WorldWideScience

Sample records for related inventions program

  1. Energy-Related Inventions Program: an overview of the evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Bronfman, L.M.; Rorke, M.G.

    1983-09-01

    The Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) is jointly administered by the US Departments of Energy and Commerce. Grants were awarded for 165 of 208 inventions recommended by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Of the 165 inventions, 46 have been able to acquire follow-on financing from a variety of sources. Further, 35 of the inventions have reached the marketplace, and their cumulative sales to date total $178 million. An additional 10 inventions are now starting into production. Jobs that have been created directly by production related to the inventions total 756; additional spin-off jobs attributable to the inventions include component and material suppliers, jobbers, franchisees, and distributors. The program was recently evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the following conclusions: (1) the evaluation process at NBS has been successful in identifying technically and economically feasible inventions, (2) the success rate for the program is about equivalent to the reported success rates of private venture capital firms, (3) the program is supporting inventions at a point in their development where they are supported by neither the venture capital community nor industry, and (4) the one-time DOE grants and the associated ERIP support to inventors have been successful in readying inventors for follow-on financing from the private sector.

  2. Evaluation of Energy-Related Inventions Program: An Empirical Analysis of 204 Inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). It assesses the program's effectiveness and impacts, characterizes participating inventions and inventors, and identifies correlates of successful commercialization in order to suggest possible improvements. Seventy of the 204 ERIP inventions that were studied were successfully introduced into the market, accounting for more than $200M in sales from 1976 through 1984. During 1984, 921 full-time equivalent employees were supported directly by ERIP inventors or their licensees. (Estimates of indirect economic impacts are also contained in the report.) Data on patterns of fund raising clearly show a need for assistance by programs like ERIP. Commercially successful inventors shared several traits. They had less formal education, fewer patents, more work experience in small firms, more outside funding early in their work, more shared responsibility with others for invention development, more management experience, and greater previous experience with starting new businesses. Recommendations are made regarding: (1) priorities for allocating ERIP grants; (2) improved efficiency of the NBS/DOE operations; (3) delivery of technical and commercialization assistance to grant recipients; and (4) further evaluation research.

  3. The Energy-Related Inventions Program: A decade of commercial progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Franchuk, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, C.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This report provides information on the recent commercial progress of inventions supported by the US Department of Energy`s Energy-Related Inventions Programs (ERIP). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. It focuses on the economic impacts of the program, notably sales and employment benefits. The period of interest is 1980 through 1990. The evaluation is based on data collected through mail and telephone surveying of 143 participants in the Program. As of October 1989, a total of 486 inventions were recommended to DOE by the National Institute for Standards and Technology, which screens all submitted inventions in terms of technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1990, at least 109 of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of more than $500 million. With $25.7 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1990, and $63.1 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. It is estimated that 25% of all ERIP inventions had achieved sales by the end of 1990. While it is difficult to make exact comparisons between these percentages and other indicators of the success rates of technological innovations as a whole, the ERIP figures remain impressive. The commercial progress of spin-off technologies is also documented.

  4. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

  5. The Economic, Energy, and Environmental Impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

  6. The Energy-Related Inventions Program: A decade of commercial progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Franchuk, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Wilson, C.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This report provides information on the recent commercial progress of inventions supported by the US Department of Energy's Energy-Related Inventions Programs (ERIP). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. It focuses on the economic impacts of the program, notably sales and employment benefits. The period of interest is 1980 through 1990. The evaluation is based on data collected through mail and telephone surveying of 143 participants in the Program. As of October 1989, a total of 486 inventions were recommended to DOE by the National Institute for Standards and Technology, which screens all submitted inventions in terms of technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1990, at least 109 of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of more than $500 million. With $25.7 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1990, and $63.1 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. It is estimated that 25% of all ERIP inventions had achieved sales by the end of 1990. While it is difficult to make exact comparisons between these percentages and other indicators of the success rates of technological innovations as a whole, the ERIP figures remain impressive. The commercial progress of spin-off technologies is also documented.

  7. The energy-related inventions program: Continuing benefits to the inventor community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braid, R.B. Jr.; Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Rizy, C.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) - a technology commercialization program jointly operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1994. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1995 through mail and telephone surveys of 211 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 253 participants. As of September 1993, a total of 609 inventions had been recommended to DOE by NIST, which screens all submitted inventions for technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1994, at least 144 (or 24%) of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of $961 million (in 19944). It is estimated that in 1994 ERIP inventors earned royalties of $2.3 million, and over the lifetime of the program, royalties total $28.2 million. With $47.5 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1994 and $124 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. Further, it is estimated that at least 757 job-years of employment were supported by ERIP technologies in 1994, and that this resulted in a return of approximately $3.4 million in individual income taxes to the U.S. Treasury. Finally, approximately $334 million of energy expenditures were saved in 1994 as a result of the commercial success of five ERIP projects. These energy savings resulted in reduced emissions of 2.1 million metric tons of carbon in 1994 alone.

  8. A comparison group analysis of DOE`s Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Curlee, T.R.; Elliott, S.R.; Franchuk, C.A.

    1993-06-01

    Over the past decade, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted four evaluations of the economic impacts of the US DOE`s Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). None of these evaluations has involved the use of a comparison group. Instead, statistics on the innovation process have been compiled from a review of the literature. Unfortunately, the types of technologies and inventors documents by previous studies do not match those supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program. ERIP-supported technologies are diverse in both application and technical complexity. ERIP-supported inventors are a particular subset of inventors: the Program targets inventors who are either independently employed or are employees of a small business. The purpose of this task is to identify and characterize a matched comparison group of inventors whose progress can be compared with the progress of ERIP inventors. With this comparison group, we will be able to assess more accurately the impact of the ERIP support and thereby strengthen the program`s impact evaluations. This report is divided into six sections. As background to understanding the comparison group design and the results provided in this report, section 1.3 provides an overview of the Energy-Related Inventions Program. Section 2 describes the research design used to define and characterize a suitable comparison group. Section 3 presents comparative statistics describing both the comparison group and the ERIP technologies. Section 4 is more qualitative in nature; it describes four technologies in the comparison group that were commercially successful, focusing on how they succeeded in the absence of DOE/ERIP support. The report ends with a summary of its findings (section 5) and a list of references (section 6).

  9. A comparison group analysis of DOE's Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Curlee, T.R.; Elliott, S.R.; Franchuk, C.A.

    1993-06-01

    Over the past decade, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted four evaluations of the economic impacts of the US DOE's Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). None of these evaluations has involved the use of a comparison group. Instead, statistics on the innovation process have been compiled from a review of the literature. Unfortunately, the types of technologies and inventors documents by previous studies do not match those supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program. ERIP-supported technologies are diverse in both application and technical complexity. ERIP-supported inventors are a particular subset of inventors: the Program targets inventors who are either independently employed or are employees of a small business. The purpose of this task is to identify and characterize a matched comparison group of inventors whose progress can be compared with the progress of ERIP inventors. With this comparison group, we will be able to assess more accurately the impact of the ERIP support and thereby strengthen the program's impact evaluations. This report is divided into six sections. As background to understanding the comparison group design and the results provided in this report, section 1.3 provides an overview of the Energy-Related Inventions Program. Section 2 describes the research design used to define and characterize a suitable comparison group. Section 3 presents comparative statistics describing both the comparison group and the ERIP technologies. Section 4 is more qualitative in nature; it describes four technologies in the comparison group that were commercially successful, focusing on how they succeeded in the absence of DOE/ERIP support. The report ends with a summary of its findings (section 5) and a list of references (section 6).

  10. Invention Development Program Helps Nurture NCI at Frederick Technologies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Invention Development Fund (IDF) was piloted by the Technology Transfer Center (TTC) in 2014 to facilitate the commercial development of NCI technologies. The IDF received a second round of funding from the NCI Office of the Director and the Office of Budget and Management to establish the Invention Development Program (IDP) for fiscal year 2016. The IDP is using these funds to help advance a second set of inventions.

  11. Quantitative and theoretical analysis of the joint Department of Energy-National Institute of Standards and Technology Energy-Related Inventions Program from 1975 to 1995: Implications for development of public policy toward innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevenstein, Jack Edward

    This dissertation presents 18 alternative models for computing the social rate of return (SRR) of the joint Department of Energy (DOE)-National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) from 1975 to 1995. The models differ on the on the choice of societal benefit, adjustments made to the benefits, accounting for initial investments in ERIP and annual program appropriations. Alternative quantitative measures of societal benefit include annual gross market sales of successfully commercialized ERIP-supported inventions, annual energy savings resulting from the use of such inventions, pollution-remediation cost reductions due to decreased carbon emissions from greenhouse gases associated with more efficient energy generation. SRR computation employs the net present value (NPV) model with the SRR being the discount rate that reduces the NPV of a stream of societal benefits to zero over a period of n years given an initial investment and annual program appropriations. The SRR is the total rate of return to the nation from public investment in ERIP. The data used for computation were assembled by Dr. Marilyn A. Brown and her staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract to DOE since 1985. Other data on energy use and carbon emission from greenhouse gas production come from official publications of DOE's Energy Information Administration. Mean ERIP SRR = 412.7% with standard deviation = +/-426.5%. The population of the SRR sample is accepted as normally distributed at an alpha = 0.05, using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. These SRR's, which appear reasonable in comparison with those computed by Professor Edwin Mansfield, (Wharton School) for inventions and by Dr. Gregory Tassey (NIST Chief Economist) for NIST programs supporting innovations in measurement technology, show a significant underinvestment in public service technology innovation evaluation programs for independent inventors and small technology

  12. 32 CFR 37.870 - Should I require recipients to mark documents related to inventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... related to inventions? 37.870 Section 37.870 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... documents related to inventions? To protect the recipient's interest in inventions, your TIA should require the recipient to mark documents disclosing inventions it desires to protect by obtaining a patent. The...

  13. 10 CFR 603.870 - Marking of documents related to inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of documents related to inventions. 603.870... documents related to inventions. To protect the recipient's interest in inventions, the TIA should require the recipient to mark documents disclosing inventions it desires to protect by obtaining a patent. The...

  14. Transmedia marketing and re-invention of public relations

    OpenAIRE

    Jakus Dalibor; Zubčić Krešimir

    2016-01-01

    Many concepts have been developed to describe the convergence of media, public relations and storytelling formats in contemporary media systems. This article presents a theoretical reflection on “transmedia storytelling” from a perspective of integration narrative in the context of the re-invention of public relations. The rapid evolution of digital media technology and the emergence of transmedia storytelling present foresight professionals with a powerful new approach for communicating abou...

  15. Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second year of a three year study comparing the Pegasus to conventional tillage. So far, no downside has been with the Pegasus and the following benefits have been documented: (1) Energy savings of 65.0 kilowatt hours per hectare over conventional tillage. This is when the Pegasus plow is used to bury whole stalks, and represents a 70% savings over conventional tillage (92.5 kilowatt hours per hectare). (2) Four to seven fewer passes of tillage, depending on the particular situation. This represents a substantial time savings to farmers. (3) So far, no differences in cotton yields. Recent cotton boll counts in one study indicate a higher yield potential with the Pegasus. (4) No disease problems. (5) Significantly higher levels of organic matter in the soil. A hypothesis of the study is that whole stalk burial may reduce plant disease problems. This hypothesis has not yet been proven. (6) Significantly higher levels of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen trended higher but were not significantly different. This shows that whole stalk burial does not adversely affect the nitrogen cycle in the soil and may actually improve it. The marketing support stage of the project is also described in the report.

  16. Transmedia marketing and re-invention of public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakus Dalibor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many concepts have been developed to describe the convergence of media, public relations and storytelling formats in contemporary media systems. This article presents a theoretical reflection on “transmedia storytelling” from a perspective of integration narrative in the context of the re-invention of public relations. The rapid evolution of digital media technology and the emergence of transmedia storytelling present foresight professionals with a powerful new approach for communicating about the future. A transmedia story unfolds across multiple media platforms with each new text making a distinctive and valuable contribution to the whole. Between other, this article also outlines some of the key principles and elements of transmedia storytelling in combination with modern public relations, in order to provide a basic framework that public relations practitioner can use when designing transmedia projects.

  17. From Invention to Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorke, M.

    2000-07-18

    The Inventions and Innovation Program, formerly known as ERIP (Energy-related Inventions Program), was established by the U.S. Congress in 1974. The program offers assistance to independent inventors and very small businesses engaged in developing new energy-saving technologies. The program remains clearly focused on energy generation and savings. The I&I Program funding is based on a competitive proposal process.

  18. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  19. Invention: Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jiyoon

    2008-01-01

    The author presents an invention contest to help students document the development process of inventions. By developing an invention, writing an inventor's log, and drawing an invention poster, students experience the whole process of invention and understand how to take their own ideas to the next level. (Contains 2 tables.)

  20. Invented Spelling, Word Stress, and Phonological Awareness in Relation to Reading Difficulties in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current research is to assess the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determine whether invented spelling and word stress (supra-segmental level measures) can also be used to better identify reading difficulties. The proposed invented spelling tool incorporated linguistic manipulations to alter the difficulty…

  1. The Nature of Radical Inventions

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOENMAKERS, Wilfred

    2007-01-01

    Inventions come in many different forms ranging from incremental technical change to radical inventions. Radical inventions are very important for industry competition as well as for individual firm survival. In spite of many theoretical discussions on the effect of radical inventions the specific nature of radical inventions has so far remained relatively unclear. We try to shed some light on the nature of these radical inventions by investigating a group of radical, as well as a group of no...

  2. DOE-energy related inventions program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, W.E.

    1998-05-13

    About five years ago development work began on a new concept for processing metal powders at high temperature under various special atmospheres, The process was called mechanical fluidization. The machine which performs the process is known as a Mechanical Fluidized Vacuum (MFV) machine because it is possible to fluidize material in a vacuum, something that heretofore was impossible. In an MFV machine, a horizontally disposed retort is two-thirds filled with material and rotated at a speed that keeps the material in a fluffed up or fluidized state. It`s turning a lot faster than a kiln, but not fast enough to cause the material to centrifuge outward and stick to the walls. In this mechanically fluidized state it was discovered that the thermal transfer rate between powders and amongst parts immersed in those powders is extremely fast, faster even than a gas fluidized bed despite the total lack of gas in the retort. Figure 1 compares the heat transfer rate in air, in a vibratory bed, in a gas fluidized bed and a rotary fluidized bed. As shown, the rotary fluidized bed heat transfer is much faster than all the others. Fluidization is entirely mechanical so no gas at all is required for fluidization; only the gas required for processing need be directed to the retort. It is possible to fluidize material in a vacuum - a feat heretofore impossible.

  3. 77 FR 7095 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definition of Technological Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... (Office or USPTO) proposes a new rule to implement the provision of the Leahy- Smith America Invents Act... of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act will take effect on September 16, 2012, one year after the... message over the Internet addressed to: [email protected] . Comments may also be submitted by...

  4. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to miscellaneous areas of environmental experties and invention that are available for licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be licensed to businesses or individuals for further development and sale in the marketplace. These technologies relate to ecological research, human health, and manufacturing.

  5. Trick-or-Treat Candy-Getters and Hornet Scare Devices: Second Graders Make Creative Inventions Related to Animal Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Baldwin, Samantha; Schell, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This repeated measures study examined second graders' (n = 21) performance in creating inventions related to animal adaptations for simple products under two conditions that alternated each week for a six-week period. In the analogy condition, students used form and function analogy object boxes to learn about animal adaptations, applying these…

  6. Invented Spelling, Word Stress, and Syllable Awareness in Relation to Reading Difficulties in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheena; Ding, Yi; Ness, Molly; Chen, Eric C

    2017-12-06

    The study assessed the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determined whether invented spelling with linguistic manipulation at segmental and supra-segmental levels can be used to better identify reading difficulties. We conducted linguistic manipulation by using real and nonreal words, incorporating word stress, alternating the order of consonants and vowels, and alternating the number of syllables. We recruited 60 third-grade students, of which half were typical readers and half were poor readers. The invented spelling task consistently differentiated those with reading difficulties from typical readers. It explained unique variance in conventional spelling, but not in word reading. Word stress explained unique variance in both word reading and conventional spelling, highlighting the importance of addressing phonological awareness at the supra-segmental level. Poor readers had poorer performance when spelling both real and nonreal words and demonstrated substantial difficulty in detecting word stress. Poor readers struggled with spelling words with double consonants at the beginning and ending of words, and performed worse on spelling two- and three-syllable words than typical readers. Practical implications for early identification and instruction are discussed.

  7. Leisure Time Invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Lee N.; Davis, Jerome D.; Hoisl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the contextual factors that influence whether invention occurs during work time or leisure time. Leisure time invention, a potentially important but thus far largely unexplored source of employee creativity, refers to invention where the main underlying idea occurs while...... the employee is away from the workplace. We build on existing theory in the fields of organizational creativity and knowledge recombination, especially work relating context to creativity. The paper’s main theoretical contribution is to extend our understanding of the boundaries of employee creativity...... by adding to the discussion of how access to and exploitation of different types of resources—during work hours or during leisure time — may affect creativity. Based on survey data from more than 3,000 inventions from German employee inventors, we find that leisure time inventions are more frequently...

  8. [Medical inventions: developments and approaches in employer-employee [correction of worker-employee] relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Zvi

    2012-11-01

    The past twenty years have witnessed a huge increase in research activity on the government health system in Israel. Consequently, a number of questions of enhanced importance arise: to whom the resultant IP (intellectual property) belongs?--to the researcher or the employer? and what compensation should the researcher receive for his inventive efforts? The government found many cases where the IP was registered in the name of the inventor/researcher, thus denying the government ownership of the IP. In 2009, the government sued Omryx over ownership of such an IP. Following these developments, the government issued new rules for management of IP in the government health system. They came into effect in November 2010. In many respects, the new rules are more stringent than the Israeli Patent Law in respect of the inventor. However, the stipulation of awards to the inventor in the new rules is generous. In order for the new rules to be enforceable, the following guidelines are recommended: The new rules should be more aligned with the Patent Law and with the meaning given to the Law by the judicial system, and There is need for the assent and awareness of health system workers to the conditions set out in the new rules, preferably in the form of new work contracts that clearly and concurrently delineate the worker's duties, particularly those pertaining to IP.

  9. Revocation of European patent for neural progenitors highlights patent challenges for inventions relating to human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Cells derived from human embryonic stem cells have great therapeutic potential. Patents are key to allowing companies that develop methods of generating such cells to recuperate their investment. However, in Europe, inventions relating to the use of human embryos for commercial purposes are excluded from patentability on moral grounds. The scope of this morality exclusion was recently tested before Germany's highest court and before the European Patent Office (EPO), with diverging results. The decision by the EPO's Opposition Division to revoke EP1040185 relating to neural precursors and methods for their generation has received a mixed reception. The decision has very recently been appealed, and the outcome of this Appeal should provide more definitive guidance on the scope of the morality exclusion.

  10. NIST energy related inventions - electronic starter device for fluorescent lamps. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Due to silicon supplier failures to produce the 03/04 triac silicon as specified in the original proposal, the direction of the starter program was migrated to use available off the shelf power semiconductors. This had unexpected positive side effects including a reduction in component price, improved quality, and the refocus of engineering efforts to concentrate on the Super ASIC core technology. The starter program has begun shipments employing this new architecture, and is being well received both in the US and abroad. In its present form, the starter meets the original cost projections within 20%. Work is continuing on the 0.8 micron ASIC, which will allow for the starter to sell below $1.00 in volume. Even at the slightly higher price, interest is strong in replacing the low performance glow starter for small fluorescent applications with a high performance alternative.

  11. Inventing Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnytsky, Peter L

    2008-06-01

    Written to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Freud's birth, this paper construes Nina Coltart's statement that "if Freud did not exist it would be necessary to invent him," with its implicit comparison of Freud to God, to refer to (a) the things that Freud taught that are incontrovertibly true; (b) the unavoidable subjectivity in all judgments of Freud; and (c) the resemblances between psychoanalysis and religion. This last comparison is likewise seen to have both positive and negative aspects. Freud's ideas have inspired many people, yet he unscientifically arrogated sovereign authority over psychoanalysis. Freud's admirers are reminded of his extreme difficulty in admitting he was wrong and changing his mind when he should have known better, while his detractors are encouraged to consider the evidence supporting many of Freud's core tenets and to recognize that his discovery of psychoanalysis is indeed one of the supreme achievements in human history.

  12. Inventions: Waiting for Eureka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelfried, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Legend has it that when Archimedes made a discovery related to water displacement, he leapt out of a bath declaring, "Eureka!" Whether true or not, the tale serves as a symbol for the notion that a burst of inspiration can lead to an exciting new discovery. Most books about inventions, however, tell a different story. The path from the germ of an…

  13. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to miscellaneous areas of environmental experties and invention that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  14. An overview on inventions related to ginger processing and products for food and pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubra, Ismail R; Jaganmohanrao, Lingamallu

    2012-04-01

    The rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger, is one of the most widely used spice and condiment. The nonvolatile pungent compounds (namely gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and zingerone) are some of the extensively studied phytochemicals and account for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and gastro protective activities. This review a persuasive presentation of the current information regarding the patents that have been granted during the last decade related to the processing of ginger with an emphasis on the methods of extraction and mechanisms exploited for health claims for ginger-containing foods and pharmaceutical compositions. Further studies are required for the validation of the beneficial uses of ginger. Formulation for novel products and new usages may emerge in the years to come, basing on the revealed results of various studies.

  15. Deepening Learning through Learning-by-Inventing

    OpenAIRE

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that deep approaches to learning, intrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning have strong positive effects on learning. How those pedagogical theories can be integrated in computing curricula is, however, still lacking empirically grounded analyses. This study integrated, in a robotics-based programming class, a method of learning-by-inventing, and studied its qualitative effects on students’ learning through 144 interviews. Five findings were related with learning the...

  16. Invented Spelling of EFL Young Beginning Writers and Its Relation with Phonological Awareness and Grapheme-Phoneme Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tung-hsien; Wang, Wen-lien

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates the invented spellings of young EFL writers in terms of the relationship between phonological awareness and internalized grapheme-phoneme principles. Two kindergarteners and two first graders participated in weekly English writing tasks for 14 months. Results obtained from protocols of the students' free writing…

  17. Human-tissue-related inventions: ownership and intellectual property rights in international collaborative research in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andanda, P A

    2008-03-01

    There are complex unresolved ethical, legal and social issues related to the use of human tissues obtained in the course of research or diagnostic procedures and retained for further use in research. The question of intellectual property rights over commercially viable products or procedures that are derived from these samples and the suitability or otherwise of participants relinquishing their rights to the samples needs urgent attention. The complexity of these matters lies in the fact that the relationship between intellectual property rights and ownership or rights pertaining to the samples on which the intellectual property right is based may either be overlooked or taken for granted. What equally makes the matter complex is that samples may be obtained from participants in developing countries and exported to developed countries for analysis and research. It is important for research ethics committees to tread carefully when reviewing research protocols that raise such issues for purposes of ensuring that appropriate benefit sharing agreements, particularly with developing countries, are in place. This paper attempts to analyse the key questions related to ownership and intellectual property rights in commercially viable products derived from human tissue samples. Patent law is used as a point of reference as opposed to other forms of intellectual property rights such as industrial designs because it is the right that most inventors apply for in respect of human tissue-related inventions. The key questions are formulated following a systematic analysis of peer reviewed journal articles that have reported original investigations into relevant issues in this field. Most of the cases and reported studies that are referred to in this paper do not directly deal with HIV/AIDS research but the underlying principles are helpful in HIV/AIDS research as well. Pertinent questions, which members of ethics review committees should focus on in this regard are discussed and

  18. A Method, Computer Program and System for Inferring Relations Between Cultural Specific Concepts in Two Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method, computer program and system for inferring relations between cultural specific concepts (CSC) in two cultures at least comprising the steps of - extracting and listing said cultural specific concepts (CSCs) and features of said CSCs from at least a first...

  19. Patents on inventions related to human embryonic stem cells: the morality clause after Brüstle v. Greenpeace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyses the meaning of Article 6, para. 2, sub c of the Biotechnology Directive prohibiting patents on inventions using human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes. It first examines the evolution ofthe Court of Justice ofthe EU's interpretation of this provision (which is part of the morality clause) and focuses on its most recent decision, Brüstle v. Greenpeace. This is considered a landmark case for three reasons: firstly, because it defines for the first time the term "embryo" in patent law; secondly, because it is the Court of Justice (and not EPO) that ruled on patent law; the third reason is its very broad interpretation of the morality exclusion. The exclusion is no longer limited to embryos but is extended to (even banked) embryonic stem cells and all downstream products made with them. It then looks into the consequences for the patentability of inventions using cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, such as Brüstle's invention. The recent decision by Germany's Federal Court of Justice on the validity of Brüstle's patent emphasises the limited influence on the patentability of those inventions. After that, the paper addresses possible cuts in funding stem cell research and even legislative bans of this type of research. This is followed by an evaluation of the existence and content of the morality exclusion. After a comparative analysis with the US, which is lacking in such morality exclusion, the paper concludes that the morality clause as a whole paid its dues but the provision on the use of human embryos is questionable as there is no European consensus against the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes.

  20. Inventing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    and the website offers services as a calendar displaying anniversaries, different guestbook facilities etc. With a departure point in the works of, among others, Castells and Lofland, we argue that online mourning groups reflects different stagings or ritualizations of grief that reflect different aspects...... by designing online memory spaces for their loved one(s) displaying photographs, poetry, stories and expressions of grief and longing. They take part in expressions of empathy for others by lighting candles for other people's loved ones, they share their personal experiences in different chatrooms...... or degrees of the private and/or public by including different agents, different social matrices and different levels of performativity. In doing so we focus on the performative ritualization and relation-building strategies displayed on the website. Our basic assumption is that mindet.dk forms a genuine...

  1. The Great Invention Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammontree, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Instead of a science fair, the author's intermediate school holds an invention convention. Guided by an Inventor's Log, students must problem solve, think creatively, and budget their time and resources to brainstorm and build an invention. The inventions are built at home, with parental support and supervision. Then, when everyone is ready, the…

  2. DOE-energy related inventions program: [Develop method to treat industrial powders]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, W.E.

    1998-05-13

    In a Mechanical Fluidized Vacuum machine a horizontally disposed retort is two-thirds filled with material and rotated at a speed that keeps the material in a fluidized state. The objective of this project was to build and demonstrate a machine to thermally treat up to 600 kg lots of metal and cermet powders to temperatures of 940C with low energy cost and environmental impact. Quantification tests of many powders were conducted, design machine modification was done to expand the basic machine, a retort was constructed and prepared, and performance trials were made on the final machine. Final tests were conducted on a retort measuring 22 inches in diameter and 30 inches long. Operating cost data are presented.

  3. Inventors and Inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Tom

    An 8-day unit introduces middle school students to American inventors and inventions. In separate lessons, students examine the patenting process, women inventors, minority inventors, Native American inventors, the airplane, Thomas Edison, and the impact of inventions on America's growth. A brief outline of daily lesson plans precedes a section of…

  4. Invention, Rewriting, Usurpation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Anders-Christian; Ulrich, Jörg; Brakke, David

    2011-01-01

    Conference volume from the conference Invention, Rewriting, Usurpation. Discursive Fights over Religious Traditions in Antiquity, Aarhus / Ebeltoft May 30 - June 4, 2010.......Conference volume from the conference Invention, Rewriting, Usurpation. Discursive Fights over Religious Traditions in Antiquity, Aarhus / Ebeltoft May 30 - June 4, 2010....

  5. 14 CFR 1245.302 - Inventions by NASA employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inventions by NASA employees. 1245.302... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.302 Inventions by NASA employees. (a) The foreign rights of NASA and of the NASA employee making an invention are determinable in accordance with...

  6. 14 CFR 1245.301 - Inventions under NASA contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inventions under NASA contracts. 1245.301... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.301 Inventions under NASA contracts. (a... providing for the granting of a waiver of title to a contractor to any identified invention in countries...

  7. 77 FR 71004 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and Inventions; Delegation of... administer and make decisions regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and patents in which CDC and the Department have an interest. This...

  8. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  9. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unity of invention before the... Invention § 1.475 Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International... application shall relate to one invention only or to a group of inventions so linked as to form a single...

  10. The Origins of Radical Inventions

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOENMAKERS, Wilfred; DUYSTERS, Geert; VANHAVERBEKE, Wim

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the special characteristics of radical inventions. It tries to identify those variables that differentiate radical inventions from non-radical inventions. Since radical inventions are very important for the economy as a whole and for the individual firm performances, understanding what makes radical inventions differ from non-radical inventions is very important. For our research we made use of the EPO (European Patent Office) database on patents. We used the number of for...

  11. Science of invention patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeong Taek; Park, Su Dong

    1999-02-15

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  12. The Software Invention Cube: A classification scheme for software inventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    2008-01-01

    The patent system protects inventions. The requirement that a software invention should make ‘a technical contribution’ turns out to be untenable in practice and this raises the question, what constitutes an invention in the realm of software. The authors developed the Software Invention Cube

  13. The software invention cube: A classification scheme for software inventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; P. Klint (Paul)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThe patent system protects inventions. The requirement that a software invention should make ‘a technical contribution’ turns out to be untenable in practice and this raises the question, what constitutes an invention in the realm of software. The authors developed the Software Invention

  14. Public Relations for Invisible Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciani, Linda

    1983-01-01

    The positive features of nonperformance programs such as general music and music appreciation should be communicated often and effectively to the community. There are many effective publicity media appropriate for nonperformance programs. (AM)

  15. 42 CFR 59.210 - Inventions or discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventions or discoveries. 59.210 Section 59.210... PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.210 Inventions or discoveries. Any grant.... Laboratory notes, related technical data, and information pertaining to inventions and discoveries shall be...

  16. How can I invent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-15

    This book gives descriptions of how to invent with various and useful tips. The contents of this book are set up the proper goal according to your condition, let's find the other use, change the order and put a replacement, search more convenience, have application of color characteristic, imitation is beginning of the invention, convert imitation into creation, look into the deserted idea, learn the basic science, catch the stream of times, try to study hard, have a big dream, change your way of thinking, develop the system, and throw away the stereotype.

  17. Science, technology and inventions: Children draw their own visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, G.; Rubbia, G.; Marsili, A.

