Sample records for reinforcement psychology

  1. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement (United States)

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott


    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  2. A Psychology of Teaching. (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  4. Reinforcement learning in supply chains. (United States)

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M


    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  5. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.


    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  6. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness


    David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards


    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...

  7. Flexural reinforced concrete member with FRP reinforcement


    Putzolu, Mariana


    One of the most problematic point in construction is the durability of the concrete especially related to corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Due to this problem the construction sector, introduced the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer, the main fibers used in construction are Glass, Carbon and Aramid. In this study, the author aim to analyse the flexural behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP. This aim is achieved by the analysis of specimens reinforced with GFRP bars, with theoreti...

  8. Reinforced sulphur concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  9. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  10. Adapting without reinforcement. (United States)

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C Randy


    Our data rule out a broad class of behavioral models in which behavioral change is guided by differential reinforcement. To demonstrate this, we showed that the number of reinforcers missed before the subject shifted its behavior was not sufficient to drive behavioral change. What's more, many subjects shifted their behavior to a more optimal strategy even when they had not yet missed a single reinforcer. Naturally, differential reinforcement cannot be said to drive a process that shifts to accommodate to new conditions so adeptly that it doesn't miss a single reinforcer: it would have no input on which to base this shift.

  11. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin G. Garner


    Full Text Available Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved.

  12. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement (United States)

    Goulet, Benjamin E.


    Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved. PMID:29614048

  13. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd


    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  14. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness. (United States)

    Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B


    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  15. Investigative psychology


    Canter, David V.


    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  16. Positive Psychology (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher


    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  17. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894


    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  18. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  19. Mathematical psychology. (United States)

    Batchelder, William H


    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Socioecological psychology. (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro


    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  1. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szepesvari, Csaba


    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  2. [Political psychology]. (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás


    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  3. Modeling reinforced concrete durability. (United States)


    This project developed a next-generation modeling approach for projecting the extent of : reinforced concrete corrosion-related damage, customized for new and existing Florida Department of : Transportation bridges and suitable for adapting to broade...

  4. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.


    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  5. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.


    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  6. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon


    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  7. Fiber-reinforced Composite Resin Prosthesis to Restore Missing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fiber-reinforced composite inlay-onlay FPD was used for a single posterior tooth replacement in a patient refusing implant for psychological reasons. The FRC-FPD was made of pre-impregnated E-glass fibers (everStick, StickTeck, Turku, Finland) embedded in a resin matrix (Stick Resin, StickTeck, Turku, Finland).

  8. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  9. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.


    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  10. Reinforced concrete tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariscotti, M.A.J.; Morixe, M.; Tarela, P.A.; Thieberger, P.


    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) [es

  11. Braided reinforced composite rods for the internal reinforcement of concrete (United States)

    Gonilho Pereira, C.; Fangueiro, R.; Jalali, S.; Araujo, M.; Marques, P.


    This paper reports on the development of braided reinforced composite rods as a substitute for the steel reinforcement in concrete. The research work aims at understanding the mechanical behaviour of core-reinforced braided fabrics and braided reinforced composite rods, namely concerning the influence of the braiding angle, the type of core reinforcement fibre, and preloading and postloading conditions. The core-reinforced braided fabrics were made from polyester fibres for producing braided structures, and E-glass, carbon, HT polyethylene, and sisal fibres were used for the core reinforcement. The braided reinforced composite rods were obtained by impregnating the core-reinforced braided fabric with a vinyl ester resin. The preloading of the core-reinforced braided fabrics and the postloading of the braided reinforced composite rods were performed in three and two stages, respectively. The results of tensile tests carried out on different samples of core-reinforced braided fabrics are presented and discussed. The tensile and bending properties of the braided reinforced composite rods have been evaluated, and the results obtained are presented, discussed, and compared with those of conventional materials, such as steel.

  12. Psychological Treatment (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  13. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha


    Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.

  14. [Psychological harassment]. (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin


    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  15. Whither Psychology. (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F


    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  16. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy


    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany


    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimenta...

  17. Turbomachine blade reinforcement (United States)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose


    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.

  18. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent


    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  19. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy (United States)

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany


    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  20. Political psychology. (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse


    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Reinforcing Event (RE) Menu (United States)

    Addison, Roger M.; Homme, Lloyd E.


    A motivational system, the Contingency Management System, uses contracts in which some amount of defined task behavior is demanded for some interval of reinforcing event. The Reinforcing Event Menu, a list of high probability reinforcing behaviors, is used in the system as a prompting device for the learner and as an aid for the administrator in…

  2. Autoshaping Chicks with Heat Reinforcement: The Role of Stimulus-Reinforcer and Response-Reinforcer Relations (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; And Others


    The present series of experiments attempted to analyze more fully the contributions of stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations to autoshaping within a single conditioning situation. (Author)

  3. Study on reinforced concrete beams with helical transverse reinforcement (United States)

    Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.


    In a Reinforced Concrete (R.C) structure, major reinforcement is used for taking up tensile stresses acting on the structure due to applied loading. The present paper reports the behavior of reinforced concrete beams with helical reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) subjected to monotonous loading by 3-point flexure test. The results were compared with identically similar reinforced concrete beams with rectangular stirrups. During the test crack evolution, load carrying capacity and deflection of the beams were monitored, analyzed and compared. Test results indicate that the use of helical reinforcement provides enhanced load carrying capacity and a lower deflection proving to be more ductile, clearly indicating the advantage in carrying horizontal loads. An analysis was also carried out using ANSYS software in order to compare the test results of both the beams.

  4. Degradation of Waterfront Reinforced Concrete Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Degradation, reinforced concrete, Dar es Salaam port. Abstract—One of the ... especially corrosion of the reinforcement. ... Corrosion of steel reinforcement contributes .... cracks along the line of reinforcement bars and most of the ...

  5. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  6. Nanostructured composite reinforced material (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN


    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  7. Wrinkles in reinforced membranes (United States)

    Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.


    We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.

  8. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing


    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh


    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  9. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum


    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  10. Space psychology (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.


    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Khadijah


    Full Text Available This article aims to introduce transpersonal psychology approach, especially its meeting point with the world of Sufism in Islam. The article tries to answer the following questions, are: 1 what is the difference between transpersonal psychology and other psycho-logical theories, and; 2 in what aspect transpersonal psychology shares a common ground with Sufism? The writer finds that there is a significant difference between transpersonal psychology and other psychological theories, especially psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Psychoanalysis emphasizes the deepest meaning of human behavior with a tendency to override the meaning of physical aspect. Behaviorism has been strongly influenced by pure science. In fact, research on the human psyche aspect cannot be done simply by applying pure science. Meanwhile, transpersonal psychology tries to fundamentally reinforce and develop human potential, both physical and mental aspects. Moreover, this approach reaches supernatural and spiritual aspects of human beings. The writer tends to argue that the common ground shared by the mystical aspects of the Western world, in the perspective of transpersonal psychology, and Sufism in Islam lays in the fact that each entity puts great emphasis on managing and increasing the spiritual aspect of human.Keywords: transpersonal psychology, tasawuf, common ground.

  12. Psychological Structuring of citizen's willingness for seismic reinforcement of houses *


    Kawarasaki, Yuta; Morita, Eri; Takezaki, Mayu; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Nasu, Seigo


    The Japanese Islands are said to have entered at the seismic activity term from the time of the Kobe earthquake (1995). And it is said that the big earthquake from Hokkaido to Kyushu occurs in the probability of 90% within 50 years. When such a big earthquake occurs, collapse of a structure is one of main causes of bringing about serious damage. The Building Standard Law was improved in the past earthquake, and the building structure which is less than a Building Standard Law act has the very...

  13. Reinforced seal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.


    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  14. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning. (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding


    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  15. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik


    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure....

  16. The Reinforcement Learning Competition 2014


    Dimitrakakis, Christos; Li, Guangliang; Tziortziotis, Nikoalos


    Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the development of very general learning agents for arbitrary reinforcement learning problems and to provide a test-bed for the unbiased evaluation of algorithms.

  17. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri


    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  18. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary


    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  19. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.


    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  20. Constitutive model for reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.H.; Borst, de R.


    A numerical model is proposed for reinforced-concrete behavior that combines the commonly accepted ideas from modeling plain concrete, reinforcement, and interaction behavior in a consistent manner. The behavior of plain concrete is govern by fracture-energy-level-based formulation both in tension

  1. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    .0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire...

  2. Tangible Reinforcers: Bonuses or Bribes? (United States)

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others


    Objections to the use of tangible reinforcers, such as prizes, candy, cigarettes, and money, are discussed. Treatment programs using tangible reinforcers are recommended as powerful modifers of behavior to be implemented only after less powerful means of modification have been tried. (Author)

  3. Reinforcement principles for addiction medicine; from recreational drug use to psychiatric disorder. (United States)

    Edwards, Scott


    The transition from recreational drug use to addiction can be conceptualized as a pathological timeline whereby the psychological mechanisms responsible for disordered drug use evolve from positive reinforcement to favor elements of negative reinforcement. Abused substances (ranging from alcohol to psychostimulants) are initially ingested at regular occasions according to their positive reinforcing properties. Importantly, repeated exposure to rewarding substances sets off a chain of secondary reinforcing events, whereby cues and contexts associated with drug use may themselves become reinforcing and thereby contribute to the continued use and possible abuse of the substance(s) of choice. Indeed, the powerful reinforcing efficacy of certain drugs may eclipse that of competing social rewards (such as career and family) and lead to an aberrant narrowing of behavioral repertoire. In certain vulnerable individuals, escalation of drug use over time is thought to drive specific molecular neuroadaptations that foster the development of addiction. Research has identified neurobiological elements of altered reinforcement following excessive drug use that comprise within-circuit and between-circuit neuroadaptations, both of which contribute to addiction. Central to this process is the eventual potentiation of negative reinforcement mechanisms that may represent the final definitive criterion locking vulnerable individuals into a persistent state of addiction. Targeting the neural substrates of reinforcement likely represents our best chances for therapeutic intervention for this devastating disease. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.


    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  5. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.


    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  6. Psychology and Gender. (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.


    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  7. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.


    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  8. Modeling reinforced concrete durability : [summary]. (United States)


    Many Florida bridges are built of steel-reinforced concrete. Floridas humid and marine : environments subject steel in these structures : to corrosion once water and salt penetrate the : concrete and contact the steel. Corroded steel : takes up mo...

  9. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.


    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  10. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A.; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G.; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K.; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis


    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  11. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis


    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  12. Deep Reinforcement Learning: An Overview


    Li, Yuxi


    We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...

  13. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA


    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  14. Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement: A Review of the Locus of Control Construct (United States)

    Kormanik, Martin B.; Rocco, Tonette S.


    One aspect of personality, perceptions of internal versus external control of reinforcement, shifts under conditions of change. This review of the literature examines the relationship between planned organizational change and locus of control. The review includes literature from the disciplines of clinical and social psychology, adult development,…

  15. Attitude change as a function of the observation of vicarious reinforcement and friendliness


    Stocker-Kreichgauer, Gisela


    Attitude change as a function of the observation of vicarious reinforcement and friendliness : hostility in a debate / Lutz von Rosenstiel ; Gisela Stocker- Kreichgauer. - In: Group decision making / ed. by Gisela Stocker-Kreichgauer ... - London u.a. : Acad. Press, 1982. - S. 241-255. - (European monographs in social psychology ; 25)

  16. Beyond Positive Reinforcement: OBM as a Humanizing Approach to Management Practices (United States)

    Crowell, Charles R.


    This article comments on the need to recognize that OBM already is a "positive psychology" for many more reasons than just that it embraces positive reinforcement as a cornerstone of workplace improvement. This paper suggests there are at least 10 ways in which OBM constitutes a distinctly "positive" and humanizing approach to management…

  17. A science of meaning. Can behaviorism bring meaning to psychological science? (United States)

    DeGrandpre, R J


    An argument is presented for making meaning a central dependent variable in psychological science. Principles of operant psychology are then interpreted as providing a basic foundation for a science of meaning. The emphasis here is on the generality of basic operant concepts, where learning is a process of meaning making that is governed largely by natural contingencies; reinforcement is an organic process in which environment-behavior relations are selected, defined here as a dialectical process of meaning making; and reinforcers are experiential consequences with acquired, ecologically derived meanings. The author concludes with a call for a more interdisciplinary science of psychology, focusing on the individual in society.

  18. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.


    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  19. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    and the influence of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks in concrete. Moreover, the impact of fibres on corrosion-induced cover cracking was covered. The impact of steel fibres on propagation of reinforcement corrosion was investigated through studies of their impact on the electrical resistivity...... of concrete, which is known to affect the corrosion process of embedded reinforcement. The work concerning the impact of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks was linked to corrosion initiation and propagation of embedded reinforcement bars via additional studies. Cracks in the concrete cover...... are known to alter the ingress rate of depassivating substances and thereby influence the corrosion process. The Ph.D. study covered numerical as well as experimental studies. Electrochemically passive steel fibres are electrically isolating thus not changing the electrical resistivity of concrete, whereas...

  20. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Grids for Shear and End Zone Reinforcement in Bridge Beams (United States)


    Corrosion of reinforcing steel reduces life spans of bridges throughout the United States; therefore, using non-corroding carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement is seen as a way to increase service life. The use of CFRP as the flexural ...

  1. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. (United States)


    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  2. The power reinforcement framework revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.


    Whereas digital technologies are often depicted as being capable of disrupting long-standing power structures and facilitating new governance mechanisms, the power reinforcement framework suggests that information and communications technologies tend to strengthen existing power arrangements within...... public organizations. This article revisits the 30-yearold power reinforcement framework by means of an empirical analysis on the use of mobile technology in a large-scale programme in Danish public sector home care. It explores whether and to what extent administrative management has controlled decision......-making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert...

  3. Procrastination in the pigeon: Can conditioned reinforcement increase the likelihood of human procrastination? (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Andrews, Danielle M


    Procrastination is the tendency to put off initiation or completion of a task. Although people are typically known to procrastinate, recent research suggests that they sometimes "pre-crastinate" by initiating a task sooner than they need to (Rosenbaum et al. in Psychological Science, 25(7), 1487-1496, 2014). A similar finding of precrastination was reported by Wasserman and Brzykcy (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1130-1134, 2015) with pigeons using a somewhat different procedure. In the present experiment, we used a procedure with pigeons that was more similar to the procedure used by Rosenbaum et al. Pigeons were given a choice between two sequences of events (concurrent chains). Choice of the procrastination chain resulted in color A, which 15-s later would change to color B and 5-s later resulted in reinforcement. Choice of the precrastination chain resulted in color C, which 5-s later would change to color D and 15-s later resulted in reinforcement. Thus, both chains led to reinforcement after 20 s. Results indicated that the pigeons procrastinated. That is, they preferred the 15-5 chain over the 5-15 chain. The results are consistent with Fantino's (Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12, 723-730, 1969) delay reduction theory, which posits that stimuli that signal a reduction in the delay to reinforcement, such as the 5-s stimulus that occurred immediately prior to reinforcement, serve as strong conditioned reinforcers and should be preferred. In support of this theory, the pigeons pecked most at the 5-s stimulus that led immediately to reinforcement, indicating that it had become a strong conditioned reinforcer. The results suggest that delay reduction theory, a theory that emphasizes the attraction to stimuli that predict reinforcement with a short delay, also may contribute to human procrastination behavior because when task completion comes just before the deadline, it may become a stronger conditioned reinforcer than if task completion

  4. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.


    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  5. Historizing epistemology in psychology. (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana


    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  6. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon


    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  7. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie


    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  8. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.


    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...

  9. Stability of reinforced cemented backfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.J.; Stone, D.M.


    Mining with backfill has been the subject of several international meetings in recent years and a considerable research effort is being applied to improve both mining economics and ore recovery by using backfill for ground support. Classified mill tailings sands are the most commonly used backfill material but these fine sands must be stabilized before full ore pillar recovery can be achieved. Normal portland cement is generally used for stabilization but the high cost of cement prohibits high cement usage. This paper considers the use of reinforcements in cemented fill to reduce the cement usage. It is concluded that strong cemented layers at typical spacings of about 3 meters in a low cement content bulk fill can reinforce the fill and reduce the overall cement usage. Fibre reinforcements introduced into strong layers or into bulk fills are also known to be effective in reducing cement usage. Some development work is needed to produce the ideal type of anchored fibre in order to realize economic gains from fibre-reinforced fills

  10. Adaptive representations for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.


    This book presents new algorithms for reinforcement learning, a form of machine learning in which an autonomous agent seeks a control policy for a sequential decision task. Since current methods typically rely on manually designed solution representations, agents that automatically adapt their own

  11. Psychological Autopsy: A Psychobiographical Exploration of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar


    Full Text Available The present work is a conceptual approach on psychosocial factors related to suicidal psychobiography from the exploration of the lives of people who self-eliminate, for which there will be a review of the literature, based on input from journal articles and books published in various sources of documentation. Autopsy psychology is a data collection method that provides light on the psychosocial motivations that drive and reinforce the act of suicide, and is currently used by professionals responsible for investigating the causes of suicide while contributing data produced in the developing programs to promote mental health and prevention of suicidal ideation and behavior.

  12. Depression, Activity, and Evaluation of Reinforcement (United States)

    Hammen, Constance L.; Glass, David R., Jr.


    This research attempted to find the causal relation between mood and level of reinforcement. An effort was made to learn what mood change might occur if depressed subjects increased their levels of participation in reinforcing activities. (Author/RK)

  13. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor


    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  14. Teachers and Psychological Reports. (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The importance of the written psychological report is explored, and, in particular, its relationship to teachers' needs and requirements is discussed. Additionally, the characteristics of a "good" psychological report are listed, and teachers are advised to use these criteria in evaluating the psychological reports they are receiving. (Author)

  15. Psychology in Mexico (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio


    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  16. What is Political Psychology? (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton


    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  17. Psychology in India (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.


    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  18. Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning (United States)

    Chater, Nick


    This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…

  19. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.


    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  20. Effects of partial reinforcement and time between reinforced trials on terminal response rate in pigeon autoshaping. (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A


    Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two experiments examined the relative contributions of these two manipulations to asymptotic response rate. Results suggest that the greater responding previously seen with partial reinforcement is primarily due to differential probability of reinforcement and not differential time between reinforced trials. Further, once established, differences in responding are resistant to a change in stimulus and contingency. Secondary response theories of autoshaped responding (theories that posit additional response-augmenting or response-attenuating mechanisms specific to partial or continuous reinforcement) cannot fully accommodate the current body of data. It is suggested that researchers who study pigeon autoshaping train animals on a common task prior to training them under different conditions.

  1. Woodflour as Reinforcement of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Caraschi


    Full Text Available The effect of the filler content and size, as well as accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with woodflour (WF/PP were evaluated. The composites were prepared by the extrusion of polypropylene with woodflour (Pinus elliotti based on following ratios: 15, 25 and 40 wt% with two different granulometries. The specimens were injection molded according to ASTM standards. The composite properties did not show significant differences as a function of the filler granulometry. We also observed that by increasing the filler content, both the mechanical properties and the melt flow index (MFI decreased, and the elasticity modulus, hardness and density increased. Concerning the accelerated aging, the composite presented a reduction in tensile properties. The results showed that the composite properties are extremely favorable when compared to other commercial systems reinforced by inorganic fillers.

  2. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.


    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  3. FRP reinforcement of timber structures


    Schober, Kay-Uwe; Harte, Annette M.; Kliger, Robert; Jockwer, Robert; Xu, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian-Fei


    Timber engineering has advanced over recent decades to offer an alternative to traditional materials and methods. The bonding of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) with adhesives to timber structures for repair and strengthening has many advantages. However, the lack of established design rules has strongly restrained the use of FRP strengthening in many situations, where these could be a preferable option to most traditional techniques. A significant body of research has been carried out in rec...

  4. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites. (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M


    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  5. Mechanics of fiber reinforced materials (United States)

    Sun, Huiyu

    This dissertation is dedicated to mechanics of fiber reinforced materials and the woven reinforcement and composed of four parts of research: analytical characterization of the interfaces in laminated composites; micromechanics of braided composites; shear deformation, and Poisson's ratios of woven fabric reinforcements. A new approach to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of interfaces between composite laminae based on a modified laminate theory is proposed. By including an interface as a special lamina termed the "bonding-layer" in the analysis, the mechanical properties of the interfaces are obtained. A numerical illustration is given. For micro-mechanical properties of three-dimensionally braided composite materials, a new method via homogenization theory and incompatible multivariable FEM is developed. Results from the hybrid stress element approach compare more favorably with the experimental data than other existing numerical methods widely used. To evaluate the shearing properties for woven fabrics, a new mechanical model is proposed during the initial slip region. Analytical results show that this model provides better agreement with the experiments for both the initial shear modulus and the slipping angle than the existing models. Finally, another mechanical model for a woven fabric made of extensible yarns is employed to calculate the fabric Poisson's ratios. Theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data. A thorough examination on the influences of various mechanical properties of yarns and structural parameters of fabrics on the Poisson's ratios of a woven fabric is given at the end.

  6. Reinforcement learning in computer vision (United States)

    Bernstein, A. V.; Burnaev, E. V.


    Nowadays, machine learning has become one of the basic technologies used in solving various computer vision tasks such as feature detection, image segmentation, object recognition and tracking. In many applications, various complex systems such as robots are equipped with visual sensors from which they learn state of surrounding environment by solving corresponding computer vision tasks. Solutions of these tasks are used for making decisions about possible future actions. It is not surprising that when solving computer vision tasks we should take into account special aspects of their subsequent application in model-based predictive control. Reinforcement learning is one of modern machine learning technologies in which learning is carried out through interaction with the environment. In recent years, Reinforcement learning has been used both for solving such applied tasks as processing and analysis of visual information, and for solving specific computer vision problems such as filtering, extracting image features, localizing objects in scenes, and many others. The paper describes shortly the Reinforcement learning technology and its use for solving computer vision problems.

  7. Origins of food reinforcement in infants12345 (United States)

    Kong, Kai Ling; Feda, Denise M; Eiden, Rina D; Epstein, Leonard H


    Background: Rapid weight gain in infancy is associated with a higher risk of obesity in children and adults. A high relative reinforcing value of food is cross-sectionally related to obesity; lean children find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese children. However, to our knowledge, there is no research on how and when food reinforcement develops. Objective: This study was designed to assess whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives could be tested in 9- to 18-mo-old infants and whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives is differentially related to infant weight status. Design: Reinforcing values were assessed by using absolute progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, with presentation of food and nonfood alternatives counterbalanced in 2 separate studies. Two nonfood reinforcers [Baby Einstein–Baby MacDonald shows (study 1, n = 27) or bubbles (study 2, n = 30)] were tested against the baby’s favorite food. Food reinforcing ratio (FRR) was quantified by measuring the reinforcing value of food (Food Pmax) in proportion to the total reinforcing value of food and a nonfood alternative (DVD Pmax or BUB Pmax). Results: Greater weight-for-length z score was associated with a greater FRR of a favorite food in study 1 (FRR-DVD) (r = 0.60, P positively associated with FRR-DVD (r = 0.57, P = 0.009) and FRR-BUB (r = 0.37, P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our newly developed paradigm, which tested 2 different nonfood alternatives, demonstrated that lean infants find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese infants. This observation suggests that strengthening the alternative reinforcers may have a protective effect against childhood obesity. This research was registered at as NCT02229552. PMID:25733636

  8. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene


    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  9. Psychology and criminal justice


    Adler, Joanna R.


