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Sample records for related fishes ii

  1. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  2. Radioactivity of fish II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Hiwatashi, Y; Tamari, T; Yoshitake, N; Tajima, D

    1955-01-01

    Various tissues of fish captured east of Formosa after the Bikini H-Bomb experiment had radioactivities (detected on May 27, 1954) in counts/min/ash from 5 g. fresh tissues: blood 2414, eyeball 49, heart muscle 111, white muscle 11, red muscle (chiai) 123, bone 46, skin 28, pancreas 131, liver 522, stomach muscle 106, stomach contents 52, spermatozoa 47, and spleen 504. High radioactivities in blood and blood synthesizing organs (liver and spleen) were emphasized. The radioactivity in the blood had a half-life of 34 to 35 days and the maximum energy of ..beta..-ray of approximate 0.4 m.e.v.

  3. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development II: Design Consideration for Passing Fish Upstream Around Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, S. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, M. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richey, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parkhurst, Z. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide general information for use by potential developers of small scale hydroelectric projects that will include facilities to pass migrating fish upstream around dams. The document is not intended to be a textbook on design of fish passage facilities, but rather to be a general guide to some factors that are important when designing such facilities.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Patterns in the Coral Reef Communities of the Spermonde Archipelago, 2012–2014, II: Fish Assemblages Display Structured Variation Related to Benthic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah G. Plass-Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spermonde Archipelago is a complex of ~70 mostly populated islands off Southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, in the center of the Coral Triangle. The reefs in this area are exposed to a high level of anthropogenic disturbances. Previous studies have shown that variation in the benthos is strongly linked to water quality and distance from the mainland. However, little is known about the fish assemblages of the region and if their community structure also follows a relationship with benthic structure and distance from shore. In this study, we used eight islands of the archipelago, varying in distance from 1 to 55 km relative to the mainland, and 3 years of surveys, to describe benthic and fish assemblages and to examine the spatial and temporal influence of benthic composition on the structure of the fish assemblages. Cluster analysis indicated that distinct groups of fish were associated with distance, while few species were present across the entire range of sites. Relating fish communities to benthic composition using a multivariate generalized linear model confirmed that fish groups relate to structural complexity (rugosity or differing benthic groups; either algae, reef builders (coral and crustose coralline algae or invertebrates and rubble. From these relationships we can identify sets of fish species that may be lost given continued degradation of the Spermonde reefs. Lastly, the incorporation of water quality, benthic and fish indices indicates that local coral reefs responded positively after an acute disturbance in 2013 with increases in reef builders and fish diversity over relatively short (1 year time frames. This study contributes an important, missing component (fish community structure to the growing literature on the Spermonde Archipelago, a system that features environmental pressures common in the greater Southeast Asian region.

  5. Spatio-temporal patterns in the coral reef communities of the Spermonde Archipelago, 2012–2014, II: Fish assemblages display structured variation related to benthic condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plass-Johnson, Jeremiah Grahm; Teichberg, Mirta; Bednarz, Vanessa N.

    2018-01-01

    The Spermonde Archipelago is a complex of ~70 mostly populated islands off Southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, in the center of the Coral Triangle. The reefs in this area are exposed to a high level of anthropogenic disturbances. Previous studies have shown that variation in the benthos is strongly...... with distance, while few species were present across the entire range of sites. Relating fish communities to benthic composition using a multivariate generalized linear model confirmed that fish groups relate to structural complexity (rugosity) or differing benthic groups; either algae, reef builders (coral...... and crustose coralline algae) or invertebrates and rubble. From these relationships we can identify sets of fish species that may be lost given continued degradation of the Spermonde reefs. Lastly, the incorporation of water quality, benthic and fish indices indicates that local coral reefs responded...

  6. The biology of perch and related fish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig, John F; Craig, John

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a definitive volume on perch and related fish. In the introduction an outline is given on the characteristics of the order Perciformes, the suborder Percoidea and the family Percidae...

  7. Relation of contaminants to fish intersex in riverine sport fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, Casey A; Penland, Tiffany N; Kwak, Thomas J; Cope, W Gregory; Heise, Ryan J; Law, J Mac; Shea, Damian; Aday, D Derek; Rice, James A; Kullman, Seth W

    2018-06-20

    Endocrine active compounds (EACs) are pollutants that have been recognized as an emerging and widespread threat to aquatic ecosystems globally. Intersex, the presence of female germ cells within a predominantly male gonad, is considered a biomarker of endocrine disruption caused by EACs. We measured a suite of EACs and assessed their associated impacts on fish intersex occurrence and severity in a large, regulated river system in North Carolina and South Carolina, USA. Our specific objective was to determine the relationship of contaminants in water, sediment, and fish tissue with the occurrence and severity of the intersex condition in wild, adult black bass (Micropterus), sunfish (Lepomis), and catfish (Ictaluridae) species at 11 sites located on the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ethinylestradiol (EE2), and heavy metals were the most prevalent contaminants that exceeded effect levels for the protection of aquatic organisms. Fish intersex condition was most frequently observed and most severe in black basses and was less frequently detected and less severe in sunfishes and catfishes. The occurrence of the intersex condition in fish showed site-related effects, rather than increasing longitudinal trends from upstream to downstream. Mean black bass and catfish tissue contaminant concentrations were higher than that of sunfish, likely because of the latter's lower trophic position in the food web. Principal component analysis identified waterborne PAHs as the most correlated environmental contaminant with intersex occurrence and severity in black bass and sunfish. As indicated by the intersex condition, EACs have adverse but often variable effects on the health of wild sport fishes in this river, likely due to fluctuations in EAC inputs and the dynamic nature of the riverine system. These findings enhance the understanding of the relationship between contaminants and fish health and provide information to guide ecologically

  8. Relative and combined effects of habitat and fishing on reef fish communities across a limited fishing gradient at Ningaloo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Shaun K; Babcock, Russ C; Fisher, Rebecca; Holmes, Thomas H; Moore, James A Y; Thomson, Damian P

    2012-10-01

    Habitat degradation and fishing are major drivers of temporal and spatial changes in fish communities. The independent effects of these drivers are well documented, but the relative importance and interaction between fishing and habitat shifts is poorly understood, particularly in complex systems such as coral reefs. To assess the combined and relative effects of fishing and habitat we examined the composition of fish communities on patch reefs across a gradient of high to low structural complexity in fished and unfished areas of the Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia. Biomass and species richness of fish were positively correlated with structural complexity of reefs and negatively related to macroalgal cover. Total abundance of fish was also positively related to structural complexity, however this relationship was stronger on fished reefs than those where fishing is prohibited. The interaction between habitat condition and fishing pressure is primarily due to the high abundance of small bodied planktivorous fish on fished reefs. However, the influence of management zones on the abundance and biomass of predators and target species is small, implying spatial differences in fishing pressure are low and unlikely to be driving this interaction. Our results emphasise the importance of habitat in structuring reef fish communities on coral reefs especially when gradients in fishing pressure are low. The influence of fishing effort on this relationship may however become more important as fishing pressure increases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A fish bone-related hepatic abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Jarry

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of pyogenic, hepatic abscess caused by fish bone penetration of the duodenum in a 68-year-old woman. The fish bone had migrated into the liver through the duodenal wall. The patient was initially admitted to our emergency room with abdominal pain, fever, and asthenia. A contrastenhanced abdominal coputed tomography (CT scan showed a hepatic abscess in relation with a straight, foreign body, which had entered through the duodenal wall. Surgery was necessary to remove the foreign body, which was identified as a fish bone. The patient’s recovery was uneventful and she was discharged on postoperative day 10. This case is discussed together with the data collected by a medline-based extensive review of the literature.

  10. Phase II Water Rental Pilot Project: Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Stacey H.

    1994-08-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented in 1991 as part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to quantify resident fish and wildlife impacts resulting from salmon flow augmentation releases made from the upper Snake River Basin. Phase I summarized existing resource information and provided management recommendations to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat resulting from storage releases for the I improvement of an adromous fish migration. Phase II includes the following: (1) a summary of recent biological, legal, and political developments within the basin as they relate to water management issues, (2) a biological appraisal of the Snake River between American Falls Reservoir and the city of Blackfoot to examine the effects of flow fluctuation on fish and wildlife habitat, and (3) a preliminary accounting of 1993--1994 flow augmentation releases out of the upper Snake, Boise, and Payette river systems. Phase III will include the development of a model in which annual flow requests and resident fish and wildlife suitability information are interfaced with habitat time series analysis to provide an estimate of resident fish and wildlife resources.

  11. Ecological assessment of fish biodiversity in relation to hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research analysed the fish species diversity; ecological distribution and abundance in relation to hydrological variables of Ogun coastal water. Fish species were collected with the use of graded gillnet bimonthly for six-months. Correlation analysis between fish species richness with the hydrological attributes showed ...

  12. Application of biotechnology in fish breeding. II: production of highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to produce a highly immune, genetically modified redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii with accelerated growth as a result of direct injection of shark (Squalus acanthias L.) DNA into skeletal muscles of fish fingerlings at concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/fish. The results showed that the fish injected with ...

  13. Immobilization thresholds of electrofishing relative to fish size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, C.R.; Miranda, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    Fish size and electrical waveforms have frequently been associated with variation in electrofishing effectiveness. Under controlled laboratory conditions, we measured the electrical power required by five electrical waveforms to immobilize eight fish species of diverse sizes and shapes. Fish size was indexed by total body length, surface area, volume, and weight; shape was indexed by the ratio of body length to body depth. Our objectives were to identify immobilization thresholds, elucidate the descriptors of fish size that were best associated with those immobilization thresholds, and determine whether the vulnerability of a species relative to other species remained constant across electrical treatments. The results confirmed that fish size is a key variable controlling the immobilization threshold and further suggested that the size descriptor best related to immobilization is fish volume. The peak power needed to immobilize fish decreased rapidly with increasing fish volume in small fish but decreased slowly for fish larger than 75-100 cm 3. Furthermore, when we controlled for size and shape, different waveforms did not favor particular species, possibly because of the overwhelming effect of body size. Many of the immobilization inconsistencies previously attributed to species might simply represent the effect of disparities in body size.

  14. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    We reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in California to determine the prevalence of injury in California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (Larus spp.), and pinniped species (Zalophus californianus, Mirounga angustirostris, and Phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. Of 9,668 Brown Pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study period (2001-06), 1,090 (11.3%) were fishing gear-related. Pelican injuries caused by fishing gear were most common in the Monterey Bay region, where 59.6% of the pelicans rescued in this area and admitted to a rehabilitation center were injured by fishing gear over the 6-yr period. The highest prevalence of fishing gear-related injury in gulls was documented in the Los Angeles/Orange County region (16.1%), whereas the highest prevalences in pinnipeds were seen in the San Diego region (3.7%). Despite these higher prevalences of gull and pinniped fishing gear-related injuries in these specific regions, there was no statistical significance in these trends. Juvenile gulls and pinnipeds were more commonly injured by fishing gear than adults (gulls: P = 0.03, odds ratio = 1.29; pinnipeds: P = 0.01, odds ratio = 2.07). Male pinnipeds were twice as likely to be injured by fishing gear as females (P gear-related injury cases that were successfully rehabilitated and released (percentage of cases successfully rehabilitated to the point of release out of the total number of fishing gear-related injury cases) was high in all three species groups (pelicans: 63%; gulls: 54%; pinnipeds: 70%). Fishing gear-related injuries in Brown Pelicans and gulls were highest in the fall, but there was only a significant difference between seasons for fishing gear-related injuries in pelicans. Fishing gear-related injuries in pinnipeds most commonly occurred in summer; however, a statistical difference was not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict

  15. Fish Diversity in Relation to Aquatic Macrophytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of fish diversity in relation to aquatic macrophytes and physicochemical parameters of Ona Lake in Asaba was carried out within a period of eighteen months. Fish samples were collected fortnightly from three sampling sites using cast, gill and trigger nets. Aquatic macrophytes found in close association with ...

  16. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G.F.; Goodyear, C.P.; Christensen, S.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Lee, D.W.

    1982-04-01

    This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population

  17. The Miocene fish Marosichthys, a putative tetraodontiform, actually a perciform surgeon fish (Acanthuridae) related to the recent Naso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler, James C.

    1997-01-01

    Marosichthys huismani (de Beaufort, 1926), a fish from the Miocene of the Celebes, was described in the tripod fish family Triacanthidae, Tetraodontiformes. It is shown here to be a valid genus of the surgeon fish family Acanthuridae, Perciformes, and closely related to the Recent genus Naso.

  18. Assessment of the water quality parameters in relation to fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical indices of water body changed seasonally and this necessitated an investigation to assess the water quality parameters of Osinmo reservoir in relation to its fish species. The water quality parameters were measured using standard methods. Results obtained show that the reservoir is alkaline in nature with ...

  19. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, H.G.; Miller, T.J.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of mice (Fsub(2b) generation of Part I study) were fed for 90 days, either stock ration or diets containing 45% fish, either non-irradiated or irradiated with 1.75 kGy. Equal amounts of cod and redfish (ocean perch) constituted the fish portion of the diet. Haematological and clinical chemical examinations revealed no treatment-related effects. There were no untoward terminal gross or histopathological changes. An initial lag in weight gain of males fed fish diets was attibuted to reduced food consumption, due to the difference in texture of the fish diets compared with the stock ration. (Auth.)

  20. Radioactivity in the pelagic fish. II. Group separation of radioactive elements in fish tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K; Tozawa, H; Amano, K; Takase, A

    1955-01-01

    Analytical group separation was performed with various ashed tissues of some fishes exposed to radioactive ash. The radioactivity was particularly large with elements belonging to the 3rd group, both A and B subgroups. The 2nd group showed considerable activity in pyloric ceca and kidney of Skipjacks. The radioactivity of the 1st and 4th groups was detected in some tissues; the 5th group showed slight activity.

  1. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...... at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  2. Sperm motility in fishes. (II) Effects of ions and osmolality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Cosson, Jacky

    2006-01-01

    The spermatozoa of most fish species are immotile in the testis and seminal plasma. Therefore, motility is induced after the spermatozoa are released into the aqueous environment during natural reproduction or into the diluent during artificial reproduction. There are clear relationships between seminal plasma composition and osmolality and the duration of fish sperm motility. Various parameters such as ion concentrations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+), osmotic pressure, pH, temperature and dilution rate affect motility. In the present paper, we review the roles of these ions on sperm motility in Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, Acipenseridae and marine fishes, and their relationship with seminal plasma composition. Results in the literature show that: 1. K+ is a key ion controlling sperm motility in Salmonidae and Acipenseridae in combination with osmotic pressure; this control is more simple in other fish species: sperm motility is prevented when the osmotic pressure is high (Cyprinidae) or low (marine fishes) compared to that of the seminal fluid. 2. Cations (mostly divalent, such as Ca2+) are antagonistic with the inhibitory effect of K+ on sperm motility. 3. In many species, Ca2+ influx and K+ or Na+ efflux through specific ionic channels change the membrane potential and eventually lead to an increase in cAMP concentration in the cell, which constitutes the initiation signal for sperm motility in Salmonidae. 4. Media that are hyper- and hypo-osmotic relative to seminal fluid trigger sperm motility in marine and freshwater fishes, respectively. 5. The motility of fish spermatozoa is controlled through their sensitivity to osmolality and ion concentrations. This phenomenon is related to ionic channel activities in the membrane and governs the motility mechanisms of axonemes.

  3. Health-related beliefs and consumer knowledge as determinants of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results: European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief......' knowledge. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that communication should focus on health-related benefits other than fish consumption alone. Communicating that eating fish is healthy and stressing the health benefits of fish alone, as is still commonly performed (e.g. in generic promotion...... that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education...

  4. Seasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in "sneaker" type II male plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Colleye, Orphal; Zeddies, David G; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive plasticity also occurs in "sneaker" type II males is unknown. Here, we characterize auditory-evoked potentials recorded from hair cells in the saccule of reproductive and non-reproductive "sneaker" type II male midshipman to determine whether this sexual phenotype exhibits seasonal, reproductive state-dependent changes in auditory sensitivity and frequency response to behaviorally relevant auditory stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from the middle and caudal region of the saccule while sound was presented via an underwater speaker. Our results indicate saccular hair cells from reproductive type II males had thresholds based on measures of sound pressure and acceleration (re. 1 µPa and 1 ms -2 , respectively) that were ~8-21 dB lower than non-reproductive type II males across a broad range of frequencies, which include the dominant higher frequencies in type I male vocalizations. This increase in type II auditory sensitivity may potentially facilitate eavesdropping by sneaker males and their assessment of vocal type I males for the selection of cuckoldry sites during the breeding season.

  5. Quantifying relative fishing impact on fish populations based on spatio-temporal overlap of fishing effort and stock density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the effects of management measures on fish populations are usually based on the analyses of population dynamics and estimates of fishing mortality from stock assessments. However, this approach may not be applicable in all cases, in particular for data-limited stocks, which may...... GAM analyses to predict local cod densities and combine this with spatio-temporal data of fishing effort based on VMS (Vessel Monitoring System). To quantify local fishing impact on the stock, retention probability of the gears is taken into account. The results indicate a substantial decline...... in the impact of the Danish demersal trawl fleet on cod in the Kattegat in recent years, due to a combination of closed areas, introduction of selective gears and changes in overall effort....

  6. Experimental investigation of fish downstream passage and turbine related fish mortality at an innovative hydro power setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Franz; Cuchet, Mathilde; Rutschmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fish downstream passage of small fish at the innovative TUM hydro shaft power plant concept was investigated experimentally. The behavior of 1974 inserted individuals of brown trout, grayling, barbel, minnow and bullhead of 45 mm to 220 mm body length was observed in a fully functional test setup which included a 35 kW Kaplan turbine and a horizontal screen with 20 mm bar clearance. The 24 h tests were conducted under nature like conditions whereas the laboratory environment also enabled targeted hydraulic situations and modifications of the bypass during the test series. A recapture rate of the fish of 99% and a subsequent 96 h observation period yielded detailed information about the migration behavior and instant as well as long term mortality. The results reveal the actual passage distribution of small fish between bypass and turbine and the turbine related injury and mortality rates in dependency of fish species, fish length, turbine discharge and bypass arrangement. General trends as well as species specific particularities could be deduced. The work confirms the suitability of the employed experimental approach and the ecological potential of the investigated hydro power plant concept. The behavioral barrier effect of the screen on small fish and the necessary of appropriate downstream migration corridor were proved and quantified. (authors)

  7. Fish community status in Norwegian lakes in relation to acidification: a comparison between interviews and actual catches by test fishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthagen, T.; Berger, H.M.; Larsen, B.M. (Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway)); Rosseland, B.O. (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway))

    1993-01-01

    Inquiries are used to obtain information on fish community status in terms of unchanged, reduced and lost communities, to assess the effects of acidification in lakes. The aim of this paper was to investigate the validity of this method by comparing fish status with actual catches on standard gill net series (CPUE). Data from 230 test fishing incidents comprising 357 stocks of 7 different fish species are presented. We found significant differences in CPUE between perceived fish status categories for brown trout (Salmo trutta), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis), for which sufficient data were available. A discriminant analysis revealed that for stocks reported as unchanged and lost, the predicted membership ranged between 60.0-72.1 % respectively. However, a dominant fraction (50.0-66.7 %) of stocks reported as reduced were assigned as lost. Stocks which have been declining for less than 10 years, had a significantly higher CPUE than stocks which have declined for a longer period of time. Another apparent change in population characteristics was an acidification induced increase in mean weight for fish affected stocks. It is suggested that interviews tend to overestimate the current fish status. This is discussed in relation to a time lag between the damage and the time when it became apparent to fishermen, and rapid decline in population numbers. 26 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Movements of adult Atlantic salmon in relation to a hydroelectric dam and fish ladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowans, A.R.D.; Priede, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    The movements of adult Atlantic salmon were recorded as they approached, entered and ascended the pool-and-orifice fish ladder at Pitlochry Dam, Scotland. Thirty-nine returning salmon were captured in the River Tummel by rod-and-line angling, radio-tagged and released near where they were caught. The subsequent movements of each fish were then monitored. An electronic fish counter collected additional data on movements of untagged fish past a fixed point in the ladder. Of the 39 fish that were radio-tagged, 29 individuals were recorded approaching and ascending the ladder. The remaining fish either did not approach the dam (three fish), approached the dam after detailed tracking had ended (two fish), were recaptured by anglers (three fish), or the radio tags failed (two fish). Salmon released earlier in the year delayed longer before first approaching the dam. Delays between first approaching the dam and ascent of the ladder were greater for fish that approached the dam earlier. The majority of salmon visited the ladder entrance more than once (maximum 10 visits) before ascending. Having entered, all but four salmon ascended the fish ladder successfully on their first attempt. The four individuals that failed to do so succeeded on their second attempt. The rate at which salmon ascended the ladder was related directly to temperature. The shortest ascent time of a radio-tagged salmon was 5.25 h. Movements of eight of 11 tagged fish through the ladder ceased with the onset of darkness but continued on the following morning. No radio-tagged fish entered the ladder at temperatures below 9 o C. Similarly, few untagged fish were recorded ascending the ladder by the electronic fish counter at water temperatures below 8.5 o C. Records from the fish counter indicated that 92% of upstream movements were made during daylight. (author)

  9. Fish distribution in relation to environmental characteristics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr Koné Tidiani

    dissolved oxygen data and was mainly associated with estuarine dependent marine species. Key words: ... Research on fish assemblages in estuaries has shown that salinity ... sediment turbation) and biological mechanisms (for example ...

  10. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  11. Two clusters of ciguatera fish poisoning in Paris, France, related to tropical fish imported from the French Caribbean by travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Pérignon, Alice; Hossen, Virginie; Vincent, Renaud; Krys, Sophie; Caumes, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food-borne illness due to the consumption of reef fish containing pathogenic toxins. CFP is endemic to tropical areas and may be described in travelers in non-endemic areas. We describe two clusters of autochthonous cases of CFP in Paris, France. They were related to two fish caught in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and consumed in Paris after being air-transported in a cooler. In both cases, fish flesh was analyzed and the presence of ciguatoxins by mouse bioassay (MBA) was confirmed. The first cluster involved eight individuals among whom five presented gastrointestinal symptoms and four presented neurological symptoms after consuming barracuda flesh (Sphyraena barracuda). The second cluster involved a couple who consumed a grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus). Most of them consulted at different emergency departments in the region of Paris. CFP may be seen in non-traveler patients outside endemic countries resulting from imported species of fish. Thus, CFP may be undiagnosed as physicians are not aware of this tropical disease outside endemic countries. The detection of ciguatoxins by MBA in the French National Reference Laboratory is useful in the confirmation of the diagnosis. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  12. Utilizing individual fish biomass and relative abundance models to map environmental niche associations of adult and juvenile targeted fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaiduk, Ronen; Radford, Ben T; Harvey, Euan S

    2018-06-21

    Many fishes undergo ontogenetic habitat shifts to meet their energy and resource needs as they grow. Habitat resource partitioning and patterns of habitat connectivity between conspecific fishes at different life-history stages is a significant knowledge gap. Species distribution models were used to examine patterns in the relative abundance, individual biomass estimates and environmental niche associations of different life stages of three iconic West Australian fishes. Continuous predictive maps describing the spatial distribution of abundance and individual biomass of the study species were created as well predictive hotspot maps that identify possible areas for aggregation of individuals of similar life stages of multiple species (i.e. spawning grounds, fisheries refugia or nursery areas). The models and maps indicate that processes driving the abundance patterns could be different from the body size associated demographic processes throughout an individual's life cycle. Incorporating life-history in the spatially explicit management plans can ensure that critical habitat of the vulnerable stages (e.g. juvenile fish, spawning stock) is included within proposed protected areas and can enhance connectivity between various functional areas (e.g. nursery areas and adult populations) which, in turn, can improve the abundance of targeted species as well as other fish species relying on healthy ecosystem functioning.

  13. Is Fish Response related to Velocity and Turbulence Magnitudes? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. A.; Hockley, F. A.; Cable, J.

    2013-12-01

    Riverine fish are subject to heterogeneous velocities and turbulence, and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions which balance energy expenditure for station holding whilst maximising energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in terms of the three-dimensional velocity structure generated by idealised boulders in an experimental flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced intra-species variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the high velocity and low turbulence region, whereas smaller guppies preferred the low velocity and high shear stress region directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the region of low velocity, indicating a possible reduced swimming ability due to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli) burden, fish preferentially selected the region of moderate velocity which had the lowest bulk measure of turbulence of all regions and was also the most spatially homogeneous velocity and turbulence region. Overall the least amount of time was spent in the recirculation zone which had the highest magnitude of shear stresses and mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio. Shear stresses were a factor of two greater than in the most frequented moderate velocity region, while mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio were six times greater. Indeed the mean longitudinal turbulent scale was 2-6 times greater than the fish length in all regions. While it is impossible to discriminate between these two turbulence parameters (shear stress and turbulent length to fish length ratio) in influencing the fish preference, our study infers that there is a bias towards fish spending more time in a region where both the bulk

  14. Comparative genomic analysis reveals independent expansion of a lineage-specific gene family in vertebrates: The class II cytokine receptors and their ligands in mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogensen Knud

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high degree of sequence conservation between coding regions in fish and mammals can be exploited to identify genes in mammalian genomes by comparison with the sequence of similar genes in fish. Conversely, experimentally characterized mammalian genes may be used to annotate fish genomes. However, gene families that escape this principle include the rapidly diverging cytokines that regulate the immune system, and their receptors. A classic example is the class II helical cytokines (HCII including type I, type II and lambda interferons, IL10 related cytokines (IL10, IL19, IL20, IL22, IL24 and IL26 and their receptors (HCRII. Despite the report of a near complete pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes genome sequence, these genes remain undescribed in fish. Results We have used an original strategy based both on conserved amino acid sequence and gene structure to identify HCII and HCRII in the genome of another pufferfish, Tetraodon nigroviridis that is amenable to laboratory experiments. The 15 genes that were identified are highly divergent and include a single interferon molecule, three IL10 related cytokines and their potential receptors together with two Tissue Factor (TF. Some of these genes form tandem clusters on the Tetraodon genome. Their expression pattern was determined in different tissues. Most importantly, Tetraodon interferon was identified and we show that the recombinant protein can induce antiviral MX gene expression in Tetraodon primary kidney cells. Similar results were obtained in Zebrafish which has 7 MX genes. Conclusion We propose a scheme for the evolution of HCII and their receptors during the radiation of bony vertebrates and suggest that the diversification that played an important role in the fine-tuning of the ancestral mechanism for host defense against infections probably followed different pathways in amniotes and fish.

  15. Heavy Metal Content in Chilean Fish Related to Habitat Use, Tissue Type and River of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copaja, S V; Pérez, C A; Vega-Retter, C; Véliz, D

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we analyze the concentration of ten metals in two freshwater fish-the benthic catfish Trichomycterus areolatus and the limnetic silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus-in order to detect possible accumulation differences related to fish habitat (benthic or pelagic), tissue type (gill, liver and muscle), and the river of origin (four different rivers) in central Chile. The MANOVA performed with all variables and metals, revealed independent effects of fish, tissue and river. In the case of the fish factor, Cu, Cr, Mo and Zn showed statistically higher concentrations in catfish compared with silverside for all tissues and in all rivers (p food sources and respiration.

  16. Perceived importance of sustainability and ethics related to fish: a consumer behavior perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2007-11-01

    Although sustainability and ethics are of increasing public importance, little research has been conducted to reveal its association with fish consumer behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected through a postal self-administered survey (June 2005) from a sample of 381 Flemish women aged 20-50 years. Consumers attach high perceived importance to sustainability and ethics related to fish. However, this perceived importance is neither correlated with fish consumption frequency nor with general attitude toward eating fish. Refusing to eat wild fish is grounded in sustainability and ethical concerns, whereas the decision not to eat farmed fish is associated with a lower expected intrinsic quality rather than shaped by importance attached to sustainability and ethical issues.

  17. Relational quadrilateralland II: The Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Edward; Kneller, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    We provide the quantum treatment of the relational quadrilateral. The underlying reduced configuration spaces are ℂℙ2 and the cone over this. We consider exact free and isotropic HO potential cases and perturbations about these. Moreover, our purely relational kinematical quantization is distinct from the usual one for ℂℙ2, which turns out to carry absolutist connotations instead. Thus, this paper is the first to note absolute-versus-relational motion distinctions at the kinematical rather than dynamical level. It is also an example of value to the discussion of kinematical quantization along the lines of Isham, 1984. The relational quadrilateral is the simplest RPM whose mathematics is not standard in atomic physics (the triangle and four particles on a line are both based on 𝕊2 and ℝ3 mathematics). It is far more typical of the general quantum relational N-a-gon than the previously studied case of the relational triangle. We consider useful integrals as regards perturbation theory and the peaking interpretation of quantum cosmology. We subsequently consider problem of time (PoT) applications of this: quantum Kuchař beables, the Machian version of the semiclassical approach and the timeless naïve Schrödinger interpretation. These go toward extending the combined Machian semiclassical-Histories-Timeless Approach of [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D23 (2014) 1450014] to the case of the quadrilateral, which will be treated in subsequent papers.

  18. Isolation and characterisation of mRNA encoding the salmon- and chicken-II type gonadotrophin-releasing hormones in the teleost fish Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penlington, M C; Williams, M A; Sumpter, J P; Rand-Weaver, M; Hoole, D; Arme, C

    1997-12-01

    The complementary DNAs (cDNA) encoding the [Trp7,Leu8]-gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (salmon-type GnRH; sGnRH:GeneBank accession no. u60667) and the [His5,Trp7,Tyr8]-GnRH (chicken-II-type GnRH; cGnRH-II: GeneBank accession no. u60668) precursor in the roach (Rutilus rutilus) were isolated and sequenced following reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs consisted of 439 and 628 bp, and included open reading frames of 282 and 255 bp respectively. The structures of the encoded peptides were the same as GnRHs previously identified in other vertebrates. The sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs, including the non-coding regions, had 88.6 and 79.9% identity respectively, to those identified in goldfish (Carassius auratus). However, significant similarity was not observed between the non-coding regions of the GnRH cDNAs of Cyprinidae and other fish. The presumed third exon, encoding partial sGnRH associated peptide (GAP) of roach, demonstrated significant nucleotide and amino acid similarity with the appropriate regions in the goldfish, but not with other species, and this may indicate functional differences of GAP between different families of fish. cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs from roach had relatively high nucleotide similarity across this GnRH variant. Cladistic analysis classified the sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs into three and two groups respectively. However, the divergence between nucleotide sequences within the sGnRH variant was greater than those encoding the cGnRH-II precursors. Consistent with the consensus developed from previous studies, Northern blot analysis demonstrated that expression of sGnRH and cGnRH-II was restricted to the olfactory bulbs and midbrain of roach respectively. This work forms the basis for further study on the mechanisms by which the tapeworm, Ligula intestinalis, interacts with the pituitary-gonadal axis of its fish host.

  19. Risk-benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zdu@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, Jian [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing [Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-02-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk-benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB{sub 7}, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80-100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk-benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected 24 fish species with more than

  20. Risk–benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Frøyland, Livar

    2012-01-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk–benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB 7 , arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80–100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk–benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: ► We collected 24 fish species with more than 400 individual samples

  1. Something fishy? News media presentation of complex health issues related to fish consumption guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Amelia; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-11-01

    The news media are an important source of dietary information. Understanding news content, particularly the portrayal of risks and benefits of certain foods, is relevant for effective public health communication. Fish consumption may reduce risk for CVD and aid neonatal development, but recent work shows public confusion about the benefits of fish, challenged by the evidence of mercury and other contaminants in fish. We present an analysis of the messages about fish in US news media over 15 years, identifying trends in coverage and highlighting implications of current messaging. We conducted a descriptive text analysis and coded for manifest content: locality of focus, story frame, reference to studies, inclusion of government guidelines and portrayal of uncertainty. We identified chronological patterns and analysed the data for statistically significant relationships between media source and content. News stories were selected from five daily newspapers and five television networks (1993-2007). We analysed 310 health-related news stories on fish. Risk messages outweighed benefit messages four to one, and health benefits only became prominent after 2002. No difference existed in coverage topic by news source. Fish consumption has increasingly become a national issue. With the bulk of messages about fish consumption focused on risk, the benefits may be lost to consumers. This gap creates a need for public health to work with news media to more effectively communicate benefits and risks around fish consumption and health and to consider options for communicating tailored information where it can be more readily utilised.

  2. Is Host Ectoparasite Load Related to Echeneid Fish Presence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo R. Mucientes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used field data of echeneid and ectoparasite associations with free-swimming whale sharks (Rhincodon typus and captured mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus to test whether (1 echeneid presence was positively correlated with ectoparasite presence; and (2 the number of ectoparasites was negatively correlated with the number of echeneid fish. Data from whale and mako sharks do not support the first hypothesis whereas data from mako sharks yields support for the second hypothesis. The results indicate that echeneids do regulate the number of ectoparasites on at least some host species, but these benefits may be contingent on the echeneid species.

  3. Is Host Ectoparasite Load Related to Echeneid Fish Presence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucientes, G.R.; Queiroz, N.; Queiroz, N.; Pierce, S.J.; Pierce, S.J.; Sazima, I.; Brunnschweiler, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study used field data of echeneid and ectoparasitic associations with free-swimming whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) and captured mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus) to test whether (1) echeneid presence was positively correlated with ectoparasitic presence; and (2) the number of ectoparasitic was negatively correlated with the number of echeneid fish. Data from whale and mako sharks do not support the first hypothesis whereas data from mako sharks yields support for the second hypothesis. The results indicate that echeneids do regulate the number of ectoparasitic on at least some host species, but these benefits may be contingent on the echeneid species.

  4. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vucelick, Jessica; McMichael, Geoffrey; Chamness, Mickie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2006-02-01

    In 2004, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 25 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2004, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by NOAA Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well-greased and operative. (4) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites. (5) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve passage conditions for juvenile fish. For example, Taylor has had problems meeting bypass flow and submergence operating criteria since the main river channel shifted away from the site 2 years ago, and Fruitvale consistently has had problems meeting bypass flow criteria when the water is low. (6) Continued problems at Gleed point to design flaws. This site should be considered for redesign or replacement.

  5. Local extinction and colonisation in native and exotic fish in relation to changes in land use

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp , Dorothée; Figuerola , Jordi; Compin , Arthur; Santoul , Frédéric; Céréghino , Régis

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Distribution patterns of many native and exotic fish species are well documented, yet little is known about the temporal dynamics of native and exotic diversity in relation to changes in land use. We hypothesised that colonisation rates would be higher for exotic fish species and that extinction rates would be higher for native species in large stream systems. We also predicted that cold-water species would be more impacted than thermally tolerant species. To test thes...

  6. Adsorption of Pb(II) from fish sauce using carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal: Isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Jin, Ru-Na; Omer, A M; Ouyang, Xiao-Kun

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, a new adsorbent based on carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal (CCN) was developed for the adsorption of Pb(II) from fish sauce. The prepared adsorbent material was characterized by zeta potential, FT-IR, XRD, and XPS tools. The changes in the morphological structure of the developed CCN surface were evidenced by SEM and TEM. The favorable adsorption conditions were selected by studying the contact time, initial concentration, temperature, and concentration of the used glutamic acid and NaCl. The results indicated that the Langmuir isotherm model agrees very well with experimental adsorption data (R 2 =0.9962) with a maximum adsorption capacity 232.56mg/g of Pb(II) at 293.2K. Additionally, data of the adsorption kinetics follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R 2 >0.9990). On the other hand, the thermodynamics studies show that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. Furthermore, the developed CCN could be regenerated using acid treatment with a good reusability for Pb(II) adsorption. The results clearly indicated that the synthesized CCN could be effectively applied as a new material for Pb(II) adsorption from fish sauce solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of fish biomass, harvest and prey--predator relations in reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Regression analyses of the effect of total dissolved solids on fish standing crops in 166 reservoirs produced formulas with coefficients of determination of 0.63 to 0.81. These formulas provide indexes to average biotic conditions and help to identify stressed aquatic environments. Simple predictive formulas are also presented for clupeid crops in various reservoir types, as clupeids are the fishes most frequently impinged or entrained at southern power plants. A method of calculating the adequacy of the available prey crop in relation to the predator crop is advanced to further aid in identification of perturbed prey populations. Assessment of stress as reflected by changes in sport fishing success can also be approached by comparison of the predicted harvest potential with actual fish harvest data. Use of these predictive indexes is recommended until more elaborate models are developed to identify power plant effects

  8. Relations between altered stramflow variability and fish assemblages in Eastern USA streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael R.; Carlisle, Daren M.

    2012-01-01

    Although altered streamflow has been implicated as a major factor affecting fish assemblages, understanding the extent of streamflow alteration has required quantifying attributes of the natural flow regime. We used predictive models to quantify deviation from expected natural streamflow variability for streams in the eastern USA. Sites with >25% change in mean daily streamflow variability compared with what would be expected in a minimally disturbed environment were defined as having altered streamflow variability, based on the 10th and 90th percentiles of the distribution of streamflow variability at 1279 hydrological reference sites. We also used predictive models to assess fish assemblage condition and native species loss based on the proportion of expected native fish species that were observed. Of the 97 sites, 49 (50.5%) were classified as altered with reduced streamflow variability, whereas no sites had increased streamflow variability. Reduced streamflow variability was related to a 35% loss in native fish species, on average, and a >50% loss of species with a preference for riffle habitats. Conditional probability analysis indicated that the probability of fish assemblage impairment increased as the severity of altered streamflow variability increased. Reservoir storage capacity and wastewater discharges were important predictors of reduced streamflow variability as revealed by random forest analysis. Management and conservation of streams will require careful consideration of natural streamflow variation and potential factors contributing to altered streamflow within the entire watershed to limit the loss of critical stream habitats and fish species uniquely adapted to live in those habitats.

  9. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption among Vietnamese in Hanoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Anh Thi; Do, Hien Thu Thi; Agusa, Tetsuro; Koriyama, Chihaya; Akiba, Suminori; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Yamamoto, Megumi

    2017-01-01

    People are exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) mainly through fish consumption, which is increasing in Vietnam. However, little information is available on estimating the health risk of MeHg exposure through fish consumption in Vietnam. The present study examined the association between mercury (Hg) levels in hair and selenium (Se) levels in toenails of 196 Vietnamese people and their fish consumption, using a dietary questionnaire to obtain information pertinent for assessing health risk owing to MeHg exposure. The geometric mean of Hg levels in the hair of males and females was 617 ng/g and 575 ng/g, respectively. We found that Hg levels in the hair of 98% of the Vietnamese study subjects were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake for MeHg (1.6 µg Hg/kg body weight; which is equivalent to a hair Hg concentration of approximately 2,300 ng/g, with an uncertainty factor of 6.4). There were significant differences in the age-adjusted geometric mean of Hg levels found in hair from females related to their frequency of freshwater fish consumption. The levels of Hg in hair and Se in toenails increased with an increased frequency of marine fish consumption, and both showed a significant positive correlation in subjects who consumed marine fish ≥ once/week. This is the first cross-sectional study to investigate the association between hair Hg levels and fish consumption in Vietnam. These findings provide valuable information for future assessments of the health risk of MeHg exposure through fish consumption in Vietnam.

  10. Patient-related barriers to pain management: the Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur; Donovan, Heidi S; Serlin, Ronald C; Voge, Catherine; Ward, Sandra

    2002-10-01

    Patients' beliefs can act as barriers to optimal management of cancer pain. The Barriers Questionnaire (BQ) is a tool used to evaluate such barriers. Here, the BQ has been revised to reflect changes in pain management practices, resulting in the Barriers Questionnaire-II (BQ-II), a 27-item, self report instrument. This paper presents the results from two studies where the psychometric properties of the BQ-II were evaluated. In the first study, the responses of 27 nurses trained in pain management were compared to responses of a convenience sample of 12 patients with cancer. The results indicated that patients with cancer had higher mean scores on the BQ-II than did nurses trained in pain management. In the second study, a convenience sample of 172 patients with cancer responded to the BQ-II and a set of pain and quality of life (QOL) measures. A factor analysis supported four factors. Factor one, physiological effects, consists of 12 items addressing the beliefs that side effects of analgesics are inevitable and unmanageable, concerns about tolerance, and concerns about not being able to monitor changes in one's body when taking strong pain medications. Factor two, Fatalism, consists of three items addressing fatalistic beliefs about cancer pain and its management. Factor three, Communication, consists of six items addressing the concern that reports of pain distract the physician from treating the underlying disease, and the belief that 'good' patients do not complain of pain. The fourth and final factor, harmful effects, consists of six items addressing fear of becoming addicted to pain medication and the belief that pain medications harm the immune system. The BQ-II total had an internal consistency of 0.89, and alpha for the subscales ranged from 0.75 to 0.85. Mean (SD) scores on the total scale was 1.52 (0.73). BQ-II scores were related to measures of pain intensity and duration, mood, and QOL. Patients who used adequate analgesics for their levels of pain had

  11. Environmental Values related to fish and wildlife lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    2000-01-01

    THe purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of key concepts related to environmental values and their importance for public land managers. The following section defines environmental values and discusses their relationship to environmnetal attitudes and beliefs. This is followed by presentation of a broad system for classifying environmental values and...

  12. Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiepers, Olga; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Van Boxtel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Schiepers, O. J., De Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., & Van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2010). Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 83(1), 31-35.

  13. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S....

  14. Assemblage patterns of fish functional groups relative to habitat connectivity and conditions in floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, S.; Aycock, J.N.; Miranda, L.E.; Tietjen, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influences of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance patterns of fish functional groups in 17 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. The results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed that species-environmental relationships varied with the functional groups. Species richness and assemblage structure of periodic strategists showed strong and positive correlations with habitat connectivity. Densities of most equilibrium and opportunistic strategists decreased with habitat connectivity. Densities of certain equilibrium and opportunistic strategists increased with turbidity. Forested wetlands around the lakes were positively related to the densities of periodic and equilibrium strategists. These results suggest that decreases in habitat connectivity, forested wetland buffers and water quality resulting from environmental manipulations may cause local extinction of certain fish taxa and accelerate the dominance of tolerant fishes in floodplain lakes. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Finishing occlusion in Class II or Class III molar relation: therapeutic Class II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, A; Darendeliler, M A

    2001-11-01

    The most frequent extraction regime consists of the removal of upper and lower premolars. Depending on anchorage requirements, camouflage treatment options, surgical intervention, or the absence of teeth in only one arch, it may become necessary to finalize the occlusion with a one-dental-unit discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arches. Guidelines are presented for finishing occlusions in Class II or Class III molar relation.

  16. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. II. Sampling method affects ectoparasite studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 1 (2016), s. 59-66 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Parasite community * Fish sampling method * Methodology * Parasitological examination * Rutilus rutilus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  17. Bioaccumulation factor for I-131 in aquatic biota II fish - tilapia (Tilapia Mossambica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.F.; Casyao, J.M.; Bautista, E.Rb.

    1982-01-01

    The study was undertaken to provide local values for an essential parameter in the estimation of the dose contribution of I-131 through ingestion of fresh water fish. The result showed that the tilapia used in the experiment did not vary significantly in weight and no definite conclusion can be derived as to the effect of body size to bioaccumulation of I-131. (ELC)

  18. Intermittent food restriction initiated late in life prolongs lifespan and retards the onset of age-related markers in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Du, Xiaoyuan; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Su; Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui

    2017-06-01

    Two of the most studied and widely accepted conjectures on possible aging mechanisms are the oxidative stress hypothesis and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway. Intermittent fasting (IF) is known to modulate aging and to prolong lifespan in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms are still under debate. In this study, we first demonstrated that late-onset two consecutive days a week fasting, a form of IF, termed intermittent food restriction (IFR), exhibited a time-dependent effect, and long-term late-onset IFR extended the mean lifespan and maximum lifespan by approximately 3.5 and 3 weeks, respectively, in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri. We also showed that IFR reduced the accumulation of lipofuscin in the gills and the protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels in the muscles. Moreover, IFR was able to enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the fish. Finally, IFR was also able to decelerate the decrease of SirT1 and Foxo3A, but accelerate the decrease of IGF-1. Collectively, our findings suggest that late-onset IFR can retard the onset of age-related markers, and prolong the lifespan of the aging fish, via a synergistic action of an anti-oxidant system and the IIS pathway. It also proposes that the combined assessment of anti-oxidant system and IIS pathway will contribute to providing a more comprehensive view of anti-aging process.

  19. External and internal controls of lunar-related reproductive rhythms in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, A; Rahman, M S; Park, Y J

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive activities of many fish species are, to some extent, entrained to cues from the moon. During the spawning season, synchronous spawning is repeated at intervals of c. 1 month (lunar spawning cycle) and 2 weeks (semi-lunar spawning cycle) or daily according to tidal changes (tidal spawning cycle). In species showing lunar-related spawning cycles, oocytes in the ovary develop towards and mature around a specific moon phase for lunar spawners, around spring tides for semi-lunar spawners and at daytime high tides for tidal spawners. The production of sex steroid hormones also changes in accordance with synchronous oocyte development. Since the production of the steroid hormones with lunar-related reproductive periodicity is regulated by gonadotropins, it is considered that the higher parts of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis play important roles in the perception and regulation of lunar-related periodicity. It is likely that fishes perceive cues from the moon by sensory organs; however, it is still unknown how lunar cues are transduced as an endogenous rhythm exerting lunar-related spawning rhythmicity. Recent research has revealed that melatonin fluctuated according to the brightness at night, magnetic fields and the tidal cycle. In addition, cyclic changes in hydrostatic pressure had an effect on monoamine contents in the brain. These factors may be indirectly related to the exertion of lunar-related periodicity. Molecular approaches have revealed that mRNA expressions of light-sensitive clock genes change with moonlight, suggesting that brightness at night plays a role in phase-shifting or resetting of biological clocks. Some species may have evolved biological clocks in relation to lunar cycles, although it is still not known how lunar periodicities are endogenously regulated in fishes. This review demonstrates that lunar-related periodicity is utilized and incorporated by ecological and physiological mechanisms governing the reproductive success

  20. Demersal fish assemblages off southern New Zealand in relation to depth and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, W.; McClatchie, S.; Probert, P. K.; Hurst, R. J.

    1998-12-01

    We examined the relationship between demersal fish assemblage and depth, temperature, latitude and longitude off southern New Zealand (46-54°S and 165-180°E) in water depths of 80-787 m. Catch weight data were analysed by two-way indicator analysis (TWIA), groupaverage agglomerative clustering (UPGMA) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). The spatial pattern of demersal fish off southern New Zealand conforms to the concept of species groups or fish assemblages related to environmental gradients. Shallow-water assemblages were dominated by species from the families Gempylidae, Squalidae, Triakidae and Moridae, mainly represented by Thyrsites atun, Squalus acanthias, Galeorhinus australis, and Pseudophycis bachus. Deep water assemblages were dominated by Chimaeridae, Argentinidae, Merlucciidae and Macrouridae, mainly represented by Hydrolagus novaezelandiae, Argentina elongata, Macruronus novaezelandiae, and Lepidorhynchus denticulatus. Total catch weight was often dominated by Merlucciidae, Macrouridae and Gempylidae. Fish assemblages were related to discrete ranges of depth (300 m) and temperature (9.5°C), but the range of sediment types was too narrow to show any correlation.