    2013-12-01

    Italian primary schools participated with enthusiasm to the drawing competition 'I'm a scientist too! Science and scientists from the children point of view' organized by the Laboratorio di Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. The best drawings were awarded and published in the 2011 school calendar. Children were asked to realize a drawing, choosing among three suggestions: 1) How do you imagine a scientist, and how do you imagine the daily activities of a researcher? 2) What invention do you consider the most important among all those you know? 3) What would you invent? The topic 'invention' (#3) was the most successful. In fact, among the collected 1,000 drawings, 400 drawings depict scientists, nearly 150 depict scientists with their inventions, and other 350 depict inventions alone. A classification scheme was designed in order to synthetically describe this set of images and analyze it. The Draw-A-Scientist scheme, known from literature, was maintained but modified in order to characterize both inventors and inventions. A preliminary analysis about scientists reveals a persistent gender stereotype, since most of depicted persons were male and nearly half of girls draw men scientists. The image of 'mad scientist' is still present but it is mainly related to men. Women scientists are drawn by girls; they are represented as young, not crazy, usually good-looking. There are no particular differences between boys and girls in assigning research fields to scientists. Women scientists are often depicted as assistants, but when alone they are self-confident enough to give their name to an invention or to aspire for Nobel Prize. In this work we present the preliminary analysis performed on drawings containing inventions. What do girls and boys 6 to 11 years old invent? Robots, helping in housekeeping or in doing homework; rockets, space vehicles and time machines, but also fictional machines and

  18. The Soul of Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott Reynolds

    2013-01-01

    Technology shifts gears. The workers who control it need to learn how to shift gears, too. Workers brought up with universal schooling would respect authority, learn enough "geometry and mechanics" to use in their trades, keep invention alive, and finally see through "the interested complaints of faction and sedition." In other…

  19. Not-Invented-Here

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; Fosfuri, Andrea

    knowledge, the so-called Not-Invented-Here (NIH) syndrome. Drawing on multi-informant survey data of small and medium-sized Danish enterprises, the paper finds that socialization practices are an important driver of the NIH syndrome with such an effect being attenuated in technologically highly specialized...

  20. Impact of bioethics on patentability of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaiah, Vishwas H

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of bioethics on patent claims. The increase in research activities involving human biological materials, and the rush to commercialise inventions derived from such biological materials, can at times result in unethical conduct of research. Questions arise as to whether patent law should concern itself with tainted research that has resulted in an invention or whether it should grant patent rights solely on the basis of the technical improvements resulting from such research. This paper highlights the significance of ethical practice in biomedical research, an issue that may influence the decision to grant patents on inventions. It explores the relation between morality, bioethics and patents from the perspective of the objectives of the patent system and current developments in the law on patents. The inclusion of the morality provision in patent law introduces a mechanism through which inventions derived from tainted research can be filtered at an early stage.

  1. Testing a Nested Skills Model of the Relations among Invented Spelling, Accurate Spelling, and Word Reading, from Kindergarten to Grade 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Monique

    2017-01-01

    The goal was to assess the role of invented spelling to subsequent reading and spelling as proposed by the Nested Skills Model of Early Literacy Acquisition. 107 English-speaking children were tested at the beginning of kindergarten and grade 1, and at the end of grade 1. The findings provided support for the proposed model. First, the role played…

  2. 45 CFR 7.1 - Duty of employee to report inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty of employee to report inventions. 7.1 Section... INVENTIONS § 7.1 Duty of employee to report inventions. Every Department employee is required to report to... therefor, every invention made by him (whether or not jointly with others) which bears any relation to his...

  3. Fuel on the Invention Funnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Reichstein, Toke; Boccardelli, Paolo

    In this paper, we examine the impact of technology licensing-in on firm invention performance. Studying a sample of 266 licensees and matched non-licensees using a two-part model specification, we find that licensees are more likely to introduce inventions than their non-licensee counterparts....... This holds both if we consider invention in general, and invention in the licensed technological class only. We also show that familiarity with the licensed technology and technological specialization drives licensees to pursue a narrow invention strategy primarily focusing on the technological class...

  4. Seeking Social Inventions to Improve the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Social inventions are new ways of solving human problems. This article reports on an action research project designed to find social inventions to reduce structural lag in four programs that support the transition to adulthood of marginalized youth in Latin America. The investigators engaged youth and staff members in identifying important…

  5. 77 FR 32642 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and Inventions; Delegation of... and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and patents...

  6. Federal Outdoor Recreation Programs and Recreation-Related Environmental Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This is the first revision of "Federal Outdoor Recreation Programs," updating information first provided in May, 1968, by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation in cooperation with other Federal agencies. Programs described in this publication broadly reflect the scope of Federal involvement in outdoor recreation and related environmental efforts. The…

  7. I can invent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-15

    This book introduces the inventions which are unique and interesting. The titles of these are pots which boil very quick and safe, a desk with a pencil case, a scale which is not rusty, a book cover with a pocket, a skate with wax and mop, a seat belt airbag, a desk lamp which can control the light, a desk in the future, a recycling bin for cans, a blackboard eraser which erase very well, a useful crutches, swimming goggles attached convex lens, flower pots using waste tires, toilet paper holder with sawtooth, a brush which washes a flask, improved pump for petroleum.

  8. A Relational Algebra Query Language for Programming Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Anderson, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Relational Algebra Query Language (RAQL) and Relational Algebra Query (RAQ) software product we have developed that allows database instructors to teach relational algebra through programming. Instead of defining query operations using mathematical notation (the approach commonly taken in database textbooks), students…

  9. EDITORIAL: INVENTING NEW PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One impact of globalization is that contemporary issues will rapidly come to fore. In fact, they frequently do not derive from Islamic knowledge or Islamic ethics. They even often do not go with Islamic identities. In sum, such issues will become a challenge for Islamic studies. Due to the challenges, it is notable to pose a question: whether viewpoints having been exercised by scholars in Islamic studies are workable for strong globalization stream or vice versa? Seemingly, if the perspectives do not stand for new global phenomenon, Islamic studies will be marginalized or put aside by both muslims and others. Accordingly, this is because of worldly affairs demand. Given this, efforts leading to the invention of new perspectives are urgent.

  10. Featured Invention: Laser Scaling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    In September 2003, NASA signed a nonexclusive license agreement with Armor Forensics, a subsidiary of Armor Holdings, Inc., for the laser scaling device under the Innovative Partnerships Program. Coupled with a measuring program, also developed by NASA, the unit provides crime scene investigators with the ability to shoot photographs at scale without having to physically enter the scene, analyzing details such as bloodspatter patterns and graffiti. This ability keeps the scene's components intact and pristine for the collection of information and evidence. The laser scaling device elegantly solved a pressing problem for NASA's shuttle operations team and also provided industry with a useful tool. For NASA, the laser scaling device is still used to measure divots or damage to the shuttle's external tank and other structures around the launchpad. When the invention also met similar needs within industry, the Innovative Partnerships Program provided information to Armor Forensics for licensing and marketing the laser scaling device. Jeff Kohler, technology transfer agent at Kennedy, added, "We also invited a representative from the FBI's special photography unit to Kennedy to meet with Armor Forensics and the innovator. Eventually the FBI ended up purchasing some units. Armor Forensics is also beginning to receive interest from DoD [Department of Defense] for use in military crime scene investigations overseas."

  11. An Experiment in Teaching Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that invention can be taught to business students who do not have the prior technical knowledge that is assumed to be a requirement for this kind of activity. Design/methodology/approach: This paper contains reflections on the results of introducing a specific course in inventing based on the…

  12. 75 FR 4570 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Industry Analysts, Inc. ( http://www.strategyr.com/Magnetic_Resonance_Imaging_MRI_Equipment_Market_Report... applications. Signal-to-Noise Enhancement in Imaging Applications Using a Time-Series of Images Description of Invention: The invention offered for licensing relates to the field of imaging and specifically to the field...

  13. 75 FR 63841 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    .../Magnetic_Resonance_Imaging_MRI_Equipment_Market_Report.asp ). In the United States the market for such...; [email protected] . Signal-to-Noise Enhancement in Imaging Applications Using a Time-Series of Images Description of Invention: The invention offered for licensing relates to the field of imaging and specifically...

  14. Invention-driven marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, William E.

    1994-01-01

    Suppose you have just created a revolutionary bicycle suspension which allows a bike to be ridden over rough terrain at 60 miles per hour. In addition, suppose that you are deeply concerned about the plight of hungry children. Which should you do: be sure all hungry children have bicycles; transfer the technology for your new suspension to bicycle manufacturers worldwide; or start a company to supply premium sports bicycle based on your patented technology, and donate the profits to a charity which feeds hungry children? Woven through this somewhat trivial example is the paradox of technology transfer - the supplier (owner) may want to transfer technology; but to succeed, he or she must reformulate the problem as a user need for which there is a new and better solution. Successful technology transfer is little more than good marketing applied to an existing invention, process, or capability. You must identify who needs the technology, why they need it, why the new technology is better than alternatives, how much the customers are willing and able to pay for these benefits, and how to distribute products based on the technology tc the target customers. In market-driven development, the term 'technology transfer' is rarely used. The developers focus on studying user needs and designing solution They may have technology needs, but they don't have technology in search of a use.

  15. Examining the Relationship between Emergent Literacy Skills and Invented Spelling in Prekindergarten Spanish-Speaking Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Meghan; Bingham, Gary; Patton-Terry, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among English and Spanish emergent literacy skills of prekindergarten (pre-K) Spanish-speaking dual language learners in relation to their English invented spelling. Study participants included 141 Spanish-speaking 4-year-old children enrolled in state-funded pre-K programs in a large…

  16. Radical versus Non-Radical Inventions

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenmakers, Wilfred; Duysters, Geert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the special characteristics of radical inventions. It tries to identify those variables that differentiate radical inventions from non-radical inventions. Since radical inventions are very important for the economy as a whole and for the individual firm performances, understanding what makes radical inventions differ from non-radical inventions is very important. For our research we made use of the EPO (European Patent Office) database on patents. We used...

  17. Para que servem os inventários de fauna?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fábio Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventários de fauna acessam diretamente a diversidade de uma localidade, em um determinado espaço e tempo. Os dados primários gerados pelos inventários compõem uma das ferramentas mais importantes na tomada de decisões a respeito do manejo de áreas naturais. Entretanto, vários problemas têm sido observados em diversos níveis relacionados aos inventários de fauna no Brasil e vão desde a formação de recursos humanos até a ausência de padronização, de desenho experimental e de seleção de métodos inadequados. São apresentados estudos de caso com mamíferos, répteis, anfíbios e peixes, nos quais são discutidos problemas como variabilidade temporal e métodos para detecção de fauna terrestre, sugerindo que tanto os inventários quanto os programas de monitoramento devam se estender por prazos maiores e que os inventários devem incluir diferentes metodologias para que os seus objetivos sejam plenamente alcançados.Inventories of fauna directly access the diversity of a locality in a certain period of time. The primary data generated by these inventories comprise one of the most important steps in decisions making regarding the management of natural areas. However, several problems have been observed at different levels related to inventories of fauna in Brazil, and range from the training of humans to the lack of standardization of experimental design and selection of inappropriate methods. We present case studies of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and fishes, where they discussed issues such temporal variability and methods for detection of terrestrial fauna, suggesting that both inventories and monitoring programs should be extended for longer terms and that inventories should include different methodologies to ensure that their goals are fully achieved.

  18. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental

  19. 43 CFR 6.53 - Unpatented inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unpatented inventions. 6.53 Section 6.53... Unpatented inventions. The Secretary of the Interior may also have transferable interests in inventions which... benefit of the public, a license may be granted with respect to such an invention only if (a) a patent...

  20. Invention through Form and Function Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    "Invention through Form and Function Analogy" is an invention book for teachers and other leaders working with youth who are involving students in the invention process. The book consists of an introduction and set of nine learning cycle formatted lessons for teaching the principles of invention through the science and engineering design…

  1. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-15

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  2. Must an inventor "possess" an invention to patent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Warren D; Chadwick, Robin A

    2014-09-18

    The requirements for patenting inventions relating to biotechnology have become increasingly strict and complicated in recent years. Despite early patent rulings that there is no need for an inventor to "reduce to practice" an invention, the courts are now ruling that an inventor must "possess" his or her invention before filing for patent. This review discusses what such "possession" may mean and describes decisions in which courts have found that an inventor has met or failed the possession test before filing for patent protection. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. How easy the invention is

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2002-05-15

    This book deals with the inventions invented by kids such as a utility helmet, a useful drawing board, automatic safe device, telephone for the blind, a peaceful washboard, roly poly milk bottle, seat belt with height control, gas hose to prevent thief, portable magic soap, useful bus handle, convent desk, a paper cup attached a spoon, a useful washboard, dressing room using moveable small cymbals, fluorescent light which is easy to put in a new one, rods for night, curtain for cars, spray shampoo, and a good calendar.

  4. 20 CFR 638.518 - Intergroup relations program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intergroup relations program. 638.518 Section... relations program. The center operator shall conduct a structured intergroup relations program designed to... racial/ethnic groups and between men and women. The program shall be developed in accordance with...

  5. Economy and Transparency: The Model Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relation of Transparency and Economic growth is a long global debate in the society. Theoretically, policy makers, scholars and researchers argue that there is a close relation among these two variables. However, the quantitative relation and any global model is yet unrevealed. So, the main aim of this paper is to ascertain the nature, dimension and extent of the relationship between economy and Transparency as well as to invent a global model. This paper is useful for researchers, planners, policy makers and scholars who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the thrust for quantitative relation of these two variables. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In introductory section, this paper briefly describes theoretical relationship of economy and Transparency as well as it also describes the proxy variables.GDP (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of Economy and Corruption Perception Index (CPI scores (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of level of Transparency. In methodology section this paper describes the detail methodology, sampling procedure and level of analysis. This study randomly selects 30 countries (10 from higher CPI scores+10 from moderate CPI scores+ 10 from lower CPI scores around the globe as sample. In the third section, this research presents the correlation value which divulge that there is a positive correlation (p=.047 with 95% confidence level. That reveals, if the level of transparency of any country increase, the GDP also increase accordingly. Then in this section two quantitative models are developed using linear regression analysis. First invented model is: Economy (GDP in billion US$ = [(8.983*Level of transparency -108.11]. This paper termed the first invented model as “Mahmud EcoT Model-1”. This model calibrates that one unit improvement of transparency leads 8.98 billion US$ improvement in the GDP of a country. Then taking this unit

  6. Heisenberg's Invention of Matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ically related to these 2-index objects, a(n1,n2) exp (−inω(n1,n2)t). So, he already had the idea that position in quantum mechanics can have a very different meaning, and he was also able to define xqm mathematically. Then he tried to discover the algebra of this object by exploring the multiplication of two xqm. To discover.

  7. Nanotechnological inventions considerably improve performance characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The invention «The method of production of carbon nanomaterial (RU 2509053» can be used as an additive for concretes and polymers which significantly improves their performance characteristics. The method of production of carbon nanomaterial consists of the following stages: preliminary preparation of sphagnous moss when it is refined from foreign admixtures, dried up to 10% humidity and ground, then ground material is exposed to pyrolysis under the temperature 850–950оC for 1–2 hours and cooled up to the environment temperature. After that amorphous carbon obtained in pyrolysis is treated with mechanical activation in the variable planetary mill for 7–10 hours. The invention makes it possible to provide increased outcome of nanotubes with high cleanliness. The invention «The method of production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them (RU 2509626» relates to the powder metallurgy. Powder metal chloride or powder mixture at least of two metal chlorides is treated in the environment of the water steam which is supplied in reaction space at the rate of 50–100 ml/min at the temperature 400–800оC at the presence of absorbent carbon or introducing carbon oxide (II obtained during dissolution of formic acid HCOOH. The invention provides reliable production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them from 3-d metal range: Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn which can be used in powder metallurgy to improve baking process, in chemical industry as the fillers of polymers and reaction catalysts; as additives to anticorrosive covers, etc.

  8. Neither invented nor shared here

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Knudsen, M. P.; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2014-01-01

    against the sourcing of external knowledge (the Not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome) and against the external exploitation of knowledge assets (the Not-shared-here (NSH) syndrome). Using survey data collected from 331 firms, this article empirically assesses the theoretical assertion that the NIH and NSH...

  9. Invention of the Integrated Circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 11. Invention of the Integrated Circuit. Jack S Kilby. Classics Volume 17 Issue 11 November 2012 pp 1100-1115. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/11/1100-1115 ...

  10. The Invention of "The Invention of Hugo Cabret"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selznick, Brian

    2008-01-01

    "The Invention of Hugo Cabret" is a story about Georges Melies that the author began thinking about over 15 years ago and took about two-and-a-half years to complete. The book is about a boy named Hugo Cabret, an orphan living secretly in the walls of a train station in Paris who becomes involved in a mystery that ties him together with a mean old…

  11. Simultaneous invention and the patent law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    inventions they often find this to challenge the idea that patent law (which rewards only the first inventor with exclusive rights) is needed to encourage invention and innovation. We review the empirical evidence alleged to show that simultaneous invention is prevalent for important inventions. In general...... is typical of important pioneer inventions in both survey evidence and alleged illustrative cases of simultaneous invention. We show this in the cases of Edison, the Wright brothers, the Selden automobile patent vis a vis Ford, Watt and the steam engine. We then point out that patent law inherently ensures...... that patent protection is not extended to near simultaneous inventions. There remain a number of simultaneous inventions discovered through interference proceedings but we find the number too small to mount a serious challenge to the general operation of patent law....

  12. Humanisme : inventer l'avenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Federico

    2014-06-01

    Humanism: inventing the future - Humanity is still confronted by the scourges of poverty, hunger, violence and inequality. If we are to invent a better future, we must first understand the past, recalling the missed opportunities of 1918, 1945 and 1989, at the end of two world wars and a cold war. This article summarises the proposals put forward by the author on several occasions during his career. He expresses a forceful confidence in humankind's ability to take control of its destiny and shake off government that puts economic interest before universal human values. The twenty-first century should be the era of rebellion in cyberspace, one in which more women and young people are involved in decision making, heralding a future of freedom and happiness for all.

  13. Inventions and developments of democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    In traditional approaches to the history of political ideas, the history of democracy is uniformly studied concerning the point of departure, selection of canonical texts, etc. The paper introduces the Koselleckian conceptual history approach (Begriffsgeschichte) and the principle of a broader se...... selection of texts than in the traditional history of ideas to provide a fuller account of usages of the concept, thereby opening up for alternative conceptions of the inventions and development of democracy....

  14. 77 FR 27365 - Inventions and Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1240 RIN 2700-AD51 Inventions and Contributions AGENCY: National... Brief awards, and to update citations and the information on the systems used for reporting inventions... Invention and Contributions Board Awards for Scientific and Technical Contributions , were published at 25...

  15. Licensing-In Fosters Rapid Invention!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Reichstein, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on contractual economics and innovation management, licensing-in is hypothesized to accelerate licensees' invention process. Studying a matched dataset of licensees and non-licensees, licensees are shown to be faster at inventing, but the effect is negated if the license includes a grant...... the incentives to invent under these circumstances...

  16. 45 CFR 650.9 - Unwanted inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unwanted inventions. 650.9 Section 650.9 Public... Unwanted inventions. (a) The Foundation will normally allow any patent rights not wanted by the awardee or... statutory invention registration under section 157 of title 35 of the United States Code. Except as provided...

  17. Non-Intentional Invention: The Promethean, Trickster, and Improvisational Invention Heuristics of Academic Writers and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This essay introduces a novel way to conceptualize writerly invention -- invention as adopting a non-intentional intellectual stance wherein heuristics are experienced as acting upon the writer as opposed to being enacted by the writer. This view of invention complicates and extends the traditional, Aristotelian view of invention as discreet…

  18. Invention Zaman Barok dan Pengembangan Permainan Piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIANTI MARDALENA PASARIBU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Invention in Barok Era and The Development of Piano Lesson. In piano lesson, one material of parts towhich had been given is polyphony, which is an Invention from J.S. Invention is a basic fi nger-skill for pianist.Invention develops in the Baroque period. The baroque ideology is not only called as the reaction of Renaissance,but also as the continuing development from Renaissance. Invention is known in two forms. First is as a pianocomposition and second is as a piano play which can push a pianist to understand more about an arrangement thathe played and expressed.

  19. Can Universities Profit from General Purpose Inventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad; Beaudry, Catherine; Agard, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The lack of control over downstream assets can hinder universities’ ability to extract rents from their inventive activities. We explore this possibility by assessing the relationship between invention generality and renewal decisions for a sample of Canadian nanotechnology patents. Our results...... show that general purpose inventions enjoy a longer legal life. Although private sector organizations renew their patents at a higher rate than universities, the gap between the two sectors decreases as invention generality increases. However, there is little indication that the most general purpose...... inventions owned by universities survive for longer than the ones owned by private sector organizations....

  20. Base Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2008-06-30

    The main objective of the Base Research Program was to conduct both fundamental and applied research that will assist industry in developing, deploying, and commercializing efficient, nonpolluting fossil energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting the energy requirements of the Nation. In that regard, tasks proposed under the WRI research areas were aligned with DOE objectives of secure and reliable energy; clean power generation; development of hydrogen resources; energy efficiency and development of innovative fuels from low and no-cost sources. The goal of the Base Research Program was to develop innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources--coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the overall Base Program. This document represents a stand-alone Final Report for the entire Program. It should be noted that an interim report describing the Program achievements was prepared in 2003 covering the progress made under various tasks completed during the first five years of this Program.

  1. Chemistry. Inventing the nanomolecular wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jay

    2005-10-07

    The wheel is considered the canonical invention leading to all manner of mechanical devices. Rotating machinery is also being investigated at the nanoscale as researchers attempt to create molecular analogs of wheels and motors. But will these devices be merely imitations of macroscopic machines? In his Perspective, Siegel discusses results reported in the same issue by Fletcher et al. in which a four-stroke chemical nanoengine is reported. By a series of bond-breaking and bond-forming steps, a molecular structure is caused to undergo directed rotation. The development of structures of this kind, which are not merely miniaturized macromachines, may lead to other devices for executing controlled oscillatory motion.

  2. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered income...

  3. The Effects of Instruction of Creative Invention on Students' Situational Interest in Physics Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tim

    There are a few empirical studies (Palmer, 2008; Dohn, 2010) or intervention programs (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000) about students' situational interest in physics lessons, although the declining interest in physics among students has been well documented in the research literature (Gardner, 1998 ; International Bureau for Education, 2001; European Commission, 2007; Oon & Subramaniam, 2011). Even in the research area of science education, yet little is known about how to trigger students' catching and holding situational interest in a physics lesson. In this study, five intervention lessons of creative invention were developed. Each lesson consists of three parts including Eberle's (1971, 1972) SCAMPER technique on the creative thinking, knowledge and concepts of physics curriculum, hands-on activities related to both SCAMPER technique and physics concepts. Two surveys were developed and used to measure the situational interest and individual interest of students in physics lessons. Qualitative conversational interviews were used to interpret the sources of situational interest of students in physics lessons. Results in this study indicate that new inventive products and television programs or films related to SCAMPER can trigger the catching interest in physics lessons. Meaningful hands-on activities related to both SCAMPER technique and physics concepts can trigger the holding interest in physics lessons. There is no significant difference in situational interest among students with different academic abilities except in the topic related to electronic components. The students with lower academic ability have greater situational interest than the students with higher academic ability in learning the topic related to electronic components. There is no significant difference in situational interest between boys and girls except in the topic related to revolving paper lantern. Girls have higher situational interest than boys in learning the topic related to revolving

  4. 76 FR 4921 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... related conditions such as obesity, hypertension, heart disease and hyperlipidemia. This invention relates... ultimately fails to cure the disease since cancer cells can become resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent... Mobility Group N 3 (HMGN3) as a marker for detecting diabetes and as a therapeutic agent for treating...

  5. 77 FR 23429 - Examples of Program-Related Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... additional PRI examples that reflect current investment practices and illustrate certain principles... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BK76 Examples of Program-Related Investments AGENCY... contains proposed regulations that provide guidance to private foundations on program-related investments...

  6. Reluctant genius Alexander Graham Bell and the passion for invention

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The popular image of Alexander Graham Bell is that of an elderly American patriarch, memorable only for his paunch, his Santa Claus beard, and the invention of the telephone. In this magisterial reassessment based on thorough new research, acclaimed biographer Charlotte Gray reveals Bell's wide-ranging passion for invention and delves into the private life that supported his genius. The child of a speech therapist and a deaf mother, and possessed of superbly acute hearing, Bell developed an early interest in sound. His understanding of how sound waves might relate to electrical waves enabled h

  7. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    . The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...... of the transformation of academic science into patents, particularly how university scientists take a fragmented approach to the patenting process, while scientists employed in private companies can reap the benefits of close interaction with patenting experts ? experts who potentially can assume responsibility...

  8. 76 FR 13193 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ...: The invention offered for further commercial development relates to the coupling of virtual reality... virtual reality environments is sought for a CRADA collaboration. Inventors: Hyung S. Park (NIH/CC) and... generated by the MRI. As the magnitude of the induced RF signal increases, the amount of heat that is...

  9. Effects of Using Invention Learning Approach on Inventive Abilities: A Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkraso, Paisan; Sitti, Somsong; Piyakun, Araya

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to enhance inventive abilities for secondary students by using the Invention Learning Approach. Its activities focus on creating new inventions based on the students' interests by using constructional tools. The participants were twenty secondary students who took an elective science course that provided instructional units…

  10. Evaluating Metacognitive Scaffolding in Guided Invention Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Ido; Holmes, Natasha G.; Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Invention and Productive Failure activities ask students to generate methods that capture the important properties of some given data (e.g., uncertainty) before being taught the expert solution. Invention and Productive Failure activities are a class of scientific inquiry activities in that students create, implement, and evaluate mathematical…

  11. Inventions for future sustainable development in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Beers, P.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is directed to the importance of different inventions as driver for sustainable development of agriculture. Inventions are defined as radical new ideas, perspectives and technologies that hold the potential to trigger a change in sustainable agriculture. Innovation is based on one or

  12. The Invention and Early History of the N-Localizer for Stereotactic Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Russell A; Nelson, James A

    2016-06-14

    Nearly four decades after the invention of the N-localizer, its origin and history remain misunderstood. Some are unaware that a third-year medical student invented this technology. The following conspectus accurately chronicles the origin of the N-localizer, presents recently discovered evidence that documents its history, and corrects misconceptions related to its origin and early history.

  13. EXAMINATION OF TEACHER CANDIDATES’ METAPHORS RELATED TO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    YAYLA, Gamze; DEMİRCİOĞLU, Handan

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine teachercandidates’ metaphors related to teacher education programs. Research sampleconsisted of 230 seniors, who studied programs in Elementary Science andTechnology Education (n=170) and Secondary Mathematics Education (n=60)Departments. The data were collected by means of the teacher candidates’completion of the statement “Teacher education programs are like … because …”.In this research phenomenological research design was used and data wereanalyzed by mea...

  14. Another of CERN's many inventions!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN has often been the incubator for the development of innovative technologies but very few people know about the capacitive touch screens invented for the consoles of the SPS Control Room in 1973. The Bulletin interviewed their inventor, Bent Stumpe, who also developed the CERN tracker ball and the computer-programmable knob.   Bent Stumpe, inventor of the CERN touch screens, tracker ball and programmable knob. Here we see him with one the first touch screens developed in 1973.   A specific goal, a lot of motivation and the technical skills to do it: that’s all you need to create something nobody else has ever done before. Back in the 1970s, the SPS was being built and its control room required the installation of thousands of buttons, knobs, switches and oscilloscopes to operate the machine. Frank Beck, newly recruited from the DD Division to be in charge of the central control hub in the SPS control room, asked Bent Stumpe for solutions to the following problem: how to bui...

  15. Immediate and delayed effects of invented writing intervention in preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofslundsengen, Hilde; Hagtvet, Bente Eriksen; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    This study examined the effects of a 10 week invented writing program with five-year-old preschoolers (mean age 5.7 years) on their immediate post intervention literacy skills and also the facilitative effects of the intervention on the subsequent learning to read during the first 6 months of schooling. The study included 105 children (54 girls) from 12 preschools in Norway. The preschools were randomly assigned to the experimental group with the invented writing program, or the control group with the ordinary program offered to preschoolers. The classroom-based programs (40 sessions) were conducted by the children's regular teachers. The children's emergent literacy skills were evaluated using a pre-test, a post-test and a follow-up test 6 months later, and the data were analyzed using latent autoregressive models. The results showed that the invented writing group performed significantly better than the control group on the post-test for the measures of phoneme awareness ( d  = .54), spelling ( d  = .65) and word reading ( d  = .36). Additionally, indirect effects were observed on the delayed follow-up tests on phoneme awareness ( d  = .45), spelling ( d  = .48) and word reading ( d  = .26). In conclusion, we argue that invented writing appeared to smooth the progress of emergent literacy skills in preschool, including the subsequent reading development in school. Contextualized in a semi-consistent orthography and a preschool tradition that does not encourage the learning of written language skills, the findings add to our knowledge of how children learn to write and read.

  16. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    525–533. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics. AKIRA OZAWA. RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. Abstract. Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large ...

  17. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  18. Relating LANDSAT ETM+ and forest inventory data for mapping successional stages in a tropical wet forest / Relacionando LANDSAT ETM+ e dados de inventário florestal para mapeamento estádios sucessionais em uma floresta tropical úmida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio G. Gonçalves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, we test whether an existing classification technique based on the integration of LANDSAT ETM+ and forest inventory data enables detailed characterization of successional stages in a tropical wet forest site. The specific objectives were: (1 to map forest age classes across the La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica; and (2 to quantify uncertainties in the proposed approach in relation to field data and existing vegetation maps. Although significant relationships between vegetation hight entropy (a surrogate for forest age and ETM+ data were detected, the classification scheme tested in this study was not suitable for characterizing spatial variation in age at La Selva, as evidenced by the error matrix and the low Kappa coefficient (0.129. Factors affecting the performance of the classification at this particular study site include the smooth transition in vegetation structure between intermediate and late successional stages, and the low sensitivity of NDVI to variations in vertical structure at high biomass levels. ResumoNesse estudo, testamos se uma técnica de classificação existente, baseada na integração de imagens LANDSAT ETM+ e os dados de inventário florestal, permite a caracterização detalhada dos estádios sucessionais em uma área de floresta tropical úmida. Os objetivos específicos foram: (1 mapear classes de idade florestal na Estação Biológica La Selva, na Costa Rica, e (2 quantificar as incertezas da abordagem proposta em relação aos dados de campo e mapas de vegetação existente. Apesar de terem sido detectadas relações significativas entre dados ETM+ e medidas de entropia da altura da vegetação (um substituto para a idade florestal o sistema de classificação testados nesse estudo não se demonstrou adequado para caracterizar a variação espacial em idade em La Selva, como evidenciado pela matriz de erro e o baixo coeficiente Kappa (0,129. Fatores que afetam o desempenho da

  19. Explicitly searching for useful inventions: dynamic relatedness and the costs of connecting versus synthesizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsieh, C.