    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  10. Strategic Psychological Operations management


    Sokoloski, Joseph A.


    United States Military Psychological Operations are engaged in a type of mass marketing of ideas. To accomplish this The United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (USACAPOC) employs active and reserve PSYOP units to conduct PSYOP campaigns. However the methodology used to manage these campaigns often hinders the effective employment of timely and effective Psychological Operations. PSYOP has a difficult job to accomplish but PSYOP does not have the proper managemen...

  11. Center for Deployment Psychology (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  12. Psychology in Japan. (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko


    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello


    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  14. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor


    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  15. Limit analysis of solid reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske


    Recent studies have shown that Semidefinite Programming (SDP) can be used effectively for limit analysis of isotropic cohesive-frictional continuums using the classical Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. In this paper we expand on this previous research by adding reinforcement to the model and a solid...... reinforcement and it is therefore possible to analyze structures with complex reinforcement layouts. Tests are conducted to validate the method against well-known analytical solutions....

  16. Strength Characteristics of Reinforced Sandy Soil


    S. N. Bannikov; Mahamed Al Fayez


    Laboratory tests on determination of reinforced sandy soil strength characteristics (angle of internal friction, specific cohesive force) have been carried out with the help of a specially designed instrument and proposed methodology. Analysis of the obtained results has revealed that cohesive forces are brought about in reinforced sandy soil and an angle of internal soil friction becomes larger in comparison with non-reinforced soil.

  17. Behavior of reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freskakis, G.N.


    A study is presented concerning the behavior of reinforced concrete sections at elevated temperatures. Material properties of concrete and reinforcing steel are discussed. Behavior studies are made by means of moment-curvature-axial force relationships. Particular attention is given to the load carrying capacity, thermal forces and moments, and deformation capacity. The effects on these properties of variations in the strength properties, the temperature level and distribution, the amount of reinforcing steel, and limiting values of strains are considered

  18. Reinforcement Learning in Repeated Portfolio Decisions


    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg


    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  19. Design of reinforced concrete plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M.


    Nowadays, the internal forces of reinforced concrete laminar structures can be easily evaluated by the finite element procedures. The longitudinal design in each direction is not adequate, since the whole set of internal forces in each point must be concomitantly considered. The classic formulation for the design and new design charts which bring reduction of the amount of necessary reinforcement are presented. A rational reinforced concrete mathematical theory which makes possible the limit state design of plates and shells is discussed. This model can also be applied to define the constitutive relationships of laminar finite elements of reinforced concrete. (Author) [pt

  20. Reinforcement of RC structure by carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi B.


    Full Text Available In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to the increased spending on building maintenance work and restoration of built works. In all cases, it is essential to carry out methods of reinforcement or maintenance of structural elements, following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. This research focuses on the calculation of the necessary reinforcement sections of carbon fiber for structural elements with reinforced concrete in order to improve their load bearing capacity and rigidity. The different results obtained reveal a considerable gain in resistance and deformation capacity of reinforced sections without significant increase in the weight of the rehabilitated elements.

  1. Methodology of shell structure reinforcement layout optimization (United States)

    Szafrański, Tomasz; Małachowski, Jerzy; Damaziak, Krzysztof


    This paper presents an optimization process of a reinforced shell diffuser intended for a small wind turbine (rated power of 3 kW). The diffuser structure consists of multiple reinforcement and metal skin. This kind of structure is suitable for optimization in terms of selection of reinforcement density, stringers cross sections, sheet thickness, etc. The optimisation approach assumes the reduction of the amount of work to be done between the optimization process and the final product design. The proposed optimization methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm to generate the optimal reinforcement layout. The obtained results are the basis for modifying the existing Small Wind Turbine (SWT) design.

  2. Reinforcement learning or active inference? (United States)

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J


    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  3. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Friston


    Full Text Available This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  4. Monitoring device for reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Tetsuo; Saito, Koichi; Furukawa, Hideyasu.


    A reactor container made of reinforced concretes is monitored for the temperature at each of portions upon placing concretes under construction of a plant, upon pressure-proof test and during plant operation. That is, optical fibers are uniformly laid spirally throughout the inside of the concretes. Pulses are injected from one end of the optical fibers, and the temperature at a reflection point can be measured by measuring specific rays (Raman scattering rays) among lights reflected after a predetermined period of time. According to the present invention, measurement for an optional position within a range where one fiber cable is laid can be conducted. Accordingly, it is possible to conduct temperature control upon concrete placing and apply temperature compensation for the measurement for stresses of the concretes and the reinforcing steels upon container pressure-proof. Further, during plant operation, if the temperature of the concretes rises due to thermal conduction of the temperature in the container, integrity of the concretes can be ensured by a countermeasures such as air conditioning. (I.S.)

  5. Enhancing corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures with hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt, J.; Jen, G.; Ostertag, C.P.


    Highlights: • Reinforced concrete beams were subjected to cyclic flexural loading. • Hybrid fiber reinforced composites were effective in reducing corrosion rates. • Crack resistance due to fibers increased corrosion resistance of steel rebar. • Galvanic corrosion measurements underestimated corrosion rates. • Polarization resistance measurements predicted mass loss more accurately. - Abstract: Service loads well below the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars lead to cracking of reinforced concrete. This paper investigates whether the crack resistance of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HyFRC) reduces the corrosion rate of steel reinforcing bars in concrete after cyclic flexural loading. The reinforcing bars were extracted to examine their surface for corrosion and compare microcell and macrocell corrosion mass loss estimates against direct gravimetric measurements. A delay in corrosion initiation and lower active corrosion rates were observed in the HyFRC beam specimens when compared to reinforced specimens containing plain concrete matrices cycled at the same flexural load

  6. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  7. Transpersonal Psychology in Education. (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  8. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf


    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  9. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.


    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  10. Virtual Reality in Psychology (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel


    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  11. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.


    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's

  12. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.


    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  13. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre


    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  14. Investigations of timing during the schedule and reinforcement intervals with wheel-running reinforcement. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Christie-Fougere, Melissa M


    Across two experiments, a peak procedure was used to assess the timing of the onset and offset of an opportunity to run as a reinforcer. The first experiment investigated the effect of reinforcer duration on temporal discrimination of the onset of the reinforcement interval. Three male Wistar rats were exposed to fixed-interval (FI) 30-s schedules of wheel-running reinforcement and the duration of the opportunity to run was varied across values of 15, 30, and 60s. Each session consisted of 50 reinforcers and 10 probe trials. Results showed that as reinforcer duration increased, the percentage of postreinforcement pauses longer than the 30-s schedule interval increased. On probe trials, peak response rates occurred near the time of reinforcer delivery and peak times varied with reinforcer duration. In a second experiment, seven female Long-Evans rats were exposed to FI 30-s schedules leading to 30-s opportunities to run. Timing of the onset and offset of the reinforcement period was assessed by probe trials during the schedule interval and during the reinforcement interval in separate conditions. The results provided evidence of timing of the onset, but not the offset of the wheel-running reinforcement period. Further research is required to assess if timing occurs during a wheel-running reinforcement period.

  15. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in bending with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. VIEIRA

    Full Text Available The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP has been widely used for the reinforcement of concrete structures due to its practicality and versatility in application, low weight, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance. Some construction companies use CFRP in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, but without anchor systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is analyze, through an experimental program, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams flexural strengthened by CFRP without anchor fibers, varying steel reinforcement and the amount of carbon fibers reinforcement layers. Thus, two groups of reinforced concrete beams were produced with the same geometric feature but with different steel reinforcement. Each group had five beams: one that is not reinforced with CFRP (reference and other reinforced with two, three, four and five layers of carbon fibers. Beams were designed using a computational routine developed in MAPLE software and subsequently tested in 4-point points flexural test up to collapse. Experimental tests have confirmed the effectiveness of the reinforcement, ratifying that beams collapse at higher loads and lower deformation as the amount of fibers in the reinforcing layers increased. However, the increase in the number of layers did not provide a significant increase in the performance of strengthened beams, indicating that it was not possible to take full advantage of strengthening applied due to the occurrence of premature failure mode in the strengthened beams for pullout of the cover that could have been avoided through the use of a suitable anchoring system for CFRP.

  16. Psychology or Psychological Science?: A Survey of Graduate Psychology Faculty Regarding Program Names (United States)

    Collisson, Brian; Rusbasan, David


    The question of renaming graduate psychology programs to psychological science is a timely and contentious issue. To better understand why some programs, but not others, are changing names, we surveyed chairpersons (Study 1) and faculty (Study 2) within graduate psychology and psychological science programs. Within psychology programs, a name…

  17. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... place until the matrix, the continuous component of the composite, fails. When an isotropic matrix is reinforced as described above, the result is an anisotropic composite material. Even if the material is anisotropic, it usually exhibits a rather high degree of symmetry and such symmetries place...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  18. Political Psychology of European Integration


    Manners, Ian James


    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  19. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. ... interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the ... preferably in the areas of industrial and transport activities. ... For controlling the embedded corrosion sensors, elec- .... danger of corrosion of reinforcement seems to be more.

  20. Reinforcement, Behavior Constraint, and the Overjustification Effect. (United States)

    Williams, Bruce W.


    Four levels of the behavior constraint-reinforcement variable were manipulated: attractive reward, unattractive reward, request to perform, and a no-reward control. Only the unattractive reward and request groups showed the performance decrements that suggest the overjustification effect. It is concluded that reinforcement does not cause the…

  1. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. Abstract. Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate ...

  2. Durability of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    The planned research will indicate, whether fibre reinforced concrete has better or worse durability than normal concrete. Durability specimens will be measured on cracked as well as uncracked specimens. Also the pore structure in the concrete will be characterized.Keywords: Fibre reinforced...... concrete, durability, pore structure, mechanical load...

  3. Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune


    programme where 120 reinforced concrete beams, 54 plain concrete beams and 324 concrete cylinders are tested. For the reinforced concrete beams four different parar meters are varied. The slenderness is 6, 12 and 18, the beam depth is 100 mm, 200 mm and 400 mm giving nine different geometries, five...

  4. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars (United States)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  5. Thinking Psychology Today




    The inauguration text of the V Congress of Psychology at the Javeriana University, “Thinking the Present: Psychology, Criticism, and Globalization Times”, is presented. This event took place in April, 2008, in Bogotá, Colombia. These thoughts invite to see Psychology in the present, and to ask oneself about the forms of life that we are built of and that go through subjectivities in today’s World, within the framework of the Economical, Cultural, Social and Political conditions of our countri...

  6. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.


    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane


    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport




    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  9. Reinforcement Learning State-of-the-Art

    CERN Document Server

    Wiering, Marco


    Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together the...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.


    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits

  11. Axial Compression Tests on Corroded Reinforced Concrete Columns Consolidated with Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ding


    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structure featured by strong bearing capacity, high rigidity, good integrity, good fire resistance, and extensive applicability occupies a mainstream position in contemporary architecture. However, with the development of social economy, people need higher requirements on architectural structure; durability, especially, has been extensively researched. Because of the higher requirement on building material, ordinary reinforced concrete structure has not been able to satisfy the demand. As a result, some new materials and structures have emerged, for example, fibre reinforced polymers. Compared to steel reinforcement, fibre reinforced polymers have many advantages, such as high tensile strength, good durability, good shock absorption, low weight, and simple construction. The application of fibre reinforced polymers in architectural structure can effectively improve the durability of the concrete structure and lower the maintenance, reinforcement, and construction costs in severe environments. Based on the concepts of steel tube concrete, fibre reinforced composite material confined concrete, and fibre reinforced composite material tubed concrete, this study proposes a novel composite structure, i.e., fibre reinforced composite material and steel tube concrete composite structure. The structure was developed by pasting fibre around steel tube concrete and restraining core concrete using fibre reinforced composite material and steel tubes. The bearing capacity and ultimate deformation capacity of the structure was tested using column axial compression test.

  12. Long-term performance of GFRP reinforcement : technical report. (United States)


    Significant research has been performed on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) concrete reinforcement. : This research has shown that GFRP reinforcement exhibits high strengths, is lightweight, can decrease time of : construction, and is corrosion ...

  13. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  14. Discursive psychology and feminism. (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann


    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.


    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  16. Globalization, culture and psychology. (United States)

    Melluish, Steve


    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA


    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  18. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology. (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.


    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  19. Internet research in psychology. (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter


    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  20. Diet and psychological health. (United States)

    Miller, M


    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  1. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø


    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  2. Operational Psychology Perspective (United States)

    Holland, Al


    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  3. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what......Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...

  4. Moral psychology (ethics). (United States)

    Andreou, Chrisoula


    This article examines a selection of currently lively debates in the quickly evolving, interdisciplinary field of moral psychology. Topics discussed include the possibility of amoralism, the nature of rationality, the (ir)rationality of emotions and intuitions, the psychology of cooperation and of (rational) commitment, weakness of will, free will, and the assignment of moral responsibility. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)


    Mouras , Harold


    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  6. Psychological therapies for thalassaemia. (United States)

    Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia


    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions

  7. International School Psychology: Psychology's Worldwide Portal to Children and Youth (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas D.


    International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…

  8. Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Santiago Mejía


    Full Text Available This article presents an application of Genetic Algorithms (GA and Finite Element Analysis (FEA to solve a structural optimisation problem on reticular plastic structures. Structural optimisation is used to modify the original shape by placing reinforcements at optimum locations. As a result, a reduction in the maximum stress by 14,70% for a structure with a final volume increase of 8,36% was achieved. This procedure solves the structural optimisation problem by adjusting the original mold and thereby avoiding the re-construction of a new one.Este artículo presenta una aplicación de Algoritmos Genéticos (GA y Análisis por Elementos Finitos (FEA a la solución de un problema de optimización estructural en estructuras reticulares plásticas. Optimización estructurales usada para modificar la forma original colocando refuerzos en posiciones óptimas. Como resultado se obtuvo una reducción en el esfuerzo máximo de 14,70% para una estructura cuyo volumen original aumento en 8,36%. Este procedimiento soluciona el problema de optimización estructural ajustando el molde original y evitando la manufactura de un nuevo molde.

  9. LGBT psychology and feminist psychology: bridging the divide


    Clarke, V.; Peel, E.


    In this paper, we outline some of the similarities and differences between lesbian and gay psychology (more recently known as LGBT psychology) and feminist psychology. Both fields developed in response to the oppressive practices of psychology; however, lesbian and gay psychologists have been far more willing to using the theoretical and methodological tools of mainstream psychology than have feminist psychologists. Feminist psychologists have enthusiastically embraced qualitative and critica...

  10. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology


    Kozlov, Vladimir


    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich


    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  12. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition. (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  13. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah


    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  14. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.


    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  15. Fatigue Performance of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Zhang; Stang, Henrik


    The objective of the present study is to obtain basic data of fibre reinforced concrete under fatigue load and to set up a theoretical model based on micromechanics. In this study, the bridging stress in fiber reinforced concrete under cyclic tensile load was investigted in details. The damage...... mechanism of the interface between fiber and matrix was proposed and a rational model given. Finally, the response of a steel fiber reinforced concrete beam under fatigue loading was predicted based on this model and compared with experimental results....

  16. Seismic Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.


    Over recent decades increased research interest has been observed on the dynamic response and stability issues of earth walls and reinforced soil structures. The current study aims to provide an insight into the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics...... to prevent the development of slope instability taking advantage of their reinforcing effect. For this purpose, a onedimensional (SDOF) model, based on Newmark’s sliding block model as well as a two-dimensional (plane-strain) dynamic finite-element analyses are conducted in order to investigate the impact...

  17. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan


    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  18. Polymer reinforcement of cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, R.N.


    In the last couple of decades several cement- and concrete-based composites have come into prominence. Of these, cement-polymer composites, like cement-fibre composites, have been recognised as very promising, and considerable research and development on their properties, fabrication methods and application are in progress. Of the three types of concrete materials which incorporate polymers to form composites, polymer impregnated concrete forms a major development in which hardened concrete is impregnated with a liquid monomer which is subsequently polymerized to form a rigid polymer network in the pores of the parent material. In this first part of the extensive review of the polymer reinforcement of cement systems, the process technology of the various monomer impregnation techniques and the properties of the impregnated composite are assessed critically. It is shown that the high durability and superior performance of polymer impregnated concrete can provide an economic and competitive alternative in in situ strengthening, and in other areas where conventional concrete can only at best provide adequate performance. The review includes a section on radiation-induced polymerization. (author)

  19. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...... culture and time into investigations; and what cultural psychology can contribute to our understanding of imagination, art, language and self-other relations....

  20. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training. (United States)

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A


    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.

  1. Influence of reinforcement's corrosion into hyperstatic reinforced concrete beams: a probabilistic failure scenarios analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available AbstractThis work aims to study the mechanical effects of reinforcement's corrosion in hyperstatic reinforced concrete beams. The focus is the probabilistic determination of individual failure scenarios change as well as global failure change along time. The limit state functions assumed describe analytically bending and shear resistance of reinforced concrete rectangular cross sections as a function of steel and concrete resistance and section dimensions. It was incorporated empirical laws that penalize the steel yield stress and the reinforcement's area along time in addition to Fick's law, which models the chloride penetration into concrete pores. The reliability theory was applied based on Monte Carlo simulation method, which assesses each individual probability of failure. The probability of global structural failure was determined based in the concept of failure tree. The results of a hyperstatic reinforced concrete beam showed that reinforcements corrosion make change into the failure scenarios modes. Therefore, unimportant failure modes in design phase become important after corrosion start.

  2. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects. (United States)

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza


    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  3. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students. (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio


    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p Students supported resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  4. Modeling of geosynthetic reinforced capping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanadham, B.V.S.; Koenig, D.; Jessberger, H.L.


    The investigation deals with the influence of a geosynthetic reinforcement on the deformation behavior and sealing efficiency of the reinforced mineral sealing layer at the onset of non-uniform settlements. The research program is mainly concentrated in studying the influence of reinforcement inclusion in restraining cracks and crack propagation due to soil-geosynthetic bond efficiency. Centrifuge model tests are conducted in the 500 gt capacity balanced beam Bochum geotechnical Centrifuge (Z1) simulating a differential deformation of a mineral sealing layer of a landfill with the help of trap-door arrangement. By comparing the performance of the deformed mineral sealing layer with and without geogrid, the reinforcement ability of the geogrid in controlling the crack propagation and permeability of the mineral swing layer is evaluated

  5. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  6. fatigue strength of reinforced concrete flexural members

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe


    Mar 1, 1980 ... cyclic loads behave differently compared with static bending and can collapse due to the fatigue of concrete, reinforcement or both when maximum fatigue stresses of ... under low and medium load levels, than under high load ...

  7. Thin fiber and textile reinforced cementitious systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldea, Corina-Maria


    This Special Publication (SP) contains ten papers which provide insight on the topics of state of the art of thin fiber and textile-reinforced cementitious systems both in academia and the industry...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    mechanical and thermal properties of chitin reinforced composites. ..... with crabyon fiber and normal viscose filaments. Also. Zhang et al.,[65] successfully blended chitin/cellulose using two different coagulating systems (immersed in 5.

  9. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2009 (United States)


    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for four-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focus...

  10. Belief reward shaping in reinforcement learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marom, O


    Full Text Available A key challenge in many reinforcement learning problems is delayed rewards, which can significantly slow down learning. Although reward shaping has previously been introduced to accelerate learning by bootstrapping an agent with additional...

  11. Reinforced Conductive Polyaniline-Paper Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Yan


    Full Text Available A method for direct aniline interfacial polymerization on polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE-reinforced paper substrate is introduced in this paper. Cellulose-based papers with and without reinforcement were considered. The polyaniline (PANI-paper composites had surface resistivity lower than 100 Ω/sq after more than 3 polymerizations. Their mechanical strength and thermal stability were analyzed by tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR results revealed that there was strong interaction between NH groups in aniline monomers and OH groups in fibers, which did not disappear until after 3 polymerizations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and field emission (FE SEM images showed morphological differences between composites using reinforced and untreated base papers. Conductive composites made with PAE-reinforced base paper had both good thermal stability and good mechanical strength, with high conductivity and a smaller PANI amount.

  12. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2007 (United States)


    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for 4-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focused ...

  13. Fiber reinforced polymer bridge decks : [technical summary]. (United States)


    A number of researchers have addressed the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) deck as a replacement solution for deteriorated bridge decks made of traditional materials. The use of new, advanced materials such as FRP is advantageous when the bridg...

  14. Finite element modeling of reinforced concrete beams with a hybrid combination of steel and aramid reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawileh, R.A.


    Highlights: • Modeling of concrete beams reinforced steel and FRP bars. • Developed finite element models achieved good results. • The models are validated via comparison with experimental results. • Parametric studies are performed. - Abstract: Corrosion of steel bars has an adverse effect on the life-span of reinforced concrete (RC) members and is usually associated with crack development in RC beams. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been recently used to reinforce concrete members in flexure due to their high tensile strength and superior corrosion resistance properties. However, FRP materials are brittle in nature, thus RC beams reinforced with such materials would exhibit a less ductile behavior when compared to similar members reinforced with conventional steel reinforcement. Recently, researchers investigated the performance of concrete beams reinforced with a hybrid combination of steel and Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (AFRP) reinforcement to maintain a reasonable level of ductility in such members. The function of the AFRP bars is to increase the load-carrying capacity, while the function of the steel bars is to ensure ductility of the flexural member upon yielding in tension. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model that predicted the load versus mid-span deflection response of tested RC beams conducted by other researchers with a hybrid combination of steel and AFRP bars. The developed FE models account for the constituent material nonlinearities and bond–slip behavior between the reinforcing bars and adjacent concrete surfaces. It was concluded that the developed models can accurately capture the behavior and predicts the load-carrying capacity of such RC members. In addition, a parametric study is conducted using the validated models to investigate the effect of AFRP bar size, FRP material type, bond–slip action, and concrete compressive strength on the performance of concrete beams when reinforced

  15. Combining noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement schedules as treatment for aberrant behavior.


    Marcus, B A; Vollmer, T R


    Research has shown that noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) can be an effective behavior-reduction procedure when based on a functional analysis. The effects of NCR may be a result of elimination of the contingency between aberrant behavior and reinforcing consequences (extinction) or frequent and free access to reinforcers that may reduce the participant's motivation to engage in aberrant behaviors or mands. If motivation is momentarily reduced, behavior such as mands may not be sensitive to p...

