WorldWideScience

Sample records for reinvestment act regulations

  1. 75 FR 82217 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... significant but not to have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. Unfunded Mandates Reform...

  2. 76 FR 79529 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: OCC: Margaret Hesse, Special Counsel, Community and Consumer Law... subsequently amended its CRA regulation to reflect this transfer of supervision authority.\\3\\ \\1\\ Public Law... follows: Authority: 12 U.S.C. 21, 22, 26, 27, 30, 36, 93a, 161, 215, 215a, 481, 1814, 1816, 1828(c), 1835a...

  3. 75 FR 53153 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Recovery Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Project'' to ``Construction Material'' Comments: There were many concerns about the interpretation in the... the U.S. economy, many were concerned about the Recovery Act Buy American restrictions of section 1605... Markets and the World Economy, November 2008, and the G20 pledge, April 2009. They alleged that it will...

  4. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

  5. Map of Federal Lands Highway American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The map depicts Federal Lands Highway (FLH) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) projects, which are administered through the Federal Lands Divisions (FLD)....

  6. 76 FR 24043 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and energy efficient fluorescent electronic light ballasts for... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009... accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-05, approved February 17...

  7. 75 FR 23795 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act; Public and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...: April 27, 2010. Peter Grace, Special Assistant to the Secretary, Office of Strategic Planning and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act... sent to: Departmental Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development...

  8. A socioeconomic assessment of Forest Service American Recovery and Reinvestment Act projects: eight case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Pamela J. Jakes; John Schelhas

    2011-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 aimed to create jobs and jumpstart the economy while addressing the Nation’s social and environmental needs. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, received $1.15 billion in recovery funding to support projects in wildland fire management, capital improvement and maintenance, and biomass utilization. This...

  9. West Virginia Guidebook for the Use of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (AARA) Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Virginia Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goals of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 are to immediately stimulate the economy in the short term and to invest in education and other essential public services that will ensure the long-term economic health of this nation. The United States Education Department (USED) offers guiding principles to be…

  10. 76 FR 30966 - Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... bolt rings used to connect high- density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) grant for Three Sisters Irrigation... ductile iron flanges for use with HDPE and PVC pipe. DATES: The effective date of the Buy American Waiver...

  11. 77 FR 49006 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009... handrail brackets, door stops and 4-prong appliance power cords for the Village at River's Edge project... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4112, Washington, DC 20410-4000, telephone number 202-402...

  12. 75 FR 13295 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009... Access Control and Alarm Monitoring system at the Denny Terrace and Lake City Village projects, and to... Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Room 4210, Washington, DC 20410-4000, telephone number 202-402...

  13. 75 FR 1401 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009... tank-less water heaters in the Mineral Springs Village and Boulevard Town Homes. FOR FURTHER... Public Housing Investments, Office of Public and Indian Housing, Department of Housing and Urban...

  14. 77 FR 20837 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009... Paschall Village Phase I and II project. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Donald J. LaVoy, Deputy Assistant... Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Room 4112, Washington, DC, 20410-4000, telephone number 202-402...

  15. 76 FR 37140 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009... Village project. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Donald J. LaVoy, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Office of Field Operations, Office of Public and Indian Housing, Department of Housing and Urban Development...

  16. 75 FR 36016 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... . Include the RIN number in the subject line of the message. Mail: Robert E. Feldman, Executive Secretary... Comptroller of the Currency, 250 E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20219. Board: Paul J. Robin, Manager, Reserve...

  17. 75 FR 79278 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... organizations that target low- and moderate-income communities stated that donations of OREO in poor condition... the requirements of the program, benefit low-, moderate-, and middle-income individuals and... in helping to meet the credit needs of its entire community, including low- and moderate-income...

  18. 77 FR 75521 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: OCC: Margaret Hesse, Special Counsel, Community and Consumer Law... supervision authority.\\3\\ \\1\\ Public Law 111-203, 124 Stat. 1376 (2010). \\2\\ See OCC interim final rule, 76 FR..., 26, 27, 30, 36, 93a, 161, 215, 215a, 481, 1814, 1816, 1828(c), 1835a, 2901 through 2908, and 3101...

  19. 75 FR 61035 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... for post-secondary (beyond high school) educational expenses, not for primary or elementary education...); geographic distribution (i.e., distribution among borrowers in geographies with different income levels and... low- or moderate-income individuals or geographies.\\6\\ This revised rule does not change the...

  20. Workforce development for comparative effectiveness research: training programs funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geonnotti, Kristin L; Rich, Eugene C; Esposito, Dominick

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a midstream assessment of the comparative effectiveness research (CER) training programs funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) by examining program characteristics, planned curriculum development activities and core competencies. We examined all 43 training projects funded by the US$46 million ARRA CER investment, collecting data from key informant discussions and a technical expert panel. The majority of projects leveraged institutional resources to provide an individualized combination of didactic and experiential learning supported by strong mentorship. Core competencies included skills in statistical modeling, evidence synthesis (systematic reviews and meta-analysis) and general research design skills. ARRA-supported CER training programs enhanced workforce capacity by developing curricula and preparing CER researchers to apply emerging methods and utilize new CER infrastructure.

  1. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: North Fork Skokomish Powerhouse at Cushman No. 2 Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Steve [DBA Tacoma Power, WA (United States); McCarty, Patrick [DBA Tacoma Power, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to add generating capacity on an in-stream flow release at Tacoma Power's Cushman hydroelectric project, Cushman No. 2 Dam, FERC Project P-460. The flow that is being used to generate additional electricity was being discharged from a valve at the base of the dam without recovery of the energy. A second objective to the project was to incorporate upstream fish passage by use of a fish collection structure attached to the draft tubes of the hydroelectric units. This will enable reintroduction of native anadromous fish above the dams which have blocked fish passage since the late 1920's. The project was funded in part by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act through the Department of Energy, Office of Energy, Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind and Water Power Program.

  2. 76 FR 184 - Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ...NSF is hereby granting a limited exemption of section 1605 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), Public Law 111-5, 123 Stat. 115, 303 (2009), with respect to the purchase of the anti-roll tank control system that will be used in the Alaska Region Research Vessel (ARRV). An anti-roll tank is a system that is built into a vessel's hull to reduce rolling motion when operating at sea.

  3. Special Report "The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and the Department of Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was signed into law on February 17, 2009, as a way to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in science and health, and invest in the Nation's energy future. This national effort will require an unprecedented level of transparency and accountability to ensure that U.S. citizens know where their tax dollars are going and how they are being spent. As part of the Recovery Act, the Department of Energy will receive more than $38 billion to support a number of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. Additionally, the Department's authority to make or guarantee energy-related loans has increased to about $127 billion. The Department plans to disburse the vast majority of the funds it receives through grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, and other financial instruments. The supplemental funding provided to the Department of Energy under the Recovery Act dwarfs the Department's annual budget of about $27 billion. The infusion of these funds and the corresponding increase in effort required to ensure that they are properly controlled and disbursed in a timely manner will, without doubt, strain existing resources. It will also have an equally challenging impact on the inherent risks associated with operating the Department's sizable portfolio of missions and activities and, this is complicated by the fact that, in many respects, the Recovery Act requirements represent a fundamental transformation of the Department's mission. If these challenges are to be met successfully, all levels of the Department's structure and its many constituents, including the existing contractor community; the national laboratory system; state and local governments; community action groups and literally thousands of other contract, grant, loan and cooperative agreement recipients throughout the Nation will have to strengthen existing or

  4. 75 FR 35686 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulation Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...: Public Hearing Addresses: 1. July 19, 2010--FDIC's L. William Seidman Center, 3501 Fairfax Drive..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. (EST) on business days. Paper copies of public comments may be ordered from the...

  5. Designing a Successful Transportation Project: Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Singer, M.

    2017-09-01

    The largest source of funding for alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program's history came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act). In 2009, the 25 cost-share projects totaled nearly $300 million in federal government investment. This effort included the involvement of 50 Clean Cities coalitions and their nearly 700 stakeholder partners who provided an additional $500 million in matching funds to support projects in their local communities. In total, those 25 projects established 1,380 alternative fueling stations and put more than 9,000 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles on the road. Together, these projects displaced 154 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) of petroleum and averted 254,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while supporting U.S. energy independence and contributing to regional economic development. During post-project interviews, project leaders consistently cited a number of key components - ranging from technical and logistical factors, to administrative capabilities - for accomplishing an effective and impactful project. This report summarizes the high-level project design and administrative considerations for conducting a successful transportation project.

  6. Designing a Successful Transportation Project: Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The largest source of funding for alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program's history came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act). In 2009, the 25 cost-share projects totaled nearly $300 million in federal government investment. This effort included the involvement of 50 Clean Cities coalitions and their nearly 700 stakeholder partners who provided an additional $500 million in matching funds to support projects in their local communities. In total, those 25 projects established 1,380 alternative fueling stations and put more than 9,000 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles on the road. Together, these projects displaced 154 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) of petroleum and averted 254,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while supporting U.S. energy independence and contributing to regional economic development. During post-project interviews, project leaders consistently cited a number of key components - ranging from technical and logistical factors, to administrative capabilities - for accomplishing an effective and impactful project. This report summarizes the high-level project design and administrative considerations for conducting a successful transportation project.

  7. A Review of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Smart Grid Projects and Their Implications for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Feng, Wei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    The Chinese government has paid growing attention to renewable energy development and has set ambitious goals for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction and energy savings. Smart grid (SG) technologies have been regarded as emerging ways to integrate renewable energy and to help achieve these climate and energy goals. This report first reviews completed SG demonstrations under the U.S. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA); especially two key programs: the SG Investment Grant (SGIG) and the SG Demonstration Project (SGDP). Under the SGIG, the larger of the two programs, over $3.4 billion was used to help industry deploy existing advanced SG technologies and tools to improve grid performance and reduce costs. Including industry investment, a total of $8 billion was spent on 99 cost-shared projects, which involved more than 200 participating electric utilities and other organizations. These projects aimed to modernize the electric grid, strengthen cyber security, improve interoperability, and collect comprehensive data on SG operations and benefits.

  8. 78 FR 48865 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... provisions) was issued for EERE-funded projects utilizing dimmable florescent electronic ballasts. This... and Recovery Act of 2009 (Recovery Act Buy American provisions) in EERE- funded projects limiting the waiver issued February 11, 2010 to plug in CFLs of 10 inches or less and fluorescent electronic ballasts...

  9. 78 FR 48868 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... capacity to the United States, broadening the scope of domestically manufactured LED lamps available for... and Recovery Act of 2009 (Recovery Act Buy American provisions) in EERE- funded projects for LED tube..., 2010, The Assistant Secretary issued a nonavailability waiver for LED tube lights to replace T8/other 4...

  10. INFORMATION: Special Report on "Selected Department of Energy Program Efforts to Implement the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was enacted on February 17, 2009, to jumpstart the economy by creating or saving millions of jobs, spurring technological advances in health and science, and investing in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy received over $32.7 billion in Recovery Act funding for various science, energy, and environmental programs and initiatives. As of November 2009, the Department had obligated $18.3 billion of the Recovery Act funding, but only $1.4 billion had been spent. The Department's Offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Fossil Energy, Environmental Management, Science, and Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability received the majority of funding allocated to the Department, about $32.3 billion. Obligating these funds by the end of Fiscal Year 2010, as required by the Recovery Act, and overseeing their effective use in succeeding years, represents a massive workload increase for the Department's programs. The effort to date has strained existing resources. As has been widely acknowledged, any effort to disburse massive additional funding and to expeditiously initiate and complete projects increases the risk of fraud, waste and abuse. It is, therefore, important for the Department's program offices to assess and mitigate these risks to the maximum extent practicable. In this light, we initiated this review as an initial step in the Office of Inspector General's charge to determine whether the Department's major program offices had developed an effective approach for identifying and mitigating risks related to achieving the goals and objectives of the Recovery Act. The Department's program offices included in our review identified risks and planned mitigation strategies that, if successfully implemented and executed, should help achieve the goals and objectives of the Recovery Act. While each office identified risks unique to its respective

  11. Investing American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funds to Advance Capability, Reliability, and Performance in NASA Wind Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, Goerge H.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) is implementing five significant ground-based test facility projects across the nation with funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The projects were selected as the best candidates within the constraints of the ARRA and the strategic plan of ATP. They are a combination of much-needed large scale maintenance, reliability, and system upgrades plus creating new test beds for upcoming research programs. The projects are: 1.) Re-activation of a large compressor to provide a second source for compressed air and vacuum to the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at the Ames Research Center (ARC) 2.) Addition of high-altitude ice crystal generation at the Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory Test Cell 3, 3.) New refrigeration system and tunnel heat exchanger for the Icing Research Tunnel at the Glenn Research Center, 4.) Technical viability improvements for the National Transonic Facility at the Langley Research Center, and 5.) Modifications to conduct Environmentally Responsible Aviation and Rotorcraft research at the 14 x 22 Subsonic Tunnel at Langley Research Center. The selection rationale, problem statement, and technical solution summary for each project is given here. The benefits and challenges of the ARRA funded projects are discussed. Indirectly, this opportunity provides the advantages of developing experience in NASA's workforce in large projects and maintaining corporate knowledge in that very unique capability. It is envisioned that improved facilities will attract a larger user base and capabilities that are needed for current and future research efforts will offer revenue growth and future operations stability. Several of the chosen projects will maximize wind tunnel reliability and maintainability by using newer, proven technologies in place of older and obsolete equipment and processes. The projects will meet NASA's goal of

  12. 76 FR 66948 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... installation of a Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) heat pump system and vent limited gas regulators for the... exception was granted by HUD on the basis that the relevant manufactured goods, (a VRV heat pump system and...

  13. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 282 Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Gordon, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hand, James R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-09-30

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Gordon, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Gordon took place on March 9, 2010.

  14. Comprehensive Energy Assessment: EE and RE Project Optimization Modeling for United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Papatyi, Anthony F.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes a study and corresponding model development conducted in support of the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) as part of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA). This research was aimed at developing a mathematical programming framework and accompanying optimization methodology in order to simultaneously evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) opportunities. Once developed, this research then demonstrated this methodology at a USPACOM installation - Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii. We believe this is the first time such an integrated, joint EE and RE optimization methodology has been constructed and demonstrated.

  15. Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -- Florida State Energy Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) provides grants to states, territories, and the District of Columbia to support their energy priorities through the State Energy Program (SEP). The SEP provides Federal financial assistance to carry out energy efficiency and renewable energy projects that meet each state's unique energy needs while also addressing national goals such as energy security. Federal funding is based on a grant formula that takes into account population and energy consumption. The SEP emphasizes the state's role as the decision maker and administrator for the program. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) expanded the SEP, authorizing $3.1 billion in grants. Based on existing grant formulas and after reviewing state-level plans, EERE made awards to states. The State of Florida's Energy Office (Florida) was allocated $126 million - a 90-fold increase over Florida's average annual SEP grant of $1.4 million. Per the Recovery Act, this funding must be obligated by September 30, 2010, and spent by April 30, 2012. As of March 10, 2010, Florida had expended $13.2 million of the SEP Recovery Act funds. Florida planned to use its grant funds to undertake activities that would preserve and create jobs; save energy; increase renewable energy sources; and, reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To accomplish Recovery Act objectives, states could either fund new or expand existing projects. As a condition of the awards, EERE required states to develop and implement sound internal controls over the use of Recovery Act funds. Based on the significant increase in funding from the Recovery Act, we initiated this review to determine whether Florida had internal controls in place to provide assurance that the goals of the SEP and Recovery Act will be met and accomplished efficiently and effectively. We identified weaknesses in the implementation of SEP Recovery Act projects that

  16. Preliminary Audit Report on "Management Controls over the Commonwealth of Virginia's Efforts to Implement the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Weatherization Assistance Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy's (Department) Weatherization Assistance Program received $5 billion under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to improve the energy efficiency of homes, multi-family rental units and mobile homes owned or occupied by low-income persons. Subsequently, the Department awarded a three-year Weatherization Assistance Program grant for $94 million to the Commonwealth of Virginia (Virginia). This grant provided more than a ten-fold increase in funds available to Virginia for weatherization over that authorized in Fiscal Year (FY) 2009. Corresponding to the increase in funding, the Recovery Act increased the limit on the average amount spent to weatherize a home (unit) from $2,500 to $6,500. Virginia's Department of Housing and Community Development (DHCD) administers the Recovery Act grant through 22 local community action agencies. These agencies (sub-grantees) are responsible for determining applicant eligibility, weatherizing homes, and conducting home assessments and inspections. Typical weatherization services include installing insulation; sealing ducts; tuning and repairing furnaces; and, mitigating heat loss through windows, doors and other infiltration points. Virginia plans to use its Recovery Act Weatherization funding to weatherize about 9,193 units over the life of the grant - a significant increase over the 1,475 housing units that were planned to be completed in FY 2009. Given the significant increase in funding and the demands associated with weatherizing thousands of homes, we initiated this audit to determine if Virginia had adequate safeguards in place to ensure that the Weatherization Program was managed efficiently and effectively. The State of Virginia's DHCD had not implemented financial and reporting controls needed to ensure Weatherization Program funds are spent effectively and efficiently. Specifically, DHCD had not: (1) Performed on-site financial monitoring of any of its sub

  17. School Improvement Grants: Selected States Generally Awarded Funds Only to Eligible Schools. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Final Audit Report. ED-OIG/A05L0002

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This final audit report covers the results of the review of five State educational agencies' monitoring plans and awarding processes for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and regular School Improvement Grants funds that the State educational agencies awarded for fiscal year 2009 (for use during school year 2010-2011). The objectives…

  18. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... CFR Part 261a Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal...) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulation implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act..., and applicants for Board employment, for access to their records under the Privacy Act; the amendment...

  19. Citation impact of NHLBI R01 grants funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act as compared to R01 grants funded through a standard payline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthi, Narasimhan S; Wu, Colin O; DiMichele, Donna M; Hoots, W Keith; Lauer, Michael S

    2015-02-27

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to fund R01 grants that fared less well on peer review than those funded by meeting a payline threshold. It is not clear whether the sudden availability of additional funding enabled research of similar or lesser citation impact than already funded work. To compare the citation impact of ARRA-funded de novo National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 grants with concurrent de novo National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 grants funded by standard payline mechanisms. We identified de novo (type 1) R01 grants funded by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in fiscal year 2009: these included 458 funded by meeting Institute's published payline and 165 funded only because of ARRA funding. Compared with payline grants, ARRA grants received fewer total funds (median values, $1.03 versus $1.87 million; Pcitation impact for each grant by weighting each article for the number of citations it received normalizing for subject, article type, and year of publication. The ARRA R01 grants had a similar normalized citation impact per $1 million spent as the payline grants (median values [interquartile range], 2.15 [0.73-4.68] versus 2.03 [0.75-4.10]; P=0.61). The similar impact of the ARRA grants persisted even after accounting for potential confounders. Despite shorter durations and lower budgets, ARRA R01 grants had comparable citation outcomes per $million spent to that of contemporaneously funded payline R01 grants. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. 76 FR 44613 - Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Incidental Items Are Not in the Public Interest Ship construction projects typically involve the use of... Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) account. The ARRV is one of NSF's MREFC projects... appropriated by the Act ``may be used for a project for the construction, alteration, maintenance, or repair of...

  1. 76 FR 72449 - Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... incidental items in a ship construction project [76 FR 44613]. III. Exemption On July, 20, 2011, and under... incidental items used in construction and renovation, such as nuts, bolts, wires, cables, switches, etc. is... funds appropriated by the Act ``may be used for a project for the construction, alteration, maintenance...

  2. 76 FR 35920 - Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...). An ultrasonic antifouling system prevents the harmful growth of marine organisms in the ship's sea... toward construction of the ARRV. I. Background The Recovery Act appropriated $400 million to NSF for several projects being funded by the Foundation's Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction...

  3. 75 FR 34685 - Notice of Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... goods, such as electrical and mechanical equipment, concrete and masonry products, wood and steel... this Act may be used for a project for the construction, alteration, maintenance, or repair of a public... incidental to, construction of the project. During construction, these components (for example, nuts, bolts...

  4. 75 FR 3375 - School Improvement Grants; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA); Title I of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... the final requirements for School Improvement Grants (SIG) authorized under section 1003(g) of Title I...-117) applicable to fiscal year (FY) 2010 SIG funds and FY 2009 ARRA SIG funds. Specifically, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010 expands the group of schools that are eligible to receive SIG funds. In...

  5. 75 FR 58390 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Secretariat (MVCB), 1800 F Street, NW., Room 4041, Washington, DC 20405. ATTN: Hada Flowers/IC 9000-0167.... Commercial item contracts and Commercially Available Off-The-Shelf (COTS) item contracts will be covered, as...

  6. 75 FR 58389 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Flowers/IC 9000-0166. Instructions: Please submit comments only and cite Information Collection 9000-0166... and contracts. Commercial item contracts and Commercially Available Off-The-Shelf (COTS) item...

  7. 75 FR 58387 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Flowers/IC 9000-0168. Instructions: Please submit comments only and cite Information Collection 9000-0168... and contracts. Commercial item contracts and Commercially Available Off-The-Shelf (COTS) item...

  8. Special Report on the "Department of Energy's Efforts to Meet Accountability and Performance Reporting Objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in health and science, and invest in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy will receive an unprecedented $38 billion in Recovery Act funding to support a variety of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. The Recovery Act requires transparency and accountability over these funds. To this end, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued guidance requiring the Department to compile and report a wide variety of funding, accounting, and performance information. The Department plans to leverage existing information systems to develop accounting and performance information that will be used by program managers and ultimately reported to Recovery.gov, the government-wide source of Recovery Act information, and to OMB. The Department's iManage iPortal, a system that aggregates information from a number of corporate systems, will serve as the main reporting gateway for accounting information. In addition, the Department plans to implement a methodology or system that will permit it to monitor information reported directly to OMB by prime funding recipients. Furthermore, performance measures or metrics that outline expected outcomes are being developed, with results ultimately to be reported in a recently developed Department-wide system. Because of the significance of funds provided and their importance to strengthening the Nation's economy, we initiated this review to determine whether the Department had taken the steps necessary to ensure that Recovery Act funds can be appropriately tracked and are transparent to the public, and whether the benefits of the expenditures can be properly measured and reported clearly, accurately, and in a timely manner. Although not yet fully mature, we found that the Department's efforts to develop, refine, and apply

  9. Deposit Games with Reinvestment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2007-01-01

    In a deposit game coalitions are formed by players combining their capital. The proceeds of their investments then have to be divided among those players. The current model extends earlier work on capital deposits by allowing reinvestment of returns. Two specific subclasses of deposit games are

  10. 75 FR 57492 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Green retrofit Investment program, Indian Community Development Block Grant Program, Native American... Reinvestment Act; Public and Indian Housing Grants Reporting AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... Fund, Assisted Housing Stability and Energy and Green retrofit Investment program, Indian Community...

  11. The French Space Operation Act: Technical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchero, J. P.; Lazare, B.

    2010-09-01

    The French Space Operation Act(FSOA) stipulates that a prime objective of the National technical regulations is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these technical regulations is mandatory as of 10 December 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations from French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by the applicant, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting technical regulations are as follows: requirements must as far as possible establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being the state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. Technical regulations are divided into three sections covering common requirements for the launch, control and return of a space object. A dedicated section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the technical regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth’s environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection.

  12. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, John C. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Edwards, W. Scott [Areva Federal Services, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J. [U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); West, Lori D. [Materials and Energy Corporation, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  13. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  14. 78 FR 6216 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 2 RIN 1093-AA15 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Office... Department's Freedom of Information Act regulations. DATES: Effective January 30, 2013 FOR FURTHER... Department of the Interior Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) regulations. This document inadvertently omitted...

  15. 75 FR 34279 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-011, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council (FARC) makes a written determination that it is not in the best..., the FARC has determined that this rule should apply to contracts or subcontracts at or below the...

  16. 76 FR 78121 - Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (Regulation F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Federal Trade Commission's (Commission's) rulemaking authority for the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1006 RIN 3170-AA06 Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (Regulation F) AGENCY: Bureau of... new Regulation F (Fair Debt Collection Practices Act). This interim final rule does not impose any new...

  17. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 281 Solar Hot Water Application Assessment for U.S. Army IMCOM-Southeast Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Chvala, William D.

    2010-09-30

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires installations (EISA) to install solar systems of sufficient capacity to provide 30% of service hot water in new construction and renovations where cost-effective. However, installations are struggling with how to implement solar hot water, and while several installations are installing solar hot water on a limited basis, paybacks remain long. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to address this issue to help determine how best to implement solar hot water projects. This documents discusses the results of that project.

  18. 76 FR 59071 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... 32 CFR Part 1900 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), as amended by the ``Openness.... Lambert, (703) 613-1379. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Consistent with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA...

  19. 77 FR 76898 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 2 RIN 1093-AA15 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Office... Department of the Interior (the ``Department'') follows in processing records under the Freedom of..., or Be Contrary to Law One commenter's entire comment was: ``NO.Do not change the freedom of info act...

  20. 76 FR 15236 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Part 16 RIN 1105-AB27 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes revisions to the Department's regulations under the Freedom of... Subjects in 28 CFR Part 16 Administrative practice and procedure, Freedom of Information, Privacy. For the...

  1. 75 FR 53970 - Office of Community Services; Expansion Supplements Under 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Community Services; Expansion Supplements Under 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Community Services (OCS), ACF... Community Services Programs (NASCSP). CFDA Number: 93.710. Legislative Authority: The legislative authority...

  2. Reinvestment--the cause of the yips?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Karl Klämpfl

    Full Text Available The yips is a multi-etiological phenomenon consisting of involuntary movements during the execution of a skill (e.g., a golf putt. Reinvestment, the conscious control of a movement that detrimentally affects automated movements, is thought to be a potential mechanism leading to the yips. Preventing yips-affected golfers from consciously controlling their movement, therefore, should be beneficial. The aim of the study was to be the first to empirically test in a laboratory whether reinvestment causes the yips and to explore if the tendency to reinvest can explain yips behavior. Nineteen yips-affected golfers participated in a lab experiment. They putted with the dominant arm in a skill-focus and an extraneous condition, in which they had to perform different dual tasks designed either to direct their focus on their own skill or to distract them from it. The tendency to reinvest was estimated via the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale. Yips behavior was assessed by putting performance and movement variability. Although the dual-task performance showed that the attentional manipulation worked, the tendency to reinvest did not predict the behavior of the yips-affected golfers in either putting condition. The yips-affected golfers also showed no difference in yips behavior between the skill-focus and the extraneous condition. In other words, the attentional manipulation did not change yips behavior. The data do not support the assumption that there is a link between the yips and reinvestment, likely because of the multi-etiological nature of the yips. Other psychological or neurological mechanisms such as conditioned reactions may better explain the yips and should be investigated.

  3. 76 FR 78977 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... December 20, 2011 Part II Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 12 CFR Part 1024 Real Estate Settlement... RIN 3170-AA06 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) rulemaking authority for the Real Estate Settlement...

  4. The Affordable Care Act's insurance market regulations' effect on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Gal

    2017-09-21

    Much of the debate surrounding reform of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) revolves around its insurance market regulation. This paper studies the impact on health insurance coverage of those provisions. Using data from the American Community Survey, years 2008-2015, I focus on individuals, ages 26 to 64, who are ineligible for the subsidies or Medicaid expansions included in the ACA to isolate the effect of its market regulation. To account for time trends, I utilize a differences-in-differences approach with a control group of residents of Massachusetts who were already subject to a similarly regulated health insurance market. I find that the ACA's regulations caused an increase of 0.95 percentage points in health insurance coverage for my sample in 2014. This increase was concentrated among younger individuals, suggesting that the law's regulations ameliorated adverse selection in the individual health insurance market. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision Reinvestment Centers, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_reinvestment_centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates reinvestment centers included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Reinvestment centers highlight communities that...

  6. Acting in the Public Interest: The Heart of Professional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetter, Heidi M; Johansen, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    In their article, Wilke and Tzountzouris (2017) describe the traditional and emerging approaches to professional regulation as restrictive (e.g., setting entry to practice requirements for registration), reactive (responding to complaints and where necessary restricting, suspending or revoking registration) or proactive (ensuring continuing competency and supporting registrants to adapt to changes in practice environments). They note the tension that exists with proactive approaches to regulation that can be seen as professional advocacy. We argue that by ensuring best practices in organizational governance and day-to-day regulatory operations that clearly situate the regulator to be acting solely in the public interest, regulatory colleges can manage the proactive regulatory approach and eliminate any perception of professional advocacy. This is critical for sustaining the professionally led model for health regulation that exists in Canada as it does today.

  7. Recovery act : states' use of highway infrastructure funds and compliance with the act's requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) included more than $48 billion for the Department of Transportations (DOT) investment in transportation infrastructure, including highways, rail, and transit. This testimonybased...

  8. Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation: A Balancing Act in Two Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    An equilibrium involves a balancing of forces. Just as one maintains upright posture in standing or walking, many self-regulatory and interpersonal behaviors can be framed as a balancing act between an ever changing environment and within-person processes. The emerging balance between person and environment, the equilibria, are dynamic and adaptive in response to development and learning. A distinction is made between equilibrium achieved solely due to a short timescale balancing of forces and a longer timescale preferred equilibrium which we define as a state towards which the system slowly adapts. Together, these are developed into a framework that this article calls Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation (ÆR), which separates a regulatory process into two timescales: a faster regulation that automatically balances forces and a slower timescale adaptation process that reconfigures the fast regulation so as to move the system towards its preferred equilibrium when an environmental force persists over the longer timescale. This way of thinking leads to novel models for the interplay between multiple timescales of behavior, learning, and development. PMID:27066197

  9. Entrepreneurial Saving Practices and Reinvestment : Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Pamuk, H.; Uras, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    We use a novel enterprise survey from Tanzania to gauge the relationship between saving instruments and entrepreneurial reinvestment. While most informal savings practices do not imply a lower likelihood of entrepreneurial reinvestment when compared with formal savings practices, we find a

  10. 20 CFR 626.3 - Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.3 Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. (a) Parts 626..., part C of the Job Training Partnership Act) establish the Federal programmatic and administrative...

  11. 77 FR 74546 - Posting of Pamphlet Provided for in the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... of Pamphlet Provided for in the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act ACTION: Notice of posting of pamphlet provided for in section 833(a) of the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act, Title D of Public Law 109-162. SUMMARY: Section 833(a) of the International Marriage Broker Regulation...

  12. 20 CFR 626.4 - Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents for the Job Training..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.4 Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. The table of contents for the regulations under...

  13. TDA : Transportation Development Act : statutes and California codes of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Mills-Alquist-Deddeh Act (SB 325) was enacted by the California Legislature to improve : existing public transportation services and encourage regional transportation coordination. : Known as the Transportation Development Act (TDA) of 1971, this...

  14. Highlights from U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Recovery Act Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office

    2012-05-01

    This fact sheets highlights U.S. Department of Energy fuel cell projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). More than 1,000 fuel cell systems have been deployed through Recovery Act funding.

  15. 75 FR 11641 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... school children of any income level in any school. Financial literacy programs are an example of...; Providing financial support to enable an MWLI to partner with schools or universities to offer financial... Empowerment Zone (designated pursuant to 26 U.S.C. Sec. 1391) and is consistent with the board's strategic...

  16. 78 FR 69671 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... institutions and their trade associations, community development advocates and organizations, state bank... examiners would consider community development activities in the broader statewide or regional area that... state that community development activities located in the broader statewide or regional area that...

  17. 78 FR 16765 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... development activities outside institutions' assessment areas, both in the broader statewide or regional area... concern that favorable consideration for all banks invested in multi-regional funds would remove the focus... addresses other community development activities that, although located in the broader statewide or regional...

  18. 20 CFR 626.2 - Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.2 Section 626.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.2 Format of the Job...

  19. 75 FR 3665 - Regulations under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act; Termination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... CFR Part 307 Regulations under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act; Termination...''), , implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (``Smokeless Tobacco Act''). The... out a method for the display and rotation of the statutory health warnings on the objects subject to...

  20. 77 FR 76861 - Removal of Job Training Partnership Act Implementing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... 1205-AB68 Removal of Job Training Partnership Act Implementing Regulations AGENCY: Employment and..., 628, 631, 632, 633, 634, 636, 637, and 638, which implemented the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA...: I. Direct Final Rule Procedure Since removal of the Job Training Partnership Act implementing...

  1. 77 FR 42673 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... this regulation, CIGIE adhered to the regulatory philosophy and the applicable principles of regulation... private elementary or secondary schools, institutions of graduate or undergraduate higher education, institutions of professional education, and institutions of vocational education operating one or more programs...

  2. Best-Estimates in Bond Markets with Reinvestment Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne MacKay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of best-estimate, prescribed by regulators to value insurance liabilities for accounting and solvency purposes, has recently been discussed extensively in the industry and related academic literature. To differentiate hedgeable and non-hedgeable risks in a general case, recent literature defines best-estimates using orthogonal projections of a claim on the space of replicable payoffs. In this paper, we apply this concept of best-estimate to long-maturity claims in a market with reinvestment risk, since in this case the total liability cannot easily be separated into hedgeable and non-hedgeable parts. We assume that a limited number of short-maturity bonds are traded, and derive the best-estimate price of bonds with longer maturities, thus obtaining a best-estimate yield curve. We therefore use the multifactor Vasiˇcek model and derive within this framework closed-form expressions for the best-estimate prices of long-term bonds.

  3. 78 FR 50351 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... OF INFORMATION ACT Sec. 456.1 General information. 456.2 Organization. 456.3 Definitions. 456.4 General policy. 456.5 Public reading rooms and information routinely available. 456.6 FOIA request... of the methods listed below. 1. U.S. mail, courier, or hand delivery: General Counsel/Freedom of...

  4. Regulate Globally, Act Locally: Adrenergic Nerves Promote Leukocyte Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, William A.

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Immunity, Scheiermann et al. (2012) demonstrate that circadian regulation of the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules via adrenergic innervation of local vasculature promotes clinically significant changes in leukocyte homing and bone marrow engraftment.

  5. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Recovery Act Funded Cleanups, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Recovery Act Funded Cleanup sites as part of the CIMC web service. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was signed into law...

  6. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Thomas R. Wood

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the opportunity for Letterkenny Army Depot (LEAD or the Depot) to utilize biogenic methane, which may be available in shale formations under the Depot, to provide a supplemental source of natural gas that could allow the Depot to increase energy independence. Both the Director and Deputy of Public Works at the Depot are supportive in general of a methane production project, but wanted to better understand the challenges prior to embarking on such a project. This report will cover many of these issues. A similar project has been successfully developed by the U. S. Army at Ft. Knox, KY, which will be explained and referred to throughout this report as a backdrop to discussing the challenges and opportunities at LEAD, because the geologic formations and possibilities at both sites are similar. Prior to discussing the opportunity at LEAD, it is important to briefly discuss the successful methane recovery operation at Ft. Knox, because it is applicable to the projected approach for the LEAD methane system. The Ft. Knox project is an excellent example of how the U. S. Army can use an onsite renewable resource to provide a secure energy source that is not dependent on regional energy networks and foreign oil. At Ft. Knox, the U. S. Army contracted (through a utility co-op) with an energy production company to drill wells, establish a distribution infrastructure, and provide the equipment needed to prepare and compress the produced methane gas for use by base operations. The energy production company agreed to conduct the exploratory investigation at Ft. Knox with no cost to the government, as long as they could be granted a long-term contract if a reliable energy resource was established. The Depot is located, in part, over an Ordovician Age shale formation that may have the potential for producing biogenic methane, similar to the Devonian Age shale found beneath Ft. Knox. However, the Ordovician Age Shale beneath the Letterkenny Depot is not known to have any currently producing gas wells.