    2011-01-01

    Inventions combine technological features. When features are barely related, burdensomely broad knowledge is required to identify the situations that they share. When features are overly related, burdensomely broad knowledge is required to identify the situations that distinguish them. Thus,

  20. Multiple, connective intellection: the condition for invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S (Fanie de Beer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since this article involves invention, the conditions for inventiveness become the issue: assuming multiple reality; thinking in a special way; transgressing boundaries; acknowledging networks (in the terms of Michel Serres: communication, transduction, interference, distribution, passages between the sciences. There are, however, misplaced expectations: technology should work wonders in this regard while forgetting that humans, redefined though, remain the key to establish connections and networks between people, paradigms, disciplines, sciences and technologies. Against this background, Michel Serres’s emphasis on invention and “thinking as invention” and his a-critical anti-method – ‘connective, multiple intellection’ which is a special kind of thought – are desperately needed. Guattari’s articulation of the three ecologies and the ecosophic views he developed in this regard provides a significant amplification of the approach of ‘multiple connective intellection’. These insights can be enlightened and strongly driven home through the views of Latour with an anthropological and socio-dynamic perspective on the scientific endeavour with the articulation of the actor-network theory inherited from Serres. The thoughtful beyond-methodology of Edgar Morin with his strong noological position as the ultimate condition for inventiveness, and Gregory Ulmer with his special emphasis on invention and inventiveness, especially with the help and assistance of electronic means (video and internet, and with his work with the architect Bernard Tschumi on invention and inventiveness, are of special significance in the sphere of inventiveness, the real and final guarantee for a spirited re-enchantment of the world as well as the final demonstration that the battle for intelligence as opposed to ignorance, stupidity and barbarism can be fought with great hope to succeed.

  1. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-15

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  2. 78 FR 13905 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, have...

  3. 78 FR 13906 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, have...

  4. 77 FR 54934 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, have...

  5. 78 FR 19743 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, have...

  6. 78 FR 19744 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, have...

  7. 77 FR 54936 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, have...

  8. Setting New Priorities: Enhancing the School-Community Relations Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Eddy J.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a one-day workshop format for initiating a solid community relations program. During the workshop, teachers and administrators work together to prioritize new and existing community-relations options and select adhoc committees to develop implementation plans. Typical options include school-business partnerships, teacher home visitation,…

  9. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...

  10. Technological novelty profile and invention's future impact

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Daniel; Jeong, Hawoong; Youn, Hyejin

    2015-01-01

    We consider inventions as novel combinations of existing technological capabilities. Patent data allow us to explicitly identify such combinatorial processes in invention activities. Unconsidered in the previous research, not every new combination is novel to the same extent. Some combinations are naturally anticipated based on patent activities in the past or mere random choices, and some appear to deviate exceptionally from existing invention pathways. We calculate a likelihood that each pair of classification codes is put together at random, and a deviation from the empirical observation so as to assess its overall novelty (or conventionality) the patent brings forth at each year. An invention is considered as unconventional if a pair of codes therein is unlikely to be used together given the statistics in the past. Temporal evolution of the distribution indicates the patenting activities become more being established with occasional cross-over combinations. Our analyses show that patents introducing novel...

  11. The Invention of Tradition: Illyrian Heraldry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-01-01

    The "Illyrian heraldry", as a phenomenon of the invented tradition, encompasses the rolls of arms - armorials, which appear in Dalmatia, Italy, Spain and Austria at the end of the XVI and beginning of the XVII century...

  12. How James Watt invented the copier forgotten inventions of our great scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Schils, René

    2012-01-01

    Features 25 different scientists and the ideas which may not have made them famous, but made history… Typically, we remember our greatest scientists from one single invention, one new formula or one incredible breakthrough. This narrow perspective does not give justice to the versatility of many scientists who also earned a reputation in other areas of science. James Watt, for instance, is known for inventing the steam engine, yet most people do not know that he also invented the copier. Alexander Graham Bell of course invented the telephone, but only few know that he invented artificial breathing equipment, a prototype of the ‘iron lung’. Edmond Halley, whose name is associated with the comet that visits Earth every 75 years, produced the first mortality tables, used for life insurances. This entertaining book is aimed at anyone who enjoys reading about inventions and discoveries by the most creative minds. Detailed illustrations of the forgotten designs and ideas enrich the work throughout.

  13. The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Illy, József

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...

  14. Inventions Utilizing Microfluidics and Colloidal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, David W.; Gong, Tieying; Oakey, John; Terray, Alexander V.; Wu, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Several related inventions pertain to families of devices that utilize microfluidics and/or colloidal particles to obtain useful physical effects. The families of devices can be summarized as follows: (1) Microfluidic pumps and/or valves wherein colloidal-size particles driven by electrical, magnetic, or optical fields serve as the principal moving parts that propel and/or direct the affected flows. (2) Devices that are similar to the aforementioned pumps and/or valves except that they are used to manipulate light instead of fluids. The colloidal particles in these devices are substantially constrained to move in a plane and are driven to spatially order them into arrays that function, variously, as waveguides, filters, or switches for optical signals. (3) Devices wherein the ultra-laminar nature of microfluidic flows is exploited to effect separation, sorting, or filtering of colloidal particles or biological cells in suspension. (4) Devices wherein a combination of confinement and applied electrical and/or optical fields forces the colloidal particles to become arranged into three-dimensional crystal lattices. Control of the colloidal crystalline structures could be exploited to control diffraction of light. (5) Microfluidic devices, incorporating fluid waveguides, wherein switching of flows among different paths would be accompanied by switching of optical signals.

  15. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... concerning invention promoters and responses from the invention promoters to these complaints. An individual may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter to the USPTO, which will forward the complaint...

  16. 43 CFR 6.2 - Report of invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of invention. 6.2 Section 6.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.2 Report of invention. (a) Every invention made by an employee of the Department shall be reported...

  17. 37 CFR 1.297 - Publication of statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention registration. 1.297 Section 1.297 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions Protests and Public Use Proceedings § 1.297 Publication of statutory invention registration. (a) If the request for a statutory invention registration is approved the statutory invention...

  18. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the complaint...

  19. 38 CFR 1.654 - Patenting of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patenting of inventions... PROVISIONS Inventions by Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs § 1.654 Patenting of inventions. Any invention owned by the Government under the criteria as set forth in 37 CFR 501.6 should be protected by an...

  20. 75 FR 18826 - Notice of Inventions Available for License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Notice of Inventions Available for License AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of inventions available for license. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy hereby announces that the following invention is.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 35 U.S.C. 207 authorizes licensing of government owned inventions. Implementing...

  1. 32 CFR 746.5 - Government inventions available for licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government inventions available for licensing... PROCUREMENT, PROPERTY, PATENTS, AND CONTRACTS LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT INVENTIONS IN THE CUSTODY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY § 746.5 Government inventions available for licensing. Government inventions normally...

  2. 10 CFR 784.5 - Waiver of identified inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of identified inventions. 784.5 Section 784.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PATENT WAIVER REGULATION § 784.5 Waiver of identified inventions. This... particular identified subject invention. In determining whether such a waiver of an identified invention will...

  3. 75 FR 5305 - Notice of Inventions Available for License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... of Inventions Available for License AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of inventions available for license. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy hereby announces that the following invention is... inventions. Implementing regulations are contained in 37 CFR 404. Issued in Washington, DC, on January 27...

  4. 37 CFR 1.73 - Summary of the invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1.73 Summary of the invention. A brief summary of the invention indicating its nature and substance, which may include a statement of the object of the invention, should precede the detailed description. Such summary should, when set forth, be commensurate with the invention as claimed and any object...

  5. Designing a New Program in Family Relations and Applied Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sharon Mayne; Daly, Kerry; Lero, Donna; MacMartin, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, which is offered at the University of Guelph, is an interdisciplinary department that previously offered three undergraduate majors: child, youth, and family; applied human nutrition; and gerontology; as well as graduate programs at the master's and doctoral levels. Several factors have precipitated a review…

  6. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  7. Matisse's "Radical Invention": a window on therapeutic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J David

    2013-04-01

    A recent exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, "Matisse: Radical Invention 1913-1917," focused on a breakthrough in Matisse's art that the curators attribute to the impact of World War I. That this dramatic change may be linked to the trauma of war is explored by studying the art itself, biographical material, and the artist's own insightful comments. The thesis is advanced that the catastrophe in Europe aggravated Matisse's neurotic conflicts and that his art reflects his effort to resolve these conflicts through new compromise formations and, more significantly, sublimation. Sublimation is discussed as it relates not only to the "radical invention" of Matisse's wartime art but also to a concurrent transformation of his personality. These ideas about Matisse are applied to clinical vignettes in a consideration of the role of sublimation in a contemporary view of therapeutic change.

  8. Must an Inventor “Possess” an Invention to Patent It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Warren D.; Chadwick, Robin A.

    2014-01-01

    The requirements for patenting inventions relating to biotechnology have become increasingly strict and complicated in recent years. Despite early patent rulings that there is no need for an inventor to “reduce to practice” an invention, the courts are now ruling that an inventor must “possess” his or her invention before filing for patent. This review discusses what such “possession” may mean and describes decisions in which courts have found that an inventor has met or failed the possession test before filing for patent protection. PMID:25237144

  9. Efficient Compensation for Employees' Inventions: An Economic Analysis of a Legal Reform in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Will, Birgit E.; Kirstein, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The German law on employees' inventions requires employees to report to their employer any invention made in relation with the work contract. An employer claiming the right to the invention is obliged to pay a compensation to the employee. Up to now, this compensation is a matter of negotiations. A reform proposal seeks to introduce a combination of a fixed payment and a share of the project value. Regulations like this can also be found at U.S. universities. Up to now, German scholars enjoye...

  10. Developing Mathematization with Physics Invention Tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Brahmia, Suzanne; Kanim, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Experts in physics develop and communicate ideas through mathematization, the mental practice of translating between the physical world and the symbolic world. Research in mathematics education and physics education has shown that introductory college physics students often struggle with the idiosyncratic ways that familiar mathematics is used in physics. Additional work has shown that invention tasks have promise as an instructional approach for helping students use math flexibly and generatively in science and in statistics. In this paper we describe our physics invention tasks,* classroom activities designed to support construction of quantitative physics concepts and relationships and to prepare students to better understand the reasoning introduced in subsequent formal instruction. We share results from a preliminary study of the impact of physics invention tasks in a reformed introductory calculus-based physics course. The reformed course, taught by one of the authors and designed specifically for mathe...

  11. Safety riding program and motorcycle-related injuries in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Chatchaipan, Pornthip; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul

    2013-09-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Thailand from 2007 to 2009 to evaluate the efficacy of a safety riding program in preventing motorcycle-related injuries. A training group of motorcyclists were certified by the Asia-Pacific Honda Safety Riding Program in either 30-h instruction (teaching skills, riding demonstration) or 15-h license (knowledge, skills, and hazard perception) courses. The control group consisted of untrained motorcyclists matched on an approximately 1:1 ratio with the training group by region and date of licensure. In total, there were 3250 subjects in the training group and 2963 in the control group. Demographic data and factors associated with motorcycle-related injuries were collected. Motorcycle-related injuries were identified using the Road Injuries Victims Protection for injuries claims and inpatient diagnosis-related group datasets from the National Health Security Office. The capture-recapture technique was used to estimate the prevalence of injuries. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors related to motorcycle-related injuries. The prevalence of motorcycle-related injuries was estimated to be 586 out of 6213 riders (9.4%) with a 95% confidence interval (CI): 460-790. The license course and the instruction course were significantly associated with a 30% and 29% reduction of motorcycle-related injuries, respectively (relative risk 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.92 and 0.71, 95% CI: 0.42-1.18, respectively). Other factors associated with the injuries were male gender and young age. Safety riding training was effective in reducing injuries. These training programs differ from those in other developed countries but display comparable effects. Hazard perception skills might be a key for success. This strategy should be expanded to a national scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. L’invention poétique ou l’invention du poème

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Marteau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Que signifie inventer en poésie ? En quoi un poème serait-il l’objet d’une invention ? De Joachim du Bellay à Francis Ponge, on s’efforce de tirer un fil dans l’histoire de la poésie où l’invention poétique, en général, devient l’invention d’un poème en particulier : l’invention d’un objet au sein d’un genre lui-même toujours à inventer. On s’intéresse ainsi au fonctionnement du poème et au principe de sa mise en marche, un fonctionnement organique où le lecteur joue un rôle essentiel de déclencheur, d’« agent commutateur » comme le dit Ponge. Dès lors, la poésie n’apparaît plus seulement comme un art du faire, elle est également toute entière tournée vers son à-venir que soutient et que rend possible toute lecture ; aussi son invention (son invenire est-elle toujours cet avoir-lieu qui n’a jamais lieu, elle est ce qui arrive au poème et fait de lui l’objet de cet avènement que réactive chaque lecture.

  13. Translating three states of knowledge--discovery, invention, and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joseph P; Flagg, Jennifer L

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge Translation (KT) has historically focused on the proper use of knowledge in healthcare delivery. A knowledge base has been created through empirical research and resides in scholarly literature. Some knowledge is amenable to direct application by stakeholders who are engaged during or after the research process, as shown by the Knowledge to Action (KTA) model. Other knowledge requires multiple transformations before achieving utility for end users. For example, conceptual knowledge generated through science or engineering may become embodied as a technology-based invention through development methods. The invention may then be integrated within an innovative device or service through production methods. To what extent is KT relevant to these transformations? How might the KTA model accommodate these additional development and production activities while preserving the KT concepts? Stakeholders adopt and use knowledge that has perceived utility, such as a solution to a problem. Achieving a technology-based solution involves three methods that generate knowledge in three states, analogous to the three classic states of matter. Research activity generates discoveries that are intangible and highly malleable like a gas; development activity transforms discoveries into inventions that are moderately tangible yet still malleable like a liquid; and production activity transforms inventions into innovations that are tangible and immutable like a solid. The paper demonstrates how the KTA model can accommodate all three types of activity and address all three states of knowledge. Linking the three activities in one model also illustrates the importance of engaging the relevant stakeholders prior to initiating any knowledge-related activities. Science and engineering focused on technology-based devices or services change the state of knowledge through three successive activities. Achieving knowledge implementation requires methods that accommodate these three

  14. Proteomic analysis of fetal programming-related obesity markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Yoo, Jae Young; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Lee, Sang Mi; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Young Ju

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze fetal programming in rat brain using proteomic analysis and to identify fetal programming-related obesity markers. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four feeding groups: (i) the Ad Libitum (AdLib)/AdLib group was given a normal diet during pregnancy and the lactation period; (ii) the AdLib/maternal food restriction group (FR) was subjected to 50% FR during the lactation period; (iii) the FR/AdLib group was subjected to 50% FR during pregnancy; and (iv) the FR/FR group was subjected to 50% FR during pregnancy and the lactation period. Offspring from each group were sacrificed at 3 weeks of age and whole brains were dissected. To obtain a maximum number of protein markers related to obesity, 2DE and Pathway Studio bioinformatics analysis were performed. The identities of the markers among the selected and candidate proteins were confirmed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Proteomic and bioinformatics analyses revealed that expression of ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) and Secernin 1 (SCRN1) were significantly different in the FR/AdLib group compared with the AdLib/AdLib group for both male and female offspring. These findings suggest that UCHL1 and SCRN1 may be used as fetal programming-related obesity markers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Does Group Composition Affect Learning by Invention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Michael; Leach, Ryan C.; Rummel, Nikol; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Schwartz and Martin ("Cogn Instr" 22:129-184, 2004) as well as Kapur ("Instr Sci", this issue, 2012) have found that students can be better prepared to learn about mathematical formulas when they try to invent them in small groups before receiving the canonical formula from a lesson. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the…

  16. Inventions and Patents: A Practical Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Hina; Tidwell, Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2017-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and capital-intensive drug development and clinical trials necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, non-obviousness, and usefulness. Recent changes to US patent law limit the scope of patentable material. Products of nature such as nucleic acids and proteins, or steps used to observe natural events, are no longer patent eligible. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions for inventions, inventorship, and patent filing which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  17. Physical tools for textile creativity and invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2010-01-01

    Two textile research projects (one completed and one ongoing) are described, where physical inspirational tools are developed and tested with the aim of stimulating textile creativity and invention, i.e. the use of textile materials in new kinds of products, thus bringing textiles into new contexts...

  18. How important are local inventive milieus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejermo, Olof; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø

    2015-01-01

    for demographic and sector effects along with the educational characteristics of parents. This approach allows us to trace how location history influences individuals’ inventive capacity. We focus on three types of influences: (a) future inventors in the municipality around the time of birth, (b) future inventors...

  19. Patent Work: The Other Side of Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    In popular culture, the inventor is often portrayed as a lone tinkerer who emerges from a workshop with some magnificent new device. In reality, most inventions are the collaborative effort of scientists and engineers--usually researchers affiliated with a college or corporation--that result in the discovery, creation, or improvement of either…

  20. The Invention of the Electric Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kooij, B.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This case study is a historic analysis of the developments that resulted in the electric light. The range of inventions that started with the demonstrations of a sparkling bright light by the Englishman Humphry Davy and the Russian Vasilii Petrov in the early nineteenth century, over the next

  1. The Invention of the Steam Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kooij, B.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This casestudy is a historic analysis of the developments that resulted in the steam engine. The range of inventions that started with Savery's 'Miner's Friend' (a water pump to solve the dramatic water problem in the British eighteenth century mines) over a century culminated in the steam engine

  2. From invention to innovation: Commercialization of new technology by independent and small business inventors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-05-15

    This handbook emerged from the commitment of Energy-Related Inventions Program personnel to supporting the commercialization efforts of independent and small business inventors with new technologies. As you read this document, you will face questions that may seem far removed from technological concerns--questions about the market, your competition, your business structure, and about legal and regulatory requirements. These may seem peripheral to your present and future work. But, make no mistake, you must carefully and honestly consider and answer these if you expect to penetrate the market in sustained way and profit from your work. Over four hundred of your peers--some by success, others by failure--have shown us the lessons incorporated in this volume. By using it, and by commenting on it, you benefit from their collective experience, and make invaluable additions to it. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Jointly Sponsored Research Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2013-12-31

    Cooperative Agreements, DE-FC26-08NT43293, DOE-WRI Cooperative Research and Development Program for Fossil Energy-Related Resources began in June 2009. The goal of the Program was to develop, commercialize, and deploy technologies of value to the nation’s fossil and renewable energy industries. To ensure relevancy and early commercialization, the involvement of an industrial partner was encouraged. In that regard, the Program stipulated that a minimum of 20% cost share be achieved in a fiscal year. This allowed WRI to carry a diverse portfolio of technologies and projects at various development technology readiness levels. Depending upon the maturity of the research concept and technology, cost share for a given task ranged from none to as high as 67% (two-thirds). Over the course of the Program, a total of twenty six tasks were proposed for DOE approval. Over the period of performance of the Cooperative agreement, WRI has put in place projects utilizing a total of $7,089,581 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors have committed $7,398,476 in private funds to produce a program valued at $14,488,057. Tables 1 and 2 presented at the end of this section is a compilation of the funding for all the tasks conducted under the program. The goal of the Cooperative Research and Development Program for Fossil Energy-Related Resources was to through collaborative research with the industry, develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: • Increase the production of United States energy resources – coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; • Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; • Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and • Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Success of the Program can be measured by

  4. 78 FR 57665 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: The...

  5. 78 FR 29387 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent...

  6. 78 FR 57663 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent...

  7. 78 FR 29388 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent...

  8. The Telephone: An Invention with Many Fathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenni, Paolo (CNR-FST-IMSS, Florence, Italy)

    2008-10-01

    The names of A.G. Bell, A. Meucci, P.Reis, E. Gray, just to mention the most important ones, are all connected with the invention of the telephone. Today, the Italian inventor A. Meucci is recognized as being the first to propose a working prototype of the electric telephone. However, for a series of reasons his strenuous efforts were not rewarded. I will not repeat here the endless and complex disputes about the 'real father' of the telephone. From an historical point of view it is more interesting to understand why so many individuals from different backgrounds conceived of a similar apparatus and why most of these devices were simply forgotten or just remained laboratory curiosities. The case of the development of the telephone is an emblematic and useful example for better understanding the intricate factors which are involved in the birth of an invention and reasons for its success and failure.

  9. Technical inventions that enabled artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Artificial feeding of infants, called hand-feeding, was unsafe well into the 19th century. This paper aims to identify technical innovations which made artificial feeding less dangerous. In rapid succession from 1844 to 1886, the vulcanization of rubber, production of rubber teats, cooling machines for large-scale ice production, techniques for milk pasteurization, evaporation and condensation, and packing in closed tins were invented or initiated. Remarkably, most of these inventions preceded the discovery of pathogenic bacteria. The producers of proprietary infant formula made immediate use of these innovations, whereas in the private household artificial feeding remained highly dangerous - mostly because of ignorance about bacteria and hygiene, and partly because the equipment for safe storage, transport, preparation and application of baby food was lacking.

  10. Invented genealogies as political mythologies: definitionand examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Lucian Iorga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The genealogical imaginary is a subcategory of the imaginary referring to the origin and it comprises a wide range of genealogical myths: fictitious ancestors, whether divine or human, fabulous kinships, invented genealogies, descendancies which are impossible to certify with documents, erroneous interpretations of certain degrees of kinship, real genealogies that have received unexpected interpretations and historiographic clichés grown on more or less attestable genealogies. The case of the Balş family is one of the most interesting: trying to integrate in the political structures of the Austrian and Russian Empire, some members of this old Moldavian family invent a fictitious genealogy that links the French counts of Baux, the Balsa family, a Serbian medieval dynasty and the Balş family, Moldavian boyars.

  11. The story of global patent inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-15

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  12. Review of The Invention of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Marotta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Invention of Enterprise: Entrepreneurship from Ancient Mesopotamia to Modern Times, David S. Landes, Joel Mokyr, and William J. Baumol, eds., Princeton University Press, 2010, is a dense anthology that provides an “orbital view” of the history of trade and commerce. The essays encompass several theoretic frameworks while following three themes: the creation of enterprises; the distinctions between creative and corrosive capitalism; and the societies that engender those different modes.

  13. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-05

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism.

  14. Identifying and Developing Inventive Talent in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungmo

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, the need to develop creative potential through education is more critical than ever. Invention-gifted education is one approach that can both foster creativity and develop inventive talent. Invention-gifted education in the Republic of Korea is distinctive in its systematic approach to talent identification and talent…

  15. 7 CFR 550.54 - Invention disclosure and utilization reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. 550.54... Management of Agreements Reports and Records § 550.54 Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. (a) The Cooperator shall report Invention Disclosures and Utilization information electronically via i-Edison Web...

  16. 48 CFR 27.305-4 - Protection of invention disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of invention....305-4 Protection of invention disclosures. (a) The Government will, to the extent authorized by 35 U.S.C. 205, withhold from disclosure to the public any invention disclosures reported under the patent...

  17. 37 CFR 4.1 - Complaints regarding invention promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention promoters. 4.1 Section 4.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.1 Complaints regarding invention promoters. These regulations govern the Patent and Trademark Office's (Office...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.59A - Invention reporting and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operation thereof. (c) Reporting shall be made on NASA Form 1679 Disclosure of Invention and New Technology..., and interest in and to each such invention throughout the world. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invention reporting and rights. 1260.59A...

  19. 75 FR 54656 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, have been filed in the...

  20. 78 FR 8547 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  1. 78 FR 9399 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  2. 34 CFR 6.1 - Publication or patenting of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publication or patenting of inventions. 6.1 Section 6.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.1 Publication or patenting of inventions. It is the general policy of the Department that the results of...

  3. 76 FR 36551 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... Federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  4. 76 FR 55071 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  5. 75 FR 8082 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  6. 75 FR 4573 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  7. 77 FR 34392 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  8. 75 FR 52758 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  9. 76 FR 36553 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... Federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  10. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect and...

  11. 78 FR 18354 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  12. 75 FR 10283 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S... applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available...

  13. 76 FR 44939 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S... applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available...

  14. 78 FR 35290 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are... development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market coverage for...

  15. 78 FR 52934 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are...- funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to extend...

  16. 75 FR 12764 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  17. 77 FR 11137 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  18. 42 CFR 61.20 - Inventions or discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventions or discoveries. 61.20 Section 61.20..., TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.20 Inventions or discoveries. Any fellowship award made... inventions or discoveries shall be maintained for such periods, and filed with or otherwise made available to...

  19. 37 CFR 501.4 - Determination of inventions and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of inventions..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.4 Determination of inventions and rights. Each Government agency has the approval of the Secretary to determine...

  20. 10 CFR 603.860 - Rights to inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rights to inventions. 603.860 Section 603.860 Energy... to Other Administrative Matters Intellectual Property § 603.860 Rights to inventions. (a) The contracting officer should negotiate rights in inventions that represent an appropriate balance between the...

  1. 78 FR 5818 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  2. 77 FR 45363 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  3. 43 CFR 6.5 - Rights in inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in inventions. 6.5 Section 6.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.5 Rights in inventions. (a) The rules prescribed in this section shall be applied in determining...

  4. 77 FR 54578 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S... applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available...

  5. 78 FR 26791 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are... development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market coverage for...

  6. 78 FR 31948 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are... development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market coverage for...

  7. 42 CFR 86.3 - Inventions and discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventions and discoveries. 86.3 Section 86.3... General § 86.3 Inventions and discoveries. Any grant award pursuant to § 86.14 or § 86.33 is subject to..., and information pertaining to inventions and discoveries shall be maintained for such periods, and...

  8. 75 FR 4571 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. ] Government and are available for licensing in... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  9. 40 CFR 40.160-3 - Reporting of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of inventions. 40.160-3... ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.160-3 Reporting of inventions. As provided in appendix B of 40 CFR part 30, immediate and full reporting of all inventions to the Environmental Protection Agency...

  10. 14 CFR 1245.105 - Waiver after reporting inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver after reporting inventions. 1245.105... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Patent Waiver Regulations § 1245.105 Waiver after reporting inventions. (a) The provisions of this section apply to petitions for waiver of domestic rights to identified inventions which...

  11. 76 FR 72207 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to...

  12. 75 FR 10282 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are owned by an agency.... Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market coverage for companies and...

  13. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under cooperative...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to the...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit of...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.215 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed...

  17. Human operator identification model and related computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, K. M.; Mohr, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Four computer programs which provide computational assistance in the analysis of man/machine systems are reported. The programs are: (1) Modified Transfer Function Program (TF); (2) Time Varying Response Program (TVSR); (3) Optimal Simulation Program (TVOPT); and (4) Linear Identification Program (SCIDNT). The TV program converts the time domain state variable system representative to frequency domain transfer function system representation. The TVSR program computes time histories of the input/output responses of the human operator model. The TVOPT program is an optimal simulation program and is similar to TVSR in that it produces time histories of system states associated with an operator in the loop system. The differences between the two programs are presented. The SCIDNT program is an open loop identification code which operates on the simulated data from TVOPT (or TVSR) or real operator data from motion simulators.

  18. Making the Failure More Productive: Scaffolding the Invention Process to Improve Inquiry Behaviors and Outcomes in Invention Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, N. G.; Day, James; Park, Anthony H. K.; Bonn, D. A.; Roll, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Invention activities are Productive Failure activities in which students attempt (and often fail) to invent methods that capture deep properties of a construct before being taught expert solutions. The current study evaluates the effect of scaffolding on the invention processes and outcomes, given that students are not expected to succeed in their…

  19. Product-Related Programming and Children's TV: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, B. Carol; Dominick, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the content of 16 hours of children's cartoon television programs. Finds that (1) all programs contained some violence, but especially those programs linked with toy merchandisers; (2) such programs used more theme music; and (3) few Black characters were shown, whereas males predominated and females were victims more often than were men.…

  20. Presidential Elections and HIV-Related National Policies and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrave, David R; Bonacci, Robert A; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2017-03-01

    The November 2016 general election and subsequent voting of the Electoral College resulted in the selection of Donald Trump as President of the United States. The incoming Administration ran a campaign that indicated a desire for substantial change in health policy, including the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Trump has said very little directly about HIV programs and policies, but some campaign positions (such as the repeal of the ACA) would clearly and substantially impact the lives of persons living with HIV. In this editorial, we highlight important HIV-related goals to which we must recommit ourselves, and we underscore several key points about evidence-based advocacy that are important to revisit at any time (but most especially when there is a change in Administration).

  1. Explicitly searching for useful inventions: dynamic relatedness and the costs of connecting versus synthesizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chihmao

    2011-02-01

    Inventions combine technological features. When features are barely related, burdensomely broad knowledge is required to identify the situations that they share. When features are overly related, burdensomely broad knowledge is required to identify the situations that distinguish them. Thus, according to my first hypothesis, when features are moderately related, the costs of connecting and costs of synthesizing are cumulatively minimized, and the most useful inventions emerge. I also hypothesize that continued experimentation with a specific set of features is likely to lead to the discovery of decreasingly useful inventions; the earlier-identified connections reflect the more common consumer situations. Covering data from all industries, the empirical analysis provides broad support for the first hypothesis. Regressions to test the second hypothesis are inconclusive when examining industry types individually. Yet, this study represents an exploratory investigation, and future research should test refined hypotheses with more sophisticated data, such as that found in literature-based discovery research.