  16. Reinforcement Schedules in a Verbal Reinforcement Combination and Renection-Impulsivity


    TAMASE, Koji; UEDA, Masako


    It was predicted that higher proportion of the negative reinforcement "Wrong" than that of the positive reinforcement "Right" in a reinforcement combination will produce higher proportion of the correct response and this trend will be greater in reflective children than in impulsive children. From 140 kindergarten children 30 reflective and 30 impulsive children were selected and they were given a two-hole marble-dropping task. The best performance in the ratio of correct responses was obtain...

  17. Modelling root reinforcement in shallow forest soils (United States)

    Skaugset, Arne E.


    A hypothesis used to explain the relationship between timber harvesting and landslides is that tree roots add mechanical support to soil, thus increasing soil strength. Upon harvest, the tree roots decay which reduces soil strength and increases the risk of management -induced landslides. The technical literature does not adequately support this hypothesis. Soil strength values attributed to root reinforcement that are in the technical literature are such that forested sites can't fail and all high risk, harvested sites must fail. Both unstable forested sites and stable harvested sites exist, in abundance, in the real world thus, the literature does not adequately describe the real world. An analytical model was developed to calculate soil strength increase due to root reinforcement. Conceptually, the model is composed of a reinforcing element with high tensile strength, i.e. a conifer root, embedded in a material with little tensile strength, i.e. a soil. As the soil fails and deforms, the reinforcing element also deforms and stretches. The lateral deformation of the reinforcing element is treated analytically as a laterally loaded pile in a flexible foundation and the axial deformation is treated as an axially loaded pile. The governing differential equations are solved using finite-difference approximation techniques. The root reinforcement model was tested by comparing the final shape of steel and aluminum rods, parachute cord, wooden dowels, and pine roots in direct shear with predicted shapes from the output of the root reinforcement model. The comparisons were generally satisfactory, were best for parachute cord and wooden dowels, and were poorest for steel and aluminum rods. A parameter study was performed on the root reinforcement model which showed reinforced soil strength increased with increasing root diameter and soil depth. Output from the root reinforcement model showed a strain incompatibility between large and small diameter roots. The peak

  18. The Recent Research on Bamboo Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sri Murni


    Full Text Available The paper presents the last research on bamboo reinforced concrete in Brawijaya University Indonesia. Three kinds of structures studied in recent year, the mounting of pegs on reinforcement, the use of lightweight brick to reduce the weight of the beams, and the use the light weight aggregate for bamboo concrete composite frame. All that experiments overcome some problems exist in using bamboo as environmental acceptance structures.

  19. Reinforced concrete wall under hydrogen detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarenheimo, A.


    The structural integrity of a reinforced concrete wall in the BWR reactor building under hydrogen detonation conditions has been analysed. Of particular interest is whether the containment integrity can be jeopardised by an external hydrogen detonation. The load carrying capacity of a reinforced concrete wall was studied. The detonation pressure loads were estimated with computerised hand calculations assuming a direct initiation of detonation and applying the strong explosion theory. The results can be considered as rough and conservative estimates for the first shock pressure impact induced by a reflecting detonation wave. Structural integrity may be endangered due to slow pressurisation or dynamic impulse loads associated with local detonations. The static pressure following the passage of a shock front may be relatively high, thus this static or slowly decreasing pressure after a detonation may damage the structure severely. The mitigating effects of the opening of a door on pressure history and structural response were also studied. The non-linear behaviour of the wall was studied under detonations corresponding a detonable hydrogen mass of 0.5 kg and 1.428 kg. Non-linear finite element analyses of the reinforced concrete structure were carried out by the ABAQUS/Explicit program. The reinforcement and its non-linear material behaviour and the tensile cracking of concrete were modelled. Reinforcement was defined as layers of uniformly spaced reinforcing bars in shell elements. In these studies the surrounding structures of the non-linearly modelled reinforced concrete wall were modelled using idealised boundary conditions. Especially concrete cracking and yielding of the reinforcement was monitored during the numerical simulation. (au)

  20. Shaking Table Tests of Reinforced Concrete Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    -varying systems and to verify various methods for damage assessment of reinforced concrete structures from soft motion measurements. In this study the maximum softening concept will be evaluated. In the paper the assessment obtained by this method is compared to visual damage assessment. The structures considered...... vector ARMA model is suitable for modal identification of degrading reinforced concrete structures and the maximum softening damage index calculated from the obtained identification provides a valuable tool for assessment of the damage state of the structure....

  1. Design Methods for Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik


    The present paper describes the outline of a research project on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) currently being carried out in Denmark under the supervision of Danish Council of Technology, Danish Technical Research Council and Danish Natural Science Research Counsil.......The present paper describes the outline of a research project on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) currently being carried out in Denmark under the supervision of Danish Council of Technology, Danish Technical Research Council and Danish Natural Science Research Counsil....

  2. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna


    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...

  3. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady


    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  4. Embodiment in social psychology. (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A


    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. [Psychological theories of motivation]. (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine


    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  6. Advancing family psychology. (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H


    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.


    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  8. Zero-reinforcement vessel closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.; Mou, Y.


    Access to the secondary side of a nuclear steam generator is required in order to properly inspect and maintain critical components throughout the life. For the most part, it is only on newer units that sufficient openings have been provided. Older units must be field modified to provide access to the tube bundle and internal lateral support components for inspection and penetration by cleaning equipment. In order to avoid post weld heat treatment after welding on some materials it would be desirable to machine the opening directly into the pressure boundary without providing weld build-up to compensate for the material removed. In such a case, the pressure boundary may be locally thinned below the minimum thickness required by the ASME code. As a result it is not possible to meet reinforcement limits or elastic primary stress limited of the code. However, the ASME code permits justification of the design by utilizing elastic-plastic methods. Elastic-plastic analysis can be utilized to demonstrate shake-down to elastic action and to demonstrate that small deformations in the region of the gasket seating surfaces, or any loss of bolt preload, have not compromised leak tightness. Employing the technique developed by the authors for application in ANSYS, it is feasible to carry-out such a design analysis including the effects of time varying thermal stress. This paper presents the highlights of such an analysis. It is important to note that the method also permits the analysis of openings in locations formerly considered too restrictive, such as near support and major structural discontinuities. (author)

  9. Learning to trade via direct reinforcement. (United States)

    Moody, J; Saffell, M


    We present methods for optimizing portfolios, asset allocations, and trading systems based on direct reinforcement (DR). In this approach, investment decision-making is viewed as a stochastic control problem, and strategies are discovered directly. We present an adaptive algorithm called recurrent reinforcement learning (RRL) for discovering investment policies. The need to build forecasting models is eliminated, and better trading performance is obtained. The direct reinforcement approach differs from dynamic programming and reinforcement algorithms such as TD-learning and Q-learning, which attempt to estimate a value function for the control problem. We find that the RRL direct reinforcement framework enables a simpler problem representation, avoids Bellman's curse of dimensionality and offers compelling advantages in efficiency. We demonstrate how direct reinforcement can be used to optimize risk-adjusted investment returns (including the differential Sharpe ratio), while accounting for the effects of transaction costs. In extensive simulation work using real financial data, we find that our approach based on RRL produces better trading strategies than systems utilizing Q-learning (a value function method). Real-world applications include an intra-daily currency trader and a monthly asset allocation system for the S&P 500 Stock Index and T-Bills.

  10. International psychology and scientific psychology: at the crossroads for the future of psychology


    Robert, J.


    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...

  11. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer


    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  12. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre


    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  13. Neuroeconomics and business psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben


    To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based on a meso......To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based...

  14. Psychology of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hoc, J-M


    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  15. Psychological lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.


    Up to the time of the disaster, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was regarded as one of the best in the USSR, and the city of Pripyat, housing the plant's staff, was rightly called one of the most comfortable. Also, the psychological climate of the plant provided no causes for worry. This was a worked-in team, composed of seasoned and knowledgeable experts. How can one then explain the events that happened in such an unlikely place. Isn't there a danger that the situation will repeat itself? The author considers the question and other psychological aspects of the Chernobyl incident

  16. Psychological models of suicide. (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan


    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  17. On applying cognitive psychology. (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan


    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Introduction to Concrete Reinforcing. Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series. (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module on concrete reinforcing is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. This module contains three instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) concrete reinforcing materials; (2) concrete reinforcing tools; and (3) concrete reinforcing basic skills. Each…

  19. [A psychological content of social phobia syndrome]. (United States)

    Sagalakova, O A; Truevtsev, D V; Stoyanova, I Ya


    To perform a psychological analysis of social phobia syndrome. The subject area of research is the structure of mental activity and behavior in social activity. The study included 32 patients with symptoms of social phobia (ICD-10 F40.1) and 29 healthy people (controls). A complex of psychological methods (questionnaires; pathopsychological experiment) was used. Early maladaptive schemes and a tendency to mental rigidity can be a premorbid basis of the syndrome. Primary violation is in organizational target component by type of distortion of goal-setting regulation. The mechanism is a reduction in the mediation of emotions and behavior (an influence of emotions on the process of activity, excess metacognitive anxiety control leading to multi-task and exhaustion of resources of voluntary activity). Fear of negative evaluation leads to the fact that a wide class of situations is interpreted as threatening. Secondary are changes in the system of goals and motives of activity (technically performing components of social behavior act as a focus of attention, along with the target, the target replaces the suprasituational meaning). Along with a strong motivation to succeed, the motive of avoiding failure is formed, which leads to a decrease in social activity. Tertiary symptoms of syndrome dynamics (ways to cope with maladaptation) are destructive forms of decompensation (substance abuse, learned helplessness and hopelessness, suicidal behavior, etc.), repeatedly reinforcing the primary and secondary disturbances.

  20. Frequency of psychological alterations in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: preliminary study. (United States)

    Sadetski, M; Tourinho Moretto, M L; Correia de Araujo, R P; de Carvalho, J F


    Objectives To detect the frequency of psychological alterations in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients. Methods Thirty-six primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients were analyzed by a psychological interview using a standard protocol and review of medical charts. Clinical manifestations, associated comorbidities, antiphospholipid antibodies, and treatment were also evaluated. Results The mean age was 44.2 ± 10.8 years, 29 (80%) were women and 29 (80%) were of Caucasian race. The mean duration of disease was 7.3 ± 5.2 years. The frequency of the presence of psychological alterations was 97.1%. Family dependence was observed in 14 (40%), memory loss in 12 (34.3%), social losses in 12 (34.3%), sexual limitations in seven (20%), sadness in six (17.1%), severe speech limitation in four (11.4%), anxiety in three (8.6%), learning difficulty in two (5.7%), generalized phobia in two (5.7%), suicide ideation in one (2.6%), agoraphobia in one (2.6%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder in one (2.6%). Conclusion This study demonstrated that almost all primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients have psychological alterations. These data reinforce the need for psychological evaluation in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients.

  1. The effects of physical activity on impulsive choice: Influence of sensitivity to reinforcement amount and delay. (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Feinstein, Max A; Lacy, Ryan T; Smith, Mark A


    Impulsive choice is a diagnostic feature and/or complicating factor for several psychological disorders and may be examined in the laboratory using delay-discounting procedures. Recent investigators have proposed using quantitative measures of analysis to examine the behavioral processes contributing to impulsive choice. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of physical activity (i.e., wheel running) on impulsive choice in a single-response, discrete-trial procedure using two quantitative methods of analysis. To this end, rats were assigned to physical activity or sedentary groups and trained to respond in a delay-discounting procedure. In this procedure, one lever always produced one food pellet immediately, whereas a second lever produced three food pellets after a 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80-s delay. Estimates of sensitivity to reinforcement amount and sensitivity to reinforcement delay were determined using (1) a simple linear analysis and (2) an analysis of logarithmically transformed response ratios. Both analyses revealed that physical activity decreased sensitivity to reinforcement amount and sensitivity to reinforcement delay. These findings indicate that (1) physical activity has significant but functionally opposing effects on the behavioral processes that contribute to impulsive choice and (2) both quantitative methods of analysis are appropriate for use in single-response, discrete-trial procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. (United States)


    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Positive behavioral contrast across food and alcohol reinforcers.


    McSweeney, F K; Melville, C L; Higa, J


    The present study examined behavioral contrast during concurrent and multiple schedules that provided food and alcohol reinforcers. Concurrent-schedule contrast occurred in the responding reinforced by food when alcohol reinforcers were removed. It also occurred in the responding reinforced by alcohol when food was removed. Multiple-schedule contrast appeared for food when alcohol reinforcers were removed, but not for alcohol when food was removed. These results show that behavioral contrast ...

  4. Psychology: Teacher Supplement. (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  5. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The journal has a multidisciplinary focus. It is not intended ... Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of Secondary School Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Psychological Stress and Cancer (United States)

    ... on or fail to adhere to potentially helpful therapy, engage in risky behaviors such as drug use, or do not maintain a healthy lifestyle, resulting in premature death. How can people who have cancer learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients ...

  7. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro


    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  8. Rediscovering Differential Psychology? (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold


    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  9. Psychology in the Classroom. (United States)

    Jennings, Gretchen; Craig, Michelle L.


    Describes an exhibition-based activity set that teaches important psychological processes such as attention (Interference), communication (Pattern Talk), and cooperation versus competition (Do Nice Guys Finish Last?). Activities follow the scientific method, and teachers can observe varying levels of skill and cognitive development in students of…

  10. Space Psychology and Psychiatry (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.


    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link:



    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu


    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  12. Family Counseling Psychology. (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F., ed.


    Describes programs for family counseling which use psychological-educational and skills training methods to remediate individual and family problems or enhance family life. The six articles discuss client-centered skills training, behavioral approaches, cognitive behavioral marital therapy, Adlerian parent education, and couple communication. (JAC)

  13. Cross-Cultural Psychology. (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  14. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981, (United States)


    business it is to carry out applied work in the design of instructional content and delivery. These organizations include specialized divisions of...34learning disabilities" label: An experimental analysis. Comtemporary Educational Psychology, 1977, 2, 292-297. Allington, R. L. Sensitivity to

  15. Is Psychology a Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang


    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  17. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta). (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L


    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  18. Shear behaviour of reinforced phyllite concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom-Asamoah, Mark; Owusu Afrifa, Russell


    Highlights: ► Phyllite concrete beams often exhibited shear with anchorage bond failure. ► Different shear design provisions for reinforced phyllite beams are compared. ► Predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams must be modified by a reduction factor. -- Abstract: The shear behaviour of concrete beams made from phyllite aggregates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading is reported. First diagonal shear crack load of beams with and without shear reinforcement was between 42–58% and 42–92% of the failure loads respectively. The phyllite concrete beams without shear links had lower post-diagonal cracking shear resistance compared to corresponding phyllite beams with shear links. As a result of hysteretic energy dissipation, limited cyclic loading affected the stiffness, strength and deformation of the phyllite beams with shear reinforcement. Generally, beams with and without shear reinforcement showed anchorage bond failure in addition to the shear failure due to high stress concentration near the supports. The ACI, BS and EC codes are conservative for the prediction of phyllite concrete beams without shear reinforcement but they all overestimate the shear strength of phyllite concrete beams with shear reinforcement. It is recommended that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams reinforced with steel stirrups be modified by a reduction factor of 0.7 in order to specify a high enough safety factor on their ultimate strength. It is also recommended that susceptibility of phyllite concrete beams to undergo anchorage bond failure is averted in design by the provision of greater anchorage lengths than usually permitted.

  19. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections


    Enrique Lombardo


    This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...

  20. On the weld strength of in situ tape placed reinforcements on weave reinforced structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Warnet, Laurent; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko


    Unidirectionally reinforced thermoplastic tapes were welded onto woven fabric reinforced laminates using a laser assisted tape placement process. A mandrel peel setup was used to quantify the interfacial fracture toughness between the tape and the laminate as a measure for weld strength. The tape

  1. The usage of carbon fiber reinforcement polymer and glass fiber reinforcement polymer for retrofit technology building (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Meka, Randi; Nursyamsi


    Fiber Reinforcement Polymer has been used as a material technology since the 1970s in Europe. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer can reinforce the structure externally, and used in many types of buildings like beams, columns, and slabs. It has high tensile strength. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer also has high rigidity and strength. The profile of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer is thin and light, installation is simple to conduct. One of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer material is Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer and Glass Fiber Reinforcement Polymer. These materials is tested when it is installed on concrete cylinders, to obtain the comparison of compressive strength CFRP and GFRP. The dimension of concrete is diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm. It is amounted to 15 and divided into three groups. The test is performed until it collapsed to obtain maximum load. The results of research using CFRP and GFRP have shown the significant enhancement in compressive strength. CFRP can increase the compressive strength of 26.89%, and GFRP of 14.89%. For the comparison of two materials, CFRP is more strengthening than GFRP regarding increasing compressive strength. The usage of CFRP and GFRP can increase the loading capacity.

  2. Core References in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta


    The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…

  3. Broadening the Boundaries of Psychology through Community Psychology (United States)

    Kagan, Carolyn


    This paper argues for community psychology to be included within the discipline boundaries of psychology. In doing this, it will enable psychology to begin to address some of the large scale social issues affecting people's well-being. It will be necessary, however, to incorporate aspects of other disciplines, make explicit the political…

  4. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.


    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  5. Influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation resistance of reinforced concrete slabs under hard missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbovic, Nebojsa; Sagals, Genadijs; Blahoianu, Andrei


    This paper describes the work conducted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) related to the influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs under “hard” missile impact (impact with negligible missile deformations). The paper presents the results of three tests on reinforced concrete slabs conducted at VTT Technical Research Centre (Finland), along with the numerical simulations as well as a discussion of the current code provisions related to impactive loading. Transverse reinforcement is widely used for improving the shear and punching strength of concrete structures. However, the effect of this reinforcement on the perforation resistance under localized missile impact is still unclear. The goal of this paper is to fill the gap in the current literature related to this topic. Based on similar tests designed by the authors with missile velocity below perforation velocity, it was expected that transverse reinforcement would improve the perforation resistance. Three slabs were tested under almost identical conditions with the only difference being the transverse reinforcement. One slab was designed without transverse reinforcement, the second one with the transverse reinforcement in form of conventional stirrups with hooks and the third one with the transverse reinforcement in form of T-headed bars. Although the transverse reinforcement reduced the overall damage of the slabs (the rear face scabbing), the conclusion from the tests is that the transverse reinforcement does not have important influence on perforation capacity of concrete slabs under rigid missile impact. The slab with T-headed bars presented a slight improvement compared to the baseline specimen without transverse reinforcement. The slab with conventional stirrups presented slightly lower perforation capacity (higher residual missile velocity) than the slab without transverse reinforcement. In conclusion, the performed tests show slightly

  6. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. (United States)

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A


    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James


    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  8. African Journals Online: Psychology & Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... case studies that are community-based and inter/intra-cultural on human behaviour, ... education, health, religion, business, tourism, counselling and psychology.

  9. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail


    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  10. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolong


    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  11. The genetics of speciation by reinforcement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos


    Full Text Available Reinforcement occurs when natural selection strengthens behavioral discrimination to prevent costly interspecies matings, such as when matings produce sterile hybrids. This evolutionary process can complete speciation, thereby providing a direct link between Darwin's theory of natural selection and the origin of new species. Here, by examining a case of speciation by reinforcement in Drosophila,we present the first high-resolution genetic study of variation within species for female mating discrimination that is enhanced by natural selection. We show that reinforced mating discrimination is inherited as a dominant trait, exhibits variability within species, and may be influenced by a known set of candidate genes involved in olfaction. Our results show that the genetics of reinforced mating discrimination is different from the genetics of mating discrimination between species, suggesting that overall mating discrimination might be a composite phenomenon, which in Drosophila could involve both auditory and olfactory cues. Examining the genetics of reinforcement provides a unique opportunity for both understanding the origin of new species in the face of gene flow and identifying the genetic basis of adaptive female species preferences, two major gaps in our understanding of speciation.

  12. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)


    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  13. Reinforcement of Conducting Silver-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike JUNG


    Full Text Available Silver is a well-known material in the field of contact materials because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity. However, due to its bad mechanical and switching properties, silver alloys or reinforcements of the ductile silver matrix are required. Different reinforcements, e. g. tungsten, tungsten carbide, nickel, cadmium oxide or tin oxide, are used in different sectors of switches. To reach an optimal distribution of these reinforcements, various manufacturing techniques (e. g. powder blending, preform infiltration, wet-chemical methods, internal oxidation are being used for the production of these contact materials. Each of these manufacturing routes offers different advantages and disadvantages. The mechanical alloying process displays a successful and efficient method to produce particle-reinforced metal-matrix composite powders. This contribution presents the obtained fine disperse microstructure of tungsten-particle-reinforced silver composite powders produced by the mechanical alloying process and displays this technique as possible route to provide feedstock powders for subsequent consolidation processes. DOI:

  14. American Psychological Association annual report. (United States)


    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña López


    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  16. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016 (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn


    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  17. Positive Psychology and Career Development (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.


    Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…

  18. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi


    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  19. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology. (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.


    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  20. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  1. Indigenisation of Psychology in India (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.


    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  2. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen


    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  3. Path dependence in social and psychological risk factors for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Abstract This article focuses on social and psychological risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and cognitive impairment and presents some key points for prevention in developing countries based on previous studies, a social science theory, and our preliminary survey. Previous population-based studies found that educational and occupational attainment, income, participation in social and mental activities, and psychological distress were associated with dementia risk. According to the theory of path dependence, earlier factors largely determine successive ones, where education is one of these early experiences in life. Our preliminary survey suggested that education sets a path that several psychosocial risk factors are dependent on. The expansion of basic education is indispensable. Resources for prevention should be concentrated on individuals with a low level of education. In order to break from a path creating self-reinforcement of risk factors, it is necessary to implement early and active interventions.

  4. Some Lessons From a Symposium on Cultural Psychological Science. (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J


    In this concluding essay, I summarize some of the main points of each of the contributors and attempt to highlight their importance for psychological science and for everyday life. I bring in some examples of research from my own research group over the years that reinforce many of the conclusions reached by the contributors. The purpose of this symposium on cultural psychological science is, we hope, to teach some lessons that could not easily be learned except through cultural research. My goal in this final essay is to consider what I believe to be a primary lesson of each contribution. I attempt to illustrate the considerable relevance of each of these contributions to contemporary society. The views expressed here are solely my own, and of course readers may find much to disagree with; hopefully, they will find some things to agree with as well!

