecting the capacity of differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, favoring adipogenesis and affecting the function and survival of the osteocytes. Overall, as A-type lamins are considered as the 'guardians of the soma', these proteins are also essential for the integrity and quality of the bone and pivotal for the longevity of the musculoskeletal system. PMID:23951459

  1. Status of the Romanian nuclear power program and the strategy related to the public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Chirica, Teodor

    1999-01-01

    The year 1997 represented for the Romanian nuclear power sector the year of the performances and capabilities proved Cernavoda NPP s unit operation, after one year of successful operation. Good performances of this unit could represent a positive impact on further development of nuclear power in Romania, considering first the completion of Unit 2 and for National Heavy Water Reactor Program. On the other hand, 'The years of 1997 and 1998 marked for the Romanian Electricity Authority a new and completely different perception of the Romanian power sector'. Recently, the first step of the restructuring of power sector has been accomplished. The Romanian Government approved the creation of the National Power Grid Company and the moving-out of the nuclear activities. The present Nuclear Power Group from RENEL was transformed in a separate entity, the National 'Nuclear Ellectrica' Company, including three subsidiaries, no legal persons, one for nuclear power production CNE-PROD (Cernavoda Unit 1), one for nuclear power development CNE-INVEST (Cernavoda Unit 2 to 5) and one for nuclear fuel fabrication FCN (Pitesti Nuclear Fuel Plant). The other Units from Nuclear Power Group, such as the Heavy Water Plant - ROMAG, Center of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects - CTON and the Institute for Nuclear Research-Pitesti - ICN have been transformed in a state owned company for nuclear activities. To better understand the aspects related to the nuclear power in Romania and the necessity of the continuation and development of a public information strategy based on the new look of the nuclear power sector, please, allow me to present you a few things with regard the Romanian nuclear program. The main targets of Public Information Program Strategy considered when assessing the strategy related to the public information were: education and built-up of a credibility on the construction of a nuclear power plant in general, and of the Cernavoda NPP, in particular; and once

  2. Nuclear Physics Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents articles and abstracts published in foreign journals, covering the following subjects: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, applied physics, instrumentation, nonlinear phenomena and high energy physics

  3. Safety-Related Contractor Activities at Nuclear Power Plants. New Challenges for Regulatory Oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, Alan [Chockie Group International, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2005-09-15

    The use of contractors has been an integral and important part of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. To ensure the safe and efficient completion of contracted tasks, each nuclear plant licensee has developed and refined formal contract management processes to meet their specific needs and plant requirements. Although these contract management processes have proven to be effective tools for the procurement of support and components tailored to the needs of nuclear power plants, contractor-related incidents and accidents have revealed some serious weaknesses with the implementation of these processes. Identifying and addressing implementation problems are becoming more complicated due to organizational and personnel changes affecting the nuclear power industry. The ability of regulators and licensees to effectively monitor and manage the safety-related performance of contractors will likely be affected by forthcoming organization and personnel changes due to: the aging of the workforce; the decline of the nuclear industry; and the deregulation of nuclear power. The objective of this report is to provide a review of current and potential future challenges facing safety-related contractor activities at nuclear power plants. The purpose is to assist SKI in establishing a strategy for the proactive oversight of contractor safety-related activities at Swedish nuclear power plants and facilities. The nature and role of contractors at nuclear plants is briefly reviewed in the first section of the report. The second section describes the essential elements of the contract management process. Although organizations have had decades of experience with the a contract management process, there remain a number of common implantation weaknesses that have lead to serious contractor-related incidents and accidents. These implementation weaknesses are summarized in the third section. The fourth section of the report highlights the

  4. Safety-Related Contractor Activities at Nuclear Power Plants. New Challenges for Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, Alan

    2005-09-01

    The use of contractors has been an integral and important part of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. To ensure the safe and efficient completion of contracted tasks, each nuclear plant licensee has developed and refined formal contract management processes to meet their specific needs and plant requirements. Although these contract management processes have proven to be effective tools for the procurement of support and components tailored to the needs of nuclear power plants, contractor-related incidents and accidents have revealed some serious weaknesses with the implementation of these processes. Identifying and addressing implementation problems are becoming more complicated due to organizational and personnel changes affecting the nuclear power industry. The ability of regulators and licensees to effectively monitor and manage the safety-related performance of contractors will likely be affected by forthcoming organization and personnel changes due to: the aging of the workforce; the decline of the nuclear industry; and the deregulation of nuclear power. The objective of this report is to provide a review of current and potential future challenges facing safety-related contractor activities at nuclear power plants. The purpose is to assist SKI in establishing a strategy for the proactive oversight of contractor safety-related activities at Swedish nuclear power plants and facilities. The nature and role of contractors at nuclear plants is briefly reviewed in the first section of the report. The second section describes the essential elements of the contract management process. Although organizations have had decades of experience with the a contract management process, there remain a number of common implantation weaknesses that have lead to serious contractor-related incidents and accidents. These implementation weaknesses are summarized in the third section. The fourth section of the report highlights the

  5. Significance of Alkali-Silica reaction in nuclear safety-related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Y.; Field, K.G.; Mattus, C.H.; Naus, D.J.; Busby, J.T.; Saouma, V.; Ma, Z.J.; Cabage, J.V.; Guimaraes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant license renewal up to 60 years and possible life extension beyond has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and particularly, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete components. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Academia and the Power Generation Industry, identified the need to develop a consistent knowledge base of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) within concrete as an urgent priority (Graves et al., 2014). ASR results in an expansion of Concrete produced by the reaction between alkali (generally from cement), reactive aggregate (like amorphous silica) and water absorption. ASR causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR distress can be potentially observed and that numerous non-nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) in a majority of the States have already experienced ASR-related concrete degradation, the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed. This paper outlines an on-going research program including the investigation of the possibility of ASR in nuclear power plants, and the assessment of the residual shear bearing capacity of ASR-subjected nuclear structures. (authors)