  7. 78 FR 41835 - Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... 3150-AJ25 Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations AGENCY... deferred premiums specified in the Price-Anderson Act for inflation at least once during each 5-year period... first periodic inflation adjustments on September 29, 2008 (73 FR 56451). This final rule makes the...

  8. New Direction--A Look at Canada's Immigration Act and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    TESL Talk, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Examines in detail the highlights of the 1976 Immigration Act and Regulations: (1) managing the volume of immigration; (2) who can immigrate to Canada; (3) how the Act affects visitors; (4) what happens at the port of entry; (5) inquiries and appeals; (6) safeguarding law and order. (CFM)

  9. 75 FR 22320 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... definitions. * * * * * (c) Record availability at the OSHRC e-FOIA Reading Room. The records of Commission... Robert M. Kahn, Office of the General Counsel, via telephone: (202) 606-5410, or via e-mail: [email protected] within two general categories. First, OSHRC proposes modifying its existing FOIA regulations to reflect...

  10. 77 FR 74347 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... philosophy and the applicable principles of regulation as set forth in Section 1 of Executive Order 12866... private elementary or secondary schools, institutions of graduate or undergraduate higher education, institutions of professional education, and institutions of vocational education operating one or more programs...

  11. 75 FR 48585 - Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... this law, and the definition of ``unusual circumstances'' currently at Sec. 1515.5(e)(i), (ii) and (iii... adhered to the regulatory philosophy and the applicable principles of regulation as set forth in Section 1... respond. Availability of Information 1515.10 Obtaining available information. Costs 1515.11 Definitions...

  12. TRF2 acts as a transcriptional regulator in tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maï, Mounir El; Wagner, Kay-Dietrich; Michiels, Jean-François; Gilson, Eric; Wagner, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) regulates gene expression to promote angiogenesis. We found that TRF2 is highly expressed in tumor vessels and transcriptionally activates platelet-derived growth factor receptor β to promote endothelial cell angiogenic properties independently of its function in telomere protection. This work identifies TRF2 as a promising dual target for cancer therapy.

  13. 77 FR 19455 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... benefits at the time of death. The Department first promulgated it after enactment of the Black Lung... and 725 Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal... Programs 20 CFR Parts 718 and 725 RIN 1240-AA04 Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black...

  14. 75 FR 59609 - Rescission of Regulations Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... CFR Part 307 Rescission of Regulations Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act... transferred the FTC's authority for those regulations to the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human...., Washington, D.C., 20580. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health...

  15. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and electric...

  16. Proposed Regulations for The Packers & Stockyard Act: 90 Years in the Making, but is the USDA Ahead of Itself Already?

    OpenAIRE

    Vardner, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a look at regulations proposed by the USDA last June pursuant to its authority under the Packers & Stockyard Act of 1921. The Packers & Stockyard act was passed shortly after the FTC Act and was meant to aid in enforcing the antitrust laws in the meatpacking sector. After ninety years without regulations, several courts of appeals recently began pushing back on the USDA’s interpretation of the Act and begin requiring additional proof beyond what the USDA felt was necessary....

  17. 76 FR 20569 - Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Society of the United States, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the American... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are...

  18. 76 FR 78130 - Mortgage Acts and Practices-Advertising (Regulation N); Mortgage Assistance Relief Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ..., radio, television, cable television, brochure, newspaper, magazine, pamphlet, leaflet, circular, mailer..., newspaper, magazine, pamphlet, leaflet, circular, mailer, book insert, free standing insert, letter... PROTECTION 12 CFR Parts 1014 and 1015 RIN 3170-AA06 Mortgage Acts and Practices--Advertising (Regulation N...

  19. Selenium acts as an insulin-like molecule for the down-regulation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    induce several diseases associated with oxidative damage, an endemic fatal cardiomyopathy in Keshan, China (Yang. Selenium acts as an insulin-like molecule for the down-regulation of diabetic symptoms via endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin signalling proteins in diabetes-induced non-obese diabetic mice.

  20. 75 FR 19241 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... 31 CFR Part 103 RIN 1506-AA93 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining Mutual Funds as Financial Institutions. AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... systems currently in place, the size of the mutual fund complex, and how the mutual fund shares are...

  1. A legal analysis in context: The Regulation of Gatherings Act – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has seen a groundswell of protests in the past few years. The number of arrests during protest action has likewise increased. In June 2017 the Social Justice Coalition (SJC) challenged the constitutionality of the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 in the Western Cape High Court. This was an appeal from ...

  2. 75 FR 40754 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 614 RIN 3145-AA53 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), National Science Foundation (NSF). ACTION: Direct final rule...

  3. Deciphering the Sunshine Act: Transparency Regulation and Financial Conflicts in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Richard S

    2017-11-01

    The Physician Payments Sunshine Act ("Sunshine Act"), enacted to address financial conflicts in health care, is the first comprehensive federal legislation mandating public reporting of payments between drug companies, device manufacturers, and medicine. This article analyzes the Sunshine Act's uneven record, exploring how the law serves as an intriguing example of the uncertain case for transparency regulation in health care. The Sunshine Act's bumpy rollout demonstrates that commanding transparency through legislation can be arduous because of considerable implementation challenges. Capturing all the relevant information about financial relationships and reporting it with sufficient contextual and comparative data has proven disappointingly difficult. In addition, the law suffers from uncertainty and poor design as to the intended audience. Indeed, there is strong reason to believe that it will not significantly impact decision-making of primary recipients like patients. Yet the Sunshine Act nonetheless retains important and perhaps underappreciated value. From the almost four years of information generated, we have learned that industry-medicine financial ties vary significantly by physician specialty, and somewhat by physician gender. In many medical fields the distribution of top dollar payments tends to be heavily skewed to a few recipients, all of which have important implications for optimal management of financial conflicts and for health policy more generally. Accordingly, the Sunshine Act's greatest potential is not guiding decisions of individual patients or physicians, but its downstream effects. This Article traces how secondary audiences, such as regulators, watchdogs, and counsel are already starting to make productive use of Sunshine Act information. Public reporting has, for example, made more feasible linking industry payment information with Medicare reimbursement data. As a result, policymakers can more closely examine correlations between

  4. Erythroid differentiation regulator 1, an interleukin 18-regulated gene, acts as a metastasis suppressor in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Kyung; Park, Yoorim; Song, Seok Bean; Cheon, So Young; Park, Sunyoung; Houh, Younkyung; Ha, Soogyeong; Kim, Hee Jung; Park, Jung Min; Kim, Tae Sung; Lee, Wang Jae; Cho, Byung Joo; Bang, Sa Ik; Park, Hyunjeong; Cho, Daeho

    2011-10-01

    Erythroid differentiation regulator (Erdr1) was first discovered in mouse leukemia cell lines and functions as a stress-related survival factor. This study investigated whether Erdr1 regulates murine melanoma progression, as well as the mechanism involved in Erdr1-regulated metastasis. The expression of Erdr1 is negatively correlated with IL-18 expression, which has a pro-cancer effect in melanoma. To study the role of Erdr1 as an anti-cancer factor, cell migration, invasion, and proliferation were measured. Erdr1 overexpression markedly inhibited the level of cell migration, invasion, and proliferation in B16F10 cells in vitro. In addition, Erdr1 overexpression significantly suppressed melanoma lung colonization, metastasis, and tumor growth in vivo. To identify the factors involved in Erdr1-reduced metastasis, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a well-known stress protein and contributor to tumor metastasis, was examined. We found that HSP90 was significantly decreased in Erdr1-overexpressing cells. Functional analysis demonstrated that HSP90 small-interfering RNA transfection reduced the migration ability and metastasis of melanoma. In conclusion, Erdr1 shows a powerful anti-metastasis effect that leads to the ability to reduce the metastatic potential of murine malignant melanoma cells. Erdr1 is an anti-metastatic factor that may be a possible therapeutic target for treatment of melanoma.

  5. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. 1.706-2T Section 1.706-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1: For...

  6. 78 FR 45842 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Parts 1024 and 1026 RIN 3170-AA37 Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation X) and the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) Correction In...

  7. 78 FR 18344 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... data sources; completing and reviewing the response; and transmitting or disclosing information. The... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate...--Israeli Trade Act Certificate. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 43081, on July 23...

  8. 76 FR 72878 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Imposition of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Act Regulations--Imposition of Special Measure Against the Islamic Republic of Iran as a Jurisdiction... of FinCEN, found that reasonable grounds exist for concluding that the Islamic Republic of Iran... Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the ``USA PATRIOT Act''), Public Law 107-56. Title III of the USA PATRIOT...

  9. let-7 miRNAs Can Act through Notch to Regulate Human Gliogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Patterson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that neural differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells generates cells that are developmentally immature. Here, we show that the let-7 plays a functional role in the developmental decision making of human neural progenitors, controlling whether these cells make neurons or glia. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies on both tissue and pluripotent derived cells, our data show that let-7 specifically regulates decision making in this context by regulation of a key chromatin-associated protein, HMGA2. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the let-7/HMGA2 circuit acts on HES5, a NOTCH effector and well-established node that regulates fate decisions in the nervous system. These data link the let-7 circuit to NOTCH signaling and suggest that this interaction serves to regulate human developmental progression.

  10. The Fit Between the UK Environmental Information Regulations and the Freedom of Information Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Pelton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC is one of seven UK Research Councils. It delivers independent research, survey, training and knowledge transfer in the environmental sciences. All the UK Research Councils are public bodies falling under the Freedom of Information Act 2000 and the Environmental Information Regulations 2004. This open access legislation came into force on January 1, 2005 and since then the authors have built up substantial experience in managing NERC’s data and information under both the Act and the Regulations. This article aims to explain how to manage the, often blurred, boundary between these two pieces of legislation, and the overlap between data management and the legislation.

  11. The neuropeptide PDF acts directly on evening pacemaker neurons to regulate multiple features of circadian behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Bridget C; Zhang, Luoying; Allada, Ravi

    2009-07-01

    Discrete clusters of circadian clock neurons temporally organize daily behaviors such as sleep and wake. In Drosophila, a network of just 150 neurons drives two peaks of timed activity in the morning and evening. A subset of these neurons expresses the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), which is important for promoting morning behavior as well as maintaining robust free-running rhythmicity in constant conditions. Yet, how PDF acts on downstream circuits to mediate rhythmic behavior is unknown. Using circuit-directed rescue of PDF receptor mutants, we show that PDF targeting of just approximately 30 non-PDF evening circadian neurons is sufficient to drive morning behavior. This function is not accompanied by large changes in core molecular oscillators in light-dark, indicating that PDF RECEPTOR likely regulates the output of these cells under these conditions. We find that PDF also acts on this focused set of non-PDF neurons to regulate both evening activity phase and period length, consistent with modest resetting effects on core oscillators. PDF likely acts on more distributed pacemaker neuron targets, including the PDF neurons themselves, to regulate rhythmic strength. Here we reveal defining features of the circuit-diagram for PDF peptide function in circadian behavior, revealing the direct neuronal targets of PDF as well as its behavioral functions at those sites. These studies define a key direct output circuit sufficient for multiple PDF dependent behaviors.

  12. 78 FR 29263 - Rules andRegulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...Based on comments received in response to its Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (``ANPR''), the Commission proposes amending the rules and regulations under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (``Textile Rules'' or ``Rules'') to: Incorporate the updated ISO standard 2076:2010(E); allow certain hang-tags that do not disclose the product's full fiber content information; better address electronic commerce by amending the definition of the terms invoice and invoice or other paper; update the guaranty provisions by, among other things, replacing the requirement that suppliers provide a guaranty signed under penalty of perjury with a certification that must be renewed annually, and revising accordingly the form used to file continuing guaranties with the Commission under the Textile, Fur, and Wool Acts; and clarify several other provisions. The Commission seeks comment on these proposals and several remaining issues.

  13. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Army – Project 214 Analysis of Regulations Associated with Implementation of a Rocky Mountain Secure Smart-Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2010-09-30

    This document describes technical assistance provided by PNNL to further develop a smart grid technologies concept to provide a basis for policies and plans for the US Army. The effort was to analyze the potential to utilize emerging smart grid technologies along with indigenous renewable and other resources to meet the emergency and other power needs of Department of Defense facilities in Colorado and Wyoming.

  14. Identification of trans-acting factors regulating SamDC expression in Oryza sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Supratim, E-mail: supratim_genetics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Crop Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Roychoudhury, Aryadeep [Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier' s College (Autonomous), 30, Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata - 700016, West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Dibyendu N. [Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Identification of cis elements responsible for SamDC expression by in silico analysis. • qPCR analysis of SamDC expression to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. • Detection of SamDC regulators using identified cis-elements as probe by EMSA. • Southwestern Blot analysis to predict the size of the trans-acting factors. - Abstract: Abiotic stress affects the growth and productivity of crop plants; to cope with the adverse environmental conditions, plants have developed efficient defense machinery comprising of antioxidants like phenolics and flavonoids, and osmolytes like polyamines. SamDC is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In our present communication we have done in silico analysis of the promoter region of SamDC to look for the presence of different cis-regulatory elements contributing to its expression. Based on the presence of different cis-regulatory elements we completed comparative analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice lamina of IR-29 and Nonabokra by qPCR in response to the abiotic stress treatments of salinity, drought, cold and the biotic stress treatments of ABA and light. Additionally, to explore the role of the cis-regulatory elements in regulating the expression of SamDC gene in plants we comparatively analyzed the binding of rice nuclear proteins prepared from IR-29 and Nonabokra undergoing various stress treatments. The intensity of the complex formed was low and inducible in IR-29 in contrast to Nonabokra. Southwestern blot analysis helped in predicting the size of the trans-acting factors binding to these cis-elements. To our knowledge this is the first report on the comprehensive analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice and identification of the trans-acting factors regulating its expression.

  15. Disruption of a long-range cis-acting regulator for Shh causes preaxial polydactyly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettice, Laura A.; Horikoshi, Taizo; Heaney, Simon J. H.; van Baren, Marijke J.; van der Linde, Herma C.; Breedveld, Guido J.; Joosse, Marijke; Akarsu, Nurten; Oostra, Ben A.; Endo, Naoto; Shibata, Minoru; Suzuki, Mikio; Takahashi, Eiichi; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nakahori, Yutaka; Ayusawa, Dai; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Scherer, Stephen W.; Heutink, Peter; Hill, Robert E.; Noji, Sumihare

    2002-01-01

    Preaxial polydactyly (PPD) is a common limb malformation in human. A number of polydactylous mouse mutants indicate that misexpression of Shh is a common requirement for generating extra digits. Here we identify a translocation breakpoint in a PPD patient and a transgenic insertion site in the polydactylous mouse mutant sasquatch (Ssq). The genetic lesions in both lie within the same respective intron of the LMBR1/Lmbr1 gene, which resides ≈1 Mb away from Shh. Genetic analysis of Ssq reveals that the Lmbr1 gene is incidental to the phenotype and that the mutation directly interrupts a cis-acting regulator of Shh. This regulator is most likely the target for generating PPD mutations in human. PMID:12032320

  16. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  17. 75 FR 35338 - Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...-AB07 Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of... participants regarding compliance. In enacting Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm... to livestock, meats, meat food products, or livestock products in unmanufactured form, or for any...

  18. 76 FR 76874 - Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008; Suspension of Delivery... Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm Bill). In response to comments and other..., including those that could improve food safety. Although there were many comments received in favor of this...

  19. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  20. Cis- and trans-acting elements regulate the mouse Psmb9 meiotic recombination hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Baudat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In most eukaryotes, the prophase of the first meiotic division is characterized by a high level of homologous recombination between homologous chromosomes. Recombination events are not distributed evenly within the genome, but vary both locally and at large scale. Locally, most recombination events are clustered in short intervals (a few kilobases called hotspots, separated by large intervening regions with no or very little recombination. Despite the importance of regulating both the frequency and the distribution of recombination events, the genetic factors controlling the activity of the recombination hotspots in mammals are still poorly understood. We previously characterized a recombination hotspot located close to the Psmb9 gene in the mouse major histocompatibility complex by sperm typing, demonstrating that it is a site of recombination initiation. With the goal of uncovering some of the genetic factors controlling the activity of this initiation site, we analyzed this hotspot in both male and female germ lines and compared the level of recombination in different hybrid mice. We show that a haplotype-specific element acts at distance and in trans to activate about 2,000-fold the recombination activity at Psmb9. Another haplotype-specific element acts in cis to repress initiation of recombination, and we propose this control to be due to polymorphisms located within the initiation zone. In addition, we describe subtle variations in the frequency and distribution of recombination events related to strain and sex differences. These findings show that most regulations observed act at the level of initiation and provide the first analysis of the control of the activity of a meiotic recombination hotspot in the mouse genome that reveals the interactions of elements located both in and outside the hotspot.

  1. The adaptor molecule Act1 regulates BAFF responsiveness and self-reactive B cell selection during transitional B cell maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltiay, Natalia V.; Lu, Yi; Allman, David; Jørgensen, Trine N.; Li, Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    The transitional stage is a key check-point for elimination of autoreactive B cells in the periphery. This selection process requires fine regulation of signals received through B-cell receptor (BCR) and B cell activating factor receptor (BAFFR). We previously identified the adaptor molecule Act1 as a negative regulator of BAFF-mediated signaling. Deficiency of Act1 in mice results in peripheral B cell hyperplasia and development of autoimmunity. In this study we demonstrate that Act1 plays a critical role in the regulation of transitional B cell survival and maturation. We found that the ratio of late-transitional (T2) to early-transitional (T1) cells was increased in spleens from Act1-deficient mice. Moreover, BAFF stimulation induced better T1 cell survival and promoted more efficient maturation of T1 cells into T2 cells ex vivo in the absence of Act1. BAFF stimulation induced higher levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl2-member Mc1-l in Act1-deficient T1 than that in wild-type control cells, suggesting that Mcl1 might be one of the key effector molecules for BAFF-mediated survival in the Act1-deficient transitional B cells. Importantly, co-stimulation with BAFF was able to rescue Act1-deficient T1 cells from BCR-induced apoptosis more effectively than Act1-suffienct T1 B cells. Finally, by using double transgenic HEL mice, we demonstrated that Act1 deficiency can promote the maturation of HEL-specific autoreactive B cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the transitional stage is a critical point of action for Act1 in the elimination of autoreactive B cells and in the regulation of peripheral B cell homeostasis. PMID:20543113

  2. Fgf9 and Wnt4 act as antagonistic signals to regulate mammalian sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The genes encoding members of the wingless-related MMTV integration site (WNT and fibroblast growth factor (FGF families coordinate growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation in many fields of cells during development. In the mouse, Fgf9 and Wnt4 are expressed in gonads of both sexes prior to sex determination. Loss of Fgf9 leads to XY sex reversal, whereas loss of Wnt4 results in partial testis development in XX gonads. However, the relationship between these signals and the male sex-determining gene, Sry, was unknown. We show through gain- and loss-of-function experiments that fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9 and WNT4 act as opposing signals to regulate sex determination. In the mouse XY gonad, Sry normally initiates a feed-forward loop between Sox9 and Fgf9, which up-regulates Fgf9 and represses Wnt4 to establish the testis pathway. Surprisingly, loss of Wnt4 in XX gonads is sufficient to up-regulate Fgf9 and Sox9 in the absence of Sry. These data suggest that the fate of the gonad is controlled by antagonism between Fgf9 and Wnt4. The role of the male sex-determining switch--Sry in the case of mammals--is to tip the balance between these underlying patterning signals. In principle, sex determination in other vertebrates may operate through any switch that introduces an imbalance between these two signaling pathways.

  3. Tools for port authority transportation reinvestment zones (TRZ) and TRZs for multimodal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2007, the Texas legislature created an innovative transportation funding mechanism called the transportation reinvestment zone (TRZ) that allows municipal and county governments to set aside local match contributions for the transportation project...

  4. NPD project portfolio selection using reinvestment strategy in competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghassemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design a new model for selecting most fitting new product development projects in a pool of projects. To catch the best model, we assume new products will be introduced to the competitive markets. Also, we suppose the revenue yielded by completed projects can be reinvested on implementation of other projects. Other sources of financing are borrowing loans from banks and initial capital of the firm. These limited resources determine most evaluated projects to be performed. Several types of interactions among different projects are considered to make the chosen projects more like a portfolio. In addition, some numerical examples from the real world are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. These examples show how the particular considerations in the suggested model affect the results.

  5. The Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act: a model for nanomaterials regulation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer_nash@harvard.edu [Harvard Kennedy School, Regulatory Policy Program (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Nanomaterials exemplify a new class of emerging technologies that have significant economic and social value, pose uncertain health and environmental risks, and are entering the marketplace at a rapid pace. Effective regimes for regulating emerging technologies generate information about known or suspected hazards and draw on private sector expertise to guide managers' behavior toward risk reduction, even in the absence of clear evidence of harm. This paper considers the extent to which the federal Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) accomplishes those objectives. It offers the approach of the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act (TURA) as a possible supplement to TSCA, filling gaps in agency knowledge and private sector capacities. TURA is notable for its focus on chemicals use and hazard and its emphasis on strengthening firms' internal management systems. Given the current deadlock in Congressional efforts to modernize federal laws such as TSCA, the role of state laws like TURA merit attention. Absent definitive information about risk, a governance strategy that generates information and focuses management attention on reducing hazards is worth considering.

  6. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  7. Neuropeptide Y acts in the paraventricular nucleus to suppress sympathetic nerve activity and its baroreflex regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassaglia, Priscila A; Shi, Zhigang; Li, Baoxin; Reis, Wagner L; Clute-Reinig, Nicholas M; Stern, Javier E; Brooks, Virginia L

    2014-04-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a brain neuromodulator that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of energy balance, also acts centrally to inhibit sympathetic nerve activity (SNA); however, the site and mechanism of action are unknown. In chloralose-anaesthetized female rats, nanoinjection of NPY into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) dose-dependently suppressed lumbar SNA (LSNA) and its baroreflex regulation, and these effects were blocked by prior inhibition of NPY Y1 or Y5 receptors. Moreover, PVN injection of Y1 and Y5 receptor antagonists in otherwise untreated rats increased basal and baroreflex control of LSNA, indicating that endogenous NPY tonically inhibits PVN presympathetic neurons. The sympathoexcitation following blockade of PVN NPY inhibition was eliminated by prior PVN nanoinjection of the melanocortin 3/4 receptor inhibitor SHU9119. Moreover, presympathetic neurons, identified immunohistochemically using cholera toxin b neuronal tract tracing from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), express NPY Y1 receptor immunoreactivity, and patch-clamp recordings revealed that both NPY and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) inhibit and stimulate, respectively, PVN-RVLM neurons. Collectively, these data suggest that PVN NPY inputs converge with α-MSH to influence presympathetic neurons. Together these results identify endogenous NPY as a novel and potent inhibitory neuromodulator within the PVN that may contribute to changes in SNA that occur in states associated with altered energy balance, such as obesity and pregnancy.

  8. Sirtuin 3 acts as a negative regulator of autophagy dictating hepatocyte susceptibility to lipotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songtao; Dou, Xiaobing; Ning, Hua; Song, Qing; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ximei; Shen, Chen; Li, Jiaxin; Sun, Changhao; Song, Zhenyuan

    2017-09-01

    Lipotoxicity induced by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the exact mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase located primarily inside mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrated that an SFA-rich high-fat diet (HFD) was more detrimental to the liver than an isocaloric unsaturated HFD rich in fatty acids. Unexpectedly, SIRT3 expression and activity were significantly elevated in the livers of mice exposed to the SFA-rich HFD. Using cultured HepG2 and AML-12 hepatocytes, we demonstrated that unlike monounsaturated fatty acids, SFAs up-regulate SIRT3 expression and activity. SIRT3 overexpression renders both the liver and hepatocytes susceptible to palmitate-induced cell death, which can be alleviated by SIRT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. In contrast, SIRT3 suppression protects hepatocytes from palmitate cytotoxicity. Further studies revealed that SIRT3 acts as a negative regulator of autophagy, thereby enhancing the susceptibility of hepatocytes to SFA-induced cytotoxicity. Mechanistic investigations revealed that SIRT3 overexpression causes manganese superoxide dismutase deacetylation and activation, which depleted intracellular superoxide contents, leading to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition and mammalian target of rapamycin C1 activation, resulting in autophagy suppression. In contrast, SIRT3 siRNA gene silencing enhanced autophagy flux. A similar result was observed in the liver tissue of SIRT3 knockout mice. Our data indicate that SIRT3 is a negative regulator of autophagy whose activation by SFAs contributes to lipotoxicity in hepatocytes and suggest that restraining SIRT3 overactivation can be a potential therapeutic choice for the treatment of NAFLD as well as other metabolic disorders, with lipotoxicity being the principal pathomechanism

  9. 76 FR 75799 - General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits; and Ineligibility for... Crop Insurance Act. (1) Section 1764 of the Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198); (2) 21 U.S.C...-- 3. Remove and Reserve subpart F, Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits. 4...

  10. 76 FR 68690 - Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... applicable to written advertising, including Internet advertising; clarify or revise the list of exclusions... Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (``Textile Act''), 15 U.S.C. 70-70k, requires marketers to... Textile Act also contains advertising and record-keeping provisions. Section 7(c) of the Textile Act...

  11. Endocannabinoid system acts as a regulator of immune homeostasis in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Nandini; Penukonda, Sasi; Shcheglova, Tatiana; Hagymasi, Adam T; Basu, Sreyashi; Srivastava, Pramod K

    2017-05-09

    Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) are small molecules biosynthesized from membrane glycerophospholipid. Anandamide (AEA) is an endogenous intestinal cannabinoid that controls appetite and energy balance by engagement of the enteric nervous system through cannabinoid receptors. Here, we uncover a role for AEA and its receptor, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), in the regulation of immune tolerance in the gut and the pancreas. This work demonstrates a major immunological role for an endocannabinoid. The pungent molecule capsaicin (CP) has a similar effect as AEA; however, CP acts by engagement of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1, causing local production of AEA, which acts through CB2. We show that the engagement of the cannabinoid/vanilloid receptors augments the number and immune suppressive function of the regulatory CX3CR1(hi) macrophages (Mϕ), which express the highest levels of such receptors among the gut immune cells. Additionally, TRPV1(-/-) or CB2(-/-) mice have fewer CX3CR1(hi) Mϕ in the gut. Treatment of mice with CP also leads to differentiation of a regulatory subset of CD4(+) cells, the Tr1 cells, in an IL-27-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. In a functional demonstration, tolerance elicited by engagement of TRPV1 can be transferred to naïve nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice [model of type 1 diabetes (T1D)] by transfer of CD4(+) T cells. Further, oral administration of AEA to NOD mice provides protection from T1D. Our study unveils a role for the endocannabinoid system in maintaining immune homeostasis in the gut/pancreas and reveals a conversation between the nervous and immune systems using distinct receptors.

  12. The differential regulation of human ACT1 isoforms by Hsp90 in IL-17 signaling1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Wang, Chenhui; Boisson, Bertrand; Misra, Saurav; Rayman, Patricia; Finke, James H.; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Li, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. ACT1 is an essential adaptor molecule in the IL-17 signaling pathway. A missense single nucleotide polymorphism (rs33980500; SNP-D10N) that resulted in the substitution of an asparagine for an aspartic acid at position 10 of ACT1 (ACT1-D10N) is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. Due to alternative splicing in humans, SNP-D10N encodes two mutated ACT1 proteins, ACT1-D10N and ACT1-D19N. Though both ACT1 isoforms are Hsp90 ‘client’ proteins, the nine additional amino acids in ACT1-D19N provide an additional Hsp90 binding site that is absent in ACT1-D10N. Therefore, while ACT1-D10N is a dead protein that is unable to transduce IL-17 signals for gene expression, ACT1-D19N is fully responsive to IL-17. Intriguingly, the two ACT1 isoforms are differentially expressed in ACT1D10N/D10N fibroblasts and T cells. Fibroblasts express both isoforms equally, enabling ACT1-D19N to compensate for the loss of ACT1-D10N function. ACT1D10N/D10N T cells, however, express predominantly ACT1-D10N. Lacking this compensatory mechanism, ACT1D10N/D10N T cells behave like ACT1-deficient T cells, exhibiting a dysregulated and hyperactive Th17 phenotype with overproduction of IL-22 and IL-17. The hyperactive Th17 response combined with fully responsive fibroblasts likely synergized to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility in SNP-D10N patients. PMID:25024377

  13. Deficiencies of regulation of euthanasia in legal acts of foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polaks R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today in most countries the practising of euthanasia is not permissible and as in any case of a criminal offence, which endangers the life of a person, criminal liability applies here. However, the analysis of legal norms in foreign criminal codes reveals several deficiencies, ranging from – the absence of legal regulation which leads to a paradoxical situation, when ignoring the motive and aim of the offence, euthanasia is qualified according to the article of the criminal code which provides for liability for murder with no mitigating circumstances, but assisted suicide liability does not apply at all, – to including special legal norms pertaining to this problematic issue, in the structure of criminal codes, in the disposition of which there is an absence of several mandatory constituent elements of these particular criminal offences, thus unduly extending the provision of these norms in practice also in the cases not related to “easy death”. The deficiencies of legal acts are observed also in those few countries which allow a definite form of euthanasia and its practising by means of special laws. And most importantly, foreign legislators ignore such forms of terminating the lives of incurably ill persons as active and passive non-voluntary euthanasia, which depending on the nature of the offence requires an appropriate legal framework, which so far has not been observed.

  14. Interleukin-19 acts as a negative autocrine regulator of activated microglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Horiuchi

    Full Text Available Activated microglia can exert either neurotoxic or neuroprotective effects, and they play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis and progression of various neurological diseases. In this study, we used cDNA microarrays to show that interleukin-19 (IL-19, an IL-10 family cytokine, is markedly upregulated in activated microglia. Furthermore, we found that microglia are the only cells in the nervous system that express the IL-19 receptor, a heterodimer of the IL-20Rα and IL-20Rβ subunits. IL-19 deficiency increased the production of such pro-inflammatory cytokines as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in activated microglia, and IL-19 treatment suppressed this effect. Moreover, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, we observed upregulation of IL-19 in affected areas in association with disease progression. Our findings demonstrate that IL-19 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, produced by activated microglia, that acts negatively on microglia in an autocrine manner. Thus, microglia may self-limit their inflammatory response by producing the negative regulator IL-19.

  15. 78 FR 63408 - Petition To Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears, and Nonhuman Primates... exceptions, from coming into direct or physical contact with big cats, bears, or nonhuman primates of any age... big cats, bears, and nonhuman primates and the separation of such animals from their dams before the...

  16. 78 FR 25638 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... January 17, 2013, the Bureau issued Mortgage Servicing Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures... Amendments to the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) (2013 HOEPA Final Rule).\\6\\ On January... PROTECTION 12 CFR Parts 1024 and 1026 RIN 3170-AA37 Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real...

  17. 78 FR 44685 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) and the Truth... and 1026 RIN 3170-AA37 Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement... Final Rule), 78 FR 6407 (Jan. 30, 2013). \\2\\ Mortgage Servicing Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement...

  18. 75 FR 29526 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... percent (PPI+1.3). The Commission determined in an ``Order Establishing Index For Oil Price Change Ceiling... No. RM93-11-000] Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods May 19, 2010. The Commission's...

  19. 77 FR 29997 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... percent (PPI-FG+2.65). The Commission determined in an ``Order Establishing Index For Oil Price Change... Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The Commission's...

  20. 78 FR 30296 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... percent (PPI-FG + 2.65). The Commission determined in an ``Order Establishing Index For Oil Price Change... Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The Commission's...

  1. 76 FR 28966 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... percent (PPI-FG+2.65). The Commission determined in an ``Order Establishing Index For Oil Price Change... Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The Commission's...

  2. The differential regulation of human ACT1 isoforms by Hsp90 in IL-17 signaling1

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ling; Wang, Chenhui; Boisson, Bertrand; Misra, Saurav; Rayman, Patricia; Finke, James H.; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Li, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. ACT1 is an essential adaptor molecule in the IL-17 signaling pathway. A missense single nucleotide polymorphism (rs33980500; SNP-D10N) that resulted in the substitution of an asparagine for an aspartic acid at position 10 of ACT1 (ACT1-D10N) is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. Due to alternative splicing in humans, SNP-D10N encodes two mutated ACT1 proteins, ACT1-D10N and A...

  3. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian origin...

  4. The coupled and uncoupled mechanisms by which trans-acting factors regulate mRNA stability and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, Akira; Fujiwara, Toshinobu

    2017-04-01

    In mammals, spatiotemporal control of protein synthesis plays a key role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression during cell proliferation, development and differentiation and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are required for this phenomenon. RBPs and miRNAs control the levels of mRNA protein products by regulating mRNA stability and translation. Recent studies have shown that RBPs and miRNAs simultaneously regulate mRNA stability and translation, and that the differential functions of RBPs and miRNAs are dependent on their interaction partners. Here, we summarize the coupled- and uncoupled mechanisms by which trans-acting factors regulate mRNA stability and translation. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. GP supervisors' experience in supporting self-regulated learning: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagasser, M.H.; Kramer, A.W.M.; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is essential for professional development and lifelong learning. As self-regulated learning has many inaccuracies, the need to support self-regulated learning has been recommended. Supervisors can provide such support. In a prior study trainees reported on the variation in

  6. 75 FR 50718 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... an employment- related hearing loss. This regulation echoes the statutory and regulatory standards... environmental laws suggests broad familiarity with their parameters within the boating community. Moreover, each...

  7. Movement specific reinvestment and allocation of attention by older adults during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uiga, L; Capio, C M; Wong, T W L; Wilson, M R; Masters, R S W

    2015-09-01

    Older repeat fallers have previously been shown to have a higher propensity to consciously monitor and control their movements (i.e. reinvestment) than non-fallers, yet to direct their attention equally between their limb movements and the external environment during locomotion (Wong et al. in J Am Geriatr Soc 57: 920-922, 2009). Whether increased attention to their movements is a result of falling or originates from a prior inclination to reinvest remains unclear. In order to better understand the interaction between reinvestment and attention during locomotion, this study examined the allocation of attention by older adults who had not fallen but displayed a high or low inclination for reinvestment. Twenty-eight low and twenty-eight high reinvestors were required to perform 30 walking trials. Their allocation of attention during walking was evaluated by asking tone-related attentional focus questions shortly after finishing each walking trial. High reinvestors were found to be more aware of their limb movements and less aware of the external environment. Low reinvestors, on the contrary, were more aware of the surrounding environment and less aware of their movement mechanics. Given that focusing internally to body movements has been proposed to utilise working memory capacity, the ability of high reinvestors to pick up all the environmental information necessary for successful locomotion might be compromised and requires further examination.

  8. TA 55 Reinvestment Project II Phase C Update Project Status May 23, 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, Anthony P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-25

    The TA-55 Reinvestment Project (TRP) II Phase C is a critical infrastructure project focused on improving safety and reliability of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 Complex. The Project recapitalizes and revitalizes aging and obsolete facility and safety systems providing a sustainable nuclear facility for National Security Missions.