  5. Artificial Psychology: The Psychology of AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Crowder


    Full Text Available Having artificially intelligent machines that think, learn, reason, experience, and can function autonomously, without supervision, is one of the most intriguing goals in all of Computer Science. As the types of problems we would like machines to solve get more complex, it is becoming a necessary goal as well. One of the many problems associated with this goal is that what learning and reasoning are have so many possible meanings that the solution can easily get lost in the sea of opinions and options. The goal of this paper is to establish some foundational principles, theory, and concepts that we feel are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. With this fully autonomous, learning, reasoning, artificially intelligent system (an artificial brain, comes the need to possess constructs in its hardware and software that mimic processes and subsystems that exist within the human brain, including intuitive and emotional memory concepts. Presented here is a discussion of the psychological constructs of artificial intelligence and how they might play out in an artificial mind.

  6. Measurement of reinforcement corrosion in marine structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Ismail; Nordin Yahaya


    The marine environment is known to be aggressive. Structures constructed on this belt need to undergo periodic assessment in order to ensure no defects or signs of deterioration had occurred. One of the most common deterioration that occurs on marine structures is corrosion of the reinforcement. Corrosion is an electrochemical process. The product of corrosion can increase the reinforcement volume, hence causing cracking on concrete cover. If no action is taken, delamination and spalling of concrete will follow and this will affect the structures integrity. It is therefore important to know the state of the structures condition by monitoring them periodically. NDT techniques that can detect the occurrence of corrosion of reinforcement in concrete uses half cell and resistivity meter. The method of application and interpretation of results are discussed. (author)

  7. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency. (United States)

    Sidman, M


    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  8. Hypocretin / orexin involvement in reward and reinforcement (United States)

    España, Rodrigo A.


    Since the discovery of the hypocretins/orexins, a series of observations have indicated that these peptides influence a variety of physiological processes including feeding, sleep/wake function, memory, and stress. More recently, the hypocretins have been implicated in reinforcement and reward-related processes via actions on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Although investigation into the relationship between the hypocretins and reinforcement/reward remains in relatively early stages, accumulating evidence suggests that continued research into this area may offer new insights into the addiction process and provide the foundation to generate novel pharmacotherapies for drug abuse. The current chapter will focus on contemporary perspectives of hypocretin regulation of cocaine reward and reinforcement via actions on the mesolimbic dopamine system. PMID:22640614

  9. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fujiyama


    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the effect of the fibers on the fracture toughness of the material. The results obtained indicate that, while fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in compressive strength, J-integral calculations at maximum load for the different notch root radii have indicated, particularly for the case of long fibers, a significant superiority of the reinforced material in comparison with the plain cement mortar, in consistence with the impact test data.

  10. Simulating distributed reinforcement effects in concrete analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.


    The effect of the bond slip is brought into the TEMP-STRESS finite element code by relaxing the equal strain condition between concrete and reinforcement. This is done for the elements adjacent to the element which is cracked. A parabolic differential strain variation is assumed along the reinforcement from the crack, which is taken to be at the centroid of the cracked element, to the point where perfect bonding exists. This strain relationship is used to increase the strain of the reinforcement in the as yet uncracked elements located adjacent to a crack. By the same token the corresponding concrete strain is decreased. This estimate is made assuming preservation of strain energy in the element. The effectiveness of the model is shown by examples. Comparison of analytical results is made with structural test data. The influence of the bonding model on cracking is portrayed pictorially. 5 refs., 6 figs

  11. Slipforming of reinforced concrete shield building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, M.C.; King, J.R.


    The unique design and construction features of slipforming the heavily reinforced concrete cylindrical shield walls at the Satsop nuclear plant in Washington, D.C. site are presented. The shield walls were designed in compliance with seismic requirements which resulted in the need for reinforcing steel averaging 326 kg/m/sup 3/. A 7.6 m high, three-deck moving platform was designed to permit easy installation of the reinforcing steel, embedments, and blockouts, and to facilitate concrete placement and finishing. Two circular box trusses, one on each side of the shield wall, were used in combination with a spider truss to meet both the tolerance and strength requirements for the slipform assembly

  12. Pointwise probability reinforcements for robust statistical inference. (United States)

    Frénay, Benoît; Verleysen, Michel


    Statistical inference using machine learning techniques may be difficult with small datasets because of abnormally frequent data (AFDs). AFDs are observations that are much more frequent in the training sample that they should be, with respect to their theoretical probability, and include e.g. outliers. Estimates of parameters tend to be biased towards models which support such data. This paper proposes to introduce pointwise probability reinforcements (PPRs): the probability of each observation is reinforced by a PPR and a regularisation allows controlling the amount of reinforcement which compensates for AFDs. The proposed solution is very generic, since it can be used to robustify any statistical inference method which can be formulated as a likelihood maximisation. Experiments show that PPRs can be easily used to tackle regression, classification and projection: models are freed from the influence of outliers. Moreover, outliers can be filtered manually since an abnormality degree is obtained for each observation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bamboo reinforced polymer composite - A comprehensive review (United States)

    Roslan, S. A. H.; Rasid, Z. A.; Hassan, M. Z.


    Bamboo has greatly attention of researchers due to their advantages over synthetic polymers. It is entirely renewable, environmentally-friendly, non-toxic, cheap, non-abrasive and fully biodegradable. This review paper summarized an oveview of the bamboo, fiber extraction and mechanical behavior of bamboo reinforced composites. A number of studies proved that mechanical properties of bamboo fibers reinforced reinforced polymer composites are excellent and competent to be utilized in high-tech applications. The properties of the laminate are influenced by the fiber loading, fibre orientation, physical and interlaminar adhesion between fibre and matrix. In contrast, the presence of chemical constituents such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and wax substances in natural fibres preventing them from firmly binding with polymer resin. Thus, led to poor mechanical properties for composites. Many attempt has been made in order to overcome this issue by using the chemical treatment.

  14. Reinforcement Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Schuetze


    Full Text Available Early behavioral interventions are recognized as integral to standard care in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and often focus on reinforcing desired behaviors (e.g., eye contact and reducing the presence of atypical behaviors (e.g., echoing others' phrases. However, efficacy of these programs is mixed. Reinforcement learning relies on neurocircuitry that has been reported to be atypical in ASD: prefrontal-sub-cortical circuits, amygdala, brainstem, and cerebellum. Thus, early behavioral interventions rely on neurocircuitry that may function atypically in at least a subset of individuals with ASD. Recent work has investigated physiological, behavioral, and neural responses to reinforcers to uncover differences in motivation and learning in ASD. We will synthesize this work to identify promising avenues for future research that ultimately can be used to enhance the efficacy of early intervention.

  15. Normality in Analytical Psychology (United States)

    Myers, Steve


    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  16. The psychology of autonomy. (United States)


    In May 2016, right around the time that this issue of the Hastings Center Report should be published, The Hastings Center is holding a conference in New York City titled "Bioethics Meets Moral Psychology." The goal of the conference is to consider the lessons that bioethicists should learn from the raft of literature now accumulating on how the mental processes of perception, emotion, and thinking affect things that bioethicists care about, from the education of health care professionals to the conflicts that arise in clinical care, the "culture wars" over bioethical policy issues, the status of different cultures' value systems, and the very understanding of the values that are foundational in moral thinking. The articles in this issue simply provide more evidence that bioethics is meeting moral psychology. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  17. The psychology of globalization. (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen


    The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolescence, through the mid- to late twenties.

  18. Traversing psychological distance. (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov


    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental psychology matters. (United States)

    Gifford, Robert


    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.

  20. Criminal Psychological Profiling (United States)


    went through on their way to establishing mental health . These stages are the oral, the anal, and the phallic. In each stage, the developing human will... health professionals. These professionals then provided psychological insights, based on the clinical or the academic point of view. The FBI was now...then ordered her to lie face down on the bed. He then pulled down her lower garments and then fondled and masturbated on her bare buttocks. The

  1. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan


    and a longitudinal approach, differences and similarities in practices of care are identified. The care patterns are studied with a focus on young adults age 30-35. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods are employed. By utilising in-depth qualitative interview data the paper explores the interplay between...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  2. Psychology of Terrorism (United States)


    and logistic support. 160. Kfir, N. (2002). Understanding suicidal terror through humanistic and existential psychology. C. E. Stout (Ed), The...anomie or for an existential vacuum, which may drive other individuals to drifting or to entering the drug culture. - To understand the differences...any group of prisoners is by definition ‘survivalist’, yet that of the Red Brigades has evolved through three phases ‘social’, ‘ existential ’ and

  3. Reinforcement learning improves behaviour from evaluative feedback (United States)

    Littman, Michael L.


    Reinforcement learning is a branch of machine learning concerned with using experience gained through interacting with the world and evaluative feedback to improve a system's ability to make behavioural decisions. It has been called the artificial intelligence problem in a microcosm because learning algorithms must act autonomously to perform well and achieve their goals. Partly driven by the increasing availability of rich data, recent years have seen exciting advances in the theory and practice of reinforcement learning, including developments in fundamental technical areas such as generalization, planning, exploration and empirical methodology, leading to increasing applicability to real-life problems.

  4. Seismic response of reinforced soil slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, Ioanna; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis


    The main aim of the current study is to assess the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures taking into account the most important aspects of the problem and to compare the available design methods. For this purpose, initially the most commonly used pseudostatic approach is implemented via...... a parametric investigation to illustrate the impact of the crucial parameters of this approach. Subsequently, Newmark’s sliding block model is modified to account for the reinforcement forces in the calculation of seismic displacements. Finally, finite element analyses were performed and the numerical results...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina IANASI


    Full Text Available One of the defining goals of this paper is getting new resistant material which combine the qualities of basic materials that get into its composition but not to borrow from them their negative properties. In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of CFRP composite materials as reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem which are presented in this paper.

  6. Theoretical and numerical analysis of reinforced concrete beams with confinement reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Delalibera

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of confinement in over-reinforced concrete beams. This reinforcement consists of square stirrups, placed in the compression zone of the beam cross-section, in order to improve its ductility. A parametric numerical study is initially performed, using a finite element computational program that considers the material nonlinearities and the confinement effect. To investigate the influence of the transverse reinforcing ratio on the beam ductility, an experimental program was also conducted. Four over-reinforced beams were tested; three beam specimens with additional transverse reinforcement to confine the beams, and one without it. All specimens were fabricated with a concrete designed for a compressive strength of 25 MPa. The experimental results show that the post-peak ductility factor is proportional to the confining reinforcement ratio, however the same is not observed for the pre-peak ductility factor, which varied randomly with changes in the confining reinforcement ratio. It was also observed from the experiments that the confinement effect tends to be smaller close to the beam neutral axis.

  7. Finite element modelling of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid fiber reinforced bars (United States)

    Smring, Santa binti; Salleh, Norhafizah; Hamid, NoorAzlina Abdul; Majid, Masni A.


    Concrete is a heterogeneous composite material made up of cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water mixed in a desired proportion to obtain the required strength. Plain concrete does not with stand tension as compared to compression. In order to compensate this drawback steel reinforcement are provided in concrete. Now a day, for improving the properties of concrete and also to take up tension combination of steel and glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars promises favourable strength, serviceability, and durability. To verify its promise and support design concrete structures with hybrid type of reinforcement, this study have investigated the load-deflection behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid GFRP and steel bars by using ATENA software. Fourteen beams, including six control beams reinforced with only steel or only GFRP bars, were analysed. The ratio and the ordinate of GFRP to steel were the main parameters investigated. The behaviour of these beams was investigated via the load-deflection characteristics, cracking behaviour and mode of failure. Hybrid GFRP-Steel reinforced concrete beam showed the improvement in both ultimate capacity and deflection concomitant to the steel reinforced concrete beam. On the other hand, finite element (FE) modelling which is ATENA were validated with previous experiment and promising the good result to be used for further analyses and development in the field of present study.

  8. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.


    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were

  9. The possibility of using high strength reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Nobuaki


    There is recently much research about and developments in reinforced concrete using high strength concrete and reinforcement. As a result, some high-rise buildings and nuclear buildings have been constructed with such concrete. Reinforced concrete will be stronger in the future, but there is a limit to its strength defined by the character of the materials and also by the character of the reinforced concrete members made of the concrete and reinforcement. This report describes the merits and demerits of using high strength reinforced concrete. (author)

  10. Strengthening of the Timber Members Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc


    Full Text Available The reinforcement of structural wood products has become in the last decades an efficient method of improving structural capabilities of load carrying members made of this material. Some important steps in earlier stages of research were focused on using metallic reinforcement, including steel bars, prestressed stranded cables, and bonded steel and aluminum plates. A disadvantage of the metallic reinforcement was the poor compatibility between the wood and the reinforcing materials. In comparison with metallic reinforcement, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP composites are compatible with structural wood products leading to efficient hybrid members. Some interesting strengthening alternatives using FRP applied to wood beams and to wood columns are presented in this paper.

  11. Analytical, Numerical and Experimental Examination of Reinforced Composites Beams Covered with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (United States)

    Kasimzade, A. A.; Tuhta, S.


    In the article, analytical, numerical (Finite Element Method) and experimental investigation results of beam that was strengthened with fiber reinforced plastic-FRP composite has been given as comparative, the effect of FRP wrapping number to the maximum load and moment capacity has been evaluated depending on this results. Carbon FRP qualitative dependences have been occurred between wrapping number and beam load and moment capacity for repair-strengthen the reinforced concrete beams with carbon fiber. Shown possibilities of application traditional known analysis programs, for the analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) strengthened structures.

  12. Psychological outcomes and gender-related development in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Ahmed, S Faisal; Hughes, Ieuan A


    We evaluated psychological outcomes and gender development in 22 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). Participants were recruited through a medical database (n = 10) or through a patient support group (n = 12). Controls included 14 males and 33 females, of whom 22 were matched to women with CAIS for age, race, and sex-of-rearing. Outcome measures included quality of life (self-esteem and psychological general well-being), gender-related psychological characteristics (gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender role behavior in childhood and adulthood), marital status, personality traits that show sex differences, and hand preferences. Women recruited through the database versus the support group did not differ systematically, and there were no statistically significant differences between the 22 women with CAIS and the matched controls for any psychological outcome. These findings argue against the need for two X chromosomes or ovaries to determine feminine-typical psychological development in humans and reinforce the important role of the androgen receptor in influencing masculine-typical psychological development. They also suggest that psychological outcomes in women with CAIS are similar to those in other women. However, additional attention to more detailed aspects of psychological well-being in CAIS is needed.

  13. Flexural strength using Steel Plate, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) on reinforced concrete beam in building technology (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Patra, Fadel Muhammad; Sitorus, Torang


    Reinforced concrete structures are very commonly used in buildings because they are cheaper than the steel structures. But in reality, many concrete structures are damaged, so there are several ways to overcome this problem, by providing reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and reinforcement with steel plates. Each type of reinforcements has its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, researchers discuss the comparison between flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam using steel plates and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). In this case, the researchers use Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as external reinforcements. The dimension of the beams is 15 x 25 cm with the length of 320 cm. Based on the analytical results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.991 times its initial, GFRP is 1.877 times while with the steel plate is 1.646 times. Based on test results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.444 times its initial, GFRP is 1.333 times while the steel plate is 1.167 times. Based on these test results, the authors conclude that beam with CFRP is the best choice for external reinforcement in building technology than the others.

  14. The paradoxical psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Bolstridge, M; Williams, T M; Williams, L T; Underwood, R; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J


    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic hallucinogen or psychedelic that modulates consciousness in a marked and novel way. This study sought to examine the acute and mid-term psychological effects of LSD in a controlled study. A total of 20 healthy volunteers participated in this within-subjects study. Participants received LSD (75 µg, intravenously) on one occasion and placebo (saline, intravenously) on another, in a balanced order, with at least 2 weeks separating sessions. Acute subjective effects were measured using the Altered States of Consciousness questionnaire and the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). A measure of optimism (the Revised Life Orientation Test), the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the Peter's Delusions Inventory were issued at baseline and 2 weeks after each session. LSD produced robust psychological effects; including heightened mood but also high scores on the PSI, an index of psychosis-like symptoms. Increased optimism and trait openness were observed 2 weeks after LSD (and not placebo) and there were no changes in delusional thinking. The present findings reinforce the view that psychedelics elicit psychosis-like symptoms acutely yet improve psychological wellbeing in the mid to long term. It is proposed that acute alterations in mood are secondary to a more fundamental modulation in the quality of cognition, and that increased cognitive flexibility subsequent to serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) stimulation promotes emotional lability during intoxication and leaves a residue of 'loosened cognition' in the mid to long term that is conducive to improved psychological wellbeing.

  15. Understanding the psychology of mobile gambling: A behavioural synthesis. (United States)

    James, Richard J E; O'Malley, Claire; Tunney, Richard J


    This manuscript reviews the extant literature on key issues related to mobile gambling and considers whether the potential risks of harm emerging from this platform are driven by pre-existing comorbidities or by psychological processes unique to mobile gambling. We propose an account based on associative learning that suggests this form of gambling is likely to show distinctive features compared with other gambling technologies. Smartphones are a rapidly growing platform on which individuals can gamble using specifically designed applications, adapted websites or text messaging. This review considers how mobile phone use interacts with psychological processes relevant to gambling, the games users are likely to play on smartphones, and the interactions afforded by smartphones. Our interpretation of the evidence is that the schedules of reinforcement found in gambling interact with the ways in which people tend to use smartphones that may expedite the acquisition of maladaptive learned behaviours such as problem gambling. This account is consistent with existing theories and frameworks of problem gambling and has relevance to other forms of mobile phone use. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society.

  16. Self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.


    The project 'self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete (SCFRC)' is part of the Dutch STW/PPM program - 'cement-bonded materials' - DCT.4010. Subproject III to which the project ,SCFRC' belongs deals with the development of new high performance concretes. The project 'SCFRC' aims at investigating the

  17. The Reinforcements of Religiousness in Adolescence. (United States)

    Ozorak, Elizabeth Weiss

    A study conducted in 1986 found that parents were the critical influence on the religious beliefs and commitment of their adolescent sons and daughters, while the adolescent's peers seemed to have no significant effect. In addition, the content of the beliefs did not seem to act as a strong reinforcer. Thirty-two of the 390 subjects who…

  18. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.


    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  19. Membrane reinforcement in concrete shells: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.


    A historical evolution of the membrane reinforcement design in concrete shells is presented. Theoretical developments, experimental verifications and the history of US codes and standards have been traced. For two decades now, the evidence is converging towards application of the principle of minimum resistance. This principle is rational, and it can reasonably explain the experimental results. (orig.)

  20. Using a board game to reinforce learning. (United States)

    Yoon, Bona; Rodriguez, Leslie; Faselis, Charles J; Liappis, Angelike P


    Experiential gaming strategies offer a variation on traditional learning. A board game was used to present synthesized content of fundamental catheter care concepts and reinforce evidence-based practices relevant to nursing. Board games are innovative educational tools that can enhance active learning. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Embedded Incremental Feature Selection for Reinforcement Learning (United States)


    Prior to this work, feature selection for reinforce- ment learning has focused on linear value function ap- proximation ( Kolter and Ng, 2009; Parr et al...InProceed- ings of the the 23rd International Conference on Ma- chine Learning, pages 449–456. Kolter , J. Z. and Ng, A. Y. (2009). Regularization and feature

  2. [Reinforcement for overdentures on abutment teeth]. (United States)

    Osada, Tomoko


    This study investigated the effect of the position of reinforcement wires, differences in artificial teeth, and framework designs on the breaking strength of overdentures. The basal surfaces of composite resin teeth and acrylic resin teeth were removed using a carbide bur. A reinforcement wire or a wrought palatal bar was embedded near the occlusal surface or basal surface. Four types of framework structures were designed : conventional skeleton (skeleton), housing with skeleton (housing), housing plus short metal backing (metal backing), and housing plus long metal backing (double structure). After the wires, bars, and frameworks were sand-blasted with 50 microm Al(2)O(3) powder, they were primed with a metal primer and embedded in a heat-polymerized denture base resin. The breaking strengths (N) and maximum stiffness (N/mm) of two-week aged (37 degrees C) specimens were measured using a bending test (n=8). All data obtained at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's test (alpha=0.01). There were no statistical differences between the two kinds of artificial teeth (p>0.01). The wrought palatal bar had significantly higher strength than the reinforcement wire (p0.01). The breaking strength and maximum stiffness of the double structure framework were significantly greater (poverdentures were influenced by the size and position of the reinforcement wires. Double structure frameworks are recommended for overdentures to promote a long-term prognosis without denture breakage.

  3. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials (United States)


    Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented. PMID:29562635

  4. Scheduling reinforcement about once a day. (United States)

    Eckerman, D A


    A pigeon earned its daily food by pecking a key according to reinforcement schedules that produced food about once per day. Fixed-interval (FI), Fixed-time (FT), and various complex schedules were arranged to demonstrate the degree to which a scalloped pattern of responding remained. Pausing continued until about an hour before the reinforcer could be earned for FIs of 12, 24, and 48 h. Pausing was not as long for FIs of 18, 19, and 23 h. Pausing of about 24 h was seen for FI 36 h. FT 24 h produced continued responding but at a diminished frequency. The pattern of responding was strongly controlled by the schedule of reinforcement and seemed relatively independent of the cycle of human activity in the surrounding laboratory. Effects of added ratio contingencies and of signaling the availability of reinforcement in FT were also examined. Signaled FTs of 5 min-3 h produced more responding during the signal (autoshaping) than did FTs of 19 or 24 h.

  5. Corrosion and Cracking of Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of the deterioration of reinforced concrete has in recent years changed from being a deterministic modelling based on experience to be stochastic modelling based on sound and consistent physical, chemical and mechanical principles. In this paper is presented a brief review of modern mod...... for time to initial corrosion, time to initial cracking, and time to a given crack width may be obtained....

  6. Decentralized Reinforcement Learning of robot behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leottau, David L.; Ruiz-del-Solar, Javier; Babuska, R.


    A multi-agent methodology is proposed for Decentralized Reinforcement Learning (DRL) of individual behaviors in problems where multi-dimensional action spaces are involved. When using this methodology, sub-tasks are learned in parallel by individual agents working toward a common goal. In

  7. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the action of chloride solutions may intensify the process of corrosion of steel reinforcement in comparison to the converse sequence of the action of mentioned media. At the same time the natrium chloride solution has been shown as a more aggressive medium opposite to the calcium and magnesium chloride solutions.

  8. Assessing corrosion of MSE wall reinforcement. (United States)


    The primary objective of this study was to extract reinforcement coupons from select MSE walls and document the extent of corrosion. In doing this, a baseline has been established against which coupons extracted in the future can be compared. A secon...

  9. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caggiano


    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented.