  2. Community Relations Plan for Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has applied to the California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), for renewal of its Hazardous Waste Handling Facility Permit. A permit is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The permit will allow LBL to continue using its current hazardous waste handling facility, upgrade the existing facility, and construct a replacement facility. The new facility is scheduled for completion in 1995. The existing facility will be closed under RCRA guidelines by 1996. As part of the permitting process, LBL is required to investigate areas of soil and groundwater contamination at its main site in the Berkeley Hills. The investigations are being conducted by LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program and are overseen by a number of regulatory agencies. The regulatory agencies working with LBL include the California Environmental Protection Agency`s Department of Toxic Substances Control, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the East Bay Municipal Utilities District, and the Berkeley Department of Environmental Health. RCRA requires that the public be informed of LBL`s investigations and site cleanup, and that opportunities be available for the public to participate in making decisions about how LBL will address contamination issues. LBL has prepared this Community Relations Plan (CRP) to describe activities that LBL will use to keep the community informed of environmental restoration progress and to provide for an open dialogue with the public on issues of importance. The CRP documents the community`s current concerns about LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program. Interviews conducted between February and April 1993 with elected officials, agency staff, environmental organizations, businesses, site neighbors, and LBL employees form the basis for the information contained in this document.

  3. Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles in School Nutrition Programs: Implementation Status and Factors Related to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…

  4. Exploring the locus of invention : The dynamics of network communities and firms’ invention productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytch, M.; Tatarynowicz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Departing from prior research analyzing the implications of social structure for actors' outcomes by applying either an ego network or a global network perspective, this study examines the implications of network communities for the invention productivity of firms. Network communities represent

  5. Distant Recombination and the Creation of Basic Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad; Beaudry, Catherine; Agard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This article explores whether the relationship between the breath of technological integration (recombination distance) and the breath of an invention׳s subsequent application (basicness) is moderated by the sector of activity (private or public), science-linkage strength and industry......; increasing reliance upon basic science moderates the relationship between recombination distance and basicness; and increases to recombination distance in emerging science-based industries increases invention basicness at a higher rate. These findings have implications regarding the debate around...

  6. Basic program relates tube wall thickness and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1985-11-01

    A computer program, written in BASIC, which calculates safe tube pressures and necessary wall thickness is discussed. Two examples of this process are given. Computer input lists and results are presented. The program is compatible with IBM PC and similar units.

  7. Consciousness and the invention of Morel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perogamvros, Lampros

    2013-01-01

    A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel's invention (Casares, 1940), a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating, and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an "endogenous" Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states.

  8. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel’s invention (Casares, 1940, a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an 'endogenous' Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states.

  9. The electronics revolution inventing the future

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J B

    2017-01-01

    This book is about how electronics, computing, and telecommunications have profoundly changed our lives – the way we work, live, and play. It covers a myriad of topics from the invention of the fundamental devices, and integrated circuits, through radio and television, to computers, mobile telephones and GPS. Today our lives are ruled by electronics as they control the home and computers dominate the workspace. We walk around with mobile phones and communicate by email. Electronics didn’t exist until into the twentieth century. The industrial revolution is the term usually applied to the coming of steam, railways and the factory system. In the twentieth century, it is electronics that has changed the way we gather our information, entertain ourselves, communicate and work. This book demonstrates that this is, in fact, another revolution. .

  10. The Democratic Invention. A Reading of Lefort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Sirczuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present the way in which Lefort interprets modern democracy as a new form of society in regard to the sources of law and legitimacy. Lefort is a thinker who is difficult to place within the context of contemporary political theory: he not only defends democracy against Marxism but also thinks that this form of society cannot be circumscribed within the limits of the modern state, nor be understood through the categories that the tradition of political philosophy has developed to distinguish between political regimes. Lefort combines the defense of democracy with a radical critique of the established order. He identifies the democratic invention with the institution of a dynamic that makes, by right, the radical questioning of law the source of political legitimacy.

  11. 78 FR 13352 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ..., and dispensing of investigational drugs. The internet/browser based application interfaces with the... Agents Description of Technology: NIH investigators invented a robust and easily implemented method of...

  12. INVENTION, INNOVATION SYSTEMS, AND THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur Daemmrich

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the interplay of major inventions and changes to innovation systems during three historical industrial revolutions as the basis for understanding whether a new revolutionary era...

  13. The industrial application requirement for biotech inventions in light of recent EPO & UK case law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    In this study we illuminate and discuss the most recent developments in respect of the interpretation of the “industrial application” requirement with respect to gene and protein related inventions in Europe. The analysis will focus on the relevant provisions of the EPC and decisional practice from...... discussion, we will elaborate on two issues in particular; (i) determine which types of qualities an invention should have in order to meet the industrial application requirement in the first place; and (ii) what type of evidence an applicant is expected to present in respect of (potential) applications......-depth background, and maybe repetition for some readers, as to why the industrial application requirement raises particular concerns and questions in respect of biotech inventions....

  14. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: Educational and Science-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer…

  15. Relating Operational Art to the National Guard State Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Missouri National Guard State Partnership Program staff: Lieutenant Colonel Rebecca Segovia, Major Juan Valencia , Captain Bryan Dodge, and First...Experience in missions like stability operations, defense support of civil authorities (DSCA), counterdrug, agricultural development teams, border

  16. Program evaluation models and related theories: AMEE guide no. 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Ann W; Hemmer, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    This Guide reviews theories of science that have influenced the development of common educational evaluation models. Educators can be more confident when choosing an appropriate evaluation model if they first consider the model's theoretical basis against their program's complexity and their own evaluation needs. Reductionism, system theory, and (most recently) complexity theory have inspired the development of models commonly applied in evaluation studies today. This Guide describes experimental and quasi-experimental models, Kirkpatrick's four-level model, the Logic Model, and the CIPP (Context/Input/Process/Product) model in the context of the theories that influenced their development and that limit or support their ability to do what educators need. The goal of this Guide is for educators to become more competent and confident in being able to design educational program evaluations that support intentional program improvement while adequately documenting or describing the changes and outcomes-intended and unintended-associated with their programs.

  17. Art, Science and the Invention of Things That Last

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, David

    2018-01-14

    Aesthetic creation involves a close collaboration between discovery, invention and cultural exhibition, as well as between learning and producing value. It is typified by the patterns of creative behavior in highly innovative communities like Silicon Valley (for IT) or Boston (for biotech) where cultures of learning, experimentation, and production or commercialization coexist, and where a high degree of interdisciplinary collaboration occurs. In this lecture, David Edwards will highlight the growing movement of aesthetic creation in the arts, sciences and engineering as a path for sustaining and improving the human condition in the longest term. He will highlight aesthetic creation in the light of the culture lab model of Le Laboratoire (Paris, Cambridge) and the new World Frontiers Forum with examples of learning, pubic experimentation and value creation particularly related to the future of sensory experience.

  18. From Hallucination to Fiction: The Invention of Meaning in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Silvia; Lehaire, Célia; Petit, Laetitia

    2016-12-01

    Taking their inspiration from a case history, the authors explore the effects of a writing workshop led by a professional writer for patients in a psychiatric hospital. This workshop allowed different modes of transference to unfold: transference to the analyst-therapist, transference to the writer who led the workshop, and transference to the other members of the group. The writing activity created conditions in which there could be a movement from hallucination to delusion-a delusion expressed in fiction through the act of writing. Psychotic patients "invent" a writing that remains unfinished and that relates to the experiences of persecution. Writing thus makes it possible for them to tolerate language, through its transformation into writing.

  19. Private Finance 2 (PF2): Re-inventing the Wheel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, N. A. W. A.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Khamidi, M. F.; Othman, I.; Idrus, A.; Umar, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The Procurement policy of any government is the most influential factor in determining the efficiency of infrastructure and service provision like roads, water supply and energy. The UK's HM Treasury released its new guidelines on private involvement in infrastructures provision and services towards reforming the popular Private Finance Initiatives (PFI) policy. This new approach, it now refers to as the Private Finance 2 (PF2) is meant to correct the imperfections which have bedeviled the older version-PFI. However, the 'new guidelines' contained nothing really new in the area of private financing and operation of public infrastructures, at best it is akin to 're-inventing the wheel' rather than being 'new'. While dwelling extensively on issues relating to cheaper financing sources, risks transfer, counterpart funding by government and improving public sector procurement skills, this paper argues that some countries in the developing world have long recognised these issues and taken practical steps to correct them.

  20. Invention in energy technologies: Comparing energy efficiency and renewable energy inventions at the firm level

    OpenAIRE

    Rexhäuser, Sascha; Löschel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Many countries, especially in Europe, have ambitious goals to transform their national energy systems towards renewable energies. Technological change in both renewable production and efficient use of energy can help to make these targets come true. Using a panel of German firms linked to the PATSTAT patent data, we study invention in both types of energy technologies and how their inventors differ in terms of central firm-specific characteristics. More importantly, we study th...

  1. The Evolution of Invention in Current-Traditional Rhetoric: 1850-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Sharon

    1985-01-01

    Traces the decline in importance and scope of invention under the prevalent current-traditional approach to rhetoric. Suggests that as a result students are being taught a writing process and a set of assumptions about discourse that have nothing to do with either how writing gets done or with contemporary thinking about the relation of language…

  2. 75 FR 12761 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... HTLV-II based vaccine for HIV an excellent unique candidate to target mucosal tissues and provide long... licensing is in the field of vaccines and vaccine vectors. More specifically the invention provides... the invention claims vaccines against HIV and SIV. Applications: The technology can be used for DNA...

  3. Using Invention to Change How Students Tackle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jared L.; Smith, Karen M.; van Stolk, Adrian P.; Spiegelman, George B.

    2010-01-01

    Invention activities challenge students to tackle problems that superficially appear unrelated to the course material but illustrate underlying fundamental concepts that are fundamental to material that will be presented. During our invention activities in a first-year biology class, students were presented with problems that are parallel to those…

  4. 37 CFR 41.206 - Common interests in the invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Common interests in the invention. 41.206 Section 41.206 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Interferences § 41.206 Common interests in the invention. An administrative patent judge may decline to declare...

  5. 76 FR 10374 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... based on the detected scenario. If the viewing conditions are not suitable for reading medical images... Appropriate Lighting Conditions When Displaying Medical Images Description of Invention: The invention... images in specific conditions that require urgency of the read or when full-size workstation displays are...

  6. 37 CFR 1.293 - Statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... registration. 1.293 Section 1.293 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Public Use Proceedings § 1.293 Statutory invention registration. (a) An applicant for an original patent... specification and drawings be published as a statutory invention registration. Any such request must be signed...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150.184 Section 1150.184 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and...

  8. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section 401... CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights... to the Act shall be consistent with the “Government Patent Policy” (President's memorandum for Heads...

  9. 78 FR 57664 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...: Nanosensor Cell Phone for Detecting Chemicals and Concentrations; NASA Case No.: ARC-16707-1-CIP: Methods for... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. ] SUMMARY...

  10. The Employee Invention Report (EIR) | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    After making a unique, non-obvious, and useful discovery, NIH researchers must immediately contact their Laboratory or Branch Chief and inform him or her of a possible invention, and then consult with your NCI TTC Technology Transfer Manager about submitting an Employee Invention Report (EIR) Form. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  11. THE VALUE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF UNAPPLIED INVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Sorin V. FÂNTÂNĂ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting regulations, the guidelines for their application and other articles by accounting specialists argue that inventions created internally are not recognized as intangible assets. Only assets acquired separately can be measured reliably, based on the document justifying the purchase transaction. Other specialised papers show that it is difficult to establish the existence of this intangible asset and its credible cost. That is, it can give or calculate a value of the invention only if it can show the acceptable cost of achieving it. But all these works argue that the protection of inventions is profitable if it is the basis of a new business, if it promotes or protects the current activity. However, these papers elude - because it is uncomfortable - the situation where an invention created internally has a value only because it forecloses the market. It is curious that an invention has accounting value only when traded.

  12. How Search in Science Impacts on the Value of Inventions at Early and Late Stages in the R&D cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    . The patents filed on these inventions offer, through their citations to prior art, a fine-grained view of the role of science along the R&D cycle. Applying a unique text-mining algorithm we categorize a set of 1,058 patens from Scandinavian drug discovery firms into six types of drug-related inventions. Tests...

  13. Induction Program Design as It Relates to School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jamie Ann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the induction program differences offered to beginning teachers in rural versus suburban school settings and to identify which induction supports beginning teachers considered most important in achieving classroom success. The six participants included an administrator, mentor, and…

  14. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large acceptance fragment separator, RIPS. The complex can provide high intense RI-beams. By using the high intense RI-beams, a variety of experiments have been ...

  15. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  16. CERN at the International Inventions Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN is the guest of honour at the 35th International Inventions Fair, which will take place from 18th to 22nd April at Palexpo, in Geneva. CERN has been chosen as the guest of honour for its ability to develop new technologies and translate them for the benefit of society. For the Fair, CERN has teamed up with ten companies that have made use of technologies and ideas from the Laboratory. The CERN stand at the exhibition will be dedicated to a presentation of the Laboratory and the LHC. Each of the technologies featured will be highlighted on the stand, along with the companies that have put them into more general use. This will allow visitors to trace the path from basic research to practical application from start to finish. One example is Medipix, a particle detection technology that has found applications in medical imaging. Visitors to the Fair will be able to see a Medipix detector in action on the CERN stand, and use it to view the particles emitted by everyday objects.

  17. More than Just a Lack of Uniformity: Exploring the Evolution of Public Relations Master's Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Rowena L.; Shen, Hongmei; Parrish, Candace; Toth, Elizabeth L.; Russell, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Public relations is well known for its adaptability through continual change, and as a result, public relations master's programs have been re-conceptualized to remain rigorous and competitive. To further assess both the state and changes of these programs, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with administrators of public relations master's…

  18. Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  19. Compendium of Administrators of Land Use and Related Programs. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Regions. Ten Regions A4 U.S. Forest Service. Regional Boundaries A5 Regional Action Planning Commission A6 Bureau of Indian Affairs . Area Offices...Resources-Land. Foren , and WHalife Manage- ..xitt, DA PAM 420-7 (Department oi the Army, 1C May 1377) Bwmusi policies which thay have initiated in...August 1976j, pp 140-145. Iowa Office for Planning and Programming, Division of Municipal Affairs , Directory, Areawide Planning Organizations

  20. Program activities, DOE state and local assistance programs, 1980 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiogioji, Melvin H.

    1981-01-01

    Progress achieved by DOE State and Local Assistance Programs during FY 1980 and since they were established is summarized. These programs enable improved energy efficiency of industry, transportation, commercial establishments, public buildings, and residences. Eight programs (State Energy Conservation, Energy Extension Service, Weatherization Assistance, Institutional Buildings Grants, Energy-Related Inventions, Appropriate Technology Small Grants, Emergency Energy Conservation, Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions) are described. They provide the impetus for thousands of individual and organizational actions that have significantly affected national energy use patterns. (MCW)

  1. Commercial progress and impacts of inventions and innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.; Rizy, C.G.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.

    1999-08-01

    This report presents the survey results from the 1997 inventions and innovations evaluation questionnaire. The evaluation impacts are based on responses from 136 out of 334 inventors sent the questionnaire. In 1996, there were 67 inventions identified that currently have direct, licensed, or spinoff sales. In total, the number of inventions and innovations with current sales and past sales (now retired from the market) is 144. This represents a commercial success rate of over 27%. For these grant-receiving inventions, the following performance metrics are of interest: (1) total cumulative direct and licensed sales through 1996 were $700 million (1995$), in addition, cumulative spinoff sales and royalties were $90 million and $20 million (1995$) through 1996, respectively; (2) employment sustained by direct and licensed sales was 1,189 full-time equivalents in 1996, employment attributable to technologies with no sales was 90 full-time equivalents, and the annual federal income taxes collected as a result of this employment was in excess of $6 million; and (3) energy savings attribute to supported inventions and innovations were estimated at 78 trillion Btu in 1996 with an estimated value of nearly $190 million (1995$), the associated reduction in carbon emissions was over 1.5 million metric tons. In terms of future commercialization progress and impacts, the 1997 survey revealed that 60% of the respondents are actively pursuing their invention, and nearly 50% of the inventions are in the prototype development, pre-production prototype testing, and pre-production development stages.

  2. Invention as a combinatorial process: evidence from US patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyejin; Strumsky, Deborah; Bettencourt, Luis M A; Lobo, José

    2015-05-06

    Invention has been commonly conceptualized as a search over a space of combinatorial possibilities. Despite the existence of a rich literature, spanning a variety of disciplines, elaborating on the recombinant nature of invention, we lack a formal and quantitative characterization of the combinatorial process underpinning inventive activity. Here, we use US patent records dating from 1790 to 2010 to formally characterize invention as a combinatorial process. To do this, we treat patented inventions as carriers of technologies and avail ourselves of the elaborate system of technology codes used by the United States Patent and Trademark Office to classify the technologies responsible for an invention's novelty. We find that the combinatorial inventive process exhibits an invariant rate of 'exploitation' (refinements of existing combinations of technologies) and 'exploration' (the development of new technological combinations). This combinatorial dynamic contrasts sharply with the creation of new technological capabilities-the building blocks to be combined-that has significantly slowed down. We also find that, notwithstanding the very reduced rate at which new technologies are introduced, the generation of novel technological combinations engenders a practically infinite space of technological configurations.

  3. 42 CFR 1001.201 - Conviction relating to program or health care fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conviction relating to program or health care fraud. 1001.201 Section 1001.201 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS...

  4. An Investigation of Factors Related to Self-Efficacy for Java Programming among Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Petek; Davenport, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors related to self-efficacy for Java programming among first year engineering students. An instrument assessing Java programming self-efficacy was developed from the computer programming self-efficacy scale of Ramalingam & Wiedenbeck. The instrument was administered at the beginning of the…

  5. Classroom Materials for Job-Related BSEP 2 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    repeat his social security number. 65. One of the vehicles are broken. 66. The rifle team beat its closest competition in the final. 67. The deuce -and-a...could of, could have) arrived a little earlier. 22. My commander said I (done good, did well) on the task. 23. The deuce -and-a-half failed to see the...this idea of promotions by a leads to. link (a dotted line with an "l" in Figure 2). Another feature of the ID is its many educational programs. The ID

  6. [Developments and inventions from Germany : Influence on international ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Pavlovic, I; Schmack, I; Ohrloff, C; Kohnen, T

    2017-09-01

    There are various developments and inventions from Germany that have influenced not only the domestic but also the international field of ophthalmology. Beginning with the invention of the ophthalmoscope by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1850, to the establishment of the "Archives of Ophthalmology" medical journal, a publication founded by Albrecht von Graefe in 1854, through to the development of the retinal chip by Eberhart Zrenner and colleagues with the first clinical data collected in 2007. The abovenamed and further developments and the German ophthalmologists behind these inventions are discussed in more detail.

  7. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through the...

  8. UTSI/CFFF MHD PROGRAM COMPLETION AND RELATED ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel W. Muehlhauser

    2004-07-21

    In this final technical report, UTSI summarizes work completed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95231. This work began on the contract effective date, September 15, 1995 and is continuing on a very small basis to complete the groundwater remediation as of this date. The work scope required UTSI to continue to maintain the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility and keep it in readiness for anticipated testing. This effort was terminated in September 1998 by DOE stop-work letter. Work continued on reporting, environmental restoration and on the High Temperature Superconductivity work that was underway. The work included preparing reports on the MHD POC tests that had been completed just prior to this contract initiation under an earlier contract with DOE Chicago. These four reports are summarized herein. This report summarizes the environmental restoration work performed under the contract, including groundwater monitoring and remediation, removal of wastes from the facility, removal of asbestos from the cooling tower and actions in compliance with the license to discharge water into Woods Reservoir. This report covers work in support of the DOE High Temperature Superconductivity program including: (1) Assistance to DOE in preparing a development plan; (2) Cooperation with industry, national laboratories and other universities to promote the commercialization of thin film superconductors (coated conductors); (3) Process Evaluations; (4) Process Diagnostic Development; and (5) Process Economics. The assistance to DOE task included convening an advisory board composed of all the major participants in the DOE program and preparing a draft development plan and Research and Development Roadmap leading to commercialization of the coated conductor technology. Under this program, cooperative agreements and cooperative work was undertaken with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Midwest Superconductivity, Inc., EURUS Technologies, Inc., Westinghouse Electric Company, and others. In the

  9. Future of Alpine Skiing Schools-gender related programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Cigrovski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in anthropological characteristics may influence success in adopting skiing skill if different teaching met¬hods are applied. This study aimed to determine the difference between the level of adopted skiing skill for female and male ski-be¬gin¬ners applying 2 different teaching programs. 126 subjects (30 females; 96 males, average age 23,3±1,6 years participated in 7 days ski-school. Within the male and female group ski-teaching was carried out using 2 different methods: combination method [CM], which implies using of snowplough and parallel ski technique, and direct method [DM], where only parallel ski technique is used. Following the learning process, subjects were tested through 7 elements of skiing technique. For female subjects no diffe¬ren¬ce between two teaching models was recorded, while CM appeared to be more efficient for males in elements traversing to the right (p=0,03, short turn (p<0,05 and parallel turn (p=0,01. Through factor analysis 7 main components were extracted, the first being defined as total skiing knowledge [TSK]. TSK was then compared to two programs carried out on males and females. Diffe¬ren¬ce was determined in the level of TSK for male who learned through CM in comparison to the participants who were learning through the DM (p=0,01, while no difference in the same variable was determined for female. These findings lead to conclusion that using CM in men achieved better results compared to the DM. For the practice, it means that it is not necessary to separate ma¬le and female while forming ski groups for beginner skiers, since females will advance the same, regardless of the learning method.

  10. Protecting new ideas and inventions in nanomedicine with patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj; Bawa, S R; Maebius, Stephen B; Flynn, Ted; Wei, Chiming

    2005-06-01

    New paradigms are shrinking our world. Tiny is in and patents are essential for success in nanomedicine. In fact, patents are already shaping this nascent and rapidly evolving field. For the past decade a swarm of patent applications pertaining to nanomedicine has been arriving at the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). As companies develop products and processes and begin to seek commercial applications for their inventions, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be vital to their long-term survival. As we enter the "golden era" of medicine, or nanomedicine, in the next decade with the field maturing and the promised breakthroughs accruing, patents will generate licensing revenue, provide leverage in deals and mergers, and reduce the likelihood of infringement. Because development of nanobiotechnology- and nanomedicine-related products is extremely research intensive, without the market exclusivity offered by a US patent, development of these products and their commercial viability in the marketplace will be significantly hampered. In this article, we highlight critical issues relating to patenting nanomedicine products. Effects of the "nanopatent land grab" that is underway in nanomedicine by "patent prospectors" are examined as startups and corporations compete to lock up broad patents in these critical early days. Because nanomedicine is multidisciplinary, patenting presents unique opportunities and poses numerous challenges. Although patents are being sought more actively and enforced more vigorously, the entire patent system is under greater scrutiny and strain, with the PTO continuing to struggle with evaluating nanomedicine-related patent applications.

  11. Vertical partitioning of relational OLTP databases using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen

    2010-01-01

    for relational row- store OLTP databases with an H-store-like architecture, meaning that we would like to maximize the number of single-sited transactions. We present a model for the vertical partitioning problem that, given a schema together with a vertical partitioning and a workload, estimates the costs......A way to optimize performance of relational row store databases is to reduce the row widths by vertically partition- ing tables into table fractions in order to minimize the number of irrelevant columns/attributes read by each transaction. This pa- per considers vertical partitioning algorithms...

  12. Public Relations for Brazilian Libraries: Process, Principles, Program Planning, Planning Techniques and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette N.

    A brief overview of the functions of public relations in libraries introduces this manual, which provides an explanation of the public relations (PR) process, including fact-finding, planning, communicating, evaluating, and marketing; some PR principles; a 10-step program that could serve as a model for planning a PR program; a discussion of PR…

  13. 42 CFR 420.204 - Principals convicted of a program-related crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principals convicted of a program-related crime... and Control Information § 420.204 Principals convicted of a program-related crime. (a) Information... the facts and circumstances of the specific case, including the nature and severity of the crime...

  14. 77 FR 19525 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 210 RIN 0584-AE11 National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; Approval of... rule entitled ``National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related...

  15. Literature Review of Military Related Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    Works; 2010:80www.lifeline. 7. Illich P. Suicide Intervention Training Outcomes Study. Waco , TX; 2004. 8. Zamorski MA. Report of the Canadian Forces...US Air Force personnel demonstrated improved risk identification and assessment, but did not produce changes in intervention-related behaviors

  16. The Invention of Tradition: Illyrian Heraldry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The "Illyrian heraldry", as a phenomenon of the invented tradition, encompasses the rolls of arms - armorials, which appear in Dalmatia, Italy, Spain and Austria at the end of the XVI and beginning of the XVII century. These armorials contained Serbian and other southern Slav monarchic, territorial and family coats of arms. The authenticity, heraldic sources and origins of these armorials are extremely complex problems that can be traced back to the medieval heraldic heritage of the Serbs, on the one hand, and reveal the intricate web of political circumstances in the XVI and XVII centuries. Illyrian heraldry is also closely linked to the personal and political ambitions of the Spanish admiral, Don Pedro Ohmučević Grgurić, from Slano near Dubrovnik. One cannot, however, link the entire Illyrian heraldry movement only to the daring ambitions of Petar Ohmučević Grgurić In in the XVI and XVII centuries historical constructions, inspired for the most part by sincere Slav patriotism, emerged that proved the unity of the Illyrians and the Slavs, revealed the alleged Slav origins of famous figures (Alexander the Great, Justinian, or simply extolled the splendor and magnitude of a lost Slav kingdom, that could be restored again. Much as it was developing within the spiritual scope of the Catholic church, this "Slovine" movement found its historical basis in the medieval statehood of Serbia and Bosnia, particularly in the powerful empire of Stephan Dushan (1331-55, in the Serbian potentates, heroes, their glitter and opulence, which used to glorify the Slav world. Since the XVII century till today, despite their doubtful authenticity, the Illyrian armorials have been considered important genealogical and heraldic documents. Many families relied on the information in Illyrian heraldic collections when claiming their true, or, more often purported, ancient hereditary rights, titles and lands. The Illyrian armorials were transcribed and reprinted in

  17. 75 FR 58404 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... indicated licensing contact at the Office of Technology Transfer, National Institutes of Health, 6011... disorders (see above Description of Invention). Please contact NHGRI Technology Development Coordinator... for alcohol and drug addiction. Neuropsychiatric disorders including, for example, mood, anxiety...

  18. 75 FR 77884 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Institute (NEI), Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology, is seeking statements of capability or..., subsequently, increased pigmentation. This technology provides methods for increasing tyrosine plasma... production. This invention also discloses methods of treating SMA by administering SMN protein modulators...

  19. 76 FR 36549 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... (e.g., embolization beads) delivered by the catheter. A graphical user interface displays the... Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) liver tumor segmentation competition. Furthermore, a vessel tracker...

  20. Relational conflict and outcomes from an online divorce education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Sarah; Becher, Emily H; McCann, Ellie; McGuire, Jenifer; Powell, Sharon

    2017-06-01

    The impact of conflict on co-parenting outcomes of divorce education programs is not widely explored in the literature despite the prevalence of conflict in divorce. This study used outcome data from a sample of participants (N=272) who took the online Parents Forever™ course between 2012 and 2014. Participants were asked questions about positive and negative co-parenting behaviors as well their levels of conflict before and after the divorce or separation. There was on average a slight increase in conflict from post to follow-up (M=-0.397, SD=1.54). Simple linear regression analyses indicated that change in conflict explained a significant proportion of the variance in positive co-parenting scores, R2=0.07, F(1, 270)=19.98, pparenting scores, R2=0.08, F(1, 270)=23.78, pimpacts co-parenting behaviors targeted in the Parents Forever ™ course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Program update and novel use of the DESPAIR program to design a genome-wide linkage study using relative pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Guo, Xiuqing; Yonebayashi, Takashi; Wiesner, Georgia; Elston, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    DESPAIR (DESign for PAIRs) is a computer program useful for designing a two-stage linkage study using relative pairs for a dichotomous phenotype. It determines the optimal two-stage study design - i.e., for specified power and significance level, how many pairs of relatives should be studied, how many equally spaced markers should be used initially, and what criterion should be used to specify the markers around which further searching should be done at a second stage. The program will calculate either the number of relative pairs required for a given number of first-stage markers or the number of markers required for a given number of relative pairs. We highlight the use of the latest version of DESPAIR to decide to what extent additional fine mapping in a candidate region of interest can lead to an increase in power in a previous linkage study sample. We also discuss new features of the program, such as the mean difference test for affected and discordant relative pairs and estimation of full sibling pair equivalents to design a study when several types of relative pairs are available. DESPAIR is part of the S.A.G.E. program package and is freely available for use online. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Invention Versus Direct Instruction: For Some Content, It's a Tie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Catherine C.; Klahr, David

    2017-12-01

    An important, but as yet unresolved pedagogical question is whether discovery-oriented or direct instruction methods lead to greater learning and transfer. We address this issue in a study with 101 fourth and fifth grade students that contrasts two distinct instructional methods. One is a blend of discovery and direct instruction called Invent-then-Tell (IT), and the other is a version of direct instruction called Tell-then-Practice (TP). The relative effectiveness of these methods is compared in the context of learning a critical inquiry skill—the control-of-variables strategy. Previous research has demonstrated the success of IT over TP for teaching deep domain structures, while other research has demonstrated the superiority of direct instruction for teaching simple experimental design, a domain-general inquiry skill. In the present study, students in both conditions made equally large gains on an immediate assessment of their application and conceptual understanding of experimental design, and they also performed similarly on a test of far transfer. These results were fairly consistent across school populations with various levels of prior achievement and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that broad claims about the relative effectiveness of these two distinct methods should be conditionalized by particular instructional contexts, such as the type of knowledge being taught.