  6. Global development of advanced nuclear power plants, and related IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is underlining the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies deployable in the near term as well as in the longer term. For applications in the medium to longer term, with rising expectations for the role of nuclear energy in the future, technological innovation has become a strong focus of nuclear power technology developments by many Member States. To meet Member States' needs, the IAEA conducts activities to foster information exchange and collaborative research and development in the area of advanced nuclear reactor technologies. These activities include coordination of collaborative research, organization of international information exchange, and analyses of globally available technical data and results, with a focus on reducing nuclear power plant capital costs and construction periods while further improving performance, safety and proliferation resistance. In other activities, evolutionary and innovative advances are catalyzed for all reactor lines such as advanced water cooled reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors and accelerator driven systems, including small and medium sized reactors. In addition, there are activities related to other applications of nuclear energy such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications. This brochure summarizes the worldwide status and the activities related to advanced nuclear power technology development and related IAEA activities. It includes a list of the collaborative research and development projects conducted by the IAEA, as well as of the status reports and other publications produced

  7. Simulations of Biomechanical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose Cruz

    Recent studies have published breakthroughs in the application of finite element (FEA) studies in the design and analysis of advanced orthodontics. However, FEA has not captured bone remodeling responses to advanced orthodontics. The results of these simulations report unrealistic displacement around the nasal bridge, which impeded correlation with clinical data. Bone remodeling has been previously documented in FEA and has shown bone response to mechanical stimulus in femur bone models. However, the relationship between mechanical stimulus and bone remodeling has not been reported in orthodontic studies due to the complexity of the skull. In the current study, strain energy is used as the mechanical stimulus to control remodeling, from which density and modulus evolve. Due to the localization of forces in orthodontics, current remodeling algorithms have limited application. In turn, we developed an algorithm that dynamically collects, sorts, and bins stresses in all elements for regional remodeling based on the proximity of the element to the load. The results demonstrate that bone response to orthodontic appliances is different than that of an FEA without bone remodeling, due to load path changes based upon evolution of the bone properties. It was also found that density and moduli proximal to the load application site exhibit faster remodeling than those located remotely. Modeling another biomechanical phenomena, a 3D simulation was created to simulate recent experimental results that discovered a difference in impact mitigation properties of dense-polymer/foam bilayer structure based on the orientation of the dense-polymer with respect to the impact site. The impact energy transmitted varied in time of arrival and amplitude depending on the orientation of the structure (thin layer up or down). By creating a 3D explicit dynamic FEA simulation, it is expected to reduce costly experiments and time consumed in set up, and offer opportunities for optimization for

  8. Evironmental assessment factors relating to reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    This document is in two parts. Part I presents the criteria and evaluation factors, based primarily on US experience, which may be used to carry out an environmental assessment of spent fuel reprocessing. The concept of As Low as is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is introduced in limiting radiation exposure. The factors influencing both occupational and general public radiation exposure are reviewed. Part II provides information on occupational and general public radiation exposure in relation to reprocessing taken from various sources including UNSCEAR and GESMO. Some information is provided in relation to potential accidents at reprocessing or MOX fuel refabrication plants. The magnitude of the services, energy, land use and non-radiological effluents for the reference design of reprocessing plant are also presented

  9. ACCIDENT PHENOMENA OF RISK IMPORTANCE PROJECT - Continued RESEARCH CONCERNING SEVERE ACCIDENT PHENOMENA AND MANAGEMENT IN Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolandson, S.; Mueller, F.; Loevenhielm, G.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1988 all reactors in Sweden have mitigating measures, such as filtered vents, implemented. In parallel with the work of implementing these measures, a cooperation effort (RAMA projects) between the Swedish utilities and the Nuclear Power Inspectorate was performed to acquire sufficient knowledge about severe accident research work. The on-going project has the name Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3. In this paper, we will give background information about severe accident management in Sweden. In the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project we will focus on the work concerning coolability of melted core in lower plenum which is the main focus of the In-vessel Coolability Task Group within the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project. The Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project has joined on international consortium and the in-vessel cooling experiments are performed by Fauske and Associates, Inc. in Burr Ridge, Illinois, United States America, Sweden also intends to do one separate experiment with one instrument penetration we have in Swedish/Finnish BWR's. Other parts of the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project, such as support to level 2 studies, the research at Royal Institute of Technology and participation in international programs, such as Cooperative Severe Accident Research Program, Advanced Containment Experiments and PHEBUS will be briefly described in the paper

  10. A survey of nuclear-related agreements and possibilities for nuclear cooperation in South Asia: Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAJEN,GAURAV

    2000-04-01

    Several existing nuclear-related agreements already require India and Pakistan, as members, to share information. The agreements are bilateral, regional, and international. Greater nuclear transparency between India and Pakistan could be promoted by first understanding the information flows required by existing agreements. This understanding is an essential step for developing projects that can incrementally advance the sensitivity of the information being shared. This paper provides a survey of existing nuclear-related agreements involving India and Pakistan, and suggests future confidence-building projects using the frameworks provided by these agreements. The Bilateral Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Facilities is discussed as a basis for creating further agreements on restricting the use and deployment of nuclear weapons. The author suggests options for enhancing the value of the list of nuclear facilities exchanged annually as a part of this agreement. The International Atomic Energy Agency's regional cooperation agreement among countries in the Asia-Pacific region is an opportunity for greater subregional nuclear cooperation in South Asia. Linking the regional agreement with South Asian environmental cooperation and marine pollution protection efforts could provide a framework for projects involving Indian and Pakistani coastal nuclear facilities. Programs of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that use nuclear techniques to increase food and crop production and optimize water management in arid areas also provide similar opportunities for nuclear cooperation. Other frameworks for nuclear cooperation originate from international conventions related to nuclear safety, transportation of nuclear wastes, worker protection against ionizing radiation, and the nondeployment of nuclear weapons in certain areas. The information shared by existing frameworks includes: laws and regulations

  11. A survey of nuclear-related agreements and possibilities for nuclear cooperation in South Asia: Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajen, Gaurav