  9. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards and people with dementia: the implications for social care regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Geraldine

    2009-07-01

    The Mental Capacity Act 2005 introduced legal safeguards (which came into force in April 2009) aimed at protecting the liberty of people lacking capacity admitted to institutions in England and Wales. This paper discusses the adequacy of the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards for protecting the liberty of residents in social care settings and the role of regulation in monitoring their implementation. In particular, the potential impact of planned unitary regulation on the regulator's ability to protect residents' liberty is critiqued, centring on people with dementia living in care homes. It is suggested that the capacity of the safeguards to adequately protect the liberty of residents with dementia may be limited by under-recognition of the extent to which deprivation of liberty can actually occur in care homes, insufficient resourcing and a lack of critical independence in their proposed implementation. In addition, the planned contraction of regulation--especially a reduction in inspections--will constrain the regulator's ability to ensure that residents' right to liberty is protected. The author concludes that the new model of regulation adopted by the UK government has prioritised economic efficiency over safeguarding the right to liberty of vulnerable residents in institutions.

  10. 75 FR 12377 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations-Disposition of Culturally...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... objects and objects of cultural patrimony. Among other things, the Act: --Established the Native American..., disposition of human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony removed from... the repatriation of human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony...

  11. 78 FR 58202 - Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) Medical Malpractice Program Regulations: Clarification of FTCA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... civil action or proceeding. The Federally Supported Health Centers Assistance Act of 1992 (Public Law... be employees of the PHS for the purposes of this medical malpractice liability protection. A final..., this rulemaking process. Federalism HRSA has analyzed this final rule in accordance with the principles...

  12. 76 FR 16977 - Regulations To Implement the Equal Employment Provisions of the Americans With Disabilities Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ..., although the concepts may often be unnecessary to conduct the analysis of whether an impairment... determination of whether an individual has a disability should not demand extensive analysis. The Amendments Act..., breathing, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, communicating, interacting with others, and working...

  13. 75 FR 46859 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... extinction. Common food crop. A plant that: (a) Has been raised, grown, or cultivated for human or animal... extinction. Common food crop. A plant that: (a) Has been raised, grown, or cultivated for human or animal...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 357 RIN 0579-AD11 Lacey Act...

  14. 75 FR 24862 - Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... criteria: (a) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy or... substantial number of small entities because it does not: a. Have an annual effect on the economy of $100... enterprises to compete with foreign-based enterprises. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act The Unfunded Mandates...

  15. 78 FR 6621 - Ability To Repay Standards Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... response to these hearings, the House of Representatives passed the Mortgage Reform and Anti-Predatory...-repay requirements, but neither bill was passed by the Senate. Instead, both houses shifted their focus... Act of 2010. S. 3217, 111th Cong. (2010). After several months of additional debate and negotiations...

  16. 77 FR 4498 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... marketers to attach a label to each wool product disclosing: (1) The percentages by weight of the wool... where the wool product was processed or manufactured.\\1\\ The Wool Act also contains advertising and... national consistency with respect to wool labeling and advertising? (c) Provide any evidence supporting...

  17. 78 FR 57808 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... \\2\\ require marketers to, among other things, attach a label to each covered wool product disclosing... in the sale, offering for sale, advertising, delivery, or transportation of a covered wool product in... certified by the FTC as compliant with the Wool Act, to establish a complete defense to false advertising...

  18. 76 FR 10527 - Regulatory Flexibility Act: Section 610 Review of National Organic Program Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... comments. SUMMARY: This document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) plans to review the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 Regulatory Flexibility Act: Section 610 Review of National...

  19. 77 FR 55271 - Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z); Loan Originator Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... financial system were drawn into mortgage-related activities that, when the bubble collapsed in 2008, it... September 7, 2012 Part II Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending Act... / Friday, September 7, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part...

  20. Reforming the Regulation of Therapeutic Products in Canada: The Protecting of Canadians from Unsafe Drugs Act (Vanessa’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Fierlbeck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enacted November 2014, Vanessa’s Law amends the Food and Drugs Act to give Health Canada greater powers to compel the disclosure of information, recall drugs and devices, impose fines and injunctions, and collect post-market safety information. The Act amends seriously outdated legislation that had been in place since 1954. While the explicit goals of the Act are to improve patient safety and provide transparency, it also establishes a regulatory framework that facilitates investment in the burgeoning field of biotechnology. While regulatory reform was already on the public agenda, public awareness of litigation against large pharmaceutical firms combined with the championing of the legislation by Conservative MP Terence Young, whose daughter Vanessa died from an adverse drug reaction, pushed the legislation through to implementation. Many key aspects of the Act depend upon the precise nature of supporting regulations that are still to be implemented. Despite the new powers conferred by the legislation on the Minister of Health, there is some concern that these discretionary powers may not be exercised, and that Health Canada may not have sufficient resources to take advantage of these new powers. Given experience to date since enactment, the new legislation, designed to provide greater transparency vis-à-vis therapeutic products, may actually have a chilling effect on independent scrutiny.

  1. The Arabidopsis thaliana STYLISH1 Protein Acts as a Transcriptional Activator Regulating Auxin Biosynthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Magnus Eklund; Veronika Ståldal; Isabel Valsecchi; Izabela Cierlik; Caitriona Eriksson; Keiichiro Hiratsu; Masaru Ohme-Takagi; Jens F. Sundström; Mattias Thelander; Inés Ezcurra; Eva Sundberg

    2010-01-01

    .... The disruption of normal auxin biosynthesis in mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) leads to severe abnormalities, suggesting that spatiotemporal regulation of auxin biosynthesis is fundamental for normal growth and development...

  2. Smart-grid Investments, Regulation and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Mikkers, Misja

    2013-01-01

    Grid infrastructure managers worldwide are facing demands for reinvestments in new assets with higher on-grid and off-grid functionality in order to meet new environmental targets. The roles of the current actors will change as the vertical interfaces between regulated and unregulated tasks become...

  3. Nitric oxide acts as a positive regulator to induce metamorphosis of the ascidian Herdmania momus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Ueda

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS, which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90. It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation

  4. The Activity Centres (Young Persons' Safety) Act 1995, the Adventure Activities Licensing Regulations 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Explains licensing regulations applicable in the United Kingdom to commercial providers of adventure education programs that offer caving, climbing, trekking, and water sports; provides information on license applications, including licensing standards related to risk assessment and safety management procedures; and addresses issues related to the…

  5. 75 FR 18403 - Rules of Procedure; Regulations Implementing the Government in the Sunshine Act; Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... technical amendments to its rules and regulations set forth in parts 2200, 2203, and 2204. This correction... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION, remove the word ``Eighth'' and add in its place the word ``Seventh'' in the... INFORMATION, remove the word ``Ninth'' and add in its place the word ``Eighth'' in the fifteenth sentence. 0 9...

  6. OsDi19-4 acts downstream of OsCDPK14 to positively regulate ABA response in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Yu, Changchun; Xu, Shanglin; Zhu, Yingguo; Huang, Wenchao

    2016-12-01

    The drought-induced 19 protein family consists of several atypical Cys2/His2-type zinc finger proteins in plants and plays an important role in abiotic stress. In this study, we found that overexpressing OsDi19-4 in rice altered the expression of a series of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes, resulting in strong ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes including ABA-induced seed germination inhibition, early seedling growth inhibition and stomatal closure. On the contrary, OsDi19-4 knockdown lines were less sensitive to ABA. Additionally, OsCDPK14 was identified to interact with OsDi19-4 and be responsible for the phosphorylation of OsDi19-4, and the phosphorylation of OsDi19-4 was further enhanced after the treatment of ABA. Apart from these, OsDi19-4 was shown to directly bind to the promoters of OsASPG1 and OsNAC18 genes, two ABA-responsive genes, and regulate their expression. Transient expression assays confirmed the direct regulation role of OsDi19-4, and the regulation was further enhanced by the increased phosphorylation of OsDi19-4 after the treatment of ABA. Taken together, these data demonstrate that OsDi19-4 acts downstream of OsCDPK14 to positively regulate ABA response by modulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes in rice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 76 FR 67764 - Finance, Budget & Program Committee Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program Committee Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Time & Date: 10 a.m., Thursday, November 3, 2011. Place: 1325 G Street, NW., Suite 800, Boardroom, Washington, DC 20005. Status...

  8. 76 FR 55125 - Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act TIME AND DATE: 2 p.m., Wednesday, September 7, 2011 PLACE: 1325 G Street, NW., Suite 800, Boardroom, Washington, DC...

  9. 78 FR 65716 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME & DATE: 2:00 p.m., Thursday, November 7, 2013. PLACE: Telephonic Meeting. STATUS: Open. CONTACT PERSON...

  10. 77 FR 56238 - Finance, Budget & Program. Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program. Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act TIME & DATE: 3 p.m., Thursday, September 20, 2012. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800, Boardroom, Washington, DC...

  11. 78 FR 24438 - Board of Directors Finance, Budget & Program Committee: Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Board of Directors Finance, Budget & Program Committee: Sunshine Act Meeting TIME AND DATE: 1:00 p.m., Thursday, May 2, 2013. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800, Boardroom, Washington, DC 20005...

  12. 78 FR 8193 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME & DATE: 2:00 p.m., Wednesday, February 13, 2013. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800, Boardroom...

  13. Virginia Tech research funded by Recovery Act exceeds $20 million, and growing

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2009-01-01

    As of Monday, Aug. 24, Virginia Tech researchers had received 45 grants through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), totaling $20.3 million, for projects ranging from determining the cause of cell defects to planning for a program that will facilitate graduate study by veterans.

  14. 75 FR 35447 - Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; Nationwide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... pellet and chip boiler furnaces; variable refrigerant flow zoning and inverter-driven ductless mini-split... and small district wood pellet and chip boiler furnaces; variable refrigerant flow zoning and inverter... MEP). MEP has a network of 59 centers across the country that work directly with domestic...

  15. 78 FR 54252 - Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements-One Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... first-tier subcontracts; c. Program or project title, if any, for its Government contract; ( http://wwww... appropriate, units of measure ( http://wwww.whitehouse.gov/omb/recovery_faqs_contractors ); e. Name of the...

  16. 48 CFR 52.204-11 - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... description of the types of jobs created and jobs retained in the United States and outlying areas (see definition in FAR 2.101). This description may rely on job titles, broader labor categories, or the... subcontractor shall provide— (A) A brief description of the types of jobs created and jobs retained in the...

  17. 78 FR 48462 - Comment Request for Information Collection: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... (Department), as part of its continuing ] effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, conducts a... burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection instruments are clearly understood, and... November 30, 2013, ETA is soliciting comments concerning the collection of data for the active Green Jobs...

  18. 77 FR 20806 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... jacket characteristics as the pipe. Pre-insulated hot water district energy piping manufactured as a... makes a complete system, the components (pre-insulated valves, fittings, bends, etc.) of a hot water..., bonded to polyurethane foam insulation, bonded to an HDPE jacket, such that all the components operate as...

  19. 78 FR 48866 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ...-efficient impeller (N-impeller) to retrofit existing Flygt pumps, and (2) Expansion Module Assembly to... below: Energy-efficient impeller (N-impeller) to retrofit existing Flygt pumps. The impeller was specifically designed to fit and be compatible with the existing electric submersible pumps only available from...

  20. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  1. 77 FR 4030 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... requirements. The Buy American provision ``prohibits use of recovery funds for a project for the construction... cases, grant recipients and sub recipients have been able to secure offers of donation, for items...-compliant manufactured goods in accordance with applicable laws. For the reasons outlined above, I find that...

  2. 75 FR 14612 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... installation of a City Multi R2 ductless, variable refrigerant flow (VRF) split system for Heating, Ventilation... building or public work unless all of the iron, steel, and manufactured goods used in the project are... relevant manufactured goods are not produced in the U.S. in sufficient and reasonably available quantities...

  3. 75 FR 53323 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Variable Refrigerant Variable Refrigerant Volume systems, also known as Variable Refrigerant Flow ] (VRV... work unless all of the iron, steel, and manufactured goods used in the project are produced in the... goods are not produced in the U.S. in sufficient and reasonably available quantities or of satisfactory...

  4. 77 FR 34972 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) multi-split air conditioners and heat pumps for the Hubert H. Humphrey Hi... work unless all of the iron, steel, and manufactured goods used in the project are produced in the... goods are not produced in the U.S. in sufficient and reasonably available quantities or of satisfactory...

  5. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance for Geothermal Resource Evaluation Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Thomas R. Wood; Joel Renner

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to report on the evaluation of geothermal resource potential on and around three different United States (U. S.) Air Force Bases (AFBs): Nellis AFB and Air Force Range (AFR) in the State of Nevada (see maps 1 and 5), Holloman AFB in the State of New Mexico (see map 2), and Mountain Home AFB in the State of Idaho (see map 3). All three sites are located in semi-arid parts of the western U. S. The U. S. Air Force, through its Air Combat Command (ACC) located at Langley AFB in the State of Virginia, asked the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) for technical assistance to conduct technical and feasibility evaluations for the potential to identify viable geothermal resources on or around three different AFBs. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is supporting FEMP in providing technical assistance to a number of different Federal Agencies. For this report, the three different AFBs are considered one project because they all deal with potential geothermal resource evaluations. The three AFBs will be evaluated primarily for their opportunity to develop a geothermal resource of high enough quality grade (i.e., temperature, productivity, depth, etc.) to consider the possibility for generation of electricity through a power plant. Secondarily, if the resource for the three AFBs is found to be not sufficient enough for electricity generation, then they will be described in enough detail to allow the base energy managers to evaluate if the resource is suitable for direct heating or cooling. Site visits and meetings by INL personnel with the staff at each AFB were held in late FY-2009 and FY-2010. This report provides a technical evaluation of the opportunities and challenges for developing geothermal resources on and around the AFBs. An extensive amount of literature and geographic information was evaluated as a part of this assessment. Resource potential maps were developed for each of the AFBs.

  6. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Experiences from the Consumer Behavior Studies on Engaging Customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scheer, Richard [Scheer Ventures, Takoma Park, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    One of the most important aspects for the successful implementation of customer-facing programs is to better understand how to engage and communicate with consumers. Customer-facing programs include time-based rates, information and feedback, load management, and energy efficiency. This report presents lessons learned by utilities through consumer behavior studies (CBS) conducted as part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program. The SGIG CBS effort presents a unique opportunity to advance the understanding of consumer behaviors in terms of customer acceptance and retention, and electricity consumption and peak demand impacts. The effort includes eleven comprehensive studies with the aim of evaluating the response of residential and small commercial customers to time-based rate programs implemented in conjunction with advanced metering infrastructure and customer systems such as in-home displays, programmable communicating thermostats, and web portals. DOE set guidelines and protocols that sought to help the utilities design studies that would rigorously test and more precisely estimate the impact of time-based rates on customers’ energy usage patterns, as well as identify the key drivers that motivate behavioral changes.

  7. 78 FR 49264 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... this project cannot be met by current manufacturers of LED lamps in the United States. However, because... of a satisfactory quality), with respect to Par 20, Par 30 and Par 38 lamps (as specified infra) to... concluded that: Par 20, Par 30 and Par 38 replacement lamps, that are both rated for outdoor open fixtures...

  8. 75 FR 27808 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ...: 2010-11732] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5374-N-11] Buy American... Adams Village. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dominique G. Blom, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public... of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Room 4130, Washington, DC, 20410-4000...

  9. 77 FR 17456 - Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., maintenance, or repair of a public building or public work unless all of the iron, steel, and manufactured... the amount of $1,415,000.00 to Adon Construction for the construction of a 120kw photovoltaic solar... photovoltaic equipment be in stainless steel or PVC enclosures that carried a minimum National Electrical...

  10. 75 FR 61163 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... purchase and installation of a Variable Refrigerant Volume Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (VRV... purchase and installation of solar panels and linoleum for its Lyndon B. Johnson Apartments project. An... HUD on the basis that the relevant manufactured goods (solar panels and linoleum) are not produced in...

  11. An Arabidopsis F-box protein acts as a transcriptional co-factor to regulate floral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Eunyoung; Tan, Queenie K-G; Hill, Theresa A; Irish, Vivian F

    2008-04-01

    Plants flower in response to both environmental and endogenous signals. The Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor is crucial in integrating these signals, and acts in part by activating the expression of multiple floral homeotic genes. LFY-dependent activation of the homeotic APETALA3 (AP3) gene requires the activity of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), an F-box component of an SCF ubiquitin ligase, yet how this regulation is effected has remained unclear. Here, we show that UFO physically interacts with LFY both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction is necessary to recruit UFO to the AP3 promoter. Furthermore, a transcriptional repressor domain fused to UFO reduces endogenous LFY activity in plants, supporting the idea that UFO acts as part of a transcriptional complex at the AP3 promoter. Moreover, chemical or genetic disruption of proteasome activity compromises LFY-dependent AP3 activation, indicating that protein degradation is required to promote LFY activity. These results define an unexpected role for an F-box protein in functioning as a DNA-associated transcriptional co-factor in regulating floral homeotic gene expression. These results suggest a novel mechanism for promoting flower development via protein degradation and concomitant activation of the LFY transcription factor. This mechanism may be widely conserved, as homologs of UFO and LFY have been identified in a wide array of plant species.

  12. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Acts as a Transcription Regulator in Response to Stresses in Deinococcus radiodurans

    OpenAIRE

    Su Yang; Hong Xu; Jiali Wang; Chengzhi Liu; Huizhi Lu; Mengjia Liu; Ye Zhao; Bing Tian; Liangyan Wang; Yuejin Hua

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic AMP receptor protein family of transcription factors regulates various metabolic pathways in bacteria, and also play roles in response to environmental changes. Here, we identify four homologs of the CRP family in Deinococcus radiodurans, one of which tolerates extremely high levels of oxidative stress and DNA-damaging reagents. Transcriptional levels of CRP were increased under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment during the stationary growth phase, indicating that CRPs function in ...

  13. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3 have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG, and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp and a metalloprotease (eep, supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1. These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide

  14. Cytokinin acts through the auxin influx carrier AUX1 to regulate cell elongation in the root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Ian H; Mathews, Dennis E; Yamburkenko, Maria V; Sorooshzadeh, Ali; John, Roshen T; Swarup, Ranjan; Bennett, Malcolm J; Kieber, Joseph J; Schaller, G Eric

    2016-11-01

    Hormonal interactions are crucial for plant development. In Arabidopsis, cytokinins inhibit root growth through effects on cell proliferation and cell elongation. Here, we define key mechanistic elements in a regulatory network by which cytokinin inhibits root cell elongation in concert with the hormones auxin and ethylene. The auxin importer AUX1 functions as a positive regulator of cytokinin responses in the root; mutation of AUX1 specifically affects the ability of cytokinin to inhibit cell elongation but not cell proliferation. AUX1 is required for cytokinin-dependent changes of auxin activity in the lateral root cap associated with the control of cell elongation. Cytokinin regulates root cell elongation through ethylene-dependent and -independent mechanisms, both hormonal signals converging on AUX1 as a regulatory hub. An autoregulatory circuit is identified involving the control of ARR10 and AUX1 expression by cytokinin and auxin, this circuit potentially functioning as an oscillator to integrate the effects of these two hormones. Taken together, our results uncover several regulatory circuits controlling interactions of cytokinin with auxin and ethylene, and support a model in which cytokinin regulates shootward auxin transport to control cell elongation and root growth. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. The Texas space flight liability act and efficient regulation for the private commercial space flight era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher D.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.

  16. Influence of focus of attention, reinvestment and fall history on elderly gait stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melker Worms, Jonathan L A; Stins, John F; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Loram, Ian D; Beek, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Falls represent a substantial risk in the elderly. Previous studies have found that a focus on the outcome or effect of the movement (external focus of attention) leads to improved balance performance, whereas a focus on the movement execution itself (internal focus of attention) impairs balance performance in elderly. A shift toward more conscious, explicit forms of motor control occurs when existing declarative knowledge is recruited in motor control, a phenomenon called reinvestment. We investigated the effects of attentional focus and reinvestment on gait stability in elderly fallers and nonfallers. Full body kinematics was collected from twenty-eight healthy older adults walking on a treadmill, while focus of attention was manipulated through instruction. Participants also filled out the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS) and the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I), and provided details about their fall history. Coefficients of Variation (CV) of spatiotemporal gait parameters and Local Divergence Exponents (LDE) were calculated as measures of gait variability and gait stability, respectively. Larger stance time CV and LDE (decreased gait stability) were found for fallers compared to nonfallers. No significant effect of attentional focus was found for the gait parameters, and no significant relation between MSRS score (reinvestment) and fall history was found. We conclude that external attention to the walking surface does not lead to improved gait stability in elderly. Potential benefits of an external focus of attention might not apply to gait, because walking movements are not geared toward achieving a distinct environmental effect. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Acts as a Transcription Regulator in Response to Stresses in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su; Xu, Hong; Wang, Jiali; Liu, Chengzhi; Lu, Huizhi; Liu, Mengjia; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Bing; Wang, Liangyan; Hua, Yuejin

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic AMP receptor protein family of transcription factors regulates various metabolic pathways in bacteria, and also play roles in response to environmental changes. Here, we identify four homologs of the CRP family in Deinococcus radiodurans, one of which tolerates extremely high levels of oxidative stress and DNA-damaging reagents. Transcriptional levels of CRP were increased under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment during the stationary growth phase, indicating that CRPs function in response to oxidative stress. By constructing all CRP single knockout mutants, we found that the dr0997 mutant showed the lowest tolerance toward H2O2, ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation, and mitomycin C, while the phenotypes of the dr2362, dr0834, and dr1646 mutants showed slight or no significant differences from those of the wild-type strain. Taking advantage of the conservation of the CRP-binding site in many bacteria, we found that transcription of 18 genes, including genes encoding chromosome-partitioning protein (dr0998), Lon proteases (dr0349 and dr1974), NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (dr1506), thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (dr2531), the DNA repair protein UvsE (dr1819), PprA (dra0346), and RecN (dr1447), are directly regulated by DR0997. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses showed that certain genes involved in anti-oxidative responses, DNA repair, and various cellular pathways are transcriptionally attenuated in the dr0997 mutant. Interestingly, DR0997 also regulate the transcriptional levels of all CRP genes in this bacterium. These data suggest that DR0997 contributes to the extreme stress resistance of D. radiodurans via its regulatory role in multiple cellular pathways, such as anti-oxidation and DNA repair pathways.

  18. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Acts as a Transcription Regulator in Response to Stresses in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yang

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP receptor protein family of transcription factors regulates various metabolic pathways in bacteria, and also play roles in response to environmental changes. Here, we identify four homologs of the CRP family in Deinococcus radiodurans, one of which tolerates extremely high levels of oxidative stress and DNA-damaging reagents. Transcriptional levels of CRP were increased under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 treatment during the stationary growth phase, indicating that CRPs function in response to oxidative stress. By constructing all CRP single knockout mutants, we found that the dr0997 mutant showed the lowest tolerance toward H2O2, ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation, and mitomycin C, while the phenotypes of the dr2362, dr0834, and dr1646 mutants showed slight or no significant differences from those of the wild-type strain. Taking advantage of the conservation of the CRP-binding site in many bacteria, we found that transcription of 18 genes, including genes encoding chromosome-partitioning protein (dr0998, Lon proteases (dr0349 and dr1974, NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (dr1506, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (dr2531, the DNA repair protein UvsE (dr1819, PprA (dra0346, and RecN (dr1447, are directly regulated by DR0997. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analyses showed that certain genes involved in anti-oxidative responses, DNA repair, and various cellular pathways are transcriptionally attenuated in the dr0997 mutant. Interestingly, DR0997 also regulate the transcriptional levels of all CRP genes in this bacterium. These data suggest that DR0997 contributes to the extreme stress resistance of D. radiodurans via its regulatory role in multiple cellular pathways, such as anti-oxidation and DNA repair pathways.

  19. Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Menegaz, Danusa; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    In this symposium review we discuss the role of neurotransmitters as paracrine signals that regulate pancreatic islet function. A large number of neurotransmitters and their receptors has been identified in the islet, but relatively little is known about their involvement in islet biology. Interestingly, neurotransmitters initially thought to be present in autonomic axons innervating the islet are also present in endocrine cells of the human islet. These neurotransmitters can thus be released as paracrine signals to help control hormone release. Here we propose that the role of neurotransmitters may extend beyond controlling endocrine cell function to work as signals modulating vascular flow and immune responses within the islet. PMID:24591573

  20. Recovery Act: Billions of Dollars in Education Credits Appear to Be Erroneous. Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration. Reference Number: 2011-41-083

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of the Treasury, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Education credits are available to help offset the costs of higher education for taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents who qualify as eligible students. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) amended the Hope Scholarship Tax Credit (Hope Credit) to provide for a refundable tax credit known as the American Opportunity…

  1. WRKY62 transcription factor acts downstream of cytosolic NPR1 and negatively regulates jasmonate-responsive gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Peng; Duan, Mingrui; Wei, Chunhong; Li, Yi

    2007-06-01

    Cytosolic NPR1 has been shown to be essential for the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated suppression of jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive gene expression. However, factors downstream of NPR1 in the cross-talk between SA and JA signaling are unclear. Here we show that Arabidopsis WRKY62, a member of WRKY group III transcription factors, was induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and SA treatment. The presence of basal SA is required for the MeJA-induced WRKY62 expression, and both chemicals exhibit a synergistic effect on WRKY62 induction. In addition, upon treatment with an extremely low concentration of SA, cytosolic NPR1 controls the MeJA-induced expression of WRKY62. TGA transcription factors, which up-regulate SA-induced expression of WRKY62, are dispensable for the induction of WRKY62 in JA signaling. Genetic dissection of both wrky62 mutants and WRKY62-overexpressing plants indicated that WRKY62 down-regulates JA-responsive LOX2 and VSP2 expression. Our results demonstrate that WRKY62 acts downstream of cytosolic NPR1 and negatively regulates JA-responsive gene expression, suggesting that WRKY62 may be involved in the SA-mediated suppression of JA signaling.

  2. Cytokinins and Abscisic Acid Act Antagonistically in the Regulation of the Bud Outgrowth Pattern by Light Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Corot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bud outgrowth is a key process in the elaboration of yield and visual quality in rose crops. Although light intensity is well known to affect bud outgrowth, little is known on the mechanisms involved in this regulation. The objective of this work was to test if the control of bud outgrowth pattern along the stem by photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD is mediated by sugars, cytokinins and/or abscisic acid in intact rose plants. Rooted cuttings of Rosa hybrida ‘Radrazz’ were grown in growth chambers under high PPFD (530 μmol m-2 s-1 until the floral bud visible stage. Plants were then either placed under low PPFD (90 μmol m-2 s-1 or maintained under high PPFD. Bud outgrowth inhibition by low PPFD was associated with lower cytokinin and sugar contents and a higher abscisic acid content in the stem. Interestingly, cytokinin supply to the stem restored bud outgrowth under low PPFD. On the other hand, abscisic acid supply inhibited outgrowth under high PPFD and antagonized bud outgrowth stimulation by cytokinins under low PPFD. In contrast, application of sugars did not restore bud outgrowth under low PPFD. These results suggest that PPFD regulation of bud outgrowth in rose involves a signaling pathway in which cytokinins and abscisic acid play antagonistic roles. Sugars can act as nutritional and signaling compounds and may be involved too, but do not appear as the main regulator of the response to PPFD.

  3. A novel branched chain amino acids responsive transcriptional regulator, BCARR, negatively acts on the proteolytic system in Lactobacillus helveticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketo Wakai

    Full Text Available Transcriptional negative regulation of the proteolytic system of Lactobacillus helveticus CM4 in response to amino acids seems to be very important for the control of antihypertensive peptide production; however, it remains poorly understood. A 26-kDa protein with N-terminal cystathionine β-synthase domains (CBS domain protein, which seems to be involved in the regulatory system, was purified by using a DNA-sepharose bound 300-bp DNA fragment corresponding to the upstream regions of the six proteolytic genes that are down-regulated by amino acids. The CBS domain protein bound to a DNA fragment corresponding to the region upstream of the pepV gene in response to branched chain amino acids (BCAAs. The expression of the pepV gene in Escherichia coli grown in BCAA-enriched medium was repressed when the CBS domain protein was co-expressed. These results reveal that the CBS domain protein acts as a novel type of BCAA-responsive transcriptional regulator (BCARR in L. helveticus. From comparative analysis of the promoter regions of the six proteolysis genes, a palindromic AT-rich motif, 5'-AAAAANNCTWTTATT-3', was predicted as the consensus DNA motif for the BCARR protein binding. Footprint analysis using the pepV promotor region and gel shift analyses with the corresponding short DNA fragments strongly suggested that the BCARR protein binds adjacent to the pepV promoter region and affects the transcription level of the pepV gene in the presence of BCAAs. Homology search analysis of the C-terminal region of the BCARR protein suggested the existence of a unique βαββαβ fold structure that has been reported in a variety of ACT (aspartate kinase-chorismate mutase-tyrA domain proteins for sensing amino acids. These results also suggest that the sensing of BCAAs by the ACT domain might promote the binding of the BCARR to DNA sequences upstream of proteolysis genes, which affects the gene expression of the proteolytic system in L. helveticus.

  4. Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Menegaz, Danusa; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2014-08-15

    In this symposium review we discuss the role of neurotransmitters as paracrine signals that regulate pancreatic islet function. A large number of neurotransmitters and their receptors has been identified in the islet, but relatively little is known about their involvement in islet biology. Interestingly, neurotransmitters initially thought to be present in autonomic axons innervating the islet are also present in endocrine cells of the human islet. These neurotransmitters can thus be released as paracrine signals to help control hormone release. Here we propose that the role of neurotransmitters may extend beyond controlling endocrine cell function to work as signals modulating vascular flow and immune responses within the islet. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  5. Financial Flexibility in Highly Regulated Market: Indonesian Telecommunication Case during Tariff Pricing War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Arief Rijanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In year 2008, regulation of Indonesian telecommunicationindustries changes due the tariff pricing war within Telecommunication opera-tor. This regulation tie up the telecommunication operator and affect operating revenue margin.The needs of financial flexibility within tele-communication firm is increased.Capex, operating revenue and reinvestment needs to be flexible must be inline with competition and change of technology. This paper goals is measuring financial flexibility based on Capex, operating revenue and re-investment needs.Reinvestment needs by Telecommunication operator can be financed with or without financial flexibility. Data from year 2007 up to 2014 is selec-ted to accommodate before and after changes of telecommunication regulation. The regulation effect to financial flexibility of telecommu-nication firm is still relevantbecause telecommunication industries by nature needs larger capital to re-new the telecommunication technology. Real options method will be used to measure financial flexibility.

  6. Analysis of cis- and trans-acting factors involved in regulation of the Streptococcus mutans fructanase gene (fruA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zezhang T; Burne, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    There are two primary levels of control of the expression of the fructanase gene (fruA) of Streptococcus mutans: induction by levan, inulin, or sucrose and repression in the presence of glucose and other readily metabolized sugars. The goals of this study were to assess the functionality of putative cis-acting regulatory elements and to begin to identify the trans-acting factors involved in induction and catabolite repression of fruA. The fruA promoter and its derivatives generated by deletions and/or site-directed mutagenesis were fused to a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene as a reporter, and strains carrying the transcriptional fusions were then analyzed for CAT activities in response to growth on various carbon sources. A dyadic sequence, ATGACA(TC)TGTCAT, located at -72 to -59 relative to the transcription initiation site was shown to be essential for expression of fruA. Inactivation of the genes that encode fructose-specific enzymes II resulted in elevated expression from the fruA promoter, suggesting negative regulation of fruA expression by the fructose phosphotransferase system. Mutagenesis of a terminator-like structure located in the 165-base 5' untranslated region of the fruA mRNA or insertional inactivation of antiterminator genes revealed that antitermination was not a mechanism controlling induction or repression of fruA, although the untranslated leader mRNA may play a role in optimal expression of fructanase. Deletion or mutation of a consensus catabolite response element alleviated glucose repression of fruA, but interestingly, inactivation of the ccpA gene had no discernible effect on catabolite repression of fruA. Accumulating data suggest that expression of fruA is regulated by a mechanism that has several unique features that distinguish it from archetypical polysaccharide catabolic operons of other gram-positive bacteria.

  7. The Vestibular System: A Newly Identified Regulator of Bone Homeostasis Acting Through the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaux, G; Besnard, S; Denise, P; Elefteriou, F

    2015-08-01

    The vestibular system is a small bilateral structure located in the inner ear, known as the organ of balance and spatial orientation. It senses head orientation and motion, as well as body motion in the three dimensions of our environment. It is also involved in non-motor functions such as postural control of blood pressure. These regulations are mediated via anatomical projections from vestibular nuclei to brainstem autonomic centers and are involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular function via sympathetic nerves. Age-associated dysfunction of the vestibular organ contributes to an increased incidence of falls, whereas muscle atrophy, reduced physical activity, cellular aging, and gonadal deficiency contribute to bone loss. Recent studies in rodents suggest that vestibular dysfunction might also alter bone remodeling and mass more directly, by affecting the outflow of sympathetic nervous signals to the skeleton and other tissues. This review will summarize the findings supporting the influence of vestibular signals on bone homeostasis, and the potential clinical relevance of these findings.

  8. Clusterin and FOXL2 Act Concordantly to Regulate Pituitary Gonadotroph Adenoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, Vera; Zonis, Svetlana; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Tani, Yuji; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Ljubimov, Vladimir; Mamelak, Adam; Bannykh, Serguei

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary tumors grow slowly and despite their high prevalence are invariably benign. We therefore studied mechanisms underlying pituitary tumor growth restraint. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG), the index human securin, a hallmark of pituitary tumors, triggers pituitary cell proliferation and murine pituitary tumor development. We show that human gonadotroph cell pituitary tumors, unlike other secreting tumor types, express high levels of gonadotroph-specific forkhead transcription factor FOXL2, and both PTTG and Forkhead box protein L2 (FOXL2) stimulate gonadotroph clusterin (Clu) expression. Both Clu RNA isoforms are abundantly expressed in these nonhormone-secreting human tumors, and, when cultured, these tumor cells release highly abundant levels of secreted Clu. FOXL2 directly stimulates the Clu gene promoter, and we show that PTTG triggers ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase/IGF-I/p38MAPK DNA damage/chromosomal instability signaling, which in turn also induces Clu expression. Consequently, Clu restrains pituitary cell proliferation by inducing cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16 and p27, whereas Clu deletion down-regulates p16 and p27 in the Clu−/− mouse pituitary. FOXL2 binds and suppresses the PTTG promoter, and Clu also suppresses PTTG expression, thus neutralizing protumorigenic PTTG gonadotroph tumor cell properties. In vivo, murine gonadotroph LβT2 tumor cell xenografts overexpressing Clu and FOXL2 both grow slower and elicit smaller tumors. Thus, gonadotroph tumor cell proliferation is determined by the interplay between cell-specific FOXL2 with PTTG and Clu. PMID:23051594

  9. Maml1 acts cooperatively with Gli proteins to regulate sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Roberta; Pelullo, Maria; Zema, Sabrina; Nardozza, Francesca; Checquolo, Saula; Lauer, Dieter Matthias; Bufalieri, Francesca; Palermo, Rocco; Felli, Maria Pia; Vacca, Alessandra; Talora, Claudio; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Screpanti, Isabella; Bellavia, Diana

    2017-07-20

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is essential for proliferation of cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCPs) and its misregulation is linked to various disorders, including cerebellar cancer medulloblastoma. The effects of Shh pathway are mediated by the Gli family of transcription factors, which controls the expression of a number of target genes, including Gli1. Here, we identify Mastermind-like 1 (Maml1) as a novel regulator of the Shh signaling since it interacts with Gli proteins, working as a potent transcriptional coactivator. Notably, Maml1 silencing results in a significant reduction of Gli target genes expression, with a negative impact on cell growth of NIH3T3 and Patched1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), bearing a constitutively active Shh signaling. Remarkably, Shh pathway activity results severely compromised both in MEFs and GCPs deriving from Maml1-/- mice with an impairment of GCPs proliferation and cerebellum development. Therefore Maml1-/- phenotype mimics aspects of Shh pathway deficiency, suggesting an intrinsic requirement for Maml1 in cerebellum development. The present study shows a new role for Maml1 as a component of Shh signaling, which plays a crucial role in both development and tumorigenesis.