  3. Invention Versus Direct Instruction: For Some Content, It's a Tie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Catherine C.; Klahr, David

    2017-07-01

    An important, but as yet unresolved pedagogical question is whether discovery-oriented or direct instruction methods lead to greater learning and transfer. We address this issue in a study with 101 fourth and fifth grade students that contrasts two distinct instructional methods. One is a blend of discovery and direct instruction called Invent-then-Tell (IT), and the other is a version of direct instruction called Tell-then-Practice (TP). The relative effectiveness of these methods is compared in the context of learning a critical inquiry skill—the control-of-variables strategy. Previous research has demonstrated the success of IT over TP for teaching deep domain structures, while other research has demonstrated the superiority of direct instruction for teaching simple experimental design, a domain-general inquiry skill. In the present study, students in both conditions made equally large gains on an immediate assessment of their application and conceptual understanding of experimental design, and they also performed similarly on a test of far transfer. These results were fairly consistent across school populations with various levels of prior achievement and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that broad claims about the relative effectiveness of these two distinct methods should be conditionalized by particular instructional contexts, such as the type of knowledge being taught.

  4. DB90: A Fortran Callable Relational Database Routine for Scientific and Engineering Computer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a database routine called DB90 which is intended for use with scientific and engineering computer programs. The software is written in the Fortran 90/95 programming language standard with file input and output routines written in the C programming language. These routines should be completely portable to any computing platform and operating system that has Fortran 90/95 and C compilers. DB90 allows a program to supply relation names and up to 5 integer key values to uniquely identify each record of each relation. This permits the user to select records or retrieve data in any desired order.

  5. Relative Effectiveness of Reading Intervention Programs for Adults with Low Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, John P; Shore, Jane; Holtzman, Steven; Scarborough, Hollis S

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of instructional programs for adult learners with basic reading skills below the seventh grade level, 300 adults were randomly assigned to one of three supplementary tutoring programs designed to strengthen decoding and fluency skills, and gains were examined for the 148 adult students who completed the program. The three intervention programs were based on or adapted from instructional programs that have been shown to benefit children with reading levels similar to those of the adult sample. Each program varied in its relative emphasis on basic decoding versus reading fluency instruction. A repeated measures MANOVA confirmed small to moderate reading gains from pre- to post-testing across a battery of targeted reading measures, but no significant relative differences across interventions. An additional 152 participants who failed to complete the intervention differed initially from those who persisted. Implications for future research and adult literacy instruction are discussed.

  6. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Maite eGaraigordobil; Ainize ePeña-Sarrionandia

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (El) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged fro...

  7. Evaluating Programs Aimed at Promoting Positive Youth Development: A Relational Development Systems-Based View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Zaff, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Whether discussing the process involved in positive youth development (PYD), articulating an approach (or philosophy) of youth programs associated with PYD, or enacting a program aimed at promoting PYD, ideas derived from relational developmental systems (RDS) metatheory are pertinent. Accordingly, we discuss the RDS metamodel and explain the…

  8. State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    3 According to the State Department, these “front-line” states in 2002 included Afghanistan, Algeria ...tuberculosis, and malaria programs, and $12 billion would address other health needs, including post-natal and child health. Administration officials have...5,121 $5,609 +9.5% Malaria $386 $585 +52% . State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations Congressional

  9. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  10. A multidimensional cancer rehabilitation program for cancer survivors - Effectiveness on health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, E; Hoekstra-Weebers, J; Grol, B; Otter, R; Arendzen, HJ; Postema, K; Sanderman, R; van der Schans, C

    Objective: A multidimensional rehabilitation program for cancer survivors was developed to overcome cancer-related problems and to improve quality of life. The two purposes of the study were to describe the effectiveness of the program and to obtain information about patient preferences for multi or

  11. 75 FR 22027 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 253 RIN 0584-AD95 Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to amend Food Distribution Program on...

  12. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  13. 38 CFR 1.655 - Government license in invention of employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention of employee. 1.655 Section 1.655 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Inventions by Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs § 1.655 Government license in invention of employee. If an invention is made by an employee and it is determined that the...

  14. 37 CFR 1.296 - Withdrawal of request for publication of statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... publication of statutory invention registration. 1.296 Section 1.296 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... for publication of statutory invention registration. A request for a statutory invention registration... statutory invention registration issued pursuant to § 1.294(c) by filing a request to withdraw the request...

  15. 43 CFR 6.10 - Publicity concerning the invention after patent application is filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publicity concerning the invention after... Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.10 Publicity concerning the invention after patent application is filed. In order that the public may obtain the greatest possible benefit from inventions in...

  16. 43 CFR 6.9 - Publication and public use of invention before patent application is filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and public use of invention... Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.9 Publication and public use of invention before patent application is filed. (a) Publication or public use of an invention constitutes a statutory bar to...

  17. 38 CFR 1.663 - Licensing of Government-owned inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-owned inventions. 1.663 Section 1.663 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Inventions by Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs § 1.663 Licensing of Government-owned inventions. (a) The licensing of Government-owned inventions under VA control and custody...

  18. 37 CFR 1.141 - Different inventions in one national application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Different inventions in one... Provisions Joinder of Inventions in One Application; Restriction § 1.141 Different inventions in one national application. (a) Two or more independent and distinct inventions may not be claimed in one national...

  19. 45 CFR 2543.85 - Rights to inventions made under a contract or agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights to inventions made under a contract or..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Statutory Compliance § 2543.85 Rights to inventions made under... resulting invention in accordance with 37 CFR part 401, “Rights to Inventions Made by Nonprofit...

  20. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1212.62 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product... invention, any patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications developed through the...

  1. Sustainability of Social-Emotional Learning and related Programs: Lessons from a Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Elias

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Social-emotional learning, character education, and related programs are being implemented in schools with increasing frequency and research supports their short-term effectiveness. However, there has been no empirical work to date that identifies the factors important for the long-term sustainability of programs established as excellent models of implementation. Using a series of case studies of evidence-based social-emotional learning programs implemented successfully for at least five years, this study articulates principles that characterize programs that were found to be well-sustained over time. These principles have implications for practice and serve as starting points for future research.

  2. 78 FR 47180 - Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and publishing statistical data related... business statistics among the North American countries. The NAICS information will be used by BLS to... their occupational injury and illness recordkeeping information to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS...

  3. [The invention of the concept of continuing on in during difficult times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Francine A

    2008-12-01

    The concept inventing process has been useful in the emergence of a new concept, continuing on during difficult time, with its definition including three unique essences and its relation to the Human becoming ontology. Concept inventing is a process of concept development that was introduced by R.R. Parse at the end of 1990's. It aims at synthesizing the researcher's preliminary understanding of a concept. The result is a conceptual definition that expands knowledge and guides research in the study of lived experiences. The conceptual definition of continuing on during difficult time is: persevering amid what is suffering with the engagements-disengagements as a new way of moving on is emerging with the hoping of the possibles. In transposing this definition in a theoretical structure, it evolves in: powering valuing in the connecting-separating of generating imaging. Implications for nursing research and practice are stated.

  4. IMPROVING PATENT PROTECTION OF INVENTIVE ACTIVITY IN THE CONTEXT OF EU LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Philyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: clarify legal nature of relations emerging in connection with registration of patent law objects. In this article the authors research special features of legal regulation of inventive activity. In particular, they consider several issues of patenting the patent law objects and clarify legal nature of relations arose during registration of the rights to the patent law objects. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction inventive activity Results: during the research the authors focus their attention to the drawbacks of the effective legislation and form the main directions of the effective legislation improvement in accordance with international law in the context of the patent law objects protection. Special attention is devoted to analysis of the main threats of the patent law violations and ways to overcome them. Conclusions: the results confirming improving the efficiency of the system of intellectual property protection through institutional changes and changes in the legal regulation of inventive activity and results will have a positive impact on the reform of the system of intellectual property protection in Ukraine.

  5. Social networks in the history of innovation and invention

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Francis C

    2014-01-01

    This book integrates history of science and technology with modern social network theory. Using examples from the history of machines, as well as case studies from wireless, radio and chaos theory, the author challenges the genius model of invention. Network analysis concepts are presented to demonstrate the societal nature of invention in areas such as steam power, internal combustion engines, early aviation, air conditioning and more. Using modern measures of network theory, the author demonstrates that the social networks of invention from the 19th and early 20th centuries have similar characteristics to modern 21st C networks such as the World Wide Web. The book provides evidence that exponential growth in technical innovation is linked to the growth of historical innovation networks.

  6. Increasing Access to Patented Inventions by Post-grant Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

     This paper builds on the recommendation in the STOA Report (2007) to improve the European patent system to "Increase Access to Patented Inventions". The paper first provides some background information to the patent system and to the limitations on access to protected technology from "thickets......" and the so called "tragedy of the anticommons". Next the paper discusses the use of (some) post grant measure to increase access to patented inventions. Traditionally patent law has not paid much attention to such measures. The paper argues that developments suggest that there is good reason to reconsider...... this reluctance and to include measures in the European patent legislation which seek to increase access to patented inventions. Finally the paper presents and discusses three such measures: Compulsory licences, licences of rights, and behavioural rules...

  7. A detailed study of patent system for protection of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulasi, G Krishna; Rao, B Subba

    2008-09-01

    Creations of brain are called intellect. Since these creations have good commercial value, are called as property. Inventions are intellectual property and can be protected by patents provided the invention is novel, non-obvious, useful and enabled. To have fare trade among member countries, World Trade Organisation proposed TRIPS agreement. India had taken necessary initiation by signing the World Trade Organisation agreement and transformed to global needs. The aim of this article is to enlighten pharmaceutical professionals especially in the field of research and development about planning inventions by thorough review of prior-art, which saves time and money. A thorough understanding is made possible by providing details of origin; present governing bodies, their role along with the Act that is safeguarding the patent system.

  8. Tradition and Agency. Tracing cultural continuity and invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    start. Yet - to update the old quip about nostalgia - tradition is not what it used to be. Twenty years ago, Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger showed in The Invention of Tradition how now governments acquire legitimacy and status by creating 'traditional' ceremonies and identities. Their work helped...... revolutionize the understanding of tradition in anthropology, history and sociology, stimulating an enormous amount of research on invented and imagined traditions. However, most of this research has focussed on the cultural dynamics of specific local innovations and reactions to global developments....... The present anthology seeks to hightlight instead just how widespread the invention and revival of traditions is. The individual chapters feature a fascinating series of case studies from Africa, Asia, the Pacific, Australia, and Europe, while the editors provide and overview of how the various discussions...

  9. Factors related to the economic sustainability of two-year chemistry-based technology training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Bridgid A.

    Two-year chemistry-based technology training (CBTT) programs in the U.S. are important in the preparation of the professional technical workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and analyze factors related to the economic sustainability of CBTT programs. A review of literature identified four clustered categories of 31 sub-factors related to program sustainability. Three research questions relating to program sustainability were: (1) What is the relative importance of the identified factors?, (2) What differences exist between the opinions of administrators and faculty?, and (3) What are the interrelationships among the factors? In order to answer these questions, survey data gathered from CBTT programs throughout the United States were analyzed statistically. Conclusions included the following: (1) Rank order of the importance to sustainability of the clustered categories was: (1) Partnerships, (2) Employer and Student Educational Goals, (3) Faculty and Their Resources, and (4) Community Perceptions and Marketing Strategies. (2) Significant correlations between ratings of sustainability and the sub-factors included: degree of partnering, college responsiveness, administration involvement in partnerships, experiential learning opportunities, employer input in curriculum development, use of skill standards, number of program graduates, student job placement, professional development opportunities, administrator support, presence of a champion, flexible scheduling, program visibility, perception of chemical technicians, marketing plans, and promotion to secondary students. (3) Faculty and administrators differed significantly on only two sub-factor ratings: employer assisted curriculum development, and faculty workloads. (4) Significant differences in ratings by small program faculty and administrators and large program faculty and administrators were indicated, with most between small program faculty and large program administrators. The study

  10. CAPITAL LIVES OR THE INVENTION OF THE CLEAR LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haquira Osakabe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is in Horto de Incêndio a viscerally uptodate poem, “Sida”, in which the author Al Berto invents a brave expression for the almost unuttered modern malady. The result of this invention is a surprisingly way of overcoming the patterns of representing physical disease and death, ultimately the most poignant affections that humanity faces in contemporaneity. How does this happen and what would be in the roots of this process? I will try to create some convincent hypothesis to answer these questions.

  11. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  12. Application of TRIZ inventive principles to innovate recycling machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yih Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article mainly proposes a design process in which a combination of brainstorming and the theory of inventive problem-solving, better known as TRIZ, are used in the design process. We used illustrations by designing a recycling machine for Tetra Pak. Designers are guided to apply brainstorming to come up with innovative designs and features utilizing 39 engineering parameters, a contradiction matrix, and 40 inventive principles for solving design problems. Once copyright and patent laws have been adhered in order to ensure there are no infringements, a prototype may be constructed, and patents may be applied for.

  13. Cooke and Wheatstone and the invention of the electric telegraph

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Originally published in 1965. Charles Wheatstone collaborated with William Cooke in the invention and early exploitation of the Electric Telegraph. This was the first long distance, faster-than-a-horse messenger. This volume gives an account of the earlier work on which the English invention was founded, and the curious route by which it came to England. It discusses the way in which two such antagonistic men were driven into collaboration and sets out the history of the early telegraph lines, including work on the London and Birmingham Railway and the Great Western Railway.

  14. Logic of discovery or psychology of invention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, James F.

    1992-02-01

    It is noted that Popper separates the creation of concepts, conjectures, hypotheses and theories—the context of invention—from the testing thereof—the context of justification—arguing that only the latter is susceptible of rigorous logical analysis. Efforts on the part of others to shift or eradicate the demarcation established by this distinction are discussed and the relationship of these considerations to the claims of “strong artificial intelligence” is pointed out. It is argued that the mode of education of scientists, as well as reports of celebrated scientists, support Popper's judgement in this matter. An historical episode from Faraday's later career is used to illustrate the historiographical strength of Lakatos' “methodology of research programs.”

  15. The effects of dolphin education programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lance Joseph

    Zoological institutions typically exhibit dolphins in educational programs such as dolphin shows and interaction programs. The goal of these programs is to entertain visitors while increasing their conservation-related knowledge, attitude and behavior towards dolphins and the marine environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine dolphin shows and interaction programs in terms of their effectiveness in meeting these goals. A multi-institutional study was conducted at six different facilities throughout the United States. A repeated measures design was used to examine the knowledge, attitude and behavior of visitors before, immediately after and three months following participation in dolphin shows or interaction programs. Participants of dolphin shows reflected a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions. These participants' attitudes and behavioral intentions returned to entry levels three months following the shows. However, knowledge and reported behavior were significantly higher three months following the show compared to entry levels. Participants of interaction programs had a short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions immediately following the program and levels were significantly higher three months following the program when compared to entry levels. Additionally, these participants also reported engaging in more conservation-related behavior than during the entry surveys. Results from the current study suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program within zoological facilities. Understanding the aspects of these types of programs that lead people to conservation action will help zoological facilities in meeting their goals.

  16. 78 FR 39548 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 253 RIN 0584-AD95 Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008; Approval of Information... Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 was published on April 6...

  17. An MBASIC application program for relational inquiries on a data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An MBASIC application program is described that allows a user to specify and use a sequence of relational operations on a relational data base for the purpose of making an inquiry or for the purpose of transferring data to a new file.

  18. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: educational and science-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer Residential Program (SRP), a 25-year-old university-based biomedical pipeline program that reaches out to low-income and underrepresented ethnic minority high school students. Five annual surveys were used to assess educational outcomes and science-related experience among 96 SRP participants and a comparison group of 192 youth who applied but were not selected to participate in the SRP, using ~2:1 matching on sociodemographic and academic background to control for potential confounders. SRP participants were more likely than the comparison group to enter college (100.0 vs. 84.4 %, p = 0.002), and both of these matriculation rates were more than double the statewide average (40.8 %). In most areas of science-related experience, SRP participants reported significantly more experience (>twofold odds) than the comparison group at 1 year of follow-up, but these differences did not persist after 2-4 years. The comparison group reported substantially more participation in science or college preparatory programs, more academic role models, and less personal adversity than SRP participants, which likely influenced these findings toward the null hypothesis. SRP applicants, irrespective of whether selected for participation, had significantly better educational outcomes than population averages. Short-term science-related experience was better among SRP participants, although longer-term outcomes were similar, most likely due to college and science-related opportunities among the comparison group. We discuss implications for future evaluations of other biomedical pipeline programs.

  19. Reappraisal inventiveness: the ability to create different reappraisals of critical situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hannelore; Loureiro de Assunção, Vera; Martin, Christina; Westmeyer, Hans; Geisler, Fay C

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose a new ability approach to reappraisal that focuses on individual differences in the ability to spontaneously generate different reappraisals for critical situations. Adopting concepts from the realms of creativity and divergent thinking, we developed the Reappraisal Inventiveness Test (RIT) to measure a person's fluency and flexibility in inventing as many categorically different reappraisals for an anger-eliciting situation as possible within a limited period of time. The results of two studies in which we examined the psychometric characteristics of the RIT provided evidence that the RIT produces reliable test scores. The construct validity of the RIT was confirmed by positive associations of reappraisal inventiveness with openness to experience and tests that measure divergent thinking. Moreover, RIT performance proved to be unrelated to the self-reported habitual use of reappraisal, indicating differences between ability tests and self-report measures. RIT performance was not significantly related to Neuroticism or to trait anger. In our view, this points to the notion that effective emotion regulation is a function of both the ability and the motivation to act upon one's ability to generate reappraisals for critical situations.

  20. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  1. Integrative Review of Admission Factors Related to Associate Degree Nursing Program Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jeanette M

    2017-02-01

    High attrition in associate degree nursing (ADN) programs contributes to the nursing shortage and causes hardship for students, families, faculty, colleges, and taxpayers. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to identify admission criteria related to ADN program success to inform evidence-based admission policies and reduce attrition. Integrative review methodology, suggested by Whittemore and Knafl, was used. A systematic search of existing professional literature was conducted using five databases and key word searches. The final sample included 26 documents that were analyzed and synthesized with the matrix method. Five categories of admission criteria and factors related to success in ADN programs were revealed from the analysis of findings: academic aptitude, demographic factors, psychological hardiness, specialty skills and experience, and socioeconomic support. ADN programs with a goal of decreasing attrition may want to implement admission selection guidelines that consider applicant criteria and attributes across all five dimensions. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(2):85-93.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Morphological Awareness and Children's Writing: Accuracy, Error, and Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen, Deborah; Stull, Sara

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's morphological awareness and their ability to produce accurate morphological derivations in writing. Fifth-grade U.S. students ( n = 175) completed two writing tasks that invited or required morphological manipulation of words. We examined both accuracy and error, specifically errors in spelling and errors of the sort we termed morphological inventions , which entailed inappropriate, novel pairings of stems and suffixes. Regressions were used to determine the relationship between morphological awareness, morphological accuracy, and spelling accuracy, as well as between morphological awareness and morphological inventions. Linear regressions revealed that morphological awareness uniquely predicted children's generation of accurate morphological derivations, regardless of whether or not accurate spelling was required. A logistic regression indicated that morphological awareness was also uniquely predictive of morphological invention, with higher morphological awareness increasing the probability of morphological invention. These findings suggest that morphological knowledge may not only assist children with spelling during writing, but may also assist with word production via generative experimentation with morphological rules during sentence generation. Implications are discussed for the development of children's morphological knowledge and relationships with writing.

  3. The Invention of a Danish Well-being Tourism Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an outline and analysis of endeavours to invent and implement new well-being activities in the region of Southern Denmark. Based on Anholt's (2005) model, the paper analyses the success of efforts to create a well-being product that might eventually develop into a brand...

  4. 76 FR 25697 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES: Licensing... rare disease affecting 1 in 40,000 babies born. Ashkenazi Jews of eastern European descent (about 1 in... of the aspects of the invention have been demonstrated. Market: Although there are currently many...

  5. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    of the transformation of academic science into patents, particularly how university scientists take a fragmented approach to the patenting process, while scientists employed in private companies can reap the benefits of close interaction with patenting experts ? experts who potentially can assume responsibility...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise....

  6. The Invention Studio: A University Maker Space and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Craig R.; Moore, Roxanne A.; Jariwala, Amit S.; Fasse, Barbara Burks; Linsey, Julie; Newstetter, Wendy; Ngo, Peter; Quintero, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Creativity, invention, and innovation are values championed as central pillars of engineering education. However, university environments that foster open-ended design-build projects are uncommon. Fabrication and prototyping spaces at universities are typically "machine shops" where students relinquish actual fabrication activities to…

  7. Determining the Effect of Interactive Invention Instructional Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physics is the foundation of science and technology. Students‟ achievement in this subject at all levels of Education has been consistently poor. In an attempt to seek solutions to this problem, this study determined the effect of interactive invention strategy on NCE pre-service teachers‟ achievement in physics. The study ...

  8. 75 FR 10286 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...-independent diabetes Use of the compounds as male or female contraceptives Use in screening for compounds that..., Diabetes, and as Contraceptives Description of Invention: Investigators at the National Institutes of... hormone- dependent diseases such as diabetes or even used as contraceptives. One of the standard...

  9. IVO`s CHP know-how: experience, inventions, patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Ohtonen, V. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    IVO can justly claim mastery in the co-generation of district heat and electricity - CHP. As well as looking at the issue from the viewpoint of planners, builders and operators, IVO`s engineers also view power plants through the eyes of the product developer and inventor. This approach has resulted in successful power plant configurations, inventions and patents and visions

  10. Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Patent Registry refuses patent applications for Software or Computer-implemented inventions this paper argues that this provision of law should be changed in line with the rapid development in the field of computer technology. The paper concludes by making recommendations to improve the current legal ...

  11. Determining the Effect of Interactive Invention Instructional Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    Students‟ achievement in this subject at all levels of Education has been consistently poor. In an attempt to seek solutions to this problem, this study determined the effect of interactive invention strategy on NCE pre-service teachers‟ achievement in physics. The study adopted a quasi experimental research design with 98.

  12. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply...

  13. Challenging Norms of Invention: "Mimesis" and African American Communication Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This essay grows out of a Short Course the author helped to teach called "Back to the Future: An Exploration of Public Communication Pedagogy, Past and Present, With Inventive Applications for the Future" presented at the 2004 annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago. The author presents an activity that focuses on mimesis…

  14. 392 Domesticating Representative Democracy: Re-Inventing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Individuals, interest groups, and public officials each may behave ... The underpinning principles in this kind of democracy are competition, self- interests, etc. Domesticating Representative Democracy: Re-Inventing the People ..... First, there is an emphasis on the supremacy of public interest in order to.

  15. Invention software support by integrating function and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechurin, L.S.; Wits, Wessel Willems; Bakker, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    New idea generation is imperative for successful product innovation and technology development. This paper presents the development of a novel type of invention support software. The support tool integrates both function modeling and mathematical modeling, thereby enabling quantitative analyses on a

  16. Stem cell patents after the america invents act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Scott, Christopher Thomas

    2015-05-07

    Under the newly passed Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA), the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office may hear new challenges to stem cell patents. Here, we explore how the new law affects challenges to stem cell patents, focusing on two recent cases, and discuss the future of stem cell patent disputes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Motive of Rhetorics: Invention and Speech Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael J.

    While rhetorical theory has long been concerned with the epistemological foundations of rhetorical abilities, the full potential of the structuralist perspective is far from realized. The study of speech acts and inventive processes discloses the underlying logic of linguistic performance. A speech act is conceptualized in terms of the…

  18. Student Invention and the 3 x 5 Card Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Odvard E.

    1982-01-01

    To introduce right brain activities into the elementary school curriculum, science activities were generated for gifted children in which every item for investigation was made from a three-by-five card. Three major steps were repeated in developing activities: copying materials, adapting materials, and inventing materials. (SW)

  19. The Invention of the Electro-motive Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kooij, B.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This casestudy is a historic analysis of the developments that resulted in the electro-motive engines. It shows the range of inventions that started with Volta’s wet cell, Oersteds moving compass needle, Faradays homopolar motor and Surgeon’s electromagnet, the first steps leading to the

  20. 75 FR 67985 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    .... Cancer-Linked Sequences Encoding the A2BP1/FOX1 Gene Description of Invention: Mesothelioma is a rare... effective systemic treatments. Researchers at the National Cancer Institute, NIH, have identified a recurrent alteration in the DNA sequence for ataxin-2 binding protein (A2BP1/FOX1) in human mesothelioma and...

  1. 75 FR 52756 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Preventive and Social Medicine 30: 107-14, 1976. Inventors: Alison McBride (NIAID), Sandra E. Chapman (NIAID... Drugs for the Treatment of Schizophrenia Description of Invention: Because psychosis and cognitive... are associated with schizophrenia in Caucasian and African American families and can affect normal...

  2. Determining the Effect of Interactive Invention Instructional Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    Abstract. Physics is the foundation of science and technology. Students‟ achievement in this subject at all levels of Education has been consistently poor. In an attempt to seek solutions to this problem, this study determined the effect of interactive invention strategy on NCE pre-service teachers‟ achievement in physics.

  3. 75 FR 4569 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... extracellular protease activity using an anthrax binary toxin system. The system targets cells that express... federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to... information and copies of the U.S. patent applications listed below may be obtained by writing to the...

  4. The Power of Individual-level Drivers of Inventive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwick, Thomas; Frosch, Katharina; Hoisl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    We combine two lines of research on inventive and creative performance that have been separated before. We use empirical models of the performance of inventors over their careers based on an established theoretical framework of the drivers of creativity, the Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Othe...

  5. Fourth Graders Make Inventions Using SCAMPER and Animal Adaptation Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mahjabeen; Carignan, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study explores to what extent the SCAMPER (Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, and Rearrange) technique combined with animal adaptation ideas learned through form and function analogy activities can help fourth graders generate creative ideas while augmenting their inventiveness. The sample consisted of 24…

  6. Intellectual property protection: strategies for antibody inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, therapeutic antibodies have become one of the commercially most successful classes of biopharmaceutical drugs. Major drug manufacturers who have successfully managed to occupy this new market, as well as biotechnology firms, some of which have experienced a quick growth and are now on par with the former, owe part of their success to suitable intellectual property strategies. This article provides an overview of the current thinking on antibody-related patents, and discusses strategies for protecting the antibody products of the future.

  7. Peran Media Relations terhadap Keberhasilan Program Provocative Proactive di Pt Media Televisi Indonesia (Metro Tv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sanjaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine whether the Provocative Proactive (PP program on Metro TV proactive is known by Indonesian people, to explain how the media selection strategy for Provocative Proactive program is, and to explain the program on Metro TV can be written and known by the press or reporters (external PR. The method used was descriptive qualitative approach to analyze the existing problems by presentation of information from the data collected through the company's internal analysis of the results of in-depth interviews and field observations regarding activities in the company. The results showed that duties and functions of public relations are as a motor for better co-operation with external and internal parties relating to Provocative Proactive program. The PR and Promotion Departments were turned out to help the success of the PP program, in addition to various roles and hardworks of the Producer and the creative team. Based on the observations, the role of Metro TV’s PR and Promotion Departments in conducting media relations through cooperation with the media both print and electronic media in an effort to have Provocative Proactive widely known by the public is through cooperation with various mass media, implementation of mass media selection strategies, and introducing Provocative Proactive Program broadly.  

  8. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (EI) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, four assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (1 year after the conclusion of the intervention). The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1) EI (attention, clarity, emotional repair); (2) assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3) internal control of anger; and (4) the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  9. Effects of an Emotional Intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, 4 assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (one year after the conclusion of the intervention. The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1 emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, emotional repair; (2 assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3 internal control of anger; and (4 the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  10. Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagan Abigail A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. Methods This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Results Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers, ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence. Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage. Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness. Conclusion Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that

  11. The analyst's narrative function: Inventing a possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Silva, Maria Cecília

    2017-02-01

    This article describes a psychic function common to analysts that was gradually revealed through clinical work with children. It is a psychic quality derived from function α, which involves analysts' capacity for reverie - their narrative function. The author presents two clinical situations where this function developed in the analytic field in relation to patients' difficulty in symbolizing. In the first case there was an early traumatic experience unavailable for representation. The analyst lent the patient her ability to represent and produced a narrative that made it possible to create a world of phantasies and transform nightmares into 'dreamable' dreams. In other words, she removed the quality of unbearable, irrepresentable reality that characterized those raw experiences encrypted in the psyche. In the second case the analyst's narrative function sought to connect with the isolation, the shell that housed a child suffering from an autistic disorder whose ability to represent had not been established. The analyst provided meaning for the patient's repetitive, stereotyped play, thus weaving the child's subjectivity and gradually introducing a notion of alterity. The author seeks to show how this function, in the thematic construction of the session, facilitated both the working-through of a traumatic situation (with the ability to share representations) and the constitution of the psychic fabric. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  12. Space as an invention of active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Terekhov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of the nature of space around us has occupied thinkers since the dawn of humanity, with scientists and philosophers today implicitly assuming that space is something that exists objectively. Here we show that this does not have to be the case: the notion of space could emerge when biological organisms seek an economic representation of their sensorimotor flow. The emergence of spatial notions does not necessitate the existence of real physical space, but only requires the presence of sensorimotor invariants called 'compensable' sensory changes. We show mathematically and then in simulations that naive agents making no assumptions about the existence of space are able to learn these invariants and to build the abstract notion that physicists call rigid displacement, independent of what is being displaced. Rigid displacements may underly perception of space as an unchanging medium within which objects are described by their relative positions. Our findings suggest that the question of the nature of space, currently exclusive to philosophy and physics, should also be addressed from the standpoint of neuroscience and artificial intelligence.

  13. Perceptions of the Invention Disclosure Process at a Federal Laboratory after the America Invents Act of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice-Moore, Sharla V.

    The America Invents Act of 2011 reformed the patent process in the United States. This study focused on the effect of one provision which allows the first inventor to file the application of patent to become the owner of the intellectual property. Prior to this, the Patent and Trademark Act of 1980 allowed small businesses, universities, and non-profit institutions to pursue ownership of intellectual property developed from federally funded research. The new regulations could influence government employees' disclosure of invention and new technology. There is limited research on the disclosure of technology process for government employees. This study examined 1,389 invention disclosure forms from March 2009 to March 2015 during three phases of the law: before it was signed, before the implementation of the first inventor to file provision in 2013, and after full enactment. The reported State of Development showed significant changes prior to implementation for large companies. The findings reveal disclosures were filed at an earlier stage of development, but no change was noted in the significance of the technology. A survey was also distributed using the framework of Organizational Justice theory. The results showed the disclosure reporting process was fair and unbiased. The research supports the efforts of management to keep employees informed about the disclosure process and the importance of technology transfer of government developed innovation. Key words: America Invents Act, Organizational Justice, patent process.