    2000-01-01

    Several existing nuclear-related agreements already require India and Pakistan, as members, to share information. The agreements are bilateral, regional, and international. Greater nuclear transparency between India and Pakistan could be promoted by first understanding the information flows required by existing agreements. This understanding is an essential step for developing projects that can incrementally advance the sensitivity of the information being shared. This paper provides a survey of existing nuclear-related agreements involving India and Pakistan, and suggests future confidence-building projects using the frameworks provided by these agreements. The Bilateral Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Facilities is discussed as a basis for creating further agreements on restricting the use and deployment of nuclear weapons. The author suggests options for enhancing the value of the list of nuclear facilities exchanged annually as a part of this agreement. The International Atomic Energy Agency's regional cooperation agreement among countries in the Asia-Pacific region is an opportunity for greater subregional nuclear cooperation in South Asia. Linking the regional agreement with South Asian environmental cooperation and marine pollution protection efforts could provide a framework for projects involving Indian and Pakistani coastal nuclear facilities. Programs of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that use nuclear techniques to increase food and crop production and optimize water management in arid areas also provide similar opportunities for nuclear cooperation. Other frameworks for nuclear cooperation originate from international conventions related to nuclear safety, transportation of nuclear wastes, worker protection against ionizing radiation, and the nondeployment of nuclear weapons in certain areas. The information shared by existing frameworks includes: laws and regulations (including

  12. Introductory lectures on critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajehpour, M.R.H.

    1988-09-01

    After a presentation of classical models for phase transitions and critical phenomena (Van der Waals theory, Weiss theory of ferromagnetism) and theoretical models (Ising model, XY model, Heisenberg model, spherical model) the Landau theory of critical and multicritical points and some single applications of renormalization group method in static critical phenomena are presented. 115 refs, figs and tabs

  13. Arcing phenomena in fusion devices workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausing, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The workshop on arcing phenomena in fusion devices was organized (1) to review the pesent status of our understanding of arcing as it relates to confinement devices, (2) to determine what informaion is needed to suppress arcing and (3) to define both laboratory and in-situ experiments which can ultimately lead to reduction of impurities in the plasma caused by arcing. The workshop was attended by experts in the area of vacuum arc electrode phenomena and ion source technology, materials scientists, and both theoreticians and experimentalists engaged in assessing the importance of unipolar arcing in today's tokamaks. Abstracts for papers presented at the workshop are included

  14. A plan for the modification and assessment of TRAC-PF1/MOD2 for use in analyzing CANDU 3 transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebe, D.A.; Boyack, B.E.; Giguere, P.T.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the results of the review and planning done for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to identify the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that could occur in the CANDU 3 reactor design during transient conditions, plan modifications to the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 (TRAC) computer code needed to adequately predict CANDU 3 transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena, and identify an assessment program to verify the ability of TRAC, when modified, to predict these phenomena. This work builds on analyses and recommendations produced by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). To identify the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, a large-break loss-of-coolant accident simulation, performed as part of earlier work by INEL with an Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL) thermal-hydraulic computer code (CATHENA), was analyzed in detail. Other accident scenarios were examined for additional phenomena. A group of Los Alamos National Laboratory reactor thermal-hydraulics experts ranked the phenomena to produce a preliminary phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT). The preliminary nature of the PIRT was a result of a lack of direct expertise with the unique processes and phenomena of the CANDU 3. Nonetheless, this PIRT provided an adequate foundation for planning a program of code modifications. We believe that this PIRT captured the most important phenomena and that refinements to the PIRT will mainly produce clarification of the relative importance (ranking) of phenomena. A plan for code modifications was developed based on this PIRT and on information about the modeling methodologies for CANDU-specific phenomena used in AECL codes. AECL thermal-hydraulic test facilities and programs were reviewed and the information used in developing an assessment plan to ensure that TRAC-PF1/MOD2, when modified, will adequately predict CANDU 3 phenomena

  15. Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…

  16. American National Standard: guidelines for evaluating site-related geotechnical parameters at nuclear power sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This standard presents guidelines for evaluating site-related geotechnical parameters for nuclear power sites. Aspects considered include geology, ground water, foundation engineering, and earthwork engineering. These guidelines identify the basic geotechnical parameters to be considered in site evaluation, and in the design, construction, and performance of foundations and earthwork aspects for nuclear power plants. Also included are tabulations of typical field and laboratory investigative methods useful in identifying geotechnical parameters. Those areas where interrelationships with other standards may exist are indicated

  17. Public relations campaign in siting of nuclear power plants in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulu, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Having understood the issues at stake and the need for public support, there is need to create public relations campaign to raise awareness of citing nuclear power plants and stimulate the much needed public support for the introduction of nuclear power into the energy mix. This calls for ally with the Federal Ministry of Information and Communications charged with development of necessary communication strategies for publicizing, educating and informing the people on policies, actions and programmes of Government

  18. A selection of problems related to safe working conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two representative examples were chosen to demonstrate that the problems related to safe working conditions can be solved with work being prepared extensively and in detail taking into consideration radiation protection and conventional job safety measures and with qualified staff. Most of the job safety problems in nuclear power plants are pretty much the same as in conventional plants. Despite successful implementation of employment and radiation protection in nuclear power plants, improvements in detail are possible and make sense. (orig.) [de

  19. The making of extraordinary psychological phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the extraordinary phenomena that have been central to unorthodox areas of psychological knowledge. It shows how even the agreed facts relating to mesmerism, spiritualism, psychical research, and parapsychology have been framed as evidence both for and against the reality of the phenomena. It argues that these disputes can be seen as a means through which beliefs have been formulated and maintained in the face of potentially challenging evidence. It also shows how these disputes appealed to different forms of expertise, and that both sides appealed to belief in various ways as part of the ongoing dispute about both the facts and expertise. Finally, it shows how, when a formal Psychology of paranormal belief emerged in the twentieth century, it took two different forms, each reflecting one side of the ongoing dispute about the reality of the phenomena. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Use of phenomena identification and ranking (PIRT) process in research related to design certification of the AP600 advanced passive light water reactor (LWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Eltawila, F.