  10. Reinforcement versus fluidization in cytoskeletal mechanoresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Krishnan

    Full Text Available Every adherent eukaryotic cell exerts appreciable traction forces upon its substrate. Moreover, every resident cell within the heart, great vessels, bladder, gut or lung routinely experiences large periodic stretches. As an acute response to such stretches the cytoskeleton can stiffen, increase traction forces and reinforce, as reported by some, or can soften and fluidize, as reported more recently by our laboratory, but in any given circumstance it remains unknown which response might prevail or why. Using a novel nanotechnology, we show here that in loading conditions expected in most physiological circumstances the localized reinforcement response fails to scale up to the level of homogeneous cell stretch; fluidization trumps reinforcement. Whereas the reinforcement response is known to be mediated by upstream mechanosensing and downstream signaling, results presented here show the fluidization response to be altogether novel: it is a direct physical effect of mechanical force acting upon a structural lattice that is soft and fragile. Cytoskeletal softness and fragility, we argue, is consistent with early evolutionary adaptations of the eukaryotic cell to material properties of a soft inert microenvironment.

  11. Shape and Reinforcement Optimization of Underground Tunnels (United States)

    Ghabraie, Kazem; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Ren, Gang

    Design of support system and selecting an optimum shape for the opening are two important steps in designing excavations in rock masses. Currently selecting the shape and support design are mainly based on designer's judgment and experience. Both of these problems can be viewed as material distribution problems where one needs to find the optimum distribution of a material in a domain. Topology optimization techniques have proved to be useful in solving these kinds of problems in structural design. Recently the application of topology optimization techniques in reinforcement design around underground excavations has been studied by some researchers. In this paper a three-phase material model will be introduced changing between normal rock, reinforced rock, and void. Using such a material model both problems of shape and reinforcement design can be solved together. A well-known topology optimization technique used in structural design is bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). In this paper the BESO technique has been extended to simultaneously optimize the shape of the opening and the distribution of reinforcements. Validity and capability of the proposed approach have been investigated through some examples.

  12. Biopolymer nanocomposite films reinforced with nanocellulose whiskers (United States)

    Amit Saxena; Marcus Foston; Mohamad Kassaee; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas


    A xylan nanocomposite film with improved strength and barrier properties was prepared by a solution casting using nanocellulose whiskers as a reinforcing agent. The 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the spectral data obtained for the NCW/xylan nanocomposite films indicated the signal intensity originating...

  13. Repairing reinforced concrete slabs using composite layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibdehi, M. Ghasemi; Sharbatdar, M.K.; Mastali, M.


    There are several strengthening methods for rehabilitation of RC structural elements. The efficiency of these methods has been demonstrated by many researchers. Due to their mechanical properties, using fibrous materials in rehabilitation applications is growing fast. Therefore, this study presents rehabilitation of slabs in such a way that plain concrete layers on top, on bottom, on the entire cross section are replaced by reinforced concrete layers. In order to reinforce the concrete, Polypropylene (PP) and steel fibers were used by 0.5%, 1% and 2% fiber volume fractions. Nineteen slabs were studied under flexural loadings and fibrous material effects on the initial crack force, the maximum loading carrying capacity, absorbed energy and ductility were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing the fiber volume fraction or using reinforced concrete layer on top, bottom, or at the entire cross section of the slabs not only always leads to improvement in the slab performance, but also sometimes debilitates the slab performance. Hence, this study will propose the best positioning of reinforced concrete layer, fiber volume fraction and fiber type to achieve the best flexural performance of slabs. - Highlights: • Using PP fibers at the bottom layer led to the best slab performance in bending. • Using steel fiber at the top layer and entire cross-section led to the best slab performance. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 2% steel fiber. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 1% PP fiber

  14. Global methods for reinforced concrete slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, A.; Lepareux, M.; Combescure, A.


    This paper develops the global method strategy to compute elastoplastic thin shells or beams. It is shown how this methodology can be applied to the case of reinforced concrete structures. Two cases of applications are presented: one static, the other dynamic. The numerical results are compared to experimental data

  15. Online reinforcement learning control for aerospace systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.


    Reinforcement Learning (RL) methods are relatively new in the field of aerospace guidance, navigation, and control. This dissertation aims to exploit RL methods to improve the autonomy and online learning of aerospace systems with respect to the a priori unknown system and environment, dynamical

  16. Reinforcement Learning in Continuous Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselt, H. van; Wiering, M.A.


    Quite some research has been done on Reinforcement Learning in continuous environments, but the research on problems where the actions can also be chosen from a continuous space is much more limited. We present a new class of algorithms named Continuous Actor Critic Learning Automaton (CACLA)

  17. Fundamentals of fibre-reinforced soil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar


    This book is intended to serve as a one-stop reference on fibre-reinforced soils. Over the past 30-35 years, the engineering behaviour of randomly distributed/oriented fibre-reinforced soil, also called simply fibre-reinforced soil, has been investigated in detail by researchers and engineers worldwide. Waste fibres (plastic waste fibres, old tyre fibres, etc.) create disposal and environmental problems. Utilization of such fibres in construction can help resolve these concerns. Research studies and some field applications have shown that the fibres can be utilized in large quantities in geotechnical and civil engineering applications in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. This book covers a complete description of fibres, their effects when included within a soil or other similar materials such as the fly ash, and their field applications. It gives a detailed view of fibre-reinforced soil engineering. The book will be useful to students, professional, and researchers alike, and can also ser...

  18. Reinforcement Data for Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    Idealized materials data are derived from a number of test series reported in the literature and made by the author. The data cover a variety of reinforcing steels from mild steel, deformed bars and cold worked bars to cold drawn prestressing steels. Processes are described, which are responsible...

  19. Efficient abstraction selection in reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijen, H. van; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.


    This paper introduces a novel approach for abstraction selection in reinforcement learning problems modelled as factored Markov decision processes (MDPs), for which a state is described via a set of state components. In abstraction selection, an agent must choose an abstraction from a set of

  20. Reinforcing Visual Grouping Cues to Communicate Complex Informational Structure. (United States)

    Bae, Juhee; Watson, Benjamin


    In his book Multimedia Learning [7], Richard Mayer asserts that viewers learn best from imagery that provides them with cues to help them organize new information into the correct knowledge structures. Designers have long been exploiting the Gestalt laws of visual grouping to deliver viewers those cues using visual hierarchy, often communicating structures much more complex than the simple organizations studied in psychological research. Unfortunately, designers are largely practical in their work, and have not paused to build a complex theory of structural communication. If we are to build a tool to help novices create effective and well structured visuals, we need a better understanding of how to create them. Our work takes a first step toward addressing this lack, studying how five of the many grouping cues (proximity, color similarity, common region, connectivity, and alignment) can be effectively combined to communicate structured text and imagery from real world examples. To measure the effectiveness of this structural communication, we applied a digital version of card sorting, a method widely used in anthropology and cognitive science to extract cognitive structures. We then used tree edit distance to measure the difference between perceived and communicated structures. Our most significant findings are: 1) with careful design, complex structure can be communicated clearly; 2) communicating complex structure is best done with multiple reinforcing grouping cues; 3) common region (use of containers such as boxes) is particularly effective at communicating structure; and 4) alignment is a weak structural communicator.

  1. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto


    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  2. A reinforcement learning model of joy, distress, hope and fear (United States)

    Broekens, Joost; Jacobs, Elmer; Jonker, Catholijn M.


    In this paper we computationally study the relation between adaptive behaviour and emotion. Using the reinforcement learning framework, we propose that learned state utility, ?, models fear (negative) and hope (positive) based on the fact that both signals are about anticipation of loss or gain. Further, we propose that joy/distress is a signal similar to the error signal. We present agent-based simulation experiments that show that this model replicates psychological and behavioural dynamics of emotion. This work distinguishes itself by assessing the dynamics of emotion in an adaptive agent framework - coupling it to the literature on habituation, development, extinction and hope theory. Our results support the idea that the function of emotion is to provide a complex feedback signal for an organism to adapt its behaviour. Our work is relevant for understanding the relation between emotion and adaptation in animals, as well as for human-robot interaction, in particular how emotional signals can be used to communicate between adaptive agents and humans.

  3. Examining Organizational Learning in Schools: The Role of Psychological Safety, Experimentation, and Leadership that Reinforces Learning (United States)

    Higgins, Monica; Ishimaru, Ann; Holcombe, Rebecca; Fowler, Amy


    This study draws upon theory and methods from the field of organizational behavior to examine organizational learning (OL) in the context of a large urban US school district. We build upon prior literature on OL from the field of organizational behavior to introduce and validate three subscales that assess key dimensions of organizational learning…

  4. Structural design guidelines for concrete bridge decks reinforced with corrosion-resistant reinforcing bars. (United States)


    This research program develops and validates structural design guidelines and details for concrete bridge decks with : corrosion-resistant reinforcing (CRR) bars. A two-phase experimental program was conducted where a control test set consistent : wi...

  5. Reinforcement Toolbox, a Parametric Reinforcement Modelling Tool for Curved Surface Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauppe, J.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.


    This paper presents a computational strategy and parametric modelling toolbox which aim at enhancing the design- and production process of reinforcement in freeform curved surface structures. The computational strategy encompasses the necessary steps of raising an architectural curved surface model

  6. Effect of hybrid fiber reinforcement on the cracking process in fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.


    The simultaneous use of different types of fibers as reinforcement in cementitious matrix composites is typically motivated by the underlying principle of a multi-scale nature of the cracking processes in fiber reinforced cementitious composites. It has been hypothesized that while undergoing...... tensile deformations in the composite, the fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties restrain the propagation and further development of cracking at different scales from the micro- to the macro-scale. The optimized design of the fiber reinforcing systems requires the objective...... materials is carried out by assessing directly their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The efficiency of hybrid fiber reinforcements and the multi-scale nature of cracking processes are discussed based on the experimental results obtained, as well as the micro-mechanisms underlying the contribution...

  7. simulation models for presiction of structrual fibre-reinforced come

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    showed increasing flexural strength up to the optimum fibre volume fraction while the ... the analysis and design of palmnut fibre-reinforced cement composites. ..... Nilson, L. “Reinforcement of Concrete with Sisal and other Vegetable Fibres”.

  8. Acquisition with partial and continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A


    Contemporary time accumulation models make the unique prediction that acquisition of a conditioned response will be equally rapid with partial and continuous reinforcement, if the time between conditioned stimuli is held constant. To investigate this, acquisition of conditioned responding was examined in pigeon autoshaping under conditions of 100% and 25% reinforcement, holding intertrial interval constant. Contrary to what was predicted, evidence for slowed acquisition in partially reinforced animals was observed with several response measures. However, asymptotic performance was superior with 25% reinforcement. A switching of reinforcement contingencies after initial acquisition did not immediately affect responding. After further sessions, partial reinforcement augmented responding, whereas continuous reinforcement did not, irrespective of an animal's reinforcement history. Subsequent training with a novel stimulus maintained the response patterns. These acquisition results generally support associative, rather than time accumulation, accounts of conditioning.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    mechanical and corrosion wear behaviour of any reinforced composites. In other ..... physical properties of glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin and the following .... waste in concrete and cement composites," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.

  10. Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavement research in south Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perrie, BD


    Full Text Available Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavements (UTCRCP), in literature also referred to as Ultra Thin Reinforced High Performance Concrete (UTHRHPC), have been used in Europe successfully as a rehabilitation measure on steel bridge decks...

  11. Mechanical Behavior of Granular/Particulate Media Reinforced with Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michalowski, Radoslw


    Fiber-reinforced ganular composites (for instance, fiber-reinforced sand) are considered as construction materials for such applications as subgrades of airfields and roads, aircraft parking facilities, etc...

  12. Reinforced soil structures. Volume I, Design and construction guidelines (United States)


    This report presents comprehensive guidelines for evaluating and using soil reinforcement techniques in the construction of retaining walls, embankment slopes, and natural or cut slopes. A variety of available systems for reinforced soil including in...

  13. Corrosion performance tests for reinforcing steel in concrete : test procedures. (United States)


    The existing test method to assess the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel embedded in concrete, mainly : ASTM G109, is labor intensive, time consuming, slow to provide comparative results, and often expensive. : However, corrosion of reinforc...

  14. Evaluation of size effect on shear strength of reinforced concrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the longitudinal and the web reinforcement, shear span-to-depth ratio and the ... A simple equation for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete deep ..... AASHTO 2007 LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, American Association of ...

  15. Credentialing high school psychology teachers. (United States)

    Weaver, Kenneth A


    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. History of psychology. (United States)

    Weidman, Nadine


    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Globalization and psychology. (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Yue; Kwan, Letty Yan-Yee


    In globalized societies, people often encounter symbols of diverse cultures in the same space at the same time. Simultaneous exposure to diverse cultures draws people's attention to cultural differences and promotes catergorical perceptions of culture. Local cultural identification and presence of cultural threat increase the likelihood of resisting inflow of foreign cultures (exclusionary reactions). When cultures are seen as intellectual resources, foreign cultural exposure affords intercultural learning and enhances individual creativity (integrative reactions). Psychological studies of globalization attest to the utility of treating cultures as evolving, interacting systems, rather than static, independent entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan


    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.

  19. Producing Durable Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement using Glass-ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel (United States)


    reinforcement if the enamel is broken  Embedded cement grains hydrate if enamel is cracked to self-heal with the formation of calcium silicate hydrate Goal...Reinforced Concrete Pavement The 600% volume change in the iron to iron oxide formation put the concrete in tension and it cracks an spalls BUILDING...corrodes prematurely and delaminates the pavement  Moisture and chlorides can move through the natural porosity of concrete and the cracks in the

  20. The effect of concrete strength and reinforcement on toughness of reinforced concrete beams


    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.; Jalali, Said; Teixeira, Vasco M. P.; Tomás, M.


    The objective pursued with this work includes the evaluating of the strength and the total energy absorption capacity (toughness) of reinforced concrete beams using different amounts of steel-bar reinforcement. The experimental campaign deals with the evaluation of the threshold load prior collapse, ultimate load and deformation, as well as the beam total energy absorption capacity, using a three point bending test. The beam half span displacement was measured using a displacement transducer,...



    Passage, Michael; Tincani, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.


    This study examined the effectiveness of using qualitatively different reinforcers to teach self-control to an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, he was instructed to engage in an activity without programmed reinforcement. Next, he was instructed to engage in the activity under a two-choice fixed-duration schedule of reinforcement. Finally, he was exposed to self-control training, during which the delay to a more preferred reinforcer was initially sh...

  2. Influence of facing vertical stiffness on reinforced soil wall design


    Puig Damians, Ivan; Bathurst, Richard; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio


    Current design practices for reinforced soil walls typically ignore the influence of facing type and foundation compressibility on the magnitude and distribution of reinforcement loads in steel reinforced soil walls under operational conditions. In this paper, the effect of the facing vertical stiffness (due to elastomeric bearing pads placed in the horizontal joints between panels) on load capacity of steel reinforced soil walls is examined in a systematic manner using a numerical modelli...

  3. Normal Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Explosive Loading


    Mohammed Alias Yusof; Norazman Norazman; Ariffin Ariffin; Fauzi Mohd Zain; Risby Risby; CP Ng


    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the behavior of plain reinforced concrete and Normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete panels (SFRC) subjected to explosive loading. The experiment were performed by the Blast Research Unit Faculty of Engineering, University Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia A total of 8 reinforced concrete panels of 600mm x 600mm x 100mm were tested. The steel fiber reinforced concrete panels incorporated three different volume fraction, 0...

  4. The nature and psychological content of information psychological impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny G. Baranov


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of «information-psychological impact» category. The study aims to determine the role and place of impacts of such kind in the upbringing process, and in education in general. The paper contrasts comparative analysis of existing scientific approaches to understanding the nature and psychological content of the concept of “information” and psychological impact. Based on the data mentioned above, the conclusion is made that the psychological impact is the influence of surrounding elements of the physical and social environment on the people, which change the course of their mental processes, mental state, psychological structure of consciousness and behaviour. In addition, the purposeful psychological impact carried out either by an individual or a collective entity can be direct or indirect (e.g. information psychological. Based on the performed analysis the conclusion is made that depending on their purpose and nature of influence, information and psychological impact can be manipulative (subject-object or developmental (subject-subject. Manipulative impact creates temporary, unstable mental forms, while developing impact creates stable personality forms. Both kinds of information and psychological influences can be observes in the educational process. The teacher selects types of influence based on his/her own pedagogical qualifications and teaching objectives: to develop the personality of the student or to form behavioural stereotypes.

  5. Prediction of reinforcement corrosion using corrosion induced cracks width in corroded reinforced concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Inamullah; François, Raoul; Castel, Arnaud


    This paper studies the evolution of reinforcement corrosion in comparison to corrosion crack width in a highly corroded reinforced concrete beam. Cracking and corrosion maps of the beam were drawn and steel reinforcement was recovered from the beam to observe the corrosion pattern and to measure the loss of mass of steel reinforcement. Maximum steel cross-section loss of the main reinforcement and average steel cross-section loss between stirrups were plotted against the crack width. The experimental results were compared with existing models proposed by Rodriguez et al., Vidal et al. and Zhang et al. Time prediction models for a given opening threshold are also compared to experimental results. Steel cross-section loss for stirrups was also measured and was plotted against the crack width. It was observed that steel cross-section loss in the stirrups had no relationship with the crack width of longitudinal corrosion cracks. -- Highlights: •Relationship between crack and corrosion of reinforcement was investigated. •Corrosion results of natural process and then corresponds to in-situ conditions. •Comparison with time predicting model is provided. •Prediction of load-bearing capacity from crack pattern was studied

  6. Enhancement of shear strength and ductility for reinforced concrete wide beams due to web reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Said


    Full Text Available The shear behavior of reinforced concrete wide beams was investigated. The experimental program consisted of nine beams of 29 MPa concrete strength tested with a shear span-depth ratio equal to 3.0. One of the tested beams had no web reinforcement as a control specimen. The flexure mode of failure was secured for all of the specimens to allow for shear mode of failure. The key parameters covered in this investigation are the effect of the existence, spacing, amount and yield stress of the vertical stirrups on the shear capacity and ductility of the tested wide beams. The study shows that the contribution of web reinforcement to the shear capacity is significant and directly proportional to the amount and spacing of the shear reinforcement. The increase in the shear capacity ranged from 32% to 132% for the range of the tested beams compared with the control beam. High grade steel was more effective in the contribution of the shear strength of wide beams. Also, test results demonstrate that the shear reinforcement significantly enhances the ductility of the wide beams. In addition, shear resistances at failure recorded in this study are compared to the analytical strengths calculated according to the current Egyptian Code and the available international codes. The current study highlights the need to include the contribution of shear reinforcement in the Egyptian Code requirements for shear capacity of wide beams.

  7. Study of the internal confinement of concrete reinforced (in civil engineering) with woven reinforcement (United States)

    Dalal, M.; Goumairi, O.; El Malik, A.


    Concrete is generally the most used material in the field of construction. Despite its extensive use in structures, it represents some drawbacks related to its properties including its low tensile strength and low ductility. To solve this problem, the use of steel reinforcement in concrete structures is possible. Another possibility is the introduction of different types of continuous fibre / staple in the concrete, such as steel fibres or synthetic fibres, to obtain ″Concretes bundles″. Many types of fibre concrete, which have been developed and for many of them, the gain provided by the fibre was rather low and no significant improvement in tensile strength was really reaching. By cons, the ductility was higher than that of ordinary concrete. The objective of this study is to examine concrete reinforcement by inserting reinforcements woven polyester. These are either woven bidirectional (2D) or three-dimensional woven (3D). So we will report the properties of each type of reinforcement and the influence of the method of weaving on the strength reinforcements and on the strength of concrete in which they are incorporated. Such influence should contribute to improving the sustainability and enhancement of reinforcement

  8. Application of Fiber Reinforcement Concrete Technique in Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modulus of elasticity, high tensile strength, improved fatigue and impact resistance. Reinforcing the concrete structures with fibers such as polyester is one of the possible ways to provide all the criteria of the durable repair material. This type of reinforcement is called Fiber Reinforcement of Concrete Structures. There is an ...

  9. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance. (United States)

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others


    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  10. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations,...... as a Moral Science contains enough controversial ideas to spark great interest among researchers and scholars in psychology and the philosophy of science.......What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  11. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer


    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  12. Environmental Durability of Reinforced Concrete Deck Girders Strengthened for Shear with Surface-Bonded Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (United States)


    "This research investigated the durability of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) used for shear strengthening reinforced concrete deck girders. Large beams were used to avoid accounting for size effects in the data analysis. The effort...

  13. Psychological Perspectives on Interrogation. (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M


    Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.

  14. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers


    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  15. Psychology of anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste


    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  16. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice. (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S


    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Neural prediction errors reveal a risk-sensitive reinforcement-learning process in the human brain. (United States)

    Niv, Yael; Edlund, Jeffrey A; Dayan, Peter; O'Doherty, John P


    Humans and animals are exquisitely, though idiosyncratically, sensitive to risk or variance in the outcomes of their actions. Economic, psychological, and neural aspects of this are well studied when information about risk is provided explicitly. However, we must normally learn about outcomes from experience, through trial and error. Traditional models of such reinforcement learning focus on learning about the mean reward value of cues and ignore higher order moments such as variance. We used fMRI to test whether the neural correlates of human reinforcement learning are sensitive to experienced risk. Our analysis focused on anatomically delineated regions of a priori interest in the nucleus accumbens, where blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals have been suggested as correlating with quantities derived from reinforcement learning. We first provide unbiased evidence that the raw BOLD signal in these regions corresponds closely to a reward prediction error. We then derive from this signal the learned values of cues that predict rewards of equal mean but different variance and show that these values are indeed modulated by experienced risk. Moreover, a close neurometric-psychometric coupling exists between the fluctuations of the experience-based evaluations of risky options that we measured neurally and the fluctuations in behavioral risk aversion. This suggests that risk sensitivity is integral to human learning, illuminating economic models of choice, neuroscientific models of affective learning, and the workings of the underlying neural mechanisms.

  18. Psychology of NPP operation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, V.P.


    The book is devoted to psychologic investigations into different aspects of NPP operative personnel activities. The whole set of conditions on which successful and accident-free personnel operation depends, is analysed. Based on original engineering and socio-psychologic investigations complex psychologic support for NPP personnel and a system of training and upkeep of operative personnel skills are developed. The methods proposed have undergone a practical examination and proved their efficiency. 154 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Historical spaces of social psychology


    Kalampalikis , Nikos; Delouvée , Sylvain; Pétard , Jean-Pierre


    International audience; An extensive analysis of all social psychology textbooks published, in french, between 1947 and 2001, including a history chapter, provides a rich corpus for the study of the history of social psychology. In this article we choose to study the historical spaces of social psychology, in order to show how the discipline was located in geographical, urban, institutional and collective spaces. We argue that, into this specific corpus, spaces are essentially related to some...

  20. German cross-cultural psychology


    Trommsdorff, Gisela


    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  1. Teaching psychology to computing students


    Taylor, Jacqui


    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching Psychology to Computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where Psychology is relevant to Computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students’ education. The second aim is to consider findings from research investigating the characteristics of Computing and Psychology students. It is proposed that this information could be considered in the de...