  14. Adaptive invention: independence and mobility through modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairami, Fatima Fanna; Allotey, Pascale; Warren, Narelle; Mak, Jun Shin; Reidpath, Daniel Diamond

    2017-08-24

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability that limits everyday activities and reduces social participation. Provision of assistive devices helps to achieve independence and social inclusion. However, due to limited resources or a lack of suited objects for their needs, individuals with disabilities in low and middle income countries (LMIC) often do not have access to assistive devices. This has resulted in the creation of purpose built innovative solutions. Methodology and case content: This paper uses a single case derived from a larger ethnographic study of stroke survivors in rural Malaysia to demonstrate the role of assistive devices in shaping stroke recovery and how existing structures can be modified. Second, the concept of affordances in relation to structures within the environment, issues of affordability and accessibility of assistive devices for individuals in LMIC are discussed. Stroke recovery involves adapting to new limitations and discovering the support necessary to live life. These changes are influenced by a range of environmental factors. Healthcare professionals need to support stroke patients in identifying challenges and work to find innovative ways to address them. Stroke survivors may benefit from the use of an assistive device beyond its clinical function to participate purposefully in activities of daily living. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke is a cause of disability that limits everyday activities and reduces social participation. Assistive devices help achieve independence, social inclusion and shape stroke recovery. Individuals with disabilities in low and middle income countries often do not have access to assistive devices and resort to innovative solutions that are purpose built. Stroke recovery involves adapting to new limitations and discovering the support necessary to live life as best as possible.

  15. Relational coordination promotes quality of chronic care delivery in Dutch disease-management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that relational coordination is positively associated with the delivery of hospital care, acute care, emergency care, trauma care, and nursing home care. The effect of relational coordination in primary care settings, such as disease-management programs, remains unknown. This study examined relational coordination between general practitioners and other professionals in disease-management programs and assessed the impact of relational coordination on the delivery of chronic illness care. Professionals (n = 188; response rate = 57%) in 19 disease-management programs located throughout the Netherlands completed surveys that assessed relational coordination and chronic care delivery. We used a cross-sectional study design. Our study demonstrated that the delivery of chronic illness care was positively related to relational coordination. We found positive relationships with community linkages (r = .210, p management support (r = .217, p management team members: practice nurses (M = 2.69 vs. 3.73; p management professionals with different disciplines is expected to improve chronic illness care delivery.

  16. A computerized harm minimization prevention program for alcohol misuse and related harms: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Laura; Teesson, Maree; Andrews, Gavin; Bird, Kevin; Steadman, Bronwyn; Dillon, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Hazardous alcohol use is a leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults world-wide, yet few effective prevention interventions exist. This study was the first to examine a computerized harm minimization intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and related harms in adolescents. Cluster randomized controlled trial of a six-session curriculum-integrated harm minimization prevention program. The intervention was delivered by computer in the form of a teenage drama, which provided education through alcohol-related scenarios to which young people could relate. Schools in Australia. A total of 1466 year 8 students (13 years) from 16 high schools in Australia were allocated randomly to a computerized prevention program (n = 611, eight schools) or usual classes (n = 855, eight schools). Change in knowledge, alcohol use, alcohol-related harms and alcohol expectancies. A computerized prevention program was more effective than usual classes in increasing alcohol-related knowledge of facts that would inform safer drinking choices and decreasing the positive social expectations which students believed alcohol may afford. For females it was effective in decreasing average alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harms and the frequency of drinking to excess (more than four standard drinks; 10 g ethanol). For males the behavioural effects were not significant. A harm minimization approach is effective in educating young people about alcohol-related risks and is effective in reducing risky drinking and harms among girls. Reduction of problems among boys remains a challenge.

  17. Federally Funded Programs Related to Building Energy Use: Overlaps, Challenges, and Opportunities for Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2010-10-01

    As energy efficiency in buildings continues to move from discreet technology development to an integrated systems approach, the need to understand and integrate complementary goals and targets becomes more pronounced. Whether within Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP), across the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), or throughout DOE and the Federal government, mutual gains and collaboration synergies exist that are not easily achieved because of organizational and time constraints. There also cases where federal agencies may be addressing similar issues, but with different (and sometimes conflicting) outcomes in mind. This report conducts a comprehensive inventory across all EERE and other relevant Federal agencies of potential activities with synergistic benefits. A taxonomy of activities with potential interdependencies is presented. The report identifies a number of federal program objectives, products, and plans related to building energy efficiency and characterizes the current structure and interactions related to these plans and programs. Areas where overlap occurs are identified as are the challenges of addressing issues related to overlapping goals and programs. Based on the input gathered from various sources, including 20 separate interviews with federal agency staff and contractor staff supporting buildings programs, this study identifies a number of synergistic opportunities and makes recommends a number of areas where further collaboration could be beneficial.

  18. Validation of a software program for measuring fatigue-related changes in keystroke durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Johnson, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Intensive computer use has been associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood, muscle fatigue is thought to be a contributing factor. Previous studies have shown that keystroke durations are related to muscle twitch durations and may be used as a surrogate measure of muscle fatigue. Software tools have been developed to measure keystroke durations; however, the accuracy of these programs may be influenced by the computer and/or the operating system (OS). Keystrokes were collected from six subjects and analyzed to determine whether there were any differences in keystroke durations measured by an OS-dependant software program and keystrokes collected directly from the keyboard using a USB analyzer (gold standard). The results demonstrated that the OS-dependant software program underestimated keystroke durations by 3.8 ms (103.5 vs. 107.3 ms; p software program could be used to collect keystroke durations.

  19. 26 CFR 53.4944-3 - Exception for program-related investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... between the investment and Y's exempt activities. Accordingly, the purchase of the common stock is a program-related investment, even though Y may realize a profit if X is successful and the common stock... common stock of corporation M. The dividends received from such investment are later applied by X in...

  20. READSCAN: a fast and scalable pathogen discovery program with accurate genome relative abundance estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Raeece; Rashid, Mamoon; Pain, Arnab

    2013-02-01

    READSCAN is a highly scalable parallel program to identify non-host sequences (of potential pathogen origin) and estimate their genome relative abundance in high-throughput sequence datasets. READSCAN accurately classified human and viral sequences on a 20.1 million reads simulated dataset in kaust.edu.sa/readscan.

  1. READSCAN: a fast and scalable pathogen discovery program with accurate genome relative abundance estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Naeem, Raeece; Rashid, Mamoon; Pain, Arnab

    2012-01-01

    Summary: READSCAN is a highly scalable parallel program to identify non-host sequences (of potential pathogen origin) and estimate their genome relative abundance in high-throughput sequence datasets. READSCAN accurately classified human and viral sequences on a 20.1 million reads simulated dataset in

  2. Evaluation of Articles Related to Program Development in Education Published in the Journal of Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make an overall assessment of articles related to program development in education that appeared in the "Journal of Primary Education," which had been published between 1939 and 1966. For this purpose, the articles in the journal were analyzed by using content analysis, and evaluated in terms of program…

  3. Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) or APA Doctoral Accreditation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Thomas J.

    The Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP), as a corporate affiliate of the American Association for Counseling and Development, is the accrediting agency for the world's largest association for counseling. CACREP has been in consultation with the Council on Postsecondary Accreditation (COPA) staff…

  4. Doing Good with Foundation Assets: An Updated Look at Program-Related Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Steven

    2010-01-01

    For four decades U.S. foundations have had the ability to make below-market-rate investments in activities consistent with their missions, and count these investments as part of their annual charitable distributions. Program-related investments, or PRIs, provide the opportunity for a philanthropic multiplier effect, as foundations invest the…

  5. Assessing innovation-related competences in the MaRIHE Program : Teacher and student perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopelyan, Sofya; Godonoga, Ana; Güney, Isil; Yasmin, Nowreen

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at expanding the body of research on innovation pedagogy and competence assessment by exploring the teaching and learning of innovation-related competences in an Erasmus Mundus Master program in Research and Innovation in Higher Education (MaRIHE). It does so by comparing the results

  6. 76 FR 18861 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... to the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION...) regulations to conform FDPIR policy to the requirements included in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of... Assistance Program (SNAP) relative to the requirements set forth in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of...

  7. Effects of Three Resistance Training Programs on Muscular Strength and Absolute and Relative Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim; Kearney, Jay T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of three resistance training programs on male college students' muscular strength and absolute and relative muscular endurance were investigated. Results show that human skeletal muscle makes both general and specific adaptations to a training stimulus, and that the balance of these adaptations is to some extent dependent upon the…

  8. Serendipity and Pseudoscience: A Look at Health-Related Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Pitfalls of sloppy science are discussed as they relate to the evaluation of human services programs. Differences between trial-and-error methods and the scientific method are discussed; and the requirements for sound research are reviewed, as are the shortcomings of a less rigorous approach. (SLD)

  9. Book Review: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory by Liza Herzog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory. Liza Herzog. Oxford University Press. April 2013.......Review of: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory. Liza Herzog. Oxford University Press. April 2013....

  10. Book Review: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory by Liza Herzog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory. Liza Herzog. Oxford University Press. April 2013.......Review of: Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel & Political Theory. Liza Herzog. Oxford University Press. April 2013....

  11. Technology Transfer: Number and Characteristics of Inventions Licensed by Six Federal Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Generally, when a federal employee creates an invention within the scope of his or her employment, the applicable agency retains title, may license the invention to third parties, and may receive...

  12. Impact of America Invents Act on Biotech Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Amanda; Stramiello, Michael; Stroud, Jonathan; Lewis, Stacy; Irving, Tom

    2015-04-27

    This review introduces the America Invents Act (AIA), a comprehensive reform of U.S. law on patentability and patent enforceability that Congress enacted in 2011. The AIA's most publicized change transforms the United States from a "first-to-invent" system to a "first-inventor-to-file" regime, bringing U.S. patent law more in line with the patent systems of nearly every other industrialized country in the world. This new system requires small companies and independent inventors to toe the line against larger competitors in what many have called a "race to the patent office." But a closer look at the AIA reveals several opportunities for smaller entities that may even the playing field, particularly for innovators in the biotech sector. This article addresses changes that the AIA brings to U.S. patent law, keeping an eye toward issues relevant to biotech companies. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. The dual frontier: Patented inventions and prior scientific advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpoor, Mohammad; Jones, Benjamin F

    2017-08-11

    The extent to which scientific advances support marketplace inventions is largely unknown. We study 4.8 million U.S. patents and 32 million research articles to determine the minimum citation distance between patented inventions and prior scientific advances. We find that most cited research articles (80%) link forward to a future patent. Similarly, most patents (61%) link backward to a prior research article. Linked papers and patents typically stand 2 to 4 degrees distant from the other domain. Yet, advances directly along the patent-paper boundary are notably more impactful within their own domains. The distance metric further provides a typology of the fields, institutions, and individuals involved in science-to-technology linkages. Overall, the findings are consistent with theories that emphasize substantial and fruitful connections between patenting and prior scientific inquiry. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  14. Penalaran Ilmiah dalam Ciptaan-Ciptaan Bionik (Bionic Inventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Hidayat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas tentang penalaran ilmiah dalam hasil ciptaan Bionik. Proses penalaran ilmiah sebagai bagian dari kemampuan berpikir manusia dalam ciptaan-ciptaan Bionik (Bionic Inventions yang diwujudkan pada penelitian-penelitian antara gabungan biologi dan elektronik. Bionik merupakan gabungan dari kata biologi dan elektronik, sistem mekanik makhluk hidup yang berfungsi seperti organ atau anggota tubuh makhluk hidup, mulai dari tangan, kaki, pendengaran, hingga penglihatan, semua bisa diperbaiki atau diganti (prosthesis serta inspirasi teknologi pada semua makhluk hidup. Artikel secara rinci mengungkap konsep-konsep Bionik, ciptaan-ciptaan Bionik pada makhluk hidup (manusia, hewan dan tumbuhan, serta hubungan penalaran ilmiah dengan ciptaan-ciptaan Bionik (Bionic Inventions. Penciptaan Bionik termasuk dalam penalaran ilmiah induktif, deduktif dan abduktif yang berarti terdapat adanya proposisi hukum (rule, proposisi tentang suatu kasus (case, dan terakhir proposisi tentang kesimpulan (result serta probabiltas yang tinggi yang terlepas dari falsifikasi (pseudo science.

  15. Inventing a Better Way to Capture the Energy of Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    NREL's ocean energy research team's efforts to develop more robust and cost-effective wave energy converters have yielded a record of invention titled, 'Wave Energy Conversion Devices with Actuated Geometry.' This innovative wave device features a wave converter with controlled geometry that increases energy capture and prevents large waves from overloading the generator. The invention's control system actuates flaps that open and close depending on wave conditions. Better control of the wave forces acting on wave energy conversion devices provides a solution to one of wave energy's biggest challenges -- and could cut the cost of wave energy in half.

  16. The Airplane as an Open-Source Invention

    OpenAIRE

    Peter B. Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Airplanes were invented after decades of experimentation in many countries through a process we can call open-source innovation. Experimenters, inventors, and writers contributed to the airplane’s development by sharing information in publications, in clubs, by writing letters and by visiting. The hundreds of aeronautical patents before 1900 were treated like publications, not like claims to intellectual property. Inventors of modern airplanes copied earlier designs, analogously to advances i...

  17. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  18. Effects of an endurance and resistance exercise program on persistent cancer-related fatigue after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, F; Schwartz, S; Wesel, N; Voigt, A; Thiel, E

    2008-08-01

    Fatigue is a relevant problem of cancer patients during and after treatment. Several studies have shown that exercise can improve quality of life and functional status of cancer patients undergoing chemo- or radiotherapy. However, there is a lack of information about the effects of this intervention on persistent cancer-related fatigue. Therefore, we assessed the effects of an exercise program on cancer-related fatigue after treatment. A consecutive series of 32 cancer patients with mild to severe persistent fatigue [scores on the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) > 25] participated in a 3-week exercise program consisting of endurance (30 min walking on a treadmill) and resistance/coordination exercises for the major muscle groups. Fatigue, mood, and anxiety were assessed with questionnaires and physical performance with a stress test before and after the program. At the end of the program, we observed a significant increase of physical performance (workload at the anaerobic threshold pre 61 +/- 26 W, post 78 +/- 31 W, P fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: pre 45.7 +/- 13.4, post 52.6 +/- 12.4, P fatigue or reduction of anxiety was observed. A 3-week exercise program leads to a substantial improvement of physical performance and reduction of mental and physical fatigue in cancer patients after treatment. However, this intervention does not affect depression, anxiety, or cognitive fatigue.

  19. Health promotion programs related to the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjichristodoulou Christos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Olympic Games constitute a first-class opportunity to promote athleticism and health messages. Little is known, however on the impact of Olympic Games on the development of health-promotion programs for the general population. Our objective was to identify and describe the population-based health-promotion programs implemented in relation to the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. Methods A cross-sectional survey of all stakeholders of the Games, including the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, all ministries of the Greek government, the National School of Public Health, all municipalities hosting Olympic events and all official private sponsors of the Games, was conducted after the conclusion of the Games. Results A total of 44 agencies were surveyed, 40 responded (91%, and ten (10 health-promotion programs were identified. Two programs were implemented by the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, 2 from the Greek ministries, 2 from the National School of Public Health, 1 from municipalities, and 3 from official private sponsors of the Games. The total cost of the programs was estimated at 943,000 Euros; a relatively small fraction (0.08% of the overall cost of the Games. Conclusion Greece has made a small, however, significant step forward, on health promotion, in the context of the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee and the future hosting countries, including China, are encouraged to elaborate on this idea and offer the world a promising future for public health.

  20. Effect of a family psychoeducational program on relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sota, Satoko; Shimodera, Shinji; Kii, Masaru; Okamura, Kayoko; Suto, Koichirou; Suwaki, Mitsuru; Fujita, Hirokazu; Fujito, Ryosuke; Inoue, Shimpei

    2008-08-01

    Family psychoeducational programs have been shown to be effective in terms of knowledge acquirement and relapse prevention, but few studies have looked at whether one mode of educational method is more effective than another. The aim of the present study was to compare several modes of educational approaches and to elucidate which mode of education is more effective. A total of 110 relatives of 95 patients with schizophrenia received three types of family psychoeducational programs between January 1995 and September 2003: a small group with two sessions (P1), a large group with nine sessions (P2), and a large group with five sessions (P3). In addition to the demographic data, acquired knowledge was measured using the modified Knowledge About Schizophrenia Interview (KASI), family expressed emotion (EE), and relapse episodes. Overall there were significant increases in many KASI subcategory scores after the three programs, in mothers in particular. The change in KASI scores indicated that the low EE group was able to be highly educated and that the relatives of non-relapsers were more effectively educated. As for the mode of the family psychoeducational program, the P1 and P2 groups surpassed the P3 in terms of knowledge acquired. Effects of family psychoeducation may depend not on the number of members or sessions but on the time spent on the program per member.

  1. A Survey of Military Counseling Content and Curriculum among Council on Rehabilitation Education- and Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs-Accredited Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebnicki, Mark A.; Clemmons-James, Dominiquie; Leierer, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the amount, frequency, and type of course content related to military counseling issues in Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE)- and Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP)-accredited master's-level counselor education programs. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all CORE- and…

  2. Theodore Harold Maiman and the invention of laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawicz, Andrew H.

    2008-11-01

    In his 1917 "On Quantum Theory of Radiation" paper Albert Einstein introduced the concept of amplification of radiation through stimulated emission with coherence. This concept had not been applied in practice until 1952 when Joseph Weber, followed by Townes, Basov and Prokhorov, developed the theory and started working on the construction of masers. The first maser was demonstrated by Townes' team in 1953. Many researchers began thinking about making an "optical maser", but the transition from centimeter to nanometer waves posed a problem. Well funded researchers in the USA and Soviet Union put their efforts into making an "optical maser". In May 16, 1960 an unknown and underfunded researcher, Theodore Harold Maiman, won the race and demonstrated a fully functional ruby laser. The scientific world was astonished by its simplicity and elegance. Maiman's short paper describing the invention appeared immediately in Nature magazine. This invention caused an avalanche of new laser developments followed by the growing number of applications in almost all fields of our lives. Ted Maiman died in 2007 in Vancouver, just 13 days before the 47th anniversary of the invention of the laser. The intention of this paper is to focus on the life of the scientific maverick and great man.

  3. SPACE 365: Upgraded App for Aviation and Space-Related Information and Program Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.; Maples, J. E.; Castle, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Foreknowledge of upcoming events and anniversary dates can be extraordinarily valuable in the planning and preparation of a variety of aviation and Space-related educational programming. Alignment of programming with items "newsworthy" enough to attract media attention on their own can result in effective program promotion at low/no cost. Similarly, awareness and avoidance of dates upon which media and public attention will likely be elsewhere can keep programs from being lost in the noise.NASA has created a useful and entertaining app called "SPACE 365" to help supply that foreknowledge. The app contains an extensive database of historical aviation and Space exploration-related events, along with other events and birthdays to provide socio-historical context, as well as an extensive file of present and future space missions, complete with images and videos. The user can search by entry topic category, date, and key words. Upcoming Events allows the user to plan, participate, and engage in significant "don't miss" happenings.The historical database was originally developed for use at the National Air and Space Museum, then expanded significantly to include more NASA-related information. The CIMA team at NASA MSFC, sponsored by the Planetary Science Division, added NASA current events and NASA educational programming information, and are continually adding new information and improving the functionality and features of the app. Features of SPACE 365 now include: NASA Image of the Day, Upcoming NASA Events, Event Save, Do Not Miss, and Ask Dr. Steve functions, and the CIMA team recently added a new start page and added improved search and navigation capabilities. App users can now socialize the Images of the Day via Twitter, Pinterest, Facebook, and other social media outlets.SPACE 365 is available at no cost from both the Apple appstore and GooglePlay, and has helped NASA, NASM, and other educators plan and schedule programming events. It could help you, too!

  4. 37 CFR 1.145 - Subsequent presentation of claims for different invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... claims for different invention. 1.145 Section 1.145 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Joinder of Inventions in One Application; Restriction § 1.145 Subsequent presentation of claims for different invention. If, after an Office action on an application, the applicant...

  5. 48 CFR 1253.227-70 - Conveyance of invention rights acquired by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conveyance of invention... invention rights acquired by the Government. The following form is prescribed as a means for contractors to report inventions made in the course of contract performance, as specified in 1227.305-4: DD Form 882...

  6. 48 CFR 27.305-3 - Securing invention rights acquired by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Securing invention rights... Government Contracts 27.305-3 Securing invention rights acquired by the Government. (a) Agencies are responsible for implementing procedures necessary to protect the Government's interest in subject inventions...

  7. 37 CFR 1.476 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.476 Section 1.476 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.476 Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) Before establishing the international search...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.227-85 - Invention reporting and rights-Foreign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Invention reporting and... Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-85 Invention reporting and rights—Foreign. As prescribed in 1827.303-70(f), insert the following clause: Invention Reporting and Rights—Foreign (APR 1986) (a) As used in this clause...

  9. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. 1.488 Section 1.488 Patents, Trademarks... Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) Before... requirement of unity of invention as set forth in § 1.475. (b) If the International Preliminary Examining...

  10. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and... decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. (a) Any requester who is dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than...

  11. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office action...

  12. 48 CFR 1227.305-4 - Conveyance of invention rights acquired by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conveyance of invention... Under Government Contracts 1227.305-4 Conveyance of invention rights acquired by the Government... inventions made in the course of contract performance and at contract completion. This requirement may be...

  13. 48 CFR 3027.305-4 - Conveyance of invention rights acquired by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conveyance of invention... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305-4 Conveyance of invention... which include a patent rights clause include a means for the contractor to report inventions made in the...

  14. 48 CFR 3053.227-70 - Conveyance of invention rights acquired by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conveyance of invention... Prescription of Forms 3053.227-70 Conveyance of invention rights acquired by the Government. The following form is prescribed for including a means for contractors to report inventions made in the course of...

  15. 37 CFR 401.10 - Government assignment to contractor of rights in invention of government employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contractor of rights in invention of government employee. 401.10 Section 401.10 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY... AGREEMENTS § 401.10 Government assignment to contractor of rights in invention of government employee. In any...

  16. 37 CFR 401.8 - Reporting on utilization of subject inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject inventions. 401.8 Section 401.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL... utilization of subject inventions. (a) Paragraph (h) of the clauses at § 401.14 and its counterpart in the...

  17. 32 CFR 746.13 - Transfer of custody of Government inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of custody of Government inventions... PROCUREMENT, PROPERTY, PATENTS, AND CONTRACTS LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT INVENTIONS IN THE CUSTODY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY § 746.13 Transfer of custody of Government inventions. The Chief of Naval Research may...

  18. 32 CFR 37.860 - What rights should I obtain for inventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What rights should I obtain for inventions? 37... Matters Intellectual Property § 37.860 What rights should I obtain for inventions? (a) You should negotiate rights in inventions that represent a good balance between the Government's interests (see § 37...

  19. 10 CFR 781.61 - Publication of DOE inventions available for license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication of DOE inventions available for license. 781... Publication of DOE inventions available for license. (a) The Department will publish periodically in the Federal Register a list of the DOE inventions available for licensing under this part. In addition, a list...

  20. 34 CFR 7.1 - Duty of employee to report inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty of employee to report inventions. 7.1 Section 7.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.1 Duty of employee to report inventions. Every Department employee is required to report to the Secretary in accordance with...

  1. 28 CFR 345.73 - Procedures for granting awards for suggestions or inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suggestions or inventions. 345.73 Section 345.73 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC... for granting awards for suggestions or inventions. Inmate suggestions for improvements in operations... the SOI. (b) The SOI shall ensure that all inmate suggestions and/or inventions formally submitted are...

  2. 38 CFR 1.652 - Criteria for determining rights to employee inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rights to employee inventions. 1.652 Section 1.652 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Inventions by Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs § 1.652 Criteria for determining rights to employee inventions. (a) The criteria to be applied in determining the...

  3. 37 CFR 501.6 - Criteria for the determination of rights in and to inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determination of rights in and to inventions. 501.6 Section 501.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.6 Criteria for the determination of rights in and to inventions. (a) The following...

  4. 45 CFR 650.10 - Inventions also supported by another Federal Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventions also supported by another Federal... SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.10 Inventions also supported by another Federal Agency. Section 401.13(a... that an invention is made under funding agreements of more than one federal agency, the agencies...

  5. 10 CFR 81.13 - Publication of NRC inventions available for licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication of NRC inventions available for licensing. 81... GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES Nrc-Owned Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.13 Publication of NRC inventions available for licensing. (a) The Commission will have published periodically a list of the NRC...

  6. 7 CFR 3015.44 - Royalties or equivalent income earned from patents or from inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Royalties or equivalent income earned from patents or from inventions. 3015.44 Section 3015.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... inventions. Disposition of royalties or equivalent income earned on patents or inventions arising out of...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.227-71 - Requests for waiver of rights to inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rights to inventions. 1852.227-71 Section 1852.227-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-71 Requests for waiver of rights to inventions. As prescribed in 1827.30-70(c... Technology: Requests for Waiver of Rights to Inventions (APR 1984) (a) In accordance with the NASA Patent...

  8. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product formulations...

  9. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  10. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of funds...

  11. A Study of Persistence in the Northeast State Community College Health-Related Programs of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Allana R.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify factors that were positively associated with persistence to graduation by students who were admitted to Health-Related Programs leading to the degree associate of applied science at Northeast State Community College. The criterion variable in this study was persistence, which was categorized into two groups the persister group (program completers) and the nonpersister (program noncompleters) group. The predictor variables included gender, ethnic origin, first- (or nonfirst-) generation-student status, age, specific major program of study, number of remedial and/or developmental courses taken, grades in selected courses (human anatomy and physiology I and II, microbiology, probability and statistics, composition I, clinical I, clinical II), and number of mathematics and science credit hours earned prior to program admission. The data for this ex post facto nonexperimental design were located in Northeast State's student records database, Banner Information System. The subjects of the study were students who had been admitted into Health-Related Programs of study at a 2-year public community college between the years of 1999 and 2008. The population size was 761. Health-Related Programs of study included Dental Assisting, Cardiovascular Technology, Emergency Medical Technology -- Paramedic, Medical Laboratory Technology, Nursing, and Surgical Technology. A combination of descriptive and inferential statistics was used in the analysis of the data. Descriptive statistics included measures of central tendency, standard deviations, and percentages, as appropriate. Independent samples t-tests were used to determine if the mean of a variable on one group of subjects was different from the mean of the same variable with a different group of subjects. It was found that gender, ethnic origin, first-generation status, and age were not significantly associated with persistence to graduation. However, findings did reveal a statistically

  12. Nanotechnological Inventions and Nanomaterials Produce A Profound Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of

  13. 45 CFR 261.54 - Is a State subject to any other penalty relating to its work program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a State subject to any other penalty relating to its work program? 261.54 Section 261.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Work Requirements? § 261.54 Is a State subject to any other penalty relating to its work program? (a...

  14. RC2S: a cognitive remediation program to improve social cognition in schizophrenia and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie ePEYROUX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind, attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (Cognitive Remediation of Social Cognition in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual-reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with

  15. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients' functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient's goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters' mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders.

  16. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders

  17. THE SPECTRUM OF STUDENT ENROLLMENT-RELATED OUTCOMES IN PHYSIOTHERAPY EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN WEST AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Balogun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study investigated student enrollment-related outcomes from physiotherapy education programs in West Africa. Methods: The Head of Department of all physiotherapy education programs in Nigeria and Ghana universities (N=14 completed a questionnaire that sought information on admission capacity/goal, student enrollment, baccalaureate (BPT/BS and postgraduate (MS, Ph.D. degrees conferred and the student-core faculty ratio (SFR. Results: In Nigeria, 4,748 BPT, 325 MS and 50 Ph.D. degrees in physiotherapy were conferred over a 50 year period; 2,038 BPT, 160 MS, and 42 Ph.D. students are currently enrolled. In Ghana, over a 14 year period, 277 BS degrees were conferred and 162 students are currently enrolled. The mean SFR for the undergraduate program in Nigeria and Ghana was 17.6 and 13.5, respectively. In Nigeria, 83.3% of the physiotherapy programs are located in Federal owned university; while in Ghana 100% of the programs are in State-owned university (χ² = 8.556; p =.014. Admission goal and university ownership are significantly (p<.05 influenced by the number of students annually admitted, students enrolled and SFR. Conclusion: The number of physiotherapists currently produced by universities in West Africa is inadequate to meet the regional physiotherapist needs

  18. Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-06-18

    produced by technologies and practices supported by BT and by WIP. However, the approach is general enough for analysis of buildings-related technologies, independent of any specific program. An overview describes the GPRA process and the models used to estimate energy savings. The body of the document describes the algorithms used and the diffusion curve estimates.

  19. FIRE: an SPSS program for variable selection in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J

    2011-01-01

    We provide an SPSS program that implements currently recommended techniques and recent developments for selecting variables in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors...

  20. Safeguarding Self-Governance: A Grounded Theory of Older Patients’ Pattern of Behavior in Relation to their Relatives in Fast-track Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews......-governance emerged in the analysis as the core category of our theory and pattern of behavior of the older patients in relation to their relatives. The older patients’ main concern was to complete the fast-track program while maintaining autonomy, which they resolved through four strategies of actions: embracing......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement....

  1. Availability of Health-Related Programs in Private and Public Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćak, Valerio; Ridgeway, Greg

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the resources available to protect inmates' health in private prisons compared to their public counterparts. This is the first national-level study that exclusively examined the availability of health-related programs in private and public prisons in the United States. We applied propensity score weighting and doubly robust estimation to compare private prisons to comparable public prisons. Data were self-reported by prison administrators as part of the 2005 Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities. We found that private prisons offered fewer substance dependency, psychological/psychiatric, and HIV/AIDS-related programs. But the differences were progressively reduced when the comparison was limited to public prisons most similar on a variety of facility-level characteristics. The extent to which the two types of prisons differ is closely tied to the characteristics of the facilities that are compared.