    1996-01-01

    The AP600 LWR is a new advanced passive design that has been submitted to the USNRC for design certification. Within the certification process the USNRC will perform selected system thermal hydraulic response audit studies to help confirm parts of the vendor's safety analysis submittal. Because of certain innovative design features of the safety systems, new experimental data and related advances in the system thermal hydraulic analysis computer code are being developed by the USNRC. The PIRT process is being used to focus the experimental and analytical work to obtain a sufficient and cost effective research effort. The objective of this paper is to describe the application and most significant results of the PIRT process, including several innovative features needed in the application to accommodate the short design certification schedule. The short design certification schedule has required that many aspects of the USNRC experimental and analytical research be performed in parallel, rather than in series as was normal for currently operating LWRS. This has required development and use of management techniques that focus and integrate the various diverse parts of the research. The original PIRTs were based on inexact knowledge of an evolving reactor design, and concentrated on the new passive features of the design. Subsequently, the PIRTs have evolved in two more stages as the design became more firm and experimental and analytical data became available. A fourth and final stage is planned and in progress to complete the PIRT development. The PIRTs existing at the end of each development stage have been used to guide the experimental program, scaling analyses and code development supporting the audit studies

  1. Education and public relations in nuclear power toward the next generation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I, Han-Joo; Seo, Doo-Han.

    1989-01-01

    The report outlines the education in nuclear engineering in colleges and universities in Korea, experiments and training in nuclear reactor operation, research project for education in peaceful utilization of nuclear power, and public relations activities and special plans intended for the new generation in the nation. Programs covering the education of students in nuclear engineering in colleges and universities in Korea, and public relations toward some selected groups and brackets have been conducted successfully, producing good results. On the other hand, some improvements in educational activities, including the revision of textbooks, are required in such a field of education of pupils in primary, middle and high schools. Specially-designed introductory courses and advanced courses in the peaceful utilization of nuclear power should be established to ensure that students in scientific or technological fields other than nuclear engineering will gain deeper understanding of the issue. For this, the preparation of textbooks are currently under way. It is hoped that public relations activities will be expanded on a more continuous and consistent basis, instead of the current intermittent basis, by making good use of the mass media to distribute information among the general public. (Nogami. K.)

  2. Education and public relations in nuclear power toward the next generation in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I, Han-Joo; Seo, Doo-Han.

    1989-02-01

    The report outlines the education in nuclear engineering in colleges and universities in Korea, experiments and training in nuclear reactor operation, research project for education in peaceful utilization of nuclear power, and public relations activities and special plans intended for the new generation in the nation. Programs covering the education of students in nuclear engineering in colleges and universities in Korea, and public relations toward some selected groups and brackets have been conducted successfully, producing good results. On the other hand, some improvements in educational activities, including the revision of textbooks, are required in such a field of education of pupils in primary, middle and high schools. Specially-designed introductory courses and advanced courses in the peaceful utilization of nuclear power should be established to ensure that students in scientific or technological fields other than nuclear engineering will gain deeper understanding of the issue. For this, the preparation of textbooks are currently under way. It is hoped that public relations activities will be expanded on a more continuous and consistent basis, instead of the current intermittent basis, by making good use of the mass media to distribute information among the general public. (Nogami. K.).

  3. Fusion-related work at the Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksson, H.; Mompean, F.J.; Kodeli, I.

    2007-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Data Bank is part of an international network of data centres in charge of the compilation and dissemination of basic nuclear reaction data. Through its activities in the reaction data field, the NEA participates in the preparation of data for the modelling of future nuclear facility concepts and the development of reactor installations. A working party at the NEA on international nuclear data evaluation cooperation (WPEC) is established to promote the exchange of nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations and validation. WPEC provides a framework for co-operative activities, such as the high priority request list for experimental data of special interest for certain applications, such as IFMIF or ITER. The NEA Data Bank administrates the collection and validation as well as the distribution of the Joint Evaluated Fusion and Fission (JEFF) library, where the activities in the European Fusion and Activation File projects (EFF and EAF respectively) play an important role for new data evaluations. The topics cover verification of activation and transport data, calculation methods and validation via integral experiments. The EFF project brings together all available expertise in Europe related to the nuclear data requirements of existing and future fusion devices, and the project contributed greatly to the internationally recognised nuclear data library JEFF-3.1, released in May 2005. The NEA also provides tools for the EFF project, such as computer codes for nuclear energy and radiation physics applications. Of special interest for fusion applications are the integral experiments collected in the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) database. SINBAD is an internationally established set of radiation shielding and dosimetry data containing over 80 experiments relevant for reactor and accelerator shielding. About 30 of these experiments are dedicated to fusion blanket neutronics. Materials

  4. The Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Adult Epileptic Patients Applying to the Neurology Clinic of Erciyes University and the Relation of These Phenomena to Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesile Şenol

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The epidemiological characteristics of epilepsy vary from society to society. Epilepsy, whose prevalence is between 0.5-1.0%, is usually seen in early and late ages, at the both of ends of life, and more often in males, and in people who have low income and education. Besides ıts neuropsychologic effects, epilepsy is a disease which has psychological, socilogical aspects such as social isolation, low self-esteem and depression. Depression is seen more often in people with epilepsy than people who don’t have this disease. The percentage of depression for the whole life-time for people with epilepsy is 10-30%. Age at onset of epilepsy, seizure type, frequency, time and the type of treatment (mono-poly therapy affect the incidence and degree of depression. OBJECTIVES: To define the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of epilepsy cases, to determine the percentage of depressive disorders in epilepsy cases, to probe the characteristics of epileptic seizure and its relation to depression. METHODS: The study was conducted through a face-to-face survey of 102 adult epileptic patients who applied to the Erciyes University Epilepsy Outpatient Clinic between October 2004 and 2005. In order to gather the data, which was prepared by the researcher “A survey form for the epileptic individuals” and “The Turkish Version of Beck Depression Inventory”, whose accuracy and validity was checked by Hisli, was used. RESULTS: The average age for the cases is 34.3±12.6, the average age at seizure onset is 21.4±14.6 and in 66% of them the seizure started when they were under 25. Majority of the cases were male and lower than the minimum wage. Among the patients, 45.6% had generalized (tonic-clonic seizures, and 36% had been ≥1/month seizures and 32% seizure-free during the previous year. CONCLUSION: The average of depressive disorder was 29.4%. 15.7% of the cases were with major depression. Age at onset epilepsy, seizure type and