  1. The tetracycline resistance determinant Tet 39 and the sulphonamide resistance gene sulII are common among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish farms in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Petersen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the genetic basis for tetracycline and sulphonamide resistance and the prevalence of class I and II integrons in oxytetracycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from integrated fish farms in Thailand. Methods: A total of 222 isolates were screened for tetracycline resistance...... and Southern blots with sulII and tet(39) probes were performed on selected isolates. Results: The recently identified tetracycline resistance gene tet(39) was demonstrated in 75% (166/222) of oxytetracycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from integrated fish farms in Thailand. Isolates that were also...

  2. The consumption of fish cooked by different methods was related to the risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese adults: A 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z; Huang, C; Momma, H; Cui, Y; Sugiyama, S; Niu, K; Nagatomi, R

    2016-09-01

    Fish consumption is a recognized risk factor for elevated serum uric acid (UA) levels, hyperuricemia, and gout. However, the relationship between the consumption of fish cooked by different methods and the risk of hyperuricemia is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the consumption of fish cooked by different methods and the risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese adults. A 3-year follow-up study was conducted with 424 Japanese adults aged 29-74 years. Fish consumption was assessed using a validated self-administered dietary history questionnaire, and hyperuricemia was defined as serum UA ≥7 mg/dL in men and ≥6 mg/dL in women or the use of any anti-gout treatment. During the 3-year follow-up period, we documented 30 newly diagnosed cases of hyperuricemia. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate logistic regressions analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between the risk of hyperuricemia and raw (sashimi and sushi) or roasted fish consumption, but not boiled or fried fish consumption. The odds ratios (95% CI) for hyperuricemia with increasing raw fish consumption were 1.00 (reference), 2.51 (0.85, 7.39), and 3.46 (1.07, 11.14) (P for trend: 0.036). Similarly, the odds ratios (95% CI) with increasing roasted fish consumption were 1.00 (reference), 3.00 (0.75, 11.89), and 5.17 (1.30, 20.62) (P for trend: 0.018). This 3-year follow-up study showed that the consumption of raw or roasted fish, but not boiled or fried fish, was related with a higher risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury concentrations in pond fish in relation to a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D.T.; Wilson, H.T.; Pinkney, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Although many studies have reported that atmospheric mercury is the primary cause for bioaccumulation in fish from remote lakes, few data are available on the effects of possible near-field deposition on fish from nearby waters. The authors surveyed mercury concentrations in fish from 23 ponds in the vicinity of the coal-burning Dickerson Power Plant (Dickerson, MD). A stratified random sampling design was used to select ponds within zones delineated by concentric rings mapped at 3, 7, 10, and 15 km from the plant. For each pond, mercury concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry in sunfish (bluegill, pumpkin seed, or green sunfish), and largemouth bass, which were present in 14 of the ponds. Mean concentrations in the ponds ranged from 0.03 to 0.38 ppm for sunfish and from 0.04 to 0.43 ppm for bass. Alkalinity, pH, conductivity, hardness, and fish length were measured. Stepwise multiple regression identified variables related to tissue concentrations. Differences between strata were tested with ANCOVA. The pattern of concentrations was compared to the pattern of wet deposition predicted by a model. The predicted pattern of local wet deposition did not match the observed pattern of mercury bioaccumulation. This research was sponsored by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Power Plant Research Program

  4. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; McMahon, Catherine M; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors that could prevent or slow the development of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) would be valuable. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake may be related to age-related hearing loss. We aimed to determine the association between dietary intakes of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs and fish and the risk of presbycusis. The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss (1997-1999 to 2002-2004). We collected dietary data by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and calculated PUFA and fish intakes. In 2956 participants (aged > or =50 y), we measured presbycusis, which we defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz >25 decibels of hearing loss. There was an inverse association between total n-3 PUFA intake and prevalent hearing loss [odds ratio (OR) per SD increase in energy-adjusted n-3 PUFAs: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99]. There was an inverse association between long-chain n-3 PUFAs and incident hearing loss (OR per SD increase in long-chain n-3 PUFAs: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.97). Participants who had > or =2 servings of fish/wk compared with participants who had consumption of > or =1 to consumption of fish and hearing loss. Dietary intervention with n-3 PUFAs could prevent or delay the development of age-related hearing loss.

  5. Environmental consequence analyses of fish farm emissions related to different scales and exemplified by data from the Baltic--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhammar, Andreas; Håkanson, Lars

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this work is to review studies to evaluate how emissions from fish cage farms cause eutrophication effects in marine environments. The focus is on four different scales: (i) the conditions at the site of the farm, (ii) the local scale related to the coastal area where the farm is situated, (iii) the regional scale encompassing many coastal areas and (iv) the international scale including several regional coastal areas. The aim is to evaluate the role of nutrient emissions from fish farms in a general way, but all selected examples come from the Baltic Sea. An important part of this evaluation concerns the method to define the boundaries of a given coastal area. If this is done arbitrarily, one would obtain arbitrary results in the environmental consequence analysis. In this work, the boundary lines between the coast and the sea are drawn using GIS methods (geographical information systems) according to the topographical bottleneck method, which opens a way to determine many fundamental characteristics in the context of mass balance calculations. In mass balance modelling, the fluxes from the fish farm should be compared to other fluxes to, within and from coastal areas. Results collected in this study show that: (1) at the smallest scale (impact areas of fish cage farm often corresponds to the size of a "football field" (50-100 m) if the annual fish production is about 50 ton, (2) at the local scale (1 ha to 100 km2), there exists a simple load diagram (effect-load-sensitivity) to relate the environmental response and effects from a specific load from a fish cage farm. This makes it possible to obtain a first estimate of the maximum allowable fish production in a specific coastal area, (3) at the regional scale (100-10,000 km2), it is possible to create negative nutrient fluxes, i.e., use fish farming as a method to reduce the nutrient loading to the sea. The breaking point is to use more than about 1.1 g wet weight regionally caught wild fish per gram

  6. Relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasina, Gabriela; Molina, Juan; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan

    This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow. Results suggest that these sciaenid species can partition the food resources, even though they completely overlap in space. Differences in their ecomorphological traits appear to correlate closely with the diet and consequently could explain the trophic differentiation observed. Arguably, these ecomorphological differences play a significant role in the coexistence of the adults of these sympatric fish species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  9. Family of fish-eye-related models and their supersymmetric partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, Adam J.

    2010-01-01

    A large family of potentials related to the Maxwell fish-eye model is derived with the help of conformal mappings. It is shown that the whole family admits square-integrable E=0 solutions of the Schroedinger equation for discrete values of the coupling constant. A corresponding supersymmetric family of partner potentials to the preceding ones is derived as well. Some applications of the considered potentials are also discussed.

  10. Trematode diversity in freshwater fishes of the Globe II: 'New World'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anindo; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Curran, Stephen S; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski; Overstreet, Robin M; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Santos, Cláudia Portes

    2016-03-01

    We provide a summary overview of the diversity of trematode parasites in freshwater fishes of the 'New World', i.e. the Americas, with emphasis on adult forms. The trematode fauna of three regions, South America, Middle America, and USA and Canada (North America north of Mexico), are considered separately. In total, 462 trematode species have been reported as adults from the Americas. The proportion of host species examined for parasites varies widely across the Americas, from a high of 45% in the Mexican region of Middle America to less than 5% in South America. North and South America share no adult species, and one exclusively freshwater genus, Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928 in the Allocreadiidae Looss, 1902 is the most widely distributed. Metacercariae of strigeiforms maturing in fish-eating birds (e.g. species of the Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886) are common and widely distributed. The review also highlights the paucity of known life-cycles. The foreseeable future of diversity studies belongs to integrative approaches and the application of molecular ecological methods. While opportunistic sampling will remain important in describing and cataloguing the trematode fauna, a better understanding of trematode diversity and biology will also depend on strategic sampling throughout the Americas.

  11. Determination of methylmercury compounds in foodstuffs. II. Determination of methylmercury in fish, egg, meat, and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westoeoe, G

    1967-01-01

    The combined gas chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic method for the identification and determination of methylmercury compounds in fish (Westoeoe) has been modified in order to render it applicable to a wider range of foods. In animal foodstuffs methylmercury is probably to a great extent attached to thiol groups. When these foods are extracted according to Gage, methylmercury chloride is formed and dissolves in the benzene together with varying amounts of thio compounds. Purification of the methylmercury in the benzene extracts of e.g., egg yolk or liver by extraction with aqueous alkali solution did not work, probably because the thio compounds were not volatile and could form alkali-insoluble methylmercury salts. Evidently methylmercury-S-compounds were reformed at high pH and prevented the formation of the water-soluble methylmercury hydroxide. Addition of excess mercuric ions, which expelled the methylmercury from the thio compounds, solved this clean-up problem. Samples of fish, egg-white, egg yolk, meat, and liver have been analyzed with the modified method. Extraction of the methylmercury into an aqueous phase was also possible with the aid of a water solution of cysteine. This led to a more rapid analytical procedure. 8 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  13. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.F. III; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  14. Otoliths in situ from Sarmatian (Middle Miocene) fishes of the Paratethys. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Carnevale, Giorgio; Bratishko, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    . Kramberger's Morrhua macropterygia is reassigned to the extinct gadid genus Palimphemus; moreover, Morrhua lanceolata is considered a junior synonym of P. anceps Kner 1862. All the Palimphemus specimens studied from the Sarmatian of the Central Paratethys belong to P. macropterygius, while P. anceps does...... not seem to be present in the Paratethys after the late Badenian/Konkian. The otolith-based species Palimphemus minusculoides (Schubert 1912) is considered as a junior synonym of P. macropterygius. Paratrisopterus caspius is regarded as a senior synonym of P. avus Fedotov 1971, whose otoliths in situ were...... previously described by Fedotov (1976). The new data allow further synonymization of otolith-based species, such as P. insectus (Weiler 1943) and possibly also P. irregularis (Gaemers 1973). Moreover, Properca sabbai Pauca 1929 is removed from the faunal list of Sarmatian fishes in the Paratethys. Kner...

  15. Mutagenic effects of tributyltin and inorganic lead (Pb II on the fish H. malabaricus as evaluated using the comet assay and the piscine micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro Marcos Vinícius M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity studies on toxic metals and their organic compounds are very important, especially so in the investigation of the effects of these compounds on the aquatic environments where they tend to accumulate. The use of endemic aquatic organisms as biological sentinels has proved useful to environmental monitoring. We assessed the mutagenic potential of tributyltin (TBT and inorganic lead (PbII using samples of the fish Hoplias malabaricus (commonly called traíra using the comet assay and the piscine micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests. Eighteen H. malabaricus were acclimatized in three individual aquariums, each containing six fish, six fish being exposed to 0.3 mg/g of body weight (bw of TBT, six to 21 mg/g bw of PbII and six being used as controls. Exposure to TBT and PbII was achieved by feeding the fish every five days with Astyanax (a small fish that is part of the normal diet of H. malabaricus which had been injected with solutions of TBT, PbII or with water (the control group. After two months the H. malabaricus were sacrificed and their peripheral blood collected and subjected to the comet and micronucleus assays, the chromosome aberration assay being conducted using kidney-tissue. Although the comet assay showed now mutagenic effects at the lead concentrations used but encountered results with TBT, the micronucleus and chromosome aberrations assays both indicated that TBT and PbII are potentially mutagenic (p < 0.01, the micronucleus assay showing morphological alterations of the nucleus.

  16. Find the fish: using PROC SQL to build a relational database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Nelson, Scott N.

    1995-01-01

    Reliable estimates of abundance and survival, gained through mark-recapture studies, are necessary to better understand how to manage and restore lake trout populations in the Great Lakes. Working with a 24-year data set from a mark-recapture study conducted in Lake Superior, we attempted to disclose information on tag shedding by examining recaptures of double-tagged fish. The data set consisted of 64,288 observations on fish which had been marked with one or more tags; a subset of these fish had been marked with two tags at initial capture. Although DATA and PROC statements could be used to obtain some of the information we sought, these statements could not be used to extract a complete set of results from the double-tagging experiments. We therefore used SQL processing to create three tables representing the same information but in a fully normalized relational structure. In addition, we created indices to efficiently examine complex relationships among the individual capture records. This approach allowed us to obtain all the information necessary to estimate tag retention through subsequent modeling. We believe that our success with SQL was due in large part to its ability to simultaneosly scan the same table more than once and to permit consideration of other tables in sub-queries.

  17. Role of histidine-related compounds to intracellular buffering in fish skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, H; Dobson, G P; Hoeger, U; Parkhouse, W S

    1985-10-01

    Histidine-related compounds (HRC) were analyzed in fish skeletal muscle as a means of identifying their precise role in intracellular buffering. Fish muscle was used because it contains two functionally and spatially distinct fiber types, red and white. Two fish species, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the Pacific blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), were studied because these species demonstrate widely different activity patterns. Marlin red and white muscle buffer capacity was two times higher than trout with white muscle, buffering being two times greater than red in both species. Buffer capacity was highest in the 6.5-7.5 pH range for all tissues, which corresponded to their high anserine levels. The titrated HRC buffering was greater than the observed HRC buffering, which suggested that not all HRC were available to absorb protons. The HRC contribution to total cellular buffering varied from a high of 62% for marlin white to a low of 7% for trout red. The other principal buffers were found to be phosphate and protein with taurine contributing within red muscle in the 7.0-8.0 pH range. HRC were found to be dominant in skeletal muscle buffering by principally accounting for the buffering capacity differences found between the species and fiber types.

  18. Rapidly increasing macroalgal cover not related to herbivorous fishes on Mesoamerican reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Suchley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominated reef systems are well documented in the Caribbean. Although the impact of coral diseases, climate change and other factors is acknowledged, major herbivore loss through disease and overfishing is often assigned a primary role. However, direct evidence for the link between herbivore abundance, macroalgal and coral cover is sparse, particularly over broad spatial scales. In this study we use a database of coral reef surveys performed at 85 sites along the Mesoamerican Reef of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras, to examine potential ecological links by tracking site trajectories over the period 2005–2014. Despite the long-term reduction of herbivory capacity reported across the Caribbean, the Mesoamerican Reef region displayed relatively low macroalgal cover at the onset of the study. Subsequently, increasing fleshy macroalgal cover was pervasive. Herbivorous fish populations were not responsible for this trend as fleshy macroalgal cover change was not correlated with initial herbivorous fish biomass or change, and the majority of sites experienced increases in macroalgae browser biomass. This contrasts the coral reef top-down herbivore control paradigm and suggests the role of external factors in making environmental conditions more favourable for algae. Increasing macroalgal cover typically suppresses ecosystem services and leads to degraded reef systems. Consequently, policy makers and local coral reef managers should reassess the focus on herbivorous fish protection and consider complementary measures such as watershed management in order to arrest this trend.

  19. Allometric relations and consequences for feeding in small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-21

    The body size of fish is an important factor in determining their biology and ecology, as predators eat prey smaller than themselves. Predator mouth size restricts the availability of possible prey. In this paper we provide the allometric relationships of eight common, small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay. In addition, we describe the predator-prey size ratios for different species, and we determine changes in their ratio-based trophic-niche breadth with increasing body size. Results suggest that gape size does not totally determine the predator-prey size ratio distribution, but predators use the entire available prey size range, including the smallest. As they grow they simply incorporate larger prey as their increased gape size permits. Accordingly, a large degree of overlap was found in the diet composition in terms of size and predator-prey ratios, even between fish of different sizes. Of the species studied, only horse mackerels seem to be clearly specialized in relatively large prey. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  20. Serum apolipoproteins in relation to intakes of fish in population of Arkhangelsk County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenya Natalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids and low in saturated fat were found beneficially associated with blood lipids and cardio-vascular health. Lean reindeer meet and local cold water white-fish species high in omega-3 are among the main sources of nutrients in the rural area of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO in Russia and are not normally consumed by the urban population from the same region. The aims of the study were firstly, to compare serum lipid profiles of residents of urban (Arkhangelsk city and rural (NAO regions of Arkhangelsk County, and secondly, to investigate the effects of fish consumption on the predictor of cardiovascular events apolipoprotein (Apo B/ApoA-I ratio in these populations. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in Arkhangelsk County, Russia. Sample size of 249 adults: 132 subjects from Arkhangelsk city, aged 21–70 and 117 subject (87% Ethnic Nenets from NAO, aged 18–69. Results We observed more favorable lipid levels in NAO compared to Arkhangelsk participants. Age-adjusted geometric means of ApoB/ApoA-I ratio were 1.02 and 0.98 in men and women from Arkhangelsk; 0.84 and 0.91 in men and women from NAO respectively. Age and consumption of animal fat were positively associated with ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in women (pooled samples from Arkhangelsk and NAO. Body mass index and low levels of physical activity were positively associated with ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in men (pooled samples from Arkhangelsk and NAO. Reported oily fish consumption was not significantly correlated with ApoB/ApoA-I ratio. Conclusion The population sample from rural NAO, consisting largely of the indigenous Arctic population Nenets with healthier dietary sources, had a relatively less atherogenic lipid profile compared to the urban Arkhangelsk group. Fish consumption had no effect on apolipoproteins profile.

  1. Fish positions relative to neighbours modulate the hydrodynamic advantages of schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    ) and Paolo Domenici (CNR, Italy) Schooling behaviour is a widespread phenomenon shared by a large number of fish species. One of the most common benefits of swimming in a school is the hydrodynamic and energetic advantage obtained by its members. Fish occupying non-frontal positions can benefit from the flow...... generated by the caudal movement of fish swimming in the front. While previous work has demonstrated that trailing fish show a lower tail beat frequency (TBF) than leading fish , the extent to which schooling provides hydrodynamic advantages compared to swimming alone has not been quantified. We quantified...... of distances along the direction of locomotion, spanning one body length (BL) in the front (+1 BL) and behind (-1 BL) a neighbouring fish. We found a significant reduction in the mean TBF of fish when swimming in a school versus solitary fish . Furthermore, the TBF of the focal fish decreased linearly between...

  2. Fishing activity in Northern Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil and its relation with small cetaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on fishing activity at Atafona village, in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21°35'S, was carried out between 1987-96 for the purpose of relating it to the accidental capture of small cetaceans and of estimating the relationship between fishing activity and the diet of small cetaceans. Data on fishing operations were obtained at the cold storage plants management, from interviews with fishermen and personal observations. The most representative fishing resources were Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus,and Rhizoprionodon porosus. Gillnets are responsible for the accidental capture of small cetaceans in the region, mainly Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia fluviatilis (marine form. Four types of gillnets that are used on the region ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" were dangerous to these species because they are placed in their preferred habitat. There is no competition between fishermen and small cetaceans due to the selection in the capture of commercialized fishesInvestigação sobre a atividade pesqueira na localidade de Atafona, Norte do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (21º25`S, foi conduzida entre 1987-96 com o objetivo de relacioná-la com a captura acidental e a dieta dos pequenos cetáceos. Dados sobre as operações pesqueiras foram obtidos na administração dos entrepostos de pesca, através de entrevistas com pescadores e observações pessoais. Os recursos pesqueiros mais representativos foram Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus, and Rhizoprionodon porosus. As redes de espera são responsáveis pela captura acidental de pequenos cetáceos na região, principalmente de Pontoporia blainvillei e Sotalia fluviatilis (forma marinha. Quatro tipos de redes de espera que são usadas na região ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" foram mais perigosas para essas espécies pois são colocadas no seu hábitat preferencial

  3. Fish Welfare in Aquaponic Systems: Its Relation to Water Quality with an Emphasis on Feed and Faeces—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijran Yavuzcan Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture (fish and hydroponic cultivation of plants. This review examines fish welfare in relation to rearing water quality, fish feed and fish waste and faeces to develop a sustainable aquaponic system where the co-cultured organisms, fish, bacteria in biofilters and plants, should be considered holistically in all aquaponics operations. Water quality parameters are the primary environmental consideration for optimizing aquaponic production and for directly impacting fish welfare/health issues and plant needs. In aquaponic systems, the uptake of nutrients should be maximised for the healthy production of the plant biomass but without neglecting the best welfare conditions for the fish in terms of water quality. Measures to reduce the risks of the introduction or spread of diseases or infection and to increase biosecurity in aquaponics are also important. In addition, the possible impacts of allelochemicals, i.e., chemicals released by the plants, should be taken into account. Moreover, the effect of diet digestibility, faeces particle size and settling ratio on water quality should be carefully considered. As available information is very limited, research should be undertaken to better elucidate the relationship between appropriate levels of minerals needed by plants, and fish metabolism, health and welfare. It remains to be investigated whether and to what extent the concentrations of suspended solids that can be found in aquaponic systems can compromise the health of fish. Water quality, which directly affects fish health and well-being, is the key factor to be considered in all aquaponic systems.

  4. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Rummer

    Full Text Available The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2 transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb. A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect and carrying capacity (Root effect. This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human. We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2 associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2, Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts.

  5. Baseline levels of melamine in food items sold in Canada. II. Egg, soy, vegetable, fish and shrimp products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Lau, Benjamin P-Y; Ménard, Cathie; Corrigan, Catherine; Sparling, Melissa; Gaertner, Dean; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Bob; Hilts, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A variety of egg-containing, soy-based, fish, shrimp and vegetable products sold in Canada were analysed for melamine (MEL) using a sensitive solid-phase extraction LC-MS/MS analytical method. MEL was detected above the method quantification limit of 0.004 mg/kg in 98 of the 378 samples analysed. Concentrations in the various food product groups ranged 0.00507-0.247 mg/kg (egg-containing items), 0.00408-0.0479 mg/kg (soy-based meat substitutes), 0.00409-1.10 mg/kg (fish and shrimp products), and 0.00464-0.688 mg/kg (vegetable products). MEL was detected less frequently in egg- and soy-containing products. The presence of MEL in most of the Canadian Total Diet Study shrimp composites collected after 2001 suggested the residues in shrimp were caused by a relatively recent exposure to MEL. All concentrations of MEL reported were lower than the 2.5 mg/kg interim standard established for MEL in items containing milk and milk-derived ingredients and the respective maximum residue limits for cyromazine and its metabolite, melamine, in vegetables set by the Canadian Government (2009; http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/melamine/qa-melamine-qr-eng.php#8 ). The consumption of foods containing these low levels of MEL does not constitute a health risk for consumers.

  6. Data Overview for Sensor Fish Samples Acquired at Ice Harbor, John Day, and Bonneville II Dams in 2005, 2006, and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2008-03-12

    The purpose of this work was to acquire Sensor Fish data on turbine passage at Bonneville II, John Day, and Ice Harbor dams for later analysis and use. The original data sets have been entered into a database and are being maintained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory pending delivery to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers when requested. This report provides documentation for the data sets acquired and details about the operations of the Sensor Fish and interpretation of Sensor Fish data that will be necessary for later use of the acquired data. A limited review of the acquired data was conducted to assess its quality and to extract information that might prove useful to its later use.

  7. 78 FR 68780 - Treatment of Income From Indian Fishing Rights-Related Activity as Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... fishing activities is exempt from taxation. See H.R. Rep. 100-1104, at p. 77 (1988). Congress added... harvesting, processing, or transporting fish harvested in the exercise of a recognized fishing right of the... from the exercise of nonstatutory options and amounts realized when restricted stock or other property...

  8. Feeds and feeding strategies for Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818) : fish growth as related to dietary protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Colossoma macropomum is an indigenous fish species from the Amazon region. The amino acid profile of its body protein proved to be similar to that of other fish species. Soya meal and fish meal have, based on their amino acid profiles, a comparable protein quality. This

  9. Impulsivity-related traits and their relation to DSM-5 section II and III personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with impulse control are considered a core feature of personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Despite this, there has been relatively little examination of the manner in which DSM-5 PDs are characterized by multidimensional models of impulsivity that parse this broad umbrella construct into smaller, more unidimensional constructs. Using the UPPS model and measure of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001), the relations between 4 impulsivity-related traits and interview-rated scores on both DSM-5 Section II and III PDs and PD traits were examined in a community sample of individuals currently receiving psychological or psychiatric care (N = 106). As expected, the UPPS traits manifested correlations with the new Section III trait model that were generally consistent with the assertion that this new DSM-5 trait model reflects a pathological variant of the Five-Factor Model (FFM; e.g., UPPS traits associated with FFM conscientiousness were most strongly related to DSM-5 disinhibition traits). Overall, the UPPS traits accounted best for variance in DSM-5 Section II and III Cluster B PDs, consistent with these PDs being characterized, in part, by emotionally and cognitively based forms of impulsivity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Assessing the impact of non-native freshwater fishes on native species using relative weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannetto D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test relative weight (Wr, a condition index which allows evaluation of fish well-being, as a tool to investigate the impact of the presence of non native species (NNS on the condition of the key native species (NS of the Tiber River basin (Italy: Barbustyberinus Bonaparte, Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco, Rutilus rubilio (Bonaparte and Telestes muticellus (Bonaparte. By means of Canonical Correlation Analysis, data from 130 sampling sites, distributed throughout Tiber River basin, were examined. Wr of NS was related to densities of NNS and to environmental variables. Moreover, the correlation between Wr of NS and density of NNS was investigated through linear regression analysis and covariance analysis. Preliminary results encourage the use of Wr as a tool to assess the relationship between NS and ecological factors (such as the presence of NNS and to explain the changes that occur along the longitudinal gradient of a river.

  11. Importance of Photobacterium phosphoreum in relation to spoilage of modified atmosphere-packed fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Mejlholm, Ole; Christiansen, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Occurrence and growth of Photobacterium phosphoreum were studied in 20 experiments with fresh fish from Denmark, Iceland and Greece. The organism was detected in all marine fish species but not in fish from fresh water. Growth of P. phosphoreum to high levels (>10(7) cfu g(-1)) was observed in most...... products and the organism is likely to be of importance for spoilage of several modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) marine fish species when stored at chill temperatures. Some microbiological methods recommended for control of fish products by national and international authorities are inappropriate...... for detection of psychrotolerant and heat-labile micro-organisms like P. phosphoreum. These methods have been used in many previous studies of MAP fish and this could explain why, contrary to the findings in the present study, P. phosphoreum in general was not detected previously in spoiled MAP fish....

  12. Vertical structure, biomass and topographic association of deep-pelagic fishes in relation to a mid-ocean ridge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, T. T.; Porteiro, F. M.; Heino, M.; Byrkjedal, I.; Langhelle, G.; Anderson, C. I. H.; Horne, J.; Søiland, H.; Falkenhaug, T.; Godø, O. R.; Bergstad, O. A.

    2008-01-01

    The assemblage structure and vertical distribution of deep-pelagic fishes relative to a mid-ocean ridge system are described from an acoustic and discrete-depth trawling survey conducted as part of the international Census of Marine Life field project MAR-ECO . The 36-station, zig-zag survey along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR; Iceland to the Azores) covered the full depth range (0 to >3000 m), from the surface to near the bottom, using a combination of gear types to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the pelagic fauna. Abundance per volume of deep-pelagic fishes was highest in the epipelagic zone and within the benthic boundary layer (BBL; 0-200 m above the seafloor). Minimum fish abundance occurred at depths below 2300 m but above the BBL. Biomass per volume of deep-pelagic fishes over the MAR reached a maximum within the BBL, revealing a previously unknown topographic association of a bathypelagic fish assemblage with a mid-ocean ridge system. With the exception of the BBL, biomass per volume reached a water column maximum in the bathypelagic zone between 1500 and 2300 m. This stands in stark contrast to the general "open-ocean" paradigm that biomass decreases exponentially from the surface downwards. As much of the summit of the MAR extends into this depth layer, a likely explanation for this mid-water maximum is ridge association. Multivariate statistical analyses suggest that the dominant component of deep-pelagic fish biomass over the northern MAR was a wide-ranging bathypelagic assemblage that was remarkably consistent along the length of the ridge from Iceland to the Azores. Integrating these results with those of previous studies in oceanic ecosystems, there appears to be adequate evidence to conclude that special hydrodynamic and biotic features of mid-ocean ridge systems cause changes in the ecological structure of deep-pelagic fish assemblages relative to those at the same depths over abyssal plains. Lacking terrigenous input of

  13. Fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive episodes: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Liisa Suominen-Taipale

    Full Text Available High fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake are suggested to benefit mental well-being but the current evidence is conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate whether a higher level of fish consumption, a higher intake of omega-3 PUFAs, and a higher serum concentration of omega-3 PUFAs link to a lower 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes.We used data from the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5492 and the Fishermen Study on Finnish professional fishermen and their family members (n = 1265. Data were based on questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and blood samples. Depressive episodes were assessed with the M-CIDI (the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and a self-report of two CIDI probe questions, respectively. Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (g/day and independent frequency questions (times/month. Dietary intake (g/day and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids of PUFAs were determined. Fish consumption was associated with prevalence of depressive episodes in men but not in women. The prevalence of depressive episodes decreased from 9% to 5% across the quartiles of fish consumption (g/day in men of the Health 2000 Survey (p for linear trend = 0.01, and from17% to 3% across the quartiles of fish consumption (times/month in men of the Fishermen Study (p for linear trend = 0.05. This association was modified by lifestyle; in the Health 2000 Survey a higher level of fish consumption was related to a lower prevalence of depressive episodes in men who consumed the most alcohol, were occasional or former smokers, or had intermediate physical activity. The associations between depressive episodes and the intake or serum concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs were not consistent.In men, fish consumption appears as a surrogate for underlying but unidentified lifestyle factors that protect against depression.

  14. Notes on the fishes of western New Guinea : II. Lophichthys boschmai, a new genus and species from the Arafoera Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1964-01-01

    During my visit to western New Guinea (1954-1955), a rich collection of marine animals was presented to the Leiden Museum by the Fisheries Department of the Netherlands New Guinea Government. The specimens, mostly fishes, had been captured during previous trips of the Government fishing vessel "De

  15. Evaluation of swimming capability and potential velocity barrier problems for fish. Part A: Swimming performance of selected warm and cold water fish species relative to fish passage and fishway design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, D. A.; Goosney, R. G.; McKinley, R. S.; Booth, R. K.; Peake, S.

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information about the swimming capability of several widely distributed, economically or recreationally important fish species, for use in mitigating potential velocity barrier problems associated with hydroelectric power facilities. Swimming capability of anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon, brook trout, brown trout, lake sturgeon, and walleye, collected from various locations throughout Canada, were investigated to develop criteria for sustained, prolonged, burst swimming performance characteristics of the study species, fish physiology, life history and migration distance on swimming performance. Swimming performance characteristics in the wild, especially the use of physiological telemetry, as well as development of new methodology for the measurement of burst speed was also central to the study. Models were derived to describe swimming capabilities for each study species/life stage in relation to fish length, water velocity, water temperature, and other significant environmental factors. The data will form the basis of guideline development and decision making to improve design and evaluation of fish passage facilities. A series of annotated bibliographies resulting from the study are described in Appendix B. 74 refs., 8 tabs., figs., 2 appendices

  16. Distribution and abundance of juvenile demersal fishes in relation to summer hypoxia and other environmental variables in coastal Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Wakefield, W. Waldo; Yergey, Matthew E.; Johnson-Colegrove, Angela

    2018-05-01

    The juvenile demersal fish assemblage along the Pacific Northwest coast has received little attention relative to adult life history stages since pioneering work in the 1970s. Increasing severity of hypoxia along the Oregon coast in recent years has prompted investigations into the response of biota in this region. We used summer data (2008-2013) from a beam trawl survey targeting juvenile demersal fishes in soft-bottom habitats along the Oregon coast to describe patterns of distribution and abundance at fixed sampling stations (from 30 m to 100 m depth). We relate the assemblage and abundance of the common species to environmental variables and analyze condition of recently settled fish (improve our understanding of this community, especially in light of changing environmental drivers such as decreasing pH, warming water, and episodic periods of low dissolved oxygen coinciding with settlement for many species.

  17. Comparing relative abundance, lengths, and habitat of temperate reef fishes using simultaneous underwater visual census, video, and trap sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Bacheler, NM

    2017-04-28

    Unbiased counts of individuals or species are often impossible given the prevalence of cryptic or mobile species. We used 77 simultaneous multi-gear deployments to make inferences about relative abundance, diversity, length composition, and habitat of the reef fish community along the southeastern US Atlantic coast. In total, 117 taxa were observed by underwater visual census (UVC), stationary video, and chevron fish traps, with more taxa being observed by UVC (100) than video (82) or traps (20). Frequency of occurrence of focal species was similar among all sampling approaches for tomtate Haemulon aurolineatum and black sea bass Centropristis striata, higher for UVC and video compared to traps for red snapper Lutjanus campechanus, vermilion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens, and gray triggerfish Balistes capriscus, and higher for UVC compared to video or traps for gray snapper L. griseus and lionfish Pterois spp. For 6 of 7 focal species, correlations of relative abundance among gears were strongest between UVC and video, but there was substantial variability among species. The number of recorded species between UVC and video was correlated (ρ = 0.59), but relationships between traps and the other 2 methods were weaker. Lengths of fish visually estimated by UVC were similar to lengths of fish caught in traps, as were habitat characterizations from UVC and video. No gear provided a complete census for any species in our study, suggesting that analytical methods accounting for imperfect detection are necessary to make unbiased inferences about fish abundance.

  18. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics FORP-USP who had already completed treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years and 11 months. Associations were made between the presence or absence of deleterious oral habits, type and number of habits found in each individual and the type of malocclusion according to Angle classification. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. History of deleterious oral habits was found in 67.1% of individuals. RESULTS: The Class I malocclusion was most frequent (82.9%, followed by Class II malocclusion (12.1% and Class III (5%. CONCLUSION: There was a predominance of Class II malocclusion in individuals with a history of deleterious oral habits.INTRODUÇÃO: hábitos bucais podem interferir no crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático e nas condições miofuncionais bucofaciais, acarretando alterações no posicionamento dos dentes nas respectivas arcadas dentárias. OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a presença de hábitos bucais deletérios em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão e observar se existe predominância de má oclusão Classe II de Angle nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e analisadas 140 fichas de pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da FORP-USP, que já haviam recebido alta no tratamento. A faixa etária variou dos 6 anos a 10 anos e 11 meses. Foram realizadas associações entre

  19. Considerations Related to LTO for Gen II/III NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojan, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    Today there are some 435 nuclear power reactors operating in 30 countries with a combined capacity of over 372 GWe. In 2011 these provided 2518 billion kWh, about 14% of the world's electricity [1]. The next evolutionary design of Generation III reactors to be deployed over many decades will represent a large part of the worldwide fleet throughout the 21st century. Generation III reactors are the future NPPs with improved safety and reliability, with passive safety systems and with a very low probability for core melt. The objective of this paper is to present the R and D activities that support LTO for Generation II / III Nuclear Reactors. (author)

  20. Defining thresholds of sustainable impact on benthic communities in relation to fishing disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, G I; Murray, L G; Hiddink, J G; Hinz, H; Lincoln, H; Hold, N; Cambiè, G; Kaiser, M J

    2017-07-14

    While the direct physical impact on seabed biota is well understood, no studies have defined thresholds to inform an ecosystem-based approach to managing fishing impacts. We addressed this knowledge gap using a large-scale experiment that created a controlled gradient of fishing intensity and assessed the immediate impacts and short-term recovery. We observed a mosaic of taxon-specific responses at various thresholds. The lowest threshold of significant lasting impact occurred between 1 and 3 times fished and elicited a decrease in abundance of 39 to 70% for some sessile epifaunal organisms (cnidarians, bryozoans). This contrasted with significant increases in abundance and/or biomass of scavenging species (epifaunal echinoderms, infaunal crustaceans) by two to four-fold in areas fished twice and more. In spite of these significant specific responses, the benthic community structure, biomass and abundance at the population level appeared resilient to fishing. Overall, natural temporal variation in community metrics exceeded the effects of fishing in this highly dynamic study site, suggesting that an acute level of disturbance (fished over six times) would match the level of natural variation. We discuss the implications of our findings for natural resources management with respect to context-specific human disturbance and provide guidance for best fishing practices.

  1. KNK-II knowledge preservation and related activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.; Wehmann, U.; Stanculescu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Many of the scenarios describing possible energy futures, e.g., the World Energy Council and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), foresee a role for nuclear power in meeting a growing world energy demand through 2050. While some scenarios explore the impact of a nuclear phase out, others envision a major growth in nuclear technology's share of the world energy mix. Given the forecasted growth in world population and in economic development, the environmental advantages of nuclear power, and concerns over climate change and the growth of greenhouse gas emissions, it is not unreasonable to expect an increased interest in nuclear power in the coming decades. Loss of nuclear knowledge is a serious concern, in particular with regard to areas where, for various reasons, nuclear technology development and innovation has been slowed down. Knowledge can be preserved by archival techniques and by passing it on to new generations. In the case of the Federal Republic of Germany, in spite of the lack of funding and political support, both avenues are followed. Data retrieval and preservation by archiving activities for the German experimental fast reactor KNK-II were undertaken within the framework of IAEA's initiative on Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation. The paper will shortly introduce the IAEA initiative (scope, objectives, status, and outlook). The general approach to nuclear knowledge preservation in Germany will be presented, and the concrete archiving activities undertaken for KNK-II will be summarized. (author)

  2. Accessing the public MIMIC-II intensive care relational database for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel J; Lee, Joon; Silva, Ikaro; Park, Shinhyuk; Moody, George B; Celi, Leo A; Mark, Roger G

    2013-01-10

    The Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database is a free, public resource for intensive care research. The database was officially released in 2006, and has attracted a growing number of researchers in academia and industry. We present the two major software tools that facilitate accessing the relational database: the web-based QueryBuilder and a downloadable virtual machine (VM) image. QueryBuilder and the MIMIC-II VM have been developed successfully and are freely available to MIMIC-II users. Simple example SQL queries and the resulting data are presented. Clinical studies pertaining to acute kidney injury and prediction of fluid requirements in the intensive care unit are shown as typical examples of research performed with MIMIC-II. In addition, MIMIC-II has also provided data for annual PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenges, including the 2012 Challenge "Predicting mortality of ICU Patients". QueryBuilder is a web-based tool that provides easy access to MIMIC-II. For more computationally intensive queries, one can locally install a complete copy of MIMIC-II in a VM. Both publicly available tools provide the MIMIC-II research community with convenient querying interfaces and complement the value of the MIMIC-II relational database.

  3. Bunch lengthening and related effects in SPEAR II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.; Servranckx, R.; Sabersky, A.P.; Gareyte, J.; Fischer, G.E.; Chao, A.W.; Donald, M.H.R.

    1977-03-01

    In recent years, electron storage ring designers have become aware of the problems caused by the interaction of short, high current bunches with their environment. Important effects are: (1) energy loss can cause local overheating of chamber components; (2) additional rf power is required due to overall energy loss; (3) the increased energy spread requires increased aperture; (4) destructive instabilities could occur. Anomalous bunch lengthening and energy spread, the spectroscopy of longitudinal modes and the shift of synchronous phase were simultaneously measured in order to study the dynamics of the interaction. From the data obtained at SPEAR II one is led to a model of coupling impedance which should be useful in the design of any electron ring

  4. Characteristics of Disease Spectrum in relation to Species, Serogroups, and Adhesion Ability of Motile Aeromonads in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kozińska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to delineate the relationship between of Aeromonas species and/or serogroups and specific disease symptoms in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum. The adhesion of Aeromonas strains to various tissues in relation to disease spectrum was also tested. All strains of A. hydrophila caused skin ulcers as well as septicaemia in both carp and trout while the other strains were able to cause only skin ulcers or some specific internal lesions with or without septicaemia depending on which species and/or serogroup they represented. Disease symptoms depended also on fish species. It was found that adhesion intensity of Aeromonas strains tested was significantly higher to tissues, which were susceptible to infection with these strains. The results indicate that adhesion to various cells of the fish organism is principal marker to detect virulent Aeromonas strains. The findings presented in this study may be helpful in the appraisal of aeromonads disease risk and kind of the infection in particular fish farms by epizootiological studies or/and during routine fish examinations. They will also be useful to improve and facilitate diagnosis of bacterial fish disease.

  5. The distribution of seabirds and fish in relation to ocean currents in the southeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Wells, John L.; MacCharles, Andrea; Fadely, Brian S.; Montevecchi, W.A.; Gaston, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late August 1988, we studied the distribution of seabirds in the southeastern Chukchi Sea, particularly in waters near a major seabird colony at Cape Thompson. Foraging areas were characterized using hydrographic data obtained from hydroacoustic surveys for fish. Murres (Uria spp.) and Black-legged Kitttiwakes Rissa tridactyla breeding at Cape Thompson fed mostly on Arctic cod, which are known from previous studies to be the most abundant pelagic fish in the region. Our hydroacoustic surveys revealed that pelagic fish were distributed widely, but densities were estimated to be low (e.g., 0.1-10 g∙m-3) throughout the study area and a few schools were recorded. Large feeding flocks of murres and kittiwakes were observed over fish schools with densities estimated to exceed 15 g∙m-3. Fish densities were higher in shallow Alaska Coastal Current waters than offshore in Bering Sea waters, and most piscivorous seabirds foraged in coastal waters. Poor kittiwake breeding success and a low frequency of fish in murre and kittiwake stomachs in late August suggested that fish densities were marginal for sustaining breeding seabirds at that time. Planktivorous Least Auklets Aethia pusilla and Parakeet Auklets Cyclorrhynchus psittacula foraged almost exclusively in Bering Sea waters. Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris and Tufted Puffins Fratercula cirrhata foraged in transitional waters at the front between Coastal and Bering Sea currents.

  6. Public health guidance on cardiovascular benefits and risks related to fish consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern Alan H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, concerns with fish consumption have addressed risks from contaminants (e.g., methylmercury (MeHg, and PCBs. More recently public health concerns have widened in appreciation of the specific benefits of fish consumption such as those arising from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in fish oil. Fish contains varying levels of PUFAs and MeHg. Since both address the same health outcomes (in opposite directions and occur together in fish, great care must be exercised in providing public health guidance. Mozaffarian and Rimm in a recent article (JAMA. 2006, 296:1885–99 have made a strong case for the beneficial effects of PUFAs in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease, but at the same time, have also broadly discounted the increased risks of coronary heart disease posed by MeHg in fish, stating that "... among adults... the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks." This conclusion appears to be based on an inaccurate and insufficiently critical analysis of the literature. This literature is re-examined in light of their conclusions, and the available and appropriate public health options are considered.

  7. Reduction of dioxin-like toxicity in effluents by additional wastewater treatment and related effects in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Diana; Benisek, Martin; Blaha, Ludek; Dondero, Francesco; Giesy, John P; Köhler, Heinz-R; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies to reduce micropollutants which mediate dioxin-like toxicity was investigated. Technologies compared included ozonation, powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon. In addition to chemical analyses in samples of effluents, surface waters, sediments, and fish, (1) dioxin-like potentials were measured in paired samples of effluents, surface waters, and sediments by use of an in vitro biotest (reporter gene assay) and (2) dioxin-like effects were investigated in exposed fish by use of in vivo activity of the mixed-function, monooxygenase enzyme, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in liver. All advanced technologies studied, based on degradation or adsorption, significantly reduced dioxin-like potentials in samples and resulted in lesser EROD activity in livers of fish. Results of in vitro and in vivo biological responses were not clearly related to quantification of targeted analytes by use of instrumental analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Irradiation of fish fillets: Relation of vapor phase reactions to storage quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, J.; Dollar, A.M.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; Gallagher, E.C.

    1969-01-01

    Fish fillets irradiated under air, nitrogen, oxygen, or carbon dioxide atmospheres developed rancidlike flavors when they were stored at refrigerated temperatures. Packing and irradiating under vacuum or helium prevented development of off-flavors during storage.Significant quantities of nitrate and oxidizing substances were formed when oxygen, nitrogen, or air were present in the vapor or liquid phases contained in a Pyrex glass model system exposed to ionizing radiation supplied by a 60Co source. It was demonstrated that the delayed flavor changes that occur in stored fish fillets result from the reaction of vapor phase radiolysis products and the fish tissue substrates.

  9. Field-based evaluations of horizontal flat-plate fish screens, II: Testing of a unique off-stream channel device - The Farmers Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Screens are installed at water diversion sites to reduce entrainment of fish. Recently, the Farmers Irrigation District (Oregon) developed a unique flat-plate screen (the “Farmers Screen”) that operates passively and may offer reduced installation and operating costs. To evaluate the effectiveness of this screen on fish, we conducted two separate field experiments. First, juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were released over a working version of this screen under a range of inflows (0.02–0.42 m3/s) and diversion flows (0.02–0.34 m3/s) at different water depths. Mean approach velocities ranged from 0 to 5 cm/s and sweeping velocities ranged from 36 to 178 cm/s. Water depths over the screen surface ranged from 1 to 25 cm and were directly related to inflow. Passage of fish over the screen under these conditions did not severely injure them or cause delayed mortality, and no fish were observed becoming impinged on the screen surface. Second, juvenile coho salmon and steelhead O. mykiss were released at the upstream end of a 34-m flume and allowed to volitionally move downstream and pass over a 3.5-m section of the Farmers Screen to determine whether fish would refuse to pass over the screen after encountering its leading edge. For coho salmon, 75–95% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 82–98% passed within 20 min, depending on hydraulic conditions. For steelhead, 47–90% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 79–95% passed within 20 min. Our results indicate that when operated within its design criteria, the Farmers Screen provides safe and efficient downstream passage of juvenile salmonids under a variety of hydraulic conditions.

  10. Structural characterization of peptides derived from prosomatostatins I and II isolated from the pancreatic islets of two species of teleostean fish: the daddy sculpin and the flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J M; Davis, M S; Falkmer, S; Thim, L

    1987-11-02

    The primary structures of three peptides from extracts from the pancreatic islets of the daddy sculpin (Cottus scorpius) and three analogous peptides from the islets of the flounder (Platichthys flesus), two species of teleostean fish, have been determined by automated Edman degradation. The structures of the flounder peptides were confirmed by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The peptides show strong homology to residues (49-60), (63-96) and (98-125) of the predicted sequence of preprosomatostatin II from the anglerfish (Lophius americanus). The amino acid sequences of the peptides suggest that, in the sculpin, prosomatostatin II is cleaved at a dibasic amino acid residue processing site (corresponding to Lys61-Arg62 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). The resulting fragments are further cleaved at monobasic residue processing sites (corresponding to Arg48 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). In the flounder the same dibasic residue processing site is utilised but cleavage at different monobasic sites takes place (corresponding to Arg50 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). A peptide identical to mammalian somatostatin-14 was also isolated from the islets of both species and is presumed to represent a cleavage product of prosomatostatin I.

  11. Laboratory and field temperature preference and avoidance data of fish related to the establishment of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, J.R.; Cherry, D.S.; Dickson, K.L.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature preferences for important fish species in the New River in the vicinity of Appalachian Power Company's Glen Lyn, Virginia plant were determined independently by both field and laboratory studies. A relationship was demonstrated between the temperature preference data generated by the two approaches. Based on the temperature preference data the responses of fish to the thermal discharges can be predicted. From these data and from other data on the fish community structure, it was possible to determine that the thermal discharge was causing no appreciable harm to the fish community. Based on these studies it was concluded that the most reasonable approach to establishing thermal standards is to couple temperature preference studies with site specific studies. (U.S.)