  2. History of Asian American psychology. (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie


    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter


    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing rec...... in qualitative research offers a promising avenue to advance the field in this direction.......Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  4. The psychological and neurochemical mechanisms of drug memory reconsolidation: implications for the treatment of addiction. (United States)

    Milton, Amy L; Everitt, Barry J


    Memory reconsolidation is the process by which memories, destabilised at retrieval, require restabilisation to persist in the brain. It has been demonstrated that even old, well-established memories require reconsolidation following retrieval; therefore, memory reconsolidation could potentially be exploited to disrupt, or even erase, aberrant memories that underlie psychiatric disorders, thereby providing a novel therapeutic target. Drug addiction is one such disorder; it is both chronic and relapsing, and one prominent risk factor for a relapse episode is the presentation of environmental cues that have previously been associated with drugs of abuse. This 'cue-induced relapse' can be accounted for in psychological terms by reinforcing memories of the pavlovian association between the cue and the drug, which can thus influence behaviour through at least three psychologically and neurobiologically dissociable mechanisms: conditioned reinforcement, conditioned approach and conditioned motivation. As each of these psychological processes could contribute to the resumption of drug-seeking following abstinence, it is important to develop treatments that can reduce drug-seeking re-established via influences on each or all of these pavlovian processes, in order to minimise the risk of a subsequent relapse. Investigation of the memory reconsolidation mechanisms of the memories underlying conditioned reinforcement, conditioned approach and conditioned motivation indicate that they depend upon different neurochemical systems, including the glutamatergic and adrenergic systems within limbic corticostriatal circuitry. We also discuss here the subsequent translation to the clinic of this preclinical work.

  5. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology (United States)

    Cox, Jared


    This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

  6. Military Psychology | Ijide | African Journal for the Psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Jean Piaget (1970), psychology is applicable to all human activities and situations, education and psychotherapy, work and leisure in nearly all sectors of employment particularly in the military (emphasis mine). There are however some individuals who believe that psychology might only be applicable to the ...

  7. Strain Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Members Subjected to Uniaxial Tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German; Rasmussen, Annette Beedholm; Fisker, Jakob


    The aim of this paper is to set up a method to determine the strain capacity of tension bars of reinforced concrete (RC) subjected to pure tension. Due to the interaction between reinforcement and concrete and due to the presence of cracks, the stresses in both reinforcement and concrete...... are varying along the length of the tension bar. The strain capacity of the tension bar is seen as the average strain in the reinforcement at the load level corresponding to the ultimate stress capacity of the reinforcement at the cracks. The result of the approach is in overall good agreement when comparing...

  8. [The behavior of fiber-reinforced plastics during laser cutting]. (United States)

    Emmrich, M; Levsen, K; Trasser, F J


    The pattern of the organic emissions, which are produced by processing of fibre reinforced plastics (epoxy resins reinforced by aramid and glass fibres and phenol resins reinforced by aramid fibre) with laser beam was studied and the concentrations of the main components determined. Despite the application of plastic materials with different chemical structures, the observed patterns are very similar. Mainly aromatic hydrocarbons are emitted, especially benzene and toluene, as well as some heteroatom-containing aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. phenol). By use of oxygen as process gas the emissions during cutting of glass fibre reinforced plastics can be reduced, while they will be constantly high with aramid fibre reinforced plastics.

  9. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs (United States)

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.


    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  10. TiC reinforced cast Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.


    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  11. TiC-reinforced cast Cr steels (United States)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Schrems, K. K.


    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5-4.5Ti, and 1-1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  12. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites. (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong


    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seismic evaluation of reinforced masonry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.E.; Button, M.R.; Mayes, R.L.


    Masonry walls in operating nuclear plants are in many cases found to be overstressed in terms of allowable stresses when evaluated using current seismic design criteria. However, experimental evidence exists indicating that reinforced masonry walls have a considerable margin between the load levels at which allowable stresses are exceeded and the load levels at which structural distress and loss of function occurs. This paper presents a methodology which allows the actual capacity of reinforced masonry walls under seismic loading to be quantified. The methodology is based on the use of non-linear dynamic analyses and incorporates observed hysteretic behavior for both in-plane and out-of-plane response. Experimental data is used to develop response parameters and to validate the results predicted by the models. Criteria have been concurrently developed to evaluate the deformations and material performance in the walls to ensure adequate margins of safety for the required function. An example of the application of these procedures is provided

  14. Autonomous reinforcement learning with experience replay. (United States)

    Wawrzyński, Paweł; Tanwani, Ajay Kumar


    This paper considers the issues of efficiency and autonomy that are required to make reinforcement learning suitable for real-life control tasks. A real-time reinforcement learning algorithm is presented that repeatedly adjusts the control policy with the use of previously collected samples, and autonomously estimates the appropriate step-sizes for the learning updates. The algorithm is based on the actor-critic with experience replay whose step-sizes are determined on-line by an enhanced fixed point algorithm for on-line neural network training. An experimental study with simulated octopus arm and half-cheetah demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to solve difficult learning control problems in an autonomous way within reasonably short time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.


    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  16. Reinforcement Learning Based Artificial Immune Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karakose


    Full Text Available One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

  17. Numerical Limit Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    For more than half a century, limit state analysis based on the extremum principles have been used to assess the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures. Extensi- ve research within the field has lead to several techniques for performing such analysis manually. While these manual...... methods provide engineers with valuable tools for limit sta- te analysis, their application becomes difficult with increased structural complexity. The main challenge is to solve the optimization problem posed by the extremum principles. This thesis is a study of how numerical methods can be used to solve...... limit state analysis problems. The work focuses on determination of the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures by employing the lower bound theorem and a finite element method using equilibrium elements is developed. The recent year’s development within the field of convex optimization...

  18. The technologically-reinforced natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Technologically-reinforced natural radioactivity comes from mining industries, geological resources and ores de-confinement, and from separation, purification, transformation and use of by-products or products. Partly based on a survey and questionnaires sent to industrial organisations, this report proposes a large and detailed overview of this kind of radioactivity for different sectors or specific activities: the French phosphate sector, the international rare Earth and heavy ores sector, the French monazite sector, the ilmenite sector, the French and international zirconium sector, the non-ferrous metal sector, the international and French drinkable, mineral and spring water sector, the international wastewater sector, the French drilling sector, the international and French geothermal sector, the international and French gas and oil sector, the international and French coal sector, the international and French biomass sector, the international and French paper-making industry, and the management of wastes with technologically-reinforced natural radioactivity in France

  19. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE


    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  20. Fiber-reinforced neutron shielding mortar concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Keisuke; Okazaki, Masaki; Ohigashi, Toshihide; Mayahara, Mitsuro.


    To improve the moldability, durability and economicity by adding cement curing promotors and reinforcing fibers to cement and boron compound which has been considered difficult so far, thereby enabling to add a great amount of the boron compound. The boron compound is added by from 5 to 200% by weight of powder of colemanite or borocarcite as natural ores or boric acid, borax or titanium boride, etc. as synthesis products and lithium hydroxide. calcium aluminate, etc. is added by more than 0.1% x boron compound blending ration (%) as the curing promoter. 0.3 to 5% by weight of polyvinyl alcohol type synthetic fibers, polyacrilonitrile type synthetic fibers or carbon fibers, etc. are added as the reinforcing fibers. This can prevent instantaneous coagulation, curing delay, etc. due to sulfur ions, enable easy application and molding and improve the durability and economicity. (T.M.)

  1. Early Loaded Single Implant Reinforced Mandibular Overdenture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nischal


    Full Text Available Rehabilitating atrophied mandible with two-implant supported denture is a common treatment modality for implant retained removable overdenture in mandible. This paper aims to design a treatment modality where single implant reinforced overdenture is fabricated for a severely atrophied mandibular ridge with early loading protocol. Results of studies have shown that a single implant mandibular overdenture significantly increases the satisfaction and quality of life of patients with edentulism. Midline fracture of the prosthesis is the most common complication related to single implant and two-implant retained mandibular overdentures. To manage such complication, a thin metal mesh is used to reinforce the overdenture and also to make the prostheses lighter and cost effective as compared to conventional cast metal framework.

  2. Reinforced concrete behavior due to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.; Bartley, R.; O'Brien, T.P.


    The assessment of the safety of nuclear reactors has necessitated the study of the effect of missiles on reinforced concrete containment structures. Two simple theoretical calculational methods have been developed to provide basic information. The first is based on a crude energy balance approach in which that part of the kinetic energy of the missile which is transferred into the containment structure, is absorbed only as bending strain energy. To determine the energy transferred into the structure it is assumed that during the loading the target does not respond. The energy input to the structure is thus equal to the kinetic energy it will possess immediately the impulse has been removed. The boundary of the responding zone is defined by the distance travelled by the shear stress wave during the time in which the impact force increases to the load at which the shear capacity reaches the ultimate shear resistance. The second method is based on the equation of motion for an equivalent one-degree-of-freedom system assuming that only the peak value of deflection is important and that damping can be ignored. The spring stiffness of the equivalent system has been based upon the stiffness of the actual disc configuration responding in the flexural mode only. The boundaries of the disc have been defined by using the elastic plate formulae and equating those positive and negative moments which will produce a specified yield line pattern which may be inferred from plastic plate formulae. The equation of motion is solved to indicate how the quantity of reinforcement included in the structure may modify the peak deflection. By limiting the ductility ratio of the reinforcement to some prescribed level it is possible to indicate the quantity of reinforcement w

  3. Online constrained model-based reinforcement learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, B


    Full Text Available Constrained Model-based Reinforcement Learning Benjamin van Niekerk School of Computer Science University of the Witwatersrand South Africa Andreas Damianou∗ Cambridge, UK Benjamin Rosman Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, and School... MULTIPLE SHOOTING Using direct multiple shooting (Bock and Plitt, 1984), problem (1) can be transformed into a structured non- linear program (NLP). First, the time horizon [t0, t0 + T ] is partitioned into N equal subintervals [tk, tk+1] for k = 0...

  4. Design and analysis of reinforced fiber composites

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagata, Nobuki


    The papers in this volume present a broad range of applications for reinforced fiber composites - from thin shell structures to tires. Linear and nonlinear structural behavior (from linear buckling to nonlinear yelding and fracture) are discussed as well as different materials are presented. Latest developments in computational methods for constructíons are presented which will help to save money and time. This is an edited collection of papers presented at a symposium at the WCCM, Barcelona, 2014.

  5. Extruded bar reinforced structure and manufacturing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, J.M.; Bozetto, P.


    A cooling tower has horizontal hoops connected by two inclined sets of bars to form a trellis of equilateral triangle anchored in the ground. The bars and hoops are connected at the corners of the triangle. A skin stretched over the trellis defines the tower. The bars are made with thermosetting resin reinforced by fibres. The fabrication of such tower is cheep and simple it can be used for every type of electrical power station, nuclear or not [fr

  6. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar


    R. Fujiyama; F. Darwish; M.V. Pereira


    This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the eff...

  7. Fatigue crack growth in fiber reinforced plastics (United States)

    Mandell, J. F.


    Fatigue crack growth in fiber composites occurs by such complex modes as to frustrate efforts at developing comprehensive theories and models. Under certain loading conditions and with certain types of reinforcement, simpler modes of fatigue crack growth are observed. These modes are more amenable to modeling efforts, and the fatigue crack growth rate can be predicted in some cases. Thus, a formula for prediction of ligamented mode fatigue crack growth rate is available.

  8. Gaudi and reinforced concrete in construction


    Grima Lopez, Rosa; Aguado de Cea, Antonio; Gómez Serrano, José


    The first two decades of the 20th century witnessed the introduction and expansion of reinforced concrete as a building material in Spain. Few years passed between the introduction of the first patents in the most industrialized areas of the Iberian Peninsula and the subsequent generalization of the technique through scientific knowledge obtained in universities. This period coincides almost completely with the professional career of Antoni Gaudí, one of the most famous Catalan architects. Th...

  9. Ferroelastic ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites



    Composite materials comprising ferroelastic ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the ferroelastic ceramic particulates are subjected to stress, such as the cyclic stress experienced during vibration of the material, internal stresses in the ceramic cause the material to deform via twinning, domain rotation or domain motion thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The ferroelastic ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to impro...

  10. Piezoelectric ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites



    Composite materials comprising piezoelectric ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the piezoelectric ceramic particulates are subjected to strain, such as the strain experienced during vibration of the material, they generate an electrical voltage that is converted into Joule heat in the surrounding metal matrix, thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The piezoelectric ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to improve the mec...

  11. Psychological First Aid (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Forbes, David


    Psychological first aid (PFA) has become the flagship early intervention for disaster survivors, with recent adaptations for disaster responders, in the post-9/11 era. PFA is broadly endorsed by expert consensus and integrated into guidelines for mental health and psychosocial support in disasters and extreme events. PFA frameworks are proliferating, with increasing numbers of models developed for delivery by a range of providers for use with an expanding array of target populations. Despite popularity and promotion there remains a dearth of evidence for effectiveness and recent independent reviews of PFA have highlighted this important gap. This commentary juxtaposes the current propagation of PFA against the compelling need to produce evidence for effectiveness and suggests a series of actions to prioritize and expedite real-time, real-event field evaluation of PFA. PMID:28228996

  12. [Tinnitus and psychological comorbidities]. (United States)

    Zirke, N; Goebel, G; Mazurek, B


    Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to the main disorder. Comorbidities negatively influence the development of the main disease. For patients with tinnitus a comorbidity is an additional component complicating the habituation of ear noise and patients with decompensated tinnitus often have psychological comorbidities, e.g. affective, somatoform or anxiety disorders. At the time of first presentation and also during further follow-up, it is essential to pay particular attention to the presence of potential comorbid mental disorders. This is of special importance for patients with decompensated ear noise (severity grades 3 and 4). For ENT specialists it is important that the mental discomfort of patients must be taken seriously and should be identified through a targeted diagnosis. Effective treatment of the co-symptoms using cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in conjunction with medication often reduces the severity of tinnitus perception and discomfort.

  13. Using Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedules to Support Students in the Classroom: An Introduction with Illustrative Examples (United States)

    Hulac, David; Benson, Nicholas; Nesmith, Matthew C.; Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah


    When behaviors are reinforced with a variable interval reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is available only after an unknown period of time. These types of reinforcement schedules are most useful for reinforcing slow and steady responding and for differentially reinforcing behaviors that are incompatible with some problematic behaviors. This…

  14. FEM performance of concrete beams reinforced by carbon fiber bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hashim


    Full Text Available Concrete structures may be vulnerable to harsh environment, reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars have an increasing acceptance than normal steel. The nature of (FRP bar is (non-corrosive which is very beneficial for increased durability as well as the reinforcement of FRP bar has higher strength than steel bar. FRP usage are being specified more and more by public structural engineers and individual companies as main reinforcement and as strengthening of structures. Steel reinforcement as compared to (FRP reinforcement are decreasingly acceptable for structural concrete reinforcement including precast concrete, cast in place concrete, columns, beams and other components. Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (CFRP have a very high modulus of elasticity “high modulus” and very high tensile strength. In aerospace industry, CFRP with high modulus are popular among all FRPs because it has a high strength to weight ratio. In this research, a finite element models will be used to represent beams with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement and beams with steel reinforcement. The primary objective of the research is the evaluation of the effect of (CFR on beam reinforcement.

  15. Glass FRP reinforcement in rehabilitation of concrete marine infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newhook, John P.


    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcements for concrete structures are gaining wide acceptance as a suitable alternative to steel reinforcements. The primary advantage is that they do not suffer corrosion and hence they promise to be more durable in environments where steel reinforced concrete has a limited life span. Concrete wharves and jetties are examples of structures subjected to such harsh environments and represent the general class of marine infrastructure in which glass FRP (GFRP) reinforcement should be used for improved durability and service life. General design considerations which make glass FRP suitable for use in marine concrete rehabilitation projects are discussed. A case study of recent wharf rehabilitation project in Canada is used to reinforce these considerations. The structure consisted of a GFRP reinforced concrete deck panel and steel - GFRP hybrid reinforced concrete pile cap. A design methodology is developed for the hybrid reinforcement design and verified through testing. The results of a field monitoring program are used to establish the satisfactory field performance of the GFRP reinforcement. The design concepts presented in the paper are applicable to many concrete marine components and other structures where steel reinforcement corrosion is a problem. (author)

  16. Soil reinforcement with recycled carpet wastes. (United States)

    Ghiassian, Hossein; Poorebrahim, Gholamreza; Gray, Donald H


    A root or fibre-reinforced soil behaves as a composite material in which fibres of relatively high tensile strength are embedded in a matrix of relatively plastic soil. Shear stresses in the soil mobilize tensile resistance in the fibres, which in turn impart greater strength to the soil. A research project has been undertaken to study the influence of synthetic fibrous materials for improving the strength characteristics of a fine sandy soil. One of the main objectives of the project is to explore the conversion of fibrous carpet waste into a value-added product for soil reinforcement. Drained triaxial tests were conducted on specimens, which were prepared in a cylindrical mould and compacted at their optimum water contents. The main test variables included the aspect ratio and the weight percentage of the fibrous strips. The results clearly show that fibrous inclusions derived from carpet wastes improve the shear strength of silty sands. A model developed to simulate the effect of the fibrous inclusions accurately predicts the influence of strip content, aspect ratio and confining pressure on the shear strength of reinforced sand.

  17. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taj, S.; Khan, S.; Munawar, M.A.


    Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. More recently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fi fibers have been investigated for use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, rye, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water hyacinth, pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been using natural fibers for many years e.g., jute is a common reinforcement in India. Natural fibers are increasingly used in automotive and packaging materials. Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is the main stay of Pakistan's economy. Thousands of tons of different crops are produced but most of their wastes do not have any useful utilization. Agricultural wastes include wheat husk, rice husk, and their straw, hemp fiber and shells of various dry fruits. These agricultural wastes can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. This report examines the different types of fibers available and the current status of research. Many references to the latest work on properties, processing and application have been cited in this review. (author)

  18. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model. (United States)

    Bowins, Brad


    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  19. Damping characteristics of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisano, M.; Nagashima, I.; Kawamura, S.


    Reinforced concrete structures in a nuclear power plant are not permitted to go far into the inelasticity generally, even when subjected to strong ground motion. Therefore it is important to evaluate the damping appropriately in linear and after cracking stage before yielding in the dynamic response analysis. Next three dampings are considered of reinforced concrete structures. 1) Internal damping in linear range material damping of concrete without cracks;2) Hysteretic damping in inelastic range material hysteretic damping of concrete due to cracking and yielding;3) Damping due to the energy dissipation into the ground. Among these damping material damping affects dynamic response of a nuclear power plant on hard rock site where damping due to energy dissipation into the ground is scarcely expected. However material damping in linear and slightly nonlinear range have only been assumed without enough experimental data. In this paper such damping is investigated experimentally by the shaking table tests of reinforced concrete box-walls which modeled roughly the outer wall structure of a P.W.R. type nuclear power plant

  20. The critical dimensions of the response-reinforcer contingency. (United States)

    Williams, B A.


    Two major dimensions of any contingency of reinforcement are the temporal relation between a response and its reinforcer, and the relative frequency of the reinforcer given the response versus when the response has not occurred. Previous data demonstrate that time, per se, is not sufficient to explain the effects of delay-of-reinforcement procedures; needed in addition is some account of the events occurring in the delay interval. Moreover, the effects of the same absolute time values vary greatly across situations, such that any notion of a standard delay-of-reinforcement gradient is simplistic. The effects of reinforcers occurring in the absence of a response depend critically upon the stimulus conditions paired with those reinforcers, in much the same manner as has been shown with Pavlovian contingency effects. However, it is unclear whether the underlying basis of such effects is response competition or changes in the calculus of causation.

  1. Numerical estimation of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protchenko Kostiantyn


    Full Text Available This paper introduces numerical investigation on mechanical performance of a concrete beam reinforced with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars, which can be competitive alternative to steel bars for enhancing concrete structures. The objective of this work is being identified as elaborating of reliable numerical model for predicting strength capacity of structural elements with implementation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The numerical model is based on experimental study prepared for the beams, which were reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP bars and steel bars (for comparison. The results obtained for the beams reinforced with steel bars are found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. However, the beams reinforced with BFRP bars in experimental programme demonstrated higher bearing capacity than those reinforced with steel bars, which is not in a good convergence with numerical results. Authors did attempt to describe the reasons on achieving experimentally higher bearing capacity of beams reinforced with BFRP bars.

  2. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D.; Bussey, Timothy; Mar, Adam; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter


    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. PMID:23994273

  3. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D; Bussey, Timothy J; Mar, Adam C; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter


    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; meeting. A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  4. Open source in Experimental Psychology


    Dalmaijer, Edwin


    Talk on using open-source software in experimental psychology. Presented on 3 March 2015, at the Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development group ( at the University of Oxford's Department of Experimental Psychology.

  5. Psychological adaptation after peripartum cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wolff, Mie; Ersbøll, Anne Schjødt; Hegaard, Hanne


    of regaining psychological balance and wellbeing (i.e. psychological adaptation) after having experienced severe peripartum morbidity. DESIGN: A qualitative exploratory research design was applied to guide the study. Data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured, face-toface telephone and e...

  6. Gestalt Psychology and Bilingual Education. (United States)

    Blomstedt, Bob; And Others

    Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…

  7. Psychological constructionism and cultural neuroscience. (United States)

    Hechtman, Lisa A; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y


    Lindquist et al. argue that emotional categories do not map onto distinct regions within the brain, but rather, arise from basic psychological processes, including conceptualization, executive attention, and core affect. Here, we use examples from cultural neuroscience to argue that psychological constructionism, not locationism, captures the essential role of emotion in the social and cultural brain.

  8. Educational Psychology: A Future Retrospective (United States)

    Harris, Karen R.


    In my response to Alexander's (2018) paper marking the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association and the field of educational psychology, I have taken the perspective of a member of our discipline from some time in the future who is contributing to a larger work looking back at the history and development of our field (thus, a…

  9. Interdisciplinarity and Undergraduate Psychology Education (United States)

    Goodwin-Smith, Ian; Pearson, Elissa; Ranzijn, Rob; Campbell, Alan; Lushington, Kurt


    This work identifies the human service sector as an important and growing destination for psychology graduates. It further identifies a number of key themes which flow from that observation and which are important to configuring psychology education in a way which takes account of emerging trends. The major theme identified in the research is the…

  10. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013


    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  11. Objective techniques for psychological assessment (United States)

    Wortz, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Ross, T.


    A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.

  12. [Psychological time, definition and challenges]. (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie


    Psychological time comprises different forms of time. Each form of time corresponds to different psychological mechanisms. The human being is subject to distortions of time under the effect of emotions. The effectiveness of social interaction depends on our aptitude to synchronise ourselves with others.