  5. Numerical simulation of the direct contact condensation phenomena for PTS-related in single and combined-effect thermal hydraulic test facilities using TransAT CMFD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadi, Rabah, E-mail: kadi.rkhaled@hotmail.com [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Research Center of Birine (Algeria); Aissani, Slimane [Hydrocarbons and Chemistry Faculty, University of Boumerdes (Algeria); Bouam, Abdellah [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Research Center of Birine (Algeria)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • TransAT CMFD code application to DCC phenomenon. • LEIS methodology to predict the condensing steam flow rate. • Validation of interfacial phase-change heat transfer and turbulence models. • Correction of damping function at the free surface region. • Numerical validation of previous models using LIM and KAERI & KAIST test facilities. - Abstract: The use of CFD for the industrial studies related to PTS, including DCC is already possible; improvements of the two-phase modeling capabilities have to be undertaken to qualify the codes for the simulation of such flows. The DCC in horizontally stratified flow regime constitutes very considerable challenge exercises for a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the thermal hydraulics PTS phenomenon because the interplay between turbulence and interfacial heat and mass transfer problem. The main purpose of our study is to investigate numerically the DCC in horizontally stratified steam water flow in a 2D and 3D channel using TransAT CMFD code. The new methodology known as Large-Eddy & Interface (LEIS) have been implemented for treatment of turbulence combined with interface tracking ITM (level set approach). Among of the so-called ‘coarse-grained’ ITM's models, the modified original surface divergence has been chosen as well as the treatment of the turbulence by URANS and VLES. This contribution addressed on the validation of interfacial phase-change heat transfer and turbulence models with special correction of the damping function at the free surface for single and combined-effect thermal hydraulic studies for LIM and KAERI & KAIST test facilities. The LIES methodology was found to apply successfully to predict the condensing steam flow rate in the all cases of the LIM test case involving a Smooth to Wavy turbulent, concurrent stratified steam-water flow in a 2D channel. The CMFD TransAT code predicting capability is analyzed, comparing the liquid temperature and to much the

  6. Uranium Determination in Samples from Decommissioning of Nuclear facilities Related to the First Stage of Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Correa, E.; Navarro, N.; Sancho, C.; Angeles, A.

    2000-01-01

    An adequate workplace monitoring must be carried out during the decommissioning activities, to ensure the protection of workers involved in these tasks. In addition, a large amount of waste materials are generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Clearance levels are established by regulatory authorities and are normally quite low. The determination of those activity concentration levels become more difficult when it is necessary to quantify alpha emitters such as uranium, especially when complex matrices are involved. Several methods for uranium determination in samples obtained during the decommissioning of a facility related to the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle are presented in this work. Measurements were carried out by laboratory techniques. In situ gamma spectrometry was also used to perform measurements on site. A comparison among the different techniques was also done by analysing the results obtained in some practical applications. (Author)

  7. Modelling of condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae Jun; Chang, Won Pyo

    1996-07-01

    Condensation occurs when vapor is cooled sufficiently below the saturation temperature to induce the nucleation of droplets. Such nucleation may occur homogeneously within the vapor or heterogeneously on entrained particular matter. Heterogeneous nucleation may occur on the walls of the system, where the temperature is below the saturation temperature. There are two forms of heterogeneous condensation, drop-wise and film-wise. Another form of condensation occurs when vapor directly contacts to subcooled liquid. In nuclear power plant systems, all forms of condensation may occur during normal operation or accident conditions. In this work the modelling of condensation is surveyed, including the Nusselts' laminar film condensation theory in 1916, Rohsenow's turbulent film condensation model in 1950s, and Chen's models in 1987. Major attention is paid on the film condensation models among various research results because of its importance in engineering applications. It is found that theory, experiment, and empirical correlations for film condensation are well established, but research for drop-wise and direct-contact condensation are not sufficient yet. Condensation models in the best-estimate system codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2 are also investigated. 3 tabs., 11 figs., 36 refs. (Author)

  8. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  9. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E.; Hanna, B.

    1997-01-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described

  10. Statistical phenomena - theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereward, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discuss two closely related fields, Schottky signals and stochastic cooling. These effects are both based on the fact that a uniform continuous beam really consists of a finite number of discrete particles of charge e. (Auth.)

  11. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2014-06-01

    monitoring natural phenomena The images taken from Remote Sensing have helped men to use the environment and natural resources in a better way. It is expected that the developement of new technologies will spread the usage of satellite images for the welfare of mankind as well.  Besides monitoring the surface of the Earth, the satellite monitoring of  the processes inside the Earth itself is of great importance since these processes can  cause different catastrophes such as earthquakes, volcano eruptions, floods, etc. Usage of satellite images in monitoring atmospheric phenomena The launch of artificial earth satellites has opened new possibilities for monitoring and studying atmospheric phenomena. A large number of meteorological satellites have been launched by now (Nimbus, Meteor, SNS, ESSA, Meteosat, Terra, etc.. Since these images are primarily used for weather forecast, meteorologists use them to get information about the characteristics of clouds related to their temperature, the temperature of the cloud layer, the degree of cloudness, the profiles of humidity content, the wind parameters, etc. Meteosat satellites Meteosat is the first European geostationary satellite designed for meteorological research. The use of these satellites enabled the surveying in the visible and the near IR part of the spectrum as well as in the infrared thermal and water steam track. Based on these images, it was possible to obtain data such as:  height of clouds, cloud spreading and moving, sea surface temperature, speed of wind, distribution of the water steam, balance of radiation, etc. Usage of satellite images in monitoring floods Satellite images are an excellent background and an initial phase for preventing severe catastrophic events caused by floods. Due to satellite images, it is possible to manage overflown regions before, during and after floods. This enables prevention, forecasting, detection and elimination of consequences, i.e. demage. Satellite images are of great help

  12. Management of severely damaged nuclear fuel and related waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report is concerned primarily with severe fuel damage accidents in large electric power producing reactors such as those in the TMI and Chernobyl plants. It does include, as appropriate, knowledge gained from accidents in other power, research and military reactors. It is believed that the conclusions and recommendations apply to a large extent to severe fuel damage accidents in all types of reactors. The period considered in this publication begins after the initial crisis of an accident has been brought under control. (This initial crisis could be from one day to several weeks after the event, depending on the specific conditions). Accordingly, it is assumed that the plant is shut down, the reactor is under control and decay heat removal is in progress in a stable manner so that attention must be given to cleanup. This report addresses the principles involved in planning, engineering, construction, operation and other activities to characterize, clean up and dispose of the fuel and related waste. The end of the period under consideration is when the fuel and abnormal wastes are packaged either for interim storage or final disposal and activities are started either to restore the plant to service or to establish a safe state from which decommissioning planning can start. 36 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs.