  12. Allometric relations and consequences for feeding in small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko; Irigoien, Xabier

    2012-01-01

    The body size of fish is an important factor in determining their biology and ecology, as predators eat prey smaller than themselves. Predator mouth size restricts the availability of possible prey. In this paper we provide the allometric

  13. Adenylate cyclase activity in fish gills in relation to salt adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibbolini, M.E.; Lahlou, B.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of salt adaptation on specific adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of [α- 32 P] - ATP into [α- 32 P] - cAMP) was investigated in gill plasma membranes of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) adapted to various salinities (deionized water, DW; fresh water, FW; 3/4 sea water, 3/4 SW; sea water, SW) and in sea water adapted- mullet (Mugil sp.). Basal activity declined by a factor of 2 in trout with increasing external salinity (pmoles cAMP/mg protein/10 min: 530 in DW, 440 in FW, 340 in 3/4 SW; 250 in SW) and was very low in SW adapted-mullet: 35. The Km for ATP was similar (0.5 mM) in both FW adapted- and SW adapted- trout in either the absence (basal activity) or in the presence of stimulating agents (isoproterenol; NaF) while the Vm varied. Analysis of stimulation ratios with respect to basal levels of the enzyme showed that hormones and pharmacological substances (isoproterenol, NaF) display a greater potency in high salt than in low salt adapted- fish gills. In contrast, salt adaptation did not have any effect on the regulation of adenylate cyclase by PGE 1 . These results are interpreted in relation to the general process of osmoregulation. 27 references, 6 figures

  14. British Columbia's fish health regulatory framework's contribution to sustainability goals related to salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Craig; Dicicco, Emiliano; Munk, Brandon

    2008-12-01

    Salmon farming is a significant contribution to the global seafood market to which the goal of sustainability is often applied. Diseases related to farms are perhaps the most contentious issues associated with sustainable salmon farming. We reviewed literature and policies in British Columbia, Canada, as well as interviewed key informants to examine how fish health regulations do or could support sustainability goals. We found four main obstacles to the development and application of a sustainability-based health management system. First, salmon farming faced the same challenges as other industries when trying to establish an operational definition of sustainability that captures all stakeholders' interests. Second, there was no program responsible for integrating the various regulations, responsible departments, and monitoring efforts to develop a comprehensive view of sustainability. Third, there was inadequate research base and social consensus on the criteria that should be used to track health outcomes for sustainability purposes. Fourth, the regulatory and management paradigm for salmon farming has been focused on diseases and pathogens as opposed to embracing a more inclusive health promotion model that includes biotic, abiotic, and social determinants of health. A transparent and inclusive participatory process that effectively links expert views with community and industry concerns should serve as the foundation for the next generation of health management regulations for salmon farming.

  15. "Fishing na everybody business":women's work and gender relations in Sierra Leone's fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Thorpe, Andy; Pouw, Nicky; Baio, Andrew; Sandi, Ranita; Ndomahina, Ernest Tom; Lebbie, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    While small-scale marine fisheries in many developing countries is "everybody’s business", a strong gendered division of labour sees production concentrated in the hands of male fishermen - while women - ‘fish mammies’ - invariably dominate the post-harvest processing and retailing sector. Consequently, the production bias of many fisheries management programmes has not only largely overlooked the critical role that fisherwomen play in the sector, but has also seen ‘fish mammies’ marginalised...

  16. Fish assemblage structure and relations with environmental conditions in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.; Isaak, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Fish and habitat were sampled from 110 reaches in the Salt River basin (Idaho and Wyoming) during 1996 and 1997 to assess patterns in fish assemblage structure across a Rocky Mountain watershed. We identified four distinct fish assemblages using cluster analysis: (1) allopatric cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)); (2) cutthroat trout - brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell, 1814)) - Paiute sculpin (Cottus beldingi Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1891); (3) cutthroat trout - brown trout (Salmo trutta L., 1758) - mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi Girard, 1850); and (4) Cyprinidae-Catostomidae. The distribution of fish assemblages was explained by thermal characteristics, stream geomorphology, and local habitat features. Reaches with allopatric cutthroat trout and the cutthroat trout - brook trout - Paiute sculpin assemblage were located in high-elevation, high-gradient streams. The other two fish assemblages were generally located in low-elevation streams. Associations between habitat gradients, locations of reaches in the watershed, and occurrence of species were further examined using canonical correspondence analysis. The results suggest that stream geomorphology, thermal conditions, and local habitat characteristics influence fish assemblage structure across a Rocky Mountain watershed, and they provide information on the ecology of individual species that can guide conservation activities. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  17. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  18. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development IV: Fish Mortality Resulting From Turbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turbak, Susan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reichle, Donna R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shriner, Carole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide summary information for use by potential developers and regulators of small-scale hydroelectric projects (defined as existing dams that can be retrofitted to a total site capacity of ≤30 MW), where turbine-related mortality of fish is a potential issue affecting site-specific development. Mitigation techniques for turbine-related mortality are not covered in this report.

  19. Distributions of polyhalogenated compounds in Hudson River (New York, USA) fish in relation to human uses along the river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    PCBs (as Aroclor concentrations) have been extensively examined in fish along the Hudson River, but other xenobiotic chemicals in fish have had limited assessment. This study determined concentrations and congener distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in smallmouth bass and striped bass taken from a 385 km reach of the Hudson River. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in smallmouth bass, and PCBs in striped bass, were positively related to human uses of the compounds in the basin. Generally low levels of PCDD/Fs were found. One striped bass, however, contained elevated 2,3,7,8-TCDD, indicating exposure to a known source in the adjacent Newark Bay-Passaic River basin. PBDDs were generally below detection. PBDFs were present in four of 18 smallmouth bass, but were not detected in striped bass. Dioxin-like PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Highlights: → In the Hudson River, → PBDEs in smallmouth bass follow human population patterns, but do not for striped bass. → Proximity to known PCB sources govern PCB levels and patterns in fish. → PBDFs were in smallmouth bass but not striped bass. PBDDs were present in one fish. → PCDD/Fs were low in 29 of 30 fish. A 2,3,7,8-TCDD source affected one striped bass. → PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Residues of polyhalogenated compounds in resident and migratory fish from the Hudson River are compared with human uses of the compounds in the river basin.

  20. Distributions of polyhalogenated compounds in Hudson River (New York, USA) fish in relation to human uses along the river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Lawrence C., E-mail: lxskinne@gw.dec.state.ny.us [New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 625 Broadway, Albany, NY 12233 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    PCBs (as Aroclor concentrations) have been extensively examined in fish along the Hudson River, but other xenobiotic chemicals in fish have had limited assessment. This study determined concentrations and congener distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in smallmouth bass and striped bass taken from a 385 km reach of the Hudson River. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in smallmouth bass, and PCBs in striped bass, were positively related to human uses of the compounds in the basin. Generally low levels of PCDD/Fs were found. One striped bass, however, contained elevated 2,3,7,8-TCDD, indicating exposure to a known source in the adjacent Newark Bay-Passaic River basin. PBDDs were generally below detection. PBDFs were present in four of 18 smallmouth bass, but were not detected in striped bass. Dioxin-like PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Highlights: > In the Hudson River, > PBDEs in smallmouth bass follow human population patterns, but do not for striped bass. > Proximity to known PCB sources govern PCB levels and patterns in fish. > PBDFs were in smallmouth bass but not striped bass. PBDDs were present in one fish. > PCDD/Fs were low in 29 of 30 fish. A 2,3,7,8-TCDD source affected one striped bass. > PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Residues of polyhalogenated compounds in resident and migratory fish from the Hudson River are compared with human uses of the compounds in the river basin.

  1. Healthy Eating and Barriers Related to Social Class. The case of vegetable and fish consumption in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuland, Silje Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    The article examines the constraints on healthy eating by exploring whether barriers such as taste, competence, time, price, quality and limited selection reduce consumption of vegetables and fish among Norwegians. In order to understand the socio-economic gradient of healthy diets, the study examines how these barriers are related to specific class positions. Regular consumption of both fish and vegetables are recommended by health authorities, and they are broadly perceived as healthy foods by Norwegians. Nevertheless, more than half of the population consumes vegetables less frequently than daily, and the average consumption of fish is far below the recommended two to three dinner portions of fish on a weekly basis. Informed by Bourdieu's theories of social class, this article argues for two overarching barriers related to food consumption, food knowledge and perceived food quality by consumers, and it finds that barriers are tied to scarcity of cultural, economic and social capital. A survey of 2000 respondents subjected to multiple linear regression analysis and factor analysis (PCA) provides the evidence for this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Variation in local abundance and species richness of stream fishes in relation to dispersal barriers: Implications for management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislow, K.H.; Hudy, M.; Letcher, B.H.; Smith, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    1.Barriers to immigration, all else being equal, should in principle depress local abundance and reduce local species richness. These issues are particularly relevant to stream-dwelling species when improperly designed road crossings act as barriers to migration with potential impacts on the viability of upstream populations. However, because abundance and richness are highly spatially and temporally heterogeneous and the relative importance of immigration on demography is uncertain, population- and community-level effects can be difficult to detect. 2.In this study, we tested the effects of potential barriers to upstream movements on the local abundance and species richness of a diverse assemblage of resident stream fishes in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia, U.S.A. Fishes were sampled using simple standard techniques above- and below road crossings that were either likely or unlikely to be barriers to upstream fish movements (based on physical dimensions of the crossing). We predicted that abundance of resident fishes would be lower in the upstream sections of streams with predicted impassable barriers, that the strength of the effect would vary among species and that variable effects on abundance would translate into lower species richness. 3.Supporting these predictions, the statistical model that best accounted for variation in abundance and species richness included a significant interaction between location (upstream or downstream of crossing) and type (passable or impassable crossing). Stream sections located above predicated impassable culverts had fewer than half the number of species and less than half the total fish abundance, while stream sections above and below passable culverts had essentially equivalent richness and abundance. 4.Our results are consistent with the importance of immigration and population connectivity to local abundance and species richness of stream fishes. In turn, these results suggest that when measured at

  3. Authentication of Closely Related Fish and Derived Fish Products Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Spectral Library Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessen, Merel A; van der Zwaan, Dennis J; Grevers, Sander; Dalebout, Hans; Staats, Martijn; Kok, Esther; Palmblad, Magnus

    2016-05-11

    Proteomics methodology has seen increased application in food authentication, including tandem mass spectrometry of targeted species-specific peptides in raw, processed, or mixed food products. We have previously described an alternative principle that uses untargeted data acquisition and spectral library matching, essentially spectral counting, to compare and identify samples without the need for genomic sequence information in food species populations. Here, we present an interlaboratory comparison demonstrating how a method based on this principle performs in a realistic context. We also increasingly challenge the method by using data from different types of mass spectrometers, by trying to distinguish closely related and commercially important flatfish, and by analyzing heavily contaminated samples. The method was found to be robust in different laboratories, and 94-97% of the analyzed samples were correctly identified, including all processed and contaminated samples.

  4. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this second lecture, we focus on simulations of black hole binary mergers. We hig hlight the instabilities that plagued the codes for many years, the r ecent breakthroughs that led to the first accurate simulations, and the current state of the art.

  5. Comparison of fish assemblages in two disjoined segments of an oxbow lake in relation to connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2011-01-01

    Disconnection between adjacent habitat patches is one of the most notable factors contributing to the decreased biotic integrity of global ecosystems. Connectivity is especially threatened in river–floodplain ecosystems in which channel modifications have disrupted the lateral links between the main river channel and floodplain lakes. In this study, we examined the interaction between the interconnectedness of floodplain lakes and main river channels and fish assemblage descriptors. Fish assemblages in two segments of an oxbow lake, one connected to and the other isolated from the Yazoo River, Mississippi, were estimated with daytime boat electrofishing during 2007–2010. The frequency of connection for the connected segment ranged from zero to seven individual events per year (mean, ∼2). The timing of most connection events reflected regional precipitation patterns. Greater species richness, diversity, and evenness were observed in the connected segment. Additionally, the connected segment had a greater abundance of piscivores and periodic life history strategists. All fishes collected solely in the connected segment were typically riverine in nature, whereas fishes collected only in the disconnected segment were more lacustrine adapted. These results suggest that periodic connection and the associated habitat heterogeneity that it provides are important for maintaining fish species richness and diversity in large-river floodplain lakes. We suggest that maintenance or restoration of connection be an integral part of fluvial ecosystem management plans.

  6. Epidemic and Endemic Malaria Transmission Related to Fish Farming Ponds in the Amazon Frontier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Dos Reis

    Full Text Available Fish farming in the Amazon has been stimulated as a solution to increase economic development. However, poorly managed fish ponds have been sometimes associated with the presence of Anopheles spp. and consequently, with malaria transmission. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and temporal dynamics of malaria in the state of Acre (and more closely within a single county to investigate the potential links between aquaculture and malaria transmission in this region. At the state level, we classified the 22 counties into three malaria endemicity patterns, based on the correlation between notification time series. Furthermore, the study period (2003-2013 was divided into two phases (epidemic and post-epidemic. Higher fish pond construction coincided both spatially and temporally with increased rate of malaria notification. Within one malaria endemic county, we investigated the relationship between the geolocation of malaria cases (2011-2012 and their distance to fish ponds. Entomological surveys carried out in these ponds provided measurements of anopheline abundance that were significantly associated with the abundance of malaria cases within 100 m of the ponds (P < 0.005; r = 0.39. These results taken together suggest that fish farming contributes to the maintenance of high transmission levels of malaria in this region.

  7. Novo método espectrofotométrico para determinação de Hg (II em amostras de peixe New spectrophotometric method for the determination of Hg (II in fish samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Carvalho Martiniano

    2008-06-01

    determination of mercury in the range of 2 x 10-6 to 4 x 10-5 mol.L-1 with good precision, accuracy and the detection limit was 9.9 x 10-7 mol.L-1 of Hg. The method was successfully applied to fish samples and the results were evaluated and compared with classic atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. The relative standard deviations for the samples analyzed were between 7.2 and 33% (n = 5, while the errors were between 1.63 and 11.6. The method was found to be sensitive, selective and was used for the determination of mercury in fish with satisfactory results.

  8. Addressing species diversity in biotransformation: Variability in expressed transcripts of Phase I and II hepatic enzymes among fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of an organism to metabolize a pollutant is critical to understanding the risk the chemical poses to the organism. In the environment, fish are uniquely exposed to pollutants found in agricultural runoff and discharges from industry and wastewater treatment plants. M...

  9. Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length, Hematological Parameters and Anemia - Data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Antje; Salewsky, Bastian; Buchmann, Nikolaus; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    The length of the chromosome ends, telomeres, is widely accepted as a biomarker of aging. However, the dynamic of the relationship between telomere length and hematopoietic parameters in the normal aging process, which is of particular interest with respect to age-related anemia, is not well understood. We have analyzed the relationship between relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) and several hematological parameters in the older group of the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) participants. This paper also compares rLTL between both BASE-II age groups (22-37 and 60-83 years). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of BASE-II participants and used to determine rLTL by a quantitative PCR protocol. Standard methods were used to determine blood parameters, and the WHO criteria were used to identify anemic participants. Telomere length data were available for 444 younger participants (28.4 ± 3.1 years old; 52% women) and 1,460 older participants (68.2 ± 3.7 years old; 49.4% women). rLTL was significantly shorter in BASE-II participants of the older group (p = 3.7 × 10-12) and in women (p = 4.2 × 10-31). rLTL of older men exhibited a statistically significant, positive partial correlation with mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; p = 0.012) and MCH concentration (p = 0.002). While these correlations were only observed in men, the rLTL of older women was negatively correlated with the number of thrombocytes (p = 0.015) in the same type of analysis. Among all older participants, 6% met the criteria to be categorized as 'anemic'; however, there was no association between anemia and rLTL. In the present study, we have detected isolated correlations between rLTL and hematological parameters; however, in all cases, rLTL explained only a small part of the variation of the analyzed parameters. In disagreement with some other studies showing similar data, we interpret the association between rLTL and some of the hematological parameters studied here to be

  10. Relative contributions of food and water in the accumulation of 60Co by a freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, J.P.; Fritsch, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    Because of its presence in the natural environment a laboratory research program was undertaken with 60 Co, focused on a freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. In this paper results from laboratory experiments conducted to assess the role of food and water in the uptake and retention of 60 Co by the carp are reported. The 60 Co accumulation by the fish from water, from food and from both sources simultaneously were studied during the first phase. After this exposure phase the individuals are transferred to non-radioactive water and/or received unlabelled food to follow depuration of the radionuclide. There was no significant difference between the fish of the 3 treatment groups; the greatest fraction of residual radiocobalt resided in digestive tract that accounted for 20-25% of the total 69 Co body burden. (author)

  11. Statistical mechanics in the context of special relativity. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniadakis, G

    2005-09-01

    The special relativity laws emerge as one-parameter (light speed) generalizations of the corresponding laws of classical physics. These generalizations, imposed by the Lorentz transformations, affect both the definition of the various physical observables (e.g., momentum, energy, etc.), as well as the mathematical apparatus of the theory. Here, following the general lines of [Phys. Rev. E 66, 056125 (2002)], we show that the Lorentz transformations impose also a proper one-parameter generalization of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The obtained relativistic entropy permits us to construct a coherent and self-consistent relativistic statistical theory, preserving the main features of the ordinary statistical theory, which is recovered in the classical limit. The predicted distribution function is a one-parameter continuous deformation of the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and has a simple analytic form, showing power law tails in accordance with the experimental evidence. Furthermore, this statistical mechanics can be obtained as the stationary case of a generalized kinetic theory governed by an evolution equation obeying the H theorem and reproducing the Boltzmann equation of the ordinary kinetics in the classical limit.

  12. 210Po and 210Pb levels in mussels and fish from Slovenian market and the related dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinšek, Petra; Smodiš, Borut; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 (t 1/2 = 138 d) is a decay product of uranium-radium decay chain and consequently widely spread in the environment. It enters organisms through direct uptake, ingestion or inhalation. It is a pure alpha emitter and its radiotoxicity is connected with the fact that emits alpha particles with relatively high energy of about 5.3 MeV. It is concentrated in the soft tissues such as mussel, liver and others, where significantly contributes to the internal dose. Beta emitter lead-210 (t 1/2 = 22.17 years) is the second highest radiotoxic radionuclide from uranium-238 decay chain and decays, through bismuth- 210 (t 1/2 = 5.01 d) into 210 Po. Therefore it is necessary to determine the 21P o in foods, especially in seafood, because of its accumulation capacity. 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and fish (salmon, trout) from Slovenia market. Mussels were bought on the local market as well as from domestic producers. Fish of Slovenian origin were bought on the local market. Samples were freeze dried, homogenized and assayed for 210 Po and 210 Pb. First, radiochemical separation was performed, followed by alpha particle spectrometric measurement of 210 Po and beta counting of 210 Pb on a low background gas-flow proportional counter. The results obtained show that the activity concentrations of 210 Po in mussels varied from 0.9 to 191 Bq/kg of fresh mass and for fish from 0.3 to 2.12 Bq/kg of fresh mass, while for 210 Pb they varied from 1.5 to 6.9 Bq/k of fresh mass for mussels and in fish samples the activity concentrations were less than 1.9 Bq/kg of fresh mass. Combined annual ingestion doses due to 210 Po and 210 Pb for mussels and fish from the Slovenian market is assessed. (author)

  13. Myosin II activity is required for functional leading-edge cells and closure of epidermal sheets in fish skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Sugimoto, Masazumi

    2011-09-01

    Re-epithelialization in skin wound healing is a process in which epidermal sheets grow and close the wound. Although the actin-myosin system is thought to have a pivotal role in re-epithelialization, its role is not clear. In fish skin, re-epithelialization occurs around 500 μm/h and is 50 times faster than in mammalian skin. We had previously reported that leading-edge cells of the epidermal outgrowth have both polarized large lamellipodia and "purse string"-like actin filament cables in the scale-skin culture system of medaka fish, Oryzias latipes (Cell Tissue Res, 2007). The actin purse-string (APS) is a supracellular contractile machinery in which adherens junctions (AJs) link intracellular myosin II-including actin cables between neighboring cells. In this study, we developed a modified "face-to-face" scale-skin culture system as an ex vivo model to study epidermal wound healing, and examined the role of the actin-myosin system in the rapid re-epithelialization using a myosin II ATPase inhibitor, blebbistatin. A low level of blebbistatin suppressed the formation of APS and induced the dissociation of keratocytes from the leading edge without attenuating the growth of the epidermal sheet or the migration rate of solitary keratocytes. AJs in the superficial layer showed no obvious changes elicited by blebbistatin. However, two epidermal sheets without APSs did not make a closure with each other, which was confirmed by inhibiting the connecting AJs between the superficial layers. These results suggest that myosin II activity is required for functional leading-edge cells and for epidermal closure.

  14. Composition and structure of the larval fish community related to environmental parameters in a tropical estuary impacted by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloterdijk, Hans; Brehmer, Patrice; Sadio, Oumar; Müller, Hanno; Döring, Julian; Ekau, Werner

    2017-10-01

    Mangrove ecosystems have long been considered essential habitats and are commonly viewed and referred to as "nursery areas". They are highly sensitive to climate change, and environmental transformations in these ecosystems are expected. The Sine Saloum estuary is a case of a system affected by global climate change where reduced precipitation and temperature increase have resulted in an inversion of the salinity gradient. Within the estuary, the composition and structure of the larval fish community related to environmental parameters were investigated using neuston and ring trawl nets. Larval fishes were sampled at 16 stations distributed along a salinity and distance-to-the-sea gradient during four field campaigns (November 2013, February, June, and August 2014) covering an annual cycle. This is the first study documenting the spatial and temporal assemblages of fish larvae in an inverse estuary. The total of 41 taxa representing 24 families and 34 genus identified in this study was lower than that of other tropical estuaries. Clupeidae spp. was the dominant taxon, accounting for 28.9% of the total number of fish larvae caught, followed by Gerreidae spp. (21.1%), Hyporamphus picarti (18.8%), Diplodus bellottii (8.9%), Hypleurochilus langi (4.8%), Mugilidae spp. (4.4%), and Gobiidae sp.1 (3.5%). A total of 20 taxa were recorded within the upper estuary region, whereas 29 and 37 taxa were observed in the middle and lower reaches, respectively. While larval fish were captured at all sites and during all seasons, abundances and richness decreased with increasing salinity. Larval fish assemblages also showed a clear vertical structure corresponding to three distinct water strata. Salinity, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were the variables that best explained the spatial and temporal differences in larval fish assemblages. It is difficult to forecast the future situation for this system but so far, compared to other mangrove estuarine systems, we have

  15. User's guide to FBASE: Relational database software for managing R1/R4 (Northern/Intermountain Regions) fish habitat inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry P. Wollrab

    1999-01-01

    FBASE is a microcomputer relational database package that handles data collected using the R1/R4 Fish and Fish Habitat Standard Inventory Procedures (Overton and others 1997). FBASE contains standard data entry screens, data validations for quality control, data maintenance features, and summary report options. This program also prepares data for importation into an...

  16. Complete genome sequence analysis of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare provides insights into antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulei; Zhao, Lijuan; Chen, Wenjie; Huang, Yunmao; Yang, Ling; Sarathbabu, V; Wu, Zaohe; Li, Jun; Nie, Pin; Lin, Li

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed here the complete genome sequences of a highly virulent Flavobacterium columnare Pf1 strain isolated in our laboratory. The complete genome consists of a 3,171,081 bp circular DNA with 2784 predicted protein-coding genes. Among these, 286 genes were predicted as antibiotic resistance genes, including 32 RND-type efflux pump related genes which were associated with the export of aminoglycosides, indicating inducible aminoglycosides resistances in F. columnare. On the other hand, 328 genes were predicted as pathogenicity related genes which could be classified as virulence factors, gliding motility proteins, adhesins, and many putative secreted proteases. These genes were probably involved in the colonization, invasion and destruction of fish tissues during the infection of F. columnare. Apparently, our obtained complete genome sequences provide the basis for the explanation of the interactions between the F. columnare and the infected fish. The predicted antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity related genes will shed a new light on the development of more efficient preventional strategies against the infection of F. columnare, which is a major worldwide fish pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel fish rhabdovirus from Sweden is closely related to the Finnish rhabdovirus 903/87

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Tove; Ostman-Myllyoja, L.; Hellstrom, A.

    2002-01-01

    A novel rhabdovirus, preliminary designated as the Sea trout rhabdovirus 28/97 (STRV 28/97), was isolated from sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta) in Sweden in 1996. The fish showed central nervous symptoms, and at the autopsy petechial bleedings in the mesenteric fat were visible. STRV 28/97 was sho...

  18. DistributiOl1 of fishes in the MhlaIlga estuary in relation to food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mhlanga estuary (29°42'S; 31°06'E) is fed by a river. 28 km in length .... All animals were washed ... fishes were captured in the lower reaches, 1 320 (63 320 g) in the middle ..... inhabiting an open estuary, those marine species resident in.

  19. Constraints and motivations related to fishing along the Lake Ontario coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Brincka; Diane M. Kuehn; Valerie Luzadis

    2012-01-01

    The number of nonresident anglers along the Lake Ontario coast has decreased over the past 15 years. Therefore, in order to sustain a strong sport fishing industry, local businesses and tourism promoters might want to tap into the large resident angler market group. This study examines resident anglers' social, environmental, and economic constraints/facilitators...

  20. "Fishing na everybody business": women's work and gender relations in Sierra Leone's fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, A.; Pouw, N.; Baio, A.; Sandi, R.; Ndomahina, E.T.; Lebbie, T.

    2014-01-01

    While small-scale marine fisheries in many developing countries is "everybody’s business", a strong gendered division of labour sees production concentrated in the hands of male fishermen - while women - ‘fish mammies’ - invariably dominate the post-harvest processing and retailing sector.

  1. On the occurrence of fishes in relation to corals in Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, W.P.

    1974-01-01

    During the period from 10.IV.1969 until 14.IV.1970 an inventory was taken of 9 Millepora-fields and 8 Acropora palmata-fields in shallow water along the southcoast of Curaçao. From these fields all fishes were collected and one specimen of every species of coral. With the aid of a method used in the

  2. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...

  3. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is related to fish intake and exercise in Korean adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lym, Youl Lee; Joh, Hee-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important factor for bone health. It is uncertain which lifestyle is associated with vitamin D status, especially in healthy middle aged Asian men. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 149 men aged 40-69 years who visited a health check-up center in Korea. Serum vitamin D (25-OHD3) was measured and smoking, alcohol, exercise, occupation, frequency of fish and dairy intake were estimated by self-administered questionnaire. The mean (+/-SD) 25-OHD3 concentration was 96.5+/-30.7 nmol/L. Higher and lower 25-OHD3 groups were generated with the median concentration as the cut-off point. By univariate analysis, exercise status and fish intake frequency were significantly different between two 25-OHD3 groups (p=0.012, 0.019 respectively). After multivariable logistic regression, higher fish intake frequency and regular exercise were associated with higher levels of 25-OHD3 (p for trend=0.017 and 0.02 respectively). In conclusion, frequent fish intake and regular exercise are positively associated with serum 25-OHD3 concentrations in healthy Korean men.

  4. A prospective investigation of fish, meat and cooking-related carcinogens with endometrial cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, H; Gunter, M J; Cross, A J; Hollenbeck, A R; Sinha, R

    2013-08-06

    There are limited prospective studies of fish and meat intakes with risk of endometrial cancer and findings are inconsistent. We studied associations between fish and meat intakes and endometrial cancer incidence in the large, prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Intakes of meat mutagens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were also calculated. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We observed no associations with endometrial cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest intake quintiles of red (HR=0.91, 95% CI 0.77-1.08), white (0.98, 0.83-1.17), processed meats (1.02, 0.86-1.21) and fish (1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.29). We also found no associations between meat mutagen intakes and endometrial cancer. Our findings do not support an association between meat or fish intakes or meat mutagens and endometrial cancer.

  5. Mercury concentrations in lentic fish populations related to ecosystem and watershed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel

    2010-01-01

    Predicting mercury (Hg) concentrations of fishes at large spatial scales is a fundamental environmental challenge with the potential to improve human health. In this study, mercury concentrations were examined for five species across 161 lakes and ecosystem, and watershed parameters were investigated as explanatory variables in statistical models. For all species, Hg...

  6. Differences in vertical and horizontal distribution of fish larvae and zooplankton, related to hydrography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Nash, Richard D.M.; Falkenhaug, Tone

    2013-01-01

    Planktonic fish larvae have little influence on their horizontal distribution, while they are able to control their vertical position in the water column. While prey and light are among the factors with an apparent influence on the vertical distribution, the effects of other factors are less clea...

  7. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  8. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Denise A. Mayer,

    2015-01-01

    The exposure-related effects of a commercially prepared spray-dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, were evaluated on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. Nine species of young-of-the-year fish were exposed to SDP for 24 hours by using continuous-flow, serial-dilution exposure systems at temperatures of 12 degrees Celsius (°C; 2 species; Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout] and Salvelinus fontinalis [brook trout]), 17 °C (3 species; Perca flavescens [yellow perch], Sander vitreus [walleye], and Acipenser fulvescens [lake sturgeon]), or 22 °C (4 species; Micropterus salmoides [largemouth bass], Micropterus dolomieu [smallmouth bass], Lepomis macrochirus [bluegill sunfish], and Ictalurus punctatus [channel catfish]).

  9. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in... to perform the type of activity to be funded.. DAI, through its Industrial Relations Promotion... provided a letter in support of continued funding of DAI/IRRP based, on part, on the importance of the...

  10. Is the feeding type related with the content of microplastics in intertidal fish gut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizraji, Ricardo; Ahrendt, Camila; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Vargas, Juan; Pulgar, Jose; Aldana, Marcela; Patricio Ojeda, F; Duarte, Cristian; Galbán-Malagón, Cristobal

    2017-03-15

    Microplastics pollution is a growing global concern that affects all aquatic ecosystems. Microplastics in the environment can be in the form of fibers and/or particles, being the former the most abundant in the marine environment, representing up to 95% of total plastics. The aim of this work was to compare the content of microplastics among intertidal fish with different feeding type. Our results show that omnivorous fish presented a higher amount of microplastic fibers than registered in herbivores and carnivores. Moreover, lower condition factors (K) were found in omnivorous specimens with higher microplastic content. We hypothesized that the type of feeding resulted in different microplastic ingestion, with species with wider range of food sources as omnivores with higher rates. Futures studies carried out to evaluate the biological impacts of microplastics on marine organisms, and microplastics cycling on the marine environment should consider the type of feeding of the studied species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  12. Relative frequency of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus I/II in HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our survey, relative frequency of HTLV-I/II was 1.8% in HIV+ patients. This study reveals that relative frequency of HTLV-I/II in HIV positive patients is considerable but determining the need for screening of HTLV-I/II requires further investigation.

  13. Relating life-history traits, environmental constraints and local extinctions in river fish

    OpenAIRE

    Bergerot, B.; Hugueny, Bernard; Belliard, J.

    2015-01-01

    The life histories of freshwater fish are widely studied because they represent fundamental determinants of population performances. However, a gap remains in our understanding of how species traits may predispose species to extinction in a changing environment. In this study, based on a large data set provided by the French National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environment (325 sites), we analysed factors that explain the probability of local extinction in 40 freshwater species across French...

  14. Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content

  15. PIRCHE-II Is Related to Graft Failure after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneugelijk, Kirsten; Niemann, Matthias; Drylewicz, Julia; van Zuilen, Arjan D.; Joosten, Irma; Allebes, Wil A.; van der Meer, Arnold; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Baas, Marije C.; Hack, C. Erik; van Reekum, Franka E.; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Kamburova, Elena G.; Bots, Michiel L.; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Sanders, Jan Stephan; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Lambeck, Annechien J.; Bungener, Laura B.; Roozendaal, Caroline; Tilanus, Marcel G. J.; Vanderlocht, Joris; Voorter, Christien E.; Wieten, Lotte; van Duijnhoven, Elly M.; Gelens, Mariëlle; Christiaans, Maarten H. L.; van Ittersum, Frans J.; Nurmohamed, Azam; Lardy, Junior N. M.; Swelsen, Wendy; van der Pant, Karlijn A.; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; Bemelman, Fréderike J.; Hoitsma, Andries; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; de Fijter, Johan W.; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Roelen, Dave L.; Claas, Frans H.; Otten, Henny G.; Spierings, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Individual HLA mismatches may differentially impact graft survival after kidney transplantation. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable tool to define permissible HLA mismatches in kidney transplantation. We previously demonstrated that donor-derived Predicted Indirectly ReCognizable HLA Epitopes presented by recipient HLA class II (PIRCHE-II) play a role in de novo donor-specific HLA antibodies formation after kidney transplantation. In the present Dutch multi-center study, we evaluated the possible association between PIRCHE-II and kidney graft failure in 2,918 donor–recipient couples that were transplanted between 1995 and 2005. For these donors–recipients couples, PIRCHE-II numbers were related to graft survival in univariate and multivariable analyses. Adjusted for confounders, the natural logarithm of PIRCHE-II was associated with a higher risk for graft failure [hazard ratio (HR): 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04–1.23, p = 0.003]. When analyzing a subgroup of patients who had their first transplantation, the HR of graft failure for ln(PIRCHE-II) was higher compared with the overall cohort (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10–1.34, p < 0.001). PIRCHE-II demonstrated both early and late effects on graft failure in this subgroup. These data suggest that the PIRCHE-II may impact graft survival after kidney transplantation. Inclusion of PIRCHE-II in donor-selection criteria may eventually lead to an improved kidney graft survival. PMID:29556227

  16. Functional composition of epifauna in the south-eastern North Sea in relation to habitat characteristics and fishing effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Hermann; Diekmann, Rabea; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of ecosystem functioning is essential to describe the ecological status of ecosystems and is therefore directly requested in international directives. There is a lack of knowledge regarding functional aspects of benthic communities and their environmental and anthropogenic driving forces in the southern North Sea. This study linked functional composition of epibenthic communities to environmental conditions and fishing effort and investigated spatial correlations between habitat characteristics to gain insight into potential synergistic and/or cumulative effects. Functional composition of epifauna was assessed by using biological trait analysis (BTA), which considered 15 ecological traits of 54 species. Functional composition was related to ten predictor variables derived from sediment composition, bottom temperature and salinity, hydrodynamics, annual primary production and fishing effort. Our results revealed significantly different functional composition between the Dogger Bank, the Oyster Ground, the West and North Frisian coast. Mobility, feeding type, size and adult longevity were the most important traits differentiating the communities. A high proportion of trait modalities related to an opportunistic life mode were obvious in coastal areas especially at the West Frisian coast and in the area of the Frisian Front indicating disturbed communities. In contrast, functional composition in the Dogger Bank area indicated undisturbed communities with prevalence of large, long-lived and permanently attached species being sensitive towards disturbance such as fishing. Tidal stress, mud content of sediments, salinity, stratification and fishing effort were found to be the most important habitat characteristics shaping functional composition. Strong correlations were found between variables, especially between those which changed gradually from the coast to offshore areas including fishing effort. Unfavourable extremes of these factors in coastal areas

  17. Long-term patterns in fish phenology in the western Dutch Wadden Sea in relation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Lodewijk; Dapper, Rob; Nauw, Janine J.; Tulp, Ingrid; Witte, Johannes IJ.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2017-09-01

    Long-term patterns in fish phenology in the western Dutch Wadden Sea were studied using a 53 year (1960-2013) high resolution time series of daily kom-fyke catches in spring and autumn. Trends in first appearance, last occurrence and peak abundance were analysed for the most common species in relation to mode of life (pelagic, demersal, benthopelagic) and biogeographic guild (northern or southern distribution). Climate change in the western Wadden Sea involved an increase in water temperature from 1980 onwards. The main pattern in first day of occurrence, peak occurrence and last day of occurrence was similar: a positive trend over time and a correlation with spring and summer water temperature. This is counterintuitive; with increasing temperature, an advanced immigration of fish species would be expected. An explanation might be that water temperatures have increased offshore as well and hence fish remain longer there, delaying their immigration to the Wadden Sea. The main trend towards later date of peak occurrence and last day of occurrence was in line with our expectations: a forward shift in immigration into the Wadden Sea implies also that peak abundance is delayed. As a consequence of the increased water temperature, autumn water temperature remains favourable longer than before. For most of the species present, the Wadden Sea is not near the edge of their distributional range. The most striking phenological shifts occurred in those individual species for which the Wadden Sea is near the southern or northern edge of their distribution.

  18. From Fishing to Fish Processing: Separation of Fish from Crustaceans in the Norway Lobster-Directed Multispecies Trawl Fishery Improves Seafood Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junita D Karlsen

    Full Text Available Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus. In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes. A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the entrance of the lower codend. Separate codends for fish and Norway lobster in the same gear provide the opportunity to selectively reduce small low-value fish, which will reduce catch weight and sorting time onboard the vessel. For this horizontally divided test codend and a standard codend, in which the catch was mixed, quality assessments were performed on the same batches of fish during three steps of the value chain: i aboard the fishing vessel; ii at the Fishermen's Collection Central, and iii in the production plant. Four species of fish and fillets from fish caught in the upper codend of the test codend were of significantly better quality for several of the assessed parameters compared with those caught in the standard codend: i newly caught fish showed significantly less scale loss and discolourations and had significantly better texture; ii landed fish had significantly better skin appearance and texture and significantly fewer discolourations; and iii fillets showed significantly fewer blood spots and had significantly better texture. There were no differences in injuries for newly caught fish or gaping and bruises for fillets between the test and standard codends. The decrease in catch-related damages in the test codend is explained by little contact between fish and animals with hard or spiny surfaces due to successful separation of fish and Norway lobster into the upper and lower codends, respectively, and by lower catch weight in the upper

  19. A data-mining framework for exploring the multi-relation between fish species and water quality through self-organizing map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Huang, Shih-Pin; Cheng, Su-Ting; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Chang, Fi-John

    2017-02-01

    The steep slopes of rivers can easily lead to large variations in river water quality during typhoon seasons in Taiwan, which may poses significant impacts on riverine eco-hydrological environments. This study aims to investigate the relationship between fish communities and water quality by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for comprehending the upstream eco-hydrological system in northern Taiwan. We collected a total of 276 heterogeneous datasets with 8 water quality parameters and 25 fish species from 10 sampling sites. The self-organizing feature map (SOM) was used to cluster, analyze and visualize the heterogeneous datasets. Furthermore, the structuring index (SI) was adopted to determine the relative importance of each input variable of the SOM and identify the indicator factors. The clustering results showed that the SOM could suitably reflect the spatial characteristics of fishery sampling sites. Besides, the patterns of water quality parameters and fish species could be distinguishably (visually) classified into three eco-water quality groups: 1) typical upstream freshwater fishes that depended the most on dissolved oxygen (DO); 2) typical middle-lower reach riverine freshwater fishes that depended the most on total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia nitrogen; and 3) low lands or pond (reservoirs) freshwater fishes that depended the most on water temperature, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand. According to the results of the SI, the representative indicators of water quality parameters and fish species consisted of DO, TP and Onychostoma barbatulum. This grouping result suggested that the methodology can be used as a guiding reference to comprehensively relate ecology to water quality. Our methods offer a cost-effective alternative to more traditional methods for identifying key water quality factors relating to fish species. In addition, visualizing the constructed topological maps of the SOM could produce detailed inter-relation between water

  20. The Effectiveness Test of Oil Phase Ointment Containing Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Extract on Open Stage II Acute Wounded Wistar Strain Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransisca Daisa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The snakehead (Channa striata contained fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are useful as nutrients in accelerating the wound healing process. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the oil phase extract ointment snakehead in the healing of acute wounds open stage II. Testing the effectiveness of wound healing using 6 groups: normal, gel bioplacenton (positive control, ointment base (negative control, ointments snakehead extract oil phase concentration of 10; 20 and 40% of the 4 rats with acute wounds open stage II and observation until day 16 injury. The area of the wound was measured with the image J program Macbiophotonic, calculated% healing power, and AUC values. A statistical test to the total AUC values per rat with SPSS for Windows 22.0 program using One Way ANOVA and Post-hoc LSD test. The results showed a significant difference in the negative group with ointment concentration of 20% (p <0.05. The treatment group phase ointment fish oil extract is effective for wound healing is best to have a concentration of 20% for percentage of wound healing power of 97.157% and the average AUC value of 865.683% of the day.

  1. Uptake of radioactive strontium by fishes in relation to the calcium content of the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosila, J.

    1975-01-01

    The study attempts to compare experimental results obtained with pseudorasbora parava with regard to 85 Sr uptake at various Ca concentrations of the water (4.20 and 50 mg/l Ca) and also to compare these results with natural conditions. The water was contaminated with 500 pCi/ml 85 SrCl 2 only at the onset of the experiments. Radiostrontium uptake is much higher with a very low calcium content of the water; maximum values are reached in about 10 days. - With low or optimum calcium contents of the water, the values are 3-5 times lower and are not reached until 30 days after radioactive contamination. The fish in this Danube water experiment took up somewhat less radioactivity than in an experiment with the same amounts of Ca and Mg in a control medium. The uptake of 85 Sr in fish in dependence of the Ca content of the water varies according to the formula F.C = 2.505 x Casup(-0.909), with Ca given in Mg/l. (orig.) [de

  2. Physiological activities of the combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid affecting hepatic lipogenesis and parameters related to oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    We studied the combined effect of fish oil and α-lipoic acid on hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation and parameters of oxidative stress in rats fed lipogenic diets high in sucrose. A control diet contained a saturated fat (palm oil) that gives high rate of hepatic lipogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2.5 g/kg α-lipoic acid and containing 0, 20, or 100 g/kg fish oil, for 21 days. α-Lipoic acid significantly reduced food intake during 0-8 days but not the later period of the experiment. Fish oil and α-lipoic acid decreased serum lipid concentrations and their combination further decreased the parameters in an additive fashion. The combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid decreased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in an additive fashion. Fish oil increased the parameters of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid appeared to antagonize the stimulating effects of fish oil of fatty acid oxidation through reductions in the activity of some fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid attenuated fish oil-dependent increases in serum and liver malondialdehyde levels, and this compound also reduced the serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level. α-Lipoic acid affected various parameters related to the antioxidant system; fish oil also affected some of the parameters. The combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid effectively reduced serum lipid levels through the additive down-regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. α-Lipoic acid was effective in attenuating fish oil-mediated oxidative stress.

  3. Report from the European Myeloma Network on interphase FISH in multiple myeloma and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Fiona M; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Ameye, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    The European Myeloma Network has organized two workshops on fluorescence in situ hybridization in multiple myeloma. The first aimed to identify specific indications and consensus technical approaches of current practice. A second workshop followed a quality control exercise in which 21 laboratories...... analyzed diagnostic cases of purified plasma cells for recurrent abnormalities. The summary report was discussed at the EHA Myeloma Scientific Working Group Meeting 2010. During the quality control exercise, there was acceptable agreement on more than 1,000 tests. The conclusions from the exercise were...... that the primary clinical applications for FISH analysis were for newly diagnosed cases of MM or frank relapse cases. A range of technical recommendations included: 1) material should be part of the first draw of the aspirate; 2) samples should be sent at suitable times to allow for the lengthy processing...

  4. [Further information on fish parasites from Lake Trasimeno. II. Observations on the population of Scardinius erythrophthalmus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, E; Desideri, L; Guerrieri, P; Bonelli, P

    1983-09-30

    An investigation was carried out to identify the actual state of parasitism in the Scardinius erythrophthalmus L. population of Trasimeno lake (Umbria, Italy). Seasonal samples of fishes were taken in different points of the litoral and pelagic zones. The parasites found, together with the somatometric values and the characteristics of their localizations are reported. It has been found: a high number of infested specimens; eleven species of parasites, of which five were not yet known to be in the lake; frequency variations of certain species. The species of parasites observed are distributed in the Paleartic region. The five species, whose presence was not known in the lake, are considered to be allochtonous. The organs most frequently involved were, in descending order, the gills, the ureters, the gonads, the intestinal and mesenteric serous membranes, the liver. The most marked histologic alterations and reactions were observed as a consequence of Ergasilus sieboldi Nord. action and, in several cases, with the presence of Ligula intestinalis L. larvae.

  5. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabd...

  6. Relations between fish abundances, summer temperatures, and forest harvest in a northern Minnesota stream system from 1997 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Merten; Nathaniel Hemstad; Susan Eggert; Lucinda Johnson; Randall Kolka; Bruce Vondracek; Raymond. Newman

    2010-01-01

    Short-term effects of forest harvest on fish habitat have been well documented, including sediment inputs, leaf litter reductions, and stream warming. However, few studies have considered changes in local climate when examining postlogging changes in fish communities. To address this need, we examined fish abundances between 1997 and 2007 in a basin in a northern...

  7. [Developing indices for caloric restriction related to World War II--a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shi; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2011-04-01

    The vast numbers of studies regarding caloric restriction (CR) and breast cancer risk are based on war-related extreme situations. Studying the impact of CR in Jews during World War II (WW II) is challenging due to its variance and duration. To develop novel research tools in order to assess CR exposure in Jews that occurred more than 60 years ago during WW II. A pilot study based on Israeli women born in Europe in 1926-45, who lived there during WWII. Primary incident breast cancer patients and population-based controls were interviewed using a detailed questionnaire referring to demographic, obstetric factors and WW II experiences. Exposure to WWII-related CR was assessed by several proxy variables based on this information. The individual hunger score was higher in the exposed cases [mean score 141.06 vs. 130.07 in the controls). The same trend was observed for self perceived hunger score (mean score 2.75 in cases vs. 2.40 in controls) and hunger symptoms score (4.89 vs. 3.56, respectively). The novel research tools are appropriate for comparative assessment of CR exposure in case control studies.

  8. [Correlation of hybrid II capture cytologic exam in diagnosis of cervical lesions related to HPV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Ana Conceição Ribeiro Dantas; Diniz, Veruska Cassandra; Sisenando, Herbert Ary Arzabe Anteza Costa Nóbrega; de Souza, Eroisa Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Paiva, Magnus Sérgio Martins; de Brito, Maria Helena Marques Fonseca; Ramos, Eleni Souto Nóbrega

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was confront the results of the cytological examination with hybrid capture II in the diagnosis of induced cervical intraepithelial lesion-HPV, correlating the cytological findings with biomoleculares. The research was carried through in a group of 160 sexually active women who had espontaneamente looked its gynecologists for consultation of routine, having been submitted to the collection of cervicovaginal material for cytology and for examination of hybrid capture II in the Centro de Patologia Clínica and the Hospital e Maternidade Promater, in the city of the Natal-RN. The results had shown to relatively high numbers of positive cases for HPV using hybrid capture II (41.87%) and the cytology (23.75%). The agreement between the two studied methods relatively was raised (59.38%). It was evident also that the viruses with high oncogênico potential had presented found in the compatible cytology with Lesion of low risk (11.88%), followed of Lesion of high risk (NIC II and III); already the viruses with low oncogênico potential were more associates the Lesion of low risk (6.25%), followed of Lesion of high risk. The cytology, exactly with its limitations, is an important method in the detention of attributable patologias to the HPV, emphasizing that the molecular method comes to complement it and to consolidate the cytological findings.