  13. Psychology's dilemma: An institutional neurosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzko, M.W.


    The term psychology refers both to an institutional discipline and to a subject matter. Henriques, in his article "Psychology Defined" (this issue) , emphasizes the second reference, and its focus can be sharpened by taking into account the first reference. On the one hand, epistemic progress in

  14. Psychological Assessment of the Disabled. (United States)

    Pool, Donald A.

    The paper examines issues, philosophy and guidelines for psychological assessment of the disabled. Focused on are: (1) adjustments in testing procedures and (2) applicability of standard norms with commonly used psychological test instruments for the assessment of ability, interest, and personality. The importance of accurate assessment for…

  15. Ethical issues in exercise psychology. (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M


    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  16. How Old Is Scientific Psychology? (United States)

    Harding, John S.

    Scientific psychology did not begin with Fechner and Wundt in the 19th century; its roots actually stretch back to 18th century Germany. The only detailed account of this period was published by Max Dessoir more than 80 years ago. Dessoir identified some of the crucial figures in early psychology, including Wolff, Bonnet, Kruger, Hissman, and…

  17. Psychologic Outcomes in Implant Prosthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B.; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W.; Garrett, Neal R.; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J.; Stanford, Clark M.; Wolfaardt, Johan


    Consensus regarding outcomes of the treatment of tooth loss, especially the psychologic outcomes, is needed to guide discovery of best practices and enable a better understanding of patient management for this chronic condition. This paper presents the findings of the ORONet Psychological Working

  18. Five currents of organizational psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    Organizational psychology may be seen as consisting of a number of mutually conflictual currents developed over several decades. This article discusses five currents in organizational psychology that have both been dominant in Scandinavia and have had particular significance in relation...... to the field of organizational development: The social psychological, the socio-technical, the humanistic, the work psychological and the social constructionist currents. Central arguments and works from leading scholars are discussed. It is argued that although treated differently the notions of the small...... group, group dynamics, resistance to change and process consultation constitute pivotal and through going tenets in all the currents. These notions, it is argued, link the discipline of organizational psychology together into a mutually discordant, but anyway relatively consistent research area...

  19. Psychological counselling in problematic diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.


    -destructive behaviour, but future research should substantiate these preliminary findings. Behaviour family therapy proved beneficial in terms of resolving family conflicts, but did not impact glycaemic control. Conclusions: Evidence to support the effect of psychological treatment in problematic diabetes is still......Background: In past decades clinicians have increasingly recognized the importance of psychological support for people with diabetes and their families, and many have recommended integrating psychological counselling into routine diabetes care. It is therefore important to consider whether...... psychological interventions in diabetes are effective in improving clinical outcomes. Methods: This review was limited to the literature reporting on the treatment of five common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management: depression, eating disorders, anxiety/stress, self...

  20. Psychology between science and profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad


    Full Text Available Psychology is powerful science, with great knowledge deposited for understanding the individual (his development and pathological outcomes, behavior and predicting behavior in different situations, groups, historical flows and historical characters, cultural and civilisation changes, artistic and other creations. Psychology, as it becomes to the science of soul, has covered all areas of human spirit. Discreprancy between potential and power of psychology and her use (in the work of psychologists author connects for positioning and realisation of psychology in university teachings. Whit the help of psychology we can, not just successes in life but we can also understand life itself. But, how many psychologists can contribute to that? Why is that so?.

  1. The psychological science of addiction. (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith


    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  2. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan


    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  3. Anthropological aspects of health psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Shuvalov


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection. The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to

  4. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.


    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  5. Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites as Internal and External Reinforcements for Building Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Banu


    Full Text Available During the latest decades fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composite materials have proven valuable properties and suitable to be used in construction of new buildings and in upgrading the existing ones. These materials have covered the road from research laboratory and demonstration projects to implementation in actual structures. Nowadays the civil and structural engineering communities are about to commence the stage in which the use of FRP composites is becoming a routine similar to that of traditional material such as concrete, masonry and wood. Two main issues are presented in this paper, the use of FRP composite materials for new structural members (internal reinforcements and strengthening of existing members (externally bonded reinforcements. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the problems and constraints associated with both issues are discussed in detail mainly related to concrete members.

  6. Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes. (United States)

    Kinsella, Elaine L; Ritchie, Timothy D; Igou, Eric R


    Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well-understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (n = 189) freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others). In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (n = 249) rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (n = 242), participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4A (n = 38) and 4B (n = 102), participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance) during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modeling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer.

  7. Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Louise Kinsella


    Full Text Available Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (N = 189 freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others. In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (N = 249 rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (N = 242, participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4a (N = 38 and 4b (N = 102, participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modelling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer.

  8. Age, psychological skills, and golf performance: a prospective investigation. (United States)

    Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A


    This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games.

  9. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.


    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  10. Psychology and Optometry: Interaction and Collaboration. (United States)

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Bittner, Erika


    Because a number of vision conditions have psychological components and some psychological conditions may be complicated by vision difficulties, interdisciplinary cooperation between clinical psychology and optometry should prove fruitful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of health problems. (EVL)

  11. Influence of reinforcement on strains within maxillary implant overdentures. (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihito; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu


    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of reinforcement of an embedded cast on the strains within maxillary implant overdentures. A maxillary edentulous model with implants placed bilaterally in the canine positions, dome-shaped copings, and experimental overdentures was fabricated. Rosette-type strain gauges were attached in the canine positions and at three points along the midline of the polished surface of the denture and connected to the sensor interface controlled by a personal computer. Experimental dentures with five different reinforcements were tested: without reinforcement; with a cast cobalt-chrome reinforcement over the residual ridge and the tops of the copings; with the same reinforcement from first molar to first molar, over the residual ridge and the tops of the copings; with the same reinforcement over the residual ridge and the sides of the copings; and with the same reinforcement from first molar to first molar, over the residual ridge and the sides of the copings. A vertical occlusal load of 49 N was applied to the first premolar and then to the first molar, and the strains were measured and compared by analysis of variance. In both loading situations, significantly less strain was recorded in dentures with reinforcement than in those without reinforcement. When the first premolar was loaded on dentures with and without palatal reinforcement at the first premolars, the strains on the denture with reinforcement over the tops of the copings were significantly lower than on the denture with reinforcement over the sides of the copings at the canine position. Cast reinforcement over the residual ridge and the top of copings embedded in an acrylic base reduced the strain from occlusal stress on maxillary implant overdentures.

  12. On the Evolutionary Bases of Consumer Reinforcement (United States)

    Nicholson, Michael; Xiao, Sarah Hong


    This article locates consumer behavior analysis within the modern neo-Darwinian synthesis, seeking to establish an interface between the ultimate-level theorizing of human evolutionary psychology and the proximate level of inquiry typically favored by operant learning theorists. Following an initial overview of the central tenets of neo-Darwinism,…

  13. The Psychology of Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino


    Full Text Available Domestic cows (Bos taurus are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more complex cognitive, emotional and social characteristics. Moreover, when cow behavior is addressed, it is almost entirely done within the framework of and applied to their use as food commodities. Therefore, there is relatively little attention to the study of cow intelligence, personality and sociality at a basic comparative level. In this review, we examine the current state of scientific knowledge about cows within an objective comparative framework, describing their cognitive, emotional, and social characteristics. Our aim is to provide a more veridical and objective current summary of cow psychology on its own terms and in ways which will facilitate better-informed comparisons with other animals. Moreover, an understanding of the capabilities and characteristics of domestic cows will, it is hoped, advance our understanding of who they are as individuals.

  14. Psychological stress in sarcoidosis. (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L


    Sarcoidosis is a chronic illness associated with emotional and physical consequences which impact on quality of life. Although the impact of fatigue is well understood, emotional impacts of sarcoidosis are less commonly recognized and addressed in routine clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to highlight that sarcoidosis can result in considerable psychological distress. Not only is there a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in sarcoidosis, but clinical depressive and anxiety disorders are more common than seen in the general population. Patients with sarcoidosis have perceptions and beliefs about their disease that may impact on their willingness to engage in recommended therapies. They may also exhibit a disordered perception of their disease and a personality profile of neuroticism. Understanding the minimally important clinical difference in the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and validation of the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) across different populations supports the use of these tools in routine clinical practice and clinical trials. Understanding the global impact of sarcoidosis is important for patients and clinicians, and use of validated instruments, such as the SHQ and FAS, allows for more comprehensive assessment of the disease and the impact of any interventions.

  15. My relational self psychology. (United States)

    Teicholz, Judith Guss


    In this article, I suggest recent sources of influence on psychoanalysis and describe a contemporary relational self psychology that is my personal attempt at integration. Even with this integration, I struggle to find the right "therapeutic" balance between my essential but imperfect instrument for empathic listening, on the one hand, and the risks of authentic engagement, on the other. These dialectical tensions in me mirror those in the psychoanalytic community as a whole, poised between a scientifically based practice and a healing "art"--or between a complex but teachable methodology or discipline-and an ordinary (yet extraordinary) human relationship in which spontaneity and even improvisation play a role. Complicating this balancing act, there is new evidence from neuroscientists, attachment theorists, and infant-caregiver researchers that, from birth onward, bidirectional influences on brain and psychic development create contingent and unpredictable outcomes in every intimately related dyad. Thus, the contemporary analyst must expect to be changed by the work and--while taking full responsibility for his or her own contribution--must recognize patient and analyst as co-creators of the psychoanalytic project. At the same time that we now recognize contingency, complexity, and chaos at the heart of human minds and relationships, we also acknowledge the central importance of a sense of continuity and coherence as the individual undertakes the pursuit of goals and relationships in life. What kind of relationship can facilitate these qualities in the sense of self? That is the question that this article undertakes to answer.

  16. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalar O.G.


    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  17. Persistent Rule-Following in the Face of Reversed Reinforcement Contingencies: The Differential Impact of Direct Versus Derived Rules. (United States)

    Harte, Colin; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; McEnteggart, Ciara


    Rule-governed behavior and its role in generating insensitivity to direct contingencies of reinforcement have been implicated in human psychological suffering. In addition, the human capacity to engage in derived relational responding has also been used to explain specific human maladaptive behaviors, such as irrational fears. To date, however, very little research has attempted to integrate research on contingency insensitivity and derived relations. The current work sought to fill this gap. Across two experiments, participants received either a direct rule (Direct Rule Condition) or a rule that involved a novel derived relational response (Derived Rule Condition). Provision of a direct rule resulted in more persistent rule-following in the face of competing contingencies, but only when the opportunity to follow the reinforced rule beforehand was relatively protracted. Furthermore, only in the Direct Rule Condition were there significant correlations between rule-compliance and stress. A post hoc interpretation of the findings is provided.

  18. Positive psychological interventions aimed at enhancing psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni; Stemmet, Lehan; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni


    Interventions aimed at the enhancement of positive organisational behaviours, within organisational contexts, are imperative for creating and sustaining a high-performance culture, where individual and organisational strengths are optimized and top-talent retained. Psychological ownership, one form

  19. Reinforced concrete tomography; Tomografia de hormigon armado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscotti, M A.J.; Morixe, M; Tarela, P A; Thieberger, P [Tomografia de Hormigon Armado S.A., Boulogne (Argentina)


    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of {+-} 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) 8 refs., 12 figs. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la tecnica de tomografia de hormigon armado, sus antededentes, recientes desarrollos y aplicaciones mas importantes. Esta tecnica se basa en el uso de radiacion gamma para penetrar piezas de hormigon. Placas gammagraficas son sensibilizadas con la radiacion que atraviesa la pieza bajo estudio y luego procesadas para revelar la presencia de armadura e inhomogeneidades en la densidad del concreto. La reconstruccion tridimensional o tomografia, de la armadura a partir de una sola gammagrafia es un desarrollo original alternativo a los metodos convencionales. Diametros y posiciones de los hierros existentes en el interior de columnas, vigas y losas pueden ser determinados con precisiones de {+-} 1 mm y 0.5-1 cm, respectivamente. La condicion de no destructiva hace que esta tecnica sea particularmente apreciada en los casos de edificios habitados y sea insustituible para el diagnostico de balcones. (autor)

  20. Enriching behavioral ecology with reinforcement learning methods. (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Barto, Andrew G


    This article focuses on the division of labor between evolution and development in solving sequential, state-dependent decision problems. Currently, behavioral ecologists tend to use dynamic programming methods to study such problems. These methods are successful at predicting animal behavior in a variety of contexts. However, they depend on a distinct set of assumptions. Here, we argue that behavioral ecology will benefit from drawing more than it currently does on a complementary collection of tools, called reinforcement learning methods. These methods allow for the study of behavior in highly complex environments, which conventional dynamic programming methods do not feasibly address. In addition, reinforcement learning methods are well-suited to studying how biological mechanisms solve developmental and learning problems. For instance, we can use them to study simple rules that perform well in complex environments. Or to investigate under what conditions natural selection favors fixed, non-plastic traits (which do not vary across individuals), cue-driven-switch plasticity (innate instructions for adaptive behavioral development based on experience), or developmental selection (the incremental acquisition of adaptive behavior based on experience). If natural selection favors developmental selection, which includes learning from environmental feedback, we can also make predictions about the design of reward systems. Our paper is written in an accessible manner and for a broad audience, though we believe some novel insights can be drawn from our discussion. We hope our paper will help advance the emerging bridge connecting the fields of behavioral ecology and reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reinforcement learning for microgrid energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, Elizaveta; Li, Yan-Fu; Ruiz, Carlos; Zio, Enrico; Ault, Graham; Bell, Keith


    We consider a microgrid for energy distribution, with a local consumer, a renewable generator (wind turbine) and a storage facility (battery), connected to the external grid via a transformer. We propose a 2 steps-ahead reinforcement learning algorithm to plan the battery scheduling, which plays a key role in the achievement of the consumer goals. The underlying framework is one of multi-criteria decision-making by an individual consumer who has the goals of increasing the utilization rate of the battery during high electricity demand (so as to decrease the electricity purchase from the external grid) and increasing the utilization rate of the wind turbine for local use (so as to increase the consumer independence from the external grid). Predictions of available wind power feed the reinforcement learning algorithm for selecting the optimal battery scheduling actions. The embedded learning mechanism allows to enhance the consumer knowledge about the optimal actions for battery scheduling under different time-dependent environmental conditions. The developed framework gives the capability to intelligent consumers to learn the stochastic environment and make use of the experience to select optimal energy management actions. - Highlights: • A consumer exploits a 2 steps-ahead reinforcement learning for battery scheduling. • The Q-learning based mechanism is fed by the predictions of available wind power. • Wind speed state evolutions are modeled with a Markov chain model. • Optimal scheduling actions are learned through the occurrence of similar scenarios. • The consumer manifests a continuous enhance of his knowledge about optimal actions

  2. Successful Massive Open Online Climate Course on Climate Science and Psychology (United States)

    Nuccitelli, D. A.; Cook, J.


    In 2015, the University of Queensland and edX launched a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), 'Making Sense of Climate Science Denial.' The MOOC debunked approximately 50 common climate myths using elements of both physical science and psychology. Students learned how to recognise the social and psychological drivers of climate science denial, how to better understand climate change, how to identify the techniques and fallacies that climate myths employ to distort climate science, and how to effectively debunk climate misinformation. Contributors to the website Skeptical Science delivered the lectures, which were reinforced via interviews with climate science and psychology experts. Over 15,000 students from 167 countries enrolled in the course, and student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. This MOOC provides a model for effective climate science education.

  3. Martial arts and psychological health. (United States)

    Fuller, J R


    The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.

  4. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina


    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed. (paper)

  5. The evolutionary psychology of hunger. (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith


    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Additives on Reinforced Concrete Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neverkovica Darja


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on carbonation and chloride induced corrosion mechanisms in reinforced concrete structures, based on three commercially available concrete admixtures: Xypex Admix C-1000, Penetron Admix and Elkem Microsilica. Carbonation takes place due to carbon dioxide diffusion, which in the required amount is present in the air. Chlorides penetrate concrete in case of the use of deicing salt or structure exploitation in marine atmosphere. Based on the implemented research, Elkem Microsilica is the recommended additive for the use in aggressive environmental conditions. Use of Xypex Admix C-1000 and Penetron Admix have only average resistance to the aggressive environmental impact.

  7. Reinforcement learning: Solving two case studies (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Filipa; Silva, Pedro; dos Santos, Cristina Peixoto


    Reinforcement Learning algorithms offer interesting features for the control of autonomous systems, such as the ability to learn from direct interaction with the environment, and the use of a simple reward signalas opposed to the input-outputs pairsused in classic supervised learning. The reward signal indicates the success of failure of the actions executed by the agent in the environment. In this work, are described RL algorithmsapplied to two case studies: the Crawler robot and the widely known inverted pendulum. We explore RL capabilities to autonomously learn a basic locomotion pattern in the Crawler, andapproach the balancing problem of biped locomotion using the inverted pendulum.

  8. Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Gantenbein, F.


    Reinforced concrete shear walls have an important contribution to building stiffness. So, it is necessary to know their behavior under seismic loads. The ultimate behavior study of shear walls subjected to dynamic loadings includes: - a description of the nonlinear global model based on cyclic static tests, - nonlinear time history calculations for various forcing functions. The comparison of linear and nonlinear results shows important margins related to the ductility when the bandwidth of the forcing function is narrow and centred on the wall natural frequency

  9. Asymmetrical reinforcement and Wolbachia infection in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jaenike


    Full Text Available Reinforcement refers to the evolution of increased mating discrimination against heterospecific individuals in zones of geographic overlap and can be considered a final stage in the speciation process. One the factors that may affect reinforcement is the degree to which hybrid matings result in the permanent loss of genes from a species' gene pool. Matings between females of Drosophila subquinaria and males of D. recens result in high levels of offspring mortality, due to interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia infection of D. recens. Such hybrid inviability is not manifested in matings between D. recens females and D. subquinaria males. Here we ask whether the asymmetrical hybrid inviability is associated with a corresponding asymmetry in the level of reinforcement. The geographic ranges of D. recens and D. subquinaria were found to overlap across a broad belt of boreal forest in central Canada. Females of D. subquinaria from the zone of sympatry exhibit much stronger levels of discrimination against males of D. recens than do females from allopatric populations. In contrast, such reproductive character displacement is not evident in D. recens, consistent with the expected effects of unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility. Furthermore, there is substantial behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria, because females from populations sympatric with D. recens discriminate against allopatric conspecific males, whereas females from populations allopatric with D. recens show no discrimination against any conspecific males. Patterns of general genetic differentiation among populations are not consistent with patterns of behavioral discrimination, which suggests that the behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria results from selection against mating with Wolbachia-infected D. recens. Interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility may contribute not only to post-mating isolation, an effect already widely recognized, but also to

  10. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Thomas


    Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different combinat....... Codes for designing prefabricated reinforced components of aircrete structures have adopted these recently developed approaches.......Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different...

  11. Optimization of Reinforcement of RC Framed Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Štěpánek


    Full Text Available This paper presents the entire formulation of longitudinal reinforcement minimization in a concrete structure of known sections and shape under loading by the normal force and the bending moment. Constraint conditions are given by the conditions of structure reliability in accordance with the relevant codes for ultimate strength and applicability of the sections specified by a designer. Linearization of the non-linear function is described, and possibilities of applying algorithms of linear computing are discussed. The functioning of the process described is demonstrated on a plane frame structure design.

  12. Titanium reinforced boron-polyimide composite (United States)

    Clark, G. A.; Clayton, K. I.


    Processing techniques for boron polyimide prepreg were developed whereby composites could be molded under vacuum bag pressure only. A post-cure cycle was developed which resulted in no loss in room temperature mechanical properties of the composite at any time during up to 16 hours at 650 F. A design utilizing laminated titanium foil was developed to achieve a smooth transition of load from the titanium attachment points into the boron-reinforced body of the structure. The box beam test article was subjected to combined bending and torsional loads while exposed to 650 F. Loads were applied incrementally until failure occurred at 83% design limit load.

  13. Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Lars


    In this thesis, a rotational capacity model for flexural reinforced concrete elements is presented. The model is based on the general assumption, that any other failure mode than bending is prevented by proper design. This includes failure due to shear, anchorage, concentrated loads etc. Likewise...... are not necessarily so. An example shows the applicability of the model and a parametric study shows the advantages of the model compared with code provisions. Finally, improvements of the compression zone modelling is performed in order to include a better performance when concrete crushing is the failure criterion...

  14. Reinforcement learning account of network reciprocity. (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Naoki


    Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model) approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results.

  15. Reinforcement learning account of network reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ezaki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results.

  16. Manipulating parameters of reinforcement to reduce problem behavior without extinction. (United States)

    Kunnavatana, S Shanun; Bloom, Sarah E; Samaha, Andrew L; Slocum, Timothy A; Clay, Casey J


    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) most often includes extinction as a treatment component. However, extinction is not always feasible and it can be counter-therapeutic if implemented without optimal treatment integrity. Researchers have successfully implemented DRA without extinction by manipulating various parameters of reinforcement such that alternative behavior is favored. We extended previous research by assessing three participants' sensitivities to quality, magnitude, and immediacy using arbitrary responses and reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. The results were used to implement an intervention for problem behavior using DRA without extinction. Our findings indicate that arbitrary responses can be used to identify individual and relative sensitivity to parameters of reinforcement for reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. Treatment was effective for all participants when we manipulated parameters of reinforcement to which they were most sensitive, and, for two participants, the treatment was less effective when we manipulated parameters to which they were least sensitive. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Continuous Natural Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by Fiber Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharat Wongsriraksa


    Full Text Available Continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials are expected to replace inorganic fiber reinforced thermosetting materials. However, in the process of fabricating the composite, it is difficult to impregnate the thermoplastic resin into reinforcement fiber because of the high melt viscosity. Therefore, intermediate material, which allows high impregnation during molding, has been investigated for fabricating continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite by aligning resin fiber alongside reinforcing fiber with braiding technique. This intermediate material has been called “microbraid yarn (MBY.” Moreover, it is well known that the interfacial properties between natural fiber and resin are low; therefore, surface treatment on continuous natural fiber was performed by using polyurethane (PU and flexible epoxy (FLEX to improve the interfacial properties. The effect of surface treatment on the mechanical properties of continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites was examined. From these results, it was suggested that surface treatment by PU with low content could produce composites with better mechanical properties.

  18. Concrete cover cracking due to uniform reinforcement corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe; Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica


    and reinforcement de-passivation is a frequently used limit state. The present paper investigates an alternative limit state: corrosion-induced cover cracking. Results from numerical simulations of concrete cover cracking due to reinforcement corrosion are presented. The potential additional service life...... is calculated using literature data on corrosion rate and Faraday’s law. The parameters varied comprise reinforcement diameter, concrete cover thickness and concrete material properties, viz. concrete tensile strength and ductility (plain concrete and fibre reinforced concrete). Results obtained from......Service life design (SLD) is an important tool for civil engineers to ensure that the structural integrity and functionality of the structure is not compromised within a given time frame, i.e. the service life. In SLD of reinforced concrete structures, reinforcement corrosion is of major concern...