  13. Legal framework related to access to information and public participation on nuclear activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, M. C.; Bernaldez, A.L.; Ghiggeri, M.; Tula, C.

    2011-01-01

    The right of access to information by citizens about activities related to scientific and technological development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses, has evolved over time. Governments began to perceive the necessity and the benefits of informing the community, who manifested certain prejudices about nuclear activity as a consequence of the propelling of nuclear bombs in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. With the advent of environmental law and the influence of its principles, the idea of transparency of information in the nuclear field was imposed, and also the importance of both the inhabitants of countries with nuclear developments and neighbouring countries who may be affected by the bordering effects of ionizing radiation, could have access to information and to participate actively. The access to information and citizen participation has been institutionalized and reflected in international regulations through international conventions subscribed by our country and nationally through the National Constitution, the Provincials Constitutions, the City of Buenos Aires Constitution, Laws No. 25.675, 25.831 and PEN Decree No. 1172/03, among others. The present work aims to make an overview of the legal framework related to access to information on nuclear activity. (authors) [es

  14. Harmonization of health related environmental measurements using nuclear and isotopic techniques. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the particular strengths of nuclear methods is in analytical quality assurance, including the validation of analytical methods and the development of new analytical reference materials. These methodologies are therefore helping to harmonize the data produced not only by nuclear techniques themselves, but also by other non-nuclear methods of analysis. The aim of this symposium was to provide an international forum for discussion of these topics. Its programme covered a wide variety of applications of nuclear (and related) analytical techniques (mainly neutron activation analysis, energy dispersive X ray fluorescence, particle induced X ray emission and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) as used in the study of air particulates, solid waste products, sediments, food, water, human tissues, biomonitors and other kinds of environmental samples

  15. Kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro

    2001-01-01

    Resistive and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories are insufficient to adequately explain MHD phenomena in the high-temperature plasma. Recent progress in numerical simulations concerning kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena is summarized. The following three topics are studied using various models treating extended-MHD phenomena. (1) Kinetic modifications of internal kink modes in tokamaks with normal and reversed magnetic shear configurations. (2) Temporal evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode and fishbone mode in tokamaks with energetic ions. (3) Kinetic stabilization of a title mode in field-reversed configurations by means of anchoring ions and beam ions. (author)

  16. Investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository. Part A: Geology at Yucca Mountain. Part B: Modeling of hydro-tectonic phenomena relevant to Yucca Mountain. Annual report - Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, J.S.; Schluter, C.M.; Livingston, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    This document is an annual report describing investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository.This document describes research studies of the origin of near surface calcite/silica deposits at Yucca Mountain. The origin of these deposits is controversial and the authors have extended and strengthened the basis of their arguments for epigenetic, metasomatic alteration of the tuffs at Yucca Mountain. This report includes stratigraphic, mineralogical, and geochronological information along with geochemical data to support the conclusions described by Livingston and Szymanski, and others. As part of their first annual report, they take this opportunity to clarify the technical basis of their concerns and summarize the critical geological field evidence and related information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  17. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2017-07-15

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  18. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K.

    2017-01-01

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  19. Nuclear regulatory guides for LWR (PWR) fuel in Japan and some related safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, M.

    1994-01-01

    The general aspects of licensing procedure for NPPs in Japan and regulatory guides are described. The expert committee reports closely related to PWR fuel are reviewed. Some major results of reactor safety research experiments at NSPR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor of JAERI) used for establishment of related guide, are discussed. It is pointed out that the reactor safety research in Japan supports the regularity activities by establishing and revising guides and preparing the necessary regulatory data as well as improving nuclear safety. 10 figs., 4 refs

  20. Triton-3He relative and differential flows and the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Gaochan; Li, Baoan; Chen, Liewen

    2010-01-01

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence after-burner we study the triton- 3 He relative and differential transverse flows in semi-central 132 Sn + 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. We find that the triton- 3 He pairs carry interesting information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy. (author)

  1. Nuclear regulatory guides for LWR (PWR) fuel in Japan and some related safety research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, M [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The general aspects of licensing procedure for NPPs in Japan and regulatory guides are described. The expert committee reports closely related to PWR fuel are reviewed. Some major results of reactor safety research experiments at NSPR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor of JAERI) used for establishment of related guide, are discussed. It is pointed out that the reactor safety research in Japan supports the regularity activities by establishing and revising guides and preparing the necessary regulatory data as well as improving nuclear safety. 10 figs., 4 refs.

  2. The application of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques for environmental pollution studies in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and other related techniques to environmental samples from Viet Nam has been investigated. Results show that multielemental analysis of environmental samples and the determination of heavy metal pollution in the environment is best performed by a combination of techniques. Preliminary results of studying the environmental pollution associated with solid wastes are reported. 4 refs, 5 figs, 17 tabs

  3. Experimental study of the natural circulation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Torres, Walmir M.; Castro, Alfredo Jose Alvim de; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Rocha, Ricardo Takeshi Vieira da; Damy, Osvaldo Luiz de Almeida; Torres, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the natural circulation in experimental loops and extend the results to nuclear facilities. New generation of compact nuclear power plants use the natural circulation as cooling and residual heat removal systems in case of accidents or shutdown. Lately the interest in this phenomenon, by scientific community, has increased. The experimental loop, described in this paper, was assembled at Escola Politecnica - USP at the Chemical Engineering Department. It is the goal to generate information to help with the understanding of the one and two phase natural circulation phenomena. Some experiments were performed with different levels of heat power and different flow of the cooling water at the secondary circuit. The data generated from these experiments are going to be used to validate some computational thermal hydraulic codes. Experimental results for one and two phase regimes are presented as well as the proposed model to simulate the flow regimes with the RELAP5 code. (author)