  10. Two small GTPases act in concert with the bactofilin cytoskeleton to regulate dynamic bacterial cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulyha, Iryna; Lindow, Steffi; Lin, Lin; Bolte, Kathrin; Wuichet, Kristin; Kahnt, Jörg; van der Does, Chris; Thanbichler, Martin; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2013-04-29

    Cell polarity is essential for many bacterial activities, but the mechanisms responsible for its establishment are poorly understood. In Myxococcus xanthus, the type IV pili (T4P) motor ATPases PilB and PilT localize to opposite cell poles and switch poles during cellular reversals. We demonstrate that polar localization of PilB and PilT depends on the small GTPase SofG and BacP, a bactofilin cytoskeletal protein. Polymeric BacP localizes in both subpolar regions. SofG interacts directly with polymeric BacP and associates with one of these patches, forming a cluster that shuttles to the pole to establish localization of PilB and PilT at the same pole. Next, the small GTPase MglA sorts PilB and PilT to opposite poles to establish their correct polarity. During reversals, the Frz chemosensory system induces the inversion of PilB and PilT polarity. Thus, three hierarchically organized systems function in a cascade to regulate dynamic bacterial cell polarity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chromatin Kinases Act on Transcription Factors and Histone Tails in Regulation of Inducible Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefowicz, Steven Z; Shimada, Miho; Armache, Anja; Li, Charles H; Miller, Rand M; Lin, Shu; Yang, Aerin; Dill, Brian D; Molina, Henrik; Park, Hee-Sung; Garcia, Benjamin A; Taunton, Jack; Roeder, Robert G; Allis, C David

    2016-10-20

    The inflammatory response requires coordinated activation of both transcription factors and chromatin to induce transcription for defense against pathogens and environmental insults. We sought to elucidate the connections between inflammatory signaling pathways and chromatin through genomic footprinting of kinase activity and unbiased identification of prominent histone phosphorylation events. We identified H3 serine 28 phosphorylation (H3S28ph) as the principal stimulation-dependent histone modification and observed its enrichment at induced genes in mouse macrophages stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we identified mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases (MSKs) as primary mediators of H3S28ph in macrophages. Cell-free transcription assays demonstrated that H3S28ph directly promotes p300/CBP-dependent transcription. Further, MSKs can activate both signal-responsive transcription factors and the chromatin template with additive effects on transcription. Specific inhibition of MSKs in macrophages selectively reduced transcription of stimulation-induced genes. Our results suggest that MSKs incorporate upstream signaling inputs and control multiple downstream regulators of inducible transcription. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Control of metabolism by nutrient-regulated nuclear receptors acting in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantubungi, Kadiombo; Prawitt, Janne; Staels, Bart

    2012-07-01

    Today, we are witnessing a rising incidence of obesity worldwide. This increase is due to a sedentary life style, an increased caloric intake and a decrease in physical activity. Obesity contributes to the appearance of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular complications due to atherosclerosis, and nephropathy. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic strategies may become a necessity. Given the metabolism controlling properties of nuclear receptors in peripheral organs (such as liver, adipose tissues, pancreas) and their implication in various processes underlying metabolic diseases, they constitute interesting therapeutic targets for obesity, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The recent identification of the central nervous system as a player in the control of peripheral metabolism opens new avenues to our understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes and potential novel ways to treat these diseases. While the metabolic functions of nuclear receptors in peripheral organs have been extensively investigated, little is known about their functions in the brain, in particular with respect to brain control of energy homeostasis. This review provides an overview of the relationships between nuclear receptors in the brain, mainly at the hypothalamic level, and the central regulation of energy homeostasis. In this context, we will particularly focus on the role of PPARα, PPARγ, LXR and Rev-erbα. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The long noncoding RNA Six3OS acts in trans to regulate retinal development by modulating Six3 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapicavoli, Nicole A; Poth, Erin M; Zhu, Heng; Blackshaw, Seth

    2011-09-21

    Thousands of different long non-coding RNAs are expressed during embryonic development, but the function of these molecules remains largely unexplored. Here we characterize the expression and function of Six3OS, a long non-coding RNA that is transcribed from the distal promoter region of the gene encoding the homeodomain transcription factor Six3. Overexpression and knockdown analysis of Six3OS reveals that it plays an essential role in regulating retinal cell specification. We further observe that Six3OS regulates Six3 activity in developing retina, but does not do so by modulating Six3 expression. Finally, we show that Six3OS binds directly to Ezh2 and Eya family members, indicating that Six3OS can act as a molecular scaffold to recruit histone modification enzymes to Six3 target genes. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which promoter-associated long non-coding RNAs can modulate the activity of their associated protein coding genes, and highlight the importance of this diverse class of molecules in the control of neural development.

  14. The long noncoding RNA Six3OS acts in trans to regulate retinal development by modulating Six3 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Heng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thousands of different long non-coding RNAs are expressed during embryonic development, but the function of these molecules remains largely unexplored. Results Here we characterize the expression and function of Six3OS, a long non-coding RNA that is transcribed from the distal promoter region of the gene encoding the homeodomain transcription factor Six3. Overexpression and knockdown analysis of Six3OS reveals that it plays an essential role in regulating retinal cell specification. We further observe that Six3OS regulates Six3 activity in developing retina, but does not do so by modulating Six3 expression. Finally, we show that Six3OS binds directly to Ezh2 and Eya family members, indicating that Six3OS can act as a molecular scaffold to recruit histone modification enzymes to Six3 target genes. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which promoter-associated long non-coding RNAs can modulate the activity of their associated protein coding genes, and highlight the importance of this diverse class of molecules in the control of neural development.

  15. The metabolic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase acts as a transcriptional regulator in pathogenic Francisella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziveri, Jason; Tros, Fabiola; Guerrera, Ida Chiara; Chhuon, Cerina; Audry, Mathilde; Dupuis, Marion; Barel, Monique; Korniotis, Sarantis; Fillatreau, Simon; Gales, Lara; Cahoreau, Edern; Charbit, Alain

    2017-10-11

    The enzyme fructose-bisphosphate aldolase occupies a central position in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. Beyond its housekeeping role in metabolism, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase has been involved in additional functions and is considered as a potential target for drug development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, we address the role of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase in the bacterial pathogen Francisella novicida. We demonstrate that fructose-bisphosphate aldolase is important for bacterial multiplication in macrophages in the presence of gluconeogenic substrates. In addition, we unravel a direct role of this metabolic enzyme in transcription regulation of genes katG and rpoA, encoding catalase and an RNA polymerase subunit, respectively. We propose a model in which fructose-bisphosphate aldolase participates in the control of host redox homeostasis and the inflammatory immune response.The enzyme fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) plays central roles in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Here, Ziveri et al. show that FBA of the pathogen Francisella novicida acts, in addition, as a transcriptional regulator and is important for bacterial multiplication in macrophages.

  16. Lrp acts as both a positive and negative regulator for type 1 fimbriae production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ho Baek

    Full Text Available Leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp is known to be an indirect activator of type 1 fimbriae synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium via direct regulation of FimZ, a direct positive regulator for type 1 fimbriae production. Using RT-PCR, we have shown previously that fimA transcription is dramatically impaired in both lrp-deletion (Δlrp and constitutive-lrp expression (lrp(C mutant strains. In this work, we used chromosomal P(fimA-lacZ fusions and yeast agglutination assays to confirm and extend our previous results. Direct binding of Lrp to P(fimA was shown by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and DNA footprinting assay. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the Lrp-binding motifs in P(fimA play a role in both activation and repression of type 1 fimbriae production. Overproduction of Lrp also abrogates fimZ expression. EMSA data showed that Lrp and FimZ proteins independently bind to P(fimA without competitive exclusion. In addition, both Lrp and FimZ binding to P(fimA caused a hyper retardation (supershift of the DNA-protein complex compared to the shift when each protein was present alone. Nutrition-dependent cellular Lrp levels closely correlated with the amount of type 1 fimbriae production. These observations suggest that Lrp plays important roles in type 1 fimbriation by acting as both a positive and negative regulator and its effect depends, at least in part, on the cellular concentration of Lrp in response to the nutritional environment.

  17. 78 FR 53790 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget and Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget and Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME and DATE: 1:00 p.m., Monday, September 9, 2013. ] PLACE: 999 North Capitol St NE., Suite 900...

  18. 77 FR 68155 - Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act Meeting Notice TIME and DATE: 9:00 a.m., Tuesday, November 20, 2012. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800, Boardroom...

  19. 77 FR 24538 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice; Finance, Budget & Program; Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice; Finance, Budget & Program; Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME AND DATE: 2 p.m., Wednesday, May 2, 2012. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800, Boardroom...

  20. State Implementation and Perceptions of Title I School Improvement Grants under the Recovery Act: One Year Later. Online Appendix--State Responses to Open-Ended Questions about the ARRA SIG Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    To learn more about states' experiences with implementing school improvement grants (SIGs) funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the Center on Education Policy (CEP) administered a survey to state Title I directors. (Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act provides federal funds to schools in low-income…

  1. SMG-1 and mTORC1 Act Antagonistically to Regulate Response to Injury and Growth in Planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Estévez, Cristina; Felix, Daniel A.; Smith, Matthew D.; Paps, Jordi; Morley, Simon J.; James, Victoria; Sharp, Tyson V.; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Planarian flatworms are able to both regenerate their whole bodies and continuously adapt their size to nutrient status. Tight control of stem cell proliferation and differentiation during these processes is the key feature of planarian biology. Here we show that the planarian homolog of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family member SMG-1 and mTOR complex 1 components are required for this tight control. Loss of smg-1 results in a hyper-responsiveness to injury and growth and the formation of regenerative blastemas that remain undifferentiated and that lead to lethal ectopic outgrowths. Invasive stem cell hyper-proliferation, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and differentiation defects are hallmarks of this uncontrolled growth. These data imply a previously unappreciated and novel physiological function for this PIKK family member. In contrast we found that planarian members of the mTOR complex 1, tor and raptor, are required for the initial response to injury and blastema formation. Double smg-1 RNAi experiments with tor or raptor show that abnormal growth requires mTOR signalling. We also found that the macrolide rapamycin, a natural compound inhibitor of mTORC1, is able to increase the survival rate of smg-1 RNAi animals by decreasing cell proliferation. Our findings support a model where Smg-1 acts as a novel regulator of both the response to injury and growth control mechanisms. Our data suggest the possibility that this may be by suppressing mTOR signalling. Characterisation of both the planarian mTORC1 signalling components and another PIKK family member as key regulators of regeneration and growth will influence future work on regeneration, growth control, and the development of anti-cancer therapies that target mTOR signalling. PMID:22479207

  2. SMG-1 and mTORC1 act antagonistically to regulate response to injury and growth in planarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina González-Estévez

    Full Text Available Planarian flatworms are able to both regenerate their whole bodies and continuously adapt their size to nutrient status. Tight control of stem cell proliferation and differentiation during these processes is the key feature of planarian biology. Here we show that the planarian homolog of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK family member SMG-1 and mTOR complex 1 components are required for this tight control. Loss of smg-1 results in a hyper-responsiveness to injury and growth and the formation of regenerative blastemas that remain undifferentiated and that lead to lethal ectopic outgrowths. Invasive stem cell hyper-proliferation, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and differentiation defects are hallmarks of this uncontrolled growth. These data imply a previously unappreciated and novel physiological function for this PIKK family member. In contrast we found that planarian members of the mTOR complex 1, tor and raptor, are required for the initial response to injury and blastema formation. Double smg-1 RNAi experiments with tor or raptor show that abnormal growth requires mTOR signalling. We also found that the macrolide rapamycin, a natural compound inhibitor of mTORC1, is able to increase the survival rate of smg-1 RNAi animals by decreasing cell proliferation. Our findings support a model where Smg-1 acts as a novel regulator of both the response to injury and growth control mechanisms. Our data suggest the possibility that this may be by suppressing mTOR signalling. Characterisation of both the planarian mTORC1 signalling components and another PIKK family member as key regulators of regeneration and growth will influence future work on regeneration, growth control, and the development of anti-cancer therapies that target mTOR signalling.

  3. The abuse potential of kratom according the 8 factors of the controlled substances act: implications for regulation and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningfield, Jack E; Fant, Reginald V; Wang, Daniel W

    2017-12-23

    Consideration by the US Drug Enforcement Administration and Food and Drug Administration of placing kratom into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) requires its evaluation of abuse potential in the context of public health. The objective of the study is to provide a review of kratom abuse potential and its evaluation according to the 8 factors of the CSA. Kratom leaves and extracts have been used for centuries in Southeast Asia and elsewhere to manage pain and other disorders and, by mid-twentieth century, to manage opioid withdrawal. Kratom has some opioid effects but low respiratory depression and abuse potential compared to opioids of abuse. This appears due to its non-opioid-derived and resembling molecular structure recently referred to as biased agonists. By the early 2000s, kratom was increasingly used in the US as a natural remedy to improve mood and quality of life and as substitutes for prescription and illicit opioids for managing pain and opioid withdrawal by people seeking abstinence from opioids. There has been no documented threat to public health that would appear to warrant emergency scheduling of the products and placement in Schedule I of the CSA carries risks of creating serious public health problems. Although kratom appears to have pharmacological properties that support some level of scheduling, if it was an approved drug, placing it into Schedule I, thus banning it, risks creating public health problems that do not presently exist. Furthermore, appropriate regulation by FDA is vital to ensure appropriate and safe use.

  4. POLITICS OF LANGUAGE IN THE ACT REGULATING MATTERS PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC AUTONOMY FOR PAPUA : Critical Discourse Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Warami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to illustrate that the politics of language marked power relations framed by a form of power between the dominating and the dominated in the Act Regulating Matters Pertaining to Specific Autonomy for Papua (hereinafter called UU Otsus Papua. The politics of language involves a high degree of knowledge and power that is marked by the symbolic interactions in the ethnic diversity of the archipelago UU Otsus Papua is a form of political discourse and the medium of language diplomacy containing an authority and political competence of the central government over the people of Papua; including a number of authorities and policies, as well as to explore the power of language in the language politics networks through the system of government of the Republic of Indonesia. Politics of language in this article will be disclosed through the paradigm of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA. This article will focus on the efforts of uncovering: “Language Politics in UU Otsus Papua”, by projecting the problems including: (i the form of the politics of language, and (ii the political function of language in the UU Otsus Papua.  

  5. MicroRNAs as master regulators of the plant NB-LRR defense gene family via the production of phased, trans-acting siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes and many nonleguminous plants enter symbiotic interactions with microbes, and it is poorly understood how host plants respond to promote beneficial, symbiotic microbial interactions while suppressing those that are deleterious or pathogenic. Trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) negatively regulate...

  6. Is the ability to keep your mind sharp under pressure reflected in your heart? Evidence for the neurophysiological bases of decision reinvestment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Sylvain; Raab, Markus; Kinrade, Noel P

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: first, to examine the influence of decision reinvestment on decision-making performance using an option-generation task, and second to investigate its neurophysiological basis with heart rate variability. Forty-two male participants performed an option-generation task (i.e., where participants are required to generate their own options rather than being asked to decide from a set of options) under low- and high-pressure conditions. Results showed that the decision-making performance of low and high decision reinvesters was similar in the low-pressure condition, however in the high-pressure condition low reinvesters decided faster than their high reinvester counterparts. Moreover, we found that the pressure-induced reduction in parasympathetic activity was more pronounced in high reinvesters in comparison to low reinvesters. Findings are interpreted in light of the neurovisceral integration model, assuming a positive relationship between cognitive performance and parasympathetic activity. These findings offer a physiological insight into a psychological phenomenon and may also suggest a way to counteract the detrimental effects of decision reinvestment by utilizing interventions that target the parasympathetic activity, such as heart rate variability biofeedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 5(c... Poultry Products Therein § 381.222 States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of... each State designated in § 381.221 under paragraph 5(c) of the Act, except as otherwise provided in...

  8. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301... SUCH DESIGNATED ESTABLISHMENTS § 331.3 States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application... transactions wholly within each State designated in § 331.2 under paragraph 301(c) of the Act, except as...

  9. 76 FR 20870 - Protective Regulations for Killer Whales in the Northwest Region Under the Endangered Species Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Killer Whales in the Northwest Region Under the Endangered Species Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act... from approaching killer whales within 200 yards (182.9 m) and from parking in the path of whales when... of this final rule is to protect killer whales from interference and noise associated with vessels...

  10. Downsizing Prisons in an Age of Austerity? Justice Reinvestment and Women’s Imprisonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stubbs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Justice Reinvestment is being actively promoted as one means of reducing high levels of incarceration through diverting expenditures from prisons to fund services intended to provide support and supervision for offenders within the community and to prevent crime. At a time of financial stringency, the huge expenditure necessitated by high incarceration rates is being re-examined. There is growing recognition that high levels of incarceration are ineffective in reducing recidivism and may be criminogenic and damaging in other ways for individuals and communities. Based on claims that Justice Reinvestment schemes in the US have produced promising results, some activists and politicians in Australia have urged the adoption of Justice Reinvestment. This advocacy has emphasised the need to find mechanisms to reduce the very high levels of incarceration of Indigenous people. Women’s imprisonment rates have increased substantially in recent years and to a greater extent than rates for men. This pattern has been observed in several jurisdictions and is even more pronounced for Indigenous women. This paper critically examines features of Justice Reinvestment, such as its endorsement of ‘evidence based policy’ and risk assessment tools, to question whether these features are likely to promote the interests of women. Se está promoviendo activamente la reinversión en justicia como un medio para reducir las altas tasas de encarcelamiento, dedicando gastos destinados a prisiones para financiar servicios dentro de la comunidad que presten apoyo y supervisión a los delincuentes y que prevengan el delito. En un momento de restricciones financieras, se está revisando el enorme gasto que generan las altas tasas de encarcelamiento. Existe un creciente reconocimiento de que una alta tasa de encarcelamiento no es eficaz para reducir la reincidencia y, de diversas maneras, puede aumentar la criminalidad y ser perjudicial para individuos y comunidades. Bas

  11. National Weatherization Assistance Program Characterization Describing the Recovery Act Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report characterizes the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) during the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) period. This research was one component of the Recovery Act evaluation of WAP. The report presents the results of surveys administered to Grantees (i.e., state weatherization offices) and Subgrantees (i.e., local weatherization agencies). The report also documents the ramp up and ramp down of weatherization production and direct employment during the Recovery Act period and other challenges faced by the Grantees and Subgrantees during this period. Program operations during the Recovery Act (Program Year 2010) are compared to operations during the year previous to the Recovery Act (Program Year 2008).

  12. HPV16 E2 could act as down-regulator in cellular genes implicated in apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia-Hernández Armando

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV E2 plays several important roles in the viral cycle, including the transcriptional regulation of the oncogenes E6 and E7, the regulation of the viral genome replication by its association with E1 helicase and participates in the viral genome segregation during mitosis by its association with the cellular protein Brd4. It has been shown that E2 protein can regulate negative or positively the activity of several cellular promoters, although the precise mechanism of this regulation is uncertain. In this work we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector to overexpress HPV16 E2 and evaluated the global pattern of biological processes regulated by E2 using microarrays expression analysis. Results The gene expression profile was strongly modified in cells expressing HPV16 E2, finding 1048 down-regulated genes, and 581 up-regulated. The main cellular pathway modified was WNT since we found 28 genes down-regulated and 15 up-regulated. Interestingly, this pathway is a convergence point for regulating the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation; MYCN, JAG1 and MAPK13 genes were selected to validate by RT-qPCR the microarray data as these genes in an altered level of expression, modify very important cellular processes. Additionally, we found that a large number of genes from pathways such as PDGF, angiogenesis and cytokines and chemokines mediated inflammation, were also modified in their expression. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that HPV16 E2 has regulatory effects on cellular gene expression in HPV negative cells, independent of the other HPV proteins, and the gene profile observed indicates that these effects could be mediated by interactions with cellular proteins. The cellular processes affected suggest that E2 expression leads to the cells in to a convenient environment for a replicative cycle of the virus.

  13. 77 FR 75464 - Order Granting Limited Exemptions From Exchange Act Rules 101 and 102 of Regulation M to Shares...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201, Securities Exchange Act Release No. 68440;----FR---- (``Approval Order... premium and the brand for each lot of copper held by the Trust and whether the brand of any such lot is or has ceased to be an Acceptable Delivery Brand,\\8\\ factors such as locational premia and de-registering...

  14. 16 CFR 312.3 - Regulation of unfair or deceptive acts or practices in connection with the collection, use, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., security, and integrity of personal information collected from children (§ 312.8). ... practices in connection with the collection, use, and/or disclosure of personal information from and about... or deceptive acts or practices in connection with the collection, use, and/or disclosure of personal...

  15. The Perceived Role of General Self-Regulation and Prosocial Support on the Decision Not to Act Among Men Sexually Attracted to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Renae C; Galupo, M Paz

    2017-10-01

    Recent research highlights potential differences between groups of men sexually attracted to children regarding child molestation behavior, attitudes toward sex with children, and the decision not to act on their attractions. The present study furthered this line of research by investigating the roles of general self-regulation and prosocial support on the decision not to act among 69 men sexually attracted to children. Mixed-methods analysis of survey results provided mixed evidence regarding their relevance to refraining from engaging in child molestation behavior. Quantitative results suggested that self-control, but not prosocial support, showed a major influence on participants' decision not to act. Qualitative results offered a more nuanced understanding of the roles of both of these factors in participants' decisions. Overall, findings support an approach for investigating men sexually attracted to children that focuses on differences between men who do and do not act on their attractions, as well as on the active decision to refrain from engaging in child molestation behavior. Implications for research and clinical practice are highlighted.

  16. 75 FR 77561 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 35 Regulations Issued Under the Export..., Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Herzegovina, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, Serbia...

  17. 76 FR 14275 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... / Wednesday, March 16, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Horticultural Crops, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, 2002. The commenter also..., Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Northern Ireland...

  18. The zinc-binding nuclear protein HIPP3 acts as an upstream regulator of the salicylate-dependent plant immunity pathway and of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschiesche, Wiebke; Barth, Olaf; Daniel, Katharina; Böhme, Sandra; Rausche, Juliane; Humbeck, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants are linked to developmental programs. Proteins involved in different signaling pathways are the molecular basis of this concerted interplay. In our study, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana HEAVY METAL-ASSOCIATED ISOPRENYLATED PLANT PROTEIN3 (HIPP3; At5g60800) acts as an upstream regulator of stress- and development-related regulatory networks. Localization, metal-binding and stress-responsive gene expression of HIPP3 were analyzed via microscopy, protein and inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS analyses and quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, transcriptome and phenotype analyses of plants overexpressing HIPP3 were used to unravel its function. Our data show that HIPP3 is a nuclear, zinc-binding protein. It is repressed during drought stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment and, similar to other pathogen-related genes, is induced after infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. HIPP3 overexpression affects the regulation of > 400 genes. Strikingly, most of these genes are involved in pathogen response, especially in the salicylate pathway. In addition, many genes of abiotic stress responses and seed and flower development are affected by HIPP3 overexpression. Plants overexpressing HIPP3 show delayed flowering. We conclude that HIPP3 acts via its bound zinc as an upstream regulator of the salicylate-dependent pathway of pathogen response and is also involved in abiotic stress responses and seed and flower development. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Regulation of transposable elements: Interplay between TE-encoded regulatory sequences and host-specific trans-acting factors in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Ana Marija; Kofler, Robert; Schlötterer, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome, and their expression is one precondition for this mobility. Because the insertion of TEs in new genomic positions is largely deleterious, the molecular mechanisms for transcriptional suppression have been extensively studied. In contrast, very little is known about their primary transcriptional regulation. Here, we characterize the expression dynamics of TE families in Drosophila melanogaster across a broad temperature range (13-29°C). In 71% of the expressed TE families, the expression is modulated by temperature. We show that this temperature-dependent regulation is specific for TE families and strongly affected by the genetic background. We deduce that TEs carry family-specific regulatory sequences, which are targeted by host-specific trans-acting factors, such as transcription factors. Consistent with the widespread dominant inheritance of gene expression, we also find the prevailing dominance of TE family expression. We conclude that TE family expression across a range of temperatures is regulated by an interaction between TE family-specific regulatory elements and trans-acting factors of the host. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  1. BRAHMA ATPase of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex acts as a positive regulator of gibberellin-mediated responses in arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Archacki

    Full Text Available SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes perform a pivotal function in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in major SWI/SNF subunits display embryo-lethal or dwarf phenotypes, indicating their critical role in molecular pathways controlling development and growth. As gibberellins (GA are major positive regulators of plant growth, we wanted to establish whether there is a link between SWI/SNF and GA signaling in Arabidopsis. This study revealed that in brm-1 plants, depleted in SWI/SNF BRAHMA (BRM ATPase, a number of GA-related phenotypic traits are GA-sensitive and that the loss of BRM results in markedly decreased level of endogenous bioactive GA. Transcriptional profiling of brm-1 and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-3, as well as the ga1-3/brm-1 double mutant demonstrated that BRM affects the expression of a large set of GA-responsive genes including genes responsible for GA biosynthesis and signaling. Furthermore, we found that BRM acts as an activator and directly associates with promoters of GA3ox1, a GA biosynthetic gene, and SCL3, implicated in positive regulation of the GA pathway. Many GA-responsive gene expression alterations in the brm-1 mutant are likely due to depleted levels of active GAs. However, the analysis of genetic interactions between BRM and the DELLA GA pathway repressors, revealed that BRM also acts on GA-responsive genes independently of its effect on GA level. Given the central position occupied by SWI/SNF complexes within regulatory networks controlling fundamental biological processes, the identification of diverse functional intersections of BRM with GA-dependent processes in this study suggests a role for SWI/SNF in facilitating crosstalk between GA-mediated regulation and other cellular pathways.

  2. BRAHMA ATPase of the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex Acts as a Positive Regulator of Gibberellin-Mediated Responses in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archacki, Rafal; Buszewicz, Daniel; Sarnowski, Tomasz J.; Sarnowska, Elzbieta; Rolicka, Anna T.; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kotlinski, Maciej; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Patryn, Jacek; Halibart-Puzio, Joanna; Kamiya, Yuji; Davis, Seth J.; Koblowska, Marta K.; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes perform a pivotal function in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants in major SWI/SNF subunits display embryo-lethal or dwarf phenotypes, indicating their critical role in molecular pathways controlling development and growth. As gibberellins (GA) are major positive regulators of plant growth, we wanted to establish whether there is a link between SWI/SNF and GA signaling in Arabidopsis. This study revealed that in brm-1 plants, depleted in SWI/SNF BRAHMA (BRM) ATPase, a number of GA-related phenotypic traits are GA-sensitive and that the loss of BRM results in markedly decreased level of endogenous bioactive GA. Transcriptional profiling of brm-1 and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-3, as well as the ga1-3/brm-1 double mutant demonstrated that BRM affects the expression of a large set of GA-responsive genes including genes responsible for GA biosynthesis and signaling. Furthermore, we found that BRM acts as an activator and directly associates with promoters of GA3ox1, a GA biosynthetic gene, and SCL3, implicated in positive regulation of the GA pathway. Many GA-responsive gene expression alterations in the brm-1 mutant are likely due to depleted levels of active GAs. However, the analysis of genetic interactions between BRM and the DELLA GA pathway repressors, revealed that BRM also acts on GA-responsive genes independently of its effect on GA level. Given the central position occupied by SWI/SNF complexes within regulatory networks controlling fundamental biological processes, the identification of diverse functional intersections of BRM with GA-dependent processes in this study suggests a role for SWI/SNF in facilitating crosstalk between GA-mediated regulation and other cellular pathways. PMID:23536800

  3. 77 FR 30173 - Amendment of Americans With Disabilities Act Title II and Title III Regulations To Extend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... organizations were especially concerned about the resistance of public accommodations in their states to... pools, the NPRM was not proposing to change those requirements or modify the ADA regulations in any... approximately 1,915 public comments from individuals with disabilities, organizations representing individuals...

  4. Activin is produced by rat Sertoli cells in vitro and can act as an autocrine regulator of Sertoli cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. de Winter (Johan); H.M.J. Vanderstichele (Hugo); M.A. Timmermans (Manuela); L.J. Blok (Leen); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); F.H. de Jong (Frank)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractRegulation of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression was studied in Sertoli cells and peritubular myoid cells isolated from immature rat testis, and in the lymph node carcinoma cell line derived from a human prostate (LNCaP). Addition of dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) to

  5. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Gojo, Satoshi [Department of Cardiac Support, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mazda, Osam, E-mail: mazda@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► iPS-derived cells express myostatin and its receptor upon myoblast differentiation. ► Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by inhibiting MyoD and Myo5a induction. ► Silencing of myostatin promotes differentiation of human iPS cells into myoblasts. -- Abstract: Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF-8), regulates proliferation of muscle satellite cells, and suppresses differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes via down-regulation of key myogenic differentiation factors including MyoD. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled generation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells, but it remains to be clarified whether myostatin is also involved in regulation of artificial differentiation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells that were induced to differentiate into myoblasts expressed myostatin and its receptor during the differentiation. An addition of recombinant human myostatin (rhMyostatin) suppressed induction of MyoD and Myo5a, resulting in significant suppression of myoblast differentiation. The rhMyostatin treatment also inhibited proliferation of the cells at a later phase of differentiation. RNAi-mediated silencing of myostatin promoted differentiation of human iPS-derived embryoid body (EB) cells into myoblasts. These results strongly suggest that myostatin plays an important role in regulation of myoblast differentiation from iPS cells of human origin. The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases.

  6. Regulating Dental Assistants: Revisions of the Michigan Dental Practice Act. Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series No.: C2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Paul J.; And Others

    This document investigates the regulation of dental assistants in Michigan. Emphasis is placed on increased dental productivity from increased use of auxiliaries, utilization of dental auxiliaries, and educational and training requirements for certification and licensure. Results of the investigation indicate: (1) support should be given for the…

  7. The FBA motif-containing protein AFBA1 acts as a novel positive regulator of ABA response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Young; Cui, Mei Hua; Noh, Min Soo; Jung, Kwang Wook; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2017-03-01

    ABA plays a critical role in regulating seed germination and stomatal movement in response to drought stress. Screening ABA-responsive genes led to the identification of a novel Arabidopsis gene encoding a protein which contained a conserved F-box-associated (FBA) domain, subsequently named ABA-responsive FBA domain-containing protein 1 (AFBA1). Expression of ProAFBA1:GUS revealed that this gene was mainly expressed in guard cells. Expression of AFBA1 increased following the application of exogenous ABA and exposure to salt (NaCl) and drought stresses. Seed germination of the loss-of-function mutant (afba1) was insensitive to ABA, salt or mannitol, whereas AFBA1-overexpressing (Ox) seeds were more sensitive to these stresses than the wild-type seeds. The afba1 plants showed decreased drought tolerance, increased water loss rate and ABA-insensitive stomatal movement compared with the wild-type. In contrast, AFBA1-Ox plants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance and a rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure response. The expression of genes encoding serine/threonine protein phosphatases that are known negative regulators of ABA signaling increased in afba1 plants but decreased in AFBA1-Ox plants. AFBA1 was also found to be localized in the nucleus and to interact with an R2R3-type transcription factor, MYB44, leading to the suggestion that it functions in the stabilization of MYB44. Based on these results, we suggest that AFBA1 functions as a novel positive regulator of ABA responses, regulating the expression of genes involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis through its interaction with positive regulators of ABA signaling including MYB44, and increasing their stability during ABA-mediated responses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Deubiquitinase CYLD acts as a negative regulator for bacterium NTHi-induced inflammation by suppressing K63-linked ubiquitination of MyD88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Miyata, Masanori; Lim, Jae Hyang; Li, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) acts as a crucial adaptor molecule for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor signaling. In contrast to the well-studied positive regulation of MyD88 signaling, how MyD88 signaling is negatively regulated still remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that MyD88 protein undergoes lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination, which is functionally critical for mediating TLR–MyD88-dependent signaling. Deubiquitinase CYLD negatively regulates MyD88-mediated signaling by directly interacting with MyD88 and deubiquitinating nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)-induced K63-linked polyubiquitination of MyD88 at lysine 231. Importantly, we further confirmed this finding in the lungs of mice in vivo by using MyD88−/−CYLD−/− mice. Understanding how CYLD deubiquitinates K63-linked polyubiquitination of MyD88 may not only bring insights into the negative regulation of TLR–MyD88-dependent signaling, but may also lead to the development of a previously unidentified therapeutic strategy for uncontrolled inflammation. PMID:26719415

  9. A differentially regulated AP2/ERF transcription factor gene cluster acts downstream of a MAP kinase cascade to modulate terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Priyanka; Singh, Sanjay K; Patra, Barunava; Sui, Xueyi; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling

    2017-02-01

    Catharanthus roseus produces bioactive terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including the chemotherapeutics, vincristine and vinblastine. Transcriptional regulation of TIA biosynthesis is not fully understood. The jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive AP2/ERF transcription factor (TF), ORCA3, and its regulator, CrMYC2, play key roles in TIA biosynthesis. ORCA3 forms a physical cluster with two uncharacterized AP2/ERFs, ORCA4 and 5. Here, we report that (1) the ORCA gene cluster is differentially regulated; (2) ORCA4, while overlapping functionally with ORCA3, modulates an additional set of TIA genes. Unlike ORCA3, ORCA4 overexpression resulted in dramatic increase of TIA accumulation in C. roseus hairy roots. In addition, CrMYC2 is capable of activating ORCA3 and co-regulating TIA pathway genes concomitantly with ORCA3. The ORCA gene cluster and CrMYC2 act downstream of a MAP kinase cascade that includes a previously uncharacterized MAP kinase kinase, CrMAPKK1. Overexpression of CrMAPKK1 in C. roseus hairy roots upregulated TIA pathways genes and increased TIA accumulation. This work provides detailed characterization of a TF gene cluster and advances our understanding of the transcriptional and post-translational regulatory mechanisms that govern TIA biosynthesis in C. roseus. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. KNAT1, KNAT2 and KNAT6 act downstream in the IDA-HAE/HSL2 signaling pathway to regulate floral organ abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenko, Melinka A; Shi, Chun-Lin; Aalen, Reidunn B

    2012-01-01

    Cell separation processes, such as abscission, are critical for plant development and play key roles from sculpting the form of the plant to scattering seeds. It is however essential that such processes are under tight temporal and spatial regulation. Floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by a ligand-receptor module consisting of the signaling peptide INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA) and the two receptor-like kinases HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE 2 (HSL2), and it is the restricted expression pattern of IDA that hinders cell separation from occurring in the abscission zones (AZs) of other organs where HAE and HSL2 are present. In the July issue of The Plant Cell we report on the identification of additional components acting downstream in the IDA signaling pathway. Through a screen for mutations that restore floral organ abscission in ida mutants, we identified two new alleles of the KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEOBOX gene BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP)/KNOTTED-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA1 (KNAT1) and show that BP/KNAT1 is important in regulating the timing of floral abscission by controlling AZ cell size and by regulating KNAT2 and KNAT6.