  9. Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons in land-uplift succession: The relative importance of local and regional environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snickars, Martin; Sandström, Alfred; Lappalainen, Antti; Mattila, Johanna; Rosqvist, Kajsa; Urho, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    The assemblages of young-of-the-year fish were studied in coastal lagoons in an archipelago with post-glacial land-uplift, which affects environmental gradients at local and regional scale, i.e. lagoon habitat isolation and archipelago position, respectively. The categorisation of 40 undisturbed lagoons into nine habitat types based on habitat isolation and archipelago position was supported by clear relationships with spring temperature and total fish abundance. Rutilus rutilus, breams ( Abramis/Blicca sp.) and Perca fluviatilis were the most abundant and frequently occurring species. The fish assemblage differed among the nine habitat types. Rutilus rutilus, P. fluviatilis and breams were discriminating species in the majority of habitat types with low physical harshness, whereas Alburnus alburnus and Gasterosteus aculeatus increased their contributions in habitat types with high physical harshness. Rutilus rutilus and breams were thus common in lagoons with high habitat isolation situated in the inner archipelago. These lagoons were characterised by warm water and high vegetation coverage. Gasterosteus aculeatus was restricted to lagoons with low habitat isolation and exposure and low vegetation coverage, situated in the outer archipelago. Perca fluviatilis had the widest distribution of all species. The coverage of two macrophytes, Potamogeton perfoliatus and Zannichellia palustris, and salinity matched best the distance among habitat types. These habitat characteristics, as well as the fish abundances and assemblages differed most across the habitat types in the outer and mid archipelago zones and in the lowest habitat isolation. These patterns suggest that the structuring effect of habitat isolation increases along the archipelago gradient as differences between local and regional conditions increase. In the inner archipelago, overall low physical harshness induces homogeneous conditions and the habitat isolation is less important here than in the other zones

  10. Colonisation and extinction in relation to competition and resource partitioning in acanthocephalans of freshwater fishes of the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, A R; Kennedy, C R

    2001-01-01

    This paper challenges two paradigms long held in relation to the ecology of parasites in freshwater systems: (1) autogenic species are poorer colonisers than allogenic ones; and (2) parasites with direct life cycles are more successful colonisers than those with complex life cycles. Using new and existing data for Acanthocephala in freshwater fish from the British Isles, it is suggested that all six species present have been able to colonise and persist successfully, in spite of the supposed limitations of their autogenic life-style. It is proposed that these parasites have overcome these limitations by a variety of means, which apply equally to all species considered. Foremost among these is the utilisation of a migratory fish host as either a preferred or a suitable host in their life cycle, allowing colonisation of new areas and rescue effects in established areas, whilst equally important is the use of a common and widespread crustacean as the intermediate host. In addition, all six species appear to exhibit resource partitioning by host at either or both the larval and adult stages, thus reducing the potential for competition and further facilitating colonisation and survival. This hypothesis is supported by data from previous studies both on acanthocephalans from Europe and North America and on other autogenic parasites. It also provides an explanation for the apparently atypical host utilisation patterns of some acanthocephalan species in areas on the edge of their distributions, notably in Ireland.

  11. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs related to gait transitions in a labriform fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tudorache, Christian; Jordan, Anders Drud

    ) is below the Up-c, whereas both 1.9 and 2.3 bl s-1 are above the Up-c. Exercise oxygen consumption (MO2) while the fish were swimming at these speeds was determined. The presence and magnitude of excessive post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was evaluated after the three swimming speeds....... There was no evidence of EPOC after swimming 1.4 and 1.9 bl s-1 indicating that the gait transition from pectoral oscillation to axial undulation is not a threshold for anaerobic metabolism. In contrast, swimming at 2.3 bl s-1 resulted in EPOC being 51.7 mg O2 kg-1 suggesting that anaerobic metabolism added about 34......% to the exercise MO2. E. lateralis switched to an unsteady burst and flap gait at 2.3 bl s-1. Burst activity correlated linearly and positively with the magnitude of the resulting EPOC. Collectively, these data suggest that steady axial propulsion does not lead to EPOC whereas transition to burst assisted swimming...

  12. Relatively rapid loss of lampricide residues from fillet tissue of fish after routine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vue, C.; Bernardy, J.A.; Hubert, T.D.; Gingerich, W.H.; Stehly, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    The selective sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is currently used to control parasitic sea lampreys in tributaries to the Great Lakes basin. The concentration and persistence of TFM and its major metabolite, TFM glucuronide (TFM-glu), was determined in fillet tissue of fish after a typical stream application. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to a nominal concentration of 12.6 nmol/mL TFM for about 12 h during a sea lamprey control treatment of the Ford River in Michigan. Concentrations of TFM and TFM-glu were greatest in the fillet tissues during the exposure period, with greater residues in channel catfish (wet wt; mean, 6.95 nmol/g TFM; mean, 2.40 nmol/g TFM-glu) than in rainbow trout (wet wt; mean, 1.45 nmol/g TFM; mean, 0.93 nmol/g TFM-glu). After the exposure period, residues in both species decreased by 90-99% within 6-12 h and were less than the quantitation limit (<0.03 nmol/g) within 36 h.

  13. Undulatory fish swimming : from muscles to flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, U.K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Undulatory swimming is employed by many fish for routine swimming and extended sprints. In this biomechanical review, we address two questions: (i) how the fish's axial muscles power swimming; and (ii) how the fish's body and fins generate thrust. Fish have adapted the morphology of their axial

  14. Studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Three groups of mice were observed in utero and for eighty (80) weeks thereafter to study growth, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry and survival with particular interest in carcinogenic potential. Group I received only Purina Mouse Chow, Group II received a diet composed of 45% non-irradiated fish and 55% Purina Mouse Chow, and Group III received a diet composed of 45% gamma irradiated fish and 55% Purina Mouse Chow. Differences observed in body weights between control and fish treated diets were due to the incorporation of fish into the diet and not the results of fish being treated with gamma irradiation. Differences observed in food consumption between control and fish treated diets were due to the incorporation of fish into the diet and not the result of fish being treated with gamma irradiation. No daily observations were made which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. No observations were made at any time interval for hematology which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. No observations were made at any time interval for clinical chemistry which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Palpable mass data did not reveal any trends which could be related to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Gross observations at necropsy were limited to spontaneously occurring lesions or artifacts of necropsy technique commonly associated with animals of this species and age. Organ weight data did not reveal any trends which could be related to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Pathological findings were limited to spontaneously occurring lesions or artifacts of necropsy technique commonly associated with animals of this species and age. (orig.)

  15. The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects - II Concluding Address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giovannelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Before to conclude officially this workshop — far from me the idea to attempt some concluding remarks already dealt at the meeting with various burning by Joseph Patterson, Mariko Kato, Dmitry Bisikalo, and Rene Hudec —, I would like to comment few highlights coming out from our fruitful week of discussions about The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects - II, without any pretension of completeness.

  16. Salinity and temperature variations reflecting on cellular PCNA, IGF-I and II expressions, body growth and muscle cellularity of a freshwater fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Y S; Melo, R M C; Campos-Junior, P H A; Santos, J C E; Luz, R K; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2014-06-01

    The present study assessed the influence of salinity and temperature on body growth and on muscle cellularity of Lophiosilurus alexaxdri vitelinic larvae. Slightly salted environments negatively influenced body growth of freshwater fish larvae and we observed that those conditions notably act as an environmental influencer on muscle growth and on local expression of hypertrophia and hypeplasia markers (IGFs and PCNA). Furthermore, we could see that salinity tolerance for NaCl 4gl(-)(1) diminishes with increasing temperature, evidenced by variation in body and muscle growth, and by irregular morphology of the lateral skeletal muscle of larvae. We saw that an increase of both PCNA and autocrine IGF-II are correlated to an increase in fibre numbers and fibre diameter as the temperature increases and salinity diminishes. On the other hand, autocrine IGF-I follows the opposite way to the other biological parameters assessed, increasing as salinity increases and temperature diminishes, showing that this protein did not participate in muscle cellularity, but participating in molecular/cellular repair. Therefore, slightly salted environments may provide adverse conditions that cause some obstacles to somatic growth of this species, suggesting some osmotic expenditure with a salinity increment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissette, Joeelle; Takser, Larissa; St-Amour, Genevieve; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie; Mergler, Donna

    2004-01-01

    Fish consumption from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River has been decreasing over the last years due to advisories and increased awareness of the presence of several contaminants. Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-established neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure, bioaccumulates to differing degrees in various fish species and can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Most studies on MeHg exposure have focussed on high-level consumers from local fish sources, although mercury (Hg) is also present in fresh, frozen, and canned market fish. Moreover, little information exists on the temporal variation of blood and hair Hg in pregnant women, particularly in populations with low levels of Hg. The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal variation of Hg during pregnancy and to investigate the relation between fish consumption from various sources prior to and during pregnancy and maternal cord blood and mother's hair Hg levels. We recruited 159 pregnant women from Southwest Quebec through two prenatal clinics of the Quebec Public Health System. All women completed two detailed questionnaires concerning their fish consumption (species and frequency) prior to and during pregnancy. The women also provided blood samples for all three trimesters of pregnancy and hair samples after delivery of up to 9 cm in length. Blood and hair Hg levels were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic-absorption and -fluorescence spectrometry methods, respectively. Results showed that maternal blood and hair Hg levels decreased significantly between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, cord blood Hg was significantly higher than maternal blood at birth. Maternal hair was correlated with Hg blood concentration and was highly predictive of the organic fraction in cord blood. A strong dose relation was observed between the frequency of fish consumption before and

  18. Minnesota anglers' fisheries-related value orientations and their stewardship of fish resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskotter, J.T.; Fulton, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on natural resource-related values and value orientations has grown substantially over the past decade. However, existing studies have focused almost exclusively on value orientations related to wildlife and forests. This article reports data from two mail surveys of Minnesota anglers used to develop scales for measuring fisheries-related value orientations. We report results of regression analyses examining the relationship between anglers' value orientations and norms concerning fisheries stewardship and the use of technological aids to angling. Results indicate 10 items reliably measure three value orientations we termed utilitarianism, dominance, and protectionism. Regression analyses suggest anglers' stewardship norms are influenced by all three value orientation types, while support for the use of technological aids was related with protectionism and utilitarianism, but not dominance. Results suggest anglers' fisheries-related value orientations cannot be adequately captured using single domain scales. Implications for the study of natural resources-related value orientations are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  19. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  20. The TJ-II Relational Database Access Library: A User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, E.; Portas, A. B.; Vega, J.

    2003-01-01

    A relational database has been developed to store data representing physical values from TJ-II discharges. This new database complements the existing TJ-EI raw data database. This database resides in a host computer running Windows 2000 Server operating system and it is managed by SQL Server. A function library has been developed that permits remote access to these data from user programs running in computers connected to TJ-II local area networks via remote procedure cali. In this document a general description of the database and its organization are provided. Also given are a detailed description of the functions included in the library and examples of how to use these functions in computer programs written in the FORTRAN and C languages. (Author) 8 refs

  1. Studies related to emergency decay heat removal in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Mohr, D.; Tokar, J.V.; Sullivan, J.E.; Dean, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies related to emergency decay heat removal by natural circulation in the EBR-II heat transport circuits are described. Three general categories of natural circulation plant transients are discussed and the resultant reactor flow and temperature response to these events are presented. these categories include the following: (1) loss of forced flow from decay power and low initial flow rates; (2) reactor scram with a delayed loss of forced flow; and (3) loss of forced flow with a plant protective system activated scram. In all cases, the transition from forced to natural convective flow was smooth and the peak in-core temperature rises were small to moderate. Comparisons between experimental measurements in EBR-II and analytical predictions of the NATDEMO code are included

  2. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  3. Relating DSM-5 section II and section III personality disorder diagnostic classification systems to treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Leslie C; Benson, Kathryn T

    2016-07-01

    Beginning with DSM-III, the inclusion of a "personality" axis was designed to encourage awareness of personality disorders and the treatment-related implications of individual differences, but since that time there is little accumulated evidence that the personality disorder categories provide substantial treatment-related guidance. The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group sought to develop an Alternative Model for personality disorder, and this study examined whether this model is more closely related to clinicians' decision-making processes than the traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses. A national sample of 337 clinicians provided complete personality disorder diagnostic information and several treatment-related clinical judgments about one of their patients. The dimensional concepts of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for personality disorders demonstrated stronger relationships than categorical DSM-IV/DSM-5 Section II diagnoses to 10 of 11 clinical judgments regarding differential treatment planning, optimal treatment intensity, and long-term prognosis. The constructs of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for personality disorders may provide more clinically useful information for treatment planning than the official categorical personality disorder diagnostic system retained in DSM-5 Section II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic enzyme activities of abyssal and hadal fishes: pressure effects and a re-evaluation of depth-related changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerringer, M. E.; Drazen, J. C.; Yancey, P. H.

    2017-07-01

    Metabolic enzyme activities of muscle tissue have been useful and widely-applied indicators of whole animal metabolic capacity, particularly in inaccessible systems such as the deep sea. Previous studies have been conducted at atmospheric pressure, regardless of organism habitat depth. However, maximum reaction rates of some of these enzymes are pressure dependent, complicating the use of metabolic enzyme activities as proxies of metabolic rates. Here, we show pressure-related rate changes in lactate and malate dehydrogenase (LDH, MDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in six fish species (2 hadal, 2 abyssal, 2 shallow). LDH maximal reaction rates decreased with pressure for the two shallow species, but, in contrast to previous findings, it increased for the four deep species, suggesting evolutionary changes in LDH reaction volumes. MDH maximal reaction rates increased with pressure in all species (up to 51±10% at 60 MPa), including the tide pool snailfish, Liparis florae (activity increase at 60 MPa 44±9%), suggesting an inherent negative volume change of the reaction. PK was inhibited by pressure in all species tested, including the hadal liparids (up to 34±3% at 60 MPa), suggesting a positive volume change during the reaction. The addition of 400 mM TMAO counteracted this inhibition at both 0.5 and 2.0 mM ADP concentrations for the hadal liparid, Notoliparis kermadecensis. We revisit depth-related trends in metabolic enzyme activities according to these pressure-related rate changes and new data from seven abyssal and hadal species from the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Results show that, with abyssal and hadal species, pressure-related rate changes are another variable to be considered in the use of enzyme activities as proxies for metabolic rate, in addition to factors such as temperature and body mass. Intraspecific increases in tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes with depth of capture, independent of body mass, in two hadal snailfishes suggest improved nutritional

  5. Reductive dehalogenation by layered iron(II)-iron(III) hydroxides and related iron(II) containing solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Weizhao

    In the present PhD project, novel synthesis and modifications of layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rusts, GRs) were investigated with focus on improved dehalogenation of carbon tetrachloride by using modified green rusts and/or altered reaction conditions. The Ph.D. project has comprised: 1...... sulphate green rust formation by aerial oxidation of FeII or co-precipitation by adding Fe(III) salt to Fe(II). In comparison with traditional green rust synthesis, pure GRs were synthesized in minutes. 2. Enhanced dehalogenation of CT by GR in presence of selected amino acids. In presence of glycine......, chloroform (CF) formation is effectively suppressed: less than 10% of CT is transformed to CF, and more than 90% of dehalogenation products are found to be formic acid and carbon monoxide in presence of 60 mM glycine; while a 80% of CF recovery was obtained without amino acids addition. 3. A “switch...

  6. Are sympatrically speciating Midas cichlid fish special? Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in the closely related species Archocentrus centrarchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Raffini, Francesca; Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel

    2016-06-01

    Established empirical cases of sympatric speciation are scarce, although there is an increasing consensus that sympatric speciation might be more common than previously thought. Midas cichlid fish are one of the few substantiated cases of sympatric speciation, and they formed repeated radiations in crater lakes. In contrast, in the same environment, such radiation patterns have not been observed in other species of cichlids and other families of fish. We analyze morphological and genetic variation in a cichlid species (Archocentrus centrarchus) that co-inhabits several crater lakes with the Midas species complex. In particular, we analyze variation in body and pharyngeal jaw shape (two ecologically important traits in sympatrically divergent Midas cichlids) and relate that to genetic variation in mitochondrial control region and microsatellites. Using these four datasets, we analyze variation between and within two Nicaraguan lakes: a crater lake where multiple Midas cichlids have been described and a lake where the source population lives. We do not observe any within-lake clustering consistent across morphological traits and genetic markers, suggesting the absence of sympatric divergence in A. centrarchus. Genetic differentiation between lakes was low and morphological divergence absent. Such morphological similarity between lakes is found not only in average morphology, but also when analyzing covariation between traits and degree of morphospace occupation. A combined analysis of the mitochondrial control region in A. centrarchus and Midas cichlids suggests that a difference between lineages in the timing of crater lake colonization cannot be invoked as an explanation for the difference in their levels of diversification. In light of our results, A. centrarchus represents the ideal candidate to study the genomic differences between these two lineages that might explain why some lineages are more likely to speciate and diverge in sympatry than others.

  7. Using Sound to Modify Fish Behavior at Power-Production and Water-Control Facilities: A Workshop December 12-13, 1995. Phase II: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J. [ed.] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popper, Arthur N. [ed.] [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A workshop on ``Use of Sound for Fish Protection at Power-Production and Water-Control Facilities`` was held in Portland, Oregon on December 12--13, 1995. This workshop convened a 22-member panel of international experts from universities, industry, and government to share knowledge, questions, and ideas about using sound for fish guidance. Discussions involved in a broad range of indigenous migratory and resident fish species and fish-protection issues in river systems, with particular focus on the Columbia River Basin. Because the use of sound behavioral barriers for fish is very much in its infancy, the workshop was designed to address the many questions being asked by fishery managers and researchers about the feasibility and potential benefits of using sound to augment physical barriers for fish protection in the Columbia River system.

  8. A relational database for physical data from TJ-II discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.B.; Vega, J.

    2002-01-01

    A relational database (RDB) has been developed for classifying TJ-II experimental data according to physical criteria. Two objectives have been achieved: the design and the implementation of the database and the software tools for data access depending on a single software driver. TJ-II data were arranged in several tables with a flexible design, speedy performance, efficient search capacity and adaptability to meet present and future, requirements. The software has been developed to allow the access to the TJ-II RDB from a variety of computer platforms (ALPHA AXP/True64 UNIX, CRAY/UNICOS, Intel Linux, Sparc/Solaris and Intel/Windows 95/98/NT) and programming languages (FORTRAN and C/C++). The database resides in a Windows NT Server computer and is managed by Microsoft SQL Server. The access software is based on open network computing remote procedure call and follows client/server model. A server program running in the Windows NT computer controls data access. Operations on the database (through a local ODBC connection) are performed according to predefined permission protocols. A client library providing a set of basic functions for data integration and retrieval has been built in both static and dynamic link versions. The dynamic version is essential in accessing RDB data from 4GL environments (IDL and PV-WAVE among others)

  9. Mysterious inhibitory cell regulator investigated and found likely to be secretogranin II related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hart

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a hunt for a postulated hormone that is tissue-mass inhibiting and reproductively associated, there is described probable relatedness to a granin protein. A 7–8 kDa polypeptide candidate (gels/MS appeared in a bioassay-guided fractionation campaign involving sheep plasma. An N-terminal sequence of 14 amino acids was obtained for the polypeptide by Edman degradation. Bioinformatics and molecular biology failed to illuminate any ovine or non-ovine protein which might relate to this sequence. The N-terminal sequence was synthesized as the 14mer EPL001 peptide and surprisingly found to be inhibitory in an assay in vivo of compensatory renal growth in the rat and modulatory of nematode fecundity, in line with the inhibitory hormone hypothesis. Antibodies were raised to EPL001 and their deployment upheld the hypothesis that the EPL001 amino acid sequence is meaningful and relevant, notwithstanding bioinformatic obscurity. Immunohistochemistry (IHC in sheep, rodents and humans yielded staining of seeming endocrine relevance (e.g. hypothalamus, gonads and neuroendocrine cells in diverse tissues, with apparent upregulation in certain human tumours (e.g. pheochromocytoma. Discrete IHC staining in Drosophila melanogaster embryo brain was seen in glia and in neuroendocrine cells, with staining likely in the corpus cardiacum. The search for the endogenous antigen involved immunoprecipitation (IP followed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC–MS. Feedstocks were PC12 conditioned medium and aqueous extract of rat hypothalamus—both of which had anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in an assay in vitro involving rat bone marrow cells, which inhibition was subject to prior immunodepletion with an anti-EPL001 antibody—together with fruit fly embryo material. It is concluded that the mammalian antigen is likely secretogranin II (SgII related. The originally seen 7–8 kDa polypeptide is suggested to be a new proteoform

  10. Comparing relative abundance, lengths, and habitat of temperate reef fishes using simultaneous underwater visual census, video, and trap sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Bacheler, NM; Geraldi, NR; Burton, ML; Muñ oz, RC; Kellison, GT

    2017-01-01

    of the reef fish community along the southeastern US Atlantic coast. In total, 117 taxa were observed by underwater visual census (UVC), stationary video, and chevron fish traps, with more taxa being observed by UVC (100) than video (82) or traps (20

  11. Fish assemblage dynamics in a Neotropical floodplain relative to aquatic macrophytes and the homogenizing effect of a flood pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L.C.; Bulla, C. K.; Agostinho, A. A.; Vasconcelos, L. P.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of aquatic macrophytes is a key factor in the selection of habitats by fish in floodplain lakes because these plants enhance the physical and biological complexities of aquatic habitats. The seasonal flood pulse may influence this interaction, but there is no information in the literature about the effects that flood events may have on macrophytes assemblages and its associated effects on fish assemblages. Thus, this article aimed to investigate whether species richness, evenness and similarities in fish assemblage composition differed between littoral areas vegetated with macrophytes and unvegetated areas, before and after a flood. We sampled three lakes in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River basin. Sampling was conducted before (December 2004 and January 2005) and after (early March, late March and May 2005) a flood event. Overall, species richness and evenness were higher in macrophytes-covered areas. Before the flood, the composition of fish assemblages was distinct when comparing vegetated and unvegetated areas. After the flood, the similarity in fish assemblage composition was higher, indicating a homogenization effect of floods for fish inhabiting littoral areas of floodplain lakes. After the flood, opportunistic species dominated the fish assemblages in aquatic macrophytes, apparently restructuring assemblages in the littoral, restarting a succession process. Thus, the observed homogenization effect of the flood could minimize biological interactions and could induce fish assemblages to begin a new process of structurization.

  12. Health-related attitudes as a basis for segmenting European fish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies and profiles consumer segments based on health-related attitudes. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2008 through a pan-European consumer survey (n = 2400) with samples representative for age and region in France, Poland and Spain. Four distinct consumer segments based...

  13. Ecological limit functions relating fish community response to hydrologic departures of the ecological flow regime in the Tennessee River basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rodney R.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Wolfe, William J.; Saylor, Charles F.; Wales, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological limit functions relating streamflow and aquatic ecosystems remain elusive despite decades of research. We investigated functional relationships between species richness and changes in streamflow characteristics at 662 fish sampling sites in the Tennessee River basin. Our approach included the following: (1) a brief summary of relevant literature on functional relations between fish and streamflow, (2) the development of ecological limit functions that describe the strongest discernible relationships between fish species richness and streamflow characteristics, (3) the evaluation of proposed definitions of hydrologic reference conditions, and (4) an investigation of the internal structures of wedge-shaped distributions underlying ecological limit functions.Twenty-one ecological limit functions were developed across three ecoregions that relate the species richness of 11 fish groups and departures from hydrologic reference conditions using multivariate and quantile regression methods. Each negatively sloped function is described using up to four streamflow characteristics expressed in terms of cumulative departure from hydrologic reference conditions. Negative slopes indicate increased departure results in decreased species richness.Sites with the highest measured fish species richness generally had near-reference hydrologic conditions for a given ecoregion. Hydrology did not generally differ between sites with the highest and lowest fish species richness, indicating that other environmental factors likely limit species richness at sites with reference hydrology.Use of ecological limit functions to make decisions regarding proposed hydrologic regime changes, although commonly presented as a management tool, is not as straightforward or informative as often assumed. We contend that statistical evaluation of the internal wedge structure below limit functions may provide a probabilistic understanding of how aquatic ecology is influenced by altered hydrology

  14. Health and adult productivity: the relation between adult nutrition, helminths, and agricultural, hunting, and fishing yields in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, S; Rosinger, A; Leonard, W R; Reyes-García, V

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease and nutritional stress have both been associated with reductions in adult work productivity and work capacity in the context of wage labor, but less research has investigated their effects among groups relying on more traditional subsistence practices of horticulture and foraging. In this article, we examine the relations among measures of adult nutritional status (BMI, skinfold measurements, and fat-free mass) and infection (presence of soil transmitted helminth infections) and measures of adult work productivity. As part of a larger panel study among Tsimane', a foraging-horticulturalist group in the Bolivian Amazon, health surveys, anthropometric information, and the quantity of products (both crops and game) brought into the household were collected for 320 Tsimane' adults over a four-month period in 2003. In addition, a single fecal sample was collected for a sub-sample of 86 adults. Our analysis shows mixed associations between either BMI or the presence of parasitism and reported adult productivity. Muscularity was not clearly related to adult productivity. In contrast, body fatness (Skinfold z-score) was inversely associated with the average quantity of fish and game brought into the household, especially for men. These findings suggest that the effects of adult infection and nutritional stress may be less clearly identified outside of the context of wage labor. Further research linking adult physical activity levels and metabolic rates to productivity in diverse contexts is needed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fish larval transport in the coastal waters through ecological modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.

    are as follows: (i) to find out the influence of environmental parameters on the biology of the given ecosystem (ii) to track larval transport and biological abundance in relation to environmental vari- ables (iii) to compare biological abundance and fish larval... include the following investigations: (i) analysis of satellite chlorophyll data along the southwest coastal waters of India to derive a biological calender for sardine (ii) tracking the larval survival and establish a link between food and sardine inter...

  16. Small Lesion Size Is Associated with Sleep-Related Epilepsy in Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the neuroimaging and clinical features associated with sleep-related epilepsy (SRE in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD type II.MethodsPatients with histopathologically proven FCD type II were included from three epilepsy centers. SRE was defined according to the video EEG findings and seizure history. Cortical surface reconstruction and volume calculation were performed using FreeSurfer. The lesions were manually delineated on T1 volumetric MRI using the ITK-SNAP software. The lesion volumes were normalized by the intracranial volume of each patient. The lesions were classified as small or large by placing a threshold based on quantitative (whether the lesion was detected on MRI report and qualitative (volume criteria.ResultsA total of 77 consecutive patients were included. Of them, 36 had SRE and 41 had non-SRE. An earlier age of epilepsy onset, high seizure frequency, regional interictal EEG findings, and favorable surgical outcome were characteristic in both groups. Small lesions were defined as those having a volume <3,217 mm3. In total, 60.9% of the patients with SRE (25/41 had small FCD lesion, which was significantly higher than the non-SRE group (9/34, 26.5%, p = 0.005. Small lesion size was the only predictor significantly associated with SRE in the overall type II group by multivariate analyses (p = 0.016. Although the proportion of patients who had frontal FCD and SRE was higher than non-frontal FCD (54.5 vs. 27.3%, p = 0.043, the relationship between SRE and lesion location was not confirmed by multivariate analysis. Thalamic volume and seizure semiology were not statistically different between the SRE and non-SRE group. The significant association between lesion size and SRE was reproducible in type IIb and IIa subgroups.SignificanceSRE is common in patients with FCD type II. Small FCD type II lesions are significantly associated with SRE. Although our findings cannot be applied to

  17. Zooplankton mortality in 3D ecosystem modelling considering variable spatial–temporal fish consumptions in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Rindorf, Anna; Møller, Eva Friis

    2014-01-01

    We tested the feasibility of imposing mesozooplankton mortality into a 3D model based on estimated consumption rates of the dominant planktivorous fish in the North Sea-Kattegat area. The spatial biomass distribution of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus....... The fish larvae grazing pressure was obtained from a spatial, size-based larval community model. In this model, larvae, herring and sandeel were the most important fish predators on mesozooplankton, but these groups had different spatial and temporal (seasonal) distributions. Fish larvae were particularly......, production and mortality. In the present study, the index was kept relatively simple and can be further developed with respect to the description of fish as well carnivorous zooplankton ingestion rates. The data input required to create the fish index is i) planktivorous fish stock biomasses and ii) relative...

  18. Niche segregation in two closely related species of stickleback along a physiological axis: explaining multidecadel changes in fish distribution from iron-induced respiratory impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Munckhof, van den P.J.J.; Pollux, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute exposure to iron can be lethal to fish, but long-term sublethal impacts of iron require further study. Here we investigated whether the spatial and temporal distribution (1967–2004) of two closely related species of stickleback matched the spatial distribution of iron concentrations in the

  19. An ecological model of the habitat mosaic in estuarine nursery areas: Part II – Projecting effects of sea level rise on fish production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the response of fish populations to habitat change mediated by sea level rise (SLR) is a key component of ecosystem-based management. Yet, no direct link has been established between habitat change due to SLR and fish population production. Here we take a coupled ...

  20. Spatio-temporal segregation and size distribution of fish assemblages as related to non-native species occurrence in the middle rio Doce Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Corrêa Giacomini

    Full Text Available The lakes in the middle rio Doce Valley (MG are suffering impacts due to the introduction of invasive fish species, mainly piscivorous species like red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri and peacock bass Cichla kelberi. Fishes were collected in bimonthly samples conducted at ten lakes along a year. The present study showed that the composition of native fish assemblages is significantly related to the presence and type of non-native species. Fish species distribution among lakes can be explained by differences in species body size: smaller native species are less concentrated in lakes with invasive piscivores, which is in accordance with the hypothesis that they have greater susceptibility to predation by invaders. Another probable cause for this correlation is the proximity of lakes to the drainage system, which could explain both the non-native incidence and the turnover of native species composition. Furthermore, temporal variability in species composition was significantly higher in invaded lakes. This last factor may be linked to seasonal flood pulses, which carry immigrant fishes from streams in the vicinity. The metacommunity framework can bring insights for future studies in such spatially structured systems, and the approach should improve our understanding of processes underlying species composition as well as help direct conservation-focused management plans.

  1. An evaluation of the relations between flow regime components, stream characteristics, species traits and meta-demographic rates of warmwater stream fishes: Implications for aquatic resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Shea, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Fishery biologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of considering the dynamic nature of streams when developing streamflow policies. Such approaches require information on how flow regimes influence the physical environment and how those factors, in turn, affect species-specific demographic rates. A more cost-effective alternative could be the use of dynamic occupancy models to predict how species are likely to respond to changes in flow. To appraise the efficacy of this approach, we evaluated relative support for hypothesized effects of seasonal streamflow components, stream channel characteristics, and fish species traits on local extinction, colonization, and recruitment (meta-demographic rates) of stream fishes. We used 4 years of seasonal fish collection data from 23 streams to fit multistate, multiseason occupancy models for 42 fish species in the lower Flint River Basin, Georgia. Modelling results suggested that meta-demographic rates were influenced by streamflows, particularly short-term (10-day) flows. Flow effects on meta-demographic rates also varied with stream size, channel morphology, and fish species traits. Small-bodied species with generalized life-history characteristics were more resilient to flow variability than large-bodied species with specialized life-history characteristics. Using this approach, we simplified the modelling framework, thereby facilitating the development of dynamic, spatially explicit evaluations of the ecological consequences of water resource development activities over broad geographic areas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. The Effect on Selenium Concentrations of a Randomized Intervention with Fish and Mussels in a Population with Relatively Low Habitual Dietary Selenium Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Selenium status of the Danish population is below that assumed optimal for the suggested protective effects against chronic diseases, including certain cancers. Fish and shellfish are important dietary sources of selenium in Denmark. We investigated the effect of increased fish and mussel intake...... on selenium blood concentrations in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48-76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received 1000 g fish and mussels....../week for 26 weeks (similar to 50 mu g selenium/day). Controls received no intervention. Non-fasting blood samples were taken and whole blood selenium was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and plasma selenoprotein P (SelP) was determined by high performance liquid...

  3. Drought-associated absence of alien invasive anchorworm, Lernaea cyprinacea (Copepoda: Lernaeidae, is related to changes in fish health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Welicky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters, 1852 were listed on the IUCN Red List as near-threatened as their populations are at risk due to hybridization. Another factor that potentially contributes to their population decline is that they are regularly infected by the invasive parasitic copepod anchorworm, Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758. Considering anchorworm-infected Mozambique tilapia are common, understanding their condition with respect to infection is difficult as uninfected fish from the same localities have been unavailable for comparison. A severe drought in southern Africa has created hypersaline environments in the Phongolo River floodplain of north-eastern South Africa, such that freshwater parasites cannot survive and uninfected fish are now found. To determine how infection influences host health, infected and uninfected Mozambique tilapia were collected before and during drought conditions, from Nyamiti pan of the Phongolo River floodplain. Anchorworm-infected fish prevalence was recorded, and anchorworms were collected from hosts and identified to the species level using molecular data of the 18S rRNA gene. For each fish, intensity of anchorworm infection, total length, and weights of the gutted body, liver, spleen, and gonads were recorded. Gutted condition factor, hepato-, spleeno-, and gonado-somatic index values per fish, and prevalence of infection per collection were determined. A rapid health assessment was also conducted to determine a health score for each fish. Molecular analyses confirmed the anchorworm studied was L. cyprinacea. Prior to and during drought, prevalence of infection was 100%, and 0%, respectively. Before drought, fish had significantly reduced hepato-, spleeno-, and gonado-somatic index values, and higher health assessment scores, yet significantly higher gutted condition. Anchorworm intensity was indirectly correlated with fish liver and gonad condition. This study demonstrates

  4. Synergistic interactions within disturbed habitats between temperature, relative humidity and UVB radiation on egg survival in a diadromous fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J H Hickford

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they

  5. Genomic architecture of habitat-related divergence and signature of directional selection in the body shapes of Gnathopogon fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakioka, Ryo; Kokita, Tomoyuki; Kumada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Okuda, Noboru

    2015-08-01

    Evolution of ecomorphologically relevant traits such as body shapes is important to colonize and persist in a novel environment. Habitat-related adaptive divergence of these traits is therefore common among animals. We studied the genomic architecture of habitat-related divergence in the body shape of Gnathopogon fishes, a novel example of lake-stream ecomorphological divergence, and tested for the action of directional selection on body shape differentiation. Compared to stream-dwelling Gnathopogon elongatus, the sister species Gnathopogon caerulescens, exclusively inhabiting a large ancient lake, had an elongated body, increased proportion of the caudal region and small head, which would be advantageous in the limnetic environment. Using an F2 interspecific cross between the two Gnathopogon species (195 individuals), quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis with geometric morphometric quantification of body shape and restriction-site associated DNA sequencing-derived markers (1622 loci) identified 26 significant QTLs associated with the interspecific differences of body shape-related traits. These QTLs had small to moderate effects, supporting polygenic inheritance of the body shape-related traits. Each QTL was mostly located on different genomic regions, while colocalized QTLs were detected for some ecomorphologically relevant traits that are proxy of body and caudal peduncle depths, suggesting different degree of modularity among traits. The directions of the body shape QTLs were mostly consistent with the interspecific difference, and QTL sign test suggested a genetic signature of directional selection in the body shape divergence. Thus, we successfully elucidated the genomic architecture underlying the adaptive changes of the quantitative and complex morphological trait in a novel system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Stress Tolerance-Related Genetic Traits of Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum in a Mature Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Levipan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold-water disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome, and hence this bacterium is placed among the most important salmonid pathogens in the freshwater aquaculture industry. Since bacteria in biofilms differ substantially from free-living counterparts, this study sought to find the main differences in gene expression between sessile and planktonic states of F. psychrophilum LM-02-Fp and NCMB1947T, with focus on stress-related changes in gene expression occurring during biofilm formation. To this end, biofilm and planktonic samples were analyzed by RNA sequencing to detect differentially expressed candidate genes (DECGs between the two growth states, and decreasing the effects of interstrain variation by considering only genes with log2-fold changes ≤ −2 and ≥ 2 at Padj-values ≤ 0.001 as DECGs. Overall, 349 genes accounting for ~15% of total number of genes expressed in transcriptomes of F. psychrophilum LM-02-Fp and NCMB1947T (n = 2327 were DECGs between biofilm and planktonic states. Approximately 83 and 81% of all up- and down-regulated candidate genes in mature biofilms, respectively, were assigned to at least one gene ontology term; these were primarily associated with the molecular function term “catalytic activity.” We detected a potential stress response in mature biofilms, characterized by a generalized down-regulation of DECGs with roles in the protein synthesis machinery (n = 63, primarily ribosomal proteins and energy conservation (seven ATP synthase subunit genes, as well as an up-regulation of DECGs involved in DNA repair (ruvC, recO, phrB1, smf, and dnaQ and oxidative stress response (cytochrome C peroxidase, probable peroxiredoxin, and a probable thioredoxin. These results support the idea of a strategic trade-off between growth-related processes and cell homeostasis to preserve biofilm structure and metabolic functioning. In addition, LDH-based cytotoxicity

  7. Long-term temporal and spatial changes in the richness and relative abundance of the inshore fish community of the British North Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Peter A.

    2017-09-01

    Changes in temporal and spatial composition of the British inshore North Sea fish community are reviewed. Sampling from the cooling water filter screens of power stations bordering the North Sea commenced in the early 1960s. To date, a total of 112 marine fish species have been recorded, a high proportion of the total inshore fish species complement of shallow North Sea British waters. The unrecorded top predators, such as large sharks, swordfish and tuna are not regularly observed in waters fish diversity and abundance in large industrialised estuaries such as the Thames and the Firth of Forth. Linked to spawning and nursery habitat gain, smelt, Osmerus eperlangus, and bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, have greatly increased in abundance. There is no evidence for a decline in species richness since the 1970s. However, elasmobranch species number has declined while two species Raja clavata and Scyliorhinus canicula have remained abundant and one, Mustelus asterias, has increased in abundance. It is argued that overexploitation and habitat destruction remain, as they have been for the last 300 years, the most serious threats to the health of North Sea inshore fish communities. There are no clear signs that climate change is causing species loss, although it may be influencing relative species abundance as species at the southern edge of their range such as the viviparous blenny, Zoarces viviparous, have declined in the southern British North Sea. Power station water temperature records do not show a warming trend, in some estuarine locations temperature has declined with reduced thermal pollution; the temperature record cannot explain the observed major changes in fish relative abundance observed since the 1970s.

  8. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  9. Monetary values of freshwater fish and fish-kill counting guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... The product is a set of documented monetary values of freshwater fish that may be used, in conjunction with standard sampling programs outlined in Part II of this book, to assess the value of fish...

  10. A Randomized Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial Investigating the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gene Expression Related to Insulin Action, Blood Lipids, and Inflammation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-Fish Oil Supplementation and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Jamilian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a common complication of pregnancy, and it is mostly associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Fish oil (omega-3 supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of different chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancers, though the evidence of its impact on gestational diabetes is scarce. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of fish oil administration on gene expression related to insulin action, blood lipids, and inflammation in women with GDM. Participants with GDM (n = 40, aged 18–40 years, were randomized to take either 1000 mg fish oil capsules, containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid (n = 20, or placebo (n = 20 twice a day for 6 weeks. Gene expression related to insulin, lipids, and inflammation was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of GDM women using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR method. Results of RT-PCR indicated that omega-3 supplementation upregulated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ (P = 0.04 in PBMCs of patients with GDM, compared with the placebo. In addition, gene expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR (P < 0.001, interleukin-1 (IL-1 (P = 0.007, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α (P = 0.01 was downregulated in PBMCs of women with GDM, following omega-3 supplementation. No significant effect of omega-3 supplementation was indicated on gene expression of IL-8 in PBMCs of patients with GDM. Overall, fish oil supplementation for 6 weeks in women with GDM significantly improved gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-1, and TNF-α, but not gene expression of IL-8.

  11. The Relative Influence of Catchment and Site Variabbles on Fish and Macroinvertebrate Richness in Cerrado Biome Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape and site-scale data aid the interpretation of biological data and management alternatives. We evaluated how three classes of environmental variables (natural landscape, anthropogenic pressures, and local physical habitat), influence fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage...

  12. Screening of aflatoxin B1 and mycobiota related to raw materials and finished feed destined for fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvina María Carvalho Gonçalves-Nunes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine fungal genera, Aspergillus, Pénicillium and Fusarium species and aflatoxin B1 contamination from raw materials and finished feed intended for fish farm localized in Piaui, Brazil. Aspergillusflavus and P. citrinum were isolated with a high relative density from all samples. In general, a high percent of samples exceeded the levels proposed as feed hygienic quality limits (CFU g-1 according to Good Manufacture Practice. Aflatoxin B1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All raw materials and finished feed showed aflatoxin B1 levels. Although in this study AFB1 levels below recommended limits (20 μg kg-1 were found, it is important to emphasize the feed intake with toxin in low concentrations along time, since it produce chronic deleterious effects in animal production. This fact requires periodic monitoring to prevent the occurrence of chronic aflatoxicosis in aquaculture, to reduce the economic losses and to minimize hazards to animal health.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Anabas testudineus (Perciformes, Anabantidae) and its comparison with other related fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bijay Kumar; Baisvar, Vishwamitra Singh; Kumari, Kavita; Rout, Ajaya Kumar; Pakrashi, Sudip; Paria, Prasenjet; Rao, A R; Rai, Anil

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anabas testudineusis reported using PGM sequencer (Ion Torrent, Life Technologies, La Jolla, CA). The complete mitogenome of climbing perch, A. testudineusis obtained by the de novo sequences assembly of genomic reads using the Torrent Mapping Alignment Program (TMAP), which is 16 603 bp in length. The mitogenome of A. testudineus composed of 13 protein- coding genes, two rRNA, and 22 tRNAs. Here, 20 tRNAs genes showed typical clover leaf model, and D-Loop as the control region along with gene order and organization, being closely similar to Osphronemidae and most of other Perciformes fish mitogenomes of NCBI databases. The mitogenome in the present study has 99% similarity to the complete mitogenome sequence of earlier reported A. testudineus. The phylogenetic analysis of Anabantidae depicted that their mitogenomes are closely related to each other. The complete mitogenome sequence of A. testudineus would be helpful in understanding the population genetics, phylogenetics, and evolution of Anabantidae.

  14. Relating fish health and reproductive metrics to contaminant bioaccumulation at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracheil, Brenda M; Marshall Adams, S; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Fortner, Allison M; Greeley, Mark S; Murphy, Cheryl A; Mathews, Teresa J; Peterson, Mark J

    2016-08-01

    A 4.1 million m(3) coal ash release into the Emory and Clinch rivers in December 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in east Tennessee, USA, prompted a long-term, large-scale biological monitoring effort to determine if there are chronic effects of this spill on resident biota. Because of the magnitude of the ash spill and the potential for exposure to coal ash-associated contaminants [e.g., selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)] which are bioaccumulative and may present human and ecological risks, an integrative, bioindicator approach was used. Three species of fish were monitored-bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (L. microlophus), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)-at ash-affected and reference sites annually for 5 years following the spill. On the same individual fish, contaminant burdens were measured in various tissues, blood chemistry parameters as metrics of fish health, and various condition and reproduction indices. A multivariate statistical approach was then used to evaluate relationships between contaminant bioaccumulation and fish metrics to assess the chronic, sub-lethal effects of exposure to the complex mixture of coal ash-associated contaminants at and around the ash spill site. This study suggests that while fish tissue concentrations of some ash-associated contaminants are elevated at the spill site, there was no consistent evidence of compromised fish health linked with the spill. Further, although relationships between elevated fillet burdens of ash-associated contaminants and some fish metrics were found, these relationships were not indicative of exposure to coal ash or spill sites. The present study adds to the weight of evidence from prior studies suggesting that fish populations have not incurred significant biological effects from spilled ash at this site: findings that are relevant to the current national discussions on the safe disposal of coal ash waste.

  15. Medication Adherence and its Related Factors in Patients with Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Gholamaliei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Low levels of medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes is one of the greatest challenges in the treatment and control of diabetes. This study was designed to determine medication adherence and its related factors in patients with type II diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 300patients with type 2diabetes records in the health centers of Tuyserkan city were randomly selected in 2015. Data collection instrument was a self-made questionnaire, which consisted of factors related to the medication adherence. Questionnaires were completed after confirmation of validity and reliability, by interviews. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics (T-test, AnOVA, Simple and multiple linear regression were applied, using SPSS software, version 19. Results: Overall, %26.3 of patients were male and %73.7 were female. Also, %65 of patients were illiterate, %24 had some degree of symptoms, and %59.4 had poor medication adherence. There was a significant relationship between age, education, patient care and treatment expenditure, health care team and health system, therapy-related factors and condition-related factors, beliefs about illness, efficacy, and concerns about drugs and medication adherence (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study showed that medication adherence in patients with diabetes was not suitable and individual, economical and social factors were influential.Therefore, the role of these factors must be considered when designing intervention programs.

  16. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  17. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  18. The politics of protection: aid, human rights discourse, and power relations in Kyaka II settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Kazak, Christina R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualisation and application of 'protection' by the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR), Ugandan government, and Congolese refugees in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Analysing the origins and consequences of a demonstration against school fees, and drawing on other ethnographic data, it explores how different interpretations of this incident reflect different conceptions of, and approaches to, protection. Ugandan government officials viewed the demonstration as a security incident; Congolese and Ugandan adults responded with increased monitoring and 'sheltering' of children and young people; students justified the demonstration as a legitimate manifestation of their rights; while UNHCR promoted assistance and resettlement. The paper argues that prevailing protection responses, including 'sensitisation', sheltering, and resettlement, are de-contextualised from daily realities and fail to address the underlying power relations that undermine protection. It concludes with recommendations on how international refugee agencies can reorient assistance to address protection concerns in refugee contexts.

  19. Symptomatic Hypoglycemia Related to Inappropriately High IGF-II Serum Levels in a Patient with Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Fernandes Barra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year old man was diagnosed with desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT with involvement of the peritoneum and pelvis. Disease progression was observed despite systemic chemotherapy. Six months after diagnosis, he developed severe hypoglycemia presented with seizures. He received intravenous glucose infusion and hydrocortisone with poor glycemic control, but with seizures resolution. The investigation excluded insulinoma, adrenal, liver and GH deficiencies. Laboratory showed slight rise of IGF-II and significant increase of the ratio IGF-II : IGF-I, which is pathognomonic of non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH. He received the diagnoses of NICTH related to IGF-II inappropriate production by DSRCT. Despite the attempt to control tumor mass and hypoglycemia, the patient died 9 months after diagnosis. NICTH related to inappropriate IGF-II secretion should be investigated in all cancer patients with refractory hypoglycemia whom insulinoma and other metabolic abnormalities were excluded from.

  20. Long-term stability of tidal and diel-related patterns in mangrove creek fish assemblages in North Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Galindo, G. A.; Krumme, U.