  4. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table for K-DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kye Min; Kang, Myung Suk; Heo, Gyun Young; Kim, Hyoung Chan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the current status of the Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) for the conceptual design of K-DEMO, Korean Fusion DEMO Plant. K-DEMO is to be planned as the first fusion power plant constructed in South Korea. However, several key technologies such as plasma, materials, and cooling still have large uncertainties. There are also no relevant references to facilitate the design process of K-DEMO due to its different size, commercializing purpose, and regulatory framework. It was proposed to define the phenomena of systems, components, and processes in an accident condition. In this paper, PIRT for K-DEMO was described and analysis based on this tool was performed. We have carried out researches related to safety for fusion power plant in collaboration with the academies funded by NFRI during the past 3 years. As part of this research, Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM), which was used to develop GEN-IV nuclear systems, was used to determine the technical safety issues and regulatory requirements for K-DEMO. PIRT is one of ISAM tools. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional research. The results through this tool are expected to contribute on detailed design for K-DEMO as guidance for regulatory requirements and safety systems in the future

  5. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table for K-DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kye Min; Kang, Myung Suk; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the current status of the Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) for the conceptual design of K-DEMO, Korean Fusion DEMO Plant. K-DEMO is to be planned as the first fusion power plant constructed in South Korea. However, several key technologies such as plasma, materials, and cooling still have large uncertainties. There are also no relevant references to facilitate the design process of K-DEMO due to its different size, commercializing purpose, and regulatory framework. It was proposed to define the phenomena of systems, components, and processes in an accident condition. In this paper, PIRT for K-DEMO was described and analysis based on this tool was performed. We have carried out researches related to safety for fusion power plant in collaboration with the academies funded by NFRI during the past 3 years. As part of this research, Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM), which was used to develop GEN-IV nuclear systems, was used to determine the technical safety issues and regulatory requirements for K-DEMO. PIRT is one of ISAM tools. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional research. The results through this tool are expected to contribute on detailed design for K-DEMO as guidance for regulatory requirements and safety systems in the future.

  6. Sector activities related to spent nuclear fuel in the spanish nuclear power plants; Actuaciones sectoriales en relaci@n con el combustible nuclear gastado en las centrales nucleares espa@olas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, L.

    2016-07-01

    Royal Decree 102/2014 of February 21 defines spent nuclear fuel as the irradiated nuclear fuel in the reactor core that is permanently removed from it. Spent nuclear fuel can be considered either as a usable resource that can be reprocessed, or else as a radioactive waste destined for final disposal. Likewise, spent nuclear fuel management refers to all the activities related to handling, temporary storage, reprocessing and final storage. The article presents all the plans and actions taken by the nuclear power plants, which can be divided into the following two categories: Actions taken by the plants themselves to not only maintain the fuel in stable, safe conditions, but also to characterize and process it for the subsequent management routes established by the current General Radioactive Waste Plan. Activities undertaken under the UNESA umbrella to help implement the above mentioned management routes.

  7. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Structures - Overview of Methods and Related Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Dan J.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to provide an overview of the methods that are available for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete and metallic structures, and to provide an assessment of the status of methods that address inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. In meeting these objectives a general description of nuclear power plant safety-related structures was provided as well as identification of potential degradation factors, testing and inspection requirements, and operating experience; methods for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures and containment metallic pressure boundaries were identified and described; and applications of nondestructive evaluation methods specifically related to inspection of thick-section reinforced concrete structures and inaccessible portions of containment metallic pressure boundaries were summarized. Recommendations are provided on utilization of test article(s) to further advance nondestructive evaluation methods related to thick-section, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary representative of nuclear power plant containments. Conduct of a workshop to provide an update on applications and needed developments for nondestructive evaluation of nuclear power plant structures would also be of benefit.

  8. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Structures - Overview of Methods and Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to provide an overview of the methods that are available for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete and metallic structures, and to provide an assessment of the status of methods that address inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. In meeting these objectives a general description of nuclear power plant safety-related structures was provided as well as identification of potential degradation factors, testing and inspection requirements, and operating experience; methods for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures and containment metallic pressure boundaries were identified and described; and applications of nondestructive evaluation methods specifically related to inspection of thick-section reinforced concrete structures and inaccessible portions of containment metallic pressure boundaries were summarized. Recommendations are provided on utilization of test article(s) to further advance nondestructive evaluation methods related to thick-section, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary representative of nuclear power plant containments. Conduct of a workshop to provide an update on applications and needed developments for nondestructive evaluation of nuclear power plant structures would also be of benefit.

  9. Micro transport phenomena during boiling

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    "Micro Transport Phenomena During Boiling" reviews the new achievements and contributions in recent investigations at microscale. It presents some original research results and discusses topics at the frontier of thermal and fluid sciences.

  10. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos; Sun, Zhonghao

    2017-01-01

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration

  11. Renormalization group and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing

    2004-01-01

    The basic clue and the main steps of renormalization group method used for the description of critical phenomena is introduced. It is pointed out that this method really reflects the most important physical features of critical phenomena, i.e. self-similarity, and set up a practical solving method from it. This way of setting up a theory according to the features of the physical system is really a good lesson for today's physicists. (author)

  12. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneham, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the following issues are considered: containment failure modes; induced RCS ruptures; overview of containment challenges; hydrogen detonations; direct containment heating; long term containment overpressure; cavity issues in VVER-440/213; phenomenology related to in-vessel retention. The paper also presents the measured and calculated detonation cell width of the H 2 -air-steam mixtures for 100 0 C and constant air density (41.6 mole/m 3 ); dependence of result class on mixture and geometric classes; experimental data on turbulent jet initiation and Deflagration to Detonation Transition (DDT) in confined volumes are also presented

  13. Transient phenomena in multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    This book is devoted to formulation of the two-phase system. Emphasis is given to classical instantaneous equations of mass momentum and energy for local conditions and respective averaging procedures and their relevance to the structure of transfer laws. In formulating an equation for a two-velocity continuum, two-phase dispersed flow, two-velocity and local inertial effects associated with contraction and expansion of the mixture have been considered. Particular attention is paid to the effects of interface topology and area concentration as well as the latter's dependence on interfacial transfer laws. Also covered are low bubble concentrations in basic nonuniform unsteady flow where interactions between bubbles are negligible but where the effects of bubbles must still be considered. Special emphasis has been given to the pairwise interaction of the bubble and respective hydrodynamic equations describing the motion of a pair of spherical bubbles through a liquid This book introduces turbulence phenomena in two-phase flow and related problems of phase distribution in two-phase flow. This includes an extensive survey of turbulence and phase distribution models in transient two-phase flow. It is shown that if the turbulent structure of the continuous phase of bubbly two-phase is either measured or can be predicted, then the observed lateral phase distribution can be determined by using an multidimensional two-fluid model in which all lateral forces are properly modeled