  11. Conference on natural gas use state regulation and market dynamics in the Post 636/Energy Policy Act Era: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Reports in this Record of Proceedings explore a wide variety of issues related to the regulation of natural gas and its future role as one of the critical fuels that powers the economy of the United States. The focus is mainly on problems, obstacles, barriers, and the incredibly complex system created to bring a fuel from wellhead to burner tip. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  12. Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates grape bud dormancy, and dormancy release stimuli may act through modification of ABA metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    In warm-winter regions, induction of dormancy release by hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is mandatory for commercial table grape production. Induction of respiratory stress by HC leads to dormancy release via an uncharacterized biochemical cascade that could reveal the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Previous studies proposed a central role for abscisic acid (ABA) in the repression of bud meristem activity, and suggested its removal as a critical step in the HC-induced cascade. In the current study, support for these assumptions was sought. The data show that ABA indeed inhibits dormancy release in grape (Vitis vinifera) buds and attenuates the advancing effect of HC. However, HC-dependent recovery was detected, and was affected by dormancy status. HC reduced VvXERICO and VvNCED transcript levels and induced levels of VvABA8’OH homologues. Regulation of these central players in ABA metabolism correlated with decreased ABA and increased ABA catabolite levels in HC-treated buds. Interestingly, an inhibitor of ethylene signalling attenuated these effects of HC on ABA metabolism. HC also modulated the expression of ABA signalling regulators, in a manner that supports a decreased ABA level and response. Taken together, the data support HC-induced removal of ABA-mediated repression via regulation of ABA metabolism and signalling. Expression profiling during the natural dormancy cycle revealed that at maximal dormancy, the HC-regulated VvNCED1 transcript level starts to drop. In parallel, levels of VvA8H-CYP707A4 transcript and ABA catabolites increase sharply. This may provide initial support for the involvement of ABA metabolism also in the execution of natural dormancy. PMID:25560179

  13. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Valois, F-X; Pontier, Stéphanie M

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed.

  14. Financial Flexibility in Highly Regulated Market: Indonesian Telecommunication Case during Tariff Pricing War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Arief Rijanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In year 2008, regulation of Indonesian telecommunicationindustries changes due the tariff pricing war within Telecommunication operator. This regulation tie up the telecommunication operator and affect operating revenue margin.The needs of financial flexibility within tele communication firm is increased.Capex, operating revenue and reinvestment needs to be flexible must be inline with competition and change of technology. This paper goals is measuring financial flexibility based on Capex, operating revenue and re-investment needs.Re-investment needs by Telecommunication operator can be financed with or without financial flexibility. Data from year 2007 up to 2014 is selected to accommodate before and after changes of telecommunication regulation. The regulation effect to financial flexibility of telecommunication firm is still relevantbecause telecommunication industries by nature needs larger capital to re-new the telecommunication technology. Real options method will be used to measure financial flexibility.Keywords: Financial flexibility, Price war, Telecommunication Regulation, Real Option

  15. 75 FR 36646 - Notice of a Waiver of Section 1605 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... suppression equipment in the Indian River District's telecommunications project, which is supported with Impact Aid funds appropriated under the ARRA. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Department provided the Indian River District with an Impact Aid ARRA formula grant for school construction activities authorized...

  16. 77 FR 11161 - Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... flooding event occurs, the hydrogel embedded foam uses the water from the flooding to swell and provide a.... The unique aspect of the MIDE Marine propulsion shaft bulkhead seal is its hydrogel embedded foam...

  17. 75 FR 12288 - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... reserve to provide technical assistance and outreach to dislocated workers impacted by foreign trade... assistance national reserve to provide technical assistance and outreach to dislocated workers impacted by... technical assistance and outreach to the dislocated worker populations hardest hit by foreign trade to...

  18. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects - Facility Energy Improvements and Wind Turbine and Photovoltaic Panels at Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    Investment Program (ECIP) projects, "Facility Energy Improvements" and " Wind Turbine and Photovoltaic Panels" at Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska. We...reporting this project to the www.recovery.gov Web site. Army personnel did not ensure the " Wind Turbine and Photovoltaic Panels" project was properly

  19. 78 FR 48864 - Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Department of Commerce National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Manufacturing Extension...) package rooftop units (gasheat/electric cool) at the City of La Ca ada Flintridge City Hall building...-leveled using sloped 4x lumber to match the original rooftop duct work bottom layout and be attached to...

  20. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 279 IMCOM-Southeast Region: Redstone Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Goddard, James K.

    2010-09-30

    Report describing a building retuning workshop presented to staff at Redstone Arsenal. Document includes issues identified during building audits and recommendations for future activities to reduce energy use at the site.

  1. 77 FR 15140 - Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... pull the face plate by 2.5 micrometers; by comparison, a human hair is approximately 80 micrometers... installed within the DMS footprint, which is roughly circular with 200 millimeter diameter. 3. Actuator...

  2. 75 FR 66363 - School Improvement Grants; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA); Title I of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... as-- (A) Partnering with parents and parent organizations, faith- and community-based organizations... implementing a system of positive behavioral supports or taking steps to eliminate bullying and student...

  3. 76 FR 35919 - Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... in the dry air of the Polar regions. The HVAC specifications are based on the Society of Naval... from the ship's potable water using electricity rather than engine waste heat to save weight with... operations, or if additional space and weight allowances are needed to accommodate non-marine equipment...

  4. Distribution (State Allotment) of Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Appropriation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The ARRA appropriation for the DWSRF program is $2,000,000,000. DWSRF allotments are based on percentages derived from the 2003 Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs...

  5. 75 FR 17771 - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ..., diagnostic medical sonographers, nuclear medicine technologists, radiologic technologists and technicians... System (D-U-N-S ) Number; (4) Budget Narrative; (5) A request grant funds within the appropriate funding... ). In preparing the Budget Information Form, the applicant must provide a concise narrative explanation...

  6. 77 FR 70881 - Waiver From Rescission of Unobligated Funds Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 77 Tuesday, No. 228 November 27, 2012 Part II The President Notice of November 21, 2012--Waiver From Rescission of Unobligated... flexibility to effectively combat waste, fraud, and abuse. Therefore, in accordance with section 1306 of the...

  7. 76 FR 186 - Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... personal computer to provide both the human interface and printing capability of the weather charts. This... thermal printer. 7. Human Machine Interface that allows the operator easy access for system set-up. 8. Pre... pilothouse without having to access a computer or keep track of when a facsimile station is scheduled to...

  8. 77 FR 11595 - Notice of Buy American Waiver under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Chief Financial Officer, in accordance with a delegation order from the Director of the agency, granted... Cavitation, which is the formation of small bubbles due to a vacuum being created when the flow of water is... pursuant to section 1605(b), the NSF Chief Financial Officer, in accordance with a delegation order from...

  9. A novel protein acts as a negative regulator of prophenoloxidase activation and melanization in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderhäll, Irene; Wu, Chenglin; Novotny, Marian; Lee, Bok Luel; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2009-03-06

    Melanization is an important immune component of the innate immune system of invertebrates and is vital for defense as well as for wound healing. In most invertebrates melanin synthesis is achieved by the prophenoloxidase-activating system, a proteolytic cascade similar to vertebrate complement. Even though melanin formation is necessary for host defense in crustaceans and insects, the process needs to be tightly regulated because of the hazard to the animal of unwanted production of quinone intermediates and melanization in places where it is not suitable. In the present study we have identified a new melanization inhibition protein (MIP) from the hemolymph of the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Crayfish MIP has a similar function as the insect MIP molecule we recently discovered in the beetle Tenebrio molitor but interestingly has a completely different sequence. Crayfish MIP as well as Tenebrio MIP do not affect phenoloxidase activity in itself but instead interfere with the melanization reaction from quinone compounds to melanin. Importantly, crayfish MIP in contrast to Tenebrio MIP contains a fibrinogen-like domain, most similar to the substrate recognition domain of vertebrate l-ficolins. Surprisingly, an Asp-rich region similar to that found in ficolins that is likely to be involved in Ca2+ binding is present in crayfish MIP. However, crayfish MIP did not show any hemagglutinating activity as is common for the vertebrate ficolins. A mutant form of MIP with a deletion lacking four Asp amino acids from the Asp-rich region lost most of its activity, implicating that this part of the protein is involved in regulating the prophenoloxidase activating cascade. Overall, a new negative regulator of melanization was identified in freshwater crayfish that shows interesting parallels with proteins (i.e. ficolins) involved in vertebrate immune response.

  10. miR-21 may acts as an oncomir by targeting RECK, a matrix metalloproteinase regulator, in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Sabrina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa is based mainly in histological aspects together with PSA serum levels that not always reflect the real aggressive potential of the neoplasia. The micro RNA (miRNA mir-21 has been shown to regulate invasiveness in cancer through translational repression of the Metaloproteinase (MMP inhibitor RECK. Our aim is to investigate the levels of expression of RECK and miR-21 in PCa comparing with classical prognostic factors and disease outcome and also test if RECK is a target of miR-21 in in vitro study using PCa cell line. Materials and methods To determine if RECK is a target of miR-21 in prostate cancer we performed an in vitro assay with PCa cell line DU-145 transfected with pre-miR-21 and anti-miR-21. To determine miR-21 and RECK expression levels in PCa samples we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results The in vitro assays showed a decrease in expression levels of RECK after transfection with pre-miR-21, and an increase of MMP9 that is regulated by RECK compared to PCa cells treated with anti-miR-21. We defined three profiles to compare the prognostic factors. The first was characterized by miR-21 and RECK underexpression (N = 25 the second was characterized by miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression (N = 12, and the third was characterized by miR-21 underexpression and RECK overexpression (N = 16. From men who presented the second profile (miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression 91.7% were staged pT3. For the other two groups 48.0%, and 46.7% of patients were staged pT3 (p = 0.025. Conclusions Our results demonstrate RECK as a target of miR-21. We believe that miR-21 may be important in PCa progression through its regulation of RECK, a known regulator of tumor cell invasion.

  11. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Valois, F.-X.; Pontier, Stéphanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  12. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: think globally, act locally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F-X eCampbell-Valois

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA, which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed.

  13. Melatonin in Arabidopsis thaliana acts as plant growth regulator at low concentrations and preserves seed viability at high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ismaél Gatica; Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Cerutti, Soledad; Arana, María Verónica; Silva, María Fernanda

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of melatonin in plants, several roles have been described for different species, organs, and developmental stages. Arabidopsis thaliana, being a model plant species, is adequate to contribute to the elucidation of the role of melatonin in plants. In this work, melatonin was monitored daily by UHPLC-MS/MS in leaves, in order to study its diurnal accumulation as well as the effects of natural and artificial light treatments on its concentration. Furthermore, the effects of exogenous application of melatonin to assess its role in seed viability after heat stress and as a regulator of growth and development of vegetative tissues were evaluated. Our results indicate that melatonin contents in Arabidopsis were higher in plants growing under natural radiation when compared to those growing under artificial conditions, and its levels were not diurnally-regulated. Exogenous melatonin applications prolonged seed viability after heat stress conditions. In addition, melatonin applications retarded leaf senescence. Its effects as growth promoter were dose and tissue-dependent; stimulating root growth at low concentrations and decreasing leaf area at high doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. CvfA Protein and Polynucleotide Phosphorylase Act in an Opposing Manner to Regulate Staphylococcus aureus Virulence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Shunsuke; Nagata, Makiko; Mao, Han; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified CvfA (SA1129) as a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor using a silkworm infection model. S. aureus cvfA-deleted mutants exhibit decreased expression of the agr locus encoding a positive regulator of hemolysin genes and decreased hemolysin production. CvfA protein hydrolyzes a 2′,3′-cyclic phosphodiester bond at the RNA 3′ terminus, producing RNA with a 3′-phosphate (3′-phosphorylated RNA, RNA with a 3′-phosphate). Here, we report that the cvfA-deleted mutant phenotype (decreased agr expression and hemolysin production) was suppressed by disrupting pnpA-encoding polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) with 3′- to 5′-exonuclease activity. The suppression was blocked by introducing a pnpA-encoding PNPase with exonuclease activity but not by a pnpA-encoding mutant PNPase without exonuclease activity. Therefore, loss of PNPase exonuclease activity suppressed the cvfA-deleted mutant phenotype. Purified PNPase efficiently degraded RNA with 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate at the 3′ terminus (2′,3′-cyclic RNA), but it inefficiently degraded 3′-phosphorylated RNA. These findings indicate that 3′-phosphorylated RNA production from 2′,3′-cyclic RNA by CvfA prevents RNA degradation by PNPase and contributes to the expression of agr and hemolysin genes. We speculate that in the cvfA-deleted mutant, 2′,3′-cyclic RNA is not converted to the 3′-phosphorylated form and is efficiently degraded by PNPase, resulting in the loss of RNA essential for expressing agr and hemolysin genes, whereas in the cvfA/pnpA double-disrupted mutant, 2′,3′-cyclic RNA is not degraded by PNPase, leading to hemolysin production. These findings suggest that CvfA and PNPase competitively regulate RNA degradation essential for S. aureus virulence. PMID:24492613

  15. CvfA protein and polynucleotide phosphorylase act in an opposing manner to regulate Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Shunsuke; Nagata, Makiko; Mao, Han; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2014-03-21

    We previously identified CvfA (SA1129) as a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor using a silkworm infection model. S. aureus cvfA-deleted mutants exhibit decreased expression of the agr locus encoding a positive regulator of hemolysin genes and decreased hemolysin production. CvfA protein hydrolyzes a 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiester bond at the RNA 3' terminus, producing RNA with a 3'-phosphate (3'-phosphorylated RNA, RNA with a 3'-phosphate). Here, we report that the cvfA-deleted mutant phenotype (decreased agr expression and hemolysin production) was suppressed by disrupting pnpA-encoding polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) with 3'- to 5'-exonuclease activity. The suppression was blocked by introducing a pnpA-encoding PNPase with exonuclease activity but not by a pnpA-encoding mutant PNPase without exonuclease activity. Therefore, loss of PNPase exonuclease activity suppressed the cvfA-deleted mutant phenotype. Purified PNPase efficiently degraded RNA with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at the 3' terminus (2',3'-cyclic RNA), but it inefficiently degraded 3'-phosphorylated RNA. These findings indicate that 3'-phosphorylated RNA production from 2',3'-cyclic RNA by CvfA prevents RNA degradation by PNPase and contributes to the expression of agr and hemolysin genes. We speculate that in the cvfA-deleted mutant, 2',3'-cyclic RNA is not converted to the 3'-phosphorylated form and is efficiently degraded by PNPase, resulting in the loss of RNA essential for expressing agr and hemolysin genes, whereas in the cvfA/pnpA double-disrupted mutant, 2',3'-cyclic RNA is not degraded by PNPase, leading to hemolysin production. These findings suggest that CvfA and PNPase competitively regulate RNA degradation essential for S. aureus virulence.

  16. Neverland regulates embryonic moltings through the regulation of ecdysteroid synthesis in the water flea Daphnia magna, and may thus act as a target for chemical disruption of molting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Eri; Ogino, Yukiko; Toyota, Kenji; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2016-11-01

    Embryo development in arthropods is accompanied by a series of moltings. A cladoceran crustacean Daphnia magna molts three times before reaching first instar neonate during embryogenesis. Previous studies argued ecdysteroids might regulate D. magna embryogenesis. However, no direct evidence between innate ecdysteroids fluctuation and functions has been forthcoming. Recently, we identified genes involved in ecdysteroid synthesis called, neverland (neverland1 and neverland 2) and shade and in the ecdysteroid degradation (Cyp18a1). To understand the physiological roles of ecdysteroids in D. magna embryos, we performed expression and functional analyzes of those genes. Examining innate ecdysteroids titer during embryogenesis showed two surges of ecdysteroids titer at 41 and 61 h after oviposition. The first and second embryonic moltings occurred at each ecdysteroid surge. Expression of neverland1 and shade began to increase before the first peak in ecdysteroid. Knockdown of neverland1 or shade by RNAi technique caused defects in embryonic moltings and subsequent development. The ecdysteroids titer seemingly decreased in nvd1-knowckdown embryos. Knockdown of Cyp18a1 resulted in early embryonic lethality before the first molting. Our in situ hybridization analysis revealed that nvd1 was prominently expressed in embryonic gut epithelium suggesting the site for an initial step of ecdysteroidgenesis, a conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol and possibly for ecdysone production. Taken together, de novo ecdysteroid synthesis by nvd1 in the gut epithelial cells stimulates molting, which is indispensable for D. magna embryo development. These findings identify neverland as a possible target for chemicals, including various pesticides that are known to disrupt molting, development and reproduction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. LeMYC2 acts as a negative regulator of blue light mediated photomorphogenic growth, and promotes the growth of adult tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis ZBF1/MYC2bHLH transcription factor is a repressor of photomorphogenesis, and acts as a point of cross talk in light, abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. MYC2 also functions as a positive regulator of lateral root development and flowering time under long day conditions. However, the function of MYC2 in growth and development remains unknown in crop plants. Results Here, we report the functional analyses of LeMYC2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The amino acid sequence of LeMYC2 showed extensive homology with Arabidopsis MYC2, containing the conserved bHLH domain. To study the function of LeMYC2 in tomato, overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) LeMYC2 tomato transgenic plants were generated. Examination of seedling morphology, physiological responses and light regulated gene expression has revealed that LeMYC2 works as a negative regulator of blue light mediated photomorphogenesis. Furthermore, LeMYC2 specifically binds to the G-box of LeRBCS-3A promoter. Overexpression of LeMYC2 has led to increased root length with more number of lateral roots. The tomato plants overexpressing LeMYC2 have reduced internode distance with more branches, and display the opposite morphology to RNAi transgenic lines. Furthermore, this study shows that LeMYC2 promotes ABA and JA responsiveness. Conclusions Collectively, this study highlights that working in light, ABA and JA signaling pathways LeMYC2 works as an important regulator for growth and development in tomato plants. PMID:24483714

  18. The phosphorylation state of the DegU response regulator acts as a molecular switch allowing either degradative enzyme synthesis or expression of genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, M K; Msadek, T; Kunst, F; Rapoport, G

    1992-07-15

    Two classes of mutations were identified in the degS and degU regulatory genes of Bacillus subtilis, leading either to deficiency of degradative enzyme synthesis (degS or degU mutations) or to a pleiotropic phenotype which includes overproduction of degradative enzymes and the loss of genetic competence (degS(Hy) or degU(Hy) mutations). We have shown previously that the DegS protein kinase and the DegU response regulator form a signal transduction system in B. subtilis. We now demonstrate that the DegS protein kinase also acts as a DegU phosphatase. We present evidence that the DegU response regulator has two active conformations: a phosphorylated form which is necessary for degradative enzyme synthesis and a nonphosphorylated form required for expression of genetic competence. The degU146-encoded response regulator, allowing expression of genetic competence, has been purified and seems to be modified within the putative phosphorylation site (D56----N) since it is no longer phosphorylated by DegS. Both the degU146 mutation as well as the degS220 mutation, which essentially abolishes DegS protein kinase activity, lead to deficiency of degradative enzyme synthesis, indicating the requirement of phosphorylated DegU for the expression of this phenotype. We also purified the degU32(Hy)-encoded protein and showed that this response regulator is phosphorylated by the DegS protein kinase in vitro. In addition, the phosphorylated form of the degU32(Hy)-encoded protein presented a strongly increased stability as compared with the wild type DegU protein, thus leading to hyperproduction of degradative enzymes in vivo.

  19. Geridonin and paclitaxel act synergistically to inhibit the proliferation of gastric cancer cells through ROS-mediated regulation of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai-Qi; Wang, Cong; Chang, Li-Ming; Zhou, Kai-Rui; Wang, Jun-Wei; Ke, Yu; Yang, Dong-Xiao; Shi, Hong-Ge; Wang, Ran; Shi, Xiao-Li; Ma, Li-Ying; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-11-08

    Paclitaxel, a taxane, is a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent that targets microtubules. It has become a front-line therapy for a broad range of malignancies, including lung, breast, gastric, esophageal, and bladder carcinomas. Although paclitaxel can inhibit tumor development and improve survival, poor solubility, myelotoxicity, allergic reactions, and drug resistance have restricted its clinical application. Paclitaxel is frequently combined with other chemotherapeutics to enhance the antitumor effects and reduce side effects. We synthesized geridonin, a derivative of oridonin, and demonstrate that geridonin and paclitaxel act synergistically to inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells. Importantly, geridonin enhanced the antitumor effects of paclitaxel without increasing toxicity in vivo. Mechanistic analysis revealed that administration of geridonin in combination with paclitaxel up-regulated the tumor suppressor PTEN and inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and MDM2. This led to the accumulation of p53 and induced apoptosis though the mitochondrial pathway. Thus, geridonin in combination with paclitaxel is a new treatment strategy for gastric cancer.

  20. The identification of trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of GDF5 via the osteoarthritis susceptibility SNP rs143383.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Syddall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available rs143383 is a C to T transition SNP located in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR of the growth differentiation factor 5 gene GDF5. The T allele of the SNP is associated with increased risk of osteoarthritis (OA in Europeans and in Asians. This susceptibility is mediated by the T allele producing less GDF5 transcript relative to the C allele, a phenomenon known as differential allelic expression (DAE. The aim of this study was to identify trans-acting factors that bind to rs143383 and which regulate this GDF5 DAE. Protein binding to the gene was investigated by two experimental approaches: 1 competition and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs and 2 an oligonucleotide pull down assay followed by quantitative mass spectrometry. Binding was then confirmed in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, and the functional effects of candidate proteins investigated by RNA interference (RNAi and over expression. Using these approaches the trans-acting factors Sp1, Sp3, P15, and DEAF-1 were identified as interacting with the GDF5 5'UTR. Knockdown and over expression of the factors demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and DEAF-1 are repressors of GDF5 expression. Depletion of DEAF-1 modulated the DAE of GDF5 and this differential allelic effect was confirmed following over expression, with the rs143383 T allele being repressed to a significantly greater extent than the rs143383 C allele. In combination, Sp1 and DEAF-1 had the greatest repressive activity. In conclusion, we have identified four trans-acting factors that are binding to GDF5, three of which are modulating GDF5 expression via the OA susceptibility locus rs143383.

  1. Smad proteins act in combination with synergistic and antagonistic regulators to target Dpp responses to the Drosophila mesoderm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolei; Yin, Zhizhang; Hudson, John B.; Ferguson, Edwin L.; Frasch, Manfred

    1998-01-01

    Dorsal mesoderm induction in arthropods and ventral mesoderm induction in vertebrates are closely related processes that involve signals of the BMP family. In Drosophila, induction of visceral mesoderm, dorsal muscles, and the heart by Dpp is, at least in part, effected through the transcriptional activation and function of the homeobox gene tinman in dorsal mesodermal cells during early embryogenesis. Here we present a functional dissection of a tinman enhancer that mediates the Dpp response. We provide evidence that mesoderm-specific induction of tinman requires the binding of both activators and repressors. Screens for binding factors yielded Tinman itself and the Smad4 homolog Medea. We show that the binding and synergistic activities of Smad and Tinman proteins are critical for mesodermal tinman induction, whereas repressor binding sites prevent induction in the dorsal ectoderm and amnioserosa. Thus, integration of positive and negative regulators on enhancers of target genes appears to be an important mechanism in tissue-specific induction by TGF-β molecules. PMID:9694800

  2. Smad Nuclear Interacting Protein 1 Acts as a Protective Regulator of Pressure Overload-Induced Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu-Yan; Xu, Da-Chun; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Zhu, Guo-Fu; Zhu, Meng-Yun; Liu, Wei-Jing; Yu, Xue-Jing; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Xu, Ya-Wei

    2016-10-26

    Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1) plays a critical role in cell proliferation, transformation of embryonic fibroblasts, and immune regulation. However, the role of SNIP1 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. Here we examined the role of SNIP1 in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and its mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that SNIP1 expression was downregulated in human dilated cardiomyopathic hearts, aortic banding-induced mice hearts, and angiotensin II-treated cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, SNIP1 deficiency significantly exacerbated aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction, whereas cardiac-specific overexpression of SNIP1 markedly recovered pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Besides that, SNIP1 protected neonatal rat cardiomyocytes against angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy in vitro. Moreover, we identified that SNIP1 suppressed nuclear factor-κB signaling during pathological cardiac hypertrophy, and inhibition of nuclear factor-κB signaling by a cardiac-specific conditional inhibitor of κB S 32A/S36A transgene blocked these adverse effects of SNIP1 deficiency on hearts. Together, our findings demonstrated that SNIP1 had protective effects in pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB signaling. Thus, SNIP1 may be a novel approach for the treatment of heart failure. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. The DeoR-type transcriptional regulator SugR acts as a repressor for genes encoding the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Michelle

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major uptake system responsible for the transport of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS. The genes encoding PTS components, namely ptsI, ptsH, and ptsF belong to the fructose-PTS gene cluster, whereas ptsG and ptsS are located in two separate regions of the C. glutamicum genome. Due to the localization within and adjacent to the fructose-PTS gene cluster, two genes coding for DeoR-type transcriptional regulators, cg2118 and sugR, are putative candidates involved in the transcriptional regulation of the fructose-PTS cluster genes. Results Four transcripts of the extended fructose-PTS gene cluster that comprise the genes sugR-cg2116, ptsI, cg2118-fruK-ptsF, and ptsH, respectively, were characterized. In addition, it was shown that transcription of the fructose-PTS gene cluster is enhanced during growth on glucose or fructose when compared to acetate. Subsequently, the two genes sugR and cg2118 encoding for DeoR-type regulators were mutated and PTS gene transcription was found to be strongly enhanced in the presence of acetate only in the sugR deletion mutant. The SugR regulon was further characterized by microarray hybridizations using the sugR mutant and its parental strain, revealing that also the PTS genes ptsG and ptsS belong to this regulon. Binding of purified SugR repressor protein to a 21 bp sequence identified the SugR binding site as an AC-rich motif. The two experimentally identified SugR binding sites in the fructose-PTS gene cluster are located within or downstream of the mapped promoters, typical for transcriptional repressors. Effector studies using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA revealed the fructose PTS-specific metabolite fructose-1-phosphate (F-1-P as a highly efficient, negative effector of the SugR repressor, acting in the micromolar range. Beside F-1-P, other sugar-phosphates like fructose

  4. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James V; Doğramacı, Münevver; Horvath, David P; Foley, Michael E; Chao, Wun S; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Ali, Shahjahan; Mikel, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ~65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ~2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth.

  5. Blue light acts as a double-edged sword in regulating sexual development of Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Chen

    Full Text Available The industrially important cellulolytic filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is the anamorph of the pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. H. jecorina CBS999.97 strain undergoes a heterothallic reproductive cycle, and the mating yields fertilized perithecia imbedded in stromata. Asci in the perithecia contain 16 linearly arranged ascospores. Here, we investigated H. jecorina sexual development under different light regimes, and found that visible light was dispensable for sexual development (stroma formation and ascospore discharge. By contrast, constant illumination inhibited stroma formation, and an interruption of the darkness facilitated timely stroma formation in a 12 h/12 h light-dark photoperiod. The results of genetic analyses further revealed that H. jecorina blue-light photoreceptors (BLR1, BLR2 and the photoadaptation protein ENV1 were not essential for sexual development in general. BLR1, BLR2 and ENV1 are orthologues of the conserved Neurospora crassa WC-1, WC-2 and VVD, respectively. Moreover, BLR1 and BLR2 mediate both positive and negative light-dependent regulation on sexual development, whereas ENV1 is required for dampening the light-dependent inhibitory effect in response to changes in illumination. Comparative genome-wide microarray analysis demonstrated an overview of light-dependent gene expression versus sexual potency in CBS999.97 (MAT1-2 haploid cells. Constant illumination promotes abundant asexual conidiation and high levels of hpp1 transcripts. hpp1 encodes a h (hybrid-type propheromone that exhibits features of both yeast a and a pheromone precursors. Deletion of hpp1 could rescue stroma formation but not ascospore generation under constant illumination. We inferred that the HPP1-dependent pheromone signaling system might directly prevent stroma formation or simply disallow the haploid cells to acquire sexual potency due to abundant asexual conidiation upon constant illumination.

  6. Blue light acts as a double-edged sword in regulating sexual development of Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Tung, Shu-Yu; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Wang, Chih-Li; Seibel, Christian; Schmoll, Monika; Chen, Ruey-Shyang; Wang, Ting-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The industrially important cellulolytic filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is the anamorph of the pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. H. jecorina CBS999.97 strain undergoes a heterothallic reproductive cycle, and the mating yields fertilized perithecia imbedded in stromata. Asci in the perithecia contain 16 linearly arranged ascospores. Here, we investigated H. jecorina sexual development under different light regimes, and found that visible light was dispensable for sexual development (stroma formation and ascospore discharge). By contrast, constant illumination inhibited stroma formation, and an interruption of the darkness facilitated timely stroma formation in a 12 h/12 h light-dark photoperiod. The results of genetic analyses further revealed that H. jecorina blue-light photoreceptors (BLR1, BLR2) and the photoadaptation protein ENV1 were not essential for sexual development in general. BLR1, BLR2 and ENV1 are orthologues of the conserved Neurospora crassa WC-1, WC-2 and VVD, respectively. Moreover, BLR1 and BLR2 mediate both positive and negative light-dependent regulation on sexual development, whereas ENV1 is required for dampening the light-dependent inhibitory effect in response to changes in illumination. Comparative genome-wide microarray analysis demonstrated an overview of light-dependent gene expression versus sexual potency in CBS999.97 (MAT1-2) haploid cells. Constant illumination promotes abundant asexual conidiation and high levels of hpp1 transcripts. hpp1 encodes a h (hybrid)-type propheromone that exhibits features of both yeast a and a pheromone precursors. Deletion of hpp1 could rescue stroma formation but not ascospore generation under constant illumination. We inferred that the HPP1-dependent pheromone signaling system might directly prevent stroma formation or simply disallow the haploid cells to acquire sexual potency due to abundant asexual conidiation upon constant illumination.

  7. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, James V.

    2012-05-13

    Abstract Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ∼65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ∼2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth. ©Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012.

  8. SlgA, encoded by the homolog of the human schizophrenia-associated gene PRODH, acts in clock neurons to regulate Drosophila aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Zwarts

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the proline dehydrogenase gene PRODH are linked to behavioral alterations in schizophrenia and as part of DiGeorge and velo-cardio-facial syndromes, but the role of PRODH in their etiology remains unclear. Here, we establish a Drosophila model to study the role of PRODH in behavioral disorders. We determine the distribution of the Drosophila PRODH homolog slgA in the brain and show that knockdown and overexpression of human PRODH and slgA in the lateral neurons ventral (LNv lead to altered aggressive behavior. SlgA acts in an isoform-specific manner and is regulated by casein kinase II (CkII. Our data suggest that these effects are, at least partially, due to effects on mitochondrial function. We thus show that precise regulation of proline metabolism is essential to drive normal behavior and we identify Drosophila aggression as a model behavior relevant for the study of the mechanisms that are impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. SlgA, encoded by the homolog of the human schizophrenia-associated gene PRODH, acts in clock neurons to regulate Drosophila aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Vulsteke, Veerle; Buhl, Edgar; Hodge, James J L; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Mutations in the proline dehydrogenase gene PRODH are linked to behavioral alterations in schizophrenia and as part of DiGeorge and velo-cardio-facial syndromes, but the role of PRODH in their etiology remains unclear. Here, we establish a Drosophila model to study the role of PRODH in behavioral disorders. We determine the distribution of the Drosophila PRODH homolog slgA in the brain and show that knockdown and overexpression of human PRODH and slgA in the lateral neurons ventral (LNv) lead to altered aggressive behavior. SlgA acts in an isoform-specific manner and is regulated by casein kinase II (CkII). Our data suggest that these effects are, at least partially, due to effects on mitochondrial function. We thus show that precise regulation of proline metabolism is essential to drive normal behavior and we identify Drosophila aggression as a model behavior relevant for the study of the mechanisms that are impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Amino acids and insulin act additively to regulate components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in C2C12 myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax Michael A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant pathway for myofibrillar proteolysis but a previous study in C2C12 myotubes only observed alterations in lysosome-dependent proteolysis in response to complete starvation of amino acids or leucine from the media. Here, we determined the interaction between insulin and amino acids in the regulation of myotube proteolysis Results Incubation of C2C12 myotubes with 0.2 × physiological amino acids concentration (0.2 × PC AA, relative to 1.0 × PC AA, significantly increased total proteolysis and the expression of 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (p Conclusion In a C2C12 myotube model of myofibrillar protein turnover, amino acid limitation increases proteolysis in a ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent manner. Increasing amino acids or leucine alone, act additively with insulin to down regulate proteolysis and expression of components of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The effects of amino acids on proteolysis but not insulin and leucine, are blocked by inhibition of the mTOR signalling pathway.