    2014-08-01

    Intertidal fish assemblages are thought to respond to tidal and diel rhythms although the assumption that these patterns are stable over long time scales (>1 year) is largely untested. Testing the validity of this assumption is necessary to assess whether short-term temporal patterns, once established, can be extrapolated over time and give a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of fish assemblages in coastal habitats. Here, we compare the fish assemblage structure from two intertidal mangrove creeks in North Brazil (Bragança Peninsula, Caeté estuary) sampled with the same sampling methodology (block nets), effort (two lunar cycles) and design (accounting for the combination of tidal and diel cycle) in the rainy seasons of 1999 and 2012 to evaluate the persistence, stability and recurrence of short-term patterns in the fish community organization. The interaction of tidal and diel cycles (inundations at spring tide-night, spring tide-day, neap tide-night, neap tide-day), found to be stable after 13 years, resulted in recurrent and stable intertidal mangrove fish assemblage compositions. The intertidal mangrove creek fish assemblage consisted of a persistent number of dominant species (seven). However, there were notable changes in fish catch mass, abundance and species dominance between 1999 and 2012. The most severe drought in North Brazil in 30 years, linked to lower precipitation and river runoff in the rainy season of 2012, may have resulted in (1) lower abundance of small juveniles of several dominant species in this assemblage (especially Ariidae - Cathorops agassizii and Sciades herzbergii) and (2) increased dominance of large-sized specimens of the tetraodontid Colomesus psittacus. Our findings highlight: (1) the overriding importance and stability of the interactive pulse of the tidal and diel cycles in determining short-term temporal patterns in intertidal mangrove fish assemblages in neotropical macrotidal estuaries despite the occurrence of

  1. Fish Oil Ameliorates High-Fat Diet Induced Male Mouse Reproductive Dysfunction via Modifying the Rhythmic Expression of Testosterone Synthesis Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs against high-fat diet induced male mouse reproductive dysfunction and to explore circadian regulation mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed a normal chow diet (control group, CON, a high-fat diet (HFD group or a HFD supplemented with fish oil (FO group for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of feeding, the body weight and the ratio of perinephric and epididymal fat weight to body weight were significantly higher in the HFD group compared with the CON group. The supplement of fish oil rich in ω-3PUFAs only slightly reduced the HFD-induced obesity but remarkably ameliorated HFD-induced dyslipidemia, sexual hormones disorder, testicle lesions and germ cell apoptosis. Fish oil supplementation restored the expression of steroid synthesis associated genes in HFD fed mouse and flattened the HFD-induced oscillations in circadian genes’ expression. Fish oil supplementation prevented HFD-induced male mouse reproductive dysfunction and modified the rhythmic expression of testosterone synthesis related genes.

  2. Improvements in 5-year outcomes of stage II/III rectal cancer relative to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Daniel J; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Hay, John; Phang, P Terry; Fitzgerald, Catherine; Kennecke, Hagen

    2013-12-01

    Stage for stage, rectal cancer has historically been associated with inferior survival compared with colon cancer. Randomized trials of rectal cancer have generally demonstrated improvements in locoregional relapse but not survival. We compared therapy and outcomes of colon versus rectal cancer in 2 time cohorts to determine if relative improvements have occurred. Patients with resected stage II/III colorectal cancer referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency in 1989/1990 and 2001/2002 were identified. The higher of clinical or pathologic stage was used for patients receiving preoperative chemoradiation. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were compared for rectal and colon cancer between the 2 cohorts. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. A total of 1427 patients were included, with 375 from 1989/1990 and 1052 from 2001/2002. Between 1989/1990 and 2001/2002 there were significant increases in the use of perioperative chemotherapy for both rectal and colon cancer (Prectal cancer. DSS significantly improved for rectal (Pcolon cancer (P=0.069). Five-year OS was significantly inferior for rectal versus colon cancer in 1989/1990 (46.1% vs. 57.2%, P=0.023) and was similar to that of colon cancer in 2001/2002 (63.7% vs. 66.2%, P=0.454). Advances in locoregional and systemic therapy significantly improved survival among patients with rectal cancer. DSS and OS are now similar between colon and rectal cancer for both stage II and III disease.

  3. Structural social relations and cognitive ageing trajectories: evidence from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Sommerlad, Andrew; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2017-11-07

    Social relations are important for health, particularly at older ages. We examined the salience of frequency of social contacts and marital status for cognitive ageing trajectories over 21 years, from midlife to early old age. Data are from the Whitehall II cohort study, including 4290 men and 1776 women aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-88). Frequency of social contacts and marital status were measured in 1985-88 and 1989-90. Assessment of cognitive function on five occasions (1991-94, 1997-99, 2003-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13) included the following tests: short-term memory, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic) and a combined global score. Cognitive trajectories over the study period were analysed using longitudinal latent growth class analyses, and the associations of these latent classes (trajectory memberships) with social relations were analysed using multinominal logistic regression. More frequent social contacts [relative risk (RRR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 - 0.98] and being married (RRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58 - 0.84) were associated with lower probability of being on a low rather than high cognitive performance trajectory over the subsequent 21 years. These associations persisted after adjustment for covariates. Of the sub-tests, social relations variables had the strongest association with phonemic fluency (RRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94 - 0.97 for frequent contact; RRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48 - 0.71 for being married). More frequent social contacts and having a spouse were associated with more favourable cognitive ageing trajectories. Further studies are needed to examine whether interventions designed to improve social connections affect cognitive ageing. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  4. The virtual lover: variable and easily guided 3D fish animations as an innovative tool in mate-choice experiments with sailfin mollies-II. Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierszewski, Stefanie; Müller, Klaus; Smielik, Ievgen; Hütwohl, Jan-Marco; Kuhnert, Klaus-Dieter; Witte, Klaudia

    2017-02-01

    The use of computer animation in behavioral research is a state-of-the-art method for designing and presenting animated animals to live test animals. The major advantages of computer animations are: (1) the creation of animated animal stimuli with high variability of morphology and even behavior; (2) animated stimuli provide highly standardized, controlled and repeatable testing procedures; and (3) they allow a reduction in the number of live test animals regarding the 3Rs principle. But the use of animated animals should be attended by a thorough validation for each test species to verify that behavior measured with live animals toward virtual animals can also be expected with natural stimuli. Here we present results on the validation of a custom-made simulation for animated 3D sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna and show that responses of live test females were as strong to an animated fish as to a video or a live male fish. Movement of an animated stimulus was important but female response was stronger toward a swimming 3D fish stimulus than to a "swimming" box. Moreover, male test fish were able to discriminate between animated male and female stimuli; hence, rendering the animated 3D fish a useful tool in mate-choice experiments with sailfin mollies.

  5. Perspectives on fish impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Data on fish impingement and related parameters are being gathered at a large number of power stations throughout the country at substantial monetary and manpower costs. A national survey of fish impingement at power plants was conducted and much of the information compiled in a standardized format--an effort that we think will aid in planning improvements in the design, siting, and operation of the cooling-water intakes. This paper examines the objectives of the fish impingement studies, monitoring programs, variables affecting fish impingement, siting and design criteria, state-of-the-art of screening systems, and suggestions for meeting 316(b) requirements. It also discusses where the emphasis should be placed in future fish-impingement related activities

  6. Takifugu rubripes cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor: Cloning, expression and functional characterization of the IGF-II binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Ajith Kumar; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar

    2018-07-01

    Mannose 6-phosphate/IGF-II receptor mediated lysosomal clearance of insulin-like growth factor-II is significantly associated with the evolution of placental mammals. The protein is also referred to as the IGF-II receptor. Earlier studies suggested relatively low binding affinity between the receptor and ligand in prototherian and metatherian mammals. In the present study, we cloned the IGF-II binding domain of the early vertebrate fugu fish and expressed it in bacteria. A 72000Da truncated receptor containing the IGF-II binding domain was obtained. Analysis of this protein (covering domains 11-13 of the CIMPR) for its affinity to fish and human IGF-II by ligand blot assays and ELISA showed that the expressed receptor can specifically bind to both fish and human IGF-II. Additionally, a peptide-specific antibody raised against the region of the IGF-II binding domain also was able to recognize the IGF-II binding regions of mammalian and non-mammalian cation independent MPR protein. These interactions were further characterized by Surface Plasma resonance support that the receptor binds to fish IGF-II, with a dissociation constant of 548nM. Preliminary analysis suggests that the binding mechanism as well as the affinity of the fish and human receptor for IGF-II may have varied according to different evolutionary pressures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Patterns of cyprinid migration through a fishway in relation to light, water temperature and fish circling behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchalová, Marie; Slavík, O.; Bartoš, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2006), s. 213-218 ISSN 1571-5124. [International symposium on Ecohydraulics /5./. Madrid, 12.09.2004-17.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : migration * Cyprinidae * fishway * fish counter * water temperature * weather Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Color as related to Size, Sex, and Behavior in seven Caribbean Labrid Fish Species (genera Thalassoma, Halichoeres and Hemipteronotus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roede, Machteld J.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately 5500 Caribbean labrid fishes belonging to seven species were caught, transported, partly on ice, to the laboratory and subsequently studied. The major portion was examined immediately; some 20 per cent were stored briefly (less than three days) at minus 20°C. Color pattern (and shape

  9. Persistent organic pollutants and related biological responses measured in coastal fish using chemical and biological screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Strand, Jakob; Bossi, Rossana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution, levels of dioxin-like compounds (DLC), and biological responses in two fish species. The viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was collected from various locations in the Baltic Sea and in fjords of Kattegat and Skagerrak, while ...

  10. Long-term patterns in fish phenology in the western Dutch Wadden Sea in relation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walraven, L.; Dapper, R.; Nauw, J.J.; Tulp, I.; Witte, J.IJ.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term patterns in fish phenology in the western Dutch Wadden Sea were studied using a 53 year (1960–2013) high resolution time series of daily kom-fyke catches in spring and autumn. Trends in first appearance, last occurrence and peak abundance were analysed for the most common species in

  11. Macroinvertebrate Prey Availability and Fish Diet Selectivity in Relation to Environmental Variables in Natural and Restoring North San Francisco Bay Tidal Marsh Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R. Howe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tidal marsh wetlands provide important foraging habitat for a variety of estuarine fishes. Prey organisms include benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates, neustonic arthropods, and zooplankton. Little is known about the abundance and distribution of interior marsh macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary. We describe seasonal, regional, and site variation in the composition and abundance of neuston and benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates that inhabit tidal marsh channels, and relate these patterns to environmental conditions. We also describe spatial and temporal variation in diets of marsh-associated inland silverside, yellowfin goby, and western mosquitofish. Fish and invertebrates were sampled quarterly from October 2003 to June 2005 at six marsh sites located in three river systems of the northern estuary: Petaluma River, Napa River, and  the west Delta. Benthic/epibenthic macroinvertebrates and neuston responded to environmental variables related to seasonal changes (i.e., temperature, salinity, as well as those related to marsh structure (i.e., vegetation, channel edge. The greatest variation in abundance occurred seasonally for neuston and spatially for benthic–epibenthic organisms, suggesting that each community responds to different environmental drivers. Benthic/epibenthic invertebrate abundance and diversity was lowest in the west Delta, and increased with increasing salinity. Insect abundance increased during the spring and summer, while Collembolan (springtail abundance increased during the winter. Benthic/epibenthic macroinvertebrates dominated fish diets, supplemented by insects, with zooplankton playing a minor role. Diet compositions of the three fish species overlapped considerably, with strong selection indicated for epibenthic crustaceans—a surprising result given the typical classification of Menidia beryllina as a planktivore, Acanthogobius flavimanus as a benthic predator, and Gambusia

  12. Predictors of health-related quality of life in type II diabetic patients in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydas Aristidis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting millions of people worldwide, while placing a noteworthy strain on public health funding. The aim of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL of Greek Type II DM patients and to identify significant predictors of the disease in this patient population. Methods The sample (N = 229, 52.8% female, 70.0 years mean age lived in a rural community of Lesvos, an island in the northeast of the Aegean Archipelagos. The generic SF-36 instrument, administered by trainee physicians, was used to measure HRQOL. Scale scores were compared with non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were used to investigate the effect of sociodemographic and diabetes-related variables on HRQOL. Results The most important predictors of impaired HRQOL were female gender, diabetic complications, non-diabetic comorbidity and years with diabetes. Older age, lower education, being unmarried, obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were also associated with impaired HRQOL in at least one SF-36 subscale. Multivariate regression analyses produced models explaining significant portions of the variance in SF-36 subscales, especially physical functioning (R2 = 42%, and also showed that diabetes-related indicators were more important disease predictors, compared to sociodemographic variables. Conclusion The findings could have implications for health promotion in rural medical practice in Greece. In order to preserve a good HRQOL, it is obviously important to prevent diabetes complications and properly manage concomitant chronic diseases. Furthermore, the gender difference is interesting and requires further elucidation. Modifying screening methods and medical interventions or formulating educational programs for the local population appear to be steps in the correct direction.

  13. Fish mercury development in relation to abiotic characteristics and carbon sources in a six-year-old, Brazilian reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomola, Leena; Niklasson, Terese [Evolutionary Biology Centre and Department of Limnology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Castro e Silva, Edinaldo de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando C. Costa/sn, 78 090-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air, Water and Landscape Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: Lars.Hylander@hyd.uu.se

    2008-02-01

    Time series on fish mercury (Hg) development are rare for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics. In the central-western part of Brazil, a hydroelectric reservoir, called Lago Manso, was completed in 1999 after that background levels of fish Hg concentrations had been determined. The development for the first 3 years was studied in 2002. The objective of the present study was to determine development of fish Hg concentrations for a second three-year period after flooding. The bioaccumulation factor and certain abiotic and biotic factors, possibly affecting the availability and accumulation of Hg, were also examined. The results show that Hg levels in fish from Lago Manso have increased more than five times compared to the background levels observed before construction of the reservoir. At the same time, dissolved organic carbon has increased while dissolved oxygen has decreased indicating enhanced bioavailability of Hg. In the reservoir, Salminus brasiliensis had in average a Hg content of 1.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w., Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum 1.2, Serrasalmus marginatus/spilopleura 0.9, and Brycon hilarii 0.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w. The average fish Hg contents were higher downstream, except for B. hilarii. In the reservoir, the average Hg content of each species was in 2005 always over the consumption limit (0.55 {mu}g total Hg g{sup -1} f.w.) recommended by WHO. Therefore, the people living around Lago Manso should be informed of the health effects of Hg, and fish consumption recommendations should be carried out. The accumulation of Hg varies widely between species as shown by the bioaccumulation factor which ranges between 5.08 and 5.59 log units. The observed variation is explained by differences in diet and trophic position with piscivorous fish exhibiting the highest mean Hg concentration, followed by carnivorous and omnivorous species. Carbon isotope analyses imply that trophic position is not the only cause of the observed differences in Hg levels between

  14. From the epipelagic zone to the abyss: Trophic structure at two seamounts in the subtropical and tropical Eastern Atlantic - Part II Benthopelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Anneke; Stefanowitsch, Benjamin; Christiansen, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    Specific mechanisms, driving trophic interactions between seamount associated fishes and the pelagic community may be highly variable in different seamount systems. This study investigated the trophic structure and the main prey of benthopelagic fishes from the summit and slope regions of Ampère and Senghor, two shallow seamounts in the subtropical and tropical NE Atlantic, and the adjacent deep-sea plains. For the identification of food sources and nutritional links to the pelagic realm a combination of stomach content and stable isotope ratio (δ13C and δ15N) analyses was used. δ13C ranged from -22.2‰ to -15.4‰ and δ15N covered a total range of 8.0-15.9‰. Feeding types of fish species comprised mainly zooplanktivores and mixed feeders, but also benthivores, piscivores, and predator-scavengers. Based on epipelagic particulate organic matter, they occupied trophic positions between the 2nd and 4th trophic level. Differences in stomach contents and stable isotope signatures indicate a resource partitioning among the benthopelagic fish fauna through distinct habitat choice, vertical feeding positions and prey selection. Topographic trapping of vertically migrating zooplankton on the summit seemed to be of minor importance for food supply of the resident near-bottom fishes, rather horizontal current-driven advection of the planktonic prey was assumed as major factor. Vertically migrating micronekton and mesopelagic fishes show up as key players within the food webs at Ampère and Senghor Seamounts and the adjacent deep-sea plains.

  15. Icariside II induces apoptosis in U937 acute myeloid leukemia cells: role of inactivation of STAT3-related signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hun Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine anti-cancer effect of Icariside II purified from the root of Epimedium koreanum Nakai on human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell line U937. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Icariside II blocked the growth U937 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In this anti-proliferation process, this herb compound rendered the cells susceptible to apoptosis, manifested by enhanced accumulation of sub-G1 cell population and increased the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL-positive cells. Icariside II was able to activate caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in a time-dependent manner. Concurrently, the anti-apoptotic proteins, such as bcl-x(L and survivin in U937 cells, were downregulated by Icariside II. In addition, Icariside II could inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and function and subsequently suppress the activation of Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2, the upstream activators of STAT3, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Icariside II also enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP SH2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP-1, and the addition of sodium pervanadate (a PTP inhibitor prevented Icariside II-induced apoptosis as well as STAT3 inactivation in STAT3 positive U937 cells. Furthermore, silencing SHP-1 using its specific siRNA significantly blocked STAT3 inactivation and apoptosis induced by Icariside II in U937 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that via targeting STAT3-related signaling, Icariside II sensitizes U937 cells to apoptosis and perhaps serves as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for AML.

  16. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.

  17. PHOTOINHIBITION AND RECOVERY IN RELATION TO HETEROGENEITY OF PHOTOSYSTEM-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWIJK, KJ; SCHNETTGER, B; GRAF, M; KRAUSE, GH

    1993-01-01

    Photosystem II (PS II) heterogeneity during photoinhibition at 4-degrees-C and subsequent recovery at 20-degrees-C was investigated in spinach leaves and chloroplasts. The population of inactive, Q(B)-nonreducing centers was estimated by means of fluorescence induction in the presence of

  18. Family history assessment of personality disorders: II. Association with measures of psychosocial functioning in direct evaluations with relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M E; Ferro, T; Klein, D N

    1997-01-01

    To test the convergent validity of the Family History Interview for Personality Disorders (FHIPD), as well as the general utility of informants' reports of personality disorders, we explored the relationship between proband informant reports of Axis II diagnoses on the FHIPD and relative reports of various indices of psychosocial adjustment. Subjects were the first degree relatives (n = 454) of 224 probands participating in a family study of mood and personality disorders. Relatives provided information on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), the Personality Disorder Examination (PDE), and other variables reflecting aspects of psychosocial dysfunction that are common in personality disorders. Proband informants were interviewed about their relatives using the FHIPD Proband informant reports of personality disorders on the FHIPD were associated with a variety of forms of psychosocial dysfunction as determined in direct assessments with the relatives, even for those with no diagnosable Axis II psychopathology dysfunction as determined in direct assessments with the relatives, even for those with no diagnosable Axis II psychopathology on direct interview. These results support the convergent validity of the FHIPD, and suggest that informants may provide important information on Axis II psychopathology that is not obtained from direct interviews with the subjects themselves.

  19. A multi-institutional survey evaluating patient related QA – phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In phase I of the survey a planning intercomparison of patient-related QA was performed at 12 institutions. The participating clinics created phantom based IMRT and VMAT plans which were measured utilizing the ArcCheck diode array. Mobius3D (M3D was used in phase II. It acts as a secondary dose verification tool for patient-specific QA based on average linac beam data collected by Mobius Medical Systems. All Quasimodo linac plans will be analyzed for the continuation of the intercomparison. We aim to determine if Mobius3D is suited for use with diverse treatment techniques, if beam model customization is needed. Initially we computed first Mobius3D results by transferring all plans from phase I to our Mobius3D server. Because of some larger PTV mean dose differences we checked if output factor customization would be beneficial. We performed measurements and output factor correction to account for discrepancies in reference conditions. Compared to Mobius3D's preconfigured average beam data values, these corrected output factors differed by ±1.5% for field sizes between 7x7cm2 and 30x30cm2 and to −3.9% for 3x3cm2. Our method of correcting the output factors turns out good congruence to M3D's reference values for these medium field sizes.

  20. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment meta-data...

  1. In Place of Fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen

    Communities historically reliant on fisheries have faced changing circumstances in terms of their livelihoods, identities, demographics, and viabilities. I examine various manifestations of fisheries dependence and the process of transition as related to six cases of fishing communities undergoing...

  2. Interannual variation of larval fish assemblages in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula in relation to summer oceanographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Júnior Paulo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted during July 1994 and July 1995 in the Gulf of Cádiz with the aim of describing composition, abundance, distribution patterns and interannual variations of larval fish assemblages. Interannual differences were found in this study. In 1994, higher salinities were observed at external sites, though in 1995, higher values were observed at intermediate sites. The upper water column was warmer in 1994 and had less fish larvae density. During 1994, Sardinella aurita and Engraulis encrasicolus were abundant but spatial location was opposite. In 1995, abundance of both species was very different, but with similar spatial pattern. Cluster analysis revealed well-defined groups of stations and assemblages of larvae, primarily related to bathymetry. The "inshore assemblage" occupied the shallow coast area; its characteristics species being closely related to the estuarine system, mainly comprising Engraulis encrasicolus and Gobiidae. The "shelf assemblage" occupied the continental shelf and its characteristics species consisted of larvae whose adults inhabited the shelf province and spawn in the same zone, like Sardinella aurita and Trachurus spp. Interannual variations in composition and extension of the subgroups could be attributed to the main circulation patterns, continental water discharge and spawning strategies of fishes.

  3. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  4. The relative absorption cross-sections of photosystem I and photosystem II in chloroplasts from three types of Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, A; Thielen, A P

    1980-02-08

    In the present study we used three types of Nicotiana tabacum, cv John William's Broad Leaf (the wild type and two mutants, the yellow-green Su/su and the yellow Su/su var. Aurea) in order to correlat functional properties of Photosystem II and Photosystem I with the structural organization of their chloroplasts. The effective absorption cross-section of Photosystem II and Photosystem I centers was measured by means of the rate constant of their photoconversion under light-limiting conditions. In agreement with earlier results (Okabe, K., Schmid, G.H. and Straub, J. (1977) Plant Physiol. 60, 150--156) the photosynthetic unit size for both System II and System I in the two mutants was considerably smaller as compared to the wild type. We observed biphasic kinetics in the photoconversion of System II in all three types of N. tabacum. However, the photoconversion of System I occurred with monophasic and exponential kinetics. Under our experimental conditions, the effective cross-section of Photosystem I was comparable to that of the fast System II component (alpha centers). The relative amplitude of the slow System II component (beta centers) varied between 30% in the wild type to 70% in the Su/su var. Aurea mutant. The increased fraction of beta centers is correlated with the decreased fraction of appressed photosynthetic membranes in the chloroplasts of the two mutants. As a working hypothesis, it is suggested that beta centers are located on photosynthetic membranes directly exposed to the stroma medium.

  5. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of PAHs showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular PAHs, both from sedimentation ponds......) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both...... populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also...

  6. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik; Allan, Ian; Christensen, Jan H; Malmqvist, Linus M V; Meland, Sondre; Ranneklev, Sissel

    2016-10-01

    Road runoff is an important source of pollution to the aquatic environment, and sedimentation ponds have been installed to mitigate effects on the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a) fish from sedimentation ponds were affected by road pollution and; b) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also an improved condition. The latter results indicate that fish health was affected by road runoff. A closer investigation of PAH levels of the ecosystems of two sedimentation ponds (Skullerud and Vassum) and nearby environments were conducted. The concentration of the 16 EPA PAHs in sediments of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of PAHs showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular PAHs, both from sedimentation ponds with a petrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments; and from a lake with pyrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Japan's Apology for World War II Atrocities on Regional Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cathey, Emily A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...

  9. Monitoring of Monthly Price Changes of Cultured Fishes in Sinop Province Between 2012 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Baki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the monthly price changes of cultured fish which were offered for sale in retail fish outlets in Sinop, Turkey. The fish enterprises were determined by stratified sampling method. The enterprises were grouped as I (the most, II (moderate and III (the least according to the amount of their sales. Each group was represented by two different fish enterprises. During the study, prices of the same fish species were obtained twice a month at the same time of the day and the data were calculated as average ± SD. The differences between the groups were determined by one-way variance analysis (ANOVA and the price relation level between species was evaluated by the correlation analysis using IBM SPSS 21 Statisticssoftware. It was determined that sea bream (Sparus aurata, sea bass (Dicentrarhus labrax, rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss (portion size and kilos and salmon (Salmo salar (import were offered for sale in fish markets as cultured fish species. These species were sold during the fishing ban period (April-August. They were also sold starting from September when the fishing ban period ended up and the fishery products were at their lowest. For all the species, the differences between the pricesice were not significant between the sampled enterprises. The average values of the current prices were higher than that of 2008-2013 period. A negative strong relation was determined between the rainbow trout and the salmon.

  10. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  11. Documents Related to Churchill and FDR. The Constitution Community: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tom

    During World War II, a close friendship and excellent working relations developed between President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) and Prime Minister Winston Churchill that were crucial in the establishment of a unified effort to deal with the Axis powers. In early 1941, FDR began the long-term correspondence that developed into a close working…

  12. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  13. Doorways II: Community Counselor Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Doorways II was designed for community counselors to prevent and respond to…

  14. Phase II trial of epidermal growth factor ointment for patients with Erlotinib-related skin effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Gyu; Kang, Jung Hun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Suee; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Song, Ki-Hoon; Son, Choonhee; Park, Min Jae; Kang, Myung Hee; Kim, Hoon Gu; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Young Suk; Sun, Jong Mu; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Chan Kyu; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jang, Joung-Soon; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Hyo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of erlotinib, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been demonstrated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer (PC). In the present study, we evaluated the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ointment on erlotinib-related skin effects (ERSEs). This was an open-label, non-comparative, multicenter, phase II trial. The patients included those diagnosed with NSCLC or PC who were treated with erlotinib. The effectiveness of the ointment was defined as follows: (1) grade 2, 3, or 4 ERSEs downgraded to ≤ grade 1 or (2) grade 3 or 4 ERSEs downgraded to grade 2 and persisted for at least 2 weeks. Fifty-two patients from seven institutes in Korea were enrolled with informed consent. The final assessment included 46 patients (30 males, 16 females). According to the definition of effectiveness, the EGF ointment was effective in 36 (69.2%) intention to treat patients. There were no statistically significant differences in the effectiveness of the EGF ointment by gender (p = 0.465), age (p = 0.547), tumor type (p = 0.085), erlotinib dosage (p = 0.117), and number of prior chemotherapy sessions (p = 0.547). The grading for the average National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) rating of rash/acne and itching improved from 2.02 ± 0.83 to 1.13 ± 0.89 and 1.52 ± 0.84 to 0.67 ± 0.90, respectively (p reason for discontinuing the study was progression of cancer (37%). Based on the results, the EGF ointment is effective for ERSEs, regardless of gender, age, type of tumor, and dosage of erlotinib. The EGF ointment evenly improved all kinds of symptoms of ERSEs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01593995.

  15. Regulation of pathogenicity in hop stunt viroid-related group II citrus viroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reanwarakorn, K; Semancik, J S

    1998-12-01

    Nucleotide sequences were determined for two hop stunt viroid-related Group II citrus viroids characterized as either a cachexia disease non-pathogenic variant (CVd-IIa) or a pathogenic variant (CVd-IIb). Sequence identity between the two variants of 95.6% indicated a conserved genome with the principal region of nucleotide difference clustered in the variable (V) domain. Full-length viroid RT-PCR cDNA products were cloned into plasmid SP72. Viroid cDNA clones as well as derived RNA transcripts were transmissible to citron (Citrus medica L.) and Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. To determine the locus of cachexia pathogenicity as well as symptom expression in Luffa, chimeric viroid cDNA clones were constructed from segments of either the left terminal, pathogenic and conserved (T1-P-C) domains or the conserved, variable and right terminal (C-V-T2) domains of CVd-IIa or CVd-IIb in reciprocal exchanges. Symptoms induced by the various chimeric constructs on the two bioassay hosts reflected the differential response observed with CVd-IIa and -IIb. Constructs with the C-V-T2 domains region from clone-IIa induced severe symptoms on Luffa typical of CVd-IIa, but were non-symptomatic on mandarin as a bioassay host for the cachexia disease. Constructs with the same region (C-V-T2) from the clone-IIb genome induced only mild symptoms on Luffa, but produced a severe reaction on mandarin, as observed for CVd-IIb. Specific site-directed mutations were introduced into the V domain of the CVd-IIa clone to construct viroid cDNA clones with either partial or complete conversions to the CVd-IIb sequence. With the introduction of six site-specific changes into the V domain of the clone-IIa genome, cachexia pathogenicity was acquired as well as a moderation of severe symptoms on Luffa.

  16. Dissociative experiences in bipolar disorder II: Are they related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Eryilmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of dissociative symptoms and whether they are related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in bipolar disorder type II (BD-II. Methods Thirty-three euthymic patients (HDRS<8, YMRS<5 and 50 healthy subjects were evaluated by SCID-I and SCID-NP. We excluded all first and second-axis comorbidities. All patients and healthy subjects were examined with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-53, and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scale (Y-BOCS. Results In pairwise comparisons between the BD-II and control groups, the total CTQ, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, DES, and total Y-BOCS scores in the BD-II group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05. There were five cases with DES scores over 30 (15.2% and one case (2% in the control group. DES was weakly correlated with total CTQ and Y-BOCS in patients diagnosed with BD-II (r = 0.278, p < 0.05 and r = 0.217, p < 0.05, respectively. While there was no correlation between total CTQ and Y-BOCS, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale was found to be related to Y-BOCS (r = 0.330, p < 0.05. Discussion These results suggest that there is a relation between childhood traumas and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or that dissociative symptoms are more associated with anxiety than obsessive symptoms, which prevents the increase of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in BD-II.

  17. Relation between environmental variables and the fish community structure in streams of das Mortes and Xingu river basins – MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscylla Rodrigues Matos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental variables may determine and structure the composition of fish fauna. Studies comparing differences between physical and chemical variables of water between close river basins are few. This paper aimed to check which limnological variables are related to the distribution of fish species in two river basins. For this, 20 streams were sampled, divided between das Mortes and Xingu river basins. At each point one measured a total of 8 environmental variables. Fishes were collected through trawl. Total richness was 57 species, 29 of them from Xingu river basin, 35 from das Mortes river basin, and 7 species common to both river basins. The analyses showed that the streams in these two basins have distinct limnological and faunal features. The streams in Xingu river basin had lower pH values which may have been influenced by the high rates of organic decomposition. The streams of das Mortes river showed higher values of suspended matter and chlorophyll, probably due to higher degradation of streams and lower vegetation cover levels.

  18. The Effect on Selenium Concentrations of a Randomized Intervention with Fish and Mussels in a Population with Relatively Low Habitual Dietary Selenium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik H.; Andersen, Klaus K.; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Selenium status of the Danish population is below that assumed optimal for the suggested protective effects against chronic diseases, including certain cancers. Fish and shellfish are important dietary sources of selenium in Denmark. We investigated the effect of increased fish and mussel intake on selenium blood concentrations in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48–76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received 1000 g fish and mussels/week for 26 weeks (~50 μg selenium/day). Controls received no intervention. Non-fasting blood samples were taken and whole blood selenium was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and plasma selenoprotein P (SelP) was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. All available observations were included in linear multiple regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the intervention. The difference in mean change for intervention compared with control persons was 14.9 ng/mL (95% CI: 10.2, 19.7) for whole blood selenium, and 7.0 ng/mL (95% CI: 3.1, 10.9) for plasma SelP (Weeks 0–26). Selenium concentrations were significantly increased after 26 weeks of intervention, albeit to a lower degree than expected. PMID:25599275

  19. On the foundations of special theory of relativity - II. (The principle of covariance and a basic inertial frame)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, S.P.; Gulati, S.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt has been made to replace the principle of relativity with the principle of covariance. This amounts to modification of the theory of relativity based on the two postulates (i) the principle of covariance and (ii) the light principle. Some of the fundamental results and the laws of relativistic mechanics, electromagnetodynamics and quantum mechanics are re-examined. The principle of invariance is questioned. (A.K.)

  20. Fish allergy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Cristina Y; Reche, Marta; Fiandor, Ana; Valbuena, Teresa; Cuevas, Teresa; Esteban, Manuel Martin

    2008-11-01

    Fish and its derived products play an important role in human nutrition, but they may also be a potent food allergen. Fish can be an ingested, contact, and inhalant allergen. Gad c I, a Parvalbumin, the major allergen in codfish, is considered as fish and amphibian pan-allergen. Prevalence of fish allergy appears to depend on the amount of fish eaten in the local diet. In Europe, the highest consumption occurs in Scandinavian countries, Spain and Portugal. In Spain, fish is the third most frequent allergen in children under 2 yr of age after egg and cow's milk. An adverse reaction to fish may be of non-allergic origin, due to food contamination or newly formed toxic products, but the most frequent type of adverse reactions to fish are immunologic-mediated reactions (allergic reactions). Such allergic reactions may be both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated. Most cases are IgE-mediated, due to ingestion or contact with fish or as a result of inhalation of cooking vapors. Some children develop non-IgE-mediated type allergies such as food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome. The clinical symptoms related to IgE-mediated fish allergy are most frequently acute urticaria and angioedema as well as mild oral symptoms, worsening of atopic dermatitis, respiratory symptoms such as rhinitis or asthma, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. Anaphylaxis may also occur. Among all the species studied, those from the Tunidae and Xiphiidae families appear to be the least allergenic.

  1. The relative influence of individual risk factors for attempted suicide in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William V; Na, Peter J; Geske, Jennifer R; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Biernacka, Joanna M

    2018-01-01

    To compare the relative influence (RI) of individual predictors for lifetime attempted suicide between adults with bipolar I (BDBD-I) and bipolar II disorder (BDBD-II). We conducted an analysis of data from 1465 enrollees in the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank. Demographic and clinical variables and history of attempted suicide were ascertained using standardized questionnaires. Height and weight were assessed to determine body mass index (BMI); obesity was defined as BMI ≥30kg/m 2 . The frequencies of these variables were compared between persons with and without self-reported lifetime suicide attempts both overall, and within BD-I and BD-II subgroups. Gradient boosting machine (GBM) models were used to quantify the RI of study variables on the risk of lifetime attempted suicide. Nearly one-third of patients reported having a lifetime suicide attempt. Attempted suicide rates were higher in patients with BD-I than BD-II, but absolute differences were small. Lifetime attempted suicide was associated with female sex, BD-I subtype, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities, binge eating behavior, lifetime history of rapid cycling, other indicators of adverse illness course, and early age of bipolar illness onset in the entire cohort. Differences in the rank-ordering of RI for predictors of attempted suicide between BD-I and BD-II patients were modest. Rapid cycling was a strong risk factor for attempted suicide, particularly in men with BD-I. Actively psychotic or suicidal patients needing psychiatric hospitalization were initially excluded, but were approached after these acute psychiatric problems resolved. The prevalence of lifetime attempted suicide was significantly higher in BD-I than BD-II in this large, cross-sectional cohort. Predictors of attempted suicide were similar in BD-I and BD-II subgroups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Fish assemblage structure of Koycegiz Lagoon Estuary, Turkey: Spatial and temporal distribution patterns in relation to environmental variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, S.; Buhan, E.; Winemiller, K. O.; Yilmaz, H.

    2005-09-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure of Koycegiz Lagoon-Estuarine System (KLES), located on the northwestern Turkish coast of Mediterranean, was investigated along an estuarine gradient where salinity ranged from 5 in upper reaches to 40 in lower reaches during October 1993-September 1994. Throughout the study, 42 species, consisting of marine (25), marine-estuarine-dependent (12), freshwater (3), catadromous (1), and estuarine resident (1) forms, were collected in trammel nets. Although species richness of marine species was greater than that of other groups, numerical contribution by marine species to the total catch was only 16%. Tilapia spp., the most abundant species mostly during summer and early spring at upper reaches, contributed 17% of the total samples. Among the seven species of Mugilidae, which contributed 42% of the total catch, Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata, and Liza salines contributed 10, 13, and 10% of the total catch, respectively. Consistent with findings from other studies, species richness and abundance were highest during late spring and summer and the lowest during winter and early spring. Samples from sites at or near the sea had more marine species. Samples from upper reaches had more freshwater and marine-estuarine-dependent species. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that salinity and turbidity were the most important environmental parameters affecting fishes. Sites near the sea were associated with high salinity and low turbidity, and sites in upper reaches had low salinity and high turbidity. Thus, the pattern observed in fish assemblage structure appears to be strongly influenced by species' responses to dominant salinity and turbidity gradients.

  3. Fishing ground distribution of neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) in relation to oceanographic conditions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2017-12-01

    Neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is a squid species of the North Pacific Ocean, which plays an important economical role in the international fishery. Logbook data for Chinese squid-jigging fishery over 2004-2011 were used to evaluate the relationship between the fishing grounds of the squid and the convergent frontal areas, which were defined by the contour lines of specific sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentration. Our results indicate that the SST in the range of 15 to 19°C and the Chl- a concentration in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 mg m-3 are the favorable conditions for the aggregation of the squid. Additionally, we deduced that the SST at 17.5°C and the Chl- a concentration at 0.25 mg m-3 are the optimal environmental conditions for the aggregation of O. bartramii. In August, the annual CPUE is positively correlated with the proportion of the fishing grounds with favorable SST and Chl- a concentration, as well as the combination of the two variables, implying that the abundance of the squid annually is largely depending on the presence of the favorable environmental conditions for fishery in August. Minor spatial difference between mean latitudinal location of the 17.5°C SST and 0.25 mg m-3 Chl- a fronts can increase the CPUEs of O. bartramii. Furthermore, the monthly latitudinal gravity centers of the CPUE closely followed the mean latitudinal position of the contour lines of the 17.5°C SST and the 0.25 mg m-3 Chl- a concentration. Our findings suggest the convergent oceanographic features (fronts) play significant roles in regulating the distribution and abundance of the western stock of the winter-spring cohort of O. bartramii, which can help people to improve their ability to discover the O. bartramii fishing grounds with higher productivity.

  4. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  5. Haematological and histopathological analysis in South American fish Piaractus mesopotamicus parasitized by monogenean (Dactylogyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GT Jerônimo

    Full Text Available Monogeneans are the parasites mostly found on the body surface and gills of fish and can cause large losses in farmed fish. Some studies demonstrate elevated parasitic levels causing hematological alterations. But few of them relate the effects of parasitism on the hematology and histopathology of native freshwater farmed fish. This study evaluated the host-parasite relationship in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus parasitized by the monogenean Anacanthorus penilabiatus. Hematological and parasitological assessments were obtained in 60 fish captured in a fish farm located in Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil. Fish were analyzed in different categories of parasite number: class I (n=13; 0-200 parasites, class II (n=17; 201-1200 parasites; class III (n=7; 1201-2200 parasites; and class IV (n=23; more than 2200 parasites per host. The highest levels of parasitism caused significant decrease (p<0.05 in the hematocrit, red blood cells (RBC, mean hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and basophils number. Thrombocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and LG-PAS did not present significant difference among the parasitic levels. In contrast, increased number of total leukocytes and lymphocytes were found in highly-parasitized fish. A positive linear correlation (p<0.01 was found between the amount of parasites and fish weight. Histopathology revealed severe hyperplasia, sub-epithelial edema, fusion of the secondary lamellae, focal and multifocal necrosis in highly parasitized fish.

  6. 77 FR 73586 - Further Inquiry Into Issues Related to Mobility Fund Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... highest cost areas. 17. Small business participation. In the USF/ICC Transformation Order and FNPRM, the... Phase II of the Mobility Fund. As established in the USF/ICC Transformation Order and FNPRM, 76 FC 78383... previously filed in response to the USF/ICC Transformation Order and FNPRM and the Bureaus' experience in...

  7. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  8. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  9. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  10. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  11. The causes of functional psychoses as seen by patients and their relatives. II. The relatives' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, M C; Klusmann, D; Walpuski, O

    1988-01-01

    The concepts of relatives of patients suffering from functional psychoses regarding the causes of the illness were investigated using the same methodological approach as with the patients. Relatives, like patients, favoured psychosocial over biological explanations. However, when compared pairwise the concordance between relatives and patients was very low. Some methodological refinements recommended for further research are proposed.

  12. Drinking by amphibious fish: convergent evolution of thirst mechanisms during vertebrate terrestrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yukitoshi; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Saito, Kazuhiro; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Taro; Pearson, James T; Takei, Yoshio

    2018-01-12

    Thirst aroused in the forebrain by angiotensin II (AngII) or buccal drying motivates terrestrial vertebrates to search for water, whereas aquatic fish can drink surrounding water only by reflex swallowing generated in the hindbrain. Indeed, AngII induces drinking through the hindbrain even after removal of the whole forebrain in aquatic fish. Here we show that AngII induces thirst also in the amphibious mudskipper goby without direct action on the forebrain, but through buccal drying. Intracerebroventricular injection of AngII motivated mudskippers to move into water and drink as with tetrapods. However, AngII primarily increased immunoreactive c-Fos at the hindbrain swallowing center where AngII receptors were expressed, as in other ray-finned fish, and such direct action on the forebrain was not found. Behavioural analyses showed that loss of buccal water on land by AngII-induced swallowing, by piercing holes in the opercula, or by water-absorptive gel placed in the cavity motivated mudskippers to move to water for refilling. Since sensory detection of water at the bucco-pharyngeal cavity like 'dry mouth' has recently been noted to regulate thirst in mammals, similar mechanisms seem to have evolved in distantly related species in order to solve osmoregulatory problems during terrestrialization.

  13. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  14. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Diaz, A. I. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M.; Mast, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Camino Bajo de Huetor s/n, Aptdo. 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Husemann, B., E-mail: frosales@cantab.net [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-09-10

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution-the local mass-metallicity relation-extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce-with a noticeable agreement-the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  15. Incisor root resorption in class II division 2 patients in relation to orthodontic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faxén Sepanian, Varro; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aims were 1. to analyse differences in the occurrence of orthodontic induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) of the upper and lower incisors in Angle Class II division 2 patients, between patients treated with fixed appliance only (one-phase treatment group......-four subjects treated for Class II division 2 malocclusion were divided into two groups: 46 patients in the one-phase treatment group (28 girls, 18 boys, mean age 14.4) and 28 patients in the two-phase treatment group (18 girls, 10 boys, mean age 12.4) where 336 and 201 incisors were analysed respectively...... group showed significantly more OIIRR for lower central incisors (P = 0.002) compared to the two-phase treatment group. For the both groups combined, boys showed more OIIRR than girls (P = 0.002) and patients with agenesis showed more OIIRR than patients without agenesis (P = 0.019) for the lower...

  16. Depth-related trends in morphological and functional diversity of demersal fish assemblages in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marc; Tuset, Víctor M.; Cartes, Joan E.; Massutí, Enric; Lombarte, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    The morphological and functional traits of fishes are key factors defining the ecological and biological habits of species within ecosystems. However, little is known about how the depth gradient affects these factors. In the present study, several demersal fish assemblages from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean Sea) along a wide depth range (40-2200 m) were morphologically, functionally and ecologically described. The morphological characterization of communities was performed using geometric morphometric methods, while the functional structures were obtained by the functional categorization of species and the application of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). The results revealed that morphospaces presented less richness of body forms as depth increases, although they showed a progressive spreading of species toward the periphery, with a proliferation of more extreme body traits, demonstrating lower morphological redundancy. In addition, a trend toward the elongation of body shape was also observed with depth. Moreover, functional diversity increased with bathymetry up to 1400 m, where it sharply decreased downwards. This decrease was parallel to a progressive fall of H‧ (ecological diversity) up to 2200 m. Functional redundancy progressively decreased until the deepest assemblage (more constantly in the deeper levels), which was almost exclusively dominated by benthopelagic wandering species feeding on suprabenthos. Redundancy analysis (RDA) demonstrated that both morphological and functional spaces showed high variation along the bathymetric range. Mantel test indicated that the majority of species presented similar spatial distribution within the morphospace and functional space, although in the functional space the more abundant species were always located at the periphery. These results demonstrate that the assessment of the morpho-functional variation between marine communities helps to understand the processes that affect the structure and

  17. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  18. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  19. Radio observations of H II regions and some related theoretical work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.; Wink, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the whole complex of radio and IR sources associated with an O-star is referred to as H II region. Radio continuum observations are widely used for the interpretation of IR-observations. Thus, this review is limited to recent high frequency single dish observations and aperture synthesis observations. Recent developments in the field of radio recombination line observations and their application to the interpretation of IR-observations are discussed. (G.T.H.)

  20. Individual and Environmental determinants of Health Related Quality of Life in Iranian patients with type II diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hadipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: In recent two past decades prevalence of Type II diabetes has increased dramatically. Despite its financial costs, one of its consequence outcomes is decreasing quality of life of Diabetic patients. So it seems to be more useful to evaluate the influential personal and also environmental factors on patient’s quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess effects of personal and environmental factors on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL of Iranian type II diabetic patients. Material and Methods: We worked on some parts of data form a national cross sectional study conducted in 2006. Sampling technique was random cluster sampling. Data collection method was face to face interview based on EQ-5D questionnaire. Interview form, also measured personal factors include: gender, age, duration of diseases from diagnosis, educational and family economic status. We collected our environmental factors such as literacy rate, urbanization rate, number of medical clinics and endocrinologists from latest national census, 1385. For data analysis we used multilevel regression analysis by Ml-win software. Results: Available data were analyses for 3472 diabetic patients. Gender, age, duration of disease, economic status and educational level in personal level and urbanization rate as an environmental factor were statistically significant factors in relation with health related quality of life. Conclusion: Based on study results, gender, and age, duration of illness, family economic and educational status of patients and the rate of urbanization affect on the HRQoL of type II diabetic patients.

  1. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time.......In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  2. Interspecific and locational differences in metal levels in edible fish tissue from Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-07-06

    Metal levels in fish have been extensively studied, but little data currently exists for the Middle East. We examined the levels of metals and metalloids (aluminum, arsenic, copper, manganese, selenium, zinc, and mercury) in the flesh of 13 fish species collected from three fishing sites and a local fish market in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We tested the following null hypotheses: (1) there are no interspecific differences in metal levels, (2) there are no differences in metal levels in fishes between market and fishing sites, (3) there are no size-related differences in metal levels, and (4) there are no differences in selenium:mercury molar ratio among different fish species. There were significant interspecific differences in concentrations for all metals. There was an order of magnitude difference in the levels of aluminum, arsenic, mercury, manganese, and selenium, indicating wide variation in potential effects on the fish themselves and on their predators. Fishes from Area II, close to a large commercial port, had the highest levels of arsenic, mercury, and selenium, followed by market fishes. Mercury was positively correlated with body size in 6 of the 13 fish species examined. Mercury was correlated positively with arsenic and selenium, but negatively with aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc. Selenium:mercury molar ratios varied significantly among species, with Carangoides bajad, Cephalopholis argus, Variola louti, and Ephinephelus tauvina having ratios below 10:1. These findings can be used in risk assessments, design of mercury reduction plans, development of fish advisories to protect public health, and future management decision-making.