  14. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  15. Sweden: The Swedish nuclear archive regulations and projects related to corporate memory. Annex I-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish radiation protection authority regulations on Filing at Nuclear Plants, SSI FS 1997:1, apply to filing of documentation that has been drawn up or received in connection with practices at nuclear plants. The regulations set out: -The minimum level of documentation; - Archiving requirements; -Availability periods; - Choice of data carrier; - Timely transfer to new media; - Requirements regarding safe keeping of documents. The regulations require that, if the nuclear activity ceases, the archives must be transferred to the Swedish national archives. Examples of the availability periods required for records and environmental specimens are as follows: (a) Operations related measurements - 25 years; (b) Emergency response plan - 50 years; (c) Report of an unusual event - 50 years; (d) Documents relating to final disposal - long term; (e) Environmental specimens - 10 years; (f) Records of measurements on specimens - long term

  16. Proceedings of Fifth International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques NURT 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The Cd-Rom presents papers submitted to the Fifth International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques NURT 2006 held in Havana, Cuba, on April, 2006. The NURT Symposia are one of the key Cuban scientific meetings dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in all domains of the society. They are arranged with a two-year frequency and provide a unique opportunity for the international scientific community to meet outstanding researches and to discuss current trends and task in several areas of applied, nuclear related topics. The first editions of the NURT were organized under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1997, 1999, 200, 2003 and hosted delegates and invited scientific from more than 40 countries from all over the world. The join several workshops, each one devoted to an specific field research

  17. Severe accidents and nuclear containment integrity (SANCY). SANCY summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, I. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    SANCY project investigates physical phenomena related to severe nuclear accidents with importance to Finnish nuclear power plants. Currently the major topics are the ex-vessel coolability issues, long-term severe accident management and containment leak tightness and adoption and development of new calculation tools considering also the needs of the future Olkiluoto 3 plant. SANCY employs both experimental and analytical methods. (orig.)

  18. Developing and using artificial intelligence related to nuclear energy in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, R.

    1995-01-01

    The artificial intelligence (AI) (including Expert Systems (ES), its most important branch) could have a certain place in the future developing of nuclear energy with impact on decision aids techniques and support systems, especially for nuclear safety and radiation protection area. First steps -some based on the Canadian experience - were already done in Romania, in developing AI techniques related to nuclear energy. Newcomers are recommended to start with modest and isolate problems in order to build up the necessary hand-on experience. The moment of the large scale AI implementation in the nuclear energy field will be decided by the balance between conventional computing and Ai computing and also between the advantages and disadvantages of AI. In this frame, the opportunity for research developing and using AI in the nuclear energy field is inherent and must be sustained by the research, design and plant operation authorities and also by the high education universities which are recommended to focus their interest towards the AI field for the next specialists in nuclear energy. (Author) 2 Figs., 2 Tabs., 7 Refs

  19. A method to forecast quantitative variables relating to nuclear public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, T.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for forecasting the future trend of quantitative variables profoundly related to the public acceptance (PA) of nuclear energy. The social environment influencing PA is first modeled by breaking it down into a finite number of fundamental elements and then the interactive formulae between the quantitative variables, which are attributed to and characterize each element, are determined by using the actual values of the variables in the past. Inputting the estimated values of exogenous variables into these formulae, the forecast values of endogenous variables can finally be obtained. Using this method, the problem of nuclear PA in Japan is treated as, for example, where the context is considered to comprise a public sector and the general social environment and socio-psychology. The public sector is broken down into three elements of the general public, the inhabitants living around nuclear facilities and the activists of anti-nuclear movements, whereas the social environment and socio-psychological factors are broken down into several elements, such as news media and psychological factors. Twenty-seven endogenous and seven exogenous variables are introduced to quantify these elements. After quantitatively formulating the interactive features between them and extrapolating the exogenous variables into the future estimates are made of the growth or attenuation of the endogenous variables, such as the pro- and anti-nuclear fractions in public opinion polls and the frequency of occurrence of anti-nuclear movements. (author)

  20. Toward Understanding Astrophysical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2015-06-01

    I hope to resume working on fast radio bursts (FRBs) in the near future. But after we completed our FRB paper, I decided to pause this project because of the lack of observational constraints. The pulsar triple system, J0733+1715, has its orbital parameters fitted to high accuracy owing to the precise timing of the central ms pulsar. The two orbits are highly hierarchical, namely Porb,1 " Porb,2, where 1 and 2 label the inner and outer white dwarf (WD) companions respectively. Moreover, their orbital planes almost coincide, providing a unique opportunity to study secular interaction associated purely with eccentricity beyond the solar system. Secular interaction only involves effect averaged over many orbits. Thus each companion can be represented by an elliptical wire with its mass distributed inversely proportional to its local orbital speed. Generally there exists a mutual torque, which vanishes only when their apsidal lines are parallel or anti-parallel. To maintain either mode, the eccentricity ratio, e1/ e2, must be of the proper value, so that both apsidal lines precess together. For J0733+1715, e1 " e2 for the parallel mode, while e 1 " e2 for the anti-parallel one. We show that the former precesses ˜10 times slower than the latter. Currently the system is dominated by the parallel mode. Although only a little anti-parallel mode survives, both eccentricities especially e1 oscillate on ˜103yr timescale. Detectable changes would occur within ˜1y. We demonstrate that the anti-parallel mode gets damped ˜10 4 times faster than its parallel brother by any dissipative process diminishing e1. If it is the tidal damping in the inner WD, we proceed to estimate its tidal quantity parameter (Q) to be ˜106, which was poorly constrained by observations. However, tidal damping may also happen during the preceding low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase or hydrogen thermal nuclear flashes. But, in both cases, the inner companion fills its Roche lobe and probably suffers