  2. Vaccination and screening programs: harmonizing prevention strategies for HPV-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliusi Sonia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HPV vaccine is an exciting promise of the preventive medicine. Although HPV-immunization programs still reveal a number of unanswered questions, they represent a novel opportunity for primary prevention against cervical cancer and other HPV-related pre-neoplastic and neoplastic diseases. It is reasonable that the short and long-term benefits of vaccination on cervical and vulvo-vaginal HPV-related pathology will emerge when assuring over time a clear and complete information to the community and harmonizing the prevention strategies. Indeed, HPV-vaccination programs will require an understanding of new paradigms of infection and cancer control, and thus will require a rationale integration with the currently operating screening systems.

  3. Private Administration – Favorable Environment for Implementing Programs and Campaigns of Public Relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona HAIDAU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper refer to decision of the private administration organizations from the region northeast of Romania to implement programs and public relations campaigns from the socio-economic context in the current period. This decision of organizations above mentioned is strongly influenced by nature non-profit purposes they have, more precisely, to be involved in carrying out the public interest or community.

  4. Model Management Intergovernmental Relations Case Study Program Free Education In South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardiman Syamsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Looking for intergovernmental relations management model is a consequence of the decentralization of government from local to central government provincial and district city. Delivery of affairs to the position of actors in the region more involved than ever before. The actor was instrumental in determining the center of attention authority patterns and methods of conflict resolution when to initiate and conduct a free educational program cooperation. Intergovernmental relations management effectiveness is determined by the role of actors in determining the center of attention establish a pattern of authority and choose a method of conflict resolution. Affairs of primary and secondary education is the authority of the district city. If the provincial government to initiate treatment in the free education program the pattern of intergovernmental relations management authority selected cooperation may or may be of assistance subsidy. For matters of primary and secondary education the choice of co-administration is not appropriate. Choices made during this cooperation needs to be reviewed with due regard to equality work together mutual benefit of all parties cooperate. When cooperation to lead to conflicts preferably selected pattern of relationships is the only province to provide subsidies allow the district city alone is conducting the affairs of a free education. Options cooperation dominated by actors and actors governor regent mayor refused to put forward its own program is an option for power from the owner of the sovereignty of the people as a constituent in the local elections in both provinces and districts cities.

  5. The Effects of a Bully Intervention Program on the Relational Aggressive Behaviors of 5th Grade Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Waukita; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Bergin, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a mixed method design, this study investigated the effectiveness of a bully intervention program aimed at fifth-grade girls. The Ophelia Project provided the framework for a six-week prevention program. Results showed that the bullying intervention program did decrease the relational aggressive behaviors among the participants and indicated…

  6. Analyzing the Curricula of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Technology-Related Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaden, Abdullah; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze on-campus and online PhD programs in educational technology-related fields in the United States. In particular, it sought to evaluate the most common program titles; core, elective, and research courses based on program curricula. The research design was quantitative content analysis and data were collected…

  7. Inventive Activity of Researchers: Cross-Country Rating Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Ivanovna Volkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the research capacity of the country and regions has become more active not only from the point of view of their leading components (personnel, financial, information, organizational, material-and-technical ones but also from the perspective of the assessment of productivity and effectiveness of researchers’ work. In the cross-country analysis, the certain highly aggregative parameters, which values, as a rule, are not in favour of Russia, are used. At the same time, at profound studying of this topic, these estimates cannot represent correctly the real trends of inventive activity in the scientific and technological sphere of the country and its regions. Moreover, the measurement of the researchers’ creative potential realization is carried out mainly through the assessment systems of their printing activity. Little attention is paid to the problem of the rating assessments of the researchers’ inventive and patent activity and its products from a cross-country perspective (especially to the detailed ones as well as to its institutional determinants. Therefore, the authors have chosen this subject-matter of the research. Its empirical basis is the statistical materials of both the national database and those which are recognized by the world scientific community. This research has both theoretical and methodological orientations. The purpose is the development of methodological and methodical tools of the research and assessment of researchers’ inventive activity including methodological support of cross-country comparative assessments. The authors have based the hypothesis on their previous research: in the conditions of the decreasing level of financial security, continuous reduction of a number of researchers, institutional restrictions and contradictions, the inventive activity of national researchers is still exist, and in a number of its leading parameters is implemented at the level of the advanced

  8. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials: review of inventions. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANOV Leonid Alexeevich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new technical solutions including inventions in the area of nanotechnology and nanomaterials are efficiently applied in communal and housing services as well as in construction and other joint fields. The invention «Protection system of urban housing and the method to build it (RU 2604933» refers to construction including environmental structures and can be used to protect cities, objects of national economy from destruction, floods and other types of natural and antropogenic disasters. Reinforcement of basements of city buildings is performed with barrels with fillers and flexible dampener-ties that receive natural and antropogenic impacts thus providing safety, including ecological one, for urban housing. The system is equipped with solar accumulators that supply energy to people in case of emergencies and additional monitoring system to inform people about emergencies. Storm discharge facilities protect cities and towns from floods. All that provides safety of inhabitants’ lives and functioning of enterprises when natural and antropogenic disasters such as floods, mud-and-stone flows and other types occur. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce hardening mortar (RU 2601885, increase of durability of basalt fiber concrete by nanostructural additives, the method to treat surface and underground waters from titanium and its compounds by means of carbon nanotubes and ultrasound (RU 2575029, material on polymer basis for combined radio- and radiation protection (RU 2605696, thermoelectric heat pump with nanofilm semiconductor sides (RU 2595911, polymer composite nanomaterial (RU 2605590, the method to produce compositions from polymer and nanosize fillers (RU 2586979, the method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for highstrength concrete (RU 2563264 et al.

  9. [Breast cancer incidence related with a population-based screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Caicoya, Martín; Prieto, Miguel; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-02-20

    To compare breast cancer cumulative incidence, time evolution and stage at diagnosis between participants and non-participant women in a population-based screening program. Cohort study of breast cancer incidence in relation to participation in a population screening program. The study population included women from the target population of the screening program. The source of information for diagnostics and stages was the population-based cancer registry. The analysis period was 1999-2010. The Relative Risk for invasive, in situ, and total cancers diagnosed in participant women compared with non-participants were respectively 1.16 (0.94-1.43), 2.98 (1.16-7.62) and 1.22 (0.99-1.49). The Relative Risk for participants versus non-participants was 2.47 (1.55-3.96) for diagnosis at stagei, 2.58 (1.67-3.99) for T1 and 2.11 (1.38-3.23) for negative lymph node involvement. The cumulative incidence trend had two joint points in both arms, with an Annual Percent of Change of 92.3 (81.6-103.5) between 1999-2001, 18.2 (16.1-20.3) between 2001-2005 and 5.9 (4.0-7.8) for the last period in participants arm, and 72.6 (58.5-87.9) between 1999-2001, 12.6 (7.9-17.4) between 2001-2005, and 8.6 (6.5-10.6) in the last period in the non-participant arm. Participating in the breast cancer screening program analyzed increased the in situ cumulative cancer incidence, but not the invasive and total incidence. Diagnoses were earlier in the participant arm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Suicide, guns, and buyback programs: an epidemiologic analysis of firearm-related deaths in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Laura; Clinton, Heather; Berntsson, Rob; Williams, Susan; Rovella, James C; Shapiro, David; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2017-05-22

    Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides. Detailed firearm and case data was obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (SMALL ≤ .32 caliber, MEDIUM = .357 caliber to 9 millimeter, LARGE ≥ .40 caliber). Chi-square analyses were used for comparisons between groups. In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention). Comparisons between buyback, crime and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback=63±11, suicide=52±18, homicide=34±12 years), sex (buyback=81%, suicide=91%, homicide=84% male), and race (buyback=80%, suicide=97%, homicide=47% white). Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community, and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  11. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE......’s market share, number of manufacturers in the field and lamp price erosion through the period of the Edison patent’s enforcement reveal GE’s market position to have been stable, even weakening through the period of patent enforcement. Lastly, we derive from our account criteria against which any...

  12. The restoration of rights in inventions. Essentials elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the figure of the right restoration goes back to the days of Roman law which accorded full restitution (restitutio in integrum, was considered then, the restoration of the right, as restitution to the state of the situation that kept things before the occurrence of the loss of the right and the person suffers any damage, meaning full restitution to former legal status. This article is an analysis of the essential elements that make up the restoration of the right figure from the study of three laws, including cuban legislation on inventions.

  13. Marking time the epic quest to invent the perfect calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Steel, Duncan

    2001-01-01

    ""If you lie awake worrying about the overnight transition from December 31, 1 b.c., to January 1, a.d. 1 (there is no year zero), then you will enjoy Duncan Steel's Marking Time.""--American Scientist ""No book could serve as a better guide to the cumulative invention that defines the imaginary threshold to the new millennium.""--Booklist A Fascinating March through History and the Evolution of the Modern-Day Calendar . . . In this vivid, fast-moving narrative, you'll discover the surprising story of how our modern calendar came about and how it has changed dramatically through the years.

  14. Dancing through Cape Coast: ethical and practical considerations for health-related service-learning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Lise

    2013-09-01

    Short-term service-learning programs that focus on global health are expanding rapidly, spurred by students' desire to be of service in a world that has been made to seem small by new technology and universities' willingness to embrace the goal of educating global citizens. In this commentary, the author uses experiences from a recent trip she led to Ghana as a backdrop against which to explore some of the ethical and practical issues that arise when U.S. students work in health-related programs in developing countries. At minimum, the author argues, these programs should lead students to consider issues such as which basic services people are entitled to, regardless of where and in what circumstances they live, and how differences in access to social and economic resources contribute to health disparities on a global scale. She also suggests that sponsoring institutions should consider what is owed to the countries and communities in which their students learn. Finally, she underscores the circumstances under which service-learning programs can truly benefit the cause of global health.

  15. Understanding the Dialectical Relations Between Everyday Concepts and Scientific Concepts Within Play-Based Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2009-03-01

    In recent times there has been an enormous interest in Vygotsky’s writing on conceptual development, particularly his insights on the differences between everyday and scientific thinking. In drawing upon cultural-historical theory, this paper seeks to examine the relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts within playful contexts, such as preschools, with a view to better understanding how very young children develop conceptual understandings in science. This paper presents an overview of a study which sought to map the transformation and appropriation of scientific concepts within two early childhood settings. Approximately ten weeks of data gathering took place, with video recordings, field notes, photographic documentation, and child and teacher interviews for recording child concept formation within these naturalistic settings. The findings indicate that when teacher programs are more oriented towards concepts rather than materials, children’s play is focused on conceptual connections. Importantly, the study showed that: It was possible to map the multiple and dynamic levels or stratas of thinking that a child or group of children may exhibit within play-based contexts; An analysis of ‘unorganised heaps’ and ‘complexive thinking’ evident in conceptually or materially oriented play-based programs can be determined; the dialectical relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts in play-based programs can be understood; and greater understanding about the nature of concept formation in situated playful contexts have been possible.

  16. Factors related to sexual behaviors and sexual education programs for Asian-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Me; Florez, Elizabeth; Tariman, Joseph; McCarter, Sarah; Riesche, Laren

    2015-08-01

    To understand the influential factors related to sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents and to evaluate common factors across successful sexual education programs for this population. Despite a rapid increase in cases of STIs/HIV among Asian-American populations, there remains a need for a comprehensive understanding of the influential factors related to risky sexual behaviors for this population. An integrative literature review was conducted. Peer-reviewed articles and government resources were analyzed. Five influential factors were identified: family-centered cultural values, parental relationship, acculturation, gender roles, and lack of knowledge and information about sex and STIs. Only two sexual educational programs met the inclusion criteria and provided evidence towards effectiveness: Safer Choices and Seattle Social Development Project. The findings of this study indicate an urgent need for culturally sensitive sexual education programs that incorporate the identified influential factors, especially cultural values in order to reduce risky sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in dentistry professionals. 2. Prevention, ergonomic strategies and therapeutic programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, F; Franchignoni, F; Ferriero, G; Vercelli, S; Odescalchi, L; Augusti, D; Migliario, M

    2005-01-01

    In dental professionals the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) can be minimized through a combination of prevention, ergonomic strategies, and specific therapeutic programs. Prevention includes early identification of symptoms, analysis of working posture and activity, and the evaluation of equipment (such as dental instruments, position of the dental unit, patient and operator chairs, and lighting). The ergonomic strategies are based on identifying the best daily timetable (including periodic pauses) and most efficient team organization, as well as establishing the correct position that should be held at the patient chair. Finally specific therapeutic programs are very important in preventing or treating WMSD. In fact, fitness exercises such as mobilization, stretching or muscular and cardiovascular training are recognized as fundamental for dental professionals, and when WMSD occurs physiatric care and physical therapy are recommended.

  18. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders' energy balance-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, B C; Shrewsbury, V A; Hardy, L L; Flood, V M; Byth, K; Shah, S

    2017-09-07

    Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA) program on SALSA peer leaders' EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15-16 year olds) who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13-14 year olds). This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders' fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415) who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P leaders' intentions, except MVPA which remained stable. The SALSA program had a positive impact on peer leaders' EBRBs, with gender and socio-economic status moderating some outcomes. ACTRN12617000712303 retrospectively registered.

  19. The invention and early history of the CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George E.

    2011-05-01

    As the first practical solid state imaging device, the invention of the charge coupled device has profoundly affected image sensing technology. They are used in a wide range of applications both as area and linear imaging devices starting with the replacement of imaging tubes used in commercial TV cameras and cam-corders. The rapid rise of their use in digital cameras has initiated the demise of film photography and created vast new markets with great economic benefit for many. Other uses include a wide variety of scientific, surveillance, and scanning applications. The inception of the device at Bell Labs by W. S. Boyle and G. E. Smith, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 587 (1970);G. F. Amelio, M. F. Tompsett, and G. E. Smith, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 593 (1970); W. S. Boyle and G. E. Smith, U.S. patent 3,792,322 (12 February 1974) was strongly influenced by several unique factors existing both within Bell Labs and the current world state of technology. These factors and their relevance will be discussed along with the train of thought leading to the invention. Early experimental devices and their initial applications were vigorously pursued and will be described. Mention of current applications will be given.

  20. Grounded for life: creative symbol-grounding for lexical invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Tony; Al-Najjar, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    One of the challenges of linguistic creativity is to use words in a way that is novel and striking and even whimsical, to convey meanings that remain stubbornly grounded in the very same world of familiar experiences as serves to anchor the most literal and unimaginative language. The challenge remains unmet by systems that merely shuttle or arrange words to achieve novel arrangements without concern as to how those arrangements are to spur the processes of meaning construction in a listener. In this paper we explore a problem of lexical invention that cannot be solved without a model - explicit or implicit - of the perceptual grounding of language: the invention of apt new names for colours. To solve this problem here we shall call upon the notion of a linguistic readymade, a phrase that is wrenched from its original context of use to be given new meaning and new resonance in new settings. To ensure that our linguistic readymades - which owe a great deal to Marcel Duchamp's notion of found art - are anchored in a consensus model of perception, we introduce the notion of a lexicalised colour stereotype.

  1. Multidisciplinary program for stress-related disease in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ekvall Hansson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Eva Ekvall Hansson1, Eva Håkansson2, Annelie Raushed2, Anders Håkansson1 1Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö/General Practice, Malmö, Sweden; 2Primary Health Care Malmö, SwedenObjective: To describe a multidisciplinary program, given by an occupational therapist and a physiotherapist, for patients with stress-related disease in primary health care and to measure the effect of this program in terms of self-perceived health, degree of burnout, physical activity, symptoms, recreational activities, and psychological and physical well-being.Method: Retrospective study.Results: At measures after three months, the thirteen patients included in this study had improved in self-estimated health, measured with EuroQol-5D Visual Analogue Scale (p = 0.000, and in degree of burnout, measured with the Shirom–Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (p = 0.001. There was also a decrease in presence of headache, in physical activity and in satisfaction with leisure time, although not statistically significant. After six months, the improvements remained for all measures except physical activity. The patients were also satisfied with the program to a high degree, measured with Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (median 3.7.Conclusion: This descriptive study shows that a stress-management program, provided by a team including an occupational therapist and a physiotherapist in primary health care, is both feasible and effective in terms of self-estimated health, degree of burnout, and patient satisfaction. Keywords: stress-related health, burnout, occupational therapy, physiotherapy

  2. READSCAN: A fast and scalable pathogen discovery program with accurate genome relative abundance estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Naeem, Raeece

    2012-11-28

    Summary: READSCAN is a highly scalable parallel program to identify non-host sequences (of potential pathogen origin) and estimate their genome relative abundance in high-throughput sequence datasets. READSCAN accurately classified human and viral sequences on a 20.1 million reads simulated dataset in <27 min using a small Beowulf compute cluster with 16 nodes (Supplementary Material). Availability: http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/readscan Contact: or raeece.naeem@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. 2012 The Author(s).

  3. Index of Laser Program publications and related reports, calendar year 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-05-01

    This document provides a listing of titles and authors of publications from the LLNL Laser program during calendar year 1984. It is presented as an aid for researchers in the field who may not otherwise have access to a full listing of laser-related work done at LLNL. The intent is to provide a brief and concise listing. Publications are classified by subject, but cross references are not supplied and those documents that logically fall in more than one category may not appear to be in the obvious location.

  4. Transmission and orbital constraints in space-related programs: Briefing summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    Research was initiated to develop a capability for predicting and analyzing the spectrum/orbital geometry requirements of current and projected U.S. and international space related systems. Essential components of the project include development of a comprehensive space environment data base and computer analysis programs. This capability will provide a resource for evaluating engineering and architectural designs, identifying and analyzing the impact of intentional and unintentional electromagnetic (EM) interference, and predicting probable saturation conditions in spectrum usage and satellite/orbital positions. Assessments of means for accommodating the anticipated growth are also an important part of the study project.

  5. Inventing Conflicts of Interest: A History of Tobacco Industry Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Confronted by compelling peer-reviewed scientific evidence of the harms of smoking, the tobacco industry, beginning in the 1950s, used sophisticated public relations approaches to undermine and distort the emerging science. The industry campaign worked to create a scientific controversy through a program that depended on the creation of industry–academic conflicts of interest. This strategy of producing scientific uncertainty undercut public health efforts and regulatory interventions designed to reduce the harms of smoking. A number of industries have subsequently followed this approach to disrupting normative science. Claims of scientific uncertainty and lack of proof also lead to the assertion of individual responsibility for industrially produced health risks. PMID:22095331

  6. Workshop characteristics related to chronic disease self-management education program attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G; Jiang, Luohua; Lorig, Kate; Kulinski, Kristie P; Ahn, SangNam

    2015-01-01

    Using the national dissemination of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) programs, the purposes of this study were to (1) document intervention attendance rates as related to the number of participants enrolled in the workshop and (2) compare the relationship between workshop attendance and workshop size by delivery site rurality and type. Data were analyzed from the first 100,000 middle-aged and older adults who participated in CDSME workshops spanning 45 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Chronic Disease Self-Management Program initiative. Descriptive statistics are reported for all participants, then separately by each delivery site type. Ratios between the number of workshop participants and the number of workshop sessions attended were calculated and graphed based on the rurality of delivery and separately for the leading five delivery site types. Associations between the number of workshop participants and the number of sessions attended differed by delivery site rurality and type. Findings have implications for participant retention and workshop delivery costs, which can assist program deliverers to strategically plan implementation efforts in their areas.

  7. Identities and motives of naturalist development program attendees and their relation to professional careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mraz, Jennifer Arin

    In recent years, there has been much concern over the decline of biologists who actually identify themselves to be naturalists, which negatively impacts the field of conservation and the study of biology as a whole. This could result in a decrease in individuals who participate in naturalist-like activities, such as informal environmental education and environmental volunteerism. The purpose of my study was to determine what discourse identities were held by naturalist development program participants, how these discourse identities related to their volunteer motives in environmental settings, and how discourse identity related to professional careers. I defined identity through the lens of discourse-identity, which describes a person's identity as being conveyed through that individual's communication and actions. I conducted individual interviews or used an online questionnaire to ask questions to naturalist development program attendees about their workshop experience, relationship with nature, volunteer motives and activities, as well as professional career or career aspiration. Volunteer motives were quantitatively measured in both types of program participants using the published Volunteer Motivation Questionnaire. Overall, I found that 100 study participants had six discourse identities: naturalist (n = 27), aspiring naturalist ( n = 32), nature steward (n = 5), outreach volunteer (n = 6), casual nature observer (n = 22), and recreational nature user (n = 8). Naturalist development programs should focus on developing more naturalist-like discourse identities in their participants to help encourage participation in naturalist activities. Volunteer motives were ranked by importance to participants in the following order: helping the environment, learning, user, project organization, values and esteem, social, and career. The majority of Master Naturalist Program study participants that stated a career were in non-STEM careers; however, the majority of

  8. Examining relational empowerment for elementary school students in a yPAR program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Collins, Charles; Ellison, Erin Rose

    2014-06-01

    This paper joins relational empowerment, youth empowerment, and Bridging Multiple Worlds frameworks to examine forms of relational empowerment for children in two intermediary institutions-school and a youth participatory action research after-school program (yPAR ASP). Participants were twelve children, most of whom were Latina/o and from im/migrant families, enrolled in a yPAR ASP for 2 years. A mixed-method approach was utilized; we analyzed children's interviews, self-defined goals, and their social networks to examine their experiences of relational empowerment. We conclude that children experienced each of the five relational empowerment factors-collaborative competence, bridging social divisions, facilitating others' empowerment, mobilizing networks, and passing on a legacy-in the yPAR ASP setting, and some factors in school. These experiences, however, were more pronounced in the yPAR ASP setting. Additionally, social network analyses revealed that a small but meaningful percentage of actors bridged worlds, especially home and family, but by year 2, also school and the yPAR ASP. Finally, most helpers for school-based goals came from school, but a sizable number came from family, friends, and home worlds, and by year 2, also came from the yPAR ASP. Implications range from theoretical to methodological development, including the use of social network analysis as a tool to descriptively examine relational power in context.

  9. The nanotechnological inventions raise competitive ability of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the nanotechnological inventions is given. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to obtain high strength and durability of surfaces of the details, to provide different materials with hydrophil properties, to increase efficiency of transformation of light energy into electrical one etc., and in general – to raise competitive ability of the products. For example, the method of production of solar element and a unit of solar elements (RU 2532137 comprises following stages: formation of pn-transfer in semiconductor base plate, formation of passivating layer on the light-receptive surface and/or non light-receptive surface of semiconductor base plate and formation of power robbing electrodes on the light-receptive surface and non light-receptive. A film of aluminium oxide is formed as passivating layer, its thickness is up to 40 nm, and lectrode is formed by baking conductive paste under the temperature 500–900ͦͦ°C for 1 second – 30 inutes with formation of sintered product. The sintered product penetrates through passivating layer setting electric contact between electrode and base plate. The formation of aluminium ide with specified thickness on the surface of base plate makes it possible to achieve good passivating characteristics and good electric contact between silica and electrode only by eans of baking conductive paste, that is standard technology. Moreover the baking stage which was necessary to get the effect of film passivation for aluminium oxide in the past now can be cancelled to decrease costs. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193; fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures

  10. The Las Vegas Strip as a Genuinely Invented Global Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortega

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Vegas, Nevada, is typically recognised as a place via a single urban gesture, that gesture being Las Vegas Boulevard, which is more commonly referred to as "The Strip". In constructing a thesis around the theme, "Here or There? Interconnections between the Global and the Local", one cannot ignore the invitation to discuss globalisation and its effects on a particular local fabric. For the purpose of this text, globalisation can be thought of as what Carmona et al describe as an intricate series of events leading to the world "becoming increasingly interconnected, with centralised decision making exploiting economies of scale and standardisation" (2003: 101. The centralised decision-making process for The Strip is evident in the strategy to develop individually themed casino resorts along Las Vegas Boulevard that respond to a competitive economy, thus creating a newly standardised landscape. If we also understand that globalisation can be thought of as the development of an interconnected world where economic, political and cultural boundaries can be easily crossed, this work can begin to define how the Las Vegas Strip is a genuinely invented global landscape. This paper addresses the "here-ness" as well as the "there-ness" of The Strip, while offering a dialectical framework for establishing a meaning of place by having 'there' placed 'here'. By employing semiological interpretations of real landscapes from around the globe (for example, Venturi et al, 1972, The Strip becomes a newly invented landscape of "simulations" (Baudrillard, 1988. As such, The Strip acts as a narrative that forms a unique place, opening the door to questions of authenticity and identity. This paper concludes by focusing on the question of "Here or There?" as an appropriate deviation from the assumed role that the post-modern landscape of the Las Vegas Strip plays. This work is intended to be a point of departure from the frequent criticism of the Las Vegas Strip as

  11. Transfusion-related adverse reactions: From institutional hemovigilance effort to National Hemovigilance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, Rahul; Sawhney, Vijay; Dogra, Mitu; Raina, Tilak Raj

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have evaluated the various adverse reactions related to transfusion occurring in our institution as a pilot institutional effort toward a hemovigilance program. This study will also help in understanding the problems faced by blood banks/Transfusion Medicine departments in implementing an effective hemovigilance program. All the adverse reactions related to transfusion of whole blood and its components in various clinical specialties were studied for a period of 1 year. Any transfusion-related adverse event was worked up in accordance with guidelines laid down by the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) and departmental standard operating procedures. During the study period from November 1, 2011 to October 31, 2012, 45812 components were issued [30939 WB/PRBC; 12704 fresh frozen plasma (FFP); 2169 platelets]. Risk estimation per 1000 units of red cells (WB/PRBC) transfused was estimated to be: 0.8 for febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR), 0.7 for allergic reaction, 0.19 for acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AcHTR), 0.002 for anaphylactoid reactions, 0.1 for bacterial sepsis, and 0.06 for hypervolemia and hypocalcemia. 0.09 is the risk for delayed transfusion reaction and 0.03 is the risk for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Risk estimate per 1,000 units of platelets transfused was estimated to be 1.38 for FNHTR, 1.18 for allergic reaction, and 1 in case of bacterial sepsis. Risk estimation per 1,000 units of FFP was estimated to be 0.15 for FNHTR and 0.2 for allergic reactions. Factors such as clerical checks at various levels, improvement in blood storage conditions outside blood banks, leukodepletion, better inventory management, careful donor screening, bedside monitoring of transfusion, and documentation of adverse events may decrease transfusion-related adverse events. Better coordination between transfusion specialists and various clinical specialties is the need of the hour and it will help in making

  12. Transfusion-related adverse reactions: From institutional hemovigilance effort to National Hemovigilance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vasudev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study we have evaluated the various adverse reactions related to transfusion occurring in our institution as a pilot institutional effort toward a hemovigilance program. This study will also help in understanding the problems faced by blood banks/Transfusion Medicine departments in implementing an effective hemovigilance program. Materials and Methods: All the adverse reactions related to transfusion of whole blood and its components in various clinical specialties were studied for a period of 1 year. Any transfusion-related adverse event was worked up in accordance with guidelines laid down by the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS and departmental standard operating procedures. Results: During the study period from November 1, 2011 to October 31, 2012, 45812 components were issued [30939 WB/PRBC; 12704 fresh frozen plasma (FFP; 2169 platelets]. Risk estimation per 1000 units of red cells (WB/PRBC transfused was estimated to be: 0.8 for febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR, 0.7 for allergic reaction, 0.19 for acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AcHTR, 0.002 for anaphylactoid reactions, 0.1 for bacterial sepsis, and 0.06 for hypervolemia and hypocalcemia. 0.09 is the risk for delayed transfusion reaction and 0.03 is the risk for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI. Risk estimate per 1,000 units of platelets transfused was estimated to be 1.38 for FNHTR, 1.18 for allergic reaction, and 1 in case of bacterial sepsis. Risk estimation per 1,000 units of FFP was estimated to be 0.15 for FNHTR and 0.2 for allergic reactions. Conclusions: Factors such as clerical checks at various levels, improvement in blood storage conditions outside blood banks, leukodepletion, better inventory management, careful donor screening, bedside monitoring of transfusion, and documentation of adverse events may decrease transfusion-related adverse events. Better coordination between transfusion specialists and various clinical

  13. The effect of a computer-related ergonomic intervention program on learners in a school environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellschop, Ingrid; Myezwa, Hellen; Mudzi, Witness; Mbambo-Kekana, Nonceba

    2015-01-01

    The interest in school ergonomic intervention programs and their effects on musculoskeletal pain is increasing around the world. The objective of this longitudinal randomized control trial was to implement and measure the effects of a computer-related ergonomics intervention on grade eight learners in a school environment in Johannesburg South Africa (a developing country). The sample comprised of a control group (n= 66) and an intervention group (n= 61). The outcome measures used were posture assessment using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment tool (RULA) and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Measurements were done at baseline, three months and six months post intervention. The results showed that the posture of the intervention group changed significantly from an Action Level 4 to an Action level 2 and Action level 3, indicating a sustained improvement of learners' postural positions whilst using computers. The intervention group showed a significant reduction in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain from 42.6% at baseline to 18% six months post intervention (p< 0.003). In conclusion, the results indicated that a computer-related intervention program for grade eight learners in a school environment is effective and that behavioural changes can be made that are sustainable over a period of six months.