  3. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the

  4. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  5. Fishing degrades size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James P W; Williams, Ivor D; Edwards, Andrew M; McPherson, Jana; Yeager, Lauren; Vigliola, Laurent; Brainard, Russell E; Baum, Julia K

    2017-03-01

    Fishing pressure on coral reef ecosystems has been frequently linked to reductions of large fishes and reef fish biomass. Associated impacts on overall community structure are, however, less clear. In size-structured aquatic ecosystems, fishing impacts are commonly quantified using size spectra, which describe the distribution of individual body sizes within a community. We examined the size spectra and biomass of coral reef fish communities at 38 US-affiliated Pacific islands that ranged in human presence from near pristine to human population centers. Size spectra 'steepened' steadily with increasing human population and proximity to market due to a reduction in the relative biomass of large fishes and an increase in the dominance of small fishes. Reef fish biomass was substantially lower on inhabited islands than uninhabited ones, even at inhabited islands with the lowest levels of human presence. We found that on populated islands size spectra exponents decreased (analogous to size spectra steepening) linearly with declining biomass, whereas on uninhabited islands there was no relationship. Size spectra were steeper in regions of low sea surface temperature but were insensitive to variation in other environmental and geomorphic covariates. In contrast, reef fish biomass was highly sensitive to oceanographic conditions, being influenced by both oceanic productivity and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that community size structure may be a more robust indicator than fish biomass to increasing human presence and that size spectra are reliable indicators of exploitation impacts across regions of different fish community compositions, environmental drivers, and fisheries types. Size-based approaches that link directly to functional properties of fish communities, and are relatively insensitive to abiotic variation across biogeographic regions, offer great potential for developing our understanding of fishing impacts in coral reef ecosystems. © 2016

  6. Risk Denial and Socio-Economic Factors Related to High HIV Transmission in a Fishing Community in Rakai, Uganda: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamadi Lubega

    Full Text Available In Kasensero fishing community, home of the first recorded case of HIV in Uganda, HIV transmission is still very high with an incidence of 4.3 and 3.1 per 100 person-years in women and men, respectively, and an HIV prevalence of 44%, reaching up to 74% among female sex workers. We explored drivers for the high HIV transmission at Kasensero from the perspective of fishermen and other community members to inform future policy and preventive interventions.20 in-depth interviews including both HIV positive and HIV negative respondents, and 12 focus-group discussions involving a total of 92 respondents from the Kasensero fishing community were conducted during April-September 2014. Content analysis was performed to identify recurrent themes.The socio-economic risk factors for high HIV transmission in Kasensero fishing community cited were multiple and cross-cutting and categorized into the following themes: power of money, risk denial, environmental triggers and a predisposing lifestyle and alcoholism and drug abuse. Others were: peer pressure, poor housing and the search for financial support for both the men and women which made them vulnerable to HIV exposure and or risk behavior.There is a need for context specific combination prevention interventions in Kasensero that includes the fisher folk and other influential community leaders. Such groups could be empowered with the knowledge and social mobilization skills to fight the negative and risky behaviors, perceptions, beliefs, misconceptions and submission attitudes to fate that exposes the community to high HIV transmission. There is also need for government/partners to ensure effective policy implementation, life jackets for all fishermen, improve the poor housing at the community so as to reduce overcrowding and other housing related predispositions to high HIV rates at the community. Work place AIDS-competence teams have been successfully used to address high HIV transmission in similar

  7. Subsecond Sensory Modulation of Serotonin Levels in a Primary Sensory Area and Its Relation to Ongoing Communication Behavior in a Weakly Electric Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotowat, Haleh; Harvey-Girard, Erik; Cheer, Joseph F; Krahe, Rüdiger; Maler, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of vertebrates project to most regions of the brain and are known to significantly affect sensory processing. The subsecond dynamics of sensory modulation of serotonin levels and its relation to behavior, however, remain unknown. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure serotonin release in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus . These fish use an electric organ to generate a quasi-sinusoidal electric field for communicating with conspecifics. In response to conspecific signals, they frequently produce signal modulations called chirps. We measured changes in serotonin concentration in the hindbrain electrosensory lobe (ELL) with a resolution of 0.1 s concurrently with chirping behavior evoked by mimics of conspecific electric signals. We show that serotonin release can occur phase locked to stimulus onset as well as spontaneously in the ELL region responsible for processing these signals. Intense auditory stimuli, on the other hand, do not modulate serotonin levels in this region, suggesting modality specificity. We found no significant correlation between serotonin release and chirp production on a trial-by-trial basis. However, on average, in the trials where the fish chirped, there was a reduction in serotonin release in response to stimuli mimicking similar-sized same-sex conspecifics. We hypothesize that the serotonergic system is part of an intricate sensory-motor loop: serotonin release in a sensory area is triggered by sensory input, giving rise to motor output, which can in turn affect serotonin release at the timescale of the ongoing sensory experience and in a context-dependent manner.

  8. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Mast, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Husemann, B.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution—the local mass-metallicity relation—extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce—with a noticeable agreement—the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  9. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endangered fish, the slender shiner Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa and cross-species amplification across five related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K S; Moon, S J; Han, S H; Kim, K Y; Bang, I C

    2016-09-02

    The slender shiner Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae; Gobioninae) is an endangered freshwater fish species endemic to Korea. The current strategies for its conservation involve the study of population genetic characters and identification of management units. These strategies require suitable molecular markers to study genetic diversity and genetic structure. Here, we developed nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for P. tenuicorpa for the first time by applying an enrichment method from a size-selected genomic library. The developed microsatellite markers produced a total of 101 alleles (average 11.2). The observed and expected heterozygosities averaged 0.805 and 0.835, respectively. Among the nine identified markers, five markers showed successful amplification across five related Korean Gobioninae species. Thus, the microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful to establish conservation strategies for both P. tenuicorpa and other related species.

  10. Emergency Response Equipment and Related Training: Airborne Radiological Computer System (Model II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Colton

    2007-02-28

    The materials included in the Airborne Radiological Computer System, Model-II (ARCS-II) were assembled with several considerations in mind. First, the system was designed to measure and record the airborne gamma radiation levels and the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates, and to provide a first overview look of the extent and severity of an accident's impact. Second, the portable system had to be light enough and durable enough that it could be mounted in an aircraft, ground vehicle, or watercraft. Third, the system must control the collection and storage of the data, as well as provide a real-time display of the data collection results to the operator. The notebook computer and color graphics printer components of the system would only be used for analyzing and plotting the data. In essence, the provided equipment is composed of an acquisition system and an analysis system. The data can be transferred from the acquisition system to the analysis system at the end of the data collection or at some other agreeable time.

  11. Emergency Response Equipment and Related Training: Airborne Radiological Computer System (Model II) user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David P. Colton

    2007-01-01

    The materials included in the Airborne Radiological Computer System, Model-II (ARCS-II) were assembled with several considerations in mind. First, the system was designed to measure and record the airborne gamma radiation levels and the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates, and to provide a first overview look of the extent and severity of an accident's impact. Second, the portable system had to be light enough and durable enough that it could be mounted in an aircraft, ground vehicle, or watercraft. Third, the system must control the collection and storage of the data, as well as provide a real-time display of the data collection results to the operator. The notebook computer and color graphics printer components of the system would only be used for analyzing and plotting the data. In essence, the provided equipment is composed of an acquisition system and an analysis system. The data can be transferred from the acquisition system to the analysis system at the end of the data collection or at some other agreeable time

  12. Distribution of zooplankton and its relations to food items of fish in coral areas of Karah Island, Malaysia, South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Joni, Z.M.; Kassim, Z.; Hussin, W.M.R.W.; Zakaria, M.Z.; Hajisamae, S.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of food items of coral reef fish in breeding grounds of the coastal waters of Karah Island was studied. Samples of fish were caught manually by divers using conventional fishing gears. Stomachs of fish collected were removed onboard, preserved and taken to the laboratory for the analysis of the content. Crustaceous were found to be the main food item of the fish families. The selected breeding ground appeared to be the productive stations for the studied species of fish, zooplankton and the food items. The result also shows a significant relationship between the food items in fish stomachs and zooptoankton distribution. Information on the availability and distribution of food items is important for the management of fishery resources as well as for the efficient exploitation of the species. (author)

  13. Swimbladder Allometry of Selected Midwater Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-05

    Gibbs, R. II., Jr., 1971. "Notes on Fishes of the Genus Eustomias ( Stomiatoidei , Melanstomiatidae) in Bermuda Waters, With the Description of...N00140-70-C-0307, Smithsonian Institution. Goodyear, R. H. and R. H. Gibbs, Jr., 1970. "Systematics and Zoogeography of Stomiatoid Fishes of the

  14. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  15. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  17. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  18. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  19. Safety related considerations for operation with defected elements in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, R.M.; Sackett, J.I.; Lambert, J.D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Traditionally, EBR-II has employed the 'shutdown and remove' philosophy when breached fuel elements are encountered. This mode of operation maintained in-plant inventories of fission products at low levels and allowed certain fission product detection systems to be employed as automatic plant shutdown devices. Information from fuel failure propagation studies and fast reactor operation indicates that shutdown under these conditions is unwarranted. Analytical studies, as well as fast reactor experience, further indicate that failure propagation, if it occurs at all, will not cross adjacent subassembly boundaries. Therefore, the 'shutdown and remove' philosophy can be liberalized to allow the demonstration of safety during a run-beyond-clad-breach mode of operation. This mode of operation is essential to the demonstration of the economics of commercial LMFBR systems

  20. Relating DSM-5 section III personality traits to section II personality disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, L C; Benson, K T; Skodol, A E

    2016-02-01

    The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group formulated a hybrid dimensional/categorical model that represented personality disorders as combinations of core impairments in personality functioning with specific configurations of problematic personality traits. Specific clusters of traits were selected to serve as indicators for six DSM categorical diagnoses to be retained in this system - antisocial, avoidant, borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive and schizotypal personality disorders. The goal of the current study was to describe the empirical relationships between the DSM-5 section III pathological traits and DSM-IV/DSM-5 section II personality disorder diagnoses. Data were obtained from a sample of 337 clinicians, each of whom rated one of his or her patients on all aspects of the DSM-IV and DSM-5 proposed alternative model. Regression models were constructed to examine trait-disorder relationships, and the incremental validity of core personality dysfunctions (i.e. criterion A features for each disorder) was examined in combination with the specified trait clusters. Findings suggested that the trait assignments specified by the Work Group tended to be substantially associated with corresponding DSM-IV concepts, and the criterion A features provided additional diagnostic information in all but one instance. Although the DSM-5 section III alternative model provided a substantially different taxonomic structure for personality disorders, the associations between this new approach and the traditional personality disorder concepts in DSM-5 section II make it possible to render traditional personality disorder concepts using alternative model traits in combination with core impairments in personality functioning.

  1. THE CLASSIC WAY OF FISH PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurica Kalember

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Today's population faces great difficulties in fish marketing, although it is very valuable food. The classic supply with fresh fish has little influence on its consumption, which is not remarkable anyhow. Therefore one shulud be reminded on the classic, almost forgotten, ways of fish processing that can substantially increase fish assortment and improve its distribution. After cleaning and cutting the fish (primary procedures in its processing, comes salting, after which the salted fish can become an end-product or it can be one of many semi-products in the fish production chain. The most common methods of fish salting are dry-salting, dry-wet-salting (Greek-Dalmatian and wet-salting (pickling. The aim of fish drying is its dehydratation. Our country has the experience of traditional drying, sun-drying and natural drying of fish. Each of these has its own special qualities, depending on the fish species and the drying temperature. Smoked fish gets a very distinctive and spicy aroma and a specific colour. There are two kinds of smoking - cold and warm - based on the smoke derived from burning some special trees or, lately, from smoke preparations. Marinades are old procedures of fish processing in acetic acid and specific spices which can be prepared cold, fried or cooked. Fish-roe of some specific fish species has a special value and is considered a delicacy. The most precious black caviar is derived from the sturgeon roe and some of its related species.

  2. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (Sagittae of Southeastern - Southern Brazil Part I: Gadiformes (Macrouridae, Moridae, Bregmacerotidae, Phycidae and Merlucciidae; Part II: Perciformes (Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Scombridae and Serranidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drawings, detailed pictures, precise descriptions and measurements that characterize otoliths must be made available for studies in various areas, including taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, fisheries, paleontology, diversity, predator-prey relationships and modeling. The Collection of Teleostei Fish Otoliths of Southeastern-Southern Brazil (COSS-Brasil of IOUSP contains 45,000 pairs of otoliths from 210 species. This publication is the first in a series that will constitute an atlas of Teleostei otoliths for southeastern-southern Brazil and presents the results of the morphologic and morphometric analyses of 11 Gadiformes and 36 Perciformes species by means of the most commonly used features, measurements and indices. Three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed whenever possible. The frequency of occurrence was calculated for each characteristic by total length classes (TL, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed (multiple χ2 test; significance 0.05. Morphometric analyses were conducted for each characteristic per total length (TL class and for the whole sample, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed.

  3. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  4. Spatio-temporal segregation and size distribution of fish assemblages as related to non-native species occurrence in the middle rio Doce Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Corrêa Giacomini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The lakes in the middle rio Doce Valley (MG are suffering impacts due to the introduction of invasive fish species, mainly piscivorous species like red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri and peacock bass Cichla kelberi. Fishes were collected in bimonthly samples conducted at ten lakes along a year. The present study showed that the composition of native fish assemblages is significantly related to the presence and type of non-native species. Fish species distribution among lakes can be explained by differences in species body size: smaller native species are less concentrated in lakes with invasive piscivores, which is in accordance with the hypothesis that they have greater susceptibility to predation by invaders. Another probable cause for this correlation is the proximity of lakes to the drainage system, which could explain both the non-native incidence and the turnover of native species composition. Furthermore, temporal variability in species composition was significantly higher in invaded lakes. This last factor may be linked to seasonal flood pulses, which carry immigrant fishes from streams in the vicinity. The metacommunity framework can bring insights for future studies in such spatially structured systems, and the approach should improve our understanding of processes underlying species composition as well as help direct conservation-focused management plans.Os lagos do Vale do médio rio Doce (MG têm sofrido impactos devido à introdução de espécies invasoras de peixes, principalmente de espécies piscívoras como a piranha Pygocentrus nattereri e o tucunaré Cichla kelberi. Peixes foram coletados em seis amostragens bimestrais durante um ano. O presente trabalho demonstrou que a composição das assembleias de peixes nativos está significativamente relacionada à presença e ao tipo de espécies não nativas. A distribuição de espécies entre os lagos pode ser explicada por diferenças no tamanho corporal: espécies nativas de

  5. Direct binding of autoimmune disease related T cell epitopes to purified Lewis rat MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joosten, I; Wauben, M H; Holewijn, M C

    1994-01-01

    New strategies applied in the treatment of experimental autoimmune disease models involve blocking or modulation of MHC-peptide-TCR interactions either at the level of peptide-MHC interaction or, alternatively, at the level of T cell recognition. In order to identify useful competitor peptides one...... characteristics of the Lewis rat MHC class II RT1.B1 molecule. We have now developed a biochemical binding assay which enables competition studies in which the relative MHC binding affinity of a set of non-labelled peptides can be assessed while employing detection of biotinylated marker peptides...

  6. Radioprotective effect of fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhijski, L.; Alyakov, M.; Tsvetkova, E.; Kavrakirova, S.; Chamova, S.; Chaneva, M.

    1993-01-01

    New fish cans were prepared in the Institute of Fish Industry, Burgas (BG), containing pectin and additives. A biological experimental study was conducted to investigate the decontaminating effect of the new products. The results demonstrated no decontaminating effect in relation to radiocesium and radiostrontium. A pronounced prophylactic effect was observed in case of external irradiation, judged by endogenous spleen colonies. (author)

  7. Growth parameters and economics of tilapia cage culture using two commercial fish diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tetteh-Doku Mensah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial aquaculture feed diets available on the Ghanaian market was subjected to daily feeding of Oreochromis niloticus and growth parameters and economic profitability evaluated in a 66.67 m3 cages. The 12 week trial performed using 16,000 fish with mean weight 102.17 ± 3.1 g was sampled, counted and divided equally to four cages. The two test diets (Diet I: Nicoluzzi and Diet II: Rannan were in duplicate. Mean live weights of fish in trial groups reached 420.23 ± 20.44 g and 408.62 ± 54.31 g for test Diets I and II respectively. Growth data indicated that, the final live weight, average daily weight gain, condition factor showed no significant difference among test diets (p > 0.05. The best FCR of 1.47 was obtained from test Diet I. Specific growth rate also showed similar values. High gross and net yield was recorded for fishes fed with Diet I and could be due to their relatively good growth performance, good feed conversion rate, relatively high survival rate which, in turn, gave high profit index of 1.87. The total feed fed to fish allotted Diet II was high which reflected in the total cost of feed, coupled with the high price of feed per kilo. This increased the cost of production (in Diet II cages affected the profit index (1.76 generated from the sale of fish although not significant from fish fed Diet I. The results suggest that, both test diets with almost similar crude protein level, is economical and may be recommended for production. However, alternative source of cheap and cost effective feeds needs to be investigated and encourage our local industry in the production of relatively cheaper aquaculture feeds.

  8. Prognostic interaction patterns in diabetes mellitus II: A random-matrix-theory relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aparna; Pawar, Amit Kumar; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-08-01

    We analyze protein-protein interactions in diabetes mellitus II and its normal counterpart under the combined framework of random matrix theory and network biology. This disease is the fifth-leading cause of death in high-income countries and an epidemic in developing countries, affecting around 8 % of the total adult population in the world. Treatment at the advanced stage is difficult and challenging, making early detection a high priority in the cure of the disease. Our investigation reveals specific structural patterns important for the occurrence of the disease. In addition to the structural parameters, the spectral properties reveal the top contributing nodes from localized eigenvectors, which turn out to be significant for the occurrence of the disease. Our analysis is time-efficient and cost-effective, bringing a new horizon in the field of medicine by highlighting major pathways involved in the disease. The analysis provides a direction for the development of novel drugs and therapies in curing the disease by targeting specific interaction patterns instead of a single protein.

  9. The Southern Double Stars of Carl Rümker II: Their Relative Rectilinear Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchford, Roderick; White, Graeme; Ernest, Allan

    2018-04-01

    A description of the relative rectilinear motion of double stars provides an important clue to the relationship of the components. The aim is to provide an objective method of obtaining Rectilinear Elements. We present a simplified method to calculate relative rectilinear motion, relying on the data obtained from the HIPPARCOS and GAIA DR1 missions, together with their uncertainties. As examples, we present the Rectilinear Elements of RMK 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 17, 20, 25, 27, and 28.

  10. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  11. THE X-FACTOR IN GALAXIES. II. THE MOLECULAR-HYDROGEN-STAR-FORMATION RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Robert; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-10-08

    There is ample observational evidence that the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, Sigma_SFR, is closely correlated with the surface density of molecular hydrogen, Sigma_H2. This empirical relation holds both for galaxy-wide averages and for individual >=kpc sized patches of the interstellar medium (ISM), but appears to degrade substantially at a sub-kpc scale. Identifying the physical mechanisms that determine the scale-dependent properties of the observed Sigma_H2-Sigma_SFR relation remains a challenge from a theoretical perspective. To address this question, we analyze the slope and scatter of the Sigma_H2-Sigma_SFR relation using a set of cosmological, galaxy formation simulations with a peak resolution of ~100 pc. These simulations include a chemical network for molecular hydrogen, a model for the CO emission, and a simple, stochastic prescription for star formation that operates on ~100 pc scales. Specifically, star formation is modeled as a Poisson process in which the average SFR is directly proportional to the present mass of H2. The predictions of our numerical model are in good agreement with the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt and Sigma_H2-Sigma_SFR relations. We show that observations based on CO emission are ill suited to reliably measure the slope of the latter relation at low (<20 M_sun pc^-2) H2 surface densities on sub-kpc scales. Our models also predict that the inferred Sigma_H2-Sigma_SFR relation steepens at high H2 surface densities as a result of the surface density dependence of the CO/H2 conversion factor. Finally, we show that on sub-kpc scales most of the scatter in the relation is a consequence of discreteness effects in the star formation process. In contrast, variations of the CO/H2 conversion factor are responsible for most of the scatter measured on super-kpc scales.

  12. Relations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and personality: beyond Axis I-Axis II comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kevin D; Clark, Lee Anna; Watson, David

    2006-01-01

    Most research on relations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and personality addresses only comorbidity rates between OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD). We first investigated empirical OCD-OCPD relations, but then also examined patterns of dimensional traits in OCD patients versus students and general outpatients. Results did not support a specific OCD-OCPD relation and the implications of this conclusion are discussed. Regarding traits, OCD patients shared with other patients elevated negative affectivity and lower positive affectivity. Differences on several lower order dimensions, including lower scores on manipulativeness, mistrust, and disinhibition distinguished the personality profile of OCD patients from others. Also noteworthy was a pattern of very low self-image for OCD patients, as suggested by the combination of low self-esteem and low entitlement scores. Overall, OCD patients showed a more specific pattern of personality pathology than did general outpatients, who were elevated more generally across personality disorders and negative affectivity scales.

  13. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    a detailed ethnographic description of five different fishing operations and then compare them on a number of different fronts. This will direct us to some general differences in their modes of operation in relation to the vessel quota share (VQS) system and lead us to the next chapter, where the principal...

  14. Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: II. Distillers dried grains with solubles and fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in the rumen-undegraded protein fraction (RUP-AA) of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and fish meal (FM) samples and to determine whether these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Five sources of DDGS and 5 sources of FM were obtained from Feed Analysis Consortium, Inc. (Champaign, IL). To obtain the rumen-undegradable protein fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop-intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of RUP-AA and AA in the intact feeds. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x (100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)/100]. Results indicate that standardized digestibility of feed-AA differs from RUP-AA for DDGS samples but not for FM samples, and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differs within samples. For the DDGS samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and Lys and highest for Met and Trp. For FM samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and highest for Trp. Results also indicate that DDGS and most FM samples do not contain a constant protein fraction

  15. Improved ROS defense in the swimbladder of a facultative air-breathing erythrinid fish, jeju, compared to a non-air-breathing close relative, traira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, Bernd; Giacomin, Marina; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2016-07-01

    The jeju Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and the traira Hoplias malabaricus are two closely related erythrinid fish, both possessing a two-chambered physostomous swimbladder. In the jeju the anterior section of the posterior bladder is highly vascularized and the swimbladder is used for aerial respiration; the traira, in turn, is a water-breather that uses the swimbladder as a buoyancy organ and not for aerial oxygen uptake. Observation of the breathing behavior under different levels of water oxygenation revealed that the traira started aquatic surface respiration only under severe hypoxic conditions and did not breathe air. In the jeju air-breathing behavior was observed under normoxic conditions, and the frequency of air-breathing was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. Unexpectedly, even under hyperoxic conditions (30 mg O2 L(-1)) the jeju continued to take air breaths, and compared with normoxic conditions the frequency was not reduced. Because the frequently air-exposed swimbladder tissue faces higher oxygen partial pressures than normally experienced by other fish tissues, it was hypothesized that in the facultative air-breathing jeju, swimbladder tissue would have a higher antioxidative capacity than the swimbladder tissue of the water breathing traira. Measurement of total glutathione (GSSG/GSH) concentration in anterior and posterior swimbladder tissue revealed a higher concentration of this antioxidant in swimbladder tissue as compared to muscle tissue in the jeju. Furthermore, the GSSG/GSH concentration in jeju tissues was significantly higher than in traira tissues. Similarly, activities of enzymes involved in the breakdown of reactive oxygen species were significantly higher in the jeju swimbladder as compared to the traira swimbladder. The results show that the jeju, using the swimbladder as an additional breathing organ, has an enhanced antioxidative capacity in the swimbladder as compared to the traira, using the swimbladder only as a

  16. Sex- and Subtype-Related Differences of Personality Disorders (Axis II) and Personality Traits in Persistent ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christian P; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Reichert, Susanne; Geissler, Julia; Jans, Thomas; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Nguyen, Trang T; Romanos, Marcel; Reif, Andreas; Dempfle, Astrid; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2016-12-01

    Despite growing awareness of adult ADHD and its comorbidity with personality disorders (PDs), little is known about sex- and subtype-related differences. In all, 910 patients (452 females, 458 males) affected with persistent adult ADHD were assessed for comorbid PDs with the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV and for personality traits with the revised NEO personality inventory, and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. The most prevalent PDs were narcissistic PD in males and histrionic PD in females. Affected females showed higher Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Agreeableness scores as well as Harm Avoidance and Reward Dependence scores. Narcissistic PD and antisocial PD have the highest prevalence in the H-type, while Borderline PD is more frequent in the C-type. Sex- and subtype-related differences in Axis II disorder comorbidity as well as impairment-modifying personality traits have to be taken into account in epidemiological studies of persistent ADHD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  18. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  19. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  20. The Derived Transfer and Reversal of Mood Functions through Equivalence Relations: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jane; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel; Luciano, Carmen; Smeets, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the transfer of induced mood functions through equivalence relations by means of a musical mood-induction procedure. The research described in this article replicated and extended such work, primarily with the inclusion of a baseline and two types of reversal procedures. First, 16 adult participants were trained…

  1. 50 CFR 223.203 - Anadromous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anadromous fish. 223.203 Section 223.203... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.203 Anadromous fish. Available guidance documents cited in the...)(1) of the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1538(a)(1)) relating to endangered species apply to fish with an intact...

  2. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  4. Properties of linear integral equations related to the six-vertex model with disorder parameter II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, Hermann; Göhmann, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We study certain functions arising in the context of the calculation of correlation functions of the XXZ spin chain and of integrable field theories related to various scaling limits of the underlying six-vertex model. We show that several of these functions that are related to linear integral equations can be obtained by acting with (deformed) difference operators on a master function Φ. The latter is defined in terms of a functional equation and of its asymptotic behavior. Concentrating on the so-called temperature case, we show that these conditions uniquely determine the high-temperature series expansions of the master function. This provides an efficient calculation scheme for the high-temperature expansions of the derived functions as well. (paper)

  5. The Recording and Quantification of Event-Related Potentials: II. Signal Processing and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniz Tavakoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials are an informative method for measuring the extent of information processing in the brain. The voltage deflections in an ERP waveform reflect the processing of sensory information as well as higher-level processing that involves selective attention, memory, semantic comprehension, and other types of cognitive activity. ERPs provide a non-invasive method of studying, with exceptional temporal resolution, cognitive processes in the human brain. ERPs are extracted from scalp-recorded electroencephalography by a series of signal processing steps. The present tutorial will highlight several of the analysis techniques required to obtain event-related potentials. Some methodological issues that may be encountered will also be discussed.

  6. The approach of cancer related fatigue in rehabilitation medicine: Part II – Therapeutic interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Salca Amalia; Checiches Alexandra; Irsay Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    Starting with patient’ diagnose and continuing throughout the treatment and thereafter, cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a distressing and disabling symptom, highly prevalent across the cancer continuum2. This is a review article mainly focusing on the rehabilitation objectives and interventions in CRF, and implementation issues, according to the report of an NCCN member institution4. Implementation is the most problematic, considering the large number of patients to whom it is addressed to...

  7. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: II Superluminal relative frame velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Hill

    Full Text Available In part I of this paper we have deduced generalised Einstein mass variation formulae assuming relative frame velocities vc. We again use the notion of the residual mass m0(v which for v>c is defined by the equation m(v=m0(v[(v/c2-1]-1/2 for the actual mass m(v. The residual mass is essentially the actual mass with the Einstein factor removed, and we emphasise that we make no restrictions on m0(v. Using this formal device we deduce corresponding new mass variation formulae applicable to superluminal relative frame velocities, assuming only the extended Lorentz transformations and their consequences, and two invariants that are known to apply in special relativity. The present authors have previously speculated a dual framework such that both the rest mass m0∗ and the residual mass at infinite velocity m∞∗ (by which we mean p∞∗/c, assuming finite momentum at infinity are equally important parameters in the specification of mass as a function of its velocity, and the two arbitrary constants can be so determined. The new formulae involving two arbitrary constants may also be exploited so that the mass remains finite at the speed of light, and two distinct mass profiles are determined as functions of their velocity with the rest mass assumed to be alternatively prescribed at the origin of either frame. The two profiles so obtained (M(U,m(u and (M∗(U,m∗(u although distinct have a common ratio M(U/M∗(U=m(u/m∗(u that is a function of v>c, indicating that observable mass depends upon the frame in which the rest mass is prescribed. Keywords: Special relativity, Einstein mass variation, New formulae

  8. DNA methylation of angiotensin II receptor gene in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Kiyoshi; Aihara, Yosuke; Takaya, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Namisaki, Tadashi; Moriya, Kei; Uejima, Masakazu; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Mashitani, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Kosuke; Kawaratani, Hideto; Okura, Yasushi; Kaji, Kosuke; Douhara, Akitoshi; Sawada, Yasuhiko; Nishimura, Norihisa; Seki, Kenichiro; Mitoro, Akira; Yamao, Junichi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi

    2016-10-08

    To clarify whether Agtr1a methylation is involved in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related liver fibrosis in adult rats. A choline-deficient amino acid (CDAA) diet model was employed for methylation analysis of NASH-related liver fibrosis. Agtr1a methylation levels were measured in the livers of CDAA- and control choline-sufficient amino acid (CSAA)-fed rats for 8 and 12 wk using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated by collagenase digestion of the liver, followed by centrifugation of the crude cell suspension through a density gradient. Agtr1a methylation and its gene expression were also analyzed during the activation of HSCs. The mean levels of Agtr1a methylation in the livers of CDAA-fed rats (11.5% and 18.6% at 8 and 12 wk, respectively) tended to be higher ( P = 0.06 and 0.09, respectively) than those in the livers of CSAA-fed rats (2.1% and 5.3% at 8 and 12 wk, respectively). Agtr1a was not methylated at all in quiescent HSCs, but was clearly methylated in activated HSCs (13.8%, P < 0.01). Interestingly, although Agtr1a was hypermethylated, the Agtr1a mRNA level increased up to 2.2-fold ( P < 0.05) in activated HSCs compared with that in quiescent HSCs, suggesting that Agtr1a methylation did not silence its expression but instead had the potential to upregulate its expression. These findings indicate that Agtr1a methylation and its upregulation of gene expression are associated with the development of NASH-related liver fibrosis. This is the first study to show that DNA methylation is potentially involved in the regulation of a renin-angiotensin system-related gene expression during liver fibrosis.

  9. GROWTH OF CORMORANT PHALACROCORAX-CARBO-SINENSIS CHICKS IN RELATION TO BROOD SIZE, AGE RANKING AND PARENTAL FISHING EFFORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLATTEEUW, M; KOFFIJBERG, K; DUBBELDAM, W

    1995-01-01

    Growth parameters of Cormorant hatchlings are described in relation to brood size and age ranking of each chick within individual broods. Growth rates, expressed as body mass increment per day over the period of linear, growth (5-30 days), ranged from 56.4-102.8 g . d(-1) and were found to be

  10. The MUSIC of galaxy clusters - II. X-ray global properties and scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, V.; Sembolini, F.; De Petris, M.; Valdarnini, R.; Yepes, G.; Gottlöber, S.

    2014-03-01

    We present the X-ray properties and scaling relations of a large sample of clusters extracted from the Marenostrum MUltidark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) data set. We focus on a sub-sample of 179 clusters at redshift z ˜ 0.11, with 3.2 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ mass. We employed the X-ray photon simulator PHOX to obtain synthetic Chandra observations and derive observable-like global properties of the intracluster medium (ICM), as X-ray temperature (TX) and luminosity (LX). TX is found to slightly underestimate the true mass-weighted temperature, although tracing fairly well the cluster total mass. We also study the effects of TX on scaling relations with cluster intrinsic properties: total (M500 and gas Mg,500 mass; integrated Compton parameter (YSZ) of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) thermal effect; YX = Mg,500 TX. We confirm that YX is a very good mass proxy, with a scatter on M500-YX and YSZ-YX lower than 5 per cent. The study of scaling relations among X-ray, intrinsic and SZ properties indicates that simulated MUSIC clusters reasonably resemble the self-similar prediction, especially for correlations involving TX. The observational approach also allows for a more direct comparison with real clusters, from which we find deviations mainly due to the physical description of the ICM, affecting TX and, particularly, LX.

  11. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  12. Issues Related to Recruitment of Enlisted Personnel for the Reserve Components. Wave II. Technical Volume. Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    in the military; atti- tudes toward feminism ; and other attitudes related to the need to be with others and feelings of control/ stability. -29...to play team sports than individual sports . l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) -41e. Our country is too militaristic. 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( )-4 f. A nation...U( 2( ) 3( ) 4( X ()-L9 d, It’s more fun to play team sports than individual sports . () 2() 3() 4() 5( )-2 e. Our country is too militaristic. 1( ) 2

  13. Using Smart Packaging in Fish and Fish Based Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging have three main roles during protection, preservation and storage are still involved better continuance of food quality. Evolution of civilization and improvement of new kind of food stuffs, packaging industry must created new possibilities for preventation of food quality during shelf-life. The quality and safety of perishable food is related to microbial quality has got a significance role. Fish is a very perishable food product. It is a very low acidic food and thus is very liable to the expansion of food poisoning bacteria. Also decomposition of fish can be by reason of enzymatic spoilage, oxidation and/or bacterial spoilage. Fish is an important resource of polyunsaturated fatty acids stated to have defensive effects in opposition to heartconnected diseases. Some smart packaging mechanisms liable to determine this break down incident thought storage. In this review, smart packaging technologies that could be used to detect breakdown compounds from packed fish and fish products.

  14. Prolongevity medicine: Antagonic-Stress drug in distress, geriatrics, and related diseases. II. Clinical review--2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, S; Riga, D; Schneider, F

    2004-06-01

    Distress and senescence, their reciprocal aggravating-quickening connections, and their related pathologies have a large worldwide impact on healthcare systems in this new millennium. For this reason, Antagonic-Stress (AS)--an advanced integrative therapy, with specific synergistic composition, and patented internationally--represents a significant strategy in health, aging, and longevity. Clinical research with AS proves the drug's efficacy in the management of distress (neurotic, stress-related, and affective disorders; behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors; mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance uses) and psychogeriatrics [organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (OMD)]. Specific multiaxial psychopathological instruments and psychometric tests in multiple assessments used for gerontopsychiatry demonstrated strong improvements after AS administration in early-moderate stages of Alzheimer or vascular dementia, as well as in other OMD. In addition, comparative clinical studies evinced the superiority of AS (synergistic multitherapy) versus monotherapy [meclofenoxate (MF), piracetam (PA), pyritinol (PT), and nicergoline (NE), respectively]. These comparative clinical trials agreed closely with comparative preclinical research and confirmed AS synergistic homeostatic, adaptogenic, antioxidative, cerebrovascular, neurometabolic, and nootropic actions. Also, the AS protective actions against oxidative stress recommend this orthomolecular therapy in stress, aging, and free radical pathology.

  15. THE MASS-SIZE RELATION FROM CLOUDS TO CORES. II. SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, J.; Shetty, R.; Goodman, A. A.; Pillai, T.; Myers, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the mass and size of cloud fragments in several molecular clouds continuously over a wide range of spatial scales (0.05 ∼ 2 , is not well suited to describe the derived mass-size data. Solar neighborhood clouds not forming massive stars (∼ sun ; Pipe Nebula, Taurus, Perseus, and Ophiuchus) obey m(r) ≤ 870 M sun (r/pc) 1.33 . In contrast to this, clouds forming massive stars (Orion A, G10.15 - 0.34, G11.11 - 0.12) do exceed the aforementioned relation. Thus, this limiting mass-size relation may approximate a threshold for the formation of massive stars. Across all clouds, cluster-forming cloud fragments are found to be-at given radius-more massive than fragments devoid of clusters. The cluster-bearing fragments are found to roughly obey a mass-size law m ∝ r 1.27 (where the exponent is highly uncertain in any given cloud, but is certainly smaller than 1.5).

  16. Picroside II Attenuates Airway Inflammation by Downregulating the Transcription Factor GATA3 and Th2-Related Cytokines in a Mouse Model of HDM-Induced Allergic Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    Full Text Available Picroside II isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum has been used as traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. In this study, we assessed whether picroside II has inhibitory effects on airway inflammation in a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM-induced asthma. In the HDM-induced asthmatic model, picroside II significantly reduced inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, the levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig E and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum, airway inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion in the lung tissues. ELISA analysis showed that picroside II down-regulated the levels of Th2-related cytokines (including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and asthma-related mediators, but it up-regulated Th1-related cytokine, IFNγ in BALF. Picroside II also inhibited the expression of Th2 type cytokine genes and the transcription factor GATA3 in the lung tissues of HDM-induced mice. Finally, we demonstrated that picroside II significantly decreased the expression of GATA3 and Th2 cytokines in developing Th2 cells, consistent with in vivo results. Taken together, these results indicate that picroside II has protective effects on allergic asthma by reducing GATA3 expression and Th2 cytokine bias.

  17. Developmental intervals during the larval and juvenile stages of the Antarctic myctophid fish Electrona antarctica in relation to changes in feeding and swimming functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteki, Masato; Tsujimura, Eri; Hulley, Percy-Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The Antarctic myctophid fish species Electrona antarctica is believed to play a key role in the Southern Ocean food web, but there have been few studies on its early life history. This study examined the developmental changes in the external morphology and osteology of E. antarctica from the early larva to juvenile stages through the transformation phase and inferred changes in its behaviour and feeding mode. Once the larvae reached 12-13 mm body length (BL), they adopted a primordial suction feeding mode along with the acquisition of early swimming capabilities. Thereafter, both swimming and feeding functions were enhanced through fin development and ossification and acquisition of elements of the jaw and suspensorium. These processes indicate that larvae transition from the planktonic to nektonic phase upon reaching 12-13 mm BL when they enhance their both swimming and feeding abilities with growth. Transformation occurred when larvae reached 19-21 mm BL with changes such as discontinuous increases in eye diameter and upper jaw length and the appearance of photophores and dense body pigmentation. Osteological development of swimming- and feeding-related structures were mostly complete after transformation. Rapid changes in external morphology and osteology during the transformation stage are most likely related to ontogenetic vertical migration into deep waters.

  18. Fish Karyome: A karyological information network database of Indian Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    'Fish Karyome', a database on karyological information of Indian fishes have been developed that serves as central source for karyotype data about Indian fishes compiled from the published literature. Fish Karyome has been intended to serve as a liaison tool for the researchers and contains karyological information about 171 out of 2438 finfish species reported in India and is publically available via World Wide Web. The database provides information on chromosome number, morphology, sex chromosomes, karyotype formula and cytogenetic markers etc. Additionally, it also provides the phenotypic information that includes species name, its classification, and locality of sample collection, common name, local name, sex, geographical distribution, and IUCN Red list status. Besides, fish and karyotype images, references for 171 finfish species have been included in the database. Fish Karyome has been developed using SQL Server 2008, a relational database management system, Microsoft's ASP.NET-2008 and Macromedia's FLASH Technology under Windows 7 operating environment. The system also enables users to input new information and images into the database, search and view the information and images of interest using various search options. Fish Karyome has wide range of applications in species characterization and identification, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes.

  19. Ice issues relating to the Kashagan phase II development, North Caspian Sea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croasdale, Ken [KRCA, Calgary (Canada); Verlaan, Paul [Shell Development Kashagan, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    The ice conditions in the north Caspian Sea are challenging for the Kashagan field development. The climatic conditions of the area are extreme, with cold winters (-30 degrees C) and hot summers (+40 degrees C). The presence and the quantity of ice are also highly variable from year to year. This paper investigated the major ice-related issues affecting the Kashagan structures and pipelines. An extensive description of the ice environment was provided. Ice design criteria for the offshore rock islands, the pipelines and the layout of the ice protection barriers around the islands were presented. It was found that the ice design methods used in Arctic areas have required some adaptations to meet Caspian conditions. All the islands were designed with an ice encroachment zone to reduce the hazardous effect of the ice rubble encroaching. Rock sloped barriers and steel barriers were implanted around the islands to protect the logistical areas.

  20. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  1. Fishes and humankind III. Editorial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication of this group of three papers form part of the 1987 meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoologists Fish Remains Working Group which took place at the University of York, U. K. The papers illustrate an increased awareness of the significance of ichthyological research to archaeology and cover three areas of research: taphonomy; fishing artefacts; and fish remains recovered from an excavation. Jones sheds some light on the relative robustness of the bewildering array of elements in a fish skeleton by recording damage to a skeleton when it is trampled. His paper suggests an index of robustness which might be used to assess the degree of fragmentation in archaeological assemblages. Kemp reports on the excavation of a small medieval building located adjacent to medieval fish ponds created by Cistercian monks in North Yorkshire, England. In addition to the structural evidence, an impressive assemblage of weights, presumably net weights, found on or near the site is published. Perhaps most significant is a large lead weight which may have been used to weight catches of fish from the ponds. Fish remains recovered from two excavations at the quayside at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England are discussed by Nicholson. Around 6000 identified bones form the basis for the study, the majority of which were identified as Gadid (cod family or herring. While the main food fishes typify fish bone assemblages from most post-Roman urban archaeological sites, the identification of small fishes such as sandeels, smelt, gobies and buttefish may indicate the utilisation of fish not nowadays considered as food at all. Given the diversity of species (30 individual species identified it is suggested that the remains from the main bone-producing organic horizons, dated to the late twelfth to thirteenth centuries, may include discard from a nearby fishmarket.

  2. Zebrafish and relational memory: Could a simple fish be useful for the analysis of biological mechanisms of complex vertebrate learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Analysis of the zebrafish allows one to combine two distinct scientific approaches, comparative ethology and neurobehavioral genetics. Furthermore, this species arguably represents an optimal compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity. This mini-review focuses on a complex form of learning, relational learning and memory, in zebrafish. It argues that zebrafish are capable of this type of learning, and it attempts to show how this species may be useful in the analysis of the mechanisms and the evolution of this complex brain function. The review is not intended to be comprehensive. It is a short opinion piece that reflects the author's own biases, and it draws some of its examples from the work coming from his own laboratory. Nevertheless, it is written in the hope that it will persuade those who have not utilized zebrafish and who may be interested in opening their research horizon to this relatively novel but powerful vertebrate research tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): phenomenology and treatment outcome in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conelea, Christine A; Walther, Michael R; Freeman, Jennifer B; Garcia, Abbe M; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Khanna, Muniya; Franklin, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has shown that youth with co-occurring tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of clinical characteristics and treatment responsiveness. A broad definition of "tic-related" was used to examine whether children with tics in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II differed from those without tics in terms of demographic and phenomenological characteristics and acute treatment outcomes. Participants were 124 youth aged 7 to 17 years, inclusive, with a primary diagnosis of OCD who were partial responders to an adequate serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) trial. Participants were randomized to medication management, medication management plus instructions in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or medication management plus full CBT. Tic status was based on the presence of motor and/or vocal tics on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Tics were identified in 53% of the sample. Those with tic-related OCD did not differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of age, family history of tics, OCD severity, OCD-related impairment, or comorbidity. Those with tics responded equally in all treatment conditions. Tic-related OCD was very prevalent using a broad definition of tic status. Results suggest that youth with this broad definition of tic-related OCD do not have increased OCD severity or inference, higher comorbidity rates or severity, or worsened functioning, and support the use of CBT in this population. This highlights the importance of not making broad assumptions about OCD symptoms most likely to occur in an individual with comorbid tics. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Pediatric OCD for SRI Partial Responders; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00074815. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ABC transporters in fish species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eFerreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR. In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is of extreme added value to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps, multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5 and breast resistance associated protein (BCRP. In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants, with chemosensitizer potential, with ABC transporters in aquatic organisms can compromise detoxification processes and have population effects and should be studied in more detail. This review intends to summarize the recent advances in research on MXR mechanisms in fish species, focusing in 1 regulation and functioning of ABC proteins; 2 cooperation with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes; and 3 ecotoxicological relevance and information on emergent pollutants with ability to modulate ABC transporters expression and activity. Several lines of evidence are clear suggesting the important role of these transporters in detoxification mechanisms and must be further investigated in fish.

  5. Consumers Analysis Towards Fish Consumption, and its Related Factors, Barriers of Consumption and Promotion Strategies using Social Marketing frame work among women in Yazd city in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rezaeipandari

    2014-09-01

    Results: Housewives and employed women reported similar and sometimes different barriers for fish consumption. The barriers for non consumption were of the following: high price of fish, unpleasant taste of fish, having bone and goo, and dislike of fish by one of the family members. From the viewpoint of the employed women, being unfamiliar with cooking methods(promotion aspect, high price of fish, unpleasant taste of fish, having bone and goo, its favor, dislike of fish by one of the family members, and lack of time were reported as the most important barriers. Conclusion: People's views, demands and preferences about different issues and products such as health issues and healthy products are influenced by individual and environmental conditions including biologic condition and health level, cultural, social, political, economic and bio-environmental conditions which can be affected by time and by changing these conditions. Therefore, social marketing framework should emphasize on the need for a comprehensive and proper understanding of consumers of each product and categorize them by their differences in planning and implementing social marketing programs. Thus one can be certain that intervention programs reach more appropriate consumers and cause desired consumption behavior changes

  6. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fish Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  8. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  9. Fish hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  10. The approach of cancer related fatigue in rehabilitation medicine: Part II – Therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salca Amalia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting with patient’ diagnose and continuing throughout the treatment and thereafter, cancer-related fatigue (CRF is a distressing and disabling symptom, highly prevalent across the cancer continuum2. This is a review article mainly focusing on the rehabilitation objectives and interventions in CRF, and implementation issues, according to the report of an NCCN member institution4. Implementation is the most problematic, considering the large number of patients to whom it is addressed to and the variety of pathologies within this group of patients. The onset of CRF is difficult to establish, because of the limitations of reporting this symptom4, but it is a valuable predictor in prognosis. The main interventions in rehabilitation applicable to these patients are discussed in correlation to the objectives of each phase of therapeutic management in cancer: pre-operatory, before, during or after radio and/or chemotherapy Conclusion: Rehabilitation interventions should be applied to all patients diagnosed with cancer, according to their phase of oncologic treatment and the objectives. This should be practiced as preventive measure, but as a therapeutic one to, considering the high incidence of CFR before diagnose.

  11. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  12. Analysis of strategies for teaching and learning of concepts related to Astronomy in the Elementary School II

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes E Poffo, Roberta Izabella

    2011-12-01

    The curricular proposed of the State of Sao Paulo, in the discipline of physical and biological sciences, has a content related to Earth and Universe, that are approached by Astronomy, in Elementary Education I, II and high school. Despite the importance of Astronomy and the public acceptance, it is notable that they have difficulties in this discipline. During the school year 2010 in a public school in Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, 89 students of three different classes in a sixth year of an elementary school II, responded to a questionnaire prepared and applied by the teacher based on the required contents of the curricular proposed by the State of Sao Paulo with ten essay questions related to Astronomy, with the propose to examine the previous knowledge. Only 19% of students hit 50% or more of the issues, the required content considered as the last satisfactory note. During the same year it was presented, but in each class a different strategy as applied. In the first class, an expositive class with audiovisual aids atrategy was used, in the second class an expositive class dialoged strategy and in the third class a textbook research. It was observed that after applying the same questionnaire, there was an improvement on the questions hit. The class where the expositive class dialoged strategy was used improved from 3% to 63% of hits, the class with audiovisual aids improved from 23% to 80% of hits and the class that used research on textbooks strategy improved from 31% to 76%. Thus, it was considered that after the application of the strategies there was a significant improvement in the student performance comparing to the required content. The expositive class dialoged strategy was considered as the most effective.

  13. Sorption Mechanisms of Cesium on Cu II2Fe II(CN) 6and Cu II3[Fe III(CN) 6] 2Hexacyanoferrates and Their Relation to the Crystalline Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, S.; Jimenez, B.; Garnier, E.; Fedoroff, M.; Jones, D. J.; Loos-Neskovic, C.