  19. Analysis of FRP bars used as reinforcement in concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Brózda


    Full Text Available In the design and construction of building and engineering structures, it is of utmost importance to provide their reliability and safety. The use of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymers bars as reinforcement of structural concrete elements could help reducing the typical defects of reinforced concrete and increase its strength parameters. In the paper the selected FRP bar characteristic properties are presented and advantages derived therefrom are specified. Furthermore, the most commonly used in construction types of FRP bars, depending on the raw material used during the production process are listed. In addition, the possibility of recycling of elements reinforced with FRP bars is presented and compared with traditional reinforced concrete (reinforced with steel bars. The production method of FRP bars (pultrusion is shown. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of using this method are discussed.

  20. Design for whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Gurbuz, O.


    This paper describes determination of local and overall effects on reinforced concrete panels due to whipping pipe impact in postulated pipe break events. Local damage includes the prediction of minimum concrete panel thickness required to prevent spalling from the back face of the target reinforced concrete panels. Evaluation of overall effect deals with the ductility ratio calculation for the target reinforced concrete panels. Design curves for determining the minimum panel thickness and the minimum reinforcement of reinforced concrete panels are presented in this paper for some cases commonly encountered in nuclear applications. The methodology and the results provided can be used to determine if an existing reinforced concrete wall is capable of resisting the whipping pipe impact, and consequently, if pipe whip restraints can be eliminated

  1. (nanoclay and CaSiO3)-reinforced E-glass-reinforced epoxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For instance, Zhang et al. [6] have prepared 30 types of epoxy matrix reinforced with ... the resin in a high-speed metal blade rotation medium. The .... Tests were run for .... Figure 2. Mean effect plots showing the influence of load, nanoclay content and speed on ..... [8] Wang K, Chen L, Wu J, Toh M L, He C and Yee A F 2005.

  2. Value learning through reinforcement : The basics of dopamine and reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daw, N.D.; Tobler, P.N.; Glimcher, P.W.; Fehr, E.


    This chapter provides an overview of reinforcement learning and temporal difference learning and relates these topics to the firing properties of midbrain dopamine neurons. First, we review the RescorlaWagner learning rule and basic learning phenomena, such as blocking, which the rule explains. Then

  3. Dual Effects on Choice of Conditioned Reinforcement Frequency and Conditioned Reinforcement Value (United States)

    McDevitt, Margaret A.; Williams, Ben A.


    Pigeons were presented with a concurrent-chains schedule in which the total time to primary reinforcement was equated for the two alternatives (VI 30 s VI 60 s vs. VI 60 s VI 30 s). In one set of conditions, the terminal links were signaled by the same stimulus, and in another set of conditions they were signaled by different stimuli. Choice was…

  4. Bond of reinforcing bars in self-compacting steel fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, P.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.; Braam, C.R.; Uijl, J.A. den; Walraven, J.C.


    Pull-out tests were performed on 10 mm diameter ribbed bars embedded along three times the bar diameter in 200 mm cubes made of plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) of normal strength (B45). The fiber content was 60 and 120 kg/m3, respectively, the aspect ratio of the fibers was 45 and

  5. Treatment of Escape-Maintained Behavior with Positive Reinforcement: The Role of Reinforcement Contingency and Density (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Welter, Katherine M.


    Functional analyses suggested that the disruptive behavior of three preschool children was maintained by escape from demands. While keeping the escape contingency intact, we conducted (a) a density analysis in which the children earned preferred items for task completion according to two schedules that varied in reinforcement density, and (b) a…

  6. Effects of Signaled Positive Reinforcement on Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Romani, Patrick W.


    We evaluated the effects of providing positive reinforcement for task completion, signaled via the presence of a tangible item, on escape-maintained problem behavior displayed by three typically developing children during one-time 90-min outpatient evaluations. Brief functional analyses of problem behavior, conducted within a multielement design,…

  7. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology. (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S


    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Investigation on reinforced concrete slabs subjeted to impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiman, M.; Krutzik, N.J.; Tropp, R.; Zorn, N.F.


    A comparison of experimental and computational results for tests of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to soft missile impact is presented. Numerical simulation techniques were employed to predict the target response. The objective of the calculations was to validate the material model for reinforced concrete implemented in a finite difference code. The computational results regarding displacements or strains in the reinforcement conform satisfactorily with the experimental values. (Author) [pt

  9. Mechanical Behaviour of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Cement Composites


    M. Aruna


    Emphasis on the advancement of new materials and technology has been there for the past few decades. The global development towards using cheap and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. An experimental investigation of mechanical behaviour of sisal fibre-reinforced concrete is reported for making a suitable building material in terms of reinforcement. Fibre reinforced Composite is one such material, which has reformed the concept of high strength. ...

  10. Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures using software package abaqus


    Marković Nemanja; Stojić Dragoslav; Cvetković Radovan


    Reinforced concrete (AB) is characterized by huge inhomogeneity resulting from the material characteristics of the concrete, then, quasi-brittle behavior during failure. These and other phenomena require the introduction of material nonlinearity in the modeling of reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents the modeling reinforced concrete in the software package ABAQUS. A brief theoretical overview is presented of methods such as: Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP), Smeared Concrete Cr...

  11. Hybrid fiber and nanopowder reinforced composites for wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz M. Chikhradze


    Full Text Available The results of an investigation into the production of wind turbine blades manufactured using polymer composites reinforced by hybrid (carbon, basalt, glass fibers and strengthened by various nanopowders (oxides, carbides, borides are presented. The hybrid fiber-reinforced composites (HFRC were manufactured with prepreg technology by molding pre-saturated epoxy-strengthened matrix-reinforced fabric. Performance of the manufactured composites was estimated with values of the coefficient of operating condition (COC at a moderate and elevated temperature.

  12. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G


    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  13. Department of Psychology, Obafemi Awolo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Accepted: November 05, 2014. Department of Psychology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria ... place attachment, a strong internal locus of control and strong and accessible ..... Scale for Turkish University students. Journal of ...

  14. Mapping the Development of Psychology


    Flis, Ivan


    An invited presentation I gave at the PSI EGG One-day Conference for Early Career Psychologists in Ireland on my ongoing research of mapping the historical development of psychology through journal text-mining. 

  15. Health psychology and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Delshad Noghabi


    Full Text Available Health psychology is the defined as studying of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. It contributes to is concerned with the understanding of how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute role to in physical health and illness. Psychological factors can affect health directly. For example, health is hurt by the chronically occurring environmental stressors which cumulatively affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cumulatively, can harm health. On the other hand, a person's health is also interwoven with the Behavioral behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For exampleinstance, certain behaviors behaviors, including smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can, over time, harm (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption health but exercise and diet low in saturated fat or can enhance health (exercise, diet low in saturated fat.

  16. Cognitive Psychology and Mathematical Thinking. (United States)

    Greer, Brian


    This review illustrates aspects of cognitive psychology relevant to the understanding of how people think mathematically. Developments in memory research, artificial intelligence, visually mediated processes, and problem-solving research are discussed. (MP)

  17. Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment. (United States)

    Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio


    Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.

  18. Toward a cogenetic cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca


    The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way of build......The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way...... to account for developmental processes must emerge from a triadic system, rather than following the procedures of a binary logic, in order to have any correspondence between concept building and phenomenological world in psychology. Then, I sketch an epistemological approach called method of complementary...... negation that could help cultural psychology to build more developmental abstract models of very concrete human phenomena....

  19. Varieties of Fame in Psychology. (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L


    Fame in psychology, as in all arenas, is a local phenomenon. Psychologists (and probably academics in all fields) often first become well known for studying a subfield of an area (say, the study of attention in cognitive psychology, or even certain tasks used to study attention). Later, the researcher may become famous within cognitive psychology. In a few cases, researchers break out of a discipline to become famous across psychology and (more rarely still) even outside the confines of academe. The progression is slow and uneven. Fame is also temporally constricted. The most famous psychologists today will be forgotten in less than a century, just as the greats from the era of World War I are rarely read or remembered today. Freud and a few others represent exceptions to the rule, but generally fame is fleeting and each generation seems to dispense with the lessons learned by previous ones to claim their place in the sun. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi


    We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...... with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time...

  1. Between history and cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio


    Innis’ and Brinkmann’s papers (this issue) tackle two key aspects in cultural psychology: the mediating role played by the different systems of meanings throughout history in making sense of the world, and the normative role of those systems, including psychology itself. This paper offers...... a reflection on these two issues. It begins by highlighting the contribution of psychology and history, as emerging disciplines in the 19th Century, to the creation of a normative framework for the subject of modernity according to the needs of modern nation states. It also alludes to both disciplines’ common...... accounts. Drawing on this assumption, it is discussed how past events are constructed, thus bringing mediation and meaning-making to the fore. Special attention is paid to narratives as symbolic meaning-making tools. We will conclude by discussing usage of the past and the role that cultural psychology can...

  2. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L


    on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... adjustment for education. For women, there was no evidence of a consistent association. CONCLUSION: The reviewed articles were not supportive of any associations between psychological workload and either general or abdominal obesity. Future epidemiological studies in this field should be prospective......BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...

  3. Effect of reinforcement on plastic limit loads of branch junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun-Jae; Myeong, Man-Sik; Yoon, Kee-Bong


    This paper provides effects of reinforcement shape and area on plastic limit loads of branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane/out-of-plane bending, via detailed three-dimensional finite element limit analysis assuming elastic-perfectly plastic material behaviour. It is found that reinforcement is most effective when (in-plane/out-of-plane) bending is applied to the branch pipe. When bending is applied to the run pipe, reinforcement is less effective when bending is applied to the branch pipe. The reinforcement effect is the least effective for internal pressure.

  4. Halloysite reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Muhammad Jawwad


    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties were prepared. The prepared HNTs reinforced epoxy composites demonstrated improved mechanical properties especially the fracture toughness and flexural strength. The flexural modulus of nanocomposite with 6% mHNTs loading was 11.8% higher than that of neat epoxy resin. In addition, the nanocomposites showed improved dimensional stability. The prepared halloysite reinforced epoxy composites were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The improved properties are attributed to the unique characteristics of HNTs, uniform dispersion of reinforcement and interfacial coupling.

  5. Human choice among five alternatives when reinforcers decay. (United States)

    Rothstein, Jacob B; Jensen, Greg; Neuringer, Allen


    Human participants played a computer game in which choices among five alternatives were concurrently reinforced according to dependent random-ratio schedules. "Dependent" indicates that choices to any of the wedges activated the random-number generators governing reinforcers on all five alternatives. Two conditions were compared. In the hold condition, once scheduled, a reinforcer - worth a constant five points - remained available until it was collected. In the decay condition, point values decreased with intervening responses, i.e., rapid collection was differentially reinforced. Slopes of matching functions were higher in the decay than hold condition. However inter-subject variability was high in both conditions.

  6. Study of Interaction of Reinforcement with Concrete by Numerical Methods (United States)

    Tikhomirov, V. M.; Samoshkin, A. S.


    This paper describes the study of deformation of reinforced concrete. A mathematical model for the interaction of reinforcement with concrete, based on the introduction of a contact layer, whose mechanical characteristics are determined from the experimental data, is developed. The limiting state of concrete is described using the Drucker-Prager theory and the fracture criterion with respect to maximum plastic deformations. A series of problems of the theory of reinforced concrete are solved: stretching of concrete from a central-reinforced prism and pre-stressing of concrete. It is shown that the results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Toughened microstructures for ductile phase reinforced molybdenum disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, S.M.; Ghosh, A.K.


    Various morphologies of ductile Nb refractory metal reinforcement are incorporated into a MoSi 2 matrix using powder metallurgy, including single-ply laminates, continuous metal ribbons and sections of 2-dimensional wire mesh. Hot forging techniques are used to redistribute the reinforcement and change the dimensions and the aspect ratio of the reinforcing metal ligaments. Work-of-rupture measurements are conducted on bend test specimens and precracked tensile specimens of the composite so that the toughness contribution from the various ductile metal morphologies can be assessed according to its effectiveness. Accompanying microstructural examination of crack bridging interaction with the reinforcement is conducted

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of reinforced plastics by a radiometric measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entine, Gerald; Afshari, Sia; Verlinden, Matt


    The demand for new high-performance plastics has greatly increased with advances in the performance characteristics of sophisticated reinforced engineering resins. However, conventional methods for the evaluation of the glass and filler contents of reinforced plastics are destructive, labor intensive, and time consuming. We have developed a new instrument, to address this problem, which provides for the rapid, accurate, and nondestructive measurement of glass or filler content in reinforced plastics. This instrument utilizes radiation transmission and scattering techniques for analytical measurement of glass, graphite and other fillers used in reinforced plastics. (author)

  9. Superelastic SMA–FRP composite reinforcement for concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierschem, Nicholas; Andrawes, Bassem


    For many years there has been interest in using fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) as reinforcement in concrete structures. Unfortunately, due to their linear elastic behavior, FRP reinforcing bars are never considered for structural damping or dynamic applications. With the aim of improving the ductility and damping capability of concrete structures reinforced with FRP reinforcement, this paper studies the application of SMA–FRP, a relatively novel type of composite reinforced with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. The cyclic tensile behavior of SMA–FRP composites are studied experimentally and analytically. Tests of SMA–FRP composite coupons are conducted to determine their constitutive behavior. The experimental results are used to develop and calibrate a uniaxial SMA–FRP analytical model. Parametric and case studies are performed to determine the efficacy of the SMA–FRP reinforcement in concrete structures and the key factors governing its behavior. The results show significant potential for SMA–FRP reinforcement to improve the ductility and damping of concrete structures while still maintaining its elastic characteristic, typical of FRP reinforcement

  10. Structural Applications of Fibre Reinforced Concrete in the Czech Republic (United States)

    Kohoutková, A.; Broukalová, I.


    The paper presents improvement of function and performance of the precast structural members by using fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) instead of ordinary reinforced concrete and attempts to transfer innovative technologies from laboratory in academic sphere into real industrial production which is cost-effective and brings about savings of labour and material. Three examples of successful technology transfer are shown - application of FRC in an element without common rebar reinforcement, in the element with steel rebar reinforcement and SFRC pre-tensioned structural element. Benefits of FRC utilization are discussed.

  11. Bringing Sport Psychology into Physiotherapy


    Heaney, Caroline; Walker, Natalie; Green, Alison; Rostron, Claire


    Whilst the benefits of sport psychology intervention during injury rehabilitation are well documented it appears that it remains underutilised by physiotherapists (Alexanders, Anderson and Henderson, 2015, Physiotherapy, 101, 95-102). A lack of education in this field for physiotherapists has been suggested as a causative factor. Preliminary studies undertaken on North American populations have shown support for sport psychology education interventions but no studies have examined physiothera...

  12. Psychological examinations of radiological personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litver, B.Ya.; Ivanov, E.V.


    It is pointed out that a comprehensjve hygienic evaluation of the impact of ionizing radiations on man needs to take into account not only the biologic effects of these radiations, but also their psychologic and emotional effects, which may aggravate or lessen the disturbances caused by radiation. Several methods of psychologic examination of persons handling ionizing radiation sources are proposed, and the desirability of applying these methods in the dispensary system is indicated

  13. Psychological factors affecting equine performance


    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S


    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  14. Optimizing microstimulation using a reinforcement learning framework. (United States)

    Brockmeier, Austin J; Choi, John S; Distasio, Marcello M; Francis, Joseph T; Príncipe, José C


    The ability to provide sensory feedback is desired to enhance the functionality of neuroprosthetics. Somatosensory feedback provides closed-loop control to the motor system, which is lacking in feedforward neuroprosthetics. In the case of existing somatosensory function, a template of the natural response can be used as a template of desired response elicited by electrical microstimulation. In the case of no initial training data, microstimulation parameters that produce responses close to the template must be selected in an online manner. We propose using reinforcement learning as a framework to balance the exploration of the parameter space and the continued selection of promising parameters for further stimulation. This approach avoids an explicit model of the neural response from stimulation. We explore a preliminary architecture--treating the task as a k-armed bandit--using offline data recorded for natural touch and thalamic microstimulation, and we examine the methods efficiency in exploring the parameter space while concentrating on promising parameter forms. The best matching stimulation parameters, from k = 68 different forms, are selected by the reinforcement learning algorithm consistently after 334 realizations.

  15. Rockfall vulnerability assessment for reinforced concrete buildings (United States)

    Mavrouli, O.; Corominas, J.


    The vulnerability of buildings to the impact of rockfalls is a topic that has recently attracted increasing attention in the scientific literature. The quantification of the vulnerability, when based on empirical or heuristic approaches requires data recorded from historical rockfalls, which are not always available. This is the reason why appropriate alternatives are required. The use of analytical and numerical models can be one of them. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the analytical evaluation of the vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings. The vulnerability is included in the risk equation by incorporating the uncertainty of the impact location of the rock block and the subsequent damage level. The output is a weighted vulnerability that ranges from 0 to 1 and expresses the potential damage that a rock block causes to a building in function of its velocity and size. The vulnerability is calculated by the sum of the products of the probability of block impact on each element of the building and its associated damage state, the latter expressed in relative recovery cost terms. The probability of exceeding a specific damage state such as non-structural, local, partial, extensive or total collapse is also important for the quantification of risk and to this purpose, several sets of fragility curves for various rock diameters and increasing velocities have been prepared. An example is shown for the case of a simple reinforced concrete building and impact energies from 0 to 4075 kJ.

  16. Reinforced concrete treatment as composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, S.; Onate, E.; Miguel, J.


    This paper presents the general mixing theory applied to the numerical simulation of multiphase composite material behaviour as reinforced concrete materials. This theory is based on the mixture of that composite basic substances and allows to evaluate the inter-dependence behaviour between the different compounding constitutive models. If it would be necessary to consider the initial anisotropy of each compound it could be done by mean of the mapped isotropic plastic formulation. The approach is a generalization of the classic isotropic plasticity theory to be applied to either ortho tropic or anisotropic materials such as reinforced concrete. The existence of a stress and strain real anisotropic spaces, and the respective fictitious isotropic spaces are assumed, where a mapped fictitious problem is solved. Those spaces are relating by means of two fourth order transformation tensors. Both formulation are joined establishing a powerful work tool for the treatment of bulk-fiber composite materials. The induced anisotropy behaviour is take into account by each compounding constitutive formulation. (author). 24 refs., 3 figs

  17. Reinforcing of Cement Composites by Estabragh Fibres (United States)

    Merati, A. A.


    The influence of Estabragh fibres has been studied to improve the performance characteristics of the reinforced cement composites. The concrete shrinkage was evaluated by counting the number of cracks and measuring the width of cracks on the surface of concrete specimens. Although, the Estabragh fibres lose their strength in an alkali environment of cement composites, but, the ability of Estabragh fibres to bridge on the micro cracks in the concrete matrix causes to decrease the width of the cracks on the surface of the concrete samples in comparison with the plain concrete. However, considering the mechanical properties of specimens such as bending strength and impact resistance, the specimens with 0.25 % of Estabragh fibre performed better in all respects compared to the physical and mechanical properties of reinforced cement composite of concrete. Consequently, by adding 0.25 % of Estabragh fibres to the cement composite of concrete, a remarkable improvement in physical and mechanical properties of fibre-containing cement composite is achieved.

  18. Fiber-Reinforced Origamic Robotic Actuator. (United States)

    Yi, Juan; Chen, Xiaojiao; Song, Chaoyang; Wang, Zheng


    A novel pneumatic soft linear actuator Fiber-reinforced Origamic Robotic Actuator (FORA) is proposed with significant improvements on the popular McKibben-type actuators, offering nearly doubled motion range, substantially improved force profile, and significantly lower actuation pressure. The desirable feature set is made possible by a novel soft origamic chamber that expands radially while contracts axially when pressurized. Combining this new origamic chamber with a reinforcing fiber mesh, FORA generates very high traction force (over 150N) and very large contractile motion (over 50%) at very low input pressure (100 kPa). We developed quasi-static analytical models both to characterize the motion and forces and as guidelines for actuator design. Fabrication of FORA mostly involves consumer-grade three-dimensional (3D) printing. We provide a detailed list of materials and dimensions. Fabricated FORAs were tested on a dedicated platform against commercially available pneumatic artificial muscles from Shadow and Festo to showcase its superior performances and validate the analytical models with very good agreements. Finally, a robotic joint was developed driven by two antagonistic FORAs, to showcase the benefits of the performance improvements. With its simple structure, fully characterized mechanism, easy fabrication procedure, and highly desirable performance, FORA could be easily customized to application requirements and fabricated by anyone with access to a 3D printer. This will pave the way to the wider adaptation and application of soft robotic systems.

  19. Reinforcement and recovery of timber structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alves Dias


    Full Text Available Preservation of timber structures is a reason for constant concern because their deterioration often involves compromising the historical patrimony, besides endangering the safety of the structure, and consequently, of their users. Many are the examples of churches, residences or other constructions where this manifestation is a fact. The technique of reinforcing structurally endangered pieces with the addition of natural or synthetic fibers, is an alternative that has been researched. In the group of synthetic fibers, fiberglass, carbon and aramid ones are included. On the other hand, it has been frequent in the restoration of old buildings, especially in Europe, the employment of materials that were not available in the past, aiming to achieve structural, acoustic and aesthetic benefits. On an existing timber structure floor, a concrete slab has been carried out, with an appropriate connection system among the parts, constituting the composite timber-concrete structures. This alternative has been considered as extraordinarily viable, because it gathers a series of convenience related with the durability and it presents better mechanic performance than conventional timber structures. In this work, the state-of-the-art of the use of fibers as structural reinforcement and of the timber-concrete composite structures, is presented.

  20. Reinforcement of Aluminum Castings with Dissimilar Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q


    The project ''Reinforcement of Aluminum Casting with Dissimilar Metal'' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Cummins Inc. This project, technologies have been developed to reinforce aluminum castings with steel insert. Defect-free bond between the steel insert and the aluminum casting has been consistently obtained. The push-out experiment indicated that the bond strength is higher than that of the Al-Fin method. Two patents have been granted to the project team that is comprised of Cummins Inc. and ORNL. This report contains four sections: the coating of the steel pins, the cast-in method, microstructure characterization, and the bond strength. The section of the coating of the steel pins contains coating material selection, electro-plating technique for plating Cu and Ni on steel, and diffusion bonding of the coatings to the steel. The section of cast-in method deals with factors that affecting the quality of the metallurgical bond between the coated steel and the aluminum castings. The results of microstructure characteristics of the bonding are presented in the microstructure characterization section. A push-out experiment and the results obtained using this method is described in the section of bond strength/mechanical property.