  14. PhasePlot: A Software Program for Visualizing Phase Relations Computed Using Thermochemical Models and Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiorso, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    A new software program has been developed for Macintosh computers that permits the visualization of phase relations calculated from thermodynamic data-model collections. The data-model collections of MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995, CMP 119, 197-212), pMELTS (Ghiorso et al., 2002, G-cubed 3, 10.1029/2001GC000217) and the deep mantle database of Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni (2011, GJI 184, 1180-1213) are currently implemented. The software allows users to enter a system bulk composition and a range of reference conditions and then calculate a grid of phase relations. These relations may be visualized in a variety of ways including phase diagrams, phase proportion plots, and contour diagrams of phase compositions and abundances. Results may be exported into Excel or similar spreadsheet applications. Flexibility in stipulating reference conditions permit the construction of temperature-pressure, temperature-volume, entropy-pressure, or entropy-volume display grids. Calculations on the grid are performed for fixed bulk composition or in open systems governed by user specified constraints on component chemical potentials (e.g., specified oxygen fugacity buffers). The calculation engine for the software is optimized for multi-core compute architectures and is very fast, allowing a typical grid of 64 points to be calculated in under 10 seconds on a dual-core laptop/iMac. The underlying computational thermodynamic algorithms have been optimized for speed and robust behavior. Taken together, both of these advances facilitate in classroom demonstrations and permit novice users to work with the program effectively, focusing on problem specification and interpretation of results rather than on manipulation and mechanics of computation - a key feature of an effective instructional tool. The emphasis in this software package is graphical visualization, which aids in better comprehension of complex phase relations in multicomponent systems. Anecdotal experience in using Phase

  15. Concept Inventing: A Humanbecoming Perspective on Feeling Peaceful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Among most individuals and nations, peace is upheld as a supreme value (Rummel, 1981). Throughout the ages peace has been conceptualized in many ways-from an essentialist perspective to a secular perspective based on utility, prosperity, and justice, where individuals aim to improve conditions by creating a network that aspires to living together harmoniously with concern for one another. Though there is no standard definition of peace, the concept has been accepted as a determinant of health in view of prevalent disparities and in light of optimizing justice that both influence the health of individuals and societies. Hence, shedding light on the phenomenon of feeling peaceful through concept inventing would enhance understanding of peace as a value. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Technological Innovation and Beyond: Exploring Public Value of University Inventions Based on Contingent Effectiveness Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Evita; Li-Ying, Jason; Faria, Lourenco

    2017-01-01

    University inventions are traditionally seen as significant input into development of new technologies and innovations in the market as they generate growth and regional development. (REF) Yet, these inventions developed into new technologies can simultaneously create public values such as those...... of university inventions. We define four main values: technological, economic, social and environmental, and place the latter two under the concept of public value. The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of public value and incorporate it into technology transfer literature. We assign...... of university licensee companies reveals that university inventions that are accomplished technologically, often create added public value, social or environmental, or both....

  17. Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas – CETUP*2016 Summer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbinska, Barbara [Texas A& M University Corpus Christi, Madison, SD (United States)

    2017-02-15

    For last six years Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas (CETUP*) successfully provided a stimulating environment for creative thinking and open communication between researches of varying ages and nationalities in dynamic atmosphere of intense scientific interactions. Ongoing and proposed Neutrino and Dark Matter experiments are expected to unveil the answers to fundamental questions about the Universe. CETUP*2016 was focused exactly on these subjects bringing together experts in dark matter, neutrino physics, particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology from around the world. Scientists invited to participate in the program not only provided theoretical support to the underground science, but they also examined core questions including: What is the nature of dark matter?, What is the origin of the neutrino masses?, How well do we know the neutrino parameters?, How have neutrinos shaped the evolution of the universe?, , What are the fundamental underlying symmetries of the Universe? Is there a Grand Unified Theory of the Universe? and many others. The 2016 CETUP* summer program consisted of three sessions (June 6 – July 16, 2016) covering various aspects of theoretical and experimental neutrino physics, unification and dark matter. The two week long session on Physics and Instrumentation of the Near Detector for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments (June 6 – June 16) was followed by the two week long Neutrino Physics/Unification session: “From Grand Unification to String Theory and Back” (June 20 – July 2). The program ended with two week long session on Dark Matter Physics (July 4 – July 16). This six-week long program allowed for thorough discussions and an effective and comprehensive analysis of topics related to Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Neutrino Physics including astrophysical neutrinos, near and far detector physics, neutrino interactions, Higgs Boson, Inflation, Leptogenesis and many others that will advance

  18. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders’ energy balance-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Foley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA program on SALSA peer leaders’ EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. Methods We used a pre–post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15–16 year olds who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13–14 year olds. This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders’ fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. Results There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415 who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P < 0.01; eating ≥5 serves vegetables/day from 8 to 12% (P < 0.01; and drinking <1 cup/day of SSBs from 56 to 62% (P < 0.01. Change in ≥60 min MVPA participation/day depended on gender (P < 0.01: Boys increased 14% while girls decreased −2%. Changes in eating breakfast daily also depended on gender (P < 0.004: Boys increased 13% while girls decreased −0.4%. The change in peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P < 0.05: above average

  19. 34 CFR 350.63 - What are the requirements of a grantee relative to the Client Assistance Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Client Assistance Program? 350.63 Section 350.63 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... After an Award? § 350.63 What are the requirements of a grantee relative to the Client Assistance... representatives, of the availability and purposes of the Client Assistance Program (CAP) funded under the Act; and...

  20. The Novel Attempt for Finding Minimum Solution in Fuzzy Neutrosophic Relational Geometric Programming (FNRGP with (max,min Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda E. Khalid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article sheds light on the possibility of finding the minimum solution set of neutrosophic relational geometric programming with (max, min composition. This work examines the privacy enjoyed by both neutrosophic logic and geometric programming, and how it affects the minimum solutions.

  1. "I Like to Plan Events": A Document Analysis of Essays Written by Applicants to a Public Relations Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    A document analysis of 249 essays written during a 5-year period by applicants to a public relations program at a major state university in the southeast suggests that there are enduring reasons why students choose to major in public relations. Public relations is described as a major that allows for and encourages creative expression and that…

  2. The Global Inventor Gap: Distribution and Equality of World-Wide Inventive Effort, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Hannes; Suominen, Arho

    2015-01-01

    Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy. PMID:25849202

  3. The global inventor gap: distribution and equality of world-wide inventive effort, 1990-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Toivanen

    Full Text Available Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy.

  4. The global inventor gap: distribution and equality of world-wide inventive effort, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Hannes; Suominen, Arho

    2015-01-01

    Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy.

  5. Choosing the Right Path: Image Schema Theory as a Foundation for Concept Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedblom, Maria M.; Kutz, Oliver; Neuhaus, Fabian

    2015-12-01

    Image schemas are recognised as a fundamental ingredient in human cognition and creative thought. They have been studied extensively in areas such as cognitive linguistics. With the goal of exploring their potential role in computational creative systems, we here study the viability of the idea to formalise image schemas as a set of interlinked theories. We discuss in particular a selection of image schemas related to the notion of `path', and show how they can be mapped to a formalised family of microtheories reflecting the different aspects of path following. Finally, we illustrate the potential of this approach in the area of concept invention, namely by providing several examples illustrating in detail in what way formalised image schema families support the computational modelling of conceptual blending.

  6. Open Invention Network: A Defensive Patent Pool for Open Source Projects and Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how patents impact innovation within free/libre open source software (F/LOSS businesses and projects. The number of software patent suits brought each year is increasing and is diverting millions of dollars in funds from developers to lawyers. With patent suits on the rise, the US Supreme Court has left the F/LOSS community in a position where it must either wait years for legislation or address the issue of patent suits itself. However, defending the Linux kernel and related technologies is a different challenge than the one that faces proprietary software businesses. This article describes Open Invention Network, an initiative that is designed to meet the particular challenges facing the F/LOSS community and businesses by providing a defensive patent pool.

  7. Evaluation of differentiated neurotherapy programs for a patient after severe TBI and long term coma using event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachalska, Maria; Łukowicz, Małgorzata; Kropotov, Juri D; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Talar, Jan

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of differentiated rehabilitation programs for a patient with frontal syndrome after severe TBI and long-term coma. We hypothesized that there would be a small response to relative beta training, and a good response to rTMS, applied to regulate the dynamics of brain function. M. L-S, age 26, suffered from anosognosia, executive dysfunction, and behavioral changes, after a skiing accident and prolonged coma, rendering him unable to function independently in many situations of everyday life. Only slight progress was made after traditional rehabilitation. The patient took part in 20 sessions of relative beta training (program A) and later in 20 sessions of rTMS (program B); both programs were combined with behavioral training. We used standardized neuropsychological testing, as well as ERPs before the experiment, after the completion of program A, and again after the completion of program B. As hypothesized, patient M.L-S showed small improvements in executive dysfunction and behavioral disorders after the conclusion of program A, and major improvement after program B. Similarly, in physiological changes the patient showed small improvement after relative beta training and a significant improvement of the P300 NOGO component after the rTMS program. The rTMS program produced larger physiological and behavioral changes than did relative beta training. A combination of different neurotherapeutical approaches (such as neurofeedback, rTMS, tDCS) can be suggested for similar severe cases of TBI. ERPs can be used to assess functional brain changes induced by neurotherapeutical programs.

  8. A description of Medical Examiner prescription-related deaths and prescription drug monitoring program data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Roneet; Petro, Sean; Lee, Oren; Lucas, Jonathan; Stuck, Amy; Vilke, Gary M; Castillo, Edward M

    2016-03-01

    The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention have declared prescription drug abuse an epidemic in the United States. However, demographic data correlating prescription-related deaths with actual prescriptions written is not well described. The purpose of this study is to compare toxicology reports on autopsy for prescription-related deaths with Prescription Drug Monitor Program (PDMP) data. This is a retrospective analysis comparing 2013 San Diego Medical Examiner data on 254 unintentional prescription-related deaths obtained for 12 months before death with data from the California PDMP. Data were analyzed on age, sex, whether there was information on the PDMP, types and quantities of prescribed medications, number of pharmacies and providers involved, and whether there was a match between the Medical Examiner toxicology report and data from the PDMP. In 2013, there were 254 unintentional prescription-related deaths; 186 patients (73%) had PDMP data 12 months before death. Ingesting prescription medications with illicit drugs, alcohol, and/or over-the-counter medications accounted for 40% of the unintentional deaths. Opioids were responsible for the majority of single medication deaths (36; 70.6%). The average number of prescriptions was 23.5 per patient, and the average patient used 3 pharmacies and had 4.5 providers. Chronic prescription use was found in 68.8% of patients with PDMP data. The PDMP data highlight important patterns that can provide valuable insight to clinicians making decisions regarding types and amounts of medications they prescribe. Although there is no guaranteed solution to prevent prescription-related deaths, PDMP data can be useful to prevent coprescribing and medication interaction and by following best clinical practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving Calibration of the MBH-σ* Relation for AGN with the BRAVE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiste, Merida; Bentz, Misty C.; Manne-Nicholas, Emily; Raimundo, Sandra I.; Onken, Christopher A.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    The MBH - σ* relation for AGN, which relates the mass of the central supermassive black hole (MBH) to the bulge stellar velocity dispersion (σ*) of the host galaxy, is a powerful tool for studying the evolution of structure across cosmic time. Accurate calibration of this relation is essential, and much effort has been put into improving MBH determinations with this in mind. However calibration remains difficult because many nearby AGN with secure MBH determinations are hosted by late-type galaxies, with significant kinematic substructure such as bars, disks and rings. Kinematic substructure is known to contaminate and bias σ* determinations from long-slit and single aperture spectroscopy, ultimately limiting the utility of the MBH - σ* relation, and hampering efforts to investigate morphological dependencies. Integral-field spectroscopy (IFS) can be used to map the two dimensional kinematics, providing a method for measuring σ* absent some of the biases inherent in other methods, and giving a more complete picture of the spatial variations in the dynamics. We present the first set of results from the BRAVE program, the long-term goal of which is to use IFS to more accurately determine σ* for the calibrating sample of reverberation-mapped AGN. We present IFS kinematic maps for the sample of galaxies we have so far observed, which show clearly how spatial variation can impact σ* determinations from long-slit spectroscopy. We present a new fit to the MBH - σ* relation for the sample of 16 reverberation-mapped AGN for which we currently have σ* determinations from IFS, as well as a new determination of the virial scaling factor, f, for use with reverberation-mapping.

  10. Reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in adolescents: the MOVE Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Béghin, Laurent; Fardy, Paul S; Ulmer, Zekya; Czaplicki, Grégory

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in a French health promotion program 'Move…A priority for your health'. Participants were 174 French youth (88 children and 86 adolescents) aged 8·2-16·2 years. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, speed and flexibility were tested using 20-m shuttle run test, ½ mile run test, basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and 20/30/50-m sprint tests. Reliability was calculated for the basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and sprint tests. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week. Reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman analysis. With the exception of the ½ mile run test, which resulted in moderate agreement (0·66), all tests had high reliability. ICCs were 0·97, 0·93, 0·91 and 0·93 for the sprint test, basketball throw, shoulder stretch and the standing long jump, respectively. The differences obtained between the first and the second trial were non-significant. Results from this study indicate that the BOUGE health-related physical fitness battery, administrated by physical education teachers, was reliable for measuring health-related components of fitness in children and adolescents in a school setting. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Functions of participatory ergonomics programs in reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y

    2016-08-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers.

  12. MACRA and the Quality Payment Program: How Does It Relate to Orthopaedic Nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Atkinson

    The introduction of 2017 also brought with it the beginning of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) legislation related to the Quality Payment Program (QPP), in addition to alternative payment models and the merit-based incentive payment system. The successful implementation of the QPP within the specialty of orthopaedics will rely heavily on the active involvement of orthopaedic nurses when it comes to improving quality, lowering costs, and incorporating value. It is important for orthopaedic nurses to understand the QPP and the role it plays in determining value-based payment of orthopaedic care delivery, in addition to how the structure of the QPP correlates with nursing diagnoses and respective plans of care delivery.

  13. LOFT fuel modules design, characterization, and fabrication program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M. L.

    1977-06-01

    The loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) fuel modules have evolved from a comprehensive five-year design, characterization, and fabrication program which has resulted in the accomplishment of many technical activities of interest in pressurized water reactor fuel design development and safety research. Information is presented concerning: determination of fundamental high-temperature reactor material properties; design invention related to in-core instrumentation attachment; implementation of advanced and/or unique fuel bundle characterization techniques; implementation of improved fuel bundle fabrication techniques; and planning and execution of a multimillion dollar design, characterization, and fabrication program for pressurized water reactor fuel.

  14. Pinyin Invented Spelling in Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Children with and without Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; McBride, Catherine; Zhang, Dake

    2015-01-01

    This study examined analytical pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching pronunciation and lexical tones of Chinese characters) skills in 54 Mandarin-speaking fourth graders by using an invented spelling instrument that tapped into syllable awareness, phoneme awareness, lexical tones, and tone sandhi in Chinese. Pinyin invented spelling…

  15. 77 FR 7655 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Inventing the Modern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Inventing the Modern World... ``Inventing the Modern World: Decorative Arts at the World's Fairs, 1851-1939'' imported from abroad for...

  16. Invention and Drafting in the Digital Age: New Approaches to Thinking about Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Tina

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author provides technology-based techniques for prewriting invention and drafting that offer students new ways to look at and think about writing topics and tasks. Rather than creating electronic versions of existing paper-and-pencil invention strategies, the author suggests strategies using commonly owned and used computer…

  17. Why NIH Scientists Need to Report an Invention | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an NIH scientist, you must report new inventions, including improvements of previously reported inventions, to the Technology Transfer Manager assigned to your Laboratory. If you do not know the name of your TTM, please call or email the Technology Transfer Center.  | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  18. 48 CFR 2453.227-70 - Form HUD-770, Report of Inventions and Subcontracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Form HUD-770, Report of Inventions and Subcontracts. 2453.227-70 Section 2453.227-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HUD-770, Report of Inventions and Subcontracts. As prescribed in 2427.305-2, form HUD-770 shall be...

  19. The two faces of inventions : The relationship between recombination and impact in pharmaceutical biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijl, S.; Gilsing, V. A.; Knoben, J.; Duijsters, G.M.

    ‘Recombination’ and ‘impact’ have become well established constructs to understand the origins of inventions and their importance for the development of future inventions. Despite forming these two familiar ‘faces of inventions’, their specific relationship has only marginally been subject to

  20. 48 CFR 227.7011 - Procurement of rights in inventions, patents, and copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement of rights in inventions, patents, and copyrights. 227.7011 Section 227.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... COPYRIGHTS Infringement Claims, Licenses, and Assignments 227.7011 Procurement of rights in inventions...

  1. The two faces of inventions: The relationship between recombination and impact in pharmaceutical biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijl, S.; Gilsing, V.; Knoben, J.; Duysters, G.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Recombination’ and ‘impact’ have become well established constructs to understand the origins of inventions and their importance for the development of future inventions. Despite forming these two familiar ‘faces of inventions’, their specific relationship has only marginally been subject to

  2. 76 FR 56745 - Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions; Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Government-Owned Inventions; Available for Licensing AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below are assigned to the United.... 101027: Magnetic Wheel; Navy Case No. 101298: Auto ranging for time domain inertial sensor; Navy Case No...

  3. 48 CFR 252.227-7039 - Patents-reporting of subject inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents-reporting of... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7039 Patents—reporting of subject inventions. As prescribed in 227.303(1), use the following clause: Patents—Reporting of Subject Inventions (APR 1990) The...

  4. Restoration analysis of the right figure in Decree Law 290 Of the Inventions and Industrial Designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2014-06-01

    Recently in Cuba, with the enactment of Decree Law 290, From Inventions and Industrial Designs, dated February 1, 2012, is introduced for the first time the figure of the restoration of the right in inventions matter. That is why this article tries to make an analysis of this figure considering its essential elements.

  5. Reflexivity and the Sociology of Science and Technology: The Invention of "Eryc" the Antibiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Fran

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the social-technical process of invention has fallen between sociological investigation of the genesis of a new idea (an ideational phenomenon) and the production of a new technology (a material phenomenon). The advent of post-modernism and post-structuralism offered new avenues for theorising invention, accounting for, on the one…

  6. Wallace H. Coulter: decades of invention and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J Paul

    2013-05-01

    Only a few inventors can be said to have made as great an impact on mankind as Wallace Coulter. His inquisitive mind and ability to see well beyond what existed served him well for 40 years of inventing. So many of the fundamental tools that exist today in the area of hematology were derived from or driven by Coulter's inventions that he could be called the most technological innovator in the field of modern hematology. In achieving these discoveries Wallace Coulter was clearly capable of visualizing future opportunities that few others recognized. His vision was combined with an uncanny ability to translate his ideas into products. He developed a large number of tools that shaped the fields of cytometry, image analysis, and industrial materials. His understanding of the future power of computation drove him to link these technologies in a unique way. In the end, Coulter shaped the technologies that ultimately drove hematology in a new direction, one that remains on a critical pathway linking technology innovation all the way to true translational impact. It was said of Henry Ford that "[h]e has no notion that wealth has made him great, and any one who is imprest merely by his wealth bores him. In his personal contacts he likes to dodge the subject. He would prefer to talk with a machinist about machinery, or with somebody who likes birds about birds. In these contacts, he asks no deference; and if he gets it, he suspects it is mere deference to wealth, and that ends his interest."(1) The same could be said of Wallace Coulter, who, like Ford, understood the concepts of mass production and customer service. Coulter had the ability to recognize the opportunity and fulfill the need for development of a blood-cell counter that could be placed in every pathology laboratory, and in so doing transformed a field from a qualitative to a quantitative environment. Every person who has ever entered a medical lab, hospital, or doctor's office has felt the impact of Coulter

  7. Regression Computer Programs for Setwise Regression and Three Related Analysis of Variance Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John D.; Lindem, Alfred C.

    Four computer programs using the general purpose multiple linear regression program have been developed. Setwise regression analysis is a stepwise procedure for sets of variables; there will be as many steps as there are sets. Covarmlt allows a solution to the analysis of covariance design with multiple covariates. A third program has three…

  8. A Study of Information Systems Programs Accredited by ABET in Relation to IS 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, David; Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Shrestha, Dina

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between ABET CAC standards for undergraduate programs of information systems and IS 2010 curriculum specifications. We have reviewed current institution described course work that identifies course structures from accredited IS programs. The accredited programs all matched the expectations expressed in ABET…

  9. 78 FR 13443 - Child Nutrition Programs: Nondiscretionary Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Service 7 CFR Parts 210, 215, 220, 225, 226, and 245 RIN 0584-AE14 Child Nutrition Programs..., Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, Department...), Public Law 111- 296, makes important improvements to the Child Nutrition Programs that serve the nation's...

  10. Low-Volume Walking Program Improves Cardiovascular-Related Health in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwan Park, Masashi Miyashita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous sources of evidence show that regular physical activity is beneficial to health, most individuals do not engage in a sufficient amount of physical activity to meet the guidelines set out by expert panels. In addition, the minimum amount of physical activity associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk markers is not clear in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week walking program involving an exercise volume below the current minimum physical activity recommendation on cardiovascular disease risk markers in older adults. The participants were recruited from the following two groups separately: a walking group (n = 14 and a control group (n = 14. In the walking group, participants walked 30 to 60 minutes per session on 2 days per week for 12 weeks (average walking time, 49.4 ± 8.8 min/session. Plasma oxidised low-density lipoprotein concentrations tended to be lower than baseline values in the walking group after 12 weeks (paired t-test, p = 0.127. The ratio of oxidised low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower than the baseline ratio in the walking group after 12 weeks (paired t-test, p = 0.035. Resting systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower than baseline values in the walking group after 12 weeks (paired t-tests, p = 0.002, p < 0.0005, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that a 12-week walking program comprising a low volume of physical activity confers a benefit to cardiovascular-related health in older adults.

  11. Constipation-related symptoms and bowel program concerning individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, D; Sarkarati, M; Gurwitz, J H; McGlinchey-Berroth, G; Minaker, K L

    1997-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of constipation-related symptoms in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), to describe the bowel program as reported by patients and including use of bowel medications and evacuation techniques, and to examine the clinical, functional and pharmacological risks of difficulty with evacuation. This is a cross-sectional study of all in-patients at least 3 months beyond acute injury, on the West Roxbury/Brockton VAMC SCI Service, during a 10 month period (n = 197). Clinical, functional, and medication data were abstracted from medical and nursing records. Individual interviews were conducted with all available participants (n = 161, 82%) regarding bowel-related symptoms and treatment over the previous 1 month period. The study definition of difficulty with evacuation was spending more than 1 h per episode of bowel evacuation. Forty-one percent of the 161 interview responders spent more than 1 h on bowel evacuation, 50% reported abdominal distension and 38% reported abdominal pain, 27% reported headaches or sweats relieved by having a bowel movement, and 33% reported fecal incontinence at least once a month. The bisacodyl suppository was the most commonly used laxative agent, while docusate was the most popular oral agent. Subjects with difficulty with evacuation (n = 66) were compared with those who spent less than 1 h on evacuation (n = 95). Factors associated with difficulty with evacuation were tetraplegia, Frankel grade A/B, laxative use, polypharmacy, previous urinary outlet surgery, and symptoms of abdominal pain and distension. Constipation-related symptoms are highly prevalent in individuals with spinal cord injury, despite considerable laxative use. Our findings suggest that difficulty with evacuation can be predicted on the basis of a patient's clinical profile.

  12. Biography of louis braille and invention of the braille alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier; Olea, Jesús; Torres, Jesús; Alonso, Inmaculada; Harder, Dirk; Fischer, Konstanze

    2009-01-01

    Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. At the age of three, he wounded his right eye with a cobbler's tool while playing in his father's workshop. No medical knowledge could save his eyesight at that time. Louis's left eye became inflamed, apparently due to subsequent sympathetic ophthalmia, and he eventually lost the sight in that eye. At the age of five, Louis Braille was completely blind. He is considered to be the inventor of a writing system by touch that bears his name, the Braille system. This revolutionary system has allowed blind people to access written culture, and it can therefore be considered a major advance in the quality of life for the blind. The immediate precursor of the invention of the Braille system was the alphabet created by Charles Barbier de la Serre (1767-1841) who created a language by touch designed for military and secret use. Louis Braille modified this alphabet into the Braille alphabet, which is practically the same one that is currently used. It required time to be recognized and to be implemented as a reading and writing method for blind people throughout the world. In 1950, UNESCO effectively universalized the Braille alphabet, and in 2005 it recognized Braille system as a "vital language of communication, as legitimate as all other languages in the world."

  13. Modelling Chemical Reasoning to Predict and Invent Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segler, Marwin H S; Waller, Mark P

    2017-05-02

    The ability to reason beyond established knowledge allows organic chemists to solve synthetic problems and invent novel transformations. Herein, we propose a model that mimics chemical reasoning, and formalises reaction prediction as finding missing links in a knowledge graph. We have constructed a knowledge graph containing 14.4 million molecules and 8.2 million binary reactions, which represents the bulk of all chemical reactions ever published in the scientific literature. Our model outperforms a rule-based expert system in the reaction prediction task for 180 000 randomly selected binary reactions. The data-driven model generalises even beyond known reaction types, and is thus capable of effectively (re-)discovering novel transformations (even including transition metal-catalysed reactions). Our model enables computers to infer hypotheses about reactivity and reactions by only considering the intrinsic local structure of the graph and because each single reaction prediction is typically achieved in a sub-second time frame, the model can be used as a high-throughput generator of reaction hypotheses for reaction discovery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Inventions on baker's yeast strains and specialty ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Baker's yeast is one of the oldest food microbial starters. Between 1927 and 2008, 165 inventions on more than 337 baker's yeast strains were patented. The first generation of patented yeast strains claimed improved biomass yield at the yeast plant, higher gassing power in dough or better survival to drying to prepare active dry baker's yeast. Especially between 1980 and 1995, a major interest was given to strains for multiple bakery applications such as dough with variable sugar content and stored at refrigeration (cold) or freezing temperatures. During the same period, genetically engineered yeast strains became very popular but did not find applications in the baking industry. Since year 2000, patented baker's yeast strains claimed aroma, anti-moulding or nutritive properties to better meet the needs of the baking industry. In addition to patents on yeast strains, 47 patents were issued on baker's yeast specialty ingredients for niche markets. This review shows that patents on baker's yeast with improved characteristics such as aromatic or nutritive properties have regularly been issued since the 1920's. Overall, it also confirms recent interest for a very wide range of tailored-made yeast-based ingredients for bakery applications.

  15. No wonder you wonder! great inventions and scientific mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2016-01-01

    This book explores and explains scientific mysteries and principles, leavened with tongue-in-cheek humor and an abundance of illustrations. Chapters are short, but give an understanding of technology and science not available elsewhere. Questions include: • What holds a satellite up while it goes around the Earth? • Why is the sky (made out of clear air!) blue instead of green, or just black as night like the sky that high altitude jumper Felix Baumgartner saw? • How is laser light different from “normal” light? • Did Columbus really discover that the Earth is round? • Which one invention will assuredly survive our civilization? • Why can’t you travel back in time?  If you often feel embarrassed because you don’t have a clue about lasers, the difference between volts, amps and watts, or how jet planes really work – but you would like to understand the physical principles of our modern world, whether you’re a teen or a parent – this book is for you! To understand the basics of quantu...

  16. Invention of science a new history of the scientific revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wootton, David

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world made by science. How and when did this happen? This book tells the story of the extraordinary intellectual and cultural revolution that gave birth to modern science, and mounts a major challenge to the prevailing orthodoxy of its history. Before 1492 it was assumed that all significant knowledge was already available; there was no concept of progress; people looked for understanding to the past not the future. This book argues that everything changed with the discovery of America, which demonstrated that new knowledge was possible: indeed it introduced the very concept of "discovery", and opened the way to the invention of science. The first crucial discovery was Tycho Brahe's nova of 1572: proof that there could be change in the heavens. The telescope (1610) rendered the old astronomy obsolete. Torricelli's experiment with the vacuum (1643) led directly to the triumph of the experimental method in the Royal Society of Boyle and Newton. By 1750 Newtonianism was being celebrated throughout E...

  17. A program for computing the prediction probability and the related receiver operating characteristic graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Denis; Steiner, Marcel; Kochs, Eberhard F; Schneider, Gerhard

    2010-12-01

    Prediction probability (P(K)) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) are statistical measures to assess the performance of anesthetic depth indicators, to more precisely quantify the correlation between observed anesthetic depth and corresponding values of a monitor or indicator. In contrast to many other statistical tests, they offer several advantages. First, P(K) and AUC are independent from scale units and assumptions on underlying distributions. Second, the calculation can be performed without any knowledge about particular indicator threshold values, which makes the test more independent from specific test data. Third, recent approaches using resampling methods allow a reliable comparison of P(K) or AUC of different indicators of anesthetic depth. Furthermore, both tests allow simple interpretation, whereby results between 0 and 1 are related to the probability, how good an indicator separates the observed levels of anesthesia. For these reasons, P(K) and AUC have become popular in medical decision making. P(K) is intended for polytomous patient states (i.e., >2 anesthetic levels) and can be considered as a generalization of the AUC, which was basically introduced to assess a predictor of dichotomous classes (e.g., consciousness and unconsciousness in anesthesia). Dichotomous paradigms provide equal values of P(K) and AUC test statistics. In the present investigation, we introduce a user-friendly computer program for computing P(K) and estimating reliable bootstrap confidence intervals. It is designed for multiple comparisons of the performance of depth of anesthesia indicators. Additionally, for dichotomous classes, the program plots the receiver operating characteristic graph completing information obtained from P(K) or AUC, respectively. In clinical investigations, both measures are applied for indicator assessment, where ambiguous usage and interpretation may be a consequence. Therefore, a summary of the concepts of P(K) and

  18. Teacher Adherence and Its Relation to Teacher Attitudes and Student Outcomes in an Elementary School-Based Violence Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Fonagy, Peter; Dill, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined variability in teachers' reported adherence to a school-based violence prevention program, Creating a Peaceful School Learning Environment, and investigated the relations of teacher adherence to teachers' attitudes related to the intervention and students' attitudes about and responses to bullying. The results provide evidence…

  19. Effects of the Fitkids Exercise Therapy Program on Health-Related Fitness, Walking Capacity, and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, E.M.W.; Groot, J.F. de; Winkler, A.M.F.; Huijgen, B.C.H.; Sanders, L.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with disabilities have an increased risk for reduced fitness and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Fitkids, a nationwide exercise therapy program in the Netherlands, was developed to improve fitness and HRQoL in children with disabilities. Objective: The study

  20. Effects of the Fitkids Exercise Therapy Program on Health-Related Fitness, Walking Capacity, and Health-Related Quality of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, Elles M. W.; de Groot, Janke F.; Winkler, Alexander M. F.; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Takken, Tim

    Background. Children with disabilities have an increased risk for reduced fitness and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Fitkids, a nationwide exercise therapy program in the Netherlands, was developed to improve fitness and HRQoL in children with disabilities. Objective. The study