    1998-12-01

    CuII2FeII(CN)6·xH2O and CuII3[FeIII(CN)6]2·xH2O can be prepared with reproducible chemical compositions and structures after careful washing. They have cubicFmoverline3mstructures with iron vacancies. In CuII2FeII(CN)6, copper occupies two different sites: Cu1 in position 4blinked to Fe through the CN groups, and Cu2 not linked to the CN groups and partially occupying the interstitial 24epositions. The second type of site is not present in CuII3[FeIII(CN)6]2. Sorption kinetics and isotherms were determined for cesium on both hexacyanoferrates by batch experiments. On CuII3[FeIII(CN)6]2, the maximum uptake is only 0.073 Cs/Fe (at./at.). On CuII2FeII(CN)6, the uptake reaches 1.5 Cs/Fe. The sorption kinetics include at least two steps: at1/2variation until approximately 72 h and then a slow evolution studied up to 6 months. The sorption mechanism is complex. The main process seems to be diffusion of ion pairs, followed by a reorganization of the solid, resulting in one or more new solid phases. The presence of the Cu2 site seems to play a favorable role in the sorption. Owing to its good midterm stability and the first rapid step of exchange, CuII2FeII(CN)6·xH2O seems to be one of the most promising compounds for the recovery of cesium from nuclear liquid wastes.

  14. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 10 11 M ☉ , we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H 2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H 2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  15. Angular momentum in general relativity. II. Perturbations of a rotating black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, C R [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1977-06-30

    The definition of angular momentum proposed in part I of this series (Prior. Proc. R. Soc. Lond.; A354:379 (1977)) is investigated when applied to rotating black holes. It is shown how to use the formula to evaluate the angular momentum of a stationary black hole. This acts as a description of a background space on which the effect of first matter and then gravitational perturbations is considered. The latter are of most interest and the rate of change of angular momentum, dJ/dt, is found as an expression in the shear induced in the event horizon by the perturbation and in its time integral. Teukolsky's solutions (Astrophys. J.; 185:635 (1973)) for the perturbed component of the Weyl tensor are then used to find this shear and hence to give an exact answer for dJ/dt. One of the implications of the result is a direct verification of Bekenstein's formula (Phys. Rev.; 7D:949 (1973)) relating in a simple way the rate of change of angular momentum to the rate of change of mass caused by a plane wave. A more general expression is also given for dM/dt. Considering only stationary perturbations, it is shown how to generalize the definition of angular momentum so as to include information about its direction as well. Three problems are particularly discussed - a single moon, two or more moons and a ring of matter causing the perturbation - since they provide illustrations of all the main features of the black hole's behaviour. In every case it is found that the black hole realigns its axis of rotation so that the final configuration is axisymmetric if possible; otherwise is slows down completely to reach a static state.

  16. Constraint quantization of a worldline system invariant under reciprocal relativity: II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, P D; Morgan, S O

    2008-01-01

    We consider the worldline quantization of a system invariant under the symmetries of reciprocal relativity. Imposition of the first class constraint, the generator of local time reparametrizations, on physical states enforces identification of the worldline cosmological constant with a fixed value of the quadratic Casimir of the quaplectic symmetry group Q(3, 1) ≅ U(3, 1) x H(4), the semi-direct product of the pseudo-unitary group with the Weyl-Heisenberg group. In our previous paper, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 (2007) 12095, the 'spin' degrees of freedom were handled as covariant oscillators, leading to a unique choice of cosmological constant, required for projecting out negative-norm states from the physical gauge-invariant states. In the present paper, the spin degrees of freedom are treated as standard oscillators with positive norm states (wherein Lorentz boosts are not number-conserving in the auxiliary space; reciprocal transformations are of course not spin-conserving in general). As in the covariant approach, the spectrum of the square of the energy-momentum vector is continuous over the entire real line, and thus includes tachyonic (spacelike) and null branches. Adopting standard frames, the Wigner method on each branch is implemented, to decompose the auxiliary space into unitary irreducible representations of the respective little algebras and additional degeneracy algebras. The physical state space is vastly enriched as compared with the covariant approach, and contains towers of integer spin massive states, as well as unconventional massless representations of continuous spin type, with continuous Euclidean momentum and arbitrary integer helicity

  17. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-11-15

    AWe investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 1011 M , we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲ 75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  18. Constraint quantization of a worldline system invariant under reciprocal relativity: II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, P D; Morgan, S O [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37 Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)], E-mail: Peter.Jarvis@utas.edu.au, E-mail: Stuart.Morgan@utas.edu.au

    2008-11-21

    We consider the worldline quantization of a system invariant under the symmetries of reciprocal relativity. Imposition of the first class constraint, the generator of local time reparametrizations, on physical states enforces identification of the worldline cosmological constant with a fixed value of the quadratic Casimir of the quaplectic symmetry group Q(3, 1) {approx_equal} U(3, 1) x H(4), the semi-direct product of the pseudo-unitary group with the Weyl-Heisenberg group. In our previous paper, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 (2007) 12095, the 'spin' degrees of freedom were handled as covariant oscillators, leading to a unique choice of cosmological constant, required for projecting out negative-norm states from the physical gauge-invariant states. In the present paper, the spin degrees of freedom are treated as standard oscillators with positive norm states (wherein Lorentz boosts are not number-conserving in the auxiliary space; reciprocal transformations are of course not spin-conserving in general). As in the covariant approach, the spectrum of the square of the energy-momentum vector is continuous over the entire real line, and thus includes tachyonic (spacelike) and null branches. Adopting standard frames, the Wigner method on each branch is implemented, to decompose the auxiliary space into unitary irreducible representations of the respective little algebras and additional degeneracy algebras. The physical state space is vastly enriched as compared with the covariant approach, and contains towers of integer spin massive states, as well as unconventional massless representations of continuous spin type, with continuous Euclidean momentum and arbitrary integer helicity.

  19. New antagonists of LHRH. II. Inhibition and potentiation of LHRH by closely related analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Csernus, V J; Janaky, T; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Schally, A V

    1988-12-01

    Modifications of the previously described LHRH antagonists, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Trp3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH and the corresponding D-Hci6 analogue, have been made to alter the hydrophobicity of the N-terminal acetyl-tripeptide portion. Substitution of D-Trp3 with the less hydrophobic D-Pal(3) had only marginal effects on the antagonistic activities and receptor binding potencies of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 analogues, but it appeared to further improve the toxicity lowering effect of D-Cit/D-Hci6 substitution. Antagonists containing D-Pal(3)3 and D-Cit/D-Hci6 residues, i.e. [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH (SB-75) and [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Hci6, D-Ala10]LHRH (SB-88), were completely free of the toxic effects, such as cyanosis and respiratory depression leading to death, which have been observed in rats with the D-Trp3, D-Arg6 antagonist and related antagonists. Replacement of the N-acetyl group with the hydrophilic carbamoyl group caused a slight decrease in antagonistic activities, particularly in vitro. Introduction of urethane type acyl group such as methoxycarbonyl (Moc) or t-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) led to analogues that showed LHRH-potentiating effect. The increase in potency induced by these analogues, e.g. [Moc-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Trp3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH and [Boc-D-Phe1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH, was 170-260% and persisted for more than 2 h when studied in a superfused rat pituitary system.

  20. Long-term evolution of sand waves in the Marsdiep inlet. II: Relation to hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijsman, Maarten C.; Ridderinkhof, Herman

    2008-05-01

    A discussion is presented about the mechanisms that govern the spatial and seasonal variability in sand-wave height and migration speed in the 4 km wide Marsdiep tidal inlet, the Netherlands. Since 1998, current velocities and water depths have been recorded with an ADCP that is mounted under the ferry 'Schulpengat'. In this paper, the current measurements were used to explain the sand-wave observations presented in Buijsman and Ridderinkhof [this issue. Long-term evolution of sand waves in the Marsdiep inlet. I: high-resolution observations. Continental Shelf Research, doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2007.10.011]. Across nearly the entire inlet, the sand waves migrate in the flood direction. In the flood-dominated southern part of the inlet, the 'measured' (i.e. based on sand-wave shape and migration speed) and predicted bedload transport agree in direction, magnitude, and trends, whereas in the ebb-dominated northern part the predicted bedload and suspended load transport is opposite to the sand-wave migration. In the southern part, 55% of the bedload transport is due to tidal asymmetries and 45% due to residual currents. In addition to the well-known tidal asymmetries, asymmetries that arise from the interaction of M2 and its overtides with S2 and its compound tides are also important. It is hypothesised that in the northern part of the inlet the advection of suspended sand and lag effects govern the sand-wave migration. The relative importance of suspended load transport also explains why the sand waves have smaller lee-slope angles, are smaller, more rounded, and more three-dimensional in the northern half of the inlet. The sand waves in this part of the inlet feature the largest seasonal variability in height and migration speed. This seasonal variability may be attributed to the tides or a seasonal fluctuation in fall velocity. In both cases sediment transport is enhanced in winter, increasing sand-wave migration and decreasing sand-wave height. The influence of storms

  1. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on metamorphosis of a marine fish Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in relation to thyroid disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yifei; Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Li, Xiang; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2017-06-15

    This study examined the influence of environmental concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000ng/L) on metamorphosis of Paralichthys olivaceus, and analyzed the mechanisms in relation to thyroid disruption. Results showed that 100 and 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254 delayed metamorphosis and that 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254 caused abnormal morphology. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels in the control group were significantly elevated at metamorphic climax, but treatment with 100 and 1000ng/L delayed the increase in thyroid hormones (THs) and retarded metamorphic processes. In larvae exposed to 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254, TH levels at metamorphic climax were significantly lower than those of the control group at the same metamorphic stage. We suggest that the effects of Aroclor 1254 on larval metamorphosis can be explained by disruption of thyroid homeostasis. These findings provide a new perspective and biological model for thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) screening and investigating interference of thyroid function by TDCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901 T (=JCM 31611 T =KCTC 39843 T ).

  3. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Craig A.; Christ, Aaron M.; Wunder, Michael B.; Doll, Andrew C.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Rosen, David A. S.; Scherer, R. D.; Tollit, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we refine vibrissa-milk TEFs based on an additional 76 animals with an age distribution ranging from 1 to 20 mo. Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ13C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ15N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ13C and δ15N, respectively. Average lipid-free δ13C and δ15N vibrissa-milk TEFs were 2.5 (±0.9) and 1.8‰ (±0.8), respectively, and did not differ among metapopulations. Empirically determined TEFs are critical for accurate retrospective diet modeling, particularly for evaluating the hypothesis of nutritional deficiency contributing to the lack of Steller sea lion population recovery in some regions of Alaska.

  4. Food safety considerations in relation to Anisakis pegreffii in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardines (Sardina pilchardus) fished off the Ligurian Coast (Cinque Terre National Park, NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serracca, Laura; Battistini, Roberta; Rossini, Irene; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Prearo, Marino; Tomei, Laura; De Montis, Gabriella; Ercolini, Carlo

    2014-11-03

    Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus are pelagic fishes of notable economic and gastronomic importance in the northwest Mediterranean (Ligurian Sea, Italy). The consumption of thermally unprocessed or lightly processed, marinated or salted anchovies and sardines presents a potential risk to acquire anisakiasis, a fish-borne parasitic disease in humans. Prevalence and abundance of Anisakis larvae in Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus from the Monterosso fishing grounds (Cinque Terre National Park, Ligurian Sea, Italy) were assessed, and the larvae were identified by morphological and PCR-RFLP methods. Anisakis larvae, all belonging to Anisakis pegreffii spp. were found in the visceral mass of 1050 anchovies (0.8% overall prevalence), whereas no Anisakis larvae were found in the 750 sardines examined. According to these data, the risk of acquiring anisakiasis from the consumption of raw or undercooked anchovies and sardines caught in the fishing area we investigated is very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huque, Roksana; Munshi, M. Kamruzzaman; Khatun, Afifa; Islam, Mahfuza; Hossain, Afzal; Hossain, Arzina; Akter, Shirin; Kabir, Jamiul; Nahar Jolly, Yeasmin; Islam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling) on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them. PMID:26904650

  6. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Huque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them.

  7. Seasonal variation in parasite infection patterns of marine fish species from the Northern Wadden Sea in relation to interannual temperature fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Franziska M.; Raupach, Michael J.; Mathias Wegner, K.

    2016-07-01

    Marine environmental conditions are naturally changing throughout the year, affecting life cycles of hosts as well as parasites. In particular, water temperature is positively correlated with the development of many parasites and pathogenic bacteria, increasing the risk of infection and diseases during summer. Interannual temperature fluctuations are likely to alter host-parasite interactions, which may result in profound impacts on sensitive ecosystems. In this context we investigated the parasite and bacterial Vibrionaceae communities of four common small fish species (three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, Atlantic herring Clupea harengus, European sprat Sprattus sprattus and lesser sand eel Ammodytes tobianus) in the Northern Wadden Sea over a period of two years. Overall, we found significantly increased relative diversities of infectious species at higher temperature differentials. On the taxon-specific level some macroparasite species (trematodes, nematodes) showed a shift in infection peaks that followed the water temperatures of preceding months, whereas other parasite groups showed no effects of temperature differentials on infection parameters. Our results show that even subtle changes in seasonal temperatures may shift and modify the phenology of parasites as well as opportunistic pathogens that can have far reaching consequences for sensitive ecosystems.

  8. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  9. Towards sustainable fish feed production using novel protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fish and fish-related products is increasing. Due to improved welfare and suggested health benefits, consumers are now eating more fish. In 2008, global fisheries supplied the world with about 142 million tons of fish, of which 115 million tons was used as human food, which is

  10. Angiotensin 1-7 receptor and angiotensin ii receptor 2 blockades prevent the increased serum and kidney nitric oxide levels in response to angiotensin ii administration: Gender-related difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Safari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The renal vasculature of male rats may provide more response to Ang II administration-induced NO, which is dependent on masR and AT2R. During dual masR + AT2R blockades, the kidney NO formation wasreduced in a non-gender related manner.

  11. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.

    2010-02-26

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  12. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  13. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  14. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Sen Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI. The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI and Biotic Index (BI from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  15. Using benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities as bioindicators of the Tanshui River basin around the greater Taipei area - multivariate analysis of spatial variation related to levels of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-07-14

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15-35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  16. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  17. Changes in the North Sea fish community: evidence of indirect effects of fishing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N.; Gislason, H.; Pope, J.G.; Rice, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate changes in the North Sea fish community with particular reference to possible indirect effects of fishing, mediated through the ecosystem. In the past, long-term changes in the slope of size spectra of research vessel catches have been related to changes in fishing effort, but such

  18. The campaign to DNA barcode all fishes, FISH-BOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R D; Hanner, R; Hebert, P D N

    2009-02-01

    FISH-BOL, the Fish Barcode of Life campaign, is an international research collaboration that is assembling a standardized reference DNA sequence library for all fishes. Analysis is targeting a 648 base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. More than 5000 species have already been DNA barcoded, with an average of five specimens per species, typically vouchers with authoritative identifications. The barcode sequence from any fish, fillet, fin, egg or larva can be matched against these reference sequences using BOLD; the Barcode of Life Data System (http://www.barcodinglife.org). The benefits of barcoding fishes include facilitating species identification, highlighting cases of range expansion for known species, flagging previously overlooked species and enabling identifications where traditional methods cannot be applied. Results thus far indicate that barcodes separate c. 98 and 93% of already described marine and freshwater fish species, respectively. Several specimens with divergent barcode sequences have been confirmed by integrative taxonomic analysis as new species. Past concerns in relation to the use of fish barcoding for species discrimination are discussed. These include hybridization, recent radiations, regional differentiation in barcode sequences and nuclear copies of the barcode region. However, current results indicate these issues are of little concern for the great majority of specimens.

  19. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  20. Effect of Age-Related Cartilage Turnover on Serum C-Telopeptide of Collagen Type II and Osteocalcin Levels in Growing Rabbits with and without Surgically Induced Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of age-related cartilage turnover on the serum C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II and osteocalcin (OC levels in growing rabbits with and without surgically induced osteoarthritis. Twenty-four New Zealand male 3-month-old rabbits were randomized into three operated groups (n = 6 per group, with surgically induced osteroarthritis in the right knee; after blood sampling, the knees were harvested following euthanization at 2, 3, and 6 months after surgery and a control group (n = 6, blood samples were obtained monthly between 3 and 15 months. Histomorphologically, the medial femoral condyles, particularly the central parts, harbored the most severe osteoarthritic changes among the operated rabbits. The serum levels of CTX-II and OC decreased in the controls from 3 to 11 months and then remained stable. No significant differences in the serum CTX-II and OC levels between the osteoarthritic rabbits and controls were observed. The osteoarthritic-to-normal ratios (ONRs, the ratios of serum CTX-II or OC levels in osteoarthritic rabbits to those of the controls at same ages enabled an overall assessment of osteoarthritis and age-related cartilage turnover. Elevated CTX-II ONRs were observed in rabbits with mild to advanced osteoarthritis. However, the OC ONRs were unhelpful in assessing osteoarthritic growing rabbits.

  1. Macroinvertebrates as indicators of fish absence in naturally fishless lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Emily Gaenzle; Loftin, C.S.; Huryn, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    1. Little is known about native communities in naturally fishless lakes in eastern North America, a region where fish stocking has led to a decline in these habitats. 2. Our study objectives were to: (i) characterise and compare macroinvertebrate communities in fishless lakes found in two biophysical regions of Maine (U.S.A.): kettle lakes in the eastern lowlands and foothills and headwater lakes in the central and western mountains; (ii) identify unique attributes of fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities compared to lakes with fish and (iii) develop a method to efficiently identify fishless lakes when thorough fish surveys are not possible. 3. We quantified macroinvertebrate community structure in the two physiographic fishless lake types (n = 8 kettle lakes; n = 8 headwater lakes) with submerged light traps and sweep nets. We also compared fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities to those in fish-containing lakes (n = 18) of similar size, location and maximum depth. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to assess differences in community structure and t-tests for taxon-specific comparisons between lakes. 4. Few differences in macroinvertebrate communities between the two physiographic fishless lake types were apparent. Fishless and fish-containing lakes had numerous differences in macroinvertebrate community structure, abundance, taxonomic composition and species richness. Fish presence or absence was a stronger determinant of community structure in our study than differences in physical conditions relating to lake origin and physiography. 5. Communities in fishless lakes were more speciose and abundant than in fish-containing lakes, especially taxa that are large, active and free-swimming. Families differing in abundance and taxonomic composition included Notonectidae, Corixidae, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae and Chaoboridae. 6. We identified six taxa unique to fishless lakes that are robust indicators of fish absence: Graphoderus

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood (fish and shellfish) consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission to address the risks and benefits as regards fish/seafood consumption related to relevant beneficial substances (e.g. nutrients such as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) and the contaminant methylmercury, the Panel on Dietetic Products...... effects of seafood consumption in relation to health outcomes and population subgroups that have been identified by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption and/or the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the context of a risk assessment related to the presence...... of mercury and methylmercury in food as relevant for the assessment. These included the effects of seafood consumption during pregnancy on functional outcomes of children’s neurodevelopment and the effects of seafood consumption on cardiovascular disease risk in adults. The Panel concluded that consumption...

  3. Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part II: responses in the leaves and general conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cuypers, Ann; Horemans, Nele; Remans, Tony; Opdenakker, Kelly; Smeets, Karen; Bello, Daniel Martinez; Havaux, Michel; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2011-06-01

    The cellular redox balance seems an important modulator under heavy metal stress. While for other heavy metals these processes are well studied, oxidative stress related responses are also known to be triggered under uranium stress but information remains limited. This study aimed to further unravel the mechanisms by which plants respond to uranium stress. Seventeen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown on a modified Hoagland solution under controlled conditions, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μM uranium for 1, 3 and 7 days. While in Part I of this study oxidative stress related responses in the roots were discussed, this second Part II discusses oxidative stress related responses in the leaves and general conclusions drawn from the results of the roots and the leaves will be presented. As several responses were already visible following 1 day exposure, when uranium concentrations in the leaves were negligible, a root-to-shoot signaling system was suggested in which plastids could be important sensing sites. While lipid peroxidation, based on the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds, was observed after exposure to 100 μM uranium, affecting membrane structure and function, a transient concentration dependent response pattern was visible for lipoxygenase initiated lipid peroxidation. This transient character of uranium stress responses in leaves was emphasized by results of lipoxygenase (LOX2) and antioxidative enzyme transcript levels, enzyme capacities and glutathione concentrations both in time as with concentration. The ascorbate redox balance seemed an important modulator of uranium stress responses in the leaves as in addition to the previous transient responses, the total ascorbate concentration and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate redox balance increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. This could represent either a slow transient response or a stable increase with regard to plant acclimation to uranium stress. Copyright

  4. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  5. Metallothionein-I plus II and receptor megalin are altered in relation to oxidative stress in cerebral lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.O.; Hansen, P.B.; Nielsen, Signe Ledou

    2010-01-01

    . This article characterizes the histopathology and expression profiles of metallothionein-I + II (MT-I + II) and their receptor megalin along with proliferation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in PCNSL and in central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas due to relapse from DLBCL (collectively referred to as CNS...

  6. The relative influence of secondary versus primary prevention using the national cholesterol education program adult treatment panel II guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldman, L; Coxson, P; Hunink, MGM; Goldman, PA; Tosteson, ANA; Mittleman, M; Williams, L; Weinstein, MC

    OBJECTIVES This study was undertaken to project the population-wide effect of full implementation of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) II guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). BACKGROUND The ATP II has proposed guidelines for cholesterol reduction, but the long-term

  7. Ecological relations between fish assemblages and their habitats in the Elbe River (ELFI). Final report; Oekologische Zusammenhaenge zwischen Fischgemeinschafts- und Lebensraumstrukturen der Elbe (ELFI). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellen, W.; Kausch, H.; Thiel, R.; Ginter, R. (eds.)

    2002-12-01

    In the framework of the joint project, extensive data were obtained with regard to ecomorphology and hydro-dynamics of fish habitats, species diversity, age structure, abundance, habitat quality, habitat use, larval drift, migrations, growth, health status and population genetics of the fish fauna of the middle Elbe River. The data were stored in data banks and were used as basis to assess the middle Elbe River, to formulate a fish-ecological guiding view, and to develop predictive habitat models for different life stages of indicatory fish species. The data and results of the joint project will be stored in fish data banks of the ARGE Elbe and of the Federal Institute of Hydrology. The information is useful for the development of decision support systems. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Verbundprojekts wurden umfangreiche Daten zu Oekomorphologie und Hydrodynamik von Fischhabitaten, zu Artendiversitaet, Altersstruktur, Abundanz, Habitatqualitaet und -nutzung, Larvendrift, Wanderungen, Wachstum, Gesundheitsstatus und Populationsgenetik der Fischfauna in der Mittelelbe erhoben und in Datenbanken abgelegt. Darauf aufbauend wurde die Mittelelbe fischoekologisch bewertet, ein fischoekologisches Leitbild formuliert und prognosefaehige Habitatmodelle fuer verschiedene Lebensstadien von Indikatorfischarten entwickelt. Die Daten und Ergebnisse des Verbundprojekts fliessen in die Fischdatenbanken der ARGE Elbe und der Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde ein und stehen fuer die Entwicklung von DSS (Decision Support Systems) zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  8. Comparative analysis of diet composition and its relation to morphological characteristics in juvenile fish of three lutjanid species in a Mexican Pacific coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo M. Aguilar-Betancourt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The main goal of this research was to investigate the differences in diet composition among three species of the genus Lutjanus inhabiting a coastal lagoon as juveniles. The working hypothesis was that these species feed on a common base of food resources and therefore, some niche overlap is present in terms of general diet composition. However, changes in the trophic niche with size and differences in some morphological traits among species explain observed differences in diet. Fish were collected during 42 sampling trips conducted regularly from February 2011 to January 2012 using several types of fishing gear. Total number of analyzed stomachs was 288 for Lutjanus argentiventris from 2.3 to 19.9 cm total length (TL; 178 for Lutjanus colorado ranging from 2.4 to 30.1 cm TL; and 183 for Lutjanus novemfasciatus with 1.2 to 20.0 cm TL. Results indicate that juveniles of all three lutjanid species share a general diet based on decapods and fishes. However, L. novemfasciatus has a more piscivorous habit, which can be explained by a more slender body shape and larger teeth, characteristics, which increase fish catching performance. Larger fish of all three species eat larger prey, which is consistent with the optimum foraging theory.

  9. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P. III; Cook, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  10. Area-based management and fishing efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, Clara; Pastoors, M.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the extent to which area-based management may have influenced the fishing efficiency of the Danish and Dutch demersal fleets harvesting cod, plaice and sole in the North Sea. Special consideration is given to the 'plaice box', a restricted area where...... fishing is prohibited to towed-gear fleets of horsepower exceeding 300 hp. An index of fishing power is calculated as the log-ratio between the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of any vessel and some survey abundance index. Annual trends in fishing are calculated as the year-effect derived from a general...... linear model (GLM) analysis of the index of fishing power. The fishing efficiency of Danish gill-netters and, to some extent, Danish seiners, has overall increased inside the 'plaice box', whilst remaining relatively stable outside. However, the fishing efficiency of the other exemption fleets has...

  11. Freshwater fishes of Tsitsikamma National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.

  12. Purification, structural characterization, and myotropic activity of a peptide related to des-Arg(9)-bradykinin from an elasmobranch fish, the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W Gary; Leprince, Jérôme; Conlon, J Michael

    2008-08-01

    A bradykinin (BK)-related peptide was isolated from heat-denaturated plasma from an elasmobranch fish, the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea after incubation with porcine pancreatic kallikrein. The primary structure of the peptide (H-Gly-Ile-Thr-Ser-Trp-Leu-Pro-Phe-OH; skate BK) shows limited structural similarity to the mammalian B1 receptor agonist, des-Arg(9)-BK. The myotropic activities of synthetic skate BK, and the analog skate [Arg(9)]BK, were examined in isolated skate vascular and intestinal smooth muscle preparations. Skate BK produced a concentration-dependent constriction of the mesenteric artery (EC(50)=4.37x10(-8)M; maximum response=103.4+/-10.23% of the response to 60mM KCl) but the response to skate [Arg(9)]BK was appreciably weaker (response to 10(-6)M=73.0+/-23.4% of the response to 60mM KCl). Neither the first branchial gill arch nor the ventral aorta responded to either purified peptide. Skate BK also produced a concentration-dependent constriction of intestinal smooth muscle preparations (EC(50)=2.74x10(-7)M; maximum response 31.0+/-12.2% of the response to 10(-5)M acetylcholine). Skate [Arg(9)]BK was without effect on the intestinal preparation. The data provide evidence for the existence of the kallikrein-kinin system in a phylogenetically ancient vertebrate group and the greater potency of skate BK compared with the analog skate [Arg(9)]BK suggests that the receptor mediating vascular responses resembles the mammalian B1 receptor more closely than the B2 receptor.

  13. Relating the variation of secondary structure of gelatin at fish oil-water interface to adsorption kinetics, dynamic interfacial tension and emulsion stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihua; Wang, Bo; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the relationship between secondary structure of gelatin and its adsorption at the fish-oil/water interface and to quantify the implication of the adsorption on the dynamic interfacial tension (DST) and emulsion stability. The surface hydrophobicity of the gelatin solutions decreased when the pH increased from 4.0 to 6.0, while opposite tend was observed in the viscosity of the solution. The DST values decreased as the pH increased from 4.0 to 6.0, indicating that higher positive charges (measured trough zeta potential) in the gelatin solution tended to result in higher DST values. The adsorption kinetics of the gelatin solution was examined through the calculated diffusion coefficients (Deff). The addition of acid promoted the random coil and β-turn structures at the expense of α-helical structure. The addition of NaOH decreased the β-turn and increased the α-helix and random coil. The decrease in the random coil and triple helix structures in the gelatin solution resulted into increased Deff values. The highest diffusion coefficients, the highest emulsion stability and the lowest amount of random coil and triple helix structures were observed at pH=4.8. The lowest amount of random coil and triple helix structures in the interfacial protein layer correlated with the highest stability of the emulsion (highest ESI value). The lower amount of random coil and triple helix structures allowed higher coverage of the oil-water interface by relatively highly ordered secondary structure of gelatin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of metallothioneins I and II related to oxidative stress in the liver of aluminium-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Chaabane, Mariem; Elwej, Awatef; Boudawara, Ons; Abdelhedi, Sameh; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahya; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-10-01

    Hepatotoxicity, induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ), has been well studied but there are no reports about liver metallothionein (MT) genes induction. Therefore, it is of interest to establish the mechanism involving the relation between MT gene expression levels and the oxidative stress status in hepatic cells of aluminium-treated rats. Aluminium (Al) was administered to rats in their drinking water at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for three weeks. AlCl 3 provoked hepatotoxicity objectified by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls (PCO) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), non-protein thiols (NPSH) and vitamin C. CAT and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased while Mn-SOD gene expression, total Metallothionein content and MT I and MT II genes induction were increased. There are changes in plasma of some trace elements, albumin levels, transaminases, LDH and ALP activities. All these changes were supported by histopathological observations.

  15. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  16. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  17. Reproductive biomarkers responses induced by xenoestrogens in the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus inhabiting a South American reservoir: An integrated field and laboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Paula S.; Pinheiro, Ana Paula B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Bazzoli, Nilo [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, PUC Minas, Belo Horizonte 30535-610, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Rizzo, Elizete, E-mail: ictio@icb.ufmg.br [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay–Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic

  18. Non-bonding interactions and non-covalent delocalization effects play a critical role in the relative stability of group 12 complexes arising from interaction of diethanoldithiocarbamate with the cations of transition metals Zn(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II): a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Homayoon; Farhadi, Saeed; Siadatnasab, Firouzeh

    2016-07-01

    The chelating properties of diethanoldithiocarbamate (DEDC) and π-electron flow from the nitrogen atom to the sulfur atom via a plane-delocalized π-orbital system (quasi ring) was studied using a density functional theory method. The molecular structure of DEDC and its complexes with Zn(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) were also considered. First, the geometries of this ligand and DEDC-Zn(II), DEDC-Cd(II), and DEDC-Hg(II) were optimized, and the formation energies of these complexes were then calculated based on the electronic energy, or sum of electronic energies, with the zero point energy of each species. Formation energies indicated the DEDC-Zn(II) complex as the most stable complex, and DEDC-Cd(II) as the least stable. Structural data showed that the N1-C2 π-bond was localized in the complexes rather than the ligand, and a delocalized π-bond over S7-C2-S8 was also present. The stability of DEDC-Zn(II), DEDC-Cd(II), and DEDC-Hg(II) complexes increased in the presence of the non-specific effects of the solvent (PCM model), and their relative stability did not change. There was π-electron flow or resonance along N1-C2-S7 and along S7-C2-S8 in the ligand. The π-electron flow or resonance along N1-C2-S7 was abolished when the metal interacted with sulfur atoms. Energy belonging to van der Waals interactions and non-covalent delocalization effects between the metal and sulfur atoms of the ligand was calculated for each complex. The results of nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) indicated a decreasing trend as Zn(II) Hg(II) for the aromaticity of the quasi-rings. Finally, by ignoring van der Waals interactions and non-covalent delocalization effects between the metal and sulfur atoms of the ligand, the relative stability of the complexes was changed as follows:[Formula: see text] Graphical Abstract Huge electronic cloud localized on Hg(II) in the Hg(II)-DEDC complex.

  19. Monitoring fish distributions along electrofishing segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrofishing is widely used to monitor fish species composition and relative abundance in streams and lakes. According to standard protocols, multiple segments are selected in a body of water to monitor population relative abundance as the ratio of total catch to total sampling effort. The standard protocol provides an assessment of fish distribution at a macrohabitat scale among segments, but not within segments. An ancillary protocol was developed for assessing fish distribution at a finer scale within electrofishing segments. The ancillary protocol was used to estimate spacing, dispersion, and association of two species along shore segments in two local reservoirs. The added information provided by the ancillary protocol may be useful for assessing fish distribution relative to fish of the same species, to fish of different species, and to environmental or habitat characteristics.

  20. Hydrological connectivity for riverine fish: measurement challenges and research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, A.H.; Burnett, K.M.; Steel, E.A.; Flitcroft, R.L.; Pess, G.R.; Feist, B.E.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Miller, D.J.; Sanderson, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we first summarize how hydrologic connectivity has been studied for riverine fish capable of moving long distances, and then identify research opportunities that have clear conservation significance. Migratory species, such as anadromous salmonids, are good model organisms for understanding ecological connectivity in rivers because the spatial scale over which movements occur among freshwater habitats is large enough to be easily observed with available techniques; they are often economically or culturally valuable with habitats that can be easily fragmented by human activities; and they integrate landscape conditions from multiple surrounding catchment(s) with in‐river conditions. Studies have focussed on three themes: (i) relatively stable connections (connections controlled by processes that act over broad spatio‐temporal scales >1000 km2 and >100 years); (ii) dynamic connections (connections controlled by processes acting over fine to moderate spatio‐temporal scales ∼1–1000 km2 and hydrologic connectivity, including actions that disrupt or enhance natural connections experienced by fish.We outline eight challenges to understanding the role of connectivity in riverine fish ecology, organized under three foci: (i) addressing the constraints of river structure; (ii) embracing temporal complexity in hydrologic connectivity; and (iii) managing connectivity for riverine fishes. Challenges include the spatial structure of stream networks, the force and direction of flow, scale‐dependence of connectivity, shifting boundaries, complexity of behaviour and life histories and quantifying anthropogenic influence on connectivity and aligning management goals. As we discuss each challenge, we summarize relevant approaches in the literature and provide additional suggestions for improving research and management of connectivity for riverine fishes.Specifically, we suggest that rapid advances are possible in the following arenas: (i

  1. Flow Structures and Efficiency of Swimming Fish school: Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, Yuzuru; Hattori, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    The flow structure and energy-saving mechanism in fish school is numerically investigated by using the volume penalization method. We calculate the various patterns of configuration of fishes and investigate the relation between spatial arrangement and the performance of fish. It is found that the down-stream fish gains a hydrodynamic advantage from the upstream wake shed by the upstream fish. The most efficient configuration is that the downstream fish is placed in the wake. It reduces the drag force of the downstream fish in comparison with that in solo swimming.

  2. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  3. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution and feeding related changes of NUCB2A/nesfatin-1 in Ya-fish (Schizothorax prenanti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fangjun; Zhou, Chaowei; Chen, Hu; Wu, Hongwei; Xin, Zhiming; Liu, Ju; Gao, Yundi; Yuan, Dengyue; Wang, Tao; Wei, Rongbin; Chen, Defang; Yang, Shiyong; Wang, Yan; Pu, Yundan; Li, Zhiqiong

    2014-02-25

    The protein nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) was identified over a decade ago and recently raised great interest as its derived peptide nesfatin-1 was shown to reduce food intake and body weight in rodents. However, the involvement of NUCB2 in feeding behavior has not well been studied in fish. In the present study, we characterized the structure, distribution, and meal responsive of NUCB2A/nesfatin-1 in Ya-fish (Schizothorax prenanti) for the first time. The full length cDNA of Ya-fish was 2140base pair (bp), which encoded a polypeptide of 487 amino acid residues including a 23 amino acid signal peptide. A high conservation in NUCB2 sequences was found in vertebrates, however the proposed propeptide cleavage site (Arg-Arg) conserved among other species is not present in Ya-fish NUCB2A sequence. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that Ya-fish NUCB2A mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all test tissues, and abundant expression was detected in several regions including the hypothalamus, hepatopancreas, ovary and intestines. NUCB2A mRNA expression respond to feeding status change may vary and be tissue specific. NUCB2A mRNA levels significantly increased (P<0.05) in the hypothalamus and intestines after feeding and substantially decreased (P<0.01) during a week food deprivation in the hypothalamus. Meanwhile, NUCB2A mRNA in the hepatopancreas was significantly elevated (P<0.001) during food deprivation, and a similar increase was also found after short-time fasting. This points toward a potential hepatopancreas specific local role for NUCB2A in the regulation of metabolism during food deprivation. Collectively, these results provide the molecular and functional evidence to support potential anorectic and metabolic roles for NUCB2A in Ya-fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of human population density and proximity to markets on coral reef fishes vulnerable to extinction by fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, T D; Cinner, J E; Green, A; Pressey, R L

    2013-06-01

    Coral reef fisheries are crucial to the livelihoods of tens of millions of people; yet, widespread habitat degradation and unsustainable fishing are causing severe depletion of stocks of reef fish. Understanding how social and economic factors, such as human population density, access to external markets, and modernization interact with fishing and habitat degradation to affect fish stocks is vital to sustainable management of coral reef fisheries. We used fish survey data, national social and economic data, and path analyses to assess whether these factors explain variation in biomass of coral reef fishes among 25 sites in Solomon Islands. We categorized fishes into 3 groups on the basis of life-history characteristics associated with vulnerability to extinction by fishing (high, medium, and low vulnerability). The biomass of fish with low vulnerability was positively related to habitat condition. The biomass of fishes with high vulnerability was negatively related to fishing conducted with efficient gear. Use of efficient gear, in turn, was strongly and positively related to both population density and market proximity. This result suggests local population pressure and external markets have additive negative effects on vulnerable reef fish. Biomass of the fish of medium vulnerability was not explained by fishing intensity or habitat condition, which suggests these species may be relatively resilient to both habitat degradation and fishing. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Association of variants in genes related to the immune response and obesity with BPH in CLUE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, D S; Peskoe, S B; Tsilidis, K K; Hoffman-Bolton, J; Helzlsouer, K J; Isaacs, W B; Smith, M W; Platz, E A

    2014-12-01

    Chronic inflammation and obesity may contribute to the genesis or progression of BPH and BPH-associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The influence of variants in genes related to these states on BPH has not been studied extensively. Thus, we evaluated the association of 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes (IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNF, CRP, TLR4 and RNASEL) and genes involved in obesity, including insulin regulation (LEP, ADIPOQ, PPARG and TCF7L2), with BPH. BPH cases (N = 568) and age-frequency matched controls (N=568) were selected from among adult male CLUE II cohort participants who responded in 2000 to a mailed questionnaire. BPH was defined as BPH surgery, use of BPH medications or symptomatic BPH (American Urological Association Symptom Index Score ⩾ 15). Controls were men who had not had BPH surgery, did not use BPH medications and whose symptom score was ⩽ 7. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. None of the candidate SNPs was statistically significantly associated with BPH. However, we could not rule out possible weak associations for CRP rs1205 (1082C>T), ADIPOQ rs1501299 (276C>A), PPARG rs1801282 (-49C>G) and TCF7L2 rs7903146 (47833T>C). After summing risk alleles, men with ⩾ 4 had an increased BPH risk compared with those with ⩽ 1 (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.10-2.89; P(trend) = 0.006). SNPs in genes related to immune response and obesity, especially in combination, may be associated with BPH.

  6. DJ-1 Modulates Nuclear Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2-Mediated Protection in Human Primary Alveolar Type II Cells in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmed, Karim; Messier, Elise M; Zhou, Wenbo; Tuder, Rubin M; Freed, Curt R; Chu, Hong Wei; Kelsen, Steven G; Bowler, Russell P; Mason, Robert J; Kosmider, Beata

    2016-09-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a main source of oxidative stress and a key risk factor for emphysema, which consists of alveolar wall destruction. Alveolar type (AT) II cells are in the gas exchange regions of the lung. We isolated primary ATII cells from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation. We analyzed the cell injury obtained from nonsmokers, moderate smokers, and heavy smokers. DJ-1 protects cells from oxidative stress and induces nuclear erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, which activates the antioxidant defense system. In ATII cells isolated from moderate smokers, we found DJ-1 expression by RT-PCR, and Nrf2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 translocation by Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence. In ATII cells isolated from heavy smokers, we detected Nrf2 and HO-1 cytoplasmic localization. Moreover, we found high oxidative stress, as detected by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) (immunoblotting), inflammation by IL-8 and IL-6 levels by ELISA, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay in ATII cells obtained from heavy smokers. Furthermore, we detected early DJ-1 and late Nrf2 expression after ATII cell treatment with CS extract. We also overexpressed DJ-1 by adenovirus construct and found that this restored Nrf2 and HO-1 expression and induced nuclear translocation in heavy smokers. Moreover, DJ-1 overexpression also decreased ATII cell apoptosis caused by CS extract in vitro. Our results indicate that DJ-1 activates the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system. Furthermore, DJ-1 overexpression can restore the impaired Nrf2 pathway, leading to ATII cell protection in heavy smokers. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting DJ-1 in CS-related lung diseases.

  7. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    there any correlation between genetic similarity and the potential for hybridization in marine fishes? In some particular geographic locations that have the existence of several different hybridization reports, are the species involved in hybridization among those reports all closely related or distantly related? Can any associations between parent species’ similarities and hybrid spots be found?

  8. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  9. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  10. Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part II: responses in the leaves and general conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie, E-mail: nvanhoud@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Cuypers, Ann [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Horemans, Nele [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Remans, Tony; Opdenakker, Kelly; Smeets, Karen [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Bello, Daniel Martinez [Hasselt University, Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Havaux, Michel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA)/Cadarache, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie, Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie de la Photosynthese, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    The cellular redox balance seems an important modulator under heavy metal stress. While for other heavy metals these processes are well studied, oxidative stress related responses are also known to be triggered under uranium stress but information remains limited. This study aimed to further unravel the mechanisms by which plants respond to uranium stress. Seventeen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown on a modified Hoagland solution under controlled conditions, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 {mu}M uranium for 1, 3 and 7 days. While in Part I of this study oxidative stress related responses in the roots were discussed, this second Part II discusses oxidative stress related responses in the leaves and general conclusions drawn from the results of the roots and the leaves will be presented. As several responses were already visible following 1 day exposure, when uranium concentrations in the leaves were negligible, a root-to-shoot signaling system was suggested in which plastids could be important sensing sites. While lipid peroxidation, based on the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds, was observed after exposure to 100 {mu}M uranium, affecting membrane structure and function, a transient concentration dependent response pattern was visible for lipoxygenase initiated lipid peroxidation. This transient character of uranium stress responses in leaves was emphasized by results of lipoxygenase (LOX2) and antioxidative enzyme transcript levels, enzyme capacities and glutathione concentrations both in time as with concentration. The ascorbate redox balance seemed an important modulator of uranium stress responses in the leaves as in addition to the previous transient responses, the total ascorbate concentration and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate redox balance increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. This could represent either a slow transient response or a stable increase with regard to plant acclimation to uranium stress

  11. Distribution of Fish in the Upper Citarum River: an Adaptive Response to Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of fish in river is controlled by physico-chemical properties of the water which is affected by land-use complexity and intensity of human intervention. A study on fish distribution was carried out in the upper Citarum River to map the effects of physio-chemical properties on habitat use. A survey was conducted to collect fish and to measure the water quality both on dry and rainy season. The result showed that distribution of the fish, in general, represented their adaptive response to physico-chemical properties. The river environment could be grouped into two categories: (i clean and relatively unpolluted sites, which associated with high DO and water current, and (ii polluted sites characterized by low DO, high COD, BOD, water temperature, NO3, PO4, H2S, NH3, and surfactant. Fish inhabiting the first sites were Xiphophorus helleri, Punctius binotatus, Xiphophorus maculatus, and Oreochromis mossambicus. Meanwhile, the latter sites were inhabited by Liposarcus pardalis, Trichogaster trichopterus, and Poecilia reticulata. Knowledge about fish distribution in association with the pysico-chemical properties of water is crucial especially for the river management.

  12. Fish resources management in Brazil and overview of artisanal fisheries in Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Raposo da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to highlight the sociocultural and environmental importance of artisanal fisheries for the city of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, providing information about the main artisanal fisheries methods applied by the fishers, a brief history of public policy for fishing in Brazil, and an overview of the economy working relations and fish marketing in that city. Once the definitions of artisanal and industrial fishing are modified according to the State or region, we are consider artisanal fishing, for the purpose of this work, as that practiced by professional fisherman directly, independently, or as family economy, with production means of their own, or through partnership contract, landed, allowing the use of small ships. Five main artisanal fishing methods were detected in Macaé: (i the line method, (ii the method of surface longline; (iii the driftnet method; (iv the drag; and (v the method of network seines, or pair. In this analysis, we focused on four major public policy processes which led to setting up a model of fishery management, in which crisis is evident, with an overcoming not yet fully delineated. Since the fishing activity is important for the region, the development of studies able to define the supply chain structuring programs, expansion of investments, creation of a framework for its own staff and, especially aimed at management concepts that can coordinate all activity from production, through processing to marketing, are significant steps to strengthen the fisheries policy in the city of Macaé.

  13. II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  14. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Kotler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae. Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus.

  15. Herpesviruses that infect fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-11-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus).

  16. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus). PMID:22163339

  17. An in vivo analysis of Cr6+ induced biochemical, genotoxicological and transcriptional profiling of genes related to oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in liver of fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Yashika; Ratn, Arun; Prasad, Rajesh; Kumar, Manoj; Trivedi, Sunil P

    2018-07-01

    Present study was designed to assess the hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) mediated oxidative stress that induces DNA damage and apoptosis in adult fish, Channa punctatus (35 ± 3.0 g; 14.5 ± 1.0 cm; Actinopterygii). Fishes were maintained in three groups for 15, 30 and 45 d of exposure periods. They were treated with 5% (Group T1) and 10% (Group T2) of 96 h-LC 50 of chromium trioxide (Cr 6+ ). Controls were run for the similar duration. A significant (p < 0.05) increment in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, SOD and CAT in liver tissues of the exposed fish evinces the persistence of oxidative stress. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in induction of micronuclei (MN) coupled with transcriptional responses of target genes related to antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and apoptosis (sod, cat, gsr, nox-1, p53, bax, bcl-2, apaf-1 and casp3a) establishes the impact of oxidative stress due to in vivo, Cr 6+ accumulation in liver as compared to control (0 mg/L), in a dose and exposure-dependent manner. Initially, the increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in liver coincided with that of enhanced mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, sod, cat, gsr and nox-1 but, later, the overproduction of ROS, after 45 d of exposure of Cr 6+ , resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of p53. Our findings also unveil that the up-regulation of bax, apaf-1 and casp3a and down-regulation of bcl-2 are associated with Cr 6+ -induced oxidative stress mediated-apoptosis in liver of test fish. Aforesaid molecular markers can, thus, be efficiently utilized for bio-monitoring of aquatic regimes and conservation of fish biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mercury in fish tissue of Idaho lakes vs. those of the Northeastern United States as it relates to the moderating effects of selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary methyl-mercury (MeHg) exposure mode to wildlife and humans is through the consumption of aquatic organisms, particulary fish. Selenium has been demonstrated to moderate the toxicity of MeHg in every test animal type examined to date. A molar ratio of Se:Hg >1 appear...