  11. Tamm-Horsfall Protein Regulates Circulating and Renal Cytokines by Affecting Glomerular Filtration Rate and Acting as a Urinary Cytokine Trap*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; El-Achkar, Tarek M.; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2012-01-01

    Although few organ systems play a more important role than the kidneys in cytokine catabolism, the mechanism(s) regulating this pivotal physiological function and how its deficiency affects systemic cytokine homeostasis remain unclear. Here we show that elimination of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) expression from mouse kidneys caused a marked elevation of circulating IFN-γ, IL1α, TNF-α, IL6, CXCL1, and IL13. Accompanying this were enlarged spleens with prominent white-pulp macrophage infiltration. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exacerbated the increase of serum cytokines without a corresponding increase in their urinary excretion in THP knock-out (KO) mice. This, along with the rise of serum cystatin C and the reduced inulin and creatinine clearance from the circulation, suggested that diminished glomerular filtration may contribute to reduced cytokine clearance in THP KO mice both at the baseline and under stress. Unlike wild-type mice where renal and urinary cytokines formed specific in vivo complexes with THP, this “trapping” effect was absent in THP KO mice, thus explaining why cytokine signaling pathways were activated in renal epithelial cells in such mice. Our study provides new evidence implicating an important role of THP in influencing cytokine clearance and acting as a decoy receptor for urinary cytokines. Based on these and other data, we present a unifying model that underscores the role of THP as a major regulator of renal and systemic immunity. PMID:22451664

  12. A Radish Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor, RsTT8 Acts a Positive Regulator for Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hyung Lim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW complex activates anthocyanin biosynthesis through the transcriptional regulation. RsMYB1 has been identified as a key player in anthocyanin biosynthesis in red radish (Raphanus sativus L., but its partner bHLH transcription factor (TF remains to be determined. In this study, we isolated a bHLH TF gene from red radish. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this gene belongs to the TT8 clade of the IIIF subgroup of bHLH TFs, and we thus designated this gene RsTT8. Subcellular localization analysis showed that RsTT8-sGFP was localized to the nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts harboring the RsTT8-sGFP construct. We evaluated anthocyanin biosynthesis and RsTT8 expression levels in three radish varieties (N, C, and D that display different red phenotypes in the leaves, root flesh, and root skins. The root flesh of the C variety and the leaves and skins of the D variety exhibit intense red pigmentation; in these tissues, RsTT8 expression showed totally positive association with the expression of RsMYB1 TF and of five of eight tested anthocyanin biosynthesis genes (i.e., RsCHS, RsCHI, RsF3H, RsDFR, and RsANS. Heterologous co-expression of both RsTT8 and RsMYB1 in tobacco leaves dramatically increased the expression of endogenous anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, a yeast two-hybrid assay showed that RsTT8 interacts with RsMYB1 at the MYB-interacting region (MIR, and a transient transactivation assay indicated that RsTT8 activates the RsCHS and RsDFR promoters when co-expressed with RsMYB1. Complementation of the Arabidopsis tt8-1 mutant, which lacks red pigmentation in the leaves and seeds, with RsTT8 restored red pigmentation, and resulted in high anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin contents in the leaves and seeds, respectively. Together, these results show that RsTT8 functions as a regulatory partner with RsMYB1 during anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  13. Human subtilase SKI-1/S1P is a master regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a potential host cell target for developing indirect-acting antiviral agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Olmstead

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs. One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1--or site-1 protease (S1P. SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs, which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow

  14. Human subtilase SKI-1/S1P is a master regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a potential host cell target for developing indirect-acting antiviral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Andrea D; Knecht, Wolfgang; Lazarov, Ina; Dixit, Surjit B; Jean, François

    2012-01-01

    HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs). One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1)--or site-1 protease (S1P). SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP)/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow development of

  15. WNT4 acts downstream of BMP2 to mediate the regulation of ATRA signaling on RUNX1 expression: Implications for terminal differentiation of antler chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Liang; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Duan, Cui-Cui; Geng, Shuang; Wang, Kai; Yu, Hai-Fan; Yue, Zhan-Peng; Guo, Bin

    2017-04-24

    Although ATRA is involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we showed that ATRA could stimulate the proliferation of antler chondrocytes and expression of COL X and MMP13 which were two well-known markers for hypertrophic chondrocytes. Silencing of CRABP2 prevented the induction of ATRA on chondrocyte terminal differentiation, while overexpression of CRABP2 exhibited the opposite effects. CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 weakened the sensitivity of antler chondrocytes to ATRA. Further analysis evidenced that ATRA might induce chondrocyte terminal differentiation and modulate the expression of BMP2, WNT4, and RUNX1 through RARα/RXRα. Knockdown of BMP2 enhanced the induction of ATRA on the expression of COL X and MMP13, whereas overexpression of BMP2 abrogated this effectiveness. WNT4 might mediate the effects of ATRA and BMP2 on chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Dysregulation of BMP2 impaired the regulation of ATRA on WNT4 expression. Administration of ATRA to antler chondrocytes transfected with RUNX1 siRNA failed to induce the differentiation. Conversely, rRUNX1 strengthened the stimulation of ATRA on the expression of COL X and MMP13. Simultaneously, RUNX1 was a downstream effector of BMP2 and WNT4 in chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Moreover, WNT4 might play an important role in the crosstalk between BMP2 and RUNX1. Attenuation of BMP2 or WNT4 enhanced the interaction between ATRA and RUNX1, while constitutive expression of BMP2 or WNT4 reversed the regulation of ATRA on RUNX1. Collectively, WNT4 may act downstream of BMP2 to mediate the effects of ATRA on the terminal differentiation of antler chondrocytes through targeting RUNX1. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 7 CFR 922.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 922.2 Section 922.2 Agriculture Regulations of... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  17. 7 CFR 948.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 948.2 Section 948.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (sections 1-19, 48...

  18. 7 CFR 987.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 987.2 Section 987.2 Agriculture Regulations of... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  19. 7 CFR 915.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 915.2 Section 915.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  20. 7 CFR 993.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 993.2 Section 993.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  1. 7 CFR 916.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 916.2 Section 916.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  2. 7 CFR 927.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 927.2 Section 927.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  3. 7 CFR 906.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 906.2 Section 906.2 Agriculture Regulations of... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  4. 7 CFR 917.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 917.2 Section 917.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended, and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as...

  5. 7 CFR 923.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 923.2 Section 923.2 Agriculture Regulations of... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d... Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.; 68 Stat. 906, 1047). ...

  6. 7 CFR 982.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 982.2 Section 982.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C...

  7. 7 CFR 989.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 989.2 Section 989.2 Agriculture Regulations of... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended, and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended...

  8. 7 CFR 946.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 946.2 Section 946.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as...

  9. YelA, a putative Dictyostelium translational regulator, acts as antagonist of DIF-1 signaling to control cell-type proportioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoko; Sugden, Chris; Williams, Jeffrey G

    2017-01-01

    DIF-1 (differentiation-inducing factor1) is a polyketide produced by Dictyostelium prespore cells which induces initially uncommitted cells to differentiate as prestalk cells. Exposure of cells to DIF-1 causes transitory hypo-phosphorylation of seven serine residues in YelA, a protein with a region of strong homology to the MIF4G domain of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4G. Based upon its domain architecture, which in one important aspect closely resembles that of Death-Associated Protein 5 (DAP5), we predict a role in stimulating internal ribosome entry-driven mRNA translation. The two paradigmatic DIF-1 inducible genes are ecmA (extracellular matrixA) and ecmB. In support of a YelA function in DIF-1 signaling, a YelA null strain showed greatly increased expression of ecmA and ecmB in response to DIF-1. Also, during normal development in the null strain, expression of the two genes is accelerated. This is particularly evident for ecmB, a marker of stalk tube and supporting structure differentiation. Mutants in DIF-1 bio-synthesis or signaling display a rudimentary or no basal disc and, conversely, YelA null mutants produce fruiting bodies with a highly enlarged basal disc that ectopically expresses a stalk tube-specific marker. Thus YelA acts as an antagonist of DIF-1 signaling, with a consequent effect on cell type proportioning and it is predicted to act as a translational regulator.

  10. The DtxR protein acting as dual transcriptional regulator directs a global regulatory network involved in iron metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüser Andrea T

    2006-02-01

    expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and exerts a dual regulatory function as repressor of genes participating in iron uptake and utilization and as activator of genes responsible for iron storage and DNA protection. The data suggest that the DtxR protein acts as global regulator by controlling the expression of other regulatory proteins that might take care of an iron-dependent regulation of a broader transcriptional network of C. glutamicum genes.

  11. Understanding the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation of banana Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene during fruit ripening: an insight into the functions of various cis-acting regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2010-05-01

    Recently, we have reported the characterization of promoter region of Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene in banana and investigated the role of some cis-elements/motifs, present in the promoter of SPS, in the transcriptional regulation of the gene. DNA-protein interaction studies have demonstrated the presence of specific trans-acting factors which showed specific interactions with ethylene, auxin, low temperature and light responsive elements in regulating SPS transcription. Transient expression analyses have demonstrated the functional significance of the various cis-acting regulatory elements present in banana SPS promoter in regulating SPS expression during ripening. (1) Here, we have further discussed the possible role of these regulatory sequences in the regulation of transcriptional network and comment on their function in relation to sucrose metabolism during banana fruit ripening.

  12. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  13. Nuclear Smad7 Overexpressed in Mesenchymal Cells Acts as a Transcriptional Corepressor by Interacting with HDAC-1 and E2F to Regulate Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Emori

    2012-02-01

    Smad family proteins are essential intracellular mediators that regulate transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β ligand signaling. In response to diverse stimuli, Smad7 is rapidly expressed and acts as a cytoplasmic inhibitor that selectively interferes with signals elicited from TGF-β family receptors. In addition, earlier works have indicated that retrovirally transduced Smad7 induces long-lasting cell proliferation arrest in a variety of mesenchymal cells through down-regulation of G1 cyclins. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cytostatic effects of Smad7 remain unknown. We show here that Smad7 can form a complex with endogenous histone deacetylase proteins HDAC-1 and HDAC-3 in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. By contrast, forced expression of a dominant-negative variant of HDAC-1 efficiently protected cells against Smad7 proliferation inhibition, suggesting that Smad7 depends on the deacetylase activity of its associated HDAC-1 to arrest the cell cycle. Furthermore, Smad7 caused HDAC-1 bind to E2F-1 to form a ternary complex on chromosomal DNA containing an E2F-binding motif and leading to repression in the activity of the E2F target genes. Smad7 mutations that prevented its binding to either HDAC-1 or E2F-1 resulted in a significant decrease in Smad7-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. The present results strongly suggest that nuclear Smad7 is a transcriptional corepressor for E2F, providing a molecular basis for the Smad7-induced arrest of the cell cycle.

  14. A Common Variant of PROK1 (V67I Acts as a Genetic Modifier in Early Human Pregnancy through Down-Regulation of Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Tsz Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PROK1-V67I has been shown to play a role as a modifier gene in the PROK1-PROKR system of human early pregnancy. To explore the related modifier mechanism of PROK1-V67I, we carried out a comparison study at the gene expression level and the cell function alternation of V67I, and its wild-type (WT, in transiently-transfected cells. We, respectively, performed quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assays to evaluate the protein and/or transcript level of V67I and WT in HTR-8/SV neo, JAR, Ishikawa, and HEK293 cells. Transiently V67I- or WT-transfected HTR-8/SV neo and HEK293 cells were used to investigate cell function alternations. The transcript and protein expressions were down-regulated in all cell lines, ranging from 20% to 70%, compared with WT. There were no significant differences in the ligand activities of V67I and WT with regard to cell proliferation, cell invasion, calcium influx, and tubal formation. Both PROK1 alleles promoted cell invasion and intracellular calcium mobilization, whereas they had no significant effects on cell proliferation and tubal formation. In conclusion, the biological effects of PROK1-V67I on cell functions are similar to those of WT, and the common variant of V67I may act as a modifier in the PROK1-PROKR system through down-regulation of PROK1 expression. This study may provide a general mechanism that the common variant of V67I, modifying the disease severity of PROK1-related pathophysiologies.

  15. 7 CFR 65.100 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 65.100 Section 65.100 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.100 Act. Act means the Agricultural Marketing Act of...

  16. A dietary polyphenol resveratrol acts to provide neuroprotection in recurrent stroke models by regulating AMPK and SIRT1 signaling, thereby reducing energy requirements during ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The above article from European Journal of Neuroscience, published online on 5 March 2013 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejn.12162/full), has been retracted by agreement between the Editors-in-Chief, Paul Bolam and John Foxe, the authors and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as Dr Phillip Barber has informed the publisher that he had seen neither the original data nor any version of the manuscript, and had not been involved in the work reported. A subsequent Institutional investigation found evidence of misconduct on the part of the submitting author. Reference Wang, L.-M., Wang, Y.-J., Cui, M., Luo, W.-J., Wang, X.-J., Barber, P.A. & Chen, Z.-Y. (2013) A dietary polyphenol resveratrol acts to provide neuroprotection in recurrent stroke models by regulating AMPK and SIRT1 signaling, thereby reducing energy requirements during ischemia. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. O debate sobre a regulamentação do ato médico no Brasil The debate about the regulation of the medical act in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Guedes Moreira Guimarães

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a demanda pela regulamentação do "ato médico" no Brasil à luz do referencial teórico da Sociologia das profissões. Apresenta e analisa os principais argumentos trazidos pelas corporações ao debate político a partir de documentos oficiais e entrevistas dos principais atores, entendendo o processo como legítima busca de defesa das prerrogativas e privilégios corporativos. Reconhecendo que a disputa está relacionada à construção das identidades profissionais, defende a regulamentação das profissões da área da saúde respeitando-se suas competências e habilidades teóricas e práticas. Conclui enfatizando que o papel do Estado na regulamentação das profissões precisa considerar os interesses da sociedade diante da intensa divisão do trabalho ocorrida na área da saúde, respeitando-se as competências exclusivas da medicina e reconhecendo as das novas profissões da área, como fisioterapia, fonoaudiologia, psicologia e outras.This article discusses the demand for the regulation of the "medical act" in Brazil considering the theoretical framework adopted by the sociology of the professions. It presents and analyzes the main arguments of the health corporations based in official documents and main actors' interviews. The process is understood as a legitimate action of defense of the prerogatives and corporate privileges. Recognizing that the dispute is related to the construction of the professional identities it defends that the regulation of the health professions must respect their competences and theoretical and practical abilities. It concludes emphasizing that the role of the State in the regulation of the professions must consider the interests of the society in face of the intense technical division of the work that happened in the health sector. This means to respect the exclusive competences of the medicine and recognize those of the new professions of the area, such as physiotherapy

  18. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  19. A Gβ protein and the TupA Co-Regulator Bind to Protein Kinase A Tpk2 to Act as Antagonistic Molecular Switches of Fungal Morphological Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamarai K Janganan

    Full Text Available The human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb undergoes a morphological transition from a saprobic mycelium to pathogenic yeast that is controlled by the cAMP-signaling pathway. There is a change in the expression of the Gβ-protein PbGpb1, which interacts with adenylate cyclase, during this morphological transition. We exploited the fact that the cAMP-signaling pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not include a Gβ-protein to probe the functional role of PbGpb1. We present data that indicates that PbGpb1 and the transcriptional regulator PbTupA both bind to the PKA protein PbTpk2. PbTPK2 was able to complement a TPK2Δ strain of S. cerevisiae, XPY5a/α, which was defective in pseudohyphal growth. Whilst PbGPB1 had no effect on the parent S. cerevisiae strain, MLY61a/α, it repressed the filamentous growth of XPY5a/α transformed with PbTPK2, behaviour that correlated with a reduced expression of the floculin FLO11. In vitro, PbGpb1 reduced the kinase activity of PbTpk2, suggesting that inhibition of PbTpk2 by PbGpb1 reduces the level of expression of Flo11, antagonizing the filamentous growth of the cells. In contrast, expressing the co-regulator PbTUPA in XPY5a/α cells transformed with PbTPK2, but not untransformed cells, induced hyperfilamentous growth, which could be antagonized by co-transforming the cells with PbGPB1. PbTUPA was unable to induce the hyperfilamentous growth of a FLO8Δ strain, suggesting that PbTupA functions in conjunction with the transcription factor Flo8 to control Flo11 expression. Our data indicates that P. brasiliensis PbGpb1 and PbTupA, both of which have WD/β-propeller structures, bind to PbTpk2 to act as antagonistic molecular switches of cell morphology, with PbTupA and PbGpb1 inducing and repressing filamentous growth, respectively. Our findings define a potential mechanism for controlling the morphological switch that underpins the virulence of dimorphic fungi.

  20. 7 CFR 958.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 958.2 Section 958.2 Agriculture Regulations of... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing...

  1. 7 CFR 945.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 945.2 Section 945.2 Agriculture Regulations of... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing...

  2. 7 CFR 985.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 985.2 Section 985.2 Agriculture Regulations of... SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended, and reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing...

  3. 7 CFR 924.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 924.2 Section 924.2 Agriculture Regulations of... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural...

  4. 77 FR 4643 - Freedom of Information Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... RIN 2590-AA44 Freedom of Information Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION... existing Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) regulation. This final regulation provides procedures and... action, Freedom of Information Act, Judicial review, Records, Requests. Authority and Issuance...

  5. 76 FR 59073 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... 32 CFR Part 1901 Privacy Act AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has undertaken and completed a... Act (PA), the CIA has undertaken and completed a review of its public PA regulations. As a result of...

  6. 78 FR 73466 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... CORPORATION 22 CFR Part 707 Privacy Act AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation. ACTION: Notice of... (``OPIC'') Privacy Act (``PA'') regulations by making substantive and administrative changes. These... confidential or inappropriate for public disclosure. Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) Pursuant...

  7. 7 CFR 35.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 35.1 Section 35.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... Definitions § 35.1 Act. Act or Export Grape and Plum Act means “An Act to promote the foreign trade of the...

  8. 7 CFR 981.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 981.2 Section 981.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 981.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended...

  9. 7 CFR 984.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 984.2 Section 984.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 984.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  10. 7 CFR 932.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 932.2 Section 932.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 932.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933) as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31...

  11. 7 CFR 925.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 925.2 Section 925.2 Agriculture Regulations of... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  12. 7 CFR 983.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 983.2 Section 983.2 Agriculture Regulations of... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73rd Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Order Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat...

  13. 7 CFR 956.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 956.2 Section 956.2 Agriculture Regulations of... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10... Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (Sec. 1-19, 48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  14. 7 CFR 959.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 959.2 Section 959.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 959.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (sections 1-19, 48 Stat...

  15. 7 CFR 966.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 966.2 Section 966.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 966.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended...

  16. 7 CFR 930.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 930.1 Section 930.1 Agriculture Regulations of... Definitions § 930.1 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended, and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as...

  17. 7 CFR 1170.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1170.2 Section 1170.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.2 Act. Act means the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq., as amended by the Dairy Market Enhancement Act of...

  18. 31 CFR 597.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as otherwise directed by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, any U.S. financial institution holding...: (i) in a federally-insured U.S. bank, thrift institution, or credit union, provided the funds are... under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, provided the funds are invested in a money market fund or in...

  19. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...

  20. 7 CFR 929.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 929.2 Section 929.2 Agriculture Regulations of... ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.2 Act. Act means Public Act... Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (secs. 1-19, 48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601-674). ...

  1. 7 CFR 905.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 905.2 Section 905.2 Agriculture Regulations of... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10... Agreement Act of 1937, as amended. (48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.; 68 Stat. 906, 1047.) ...

  2. 7 CFR 953.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 953.2 Section 953.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C...

  3. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown.......Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art...

  4. A novel mutation of the autoimmune regulator gene in an Italian kindred with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy, acting in a dominant fashion and strongly cosegregating with hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetani, F; Barbesino, G; Borsari, S; Pardi, E; Cianferotti, L; Pinchera, A; Marcocci, C

    2001-10-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypoparathyroidism, adrenal failure, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and ectodermal dystrophies and other organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy is caused by mutations of the autoimmune regulator gene. We identified an Italian family with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy and a pattern of inheritance suggestive of a dominant mechanism. Serological and clinical studies showed a high prevalence of hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis in affected members with classical autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy. Direct sequencing of the entire coding region of the autoimmune regulator gene revealed the presence in the proband of a novel missense (G228W) mutation in exon 6 in a heterozygous state. The same heterozygous mutation was identified in all family members with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy and/or hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis. None of the unaffected family members and 50 unrelated Italian controls carried the mutation. In contrast with all other autoimmune regulator mutations reported in families, the novel G228W mutation acts in a dominant fashion in our family, as only one heterozygous mutation was found in the entire coding sequence of the autoimmune regulator gene in the proband. Moreover, analysis of the family tree showed direct transmission of the hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis/polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy phenotype to the offspring in each generation in the absence of consanguinity, further supporting a dominant inheritance. The G228W closely cosegregated with hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis in our family, whereas a low penetrance of the full autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy phenotype was observed. In conclusion, we report a novel

  5. 7 CFR 29.13 - The act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The act. 29.13 Section 29.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.13 The act. The Tobacco Inspection Act, approved August 23, 1935. (7...

  6. 7 CFR 33.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 33.1 Section 33.1 Agriculture Regulations of the... AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.1 Act. Act and Export Apple Act are synonymous and mean “An act to promote the foreign trade of the United States in apples to protect the reputation of...

  7. The bantam microRNA acts through Numb to exert cell growth control and feedback regulation of Notch in tumor-forming stem cells in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yen-Chi; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Song, Yan; Gehrke, Stephan; Lu, Bingwei

    2017-05-01

    Notch (N) signaling is central to the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and other tissue stem cells. Its deregulation compromises tissue homeostasis and contributes to tumorigenesis and other diseases. How N regulates stem cell behavior in health and disease is not well understood. Here we show that N regulates bantam (ban) microRNA to impact cell growth, a process key to NSC maintenance and particularly relied upon by tumor-forming cancer stem cells. Notch signaling directly regulates ban expression at the transcriptional level, and ban in turn feedback regulates N activity through negative regulation of the Notch inhibitor Numb. This feedback regulatory mechanism helps maintain the robustness of N signaling activity and NSC fate. Moreover, we show that a Numb-Myc axis mediates the effects of ban on nucleolar and cellular growth independently or downstream of N. Our results highlight intricate transcriptional as well as translational control mechanisms and feedback regulation in the N signaling network, with important implications for NSC biology and cancer biology.

  8. 7 CFR 1206.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Agriculture Regulations of... Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.1 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425; Public Law 104-127; 110 Stat. 1029...

  9. 7 CFR 1219.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1219.1 Section 1219.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.1 Act. Act means the Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 2000, Public Law 106-387, 7 U.S.C. 7801-7813...

  10. 7 CFR 1218.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1218.1 Section 1218.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.1 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7401-7425; Pub. L. 104-127; 110 Stat...

  11. 34 CFR 300.4 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 300.4 Section 300.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES... Definitions Used in This Part § 300.4 Act. Act means the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, as...

  12. 7 CFR 926.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 926.2 Section 926.2 Agriculture Regulations of... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress , as amended, and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing...

  13. 7 CFR 1221.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1221.1 Section 1221.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.1 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425), and any amendments thereto. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1230.1 Section 1230.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.1 Act. Act means the Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act of 1985 (7 U.S.C. 4801-4819) and any amendments...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.302 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1205.302 Section 1205.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.302 Act. Act means the Cotton Research and Promotion Act...

  16. 34 CFR 303.6 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 303.6 Section 303.6 Education Regulations of the..., Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.6 Act. As used in this part, Act means the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1400) ...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1216.1 Section 1216.1 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.1 Act. Act means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7401-7425; Public Law 104-127, 110 Stat...

  18. 7 CFR 1212.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1212.1 Section 1212.1 Agriculture Regulations of..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.1 Act. “Act” means the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996, (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425), and any amendments to that Act. ...

  19. 7 CFR 1215.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1215.1 Section 1215.1 Agriculture Regulations of... INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.1 Act. Act means the Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act of 1995, Subtitle E of Title V of the...

  20. 29 CFR 401.17 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 401.17 Section 401.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.17 Act. Act means the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.10 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1205.10 Section 1205.10 Agriculture Regulations... for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.10 Act. The term Act means the Cotton Research and Promotion Act, as amended . ...

  2. 12 CFR 541.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 541.2 Section 541.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.2 Act. The term Act means the Home Owners' Loan Act of 1933, as amended. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1150.101 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1150.101 Section 1150.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 1150.101 Act. Act means Title I, Subtitle B, of the Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983...

  4. 76 FR 25665 - No Fear Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... COMMISSION No Fear Act AGENCY: American Battle Monuments Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American... FEAR Act), as implemented by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) regulations at 5 CFR part 724... Retaliation Act of 2002,'' which is now known as the No FEAR Act. See Public Law 107-174, codified at 5 U.S.C...

  5. Smart-Grid Investments, Regulation and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    Worldwide, but in particular in North America and Europe, the grid infrastructure managers are facing demands for reinvestments in new assets with higher on-grid and off-grid functionality in order to promote energy efficiency and low-carbon conversion of the energy sector. To meet societal policy...... objectives in terms of carbon dioxide emissions, both the composition of the generators in favor of distributed energy resources (DER) and the load, promoting integration with downstream energy useage, will change. In this paper, we chararcterize some of the effects of new asset investments policy...... of task separation. To provide guidance, we present a model of investment provision under regulation between a distribution system operator (DSO) and a potential investor-generation. The results from the model confirm the hypothesis thatnetwork regulation should find a focal point, should integrate...

  6. MicroRNA-139-5p acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting ELTD1 and regulating cell cycle in glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shouping [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi, Shandong 276000 (China); Wang, Xianjun [Department of Neurology, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi, Shandong 276000 (China); Li, Xiao [Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Cao, Yuandong, E-mail: yuandongcao@sina.com [Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-11-13

    MicroRNA-139-5p was identified to be significantly down-regulated in glioblastoma multiform (GBM) by miRNA array. In this report we aimed to clarify its biological function, molecular mechanisms and direct target gene in GBM. Twelve patients with GBM were analyzed for the expression of miR-139-5p by quantitative RT-PCR. miR-139-5p overexpression was established by transfecting miR-139-5p-mimic into U87MG and T98G cells, and its effects on cell proliferation were studied using MTT assay and colony formation assays. We concluded that ectopic expression of miR-139-5p in GBM cell lines significantly suppressed cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Bioinformatics coupled with luciferase and western blot assays also revealed that miR-139-5p suppresses glioma cell proliferation by targeting ELTD1 and regulating cell cycle. - Highlights: • miR-139-5p is downregulated in GBM. • miR-139-5p regulates cell proliferation through inducing apoptosis. • miR-139-5p regulates glioblastoma tumorigenesis by targeting 3′UTR of ELTD1. • miR-139-5p is involved in cell cycle regulation.

  7. Technology Reinvestment Program/Advanced ``Zero Emission'' Control Valve (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Napoleon

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this effort are to determine, develop and demonstrate the feasibility of significantly reducing the cost and expanding the applications for a family of Advanced Zero Emissions Control Valves that meets the fugitive emissions requirements of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. This program is a direct technology spin-off from the valve technology that is critical to the US Navy's Nuclear Powered Fleet. These zero emissions valves will allow the Hydrocarbon and Chemical Processing Industries, etc., to maintain their competitiveness and still meet environmental and safety requirements. Phase 2 is directed at refining the basic technologies developed during Phase 1 so that they can be more readily selected and utilized by the target market. In addition to various necessary certifications, the project will develop a full featured digital controller with ``smart valve'' growth capability, expanding valve sizes/applications and identifying valve materials to permit applications in severe operational environments.

  8. Instructions influence response to the Chinese version of the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomson Wl; Abernethy, Bruce; Masters, Rich Sw

    2016-12-01

    To examine whether differences emerged when the Chinese version of the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS-C) was administered to community-dwelling older adults with instructions to respond in the context of "general" movements, walking, using chopsticks or dressing. Furthermore, the difference between the six-point Likert scale and four-point Likert scale response formats of the MSRS-C was investigated. The study was implemented in the community of Hong Kong with 52 older adults (mean age 77.4 years). Telephone interviews were carried out on two occasions for each participant. Participants provided a verbal response to each of 10 questions from the MSRS-C with different response formats (i.e., six-point or four-point Likert Scales) and different instructions in the response context (i.e. general, walking, using chopsticks, dressing). The sequence of response format and context was randomized for each participant. Older fallers scored significantly higher on the MSRS-C (general) with six-point or four-point response formats than non-fallers. The MSRS-C (general) and MSRS-C (walking) were not statistically different, and showed good discriminative power for previous older fall status (older fallers or older non-fallers). However, MSRS-C (chopsticks) and MSRS-C (dressing) failed to differentiate older fallers from older non-fallers. Both the MSRS-C (general) and MSRS-C (walking) with a six-point or a four-point response format showed good discrimination of older fallers from non-fallers. Older adults might respond to the MSRS-C with respect to the most challenging movements (e.g. fall-related movements) in their daily living. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 1305-1311. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. The AP2/EREBP gene PUCHI Co-Acts with LBD16/ASL18 and LBD18/ASL20 downstream of ARF7 and ARF19 to regulate lateral root development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Na Young; Lee, Han Woo; Kim, Jungmook

    2013-08-01

    The developmental process of lateral root formation consists of priming, initiation, primordium development and the emergence of lateral roots from the primary root. Molecular genetic studies with Arabidopsis have revealed several key transcriptional regulators involved in lateral root development. However, their functional interaction has not been fully characterized yet. Here we utilized a genetic approach to understand some of these interactions, revealing that PUCHI functioning in morphogenesis of early lateral root primordium is regulated downstream of ARF7/ARF19 and acts with LBD16(ASL18)/LBD18(ASL20) to regulate lateral root development. We showed that auxin-responsive expression of PUCHI was significantly reduced in arf7 or arf19 single mutants and completely abolished in arf7 arf19 double mutants. Consistent with this, β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression under the PUCHI promoter in arf7 arf19 was greatly reduced in the lateral root primordium compared with that in the wild type and did not respond to exogenous auxin. Results of GUS expression analyses under the PUCHI, LBD16 or LBD18 promoter in lbd16, lbd18 single and double mutants or puchi demonstrated that PUCHI and LBD16 or LBD18 do not regulate each other's expression. Lateral root phenotypes of double and triple mutants of lbd16, lbd18 and puchi showed that the puchi mutation in lbd16 and lbd18 mutants synergistically decreased the number of emerged lateral roots. These analyses also showed that puchi affected lateral root primordium development of lbd16 or lbd18 additively but differentially. Taken together, these results suggest that PUCHI co-acts with LBD16 and LBD18 to control lateral root primordium development and lateral root emergence.

  10. Telomerase reverse transcriptase acts in a feedback loop with NF-κB pathway to regulate macrophage polarization in alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Qin; Yang, Yang; Li, Wan-Xia; Cheng, Ya-Hui; Li, Xiao-Feng; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Bao-Ming; Liu, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Lei; Lv, Xiong-Wen; Li, Jun

    2016-01-04

    Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). C57BL/6 mice fed EtOH-containing diet showed a mixed induction of hepatic classical (M1) and alternative (M2) macrophage markers. Since telomerase activation occurs at critical stages of myeloid and lymphoid cell activation, we herein investigated the role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the determining factor of telomerase, in macrophage activation during ALD. In our study, TERT expression and telomerase activity (TA) were remarkably increased in liver tissue of EtOH-fed mice. Moreover, EtOH significantly up-regulated TERT in isolated KCs and RAW 264.7 cells and LPS induced TERT production in vitro. These data indicate that up-regulation of TERT may play a critical role in macrophages during ALD. Furthermore, loss- and gain-of-function studies suggested that TERT switched macrophages towards M1 phenotype by regulating NF-κB signaling, but had limited effect on M2 macrophages polarization in vitro. Additionally, PDTC, a chemical inhibitor of NF-κB, could dramatically down-regulate TERT expression and the hallmarks of M1 macrophages. Therefore, our study unveils the role of TERT in macrophage polarization and the cross-talk between TERT and p65, which may provide a possible explanation for the ethanol-mediated hepatic proinflammatory response and M1 macrophage polarization.

  11. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as... 1954.'' are added at the end of the definition of Act. BILLING CODE 1505-01-D ...

  12. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... It was like watching a movie, but every couple of frames were skipping. It was disorienting," the ...

  13. Tinman/Nkx2-5 acts via miR-1 and upstream of Cdc42 to regulate heart function across species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wythe, Joshua D.; Liu, Jiandong; Cartry, Jerome; Vogler, Georg; Mohapatra, Bhagyalaxmi; Otway, Robyn T.; Huang, Yu; King, Isabelle N.; Maillet, Marjorie; Zheng, Yi; Crawley, Timothy; Taghli-Lamallem, Ouarda; Semsarian, Christopher; Dunwoodie, Sally; Winlaw, David; Harvey, Richard P.; Fatkin, Diane; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Srivastava, Deepak; Ocorr, Karen; Bruneau, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    Unraveling the gene regulatory networks that govern development and function of the mammalian heart is critical for the rational design of therapeutic interventions in human heart disease. Using the Drosophila heart as a platform for identifying novel gene interactions leading to heart disease, we found that the Rho-GTPase Cdc42 cooperates with the cardiac transcription factor Tinman/Nkx2-5. Compound Cdc42, tinman heterozygous mutant flies exhibited impaired cardiac output and altered myofibrillar architecture, and adult heart–specific interference with Cdc42 function is sufficient to cause these same defects. We also identified K+ channels, encoded by dSUR and slowpoke, as potential effectors of the Cdc42–Tinman interaction. To determine whether a Cdc42–Nkx2-5 interaction is conserved in the mammalian heart, we examined compound heterozygous mutant mice and found conduction system and cardiac output defects. In exploring the mechanism of Nkx2-5 interaction with Cdc42, we demonstrated that mouse Cdc42 was a target of, and negatively regulated by miR-1, which itself was negatively regulated by Nkx2-5 in the mouse heart and by Tinman in the fly heart. We conclude that Cdc42 plays a conserved role in regulating heart function and is an indirect target of Tinman/Nkx2-5 via miR-1. PMID:21690310

  14. 7 CFR 1160.101 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1160.101 Section 1160.101 Agriculture Regulations... Definitions § 1160.101 Act. Act means the Fluid Milk Promotion Act of 1990, Subtitle H of Title XIX of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, Public Law 101-624, 7 U.S.C. 6401-6417, and any...

  15. 7 CFR 947.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 947.2 Section 947.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Definitions § 947.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et...

  16. Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein Accumulates in the Nucleus in Response to Cocaine and Acts as a Brake on Chromatin Remodeling and Long-Term Behavioral Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salery, Marine; Dos Santos, Marc; Saint-Jour, Estefani; Moumné, Lara; Pagès, Christiane; Kappès, Vincent; Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Caboche, Jocelyne; Vanhoutte, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Addiction relies on persistent alterations of neuronal properties, which depends on gene regulation. Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) is an immediate early gene that modulates neuronal plasticity underlying learning and memory. Its role in cocaine-induced neuronal and behavioral adaptations remains elusive. Acute cocaine-treated mice were used for quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and confocal imaging from striatum. Live imaging and transfection assays for Arc overexpression were performed from primary cultures. Molecular and behavioral adaptations to cocaine were studied from Arc-deficient mice and their wild-type littermates. Arc messenger RNA and proteins are rapidly induced in the striatum after acute cocaine administration, via an extracellular-signal regulated kinase-dependent de novo protein synthesis. Although detected in dendrites, Arc accumulates in the nucleus in active zones of transcription, where it colocalizes with phospho-Ser10-histone H3, an important component of nucleosomal response. In vitro, Arc overexpression downregulates phospho-Ser10-histone H3 without modifying extracellular-signal regulated kinase phosphorylation in the nucleus. In vivo, Arc-deficient mice display decreased heterochromatin domains, a high RNA-polymerase II activity and enhanced c-Fos expression. These mice presented an exacerbated psychomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference induced by low doses of cocaine. Cocaine induces the rapid induction of Arc and its nuclear accumulation in striatal neurons. Locally, it alters the nucleosomal response, and acts as a brake on chromatin remodeling and gene regulation. These original observations posit Arc as a major homeostatic modulator of molecular and behavioral responses to cocaine. Thus, modulating Arc levels may provide promising therapeutic approaches in drug addiction. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by

  17. The Pepper WPP Domain Protein, CaWDP1, Acts as a Novel Negative Regulator of Drought Stress via ABA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Woo Chae; Baek, Woonhee; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Sohee; Kim, Hyon Sang; Kim, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Chul Sung

    2017-04-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by various environmental stresses, including high salinity and drought, and they have evolved defense mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of these stresses. The plant hormone ABA regulates plant growth and developmental processes and mediates abiotic stress responses. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel CaWDP1 (Capsicum annuum) protein. The expression of CaWDP1 in pepper leaves was induced by ABA, drought and NaCl treatments, suggesting its role in the abiotic stress response. CaWDP1 proteins show conserved sequence homology with other known WDP1 proteins, and they are localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. We generated CaWDP1-silenced peppers via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). We evaluated the responses of these CaWDP1-silenced pepper plants and CaWDP1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to ABA and drought. CaWDP1-silenced pepper plants displayed enhanced tolerance to drought stress, and this was characterized by low levels of leaf water loss in the drought-treated leaves. In contrast to CaWDP1-silenced plants, CaWDP1-OX plants exhibited an ABA-hyposensitive and drought-susceptible phenotype, which was accompanied by high levels of leaf water loss, low leaf temperatures, increased stomatal pore size and low expression levels of stress-responsive genes. Our results indicate that CaWDP1, a novel pepper negative regulator of ABA, regulates the ABA-mediated defense response to drought stress. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Arabidopsis ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 regulates abiotic stress-responsive gene expression by binding to different cis-acting elements in response to different stress signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Chun; Liao, Po-Ming; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2013-07-01

    ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1) is an upstream component in both jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling and is involved in pathogen resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that ERF1 might be related to the salt stress response through ethylene signaling. However, the specific role of ERF1 in abiotic stress and the molecular mechanism underlying the signaling cross talk still need to be elucidated. Here, we report that ERF1 was highly induced by high salinity and drought stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The salt stress induction required both JA and ET signaling but was inhibited by abscisic acid. ERF1-overexpressing lines (35S:ERF1) were more tolerant to drought and salt stress. They also displayed constitutively smaller stomatal aperture and less transpirational water loss. Surprisingly, 35S:ERF1 also showed enhanced heat tolerance and up-regulation of heat tolerance genes compared with the wild type. Several suites of genes activated by JA, drought, salt, and heat were found in microarray analysis of 35S:ERF1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays found that ERF1 up-regulates specific suites of genes in response to different abiotic stresses by stress-specific binding to GCC or DRE/CRT. In response to biotic stress, ERF1 bound to GCC boxes but not DRE elements; conversely, under abiotic stress, we observed specific binding of ERF1 to DRE elements. Furthermore, ERF1 bound preferentially to only one among several GCC box or DRE/CRT elements in the promoter region of its target genes. ERF1 plays a positive role in salt, drought, and heat stress tolerance by stress-specific gene regulation, which integrates JA, ET, and abscisic acid signals.