  19. Effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on leucopenia in zidovudine-treated patients with AIDS and AIDS related complex, a phase I/II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouw, P. A.; van Leeuwen, R.; van Oers, R. H.; Lange, J. M.; Danner, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve male patients, eight with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and four with AIDS related complex (ARC), who had zidovudine associated neutropenia (less than 1 x 10(9) neutrophils/l) were treated with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a phase I/II

  20. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  1. Synthesis and characterisation of nano structure lead (II) ion-imprinted polymer as a new sorbent for selective extraction and preconcentration of ultra trace amounts of lead ions from vegetables, rice, and fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mohammad; Bagheri, Akbar; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Salarian, Mani; Sadeghi, Omid; Adlnasab, Laleh; Jalali, Kobra

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of new Pb(II)-imprinted polymeric particles using 2-vinylpyridine as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, 2,2'- azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator, diphenylcarbazone as the ligand, acetonitril as the solvent, and Pb(NO(3))(2) as the template ion, through bulk polymerisation technique. The imprinted lead ions were removed from the polymeric matrix using 5 mL of HCl (2 mol.L(-1)) as the eluting solvent. The lead ion concentration was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Optimum pH for maximum sorption was obtained at 6.0. Sorption and desorption of Pb(II) ions on the IIP particles were quite fast and achieved fully over 5 min. In the proposed method, the maximum sorbent capacity of the ion-imprinted polymer was calculated to be 75.4 mg g(-1). The preconcentration factor, relative standard deviation, and limit of detection of the method were found to be 245, 2.1%, and 0.42 ng mL(-1), respectively. The prepared ion-imprinted polymer particles have an increased selectivity toward Pb(II) ions over a range of competing metal ions with the same charge and similar ionic radius. This ion-imprinted polymer is an efficient solid phase for extraction and preconcentration of lead ions in complex matrixes. For proving that the proposed method is reliable, a wide range of food samples with different and complex matrixes was used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Population trends, bend use relative to available habitat and within-river-bend habitat use of eight indicator species of Missouri and Lower Kansas River benthic fishes: 15 years after baseline assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Yang, Wen-Hsi; Arab, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A baseline assessment of the Missouri River fish community and species-specific habitat use patterns conducted from 1996 to 1998 provided the first comprehensive analysis of Missouri River benthic fish population trends and habitat use in the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone rivers, exclusive of reservoirs, and provided the foundation for the present Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP). Data used in such studies are frequently zero inflated. To address this issue, the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model was applied. This follow-up study is based on PSPAP data collected up to 15 years later along with new understanding of how habitat characteristics among and within bends affect habitat use of fish species targeted by PSPAP, including pallid sturgeon. This work demonstrated that a large-scale, large-river, PSPAP-type monitoring program can be an effective tool for assessing population trends and habitat usage of large-river fish species. Using multiple gears, PSPAP was effective in monitoring shovelnose and pallid sturgeons, sicklefin, shoal and sturgeon chubs, sand shiner, blue sucker and sauger. For all species, the relationship between environmental variables and relative abundance differed, somewhat, among river segments suggesting the importance of the overall conditions of Upper and Middle Missouri River and Lower Missouri and Kansas rivers on the habitat usage patterns exhibited. Shoal and sicklefin chubs exhibited many similar habitat usage patterns; blue sucker and shovelnose sturgeon also shared similar responses. For pallid sturgeon, the primary focus of PSPAP, relative abundance tended to increase in Upper and Middle Missouri River paralleling stocking efforts, whereas no evidence of an increasing relative abundance was found in the Lower Missouri River despite stocking.

  3. Fish under exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  4. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with

  5. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  6. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  7. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  8. Swimming activity in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, C S

    1985-01-01

    Marine fish are capable of swimming long distances in annual migrations; they are also capable of high-speed dashes of short duration, and they can occupy small home territories for long periods with little activity. There is a large effect of fish size on the distance fish migrate at slow swimming speeds. When chased by a fishing trawl the effect of fish size on swimming performance can decide their fate. The identity and thickness of muscle used at each speed and evidence for the timing of myotomes used during the body movement cycle can be detected using electromyogram (EMG) electrodes. The cross-sectional area of muscle needed to maintain different swimming speeds can be predicted by relating the swimming drag force to the muscle force. At maximum swimming speed one completed cycle of swimming force is derived in sequence from the whole cross-sectional area of the muscles along the two sides of the fish. This and other aspects of the swimming cycle suggest that each myotome might be responsible for generating forces involved in particular stages of the tail sweep. The thick myotomes at the head end shorten during the peak thrust of the tail blade whereas the thinner myotomes nearer the tail generate stiffness appropriate for transmission of these forces and reposition the tail for the next cycle.

  9. Effect of the tether on the Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) stability constants and pM values of chelating agents related to EDDHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Miguel A; Gómez-Gallego, Mar; Alcázar, Roberto; Lucena, Juan J; Yunta, Felipe; García-Marco, Sonia

    2004-11-07

    The effect of the length and the structure of the tether on the chelating ability of EDDHA-like chelates have not been established. In this work, PDDHA (propylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid), BDDHA (butylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid) and XDDHA (p-xylylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid) have been obtained and their chemical behaviour has been studied and compared with that of EDDHA following our methodology. The purity of the chelating agents, and their protonation, Ca(II), Mg(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II) stability constants and pM values have been determined. The stability constants and pM values indicate that EDDHA forms the most stable chelates followed by PDDHA. However, the differences among the pFe values are small when a nutrient solution is used, and in these conditions the XDDHA/Fe(III) chelate is the most stable. The results obtained in this work indicate that all the chelating agents studied can be used as iron chlorosis correctors and they can be applied to soil/plant systems.

  10. Mitigating unaccounted fishing mortality from gillnet and traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlmann, S.S.; Broadhurst, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Gillnets and traps often are considered to have fewer holistic environmental impacts than active fishing gears. However, in addition to the targeted catches, gillnets and traps still cause unwanted mortalities due to (i) discarding, (ii) ghost fishing of derelict gear, (iii) depredation, (iv)

  11. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  12. Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFreitas, E.; Hilliard, B.; Cheney, P.R.; Bell, D.S.; Kiggundu, E.; Sankey, D.; Wroblewska, Z.; Palladino, M.; Woodward, J.P.; Koprowski, H. (Wistar Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) is a recently recognized illness characterized by debilitating fatigue as well as immunological and neurological abnormalities. Once thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, it is now thought to have a different but unknown etiology. The authors evaluted 30 adult and pediatric CFIDS patients from six eastern states for the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II by Western immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of blood samples. The majority of patients were positive for HTLV antibodies by Western blotting and for HTLV-II gag sequences by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Twenty nonexposure healthy controls were negative in all assays. These data support an association between an HTLV-II-like virus and CFIDS.

  13. Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreitas, E.; Hilliard, B.; Cheney, P.R.; Bell, D.S.; Kiggundu, E.; Sankey, D.; Wroblewska, Z.; Palladino, M.; Woodward, J.P.; Koprowski, H.

    1991-01-01

    Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) is a recently recognized illness characterized by debilitating fatigue as well as immunological and neurological abnormalities. Once thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, it is now thought to have a different but unknown etiology. The authors evaluted 30 adult and pediatric CFIDS patients from six eastern states for the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II by Western immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of blood samples. The majority of patients were positive for HTLV antibodies by Western blotting and for HTLV-II gag sequences by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Twenty nonexposure healthy controls were negative in all assays. These data support an association between an HTLV-II-like virus and CFIDS

  14. Transient behaviour in the plasma core of TJ-II stellarator and its relation with rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, T.; Luna, E. de la; Ascasibar, E; Jimenez, J.A.; Castejon, F.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Sanchez, J.; Tribaldos, V.

    2002-01-01

    A transient behaviour is observed in the plasma core of TJ-II stellarator with fast drops in the electron temperature. Changes in the line-averaged density are observed synchronized with temperature drops. This phenomenon appears in plasmas created and heated using 300 kW of electron cyclotron heating with high power density. The transient behaviour resembles both, the electric pulsation discovered in CHS and the 'electron root' feature reported by the W7-AS team. The flexibility and low magnetic shear of TJ-II have permitted the identification of the plasma current as the control parameter for the appearance of this phenomenon. The results obtained during the magnetic configuration scans carried out in TJ-II points to the hypothesis that the transient behaviour is connected with the presence of a rational surface close to the plasma centre. Equilibrium calculations performed with the VMEC code reinforce this hypothesis. (author)

  15. 2015 Carbbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1505, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2015 Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate length-frequency...

  16. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  17. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  18. Bacteria Associated with Fresh Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Keywords: Bacteria, Tilapia fish and Sokoto central market. INTRODUCTION ... The bacteria are transmitted by fish that have made contact ... with which a product spoils is also related to the .... Base on the percentage frequency of occurance ,.

  19. 2015 Carbbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1505, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2015 Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate length-frequency...

  20. 2016 SEAMAP Reef Fish Survey (PC1601, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2016 SEAMAP Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species on continental shelf-edge banks of the Gulf of Mexico, estimate...

  1. Helminths Parasite Larvae collected from Arabian Gulf Fish. 4. Description of four Larvae including two Metacercarae, one Didymozoid and one Acanthocephalan from Emirati Coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardousha, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Four helminth larvae from different fish hosts caught from Emirate coasts are described. Two are metacercariae related to genus Southampton's, type (I) and (II). Type (I) was found encysted in body cavities of the Indian halibut Psettodes erumei and the areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatusu and type (II) in the golden stripped goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus. The third larva is related to Acanthocephala and identified as Serrasentis sagittifer. It was collected from the body cavity of the spotted lizard fish Saurida undosquamius. The fourth larva belongs to the didymozoid trematodes, and was found infecting the kidneys of different hosts, such as Saurida undosquamis, the Jack pomfret Parastromateus niger and mackerel tuna Euthynnus affins. The larva related to Stephanostomum type (I) and type (II) and the dydimozoid type are described for the first time in the Arabian Gulf. (author)

  2. Data supporting the angiotensin II activates MEL18 to deSUMOylate HSF2 for hypertension-related heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In association with the published article “Inhibition of HSF2 SUMOylation via MEL18 upregulates IGF-IIR and leads to hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy” (Huang et al., 2017 [1], this data article contains information about deSUMOylation of HSF2 on lysine 82 on angiotensin II (ANG II -induced cardiac hypertrophy, which is mediated by MEL18. Isolated adult human whole heart tissue showed MEL18-mediated HSF2-IGF-IIR pathway is upregulated in hypertension human heart, compared to health human heart.

  3. Macroinvertebrate Prey Availability and Fish Diet Selectivity in Relation to Environmental Variables in Natural and Restoring North San Francisco Bay Tidal Marsh Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Emily R. Howe; Charles A. Simenstad; Jason D. Toft; Jeffrey R. Cordell; Stephen M. Bollens

    2014-01-01

    Tidal marsh wetlands provide important foraging habitat for a variety of estuarine fishes. Prey organisms include benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates, neustonic arthropods, and zooplankton. Little is known about the abundance and distribution of interior marsh macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary). We describe seasonal, regional, and site variation in the composition and abundance of neuston and benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates that inhabit tidal marsh ch...

  4. The TJ-II Relational Database Access Library: A User's Guide; Libreria de Acceso a la Base de Datos Relacional de TJ-II: Guia del Usuario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E.; Portas, A. B.; Vega, J.

    2003-07-01

    A relational database has been developed to store data representing physical values from TJ-II discharges. This new database complements the existing TJ-EI raw data database. This database resides in a host computer running Windows 2000 Server operating system and it is managed by SQL Server. A function library has been developed that permits remote access to these data from user programs running in computers connected to TJ-II local area networks via remote procedure cali. In this document a general description of the database and its organization are provided. Also given are a detailed description of the functions included in the library and examples of how to use these functions in computer programs written in the FORTRAN and C languages. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead sea bream fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2016-11-21

    R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6-9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Marine soundscape shaped by fishing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquereau, Laura; Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity.

  7. Comparative studies of metals in fish organs, sediments and water from Nigerian fresh water fish ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipinmoroti, K.O.; Oshodi, A.A.; Owolabi, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fish samples (Illisha africana) were collected from six man-made fish pond in Edo and Ondo states, Nigeria. Some organs of the fish sediment and water from the fish habitat were analysed for Cd, Pb, Hg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cr, Physico-chemical properties of water samples from the ponds were also re-corded. The concentration of the metals varied in the sediment water as well as in different organs of the fish. However, chromium was absent in all the samples. The descending order of metal concentration in fish organs was: gills intestine, head and muscle. To avoid harmful accumulation of these metals in the human system, the gills and the intestine should preferably be discarded while processing fish for consumption. The head with a relatively high concentration of calcium might be useful in feed formulation. (author)

  8. Relative distribution and abundance of fishes and crayfish in 2010 and 2014 prior to saltcedar (Tamarix ssp.) removal in the Amargosa River Canyon, southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, Mark E.

    2016-07-22

    The Amargosa River Canyon, located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern California, contains the longest perennial reach of the Amargosa River. Because of its diverse flora and fauna, it has been designated as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern and a Wild and Scenic River by the Bureau of Land Management. A survey of fishes conducted in summer 2010 indicated that endemic Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were abundant and occurred throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. The 2010 survey reported non-native red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) captures were significantly higher, whereas pupfish captures were lower, in areas dominated by non-native saltcedar (Tamarix ssp.). Based on the 2010 survey, it was hypothesized that the invasion of saltcedar could result in a decrease in native species. In an effort to maintain and enhance native fish populations, the Bureau of Land Management removed saltcedar from a 1,550 meter reach of stream on the Amargosa River in autumn 2014 and autumn 2015. Prior to the removal of saltcedar, a survey of fishes and crayfish using baited minnow traps was conducted in the treatment reach to serve as a baseline for future comparisons with post-saltcedar removal surveys. During the 2014 survey, 1,073 pupfish and 960 speckled dace were captured within the treatment reach. Catch per unit effort of pupfish and speckled dace in the treatment reach was less in 2014 than in 2010, although differences could be owing to seasonal variation in capture probability. Non-native mosquitofish catch per unit effort decreased from 2010 to 2014; however, the catch per unit effort of crayfish increased from 2010 to 2014. Future monitoring efforts of this reach should be conducted at the same time period to account for potential seasonal fluctuations of abundance and distribution of fishes and crayfish. A more robust study design that

  9. Potential Contribution of Work-Related Psychosocial Stress to the Development of Cardiovascular Disease and Type II Diabetes: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine M

    2014-01-01

    Two of the major causes of death worldwide are cardiovascular disease and Type II diabetes. Although death due to these diseases is assessed separately, the physiological process that is attributed to the development of cardiovascular disease can be linked to the development of Type II diabetes and the impact that this disease has on the cardiovascular system. Physiological, genetic, and personal factors contribute to the development of both these disorders. It has also been hypothesized that work-related stress may contribute to the development of Type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes some of the studies examining the role of work-related stress on the development of these chronic disorders. Because women may be more susceptible to the physiological effects of work-related stress, the papers cited in this review focus on studies that examined the difference in responses of men or women to work-related stress or on studies that focused on the effects of stress on women alone. Based on the papers summarized, it is concluded that (1) work-related stress may directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease by inducing increases in blood pressure and changes in heart rate that have negative consequences on functioning of the cardiovascular system; (2) workers reporting increased levels of stress may display an increased risk of Type II diabetes because they adopt poor health habits (ie, increased level of smoking, inactivity etc), which in turn contribute to the development of cardiovascular problems; and (3) women in high demand and low-control occupations report an increased level of stress at work, and thus may be at a greater risk of negative health consequences.

  10. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Consumer research on fish in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Based on input received from participants in the EU FAIR PL 98- 4174 Concerted Action programme "Fish Quality Labelling and Monitoring" (CA-FQLM), and on published research results, an overview is given of the recent findings on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to fish in Europe. The ...

  12. [Effects of submarine topography and water depth on distribution of pelagic fish community in minnan-taiwan bank fishing ground].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shuimei; Yang, Shengyun; Zhang, Chengmao; Zhu, Jinfu

    2002-11-01

    According to the fishing record of the light-seine information vessel in Minnan-Taiwan bank ground during 1989 to 1999, the effects of submarine topography and water depth on distribution of pelagic fish community in Minnan-Taiwan bank fishing ground was studied. The results showed that the pelagic fish distributed concentratively, while the submarine topography and water depth varied widely, but in different fishing regions, the distribution of pelagic fishes was uneven. The distribution of fishing yield increased from north to south, and closed up from sides of the bank to south or north in the regions. Pelagic fish distributed mainly in mixed water in the southern Taiwan Strait, and in warm water in the Taiwan Strait. The central fishing grounds were at high salt regions. Close gathering regions of pelagic fish or central fishing ground would be varied with the seasonal variation of mixed water in the southern Taiwan Strait and warm water in the Taiwan Strait. Central fishing ground was not only related to submarine topography and water depth, but also related to wind direction, wind-power and various water systems. In the fishing ground, the gathering depth of pelagic fish was 30-60 m in spring and summer, and 40-80 m in autumn and winter.

  13. Dietary restriction but not angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade improves DNA damage-related vasodilator dysfunction in rapidly aging Ercc1Δ/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; van Thiel, Bibi S; Bautista-Niño, Paula K; Reiling, Erwin; Durik, Matej; Leijten, Frank P J; Ridwan, Yanto; Brandt, Renata M C; van Steeg, Harry; Dollé, Martijn E T; Vermeij, Wilbert P; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Essers, Jeroen; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Danser, A H Jan; Roks, Anton J M

    2017-08-01

    DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model ( Ercc1 Δ/- mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ercc1 Δ/- mice showed increased blood pressure and decreased aortic relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) in organ bath experiments. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling and phospho-Ser 1177 -eNOS were compromised in Ercc1 Δ / - DR improved relaxations by increasing prostaglandin-mediated responses. Increase of cyclo-oxygenase 2 and decrease of phosphodiesterase 4B were identified as potential mechanisms. DR also prevented loss of NO signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells and normalized angiotensin II (Ang II) vasoconstrictions, which were increased in Ercc1 Δ/- mice. Ercc1 Δ/ - mutants showed a loss of Ang II type 2 receptor-mediated counter-regulation of Ang II type 1 receptor-induced vasoconstrictions. Chronic losartan treatment effectively decreased blood pressure, but did not improve endothelium-dependent relaxations. This result might relate to the aging-associated loss of treatment efficacy of RAS blockade with respect to endothelial function improvement. In summary, DR effectively prevents endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction by augmenting prostaglandin-mediated responses, whereas chronic Ang II type 1 receptor blockade is ineffective. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. CHANGES IN THE LEVELS OF ANGIOTENSIN II, ALDOSTERONE, AND FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN RELATION TO CLINICAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Komarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II, aldosterone, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF stimulate neoangiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation, and elaboration of proinflammatory cytokines, which in turn contributes to increased pannus mass and the development of joint tissue destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Objective: to establish the specific features of changes in the blood levels of angiotensin II, aldosterone, and FGF in patients with RA in relation to the duration and severity of the disease.Subjects and methods. Examinations were made in 194 patients diagnosed with RA without comorbidity; the patients’ mean age was 47.7±10.2 years; the disease duration was 3.82±3.43 years. DAS28 scores for RA were calculated based on C-reactive protein levels. An enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACCPA, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and FGF.Results and discussion. All the examinees were ascertained to have increases in the concentration of angiotensin II and aldosterone in blood by twice and in that of FGF by 2.5 times compared to the controls (p < 0.05. In patients with a RA duration of < 2 years, the blood level of angiotensin II was 25% higher than in those with a RA duration of > 5 years and the concentrations of aldosterone and FGF in patients with long-term RA were twice as high as in those with early RA. In patients with high RA activity, the blood level of angiotensin II was 1.5-fold higher than in those with low and moderate disease activity (p < 0.05. In patients with a high blood ACCPA level, the concentrations of angiotensin II, aldosterone, and FGF were 20, 30, and 25%, respectively, higher than in those with low ACCPA levels. The correlation of DAS28 with blood angiotensin II levels increased with enhanced RA activity. The high aldosterone and FGF values in RA patients are associated with the progression of joint radiographic changes.

  15. Effects of fish density and river fertilization on algal standing stocks, invertebrates communities, and fish production in an Arctic River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Linda A.; Peterson, B.J.; Golden, H.; McIvor, C.C.; Miller, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down controls of an arctic stream food web by simultaneous manipulation of the top predator and nutrient availability. We created a two-step trophic system (algae to insects) by removal of the top predator (Arctic grayling, Thymallus arcticus) in fertilized and control stream reaches. Fish abundance was also increased 10 times to examine the effect of high fish density on stream ecosystem dynamics and fish. We measured the response of epilithic algae, benthic and drifting insects, and fish to nutrient enrichment and to changes in fish density. Insect grazers had little effect on algae and fish had little effect on insects. In both the control and fertilized reaches, fish growth, energy storage, and reproductive response of females declined with increased fish density. Fish growth and energy storage were more closely correlated with per capita insect availability than with per capita algal standing stock

  16. Urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen, radiological severity, and functional assessment in knee osteoarthritis: are these related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayam M Abdel Ghany

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion This study further confirms that urinary CTX-II is an index of early cartilage degradation in knee OA even before radiological changes occurs. The functional assessment using the WOMAC is an easy inexpensive method in reflecting cartilage degradation. Moreover, this work supports the lack of association between the functional status of knee OA patients assessed using the WOMAC and their radiological severity measured using the Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale.

  17. Hazard assessment of metals in invasive fish species of the Yamuna River, India in relation to bioaccumulation factor and exposure concentration for human health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atul K; Srivastava, Sharad C; Verma, Pankaj; Ansari, Abubakar; Verma, Ambrish

    2014-06-01

    Monitoring of heavy metals was conducted in the Yamuna River considering bioaccumulation factor, exposure concentration, and human health implications which showed contamination levels of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) and their dispersion patterns along the river. Largest concentration of Pb in river water was 392 μg L(-1); Cu was 392 μg L(-1) at the extreme downstream, Allahabad and Ni was 146 μg L(-1) at midstream, Agra. Largest concentration of Cu was 617 μg kg(-1), Ni 1,621 μg kg(-1) at midstream while Pb was 1,214 μg kg(-1) at Allahabad in surface sediment. The bioconcentration of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cr was observed where the largest accumulation of Pb was 2.29 μg kg(-1) in Oreochromis niloticus and 1.55 μg kg(-1) in Cyprinus carpio invaded at Allahabad while largest concentration of Ni was 174 μg kg(-1) in O. niloticus and 124 μg kg(-1) in C. carpio in the midstream of the river. The calculated values of hazard index (HI) for Pb was found more than one which indicated human health concern. Carcinogenic risk value for Ni was again high i.e., 17.02 × 10(-4) which was larger than all other metals studied. The results of this study indicated bioconcentration in fish due to their exposures to heavy metals from different routes which had human health risk implications. Thus, regular environmental monitoring of heavy metal contamination in fish is advocated for assessing food safety since health risk may be associated with the consumption of fish contaminated through exposure to a degraded environment.

  18. Plasma-related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectrometry by group I and group II matrix-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Chan, W.-T.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Na, K, Ca and Ba matrices on the plasma excitation conditions in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were studied. Normalized relative intensity was used to indicate the extent of the plasma-related matrix effects. The group I matrices have no effects on the plasma excitation conditions. In contrast, the group II matrices depress the normalized relative intensities of some spectral lines. Specifically, the Group II matrices have no effects on the normalized relative intensity of atomic lines of low upper energy level (soft lines), but reduce the normalized relative intensity of some ionic lines and atomic lines of high energy level (hard lines). The Group II matrices seem to shift the Saha balance of the analytes only; no shift in the Boltzmann balance was observed experimentally. Moreover, for some ionic lines with sum of ionization and excitation potentials close to the ionization potential of argon (15.75 eV), the matrix effect is smaller than other ionic lines of the same element. The reduced matrix effects may be attributed qualitatively to charge transfer excitation mechanism of these ionic lines. Charge transfer reaction renders ionic emission lines from the quasi-resonant levels similar in characteristics of atomic lines. The contribution of charge transfer relative to excitation by other non-specific excitation mechanisms (via Saha balance and Boltzmann balance) determines the degree of atomic behavior of a quasi-resonant level. A significant conclusion of this study is that plasma-related matrix effect depends strongly on the excitation mechanism of a spectral line. Since, in general, more than one excitation mechanism may contribute to the overall excitation of an emission line, the observed matrix effects reflect the sum of the effects due to individual excitation mechanisms. Excitation mechanisms, in addition to the often-used total excitation energy, should be considered in matrix effect studies

  19. Corticosteroid receptor expression in a teleost fish that displays alternative male reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterbery, Adam S; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    Corticosteroid signaling mechanisms mediate a wide range of adaptive physiological responses, including those essential to reproduction. Here, we investigated the presence and relative abundance of corticosteroid receptors during the breeding season in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus), a species that has two male reproductive morphs. Only type I "singing" males acoustically court females and aggressively defend a nest site, whereas type II "sneaker" males steal fertilizations from nesting type I males. Cloning and sequencing first identified glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors in midshipman that exhibited high sequence identity with other vertebrate GRs and MRs. Absolute-quantitative real-time PCR then revealed higher levels of GR in the central nervous system (CNS) of type II males than type I males and females, while GR levels in the sound-producing, vocal muscle and the liver were higher in type I males than type II males and females. MR expression was also greater in the CNS of type II males than type I males or females, but the differences were more modest in magnitude. Lastly, plasma levels of cortisol, the main glucocorticoid in teleosts, were 2- to 3-fold greater in type II males compared to type I males. Together, the results suggest a link between corticosteroid regulation and physiological and behavioral variation in a teleost fish that displays male alternative reproductive tactics.

  20. Hawaiian Fish Distributors Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is proprietary sales data from one Kona-based fish dealer for August 1986 to Decemeber 1988. Fishing was generally around Kona. This is Dealer Data and is...

  1. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  2. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  3. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  4. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  5. Fish population dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulland, J. A

    1977-01-01

    This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...

  6. Parasite infection and immune and health-state in wild fish exposed to marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueiro, María Cruz; Bagnato, Estefanía; Palacios, María Gabriela

    2017-06-15

    Association between parasitism and immunity and health-state was investigated in wild Sebastes oculatus after having determined that pollution exposure is associated with altered immune and health-state parameters. Given the importance of the immune system in antiparasite defense we predicted: (i) parasite infection would be higher in pollution-exposed than in control fish and (ii) fish with lower immune and health-state parameters would show higher parasitism than fish in better condition. Metazoan parasite fauna was compared between pollution-exposed and non-exposed fish and parasitic indices were correlated with integrated measures of immunity and health-state. Results provided little support for the predictions; some parasite taxa increased, some decreased, and some were not affected in pollution-exposed fish despite their altered health and immunity. Furthermore, there was no link between individual immune and health-state parameters and parasitism. These findings highlight the complexity of host-parasite-environment interactions in relation to pollution in natural marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Zonasi Pemanfaatan Kawasan Perikanan Tangkap Di Teluk Banten (Zonation of Utilization Fishing Zone in Banten Bay)

    OpenAIRE

    Ernaningsih, D; Simbolon, Domu; Wiyono, Eko Sri; Purbayanto, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of fishing area in Banten Bay by various activities may cause multi sectors conflicts related to management of the bay. The integrated zone system in that area has not been established yet; therefore it is needed to be studied. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine fishing season and fishing ground; 2) determine indicators and criteria of fishing zone; 3) establish fishing zone. The study was conducted in four fish landing centers which are located in Karangantu, Terat...

  8. Short-term seaward fish migration in the Messolonghi Etoliko lagoons (Western Greek coast) in relation to climatic variables and the lunar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katselis, George; Koukou, Katerina; Dimitriou, Evagelos; Koutsikopoulos, Constantin

    2007-07-01

    In the present study we analysed the daily seaward migratory behaviour of four dominant euryhaline fish species (Mugilidae: Liza saliens, Liza aurata, Mugil cephalus and Sparidae: Sparus aurata) in the Messolonghi Etoliko lagoon system (Western Greek coast) based on the daily landings' time series of barrier traps and assessed the relationship between their migratory behaviour and various climatic variables (air temperature and atmospheric pressure) and the lunar cycle. A 2-year time series of daily fish landings (1993 and 1994), a long time series of daily air temperature and daily temperature range (1991 1998) as well as a 4-year time series of the daily atmospheric pressure (1994 1997) and daily pressure range were used. Harmonic models (HM) consisting of annual and lunar cycle harmonic components explained most (R2 > 0.80) of the mean daily species landings and temperature variations, while a rather low part of the variation (0.18 0.6) to the daily fluctuations of the climatic variables at seasonal, mid and short-term scales.

  9. 77 FR 16046 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ...) education or training professionals related to fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, fish tender vessel... 1603. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) does not discriminate in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, political affiliation, sexual orientation, gender identity...

  10. Selenium and mercury interactions wtih emphasis on fish tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review addresses the effects of mercury (Hg) in fish as it relates to the health of the fish themselves as well as potential risks of toxicity in wildlife and humans that consume fish. In particular, it addresses selenium (Se) as a bioindicator of susceptibility to harmful e...

  11. 77 FR 62248 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-0936] Commercial Fishing Safety.... SUMMARY: The Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee (CFSAC) will meet in Washington, DC to discuss various issues relating to safety in the commercial fishing industry. This meeting will be open to the...

  12. 78 FR 44958 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2013-0625] Commercial Fishing Safety.... SUMMARY: The Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee (CFSAC) will meet in Washington, DC to discuss various issues relating to safety in the commercial fishing industry. This meeting will be open to the...

  13. 76 FR 8372 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2011-0070] Commercial Fishing Safety... Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee (CFSAC) will meet in Portsmouth, Virginia to discuss various issues relating to safety in the commercial fishing industry. This meeting will be open to the public...

  14. Radiobiological studies with marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental methodology employed in radiobiological studies with fish is discussed and reviewed. The problems of care and maintenance of healthy stock fish are cons. (author)idered, including the techniques of egg and larval rearing. A variety of methods have been used to study the accumulation and loss of radionuclides, including labelled water, food and injections, and their relative merits are discussed in conjunction with the parameters affecting these processes. Other, more specialized, techniques that aid the physiological interpretation of tracer experiments are also discussed. Finally, consideration is given to some of the mathematical models that have been applied to radiobiological studies with fish, and of their value in extrapolating laboratory data to environmental conditions

  15. Particle effects on fish gills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Cao; Kania, Per W.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Particles composed of inorganic, organic and/or biological materials occur in both natural water bodies and aquaculture facilities. They are expected to affect fish health through a direct chemical, mechanical and biological interaction with gills during ventilation but the nature of the reactions...... and the relative importance of mechanical versus chemical and biological stimulation are unknown. The present work presents an immune gene expression method for evaluation of gill disturbance and sets a baseline for the mechanical influence on fish gills of chemically inert spherical particles. The method may...... be applied to investigate particle impact at different combinations of temperature, fish size, water quality and particle composition. Spherical polystyrene particles (diameters 0.2 μm, 1 μm, 20 μm, 40 μm and 90 μm) were adopted as the particle model and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings...

  16. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  17. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  18. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Wen-Xiong [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 {mu}g/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 {mu}g/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01-0.03 {mu}g/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 {mu}g/g THg and 0.13 {mu}g/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 {mu}g/g THg and 0.01 {mu}g/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12-64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope {delta}{sup 15}N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that {delta}{sup 15}N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  19. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. ► The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. ► Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 μg/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 μg/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01–0.03 μg/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 μg/g THg and 0.13 μg/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 μg/g THg and 0.01 μg/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12–64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope δ 15 N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that δ 15 N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  20. Correlations between dioxin-like and indicators PCBs: Potential consequences for environmental studies involving fish or sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babut, M.; Miege, C.; Villeneuve, B.; Abarnou, A.; Duchemin, J.; Marchand, P.; Narbonne, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Among the numerous PCB congeners, most of the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) need to be characterized by hyphenated techniques. It has been shown in several instances that these congeners are well related to the total PCB content in fish. We examined datasets collected mainly in France, on freshwater and marine fish and sediments. A statistical model linking DL- and indicator PCBs was developed for a dataset composed of freshwater fishes, and proved to predict well DL-PCBs from indicator PCBs in all other fish sets, including marine ones. Type II error rates remained low in almost all fish sets. A similar correlation was observed in sediments. Non-dioxin-like PCBs elicit various adverse effects and represent 95% of the total PCBs. A European guideline for them is needed; the correlation between DL- and indicator PCBs could help develop this standard in the future. - Dioxin-like PCBs in fish and maybe sediments are rather well predicted by indicator PCBs.

  1. Fishing strategies and tactics in the Javanese seiners fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Potier, Michel; Petit, Didier

    1995-01-01

    Fishing strategies and tactics are related to the knowledge fishermen have about environment, to the behavior of the fish and to the socio-economical factors which affect the fishery. The fishermen knowledge is applied to the strategy (time scale from the trips - less than one month up to one year), and to the tactics which is the way fish are caught (time scale, fishing operations). The strategy of the Javanese fishermen is highly correlated with the monsoons regime. The alternation of these...

  2. Collection and preservation of fish and other materials exposed to pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Oliver B.

    1960-01-01

    The effects of pesticides on fish have become improtant to fish conservation since World War II, when DDT first came into common use. With the development of other potent insecticides and the increasing use of massive dosages in more recent years, the threat to fish and fish foods has increased. Fishery biologists have conducted some studies on the effects of insecticides, but it has been impossible for fishery science to keep pace with chemistry and agriculture.

  3. Shark class II invariant chain reveals ancient conserved relationships with cathepsins and MHC class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Ohta, Yuko; Graham, Matthew D; Eubanks, Jeannine O; Chen, Patricia L; Flajnik, Martin F

    2012-03-01

    The invariant chain (Ii) is the critical third chain required for the MHC class II heterodimer to be properly guided through the cell, loaded with peptide, and expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Here, we report the isolation of the nurse shark Ii gene, and the comparative analysis of Ii splice variants, expression, genomic organization, predicted structure, and function throughout vertebrate evolution. Alternative splicing to yield Ii with and without the putative protease-protective, thyroglobulin-like domain is as ancient as the MHC-based adaptive immune system, as our analyses in shark and lizard further show conservation of this mechanism in all vertebrate classes except bony fish. Remarkable coordinate expression of Ii and class II was found in shark tissues. Conserved Ii residues and cathepsin L orthologs suggest their long co-evolution in the antigen presentation pathway, and genomic analyses suggest 450 million years of conserved Ii exon/intron structure. Other than an extended linker preceding the thyroglobulin-like domain in cartilaginous fish, the Ii gene and protein are predicted to have largely similar physiology from shark to man. Duplicated Ii genes found only in teleosts appear to have become sub-functionalized, as one form is predicted to play the same role as that mediated by Ii mRNA alternative splicing in all other vertebrate classes. No Ii homologs or potential ancestors of any of the functional Ii domains were found in the jawless fish or lower chordates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial variability of biochemical responses in resident fish after the M/V Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (Taean, Korea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Eunsic; Shim, Won Joon

    2012-09-01

    This study describes the spatial variation and the duration of the impacts from the Hebei Spirit oil spill using specific biochemical indices in resident benthic fish. Enzymatic activities and biliary PAHs metabolites were higher at the site closer to the spill area in four months after spill incident. Regarding our results of detoxification response, markers of Phase I followed a similar trend in accordance with levels of biliary metabolites, while markers of phase II and GST appeared relatively unchanged.

  5. Evaluation of Application Space Expansion for the Sensor Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an instrument known as the sensor fish that can be released into downstream passage routes at hydropower facilities to collect data on the physical conditions that a fish might be exposed to during passage through a turbine. The US Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program sees value in expanding the sensor fish application space beyond large Kaplan turbines in the northwest United States to evaluate conditions to which a greater variety of fish species are exposed. Development of fish-friendly turbines requires an understanding of both physical passage conditions and biological responses to those conditions. Expanding the use of sensor fish into other application spaces will add to the knowledge base of physical passage conditions and could also enhance the use of sensor fish as a site-specific tool in mitigating potential impacts to fish populations from hydropower. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Hydropower Assessment Program (NHAAP) database contains hydropower facility characteristics that, along with national fish distribution data, were used to evaluate potential interactions between fish species and project characteristics related to downstream passage issues. ORNL developed rankings for the turbine types in the NHAAP database in terms of their potential to impact fish through injury or mortality during downstream turbine passage. National-scale fish distributions for 31 key migratory species were spatially intersected with hydropower plant locations to identify facilities where turbines with a high threat to fish injury or mortality overlap with the potential range of a sensitive fish species. A dataset was produced that identifies hydropower facilities where deployment of the sensor fish technology might be beneficial in addressing issues related to downstream fish passage. The dataset can be queried to target specific geographic regions, fish species, license expiration

  6. Propagation and Interaction Properties of Successive Coronal Mass Ejections in Relation to a Complex Type II Radio Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. D.; Zhao, X.; Zhu, B.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the propagation and interaction properties of three successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 2001 November 21-22, with a focus on their connection with the behaviors of the associated long-duration complex type II radio burst. In combination with coronagraph and multi-point in situ observations, the long-duration type II burst provides key features that help resolve the propagation and interaction complexities of the three CMEs. The two CMEs from November 22 interacted first and then overtook the November 21 CME at a distance of about 0.85 AU from the Sun. The time scale that the shock originally driven by the last CME spent inside the preceding two CMEs is estimated to be about 14 and 6 hr, respectively. We present a simple analytical model without any free parameters to characterize the whole Sun-to-Earth propagation of the shock, which shows a remarkable consistency with all the available data and MHD simulations even out to the distance of Ulysses (2.34 AU). The coordination of in situ measurements at the Earth and Ulysses, which were separated by 73o in latitude, gives important clues for the understanding of shock structure and the interpretation of in situ signatures. The results also indicate means to increase geo-effectiveness with three CMEs, similar to the the ``perfect storm" scenario proposed by te{liu14a} although the current case is not ``super" in the same sense as the 2012 July 23 event.

  7. Effect of Demand-Driven advisory services components of Fadama II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Demand-Driven advisory services components of Fadama II on fish farmers' level of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... In conclusion, provision of subsidized advisory services to fish farmers will help to boost ...

  8. Experimental Data related to physico-chemical forms of antimony 125 and silver 110m and to their transfers to a freshwater fish, the carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, J.P.; Garnier, J.; Lambrechts, A.; Foulquier, L.

    1989-03-01

    The 125 Sb remains dissolved in the water but may be partly adsorbed on the sediment. No particulate and colloidal forms appear in the water, even in the presence of living organisms. The major part of the dissolved 125 Sb is fixed by anionic resin. 125 Sb accumulation by carp from water is a very weak phenomenon which results in a concentration factor of approximately 0.15. The best part of the 110m Ag brought in the water is rapidly adsorbed on all available surfaces and colloidal and particulate forms develop in the medium. The real dissolved forms represent less than 50 % of the water radioactivity and are essentially retained by anionic resin. The bioaccumulation, from water, of the 110m Ag by the carp results in a maximal concentration factor of about 140. The accumulation from food shows that trophic pathway may be as important as direct pathway in the transfer to fish [fr

  9. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  10. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  11. Actions of sex steroids on kisspeptin expression and other reproduction-related genes in the brain of the teleost fish European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, M V; Servili, A; Molés, G; Gueguen, M M; Carrillo, M; Kah, O; Felip, A

    2016-11-01

    Kisspeptins are well known as mediators of the coordinated communication between the brain-pituitary axis and the gonads in many vertebrates. To test the hypothesis that gonadal steroids regulate kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression in European sea bass (a teleost fish), we examined the brains of gonad-intact (control) and castrated animals, as well as castrated males (GDX) and ovariectomized females (OVX) that received testosterone (T) and estradiol (E 2 ) replacement, respectively, during recrudescence. In GDX males, low expression of kiss1 mRNA is observed by in situ hybridization in the caudal hypothalamus (CH) and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), although hypothalamic changes in kiss1 mRNA levels were not statistically different among the groups, as revealed by real-time PCR. However, T strongly decreased kiss2 expression levels in the hypothalamus, which was documented in the MBH and the nucleus of the lateral recess (NRLd) in GDX T-treated sea bass males. Conversely, it appears that E 2 evokes low kiss1 mRNA in the CH, while there were cells expressing kiss2 in the MBH and NRLd in these OVX females. These results demonstrate that kisspeptin neurons are presumably sensitive to the feedback actions of sex steroids in the sea bass, suggesting that the MBH represents a major site for sex steroid actions on kisspeptins in this species. Also, recent data provide evidence that both positive and negative actions occur in key factors involved in sea bass reproductive function, including changes in the expression of gnrh-1/gonadotropin, cyp19b, er and ar genes and sex steroid and gonadotropin plasma levels in this teleost fish. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jacque L; Richards, Thomas P; Arditi, Aries; da Cruz, Lyndon; Dagnelie, Gislin; Dorn, Jessy D; Ho, Allen C; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C; Barale, Pierre-Olivier; Stanga, Paulo E; Thumann, Gabriele; Wang, Yizhong; Greenberg, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to report the change in quality of life (QoL) after treatment with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis in patients with end-stage retinitis pigmentosa. The Vision and Quality of Life Index (VisQoL) was used to assess changes in QoL dimensions and overall utility score in a prospective 30-patient single-arm clinical study. VisQoL is a multi-attribute instrument consisting of six dimensions (injury, life, roles, assistance, activity and friendship) that may be affected by visual impairment. Within each dimension, patients were divided into two groups based on how much their QoL was affected by their blindness at baseline (moderate/severe or minimal). Outcomes were compared within each dimension sub-group between baseline and the combined follow-up periods using the Friedman test. In addition, data from the six dimensions were combined into a single utility score, with baseline data compared to the combined follow-up periods. Overall, 80 per cent of the patients reported difficulty in one or more dimensions pre-implant. Composite VisQoL utility scores at follow-up showed no statistically significant change from baseline; however, in three of the six VisQoL dimensions (injury, life and roles), patients with baseline deficits showed significant and lasting improvement after implantation with Argus II. In two of the three remaining dimensions (assistance and activity), data trended toward an improvement. In the final VisQoL dimension (friendship), none of the patients reported baseline deficits, suggesting that patients had largely adjusted to this attribute. Patients whose vision negatively affected them with respect to three VisQoL dimensions (that is, getting injured, coping with the demands of their life and fulfilling their life roles) reported significant improvement in QoL after implantation of the Argus II retinal prosthesis. Furthermore, the benefit did not deteriorate at any point during the 36-month follow-up, suggesting a long

  14. Sub-indicator: Prey fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Dunlop, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Prey fish communities across the Great Lakes continue to change, although the direction and magnitude of those changes are not consistent across the lakes. The metrics used to categorize prey fish status in this and previous periods are based on elements that are common among each of the lake’s Fish Community Objectives and include diversity and the relative role of native species in the prey fish communities. The diversity index categorized three of lakes as ‘fair’, while Superior and Erie were ‘good’ (Table 1). The short term trend, from the previous period (2008-2010) to the current period (2011-2014) found diversity in Erie and Superior to be unchanging, but the other three lakes to be ‘deteriorating’, resulting in an overall trend categorization of ‘undetermined’ (Table 1). The long term diversity trend suggested Lakes Superior and Erie have the most diverse prey communities although the index for those prey fish have been quite variable over time (Figure 1). In Lake Huron, where non-native alewife have substantially declined, the diversity index has also declined. The continued dominance of alewife in Lake Ontario (96% of the prey fish biomass) resulted in the lowest diversity index value (Figure 1). The proportion of native species within the community was judged as ‘good’ in Lakes Superior and Huron, ‘fair’ in Michigan and Erie and ‘poor’ in Ontario (Table 2). The short term trend was improving in in all lakes except Michigan (‘deteriorating’) and Ontario (‘unchanging’), resulting in an overall short term trend of ‘undetermined’ (Table 2). Over the current period, Lake Superior consistently had the highest proportion native prey fish (87%) while Lake Ontario had the lowest (1%) (Figure 2). Lake Michigan’s percent native has declined as round goby increase and comprises a greater proportion of the community. Native prey fish make up 51% of Lake Erie, although basin-specific values differed (Figure 2). Most notably

  15. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part II: Case of fish meat and skin from earthen-ponds farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Odorous molecules in earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture farming in Germany were investigated with a special focus on musty-earthy off-odorants. To this aim, fish meat and skin were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) and were mildly concentrated; extracts were subsequently analysed by means of one- and two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and olfactometry (GC-MS/O and 2D-HRGC-MS/O). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extracts revealed the presence of 76 odorants of which 75 were successfully identified. Thereby, rotundone (black pepper) is described for the first time as an odour-active substance in fish. Moreover, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German aquaculture rainbow trout fish, including, amongst others, (E,Z,Z)-2,4,7-tridecatrienal, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), d-limonene, and indole. The analytical findings were further compared to sensory evaluation of the samples, and previously obtained data on the respective aquacultural water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relations between broad-band linear polarization and Ca II H and K emission in late-type dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovelin, Juhani; Saar, Steven H.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1988-01-01

    Broadband UBV linear polarization data acquired for a sample of late-type dwarfs are compared with contemporaneous measurements of Ca II H and K line core emission. A weighted average of the largest values of the polarization degree is shown to be the best parameter for chromospheric activity diagnosis. The average maximum polarization in the UV is found to increase from late-F to late-G stars. It is noted that polarization in the U band is considerably more sensitive to activity variations than that in the B or V bands. The results indicate that stellar magnetic fields and the resulting saturation in the Zeeman-sensitive absorption lines are the most probably source of linear polarization in late-type main-sequence stars.

  17. Is Quantized Vorticity in Pure He II at Low Temperature Directly Related to Cavitation and Spinodal Pressure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrbek, L.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that the critical velocity for intrinsic nucleation of quantized vortices in isothermal flow of He II at low temperature can be viewed as approaching the spinodal limit in pressure and breakdown of superfluidity as a consequence of the Bernoulli equation. Breaking the liquid by cavitation that changes the topology from simply to multiply connected seems an essential requirement for intrinsic vortex nucleation and serves as an additional criterion of superfluidity, of the form Vc = [2(pext - psp)/ρs]1/2, where pext is the external pressure, psp denotes the spinodal limit, and ρs stands for the superfluid density. This criterion can be viewed as additional to the well-known Landau criterion for breakdown of superfluidity due to emission of quasiparticles

  18. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca II K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Brown, Alexander; Mason, James P.; Schneider, P. Christian; Tilley, Matt A.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Buccino, Andrea; Froning, Cynthia S.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Linsky, Jeffrey; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Redfield, Seth; Kowalski, Adam; Miguel, Yamila; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rugheimer, Sarah; Segura, Antígona; Roberge, Aki; Vieytes, Mariela

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca II K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H I Lyα. In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si IV and He II) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10-3 W m-2 and possible proton fluxes ˜102-103 pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.

  19. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Mason, James P. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Tilley, Matt A. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Kowalski, Adam [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave., Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo J. D. [Dpto. de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FCEN), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Froning, Cynthia S. [Department of Astronomy/McDonald Observatory, C1400, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hawley, Suzanne L. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, CS 34229 F-06304 NICE Cedex 4 (France); Newton, Elisabeth R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rugheimer, Sarah, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St. Andrews, Irvine Building, North Street, St. Andrews, KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Ly α . In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10{sup −3} W m{sup −2} and possible proton fluxes ∼10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.

  20. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Mason, James P.; Brown, Alexander; Schneider, P. Christian; Tilley, Matt A.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Kowalski, Adam; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Linsky, Jeffrey; Redfield, Seth; Miguel, Yamila; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rugheimer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Ly α . In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10 −3 W m −2 and possible proton fluxes ∼10 2 –10 3 pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.