  19. Making a Lasting Impression: Recovery Act Reporting At Hanford - 12528

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tebrugge, Kimberly; Disney, Maren [CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The award of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding came with an unprecedented request for transparency to showcase to the American public how the stimulus funding was being put to work to achieve the goals put forth by the U.S. Government. At the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, this request manifested in a contract requirement to provide weekly narrative, photos and video to highlight Recovery Act-funded projects. For DOE contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL), the largest recipient of Hanford's funding, the reporting mechanism evolved into a communications tool for documenting the highly technical cleanup, then effectively sharing that story with the DOE and its varying stakeholder audiences. The report set the groundwork for building a streaming narrative of week-by-week progress. With the end of the Recovery Act, CH2M HILL is applying lessons learned from this stringent, transparent reporting process to its long-term reporting and communications of the progress being made in nuclear decommissioning at Hanford. (authors)

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LysR PA4203 regulator NmoR acts as a repressor of the PA4202 nmoA gene, encoding a nitronate monooxygenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercammen, Ken; Wei, Qing; Charlier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The PA4203 gene encodes a LysR regulator and lies between the ppgL gene (PA4204), which encodes a periplasmic gluconolactonase, and, in the opposite orientation, the PA4202 (nmoA) gene, coding for a nitronate monooxygenase, and ddlA (PA4201), encoding a d-alanine alanine ligase. The intergenic...... gene, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase, was the most highly upregulated gene in the nmoR deletion mutant, independently of MexT. Finally, deletion of the nmoA gene resulted in an increased sensitivity of the cells to 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), confirming the role of the nitronate monooxygenase...

  1. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Implementation of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure Requirements for Planning, Contractor’s Performance, and ’Reporting Was Ineffective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    cradle to grave.” The ESC project manager is also the appointed contracting officer representative. According to the contracting officer...NAVFAC SW official stated that the appointed project manager should manage the project from “ cradle to grave.” He also added that NAVFAC SW had to...easily have been made without final written CAT EXes. However, written CA TEXes were in place by the time the ’ go-no go· decision was made. The central

  2. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance US General Serices Administration - Project 193, John W. Bricker Federal Building, Columbus, OH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-05-31

    This report documents the findings from an onsite audit of the John W. Bricker Federal building located in Columbus, Ohio. The Federal landlord for this building is the General Services Administration (GSA). The focus of the audit was to identify various no-cost or low-cost energy efficiency opportunities that, once implemented, would either reduce electrical and gas consumption or increase the operational efficiency of the building. This audit also provided an opportunity to identify potential capital cost projects that should be considered in the future to acquire additional energy (electric and gas) and water savings to further increase the operational efficiency of the building.

  3. Report: Audit of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Funded Cooperative Agreement 2S-96099601 Awarded to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #13-R-0206, Mar 28, 2013. Ollie Green & Company, the firm hired by the OIG to conduct the audit, found that IDEQ complied with Idaho’s state procurement policies and procedures, as required by 40 CFR §35.6550(a), which referenced 40 CFR §31.36(a).

  4. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance - United States Pacific Command (PACOM) Guam, Task 3.3: Building Retuning Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2010-09-30

    Document describes an onsite workshop and building retuning training conducted in Guam in August 2010. Document reports on issues identified during an audit of several buildings and recommendations to save energy throughout the site. During the workshop, it became apparent that as site personnel maintain the facilities at Guam, the following retuning efforts and strategies should be prioritized: (1) Controlling the mechanical systems operational hours and zone temperature set points appeared to present the best opportunities for savings; (2) Zone temperature set points in some buildings are excessively low, especially at night, when the zone temperatures are so cold that they approached the dewpoint; and (3) Manually-set outside air dampers are providing excessive outside air, especially for spaces that are unoccupied. Two of the larger schools, one on the Naval Base and one on Anderson AFB, are in need of a significant recommissioning effort. These facilities are relatively new, with direct digital controls (DDC) but are significantly out of balance. The pressure in one school is extremely negative, which is pulling humid air through the facility each time a door is opened. The draft can be felt several feet down the halls. The pressure in the other school is extremely positive relative to the outside, and you can stand 20-feet outside and still feel cool drafts of air exiting the building. It is recommended that humidity sensors be installed in all new projects and retrofitted into exist facilities. In this humid climate, control of humidity is very important. There are significant periods of time when the mechanical systems in many buildings can be unloaded and dehumidification is not required. The use of CO{sub 2} sensors should also be considered in representative areas. CO{sub 2} sensors determine whether spaces are occupied so that fresh air is only brought into the space when needed. By reducing the amount of outside air brought into the space, the humidity load is also substantially reduced. CO{sub 2} and humidity sensors, combined with outside air sensors, can be used to predict whether conditions are amenable to mold growth and to automatically adjust systems to help prevent mold without using extra energy. The goal of this training is to give the building operators the knowledge needed to make positive changes in the operation of building systems. As class participants apply this knowledge, building systems will run more efficiently, occupant comfort should improve, while saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009 United States Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mohit [Seeo, Incorporated, Hayward, CA (United States); Grape, Ulrik [Seeo, Incorporated, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-07-29

    The purpose of this project was for Seeo to deliver the first ever large-scale or grid-scale prototype of a new class of advanced lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The technology combines unprecedented energy density, lifetime, safety, and cost. The goal was to demonstrate Seeo’s entirely new class of lithium-based batteries based on Seeo’s proprietary nanostructured polymer electrolyte. This technology can enable the widespread deployment in Smart Grid applications and was demonstrated through the development and testing of a 10 kilowatt-hour (kWh) prototype battery system. This development effort, supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) enabled Seeo to pursue and validate the transformational performance advantages of its technology for use in grid-tied energy storage applications. The focus of this project and Seeo’s goal as demonstrated through the efforts made under this project is to address the utility market needs for energy storage systems applications, especially for residential and commercial customers tied to solar photovoltaic installations. In addition to grid energy storage opportunities Seeo’s technology has been tested with automotive drive cycles and is seen as equally applicable for battery packs for electric vehicles. The goals of the project were outlined and achieved through a series of specific tasks, which encompassed materials development, scaling up of cells, demonstrating the performance of the cells, designing, building and demonstrating a pack prototype, and providing an economic and environmental assessment. Nearly all of the tasks were achieved over the duration of the program, with only the full demonstration of the battery system and a complete economic and environmental analysis not able to be fully completed. A timeline over the duration of the program is shown in figure 1.

  6. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Los Angeles District Contractor Performance and Reporting Controls Were Generally Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    treatment plant. o They awarded a second prime contract for the construction of an effluent pump station at the wastewater treatment plant that can...provide up to 460 million gallons a day of effluent from the treatment plant to the constructed wetlands. o They awarded a third contract for the...to the senior official in charge of internal controls at USACE Los Angeles. 4 Effluent is sewage that has been treated in a septic tank or sewage

  7. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ( ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance, U.S. General Services Administration - Project 194 U.S. Custom Cargo Inspection Facility, Detroit, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-05-31

    This report documents the findings of an on-site audit of the U.S. Customs Cargo Inspection Facility (CIF) in Detroit, Michigan. The federal landlord for this building is the General Services Administration (GSA). The focus of the audit was to identify various no-cost or low-cost energy-efficiency opportunities that, once implemented, would reduce electrical and gas consumption and increase the operational efficiency of the building. This audit also provided an opportunity to identify potential capital cost projects that should be considered in the future to acquire additional energy (electric and gas) and water savings to further increase the operational efficiency of the building.

  8. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) - FEMP Technical Assistance - Federal Aviation Administration - Project 209 - Control Tower and Support Building, Boise, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-06-28

    This report documents an energy audit performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Redhorse Corporation (Redhorse) conducted on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) control tower and base building in Boise, Idaho. This report presents findings of the energy audit team that evaluated construction documents and operating specifications (at the 100% level) followed by a site visit of the facility under construction. The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  9. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration – Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building Oakland, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-01

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 70% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be build at Oakland, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specification that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  10. Solicitation and Selection of Partner Projects, Technical Team Leads, and Measurement and Validation Contractors for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Funded Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, Ronald J.; Baechler, Michael C.; Iverson, Megan M.

    2010-09-30

    In March 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) joined two other labs receiving ARRA funding, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable National Laboratory (NREL), to began weekly conference calls with the goal of coordinating a joint lab solicitation to support the ARRA-funded CBP project. Two solicitations were identified for: 1) new CBP Partners; 2) technical contractors to provide technical assistance and measurement and verification (M&V) contractors. The M&V contractors support the work by providing model reviews and conducting monitoring studies to verify building performance. This report documents the process used by the labs for the solicitations, and describes the process and outcomes for PNNL, selection of candidate Partners, technical teams, and M&V contractors.

  11. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mobile District Contractor Performance and Reporting Controls Were Generally Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Civil Works projects at the Tennessee-Tombigbee Project Management Office and the Black Warrior and Tennessee-Tombigbee Project Management Office , totaling... Management Office required a response to contractor submittals from Fort Detrick and the Army Medical Command. 10 USACE Mobile did not...project. In some cases, contractor submittals may require a response from a third party. For example, the project we reviewed at the Forest Glen Project

  12. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 184 U.S. Customs and Border Protection Laboratory, Houston, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-09-30

    This report documents the findings of an on-site energy audit of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The focus of the audit was to identify various no-cost and low-cost energy efficiency opportunities that, once implemented, would reduce electricity and gas consumption and increase the operational efficiency of the building. This audit also provided an opportunity to identify potential capital cost projects that should be considered in the future to acquire additional energy (electric and gas) and water savings to further increase the operational efficiency of the building.

  13. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Interim Report on Customer Acceptance, Retention, and Response to Time-Based Rates from the Consumer Behavior Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hans, Liesel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scheer, Richard [Scheer Ventures, Takoma Park, MD (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Time-based rate programs1, enabled by utility investments in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), are increasingly being considered by utilities as tools to reduce peak demand and enable customers to better manage consumption and costs. There are several customer systems that are relatively new to the marketplace and have the potential for improving the effectiveness of these programs, including in-home displays (IHDs), programmable communicating thermostats (PCTs), and web portals. Policy and decision makers are interested in more information about customer acceptance, retention, and response before moving forward with expanded deployments of AMI-enabled new rates and technologies. Under the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (SGIG), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partnered with several utilities to conduct consumer behavior studies (CBS). The goals involved applying randomized and controlled experimental designs for estimating customer responses more precisely and credibly to advance understanding of time-based rates and customer systems, and provide new information for improving program designs, implementation strategies, and evaluations. The intent was to produce more robust and credible analysis of impacts, costs, benefits, and lessons learned and assist utility and regulatory decision makers in evaluating investment opportunities involving time-based rates. To help achieve these goals, DOE developed technical guidelines to help the CBS utilities estimate customer acceptance, retention, and response more precisely.

  14. Casein kinase II is required for proper cell division and acts as a negative regulator of centrosome duplication in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Medley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes are the primary microtubule-organizing centers that orchestrate microtubule dynamics during the cell cycle. The correct number of centrosomes is pivotal for establishing bipolar mitotic spindles that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. Thus, centrioles must duplicate once per cell cycle, one daughter per mother centriole, the process of which requires highly coordinated actions among core factors and modulators. Protein phosphorylation is shown to regulate the stability, localization and activity of centrosome proteins. Here, we report the function of Casein kinase II (CK2 in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The catalytic subunit (KIN-3/CK2α of CK2 localizes to nuclei, centrosomes and midbodies. Inactivating CK2 leads to cell division defects, including chromosome missegregation, cytokinesis failure and aberrant centrosome behavior. Furthermore, depletion or inhibiting kinase activity of CK2 results in elevated ZYG-1 levels at centrosomes, restoring centrosome duplication and embryonic viability to zyg-1 mutants. Our data suggest that CK2 functions in cell division and negatively regulates centrosome duplication in a kinase-dependent manner.

  15. Arabidopsis WRKY6 Transcription Factor Acts as a Positive Regulator of Abscisic Acid Signaling during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays important roles during seed germination and early seedling development. Here, we characterized the function of the Arabidopsis WRKY6 transcription factor in ABA signaling. The transcript of WRKY6 was repressed during seed germination and early seedling development, and induced by exogenous ABA. The wrky6-1 and wrky6-2 mutants were ABA insensitive, whereas WRKY6-overexpressing lines showed ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination and early seedling development. The expression of RAV1 was suppressed in the WRKY6-overexpressing lines and elevated in the wrky6 mutants, and the expression of ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5, which was directly down-regulated by RAV1, was enhanced in the WRKY6-overexpressing lines and repressed in the wrky6 mutants. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that WRKY6 could bind to the RAV1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of RAV1 in WRKY6-overexpressing lines abolished their ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes, and the rav1 wrky6-2 double mutant showed an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype, similar to rav1 mutant. Together, the results demonstrated that the Arabidopsis WRKY6 transcription factor played important roles in ABA signaling by directly down-regulating RAV1 expression.

  16. Heme acts through the Bach1b/Nrf2a-MafK pathway to regulate exocrine peptidase precursor genes in porphyric zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqing Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a zebrafish model of hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP, we identify a previously unknown mechanism underlying heme-mediated regulation of exocrine zymogens. Zebrafish bach1b, nrf2a and mafK are all expressed in the zebrafish exocrine pancreas. Overexpression of bach1b or knockdown of nrf2a result in the downregulation of the expression of the exocrine zymogens, whereas overexpression of nrf2a or knockdown of bach1b cause their upregulation. In vitro luciferase assays demonstrate that heme activates the zymogens in a dosage-dependent manner and that the zymogen promoter activities require the integral Maf recognition element (MARE motif. The Bach1b-MafK heterodimer represses the zymogen promoters, whereas the Nrf2a-MafK heterodimer activates them. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays show that MafK binds to the MARE sites in the 5′ regulatory regions of the zymogens. Taken together, these data indicate that heme stimulates the exchange of Bach1b for Nrf2a at MafK-occupied MARE sites and that, particularly in heme-deficient porphyria, the repressive Bach1b-MafK heterodimer dominates, which can be exchanged for the activating Nrf2a-MafK heterodimer upon treatment with hemin. These results provide novel insights into the regulation of exocrine function, as well as the pathogenesis of porphyria, and should be useful for designing new therapies for both types of disease.

  17. HSPRO acts via SnRK1-mediated signaling in the regulation of Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth promoted by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Nicotiana attenuata HSPRO (NaHSPRO) is a negative regulator of seedling growth promoted by the fungus Piriformospora indica. Homologs of NaHSPRO in Arabidopsis thaliana (i.e., AtHSPRO1 and AtHSPRO2) are known to physically interact with the AKINβγ subunit of the SnRK1 complex. To investigate whether NaHSPRO is associated with SnRK1 function during the stimulation of seedling growth by P. indica, we studied N. attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaGAL83 (as-gal83 plants)--a gene that encodes for the regulatory β-subunit of SnRK1--and plants silenced in the expression of both NaHSPRO and NaGAL83 (ir-hspro/as-gal83 plants). The results showed that P. indica differentially stimulated the growth of both as-gal83 and ir-hspro/as-gal83 seedlings compared with control seedlings, with a magnitude similar to that observed in ir-hspro seedlings. Thus, we showed that, similar to NaHSPRO, NaGAL83 is a negative regulator of seedling growth stimulated by P. indica. We propose that the effect of NaHSPRO on seedling growth is associated with SnRK1 signaling.

  18. THE INTERPRETATION OF THE AMENDED RAF ACT 56 OF 1996 AND THE REGULATIONS THERETO BY THE COURTS WITH REGARD TO “SERIOUS INJURY” CLAIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Steynberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The RAF Amendment Act 19 of 2005 came into effect on 1 August 2008 and sections 17(1 and 17(1A introduced the concept of “serious injury”. This entails that a third-party claimant who wishes to claim compensation for non-patrimonial loss suffered after a motor-vehicle accident has to prove that his or her injury is “serious”. If the claimant’s injury is not considered “serious” no compensation will be awarded for the non-patrimonial loss suffered and, furthermore, the claimant will also not be entitled to claim any compensation from the wrongdoer in terms of common law (s 21 of the RAF Act. In a sequence of unreported cases the courts have provided guidelines on the procedure to be followed in serious-injury claims. Firstly, a claimant must submit himself or herself to an assessment by a medical practitioner registered under the Health Professions Act. Secondly, the medical practitioner must assess if the injuries sustained by the claimant fall within the list of “non-serious injuries”, and if so, compensation for non-patrimonial loss will not be awarded. If the injury is not on the list of non-serious injuries, the medical practitioner may assess the injuries and if they result in 30 per cent or more of whole-person impairment (“WPI” compensation for non-patrimonial loss may be awarded. If the evaluation is that the 30 per cent of WPI cannot be reached, non-patrimonial loss may still be claimed if the injuries fall within the “narrative test”, namely (a resulting in a serious long-term impairment or loss of a body function; (b constituting permanent serious disfigurement; (c resulting in severe long-term mental or severe long-term behavioural disturbance or disorder; or (d resulting in the loss of a foetus. A plaintiff may use either of the two tests to establish serious injury and in such a manner qualify for compensation for non-patrimonial loss. A medical practitioner must complete and submit a serious

  19. 45 CFR 503.1 - Definitions-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions-Privacy Act. 503.1 Section 503.1... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.1 Definitions—Privacy Act. For the purpose of this part: Agency...

  20. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect the...

  1. Control: Why, when and how? Some general principles of state control presented on the example of disqualification from performing commercial activities pursuant to § 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pürner Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues relating to state control and state reaction to breaches of the rules discovered, using the example of Section 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act (§ 35 Gewerbeordnung, GewO. This provision is the central norm in German law, on the basis of which entrepreneurial activities can be prohibited. In the introduction, the author provides an overview of different forms of control and discusses the role of the courts in general, but also in the context of reviewing the control measures taken by the state. The author agrees that jurisprudence (case law is not a source of law in the countries of the European-Continental legal system. However, this should not lead to the wrong conclusion that the courts are neither qualified nor obliged to develop the law. After the introductory remarks, the author discusses the provisions contained in § 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act (Gewerbeordnung. This example is of particular interest as it demonstrates various general principles of state control over private activities. While the provision originally contained a casuistic enumeration of individual cases, it nowadays uses a blanket clause. Accordingly, the concept of Unzuverlässigkeit ('unreliability ', which is not defined in more detail is the definitional element for a disqualification from the practice of commercial activities. Hence, the courts' task in dealing with the respective cases has significantly changed, as the control process involves consideration of both public and private interests, as well as striking a fair balance between the opposing public and private interests. The author points out that this is also justified as the legislator can hardly foresee all cases to which the provision might appear in practice. In particular, the author points out that the German legislator, unlike the legislators in some transformation states, has opted for having as few

  2. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  3. Regulation effects of the German renewable energy act on the ecological upgrade of hydro-power plants. Results of a survey; Lenkungswirkung der Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetze (EEG 2004 und 2009) fuer die oekologische Modernisierung von Wasserkraftanlagen. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderer, Pia [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Naumann, Stephan [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Germany lacks a unified register containing data on the equipment of hydropower stations with environmental facilities or of those subject to requirements for reducing the environmental impact on the status of waters. Thanks to the cooperation of the hydro-power plant operators, our survey allowed us for the first time to gain insight into the regulation effects of the German Renewable Energy Act (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz; EEG) as well as into the ecological upgrade potential of German hydro-power plants. EEG 2004 and 2009 funded measures implemented at hydro-power stations are focused on ensuring a minimum flow as well as on longitudinal connectivity. This priority is consistent with the water management requirement of achieving the goals of the Water Framework Directive in this area. (orig.)

  4. MicroRNA-184 acts as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker in epithelial ovarian cancer and regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong-Zhen; Lou, Xiao-Ya; Lv, Qiao-Li; Cheng, Lin; Wu, Na-Yiyuan; Hu, Lei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA-184 (miR-184) is found to be significantly deregulated in human cancers associated with tumorigenesis and progression. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of miR-184 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Relative expression of miR-184 was measured by quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) in 80 EOC patients. Kaplan-Meier curve and the log-rank test were conducted to detect the prognostic value of miR-184. Function assays including cell proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation were further explored in vitro. We found that miR-184 was down-regulated in EOC tissues and cell lines compared with paired non-cancerous tissues and IOSE, respectively. Moreover, miR-184 was expressed at significantly lower levels in late-stage (III/IV) EOC tissues. Cox regression multivariate analysis indicated that miR-184 and FIGO stage were independent prognostic indicators for EOC patients. Patients with high miR-184 level achieved significantly a higher 5-year survival rate compared with low level group (P 184 over-expression could suppress EOC cell proliferation as well as inflammation and induce apoptosis in vitro. Altogether, our results suggest that miR-184 together with pathologic diagnosis is critical for prognosis determination in EOC patients and help select treatment strategy.

  5. USP22 acts as an oncogene by regulating the stability of cyclooxygenase-2 in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Haibo [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Tian, Yue [Institute of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Yang, Yang; Hu, Fengqing; Xie, Xiao; Mei, Ju [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ding, Fangbao, E-mail: drnail@sina.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-05-08

    The histone ubiquitin hydrolase ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) is an epigenetic modifier and an oncogene that is upregulated in many types of cancer. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), aberrant expression of USP22 is a predictor of poor survival, as is high expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Despite its oncogenic role, few substrates of USP22 have been identified and its mechanism of action in cancer remains unclear. Here, we identified COX-2 as a direct substrate of USP22 and showed that its levels are modulated by USP22 mediated deubiquitination. Silencing of USP22 downregulated COX-2, decreased its half-life, and inhibited lung carcinoma cell proliferation by directly interacting with and modulating the stability and activity of COX-2 through the regulation of its ubiquitination status. The findings of the present study suggest a potential mechanism underlying the oncogenic role of USP22 mediated by the modulation of the stability and activity of COX-2. - Highlights: • USP22 interacts with COX-2. • USP22 deubiquitinates and stabilizes COX-2. • USP22 is required for COX-2-mediated upregulation of prostaglandin E2.

  6. A systematic analysis of cell cycle regulators in yeast reveals that most factors act independently of cell size to control initiation of division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Hoose

    Full Text Available Upstream events that trigger initiation of cell division, at a point called START in yeast, determine the overall rates of cell proliferation. The identity and complete sequence of those events remain unknown. Previous studies relied mainly on cell size changes to identify systematically genes required for the timely completion of START. Here, we evaluated panels of non-essential single gene deletion strains for altered DNA content by flow cytometry. This analysis revealed that most gene deletions that altered cell cycle progression did not change cell size. Our results highlight a strong requirement for ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis for initiation of cell division. We also identified numerous factors that have not been previously implicated in cell cycle control mechanisms. We found that CBS, which catalyzes the synthesis of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine, advances START in two ways: by promoting cell growth, which requires CBS's catalytic activity, and by a separate function, which does not require CBS's catalytic activity. CBS defects cause disease in humans, and in animals CBS has vital, non-catalytic, unknown roles. Hence, our results may be relevant for human biology. Taken together, these findings significantly expand the range of factors required for the timely initiation of cell division. The systematic identification of non-essential regulators of cell division we describe will be a valuable resource for analysis of cell cycle progression in yeast and other organisms.

  7. Syndecan-1 Acts as an Important Regulator of CXCL1 Expression and Cellular Interaction of Human Endometrial Stromal and Trophoblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Maria Baston-Buest

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful implantation of the embryo into the human receptive endometrium is substantial for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. This study focusses on the role of Syndecan-1 at the embryo-maternal interface, the multitasking coreceptor influencing ligand concentration, release and receptor presentation, and cellular morphology. CXC motif ligand 1, being involved in chemotaxis and angiogenesis during implantation, is of special interest as a ligand of Syndecan-1. Human endometrial stromal cells with and without Syndecan-1 knock-down were decidualized and treated with specific inhibitors to evaluate signaling pathways regulating CXC ligand 1 expression. Western blot analyses of MAPK and Wnt members were performed, followed by analysis of spheroid interactions between human endometrial cells and extravillous trophoblast cells. By mimicking embryo contact using IL-1β, we showed less ERK and c-Jun activation by depletion of Syndecan-1 and less Frizzled 4 production as part of the canonical Wnt pathway. Additionally, more beta-catenin was phosphorylated and therefore degraded after depletion of Syndecan-1. Secretion of CXC motif ligand 1 depends on MEK-1 with respect to Syndecan-1. Regarding the interaction of endometrial and trophoblast cells, the spheroid center-to-center distances were smaller after depletion of Syndecan-1. Therefore, Syndecan-1 seems to affect signaling processes relevant to signaling and intercellular interaction at the trophoblast-decidual interface.

  8. A C-terminally truncated form of β-catenin acts as a novel regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in planarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanxia Su

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available β-Catenin, the core element of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is a multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved protein which performs essential roles in a variety of developmental and homeostatic processes. Despite its crucial roles, the mechanisms that control its context-specific functions in time and space remain largely unknown. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been extensively studied in planarians, flatworms with the ability to regenerate and remodel the whole body, providing a 'whole animal' developmental framework to approach this question. Here we identify a C-terminally truncated β-catenin (β-catenin4, generated by gene duplication, that is required for planarian photoreceptor cell specification. Our results indicate that the role of β-catenin4 is to modulate the activity of β-catenin1, the planarian β-catenin involved in Wnt signal transduction in the nucleus, mediated by the transcription factor TCF-2. This inhibitory form of β-catenin, expressed in specific cell types, would provide a novel mechanism to modulate nuclear β-catenin signaling levels. Genomic searches and in vitro analysis suggest that the existence of a C-terminally truncated form of β-catenin could be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to achieve a fine-tuned regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in specific cellular contexts.

  9. A C-terminally truncated form of β-catenin acts as a novel regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hanxia; Sureda-Gomez, Miquel; Rabaneda-Lombarte, Neus; Gelabert, Maria; Xie, Jianlei; Wu, Wei; Adell, Teresa

    2017-10-01

    β-Catenin, the core element of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is a multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved protein which performs essential roles in a variety of developmental and homeostatic processes. Despite its crucial roles, the mechanisms that control its context-specific functions in time and space remain largely unknown. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been extensively studied in planarians, flatworms with the ability to regenerate and remodel the whole body, providing a 'whole animal' developmental framework to approach this question. Here we identify a C-terminally truncated β-catenin (β-catenin4), generated by gene duplication, that is required for planarian photoreceptor cell specification. Our results indicate that the role of β-catenin4 is to modulate the activity of β-catenin1, the planarian β-catenin involved in Wnt signal transduction in the nucleus, mediated by the transcription factor TCF-2. This inhibitory form of β-catenin, expressed in specific cell types, would provide a novel mechanism to modulate nuclear β-catenin signaling levels. Genomic searches and in vitro analysis suggest that the existence of a C-terminally truncated form of β-catenin could be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to achieve a fine-tuned regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in specific cellular contexts.

  10. A systematic analysis of cell cycle regulators in yeast reveals that most factors act independently of cell size to control initiation of division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoose, Scott A; Rawlings, Jeremy A; Kelly, Michelle M; Leitch, M Camille; Ababneh, Qotaiba O; Robles, Juan P; Taylor, David; Hoover, Evelyn M; Hailu, Bethel; McEnery, Kayla A; Downing, S Sabina; Kaushal, Deepika; Chen, Yi; Rife, Alex; Brahmbhatt, Kirtan A; Smith, Roger; Polymenis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Upstream events that trigger initiation of cell division, at a point called START in yeast, determine the overall rates of cell proliferation. The identity and complete sequence of those events remain unknown. Previous studies relied mainly on cell size changes to identify systematically genes required for the timely completion of START. Here, we evaluated panels of non-essential single gene deletion strains for altered DNA content by flow cytometry. This analysis revealed that most gene deletions that altered cell cycle progression did not change cell size. Our results highlight a strong requirement for ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis for initiation of cell division. We also identified numerous factors that have not been previously implicated in cell cycle control mechanisms. We found that CBS, which catalyzes the synthesis of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine, advances START in two ways: by promoting cell growth, which requires CBS's catalytic activity, and by a separate function, which does not require CBS's catalytic activity. CBS defects cause disease in humans, and in animals CBS has vital, non-catalytic, unknown roles. Hence, our results may be relevant for human biology. Taken together, these findings significantly expand the range of factors required for the timely initiation of cell division. The systematic identification of non-essential regulators of cell division we describe will be a valuable resource for analysis of cell cycle progression in yeast and other organisms.

  11. The PerR-Regulated P1B-4-Type ATPase (PmtA) Acts as a Ferrous Iron Efflux Pump in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew G; Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Djoko, Karrera Y; West, Nicholas P; Davies, Mark R; McEwan, Alastair G; Walker, Mark J

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) is an obligate human pathogen responsible for a broad spectrum of human disease. GAS has a requirement for metal homeostasis within the human host and, as such, tightly modulates metal uptake and efflux during infection. Metal acquisition systems are required to combat metal sequestration by the host, while metal efflux systems are essential to protect against metal overload poisoning. Here, we investigated the function of PmtA (PerR-regulated metal transporter A), a P1B-4-type ATPase efflux pump, in invasive GAS M1T1 strain 5448. We reveal that PmtA functions as a ferrous iron [Fe(II)] efflux system. In the presence of high Fe(II) concentrations, the 5448ΔpmtA deletion mutant exhibited diminished growth and accumulated 5-fold-higher levels of intracellular Fe(II) than did the wild type and the complemented mutant. The 5448ΔpmtA deletion mutant also showed enhanced susceptibility to killing by the Fe-dependent antibiotic streptonigrin as well as increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. We suggest that the PerR-mediated control of Fe(II) efflux by PmtA is important for bacterial defense against oxidative stress. PmtA represents an exemplar for an Fe(II) efflux system in a host-adapted Gram-positive bacterial pathogen. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. MeSAUR1, Encoded by a Small Auxin-Up RNA Gene, Acts as a Transcription Regulator to Positively Regulate ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Small Subunit1a Gene in Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping’an Ma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, being one of the top three tuberous crops, features highly efficient starch accumulation in the storage root to adapt the tropical resources and environments. The molecular mechanism for the process, however, is still unclear. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, the first and rate-limited enzyme in starch biosynthesis pathway, is a heterotetramer comprised of two small/catalytic and two large/modulatory subunits. To understand the regulation of MeAGPase, the promoter of a highly expressed small subunit, MeAGPs1a, was used as bait for a yeast one-hybrid assay to screen storage root cDNA library. One cDNA, coding for a small auxin-up RNA protein, named MeSAUR1, was isolated from cassava. MeSAUR1 could bind to the promoter of MeAGPS1a in yeast one-hybrid test and in vitro, and was located in cell nucleus. MeSAUR1 displayed a higher transcript level in cassava root cortex, and its expression was induced by indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellin and ethylene, but repressed by abscisic acid. A dual-luciferase interaction test further convinced that MeSAUR1 could bind to the promoter of MeAGPS1a, and positively regulate the transcription of MeAGPS1a in cassava.

  13. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Acts as a Neuroprotective Agent in in Vitro Models of Parkinson’s Disease via Up-regulation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colini Baldeschi, Arianna; Pittaluga, Eugenia; Andreola, Federica; Rossi, Simona; Cozzolino, Mauro; Nicotera, Giuseppe; Sferrazza, Gianluca; Pierimarchi, Pasquale; Serafino, Annalucia

    2018-01-01

    In the last decades increasing evidence indicated a crucial role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in development of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Recently dysregulation of this pathway has been proposed as a novel pathomechanism leading to Parkinson’s disease (PD) and some of the molecules participating to the signaling have been evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for PD. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac-derived hormone having a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis. ANP and its receptors (NPRs) are widely expressed in mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where they could be implicated in the regulation of neural development, synaptic transmission and information processing, as well as in neuroprotection. Until now, the effects of ANP in the CNS have been mainly ascribed to the binding and activation of NPRs. We have previously demonstrated that ANP affects the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer cells through a Frizzled receptor-mediated mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate if ANP is able to exert neuroprotective effect on two in vitro models of PD, and if this effect could be related to activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. As cellular models of DA neurons, we used the proliferating or RA-differentiated human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. In both DA neuron-like cultures, ANP is able to positively affect the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, by inducing β-catenin stabilization and nuclear translocation. Importantly, activation of the Wnt pathway by ANP exerts neuroprotective effect when these two cellular systems were subjected to neurotoxic insult (6-OHDA) for mimicking the neurodegeneration of PD. Our data support the relevance of exogenous ANP as an innovative therapeutic molecule for midbrain, and more in general for brain diseases for which aberrant Wnt signaling seems to be involved. PMID:29449807

  14. Two distinct disulfide bonds formed in human heat shock transcription factor 1 act in opposition to regulate its DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming; Kim, Hee-Eun; Li, Chun-Ri; Kim, Sol; Kwak, Im-Jung; Lee, Yun-Ju; Kim, So-Sun; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Cho Hee; Kim, Dong-Kyoo; Kang, Ho Sung; Park, Jang-Su

    2008-06-03

    Under circumstances of heat stress, heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) plays important roles in heat shock protein expression. In this study, an increasing concentration of dithiothreitol (DTT) was found to either enhance or inhibit the heat-induced trimerization of HSF1, suggesting the involvement of dual redox-dependent HSF1 activation mechanisms. Our in vitro experiments show that the heat-induced bonding between the cysteine C36 and C103 residues of HSF1 forms an intermolecular disulfide covalent bond (SS-I bond) and that it directly causes HSF1 to trimerize and bond to DNA. Gel filtration assays show that HSF1 can form intermolecular hydrophobic interaction-mediated (iHI-m) noncovalent oligomers. However, the lack of a trimerization domain prevents HSF1 activation, which suggests that iHI-m noncovalent trimerization is a precondition of SS-I bond formation. On the other hand, intramolecular SS-II bond (in which the C153, C373, and C378 residues of HSF1 participate) formation inhibits this iHI-m trimerization, thereby preventing SS-I bond formation and DNA binding. Thus, HSF1 activation is regulated positively by intermolecular SS-I bond formation and negatively by intramolecular SS-II bond formation. Importantly, these two SS bonds confer different DTT sensitivities (the SS-II bond is more sensitive). Therefore, a low concentration of DTT cleaves the SS-II bond but not the SS-I bond and thus improves DNA binding of HSF1, whereas a high concentration DTT cuts both SS bonds and inhibits HSF1 activation. We propose that these interesting effects further explain cellular HSF1 trimerization, DNA binding, and transcription when cells are under stress.

  15. cis-acting DNA elements regulating expression of the liver pyruvate kinase gene in hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Evidence for tissue-specific activators and extinguisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognet, M; Bergot, M O; Kahn, A

    1991-04-25

    To identify the DNA sequences that cis-regulate the expression of the rat liver pyruvate kinase (L-PK) genes, a series of constructs in which the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter genes is driven by various deleted fragments of the 3200 base pairs (bp) upstream of the L-PK gene cap site have been assayed for transient expression after introduction into hepatoma HepG2 cells, rat hepatocytes in primary culture, fibroblast LTK- cells, myogenic C2C12 cells, and CHO cells. Four distinct regulatory domains have been characterized. A proximal promoter region containing a binding site for the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) which is sufficient to confer liver specificity, even in the presence of a ubiquitous enhancer. A distal promoter region (-96 to -283 bp) containing binding sites for the liver-specific factor A1 (LFA1), the ubiquitous nuclear factor 1 (NF1), the major late transcriptional factor (MLTF), and so far unidentified proteins binding to the L5-PK region which is essential to maximally activate expression of the construct in HepG2 cells. An extinguisher region, located between positions -2082 and -1170 bp, which decreases efficiency of the L-PK promoter in HepG2 cells, but not in hepatocytes in primary culture. Finally, a far upstream region (-2900 to -2500 bp) which seems to correspond to a liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive site and which behaves in HepG2 cells as an activating sequence efficient in the absence of the extinguisher.

  16. 75 FR 52300 - Merchant Marine Act and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fishing Vessel, Fishing Facility and... the Fisheries Finance Program's programmatic regulations. The proposed rule was published with an...

  17. Lessons from comparative effectiveness research methods development projects funded under the Recovery Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurovac, Jelena; Esposito, Dominick

    2014-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) directed nearly US$29.2 million to comparative effectiveness research (CER) methods development. To help inform future CER methods investments, we describe the ARRA CER methods projects, identify barriers to this research and discuss the alignment of topics with published methods development priorities. We used several existing resources and held discussions with ARRA CER methods investigators. Although funded projects explored many identified priority topics, investigators noted that much work remains. For example, given the considerable investments in CER data infrastructure, the methods development field can benefit from additional efforts to educate researchers about the availability of new data sources and about how best to apply methods to match their research questions and data.

  18. Human Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P) regulates cytoplasmic lipid droplet abundance: A potential target for indirect-acting anti-dengue virus agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrina, Anastasia; Meng, Fanrui; McArthur, Steven J; Eivemark, Sharlene; Nabi, Ivan R; Jean, François

    2017-01-01

    Viral hijacking and manipulation of host-cell biosynthetic pathways by human enveloped viruses are shared molecular events essential for the viral lifecycle. For Flaviviridae members such as hepatitis C virus and dengue virus (DENV), one of the key subsets of cellular pathways that undergo manipulation is the lipid metabolic pathways, underlining the importance of cellular lipids and, in particular, lipid droplets (LDs) in viral infection. Here, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes that act as key regulators of lipid homeostasis and LD formation could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with all DENV serotypes (1-4) circulating around the world. Using PF-429242, an active-site-directed inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P, we demonstrate that inhibition of SKI-1/S1P enzymatic activity in human hepatoma Huh-7.5.1 cells results in a robust reduction of the LD numbers and LD-positive areas and provides a means of effectively inhibiting infection by DENV (1-4). Pre-treatment of Huh-7.5.1 cells with PF-429242 results in a dose-dependent inhibition of DENV infection [median inhibitory dose (EC50) = 1.2 microM; median cytotoxic dose (CC50) = 81 microM; selectivity index (SI) = 68)] and a ~3-log decrease in DENV-2 titer with 20 microM of PF-429242. Post-treatment of DENV-2 infected Huh-7.5.1 cells with PF-429242 does not affect viral RNA abundance, but it does compromise the assembly and/or release of infectious virus particles. PF-429242 antiviral activity is reversed by exogenous oleic acid, which acts as an inducer of LD formation in PF-429242-treated and non-treated control cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that human SKI-1/S1P is a potential target for indirect-acting pan-serotypic anti-DENV agents and reveal new therapeutic opportunities associated with the use of lipid-modulating drugs for controlling DENV infection.

  19. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.

    1980-02-01

    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  20. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution...

  1. 75 FR 36535 - Freedom of Information Act, Privacy Act of 1974; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Office of the Secretary 31 CFR Part 1 Freedom of Information Act, Privacy Act of 1974; Implementation... of the Treasury's regulations on the disclosure of records under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA... CFR Part 1 Freedom of Information; Privacy. 0 Accordingly, part 1 of title 31 of the Code of Federal...

  2. 78 FR 28532 - Freedom of Information, Privacy Act, and Government in the Sunshine Act Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...; ] PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES OVERSIGHT BOARD 6 CFR Chapter X RIN 0311-AA01 Freedom of Information, Privacy... proposing regulations to implement the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act of 1974, and the... implement the Board's procedures required under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552, as...

  3. 75 FR 743 - Freedom of Information Act, Privacy Act of 1974; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Office of the Secretary 31 CFR Part 1 Freedom of Information Act, Privacy Act of 1974; Implementation... the Treasury's regulations on the disclosure of records under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA... Subjects in 31 CFR Part 1 Freedom of Information; Privacy. 0 Part 1 of Title 31 of the Code of Federal...

  4. 75 FR 78619 - Shipping Act, Merchant Marine, and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ..., and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act) Provisions... well as the Magnuson-Stevens Act. These regulations revise the operating rules of the Fisheries Finance... Finance Program, 301-713-2390. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic Access This final rule is also...

  5. 75 FR 20298 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... release of accounting of disclosure would inform a subject that he or she is under investigation. This... concerning the nature of the investigation and the coordinated investigative efforts and techniques employed... open investigation on that individual is taking place, and might weaken the ongoing investigation...

  6. 78 FR 46555 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... upon request. Release of accounting of disclosures would alert the subjects of an investigation to the... documenting all investigations and law enforcement activities, traffic safety and traffic accidents. Data... Case Investigation--Interior, BLM-18 (73 FR 17376, April 1, 2008); Bureau of Indian Affairs Law...

  7. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... ischaemum (L.) Keng'', ``Brome, meadow--Bromus biebersteninii Roem. and Schult.'', ``Brome, smooth--Bromus... ischaemum (L.) Keng var. ischaemum'', ``Brome, meadow--Bromus biebersteinii Roem. & Schult.'', ``Brome... considered pure seed. * * * * * (g) * * * Seed units of smooth brome, fairway crested wheatgrass, standard...

  8. 76 FR 31790 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Vitm. var. gerardii'', ``Bluestem, yellow-- Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng'', ``Brome, meadow--Bromus biebersteinii Roem. and Schult.'', ``Brome, smooth--Bromus inermis Leyss.'', ``Corn, field--Zea mays L... ischaemum (L.) Keng var. ischaemum'', ``Brome, meadow--Bromus biebersteinii Roem. & Schult.'', ``Brome...

  9. House Passes AHCA; HHS Acts On Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Timothy Stoltzfus

    2017-06-01

    As the GOP worked to pass ACA repeal legislation, HHS finalized a market stabilization rule, and the debate over cost-sharing reduction payments continued. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Legislative Hearing: Regulations on the Solomon Amendment to the Defense Act of 1983. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on H.R. 1286 and H.R. 1567, and H.R. 1622 and H.R. 2145 (February 23, 24; March 23, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Hearings on the Solomon amendment regulations proposed by the U.S. Department of Education are presented. The Solomon amendment requires that any student be registered under the military's Selective Service Act in order to receive Title IV federal student assistance. H.R. 1286 and H.R. 1567 would repeal the provision of the Military Selective…

  11. 48 CFR 52.224-2 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act. 52.224-2... Act. As prescribed in 24.104, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts, when the... agency function: Privacy Act (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor agrees to— (1) Comply with the Privacy Act of...

  12. 48 CFR 22.403-2 - Copeland Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copeland Act. 22.403-2... Construction 22.403-2 Copeland Act. The Copeland (Anti-Kickback) Act (18 U.S.C. 874 and 40 U.S.C. 3145) makes... person is entitled under a contract of employment. The Copeland Act also requires each contractor and...

  13. 48 CFR 1552.239-70 - Rehabilitation act notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rehabilitation act notice... Rehabilitation act notice. As prescribed in 1523.7003(a), insert the following clause. Rehabilitation Act Notice (OCT 2000) (a) EPA has a legal obligation under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 791, to...

  14. Die Civil Union Act, Draft Domestic Partnership Bill en moontlike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil Union Act, Draft Domestic Partnership Bill and possible deregulation of marriage: The Civil Union Act 17/2006 is compared to the Marriage Act 25/1961 to determine whether similar life partnerships should be regulated by more than one act. Thereafter the Draft Domestic Partnership Bill is investigated to determine the ...

  15. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food products...

  16. 7 CFR 1209.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1209.1 Section 1209.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-624, 7 U.S.C. 6101-6112, and...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.600 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1220.600 Section 1220.600 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-624), and any amendments thereto. ...

  18. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  19. Normative acts management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ardeleanu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the normative act amongst the formal law sources system is the result of the constructive activity of specialized bodies, designated by the Constitution, by laws or by regulations of normative power (having the right of drafting norms of generally mandatory power. Such bodies are named lawgiving bodies (also referred to as the "lawgiver" or "lawmaker" and they are first of all the bodies of the lawgiving power, entitled to issue on a primary and originator level the fundamental social relations in a society, to organize the juridical order of a nation or of a community of nations. The activity of these bodies is carried out under rules of juridical technique and in accordance with the general purposes imposed by the proper functioning of the social mechanism regarding the coexistence of social freedoms.

  20. 7 CFR 33.60 - OMB control number assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT...

  1. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  2. A national Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA) of health improvement spending across Wales: disinvestment and reinvestment across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna M; Thomas, Sara; Bishop, Julie; Cohen, David; Groves, Sam; Humphreys, Ciaran; Howson, Helen; Bradley, Peter

    2014-08-12

    Wales faces serious public health challenges, with relatively low life expectancies and wide inequalities in life expectancy with associated pressures on the National Health Service (NHS) at a time of financial recession. This has led to growing recognition of the need to better understand the range of health improvement and prevention programmes across Welsh Government, NHS, local government and voluntary sector agencies. The Minister for Health and Social Care commissioned Public Health Wales, the single national public health organisation, to establish a Health Improvement Advisory Group, to oversee a Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA) expert panel. The panel drew on evidence from a range of sources to explore potential alternative modes of health improvement initiative delivery across Wales. Electronic voting was used to agree an appropriate time horizon for health improvement programme outcomes, main objective of the health improvement review and criteria for evaluating candidate services for disinvestment and investment. The panel also used electronic voting to state whether they wished to disinvest or invest in a candidate service. The review identified a budget of £15.1 million, spanning 10 Welsh Government priority areas, and 6 life course stages. Due to lack of evidence the panel recommended total disinvestment in 7 out of 25 initiatives releasing £1.5 million of resources, and partial disinvestment in a further 3 interventions releasing £7.3 million of resources. The panel did not recommend increasing investment in any of the 25 initiatives under review. Marginal analyses prioritised child health, mental health and wellbeing and tobacco control as key areas for investment. Wales is championing a concept of "prudent healthcare". The PBMA exercise undertaken here was a transparent evidence-based tool to reach decisions about potential for disinvestment and reinvestment in health improvement strategies. It also demonstrates the potential

  3. 28 CFR 2.106 - Youth Rehabilitation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Youth Rehabilitation Act. 2.106 Section 2....106 Youth Rehabilitation Act. (a) Regulations governing YRA offenders and D.C. Code FYCA offenders... to an offender sentenced under the Youth Rehabilitation Act of 1985 (D.C. Code 24-901 et seq.) (YRA...

  4. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the Pro...

  5. 29 CFR 1614.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Pay Act. 1614.202 Section 1614.202 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.202 Equal Pay Act. (a) In its enforcement of the Equal Pay Act, the Commission has the authority to investigate an agency's employment practices on...

  6. 48 CFR 352.224-70 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act. 352.224-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.224-70 Privacy Act. As prescribed in 324.103(b)(2), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Privacy Act (January...

  7. 17 CFR 229.801 - Securities Act industry guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Securities Act industry guides. 229.801 Section 229.801 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.801 Securities Act industry...

  8. 17 CFR 229.802 - Exchange Act industry guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange Act industry guides. 229.802 Section 229.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.802 Exchange Act industry...

  9. 30 CFR 252.6 - Freedom of Information Act requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requirements. 252.6... CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.6 Freedom of Information Act requirements. (a... to the limitations of the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), the regulations contained in 43...

  10. Orphan drug regulations. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing final regulations amending the 1992 Orphan Drug Regulations issued to implement the Orphan Drug Act. These amendments are intended to clarify regulatory provisions and make minor improvements to address issues that have arisen since those regulations were issued.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.15 - Relationship to the Service Contract Act; Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts Act. 1926.15 Section 1926.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...-Healey Public Contracts Act. (a) A contract for “construction” is one for nonpersonal service. See, e.g... Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act to certain particular working conditions. None of the described...

  12. 75 FR 8013 - Serve America Act Amendments to the National and Community Service Act of 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ...On April 21, 2009, President Obama signed into law the Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act (``The Serve America Act'' or ``SAA''). The Serve America Act reauthorizes and expands national service programs administered by the Corporation for National and Community Service (``the Corporation'') by amending the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (``NCSA'' or ``the Act'') and the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973 (``DVSA''). The Corporation publishes this proposed rule to implement changes to the operation of the National Service Trust under the Serve America Act. This proposed rule provides flexibility for exceptions to the 80 percent cost reimbursement requirement for Senior Companion and Foster Grandparent programs based on hardship. In addition, this proposed rule reorders and renumbers certain parts of the existing regulations, adds new definitions, and makes several minor technical edits.

  13. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Resources and FAQs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  14. 29 CFR 1601.2 - Terms defined in title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Definitions § 1601.2 Terms defined in title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. The terms person, employer, employment...

  15. Regulating the regulators : accountability of Australian regulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bird, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Accountability of Australian regulators - Australian Securities and Investments Commission - Australian Prudential Regulation Authority - concept of 'accountability' - mechanisms for accountability...

  16. Autism: Why Act Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that affects the pancreas and other organs, and how to treat and live with this chronic disease. Role ... of your CF care team can show you how to perform many different ACTs and recommend specific ACTs ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ... for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can ...

  20. The 2015 Budget Act and proposals for amendments of the Budget Act in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2015 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. In the paper there are also proposals to the new structure Polish Budget Act. The present system of the Budget Act does not include the revenues and expenditure of certain state funds (especially the National Road Fund and finances of State Treasury companies. The current system weakens the control function and budgetary power of the Parliament. New Polish system of the Budget Act should contain the general budget and several special budgets.

  1. Nuclear respiratory factor 2 regulates the expression of the same NMDA receptor subunit genes as NRF-1: both factors act by a concurrent and parallel mechanism to couple energy metabolism and synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anusha; Johar, Kaid; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled processes. Previously, we found that nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) transcriptionally co-regulates energy metabolism and neuronal activity by regulating all 13 subunits of the critical energy generating enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), as well as N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits 1 and 2B, GluN1 (Grin1) and GluN2B (Grin2b). We also found that another transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2 or GA-binding protein) regulates all subunits of COX as well. The goal of the present study was to test our hypothesis that NRF-2 also regulates specific subunits of NMDA receptors, and that it functions with NRF-1 via one of three mechanisms: complementary, concurrent and parallel, or a combination of complementary and concurrent/parallel. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation of mouse neuroblastoma cells and rat visual cortical tissue, promoter mutations, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis, NRF-2 was found to functionally regulate Grin1 and Grin2b genes, but not any other NMDA subunit genes. Grin1 and Grin2b transcripts were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl, but silencing of NRF-2 prevented this up-regulation. On the other hand, over-expression of NRF-2 rescued the down-regulation of these subunits by the impulse blocker TTX. NRF-2 binding sites on Grin1 and Grin2b are conserved among species. Our data indicate that NRF-2 and NRF-1 operate in a concurrent and parallel manner in mediating the tight coupling between energy metabolism and neuronal activity at the molecular level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  4. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organisation of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  5. SUMO: regulating the regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossis Guillaume

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifiers of the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier family have emerged as key regulators of protein function and fate. While the past few years have seen an enormous increase in knowledge on SUMO enzymes, substrates, and consequences of modification, regulation of SUMO conjugation is far from being understood. This brief review will provide an overview on recent advances concerning (i the interplay between sumoylation and other post-translational modifications at the level of individual targets and (ii global regulation of SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.

  6. 33 CFR 110.1a - Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waterways Safety Act. 110.1a Section 110.1a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS § 110.1a Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act. (a) The anchorages listed in this section are regulated under the Ports and Waterways Safety Act (33...

  7. Regulating the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Byron

    2007-01-01

    The Internet's breakthrough to primetime usage beginning in the mid-1990s evolved in an era of openness. Unfettered access seemed key to Internet development. An important foundation for the 1996 Telecommunications Act was the theory that the telecom industry would work best if it were free of government regulation, a guiding principle that has…

  8. Federal Gasoline Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to regulate fuels and fuel additives for use in mobile sources if such fuel, fuel additive or any emission products causes or contributes to air or water pollution that may endanger the public health or welfare.

  9. [Euthanasia and medical act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Right to life -as the prohibition of intentionally and arbitrarily taking life, even with authorization of the concerned one- is an internationally recognized right. In many countries, debate regarding euthanasia is more centered in its convenience, social acceptability and how it is regulated, than in its substantial legitimacy. Some argue that euthanasia should be included as part of clinical practice of health professionals, grounded on individual's autonomy claims-everyone having the liberty to choose how to live and how to die. Against this, others sustain that life has a higher value than autonomy, exercising autonomy without respecting the right to life would become a serious moral and social problem. Likewise, euthanasia supporters some-times claim a 'right to live with dignity', which must be understood as a personal obligation, referred more to the ethical than to the strictly legal sphere. In countries where it is already legalized, euthanasia practice has extended to cases where it is not the patient who requests this but the family or some healthcare professional, or even the legal system-when they think that the patient is living in a condition which is not worthy to live. Generalization of euthanasia possibly will end in affecting those who need more care, such as elder, chronically ill or dying people, damaging severely personal basic rights. Nature, purpose and tradition of medicine rule out the practice of euthanasia, which ought not be considered a medical act or legitimately compulsory for physicians. Today's medicine counts with effective treatments for pain and suffering, such as palliative care, including sedative therapy, which best preserves persons dignity and keeps safe the ethos of the medical profession.

  10. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  11. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88 Stat...

  12. A karyopherin acts in localized protein synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Meinema, Anne C.; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms are in place to regulate adequate synthesis of proteins, ranging from ways to ensure sequence fidelity, polypeptide folding and protein modification, to control of amounts and subcellular localization of the molecules. Some of these mechanisms act at the level of mRNA export and

  13. 76 FR 70781 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... will include current capital formation issues for private ] companies and initial public offerings and securities regulation involving smaller public companies. Members of the public may attend the forum without... Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will host the SEC Government...

  14. GmPHD5 acts as an important regulator for crosstalk between histone H3K4 di-methylation and H3K14 acetylation in response to salinity stress in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulated evidence suggest that specific patterns of histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs and their crosstalks may determine transcriptional outcomes. However, the regulatory mechanisms of these "histone codes" in plants remain largely unknown. Results In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that a salinity stress inducible PHD (plant homeodomain finger domain containing protein GmPHD5 can read the "histone code" underlying the methylated H3K4. GmPHD5 interacts with other DNA binding proteins, including GmGNAT1 (an acetyl transferase, GmElongin A (a transcription elongation factor and GmISWI (a chromatin remodeling protein. Our results suggest that GmPHD5 can recognize specific histone methylated H3K4, with preference to di-methylated H3K4. Here, we illustrate that the interaction between GmPHD5 and GmGNAT1 is regulated by the self-acetylation of GmGNAT1, which can also acetylate histone H3. GmGNAT1 exhibits a preference toward acetylated histone H3K14. These results suggest a histone crosstalk between methylated H3K4 and acetylated H3K14. Consistent to its putative roles in gene regulation under salinity stress, we showed that GmPHD5 can bind to the promoters of some confirmed salinity inducible genes in soybean. Conclusion Here, we propose a model suggesting that the nuclear protein GmPHD5 is capable of regulating the crosstalk between histone methylation and histone acetylation of different lysine residues. Nevertheless, GmPHD5 could also recruit chromatin remodeling factors and transcription factors of salt stress inducible genes to regulate their expression in response to salinity stress.

  15. miR396a-Mediated basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH74 repression acts as a regulator for root growth in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Maolin; Bian, Hongwu; Zha, Yulong; Li, Fengyun; Sun, Yuzhe; Bai, Bin; Chen, Zhehao; Wang, Junhui; Zhu, Muyuan; Han, Ning

    2014-07-01

    miR396 targets seven GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) genes and the BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX (bHLH) TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 74 gene (bHLH74) in Arabidopsis. Previous research revealed that the miR396 target module regulates cell proliferation and plays a critical role in leaf development. However, no additional biological functions of miR396 have been investigated in detail. In this study, T-DNA insertion mutants and transgenic plants with altered levels of miR396 or its target genes were used to characterize the regulatory role of miR396 in root development. We found that AtMIR396a was the predominant source for miR396 accumulation in the roots of seedlings, and that the mir396a-1 mutant had longer roots than wild-type seedlings. Overexpression of AtMIR396a decreased the transcript levels of target genes such as GRF genes and bHLH74, and resulted in a shorter root phenotype. Furthermore, the bhlh74-1 mutant had shorter roots, whereas overexpression of an miR396-resistant form of bHLH74 (mbHLH74) had an enhanced root growth phenotype. Moreover, MIR396a regulated root growth by affecting the elongation zone. Taken together, these data indicate that miR396a-mediated bHLH74 repression helps regulate root growth in Arabidopsis seedlings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 通訊傳播管理法草案的盲點:文化公民權/傳播權視野之批判 Blindspot of NCC’s Proposed Draft Communications Act and Regulation Revision to Communications Convergence: A Critique from the Cultural Citizenship/Communication Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    羅世宏 Shih-Hung Lo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available 我國通訊傳播監理有朝單一機關化、單一法典化方向發展的趨勢,但屬於作用法性質的「通訊傳播管理法」仍處於「電信法」和「廣電三法」合併修法的草案制定階段,不僅涉及電信和廣電法規之間的整合,也涉及廣電三法合一的整併問題,到目前為止都還未得到解決。本文以2007 年9 月11 日公布的「通訊傳播管理法草案」為分析探討對象,首先耙梳我國制定此草案的背景,同時選擇性地比較國內外相關法規,從中論證我國通訊傳播政策思維的轉變。其次,本文援引文化公民權與傳播權之概念,並以之為參考架構 來檢驗「通傳法草案」之條文內容,探索此部法典之盲點,最後提出「通傳法草案」仍有所不足、應該往前再進一步之建議,期使這部法案最後能夠真正提升並落實文化公民權和傳播權在台灣之實現。 Against the backdrop of convergence and competition, communications regulation in Taiwan has been moving towards a single regulator overseeing both telecommunications and media sectors. To meet the regulatory challenge in the context of communications convergence, the newly established single communications regulator, the National Communications Commission (NCC, has proposed a draft Communications Act. However, the draft Communications Act has its own blindspot, for putting too much weight on the wants of consumers rather than needs of citizens. Taking the perspective of cultural citizenship and communication rights, this article offers a critique of the draft Communications Act and NCC’s proposed regulation revision to communications convergence.

  17. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act...

  18. The Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    1995-06-16

    Jun 16, 1995 ... I want to express my gratitude to them all. 1 In the past a few different categories of young offenders were specifically addressed in our law. For example, s 290 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 (before its repeal by the Child. Justice Act 75 of 2008) had specific provisions for "young offenders" under ...

  19. ACT and College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyaert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    What is the relationship between ACT scores and success in college? For decades, admissions policies in colleges and universities across the country have required applicants to submit scores from a college entrance exam, most typically the ACT (American College Testing) or SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This requirement suggests that high school…

  20. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  1. Transitions as Speech Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, Alice Ann

    1993-01-01

    Reviews speech act theory to explain the function of writing transitions in terms of the illocutionary and perlocutionary effect of explicit performatives. Identifies explicit performatives in samples of professional writing in technical and academic areas. Suggest ways to revise textbooks to include the findings from speech act theory. (SR)

  2. Combinatorial Gene Regulation Using Auto-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Rutger; Ursem, Bas; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2010-01-01

    As many as 59% of the transcription factors in Escherichia coli regulate the transcription rate of their own genes. This suggests that auto-regulation has one or more important functions. Here, one possible function is studied. Often the transcription rate of an auto-regulator is also controlled by additional transcription factors. In these cases, the way the expression of the auto-regulator responds to changes in the concentrations of the “input” regulators (the response function) is obviously affected by the auto-regulation. We suggest that, conversely, auto-regulation may be used to optimize this response function. To test this hypothesis, we use an evolutionary algorithm and a chemical–physical model of transcription regulation to design model cis-regulatory constructs with predefined response functions. In these simulations, auto-regulation can evolve if this provides a functional benefit. When selecting for a series of elementary response functions—Boolean logic gates and linear responses—the cis-regulatory regions resulting from the simulations indeed often exploit auto-regulation. Surprisingly, the resulting constructs use auto-activation rather than auto-repression. Several design principles show up repeatedly in the simulation results. They demonstrate how auto-activation can be used to generate sharp, switch-like activation and repression circuits and how linearly decreasing response functions can be obtained. Auto-repression, on the other hand, resulted only when a high response speed or a suppression of intrinsic noise was also selected for. The results suggest that, while auto-repression may primarily be valuable to improve the dynamical properties of regulatory circuits, auto-activation is likely to evolve even when selection acts on the shape of response function only. PMID:20548950

  3. The Arabidopsis ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 Regulates Abiotic Stress-Responsive Gene Expression by Binding to Different cis-Acting Elements in Response to Different Stress Signals1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Chun; Liao, Po-Ming; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2013-01-01

    ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1) is an upstream component in both jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling and is involved in pathogen resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that ERF1 might be related to the salt stress response through ethylene signaling. However, the specific role of ERF1 in abiotic stress and the molecular mechanism underlying the signaling cross talk still need to be elucidated. Here, we report that ERF1 was highly induced by high salinity and drought stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The salt stress induction required both JA and ET signaling but was inhibited by abscisic acid. ERF1-overexpressing lines (35S:ERF1) were more tolerant to drought and salt stress. They also displayed constitutively smaller stomatal aperture and less transpirational water loss. Surprisingly, 35S:ERF1 also showed enhanced heat tolerance and up-regulation of heat tolerance genes compared with the wild type. Several suites of genes activated by JA, drought, salt, and heat were found in microarray analysis of 35S:ERF1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays found that ERF1 up-regulates specific suites of genes in response to different abiotic stresses by stress-specific binding to GCC or DRE/CRT. In response to biotic stress, ERF1 bound to GCC boxes but not DRE elements; conversely, under abiotic stress, we observed specific binding of ERF1 to DRE elements. Furthermore, ERF1 bound preferentially to only one among several GCC box or DRE/CRT elements in the promoter region of its target genes. ERF1 plays a positive role in salt, drought, and heat stress tolerance by stress-specific gene regulation, which integrates JA, ET, and abscisic acid signals. PMID:23719892

  4. 75 FR 70011 - Guidance for Industry, Mammography Quality Standards Act Inspectors, and Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry, Mammography Quality Standards Act Inspectors, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; The Mammography Quality Standards Act Final Regulations.... Quality control testing of computer controlled compression devices; 12. Mammography equipment evaluations...

  5. 48 CFR 1426.7103 - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Minority Contractors Utilization... Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Minority Contractors Utilization...

  6. The Animal Welfare Act and the zoo: A positive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretations of the Animal Welfare Act and other regulations governing use of research animals in the United States are changing. Recent amendments to the Act have resulted in the inclusion of more species under the umbrella of regulation. The role of the zoo and wildlife veterinarian should be that of leading his or her institution into a positive endorsement of these regulations and their application. Recent additions to the Code of Federal Regulations spell out the roles of the veterinarian and the Animal Care and Use Committee at an institution.

  7. Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Kathryn E; Bardi, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to establish the effects of acts of kindness and acts of novelty on life satisfaction. Participants aged 18-60 took part on a voluntary basis. They were randomly assigned to perform either acts of kindness, acts of novelty, or no acts on a daily basis for 10 days. Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction.

  8. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-binding protein (JNKBP1) acts as a negative regulator of NOD2 protein signaling by inhibiting its oligomerization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecat, Aurore; Di Valentin, Emmanuel; Somja, Joan; Jourdan, Samuel; Fillet, Marianne; Kufer, Thomas A; Habraken, Yvette; Sadzot, Catherine; Louis, Edouard; Delvenne, Philippe; Piette, Jacques; Legrand-Poels, Sylvie

    2012-08-24

    NOD2 is one of the best characterized members of the cytosolic NOD-like receptor family. NOD2 is able to sense muramyl dipeptide, a specific bacterial cell wall component, and to subsequently induce various signaling pathways leading to NF-κB activation and autophagy, both events contributing to an efficient innate and adaptive immune response. Interestingly, loss-of-function NOD2 variants were associated with a higher susceptibility for Crohn disease, which highlights the physiological importance of proper regulation of NOD2 activity. We performed a biochemical screen to search for new NOD2 regulators. We identified a new NOD2 partner, c-Jun N-terminal kinase-binding protein 1 (JNKBP1), a scaffold protein characterized by an N-terminal WD-40 domain. JNKBP1, through its WD-40 domain, binds to NOD2 following muramyl dipeptide activation. This interaction attenuates NOD2-mediated NF-κB activation and IL-8 secretion as well as NOD2 antibacterial activity. JNKBP1 exerts its repressor effect by disturbing NOD2 oligomerization and RIP2 tyrosine phosphorylation, both steps required for downstream NOD2 signaling. We furthermore showed that JNKBP1 and NOD2 are co-expressed in the human intestinal epithelium and in immune cells recruited in the lamina propria, which suggests that JNKBP1 contributes to maintain NOD2-mediated intestinal immune homeostasis.

  9. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase cytoplasmic tail-binding protein-1 is a new member of the Cupin superfamily. A possible multifunctional protein acting as an invasion suppressor down-regulated in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekita, Takamasa; Gotoh, Isamu; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Sato, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Takayuki; Okada, Yasunori; Seiki, Motoharu

    2004-03-26

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14) is an enzyme that promotes tumor cell invasion in tissues. Although the proteolytic activity of MT1-MMP is indispensable for invasion, it is also regulated by functions of the cytoplasmic tail. In this study we obtained a new human gene whose product binds to the tail sequence in yeast. The product, MTCBP-1, is a 19-kDa protein that belongs to the newly proposed Cupin superfamily composed of proteins with diverse functions. MTCBP-1 expressed in cells formed a complex with MT1-MMP and co-localized at the membrane. It was also detected in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, where MT1-MMP does not exist. In human tumor cell lines MTCBP-1 expression was significantly low compared with non-transformed fibroblasts, and enforced expression of MTCBP-1 inhibited the activity of MT1-MMP in promoting cell migration and invasion. MTCBP-1 showed significant homology to the bacterial aci-reductone dioxygenase, which is an enzyme in methionine metabolism. The C-terminal part of MTCBP-1 is identical to Sip-L, which is reported to be important for human hepatitis C virus replication. Thus, MTCBP-1 may have multiple functions other than the regulation of MT1-MMP, which presumably depends on the subcellular compartment.

  10. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2008 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles[In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent emissions standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and aligned Canada's emission standards for various vehicles with those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report summarized the fleet average nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for the 2008 model year for light duty vehicles (LDV), light duty trucks (LLDT), heavy light duty trucks (HLDT) and medium duty passenger vehicles (MDPV). The report evaluated the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program in achieving its stated environmental performance objectives. The report demonstrated that approximately 99 percent of the LDV and LLDT fleet, and 71 percent of the HLDT and MDPV fleet were certified to a bin at, or below, the applicable fleet average NO{sub x} standard. Average NO{sub x} values continued to decrease, in accordance with the performance objectives of the regulations. 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Draconian dress act repealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhone, C

    1994-01-01

    The Dress Act was put into place in Malawi by the government of President Kamuzu Banda after the long period of direct colonialism. The act made it illegal for women in Malawi to be seen publicly wearing dresses which did not completely cover their knees or wearing pants; men had to wear their hair short. Police officers even scrutinized women's attire at private house parties and in homes. The autocratic political structure established by Banda, however, was voted out in a referendum June 14, 1993. Pressure by opposition forces such as the United Democratic Front forced a repeal of the act on November 16 of the same year. The repeal was vigorously attacked by female Parliament members as a move which would result in moral degradation and an increase in the level of sexual harassment against women. Other citizens and tourists have generally detested the act. The act has most certainly kept many potential visitors from vacationing in Malawi. Some expert observers think that repeals of the Dress Act, the Forfeiture Act, and legislation which allowed the government to detain opposition figures without trial were done to garner support from the Paris Club for the resumption of balance of payments support suspended due to the country's poor human rights record.

  12. 15 CFR 240.1 - Title of act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Title of act. 240.1 Section 240.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF... § 240.1 Title of act. The act, “Pub. L. 228, 64th Congress,” approved August 23, 1916 (39 Stat. 530; 15...

  13. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces for qualifying exigencies arising out of the... Hour Division 29 CFR Part 825 RIN 1215-AB76 and RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY... certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). On February 15, 2012, the...

  14. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  15. 18 CFR 1312.4 - Prohibited acts and criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited acts and criminal penalties. 1312.4 Section 1312.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.4 Prohibited acts and criminal...

  16. Land Use Act and Rural Poverty Reduction in Nigeria | Nnadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To stem the tide, the Federal Government of Nigeria came up with the Land Use Act to regulate use and interest in land. It was thought that with government take over of land property; it would become readily available to various users without hitches. The Land Use Act has however created a lot of problems for the populace.

  17. The Use of Official Languages Act : Diversity Affirmed? | Pretorius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full sixteen years after the coming into force of the 1996 Constitution, Parliament responded to the constitutional obligation to regulate and monitor, by legislative and other means, the use of official languages by adopting the Use of Official Languages Act 12 of 2012. The Act represents a very limited normative ...

  18. 78 FR 37244 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice The National Science Board's Task Force on Administrative Burdens, pursuant to NSF regulations (45 CFR part 614), the National Science Foundation Act, as...

  19. 78 FR 23312 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice The National Science Board's Task Force on Administrative Burdens, pursuant to NSF regulations (45 CFR part 614), the National Science Foundation Act, as...

  20. 78 FR 52517 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION... of records in its inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...