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Sample records for reindeer rangifer tarandus

  1. Wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (L. in Chukotka

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    Felix B. Chernyavskii

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed historical records of the abundance and distribution of wild reindeer {Rangifer tarandus L. in Chukotka and studied reindeer numbers, distribution and behavior from 1983 to 1993. There were large numbers of wild reindeer in Chukotka until the end of the eighteenth century, but during the nineteenth century the population declined probably from intensive harvest after the introduction of firearms by the Cossacks. During the nineteenth century herding of domestic reindeer also increased, and reindeer herders continued to hunt wild reindeer intensively. During the 1950s there were only about 8500 wild reindeer in two separate herds in Chukotka. By the late 1970s the wild reindeer population had increased to about 11 000. Ten years later we estimated 16 534 reindeer, and found only one contiguous population. Presently, the population calves and spends the summer in the Anadyr Uplands and migrates west and southwest to spend the winter in forest tundra and northern taiga regions. Predators, primarily wolves and brown bears, kill a significant number of calves. Today, the wild reindeer in Chukotka coexist with 300 000 domestic reindeer. However, current costs of gasoline and helicopters make it prohibitive to herd reindeer in much of central Chukotka, so that wild reindeer have room for expansion. Poaching is a major conservation problem. Poachers shoot wild reindeer from helicopters to obtain velvet antlers. Leaders of domestic reindeer cooperatives encourage poaching by telling people that wild reindeer are in fact just stray domestic reindeer and there is no enforcement of game laws.

  2. Digital Necrobacillosis in Norwegian Wild Tundra Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handeland, K.; Boye, Mette; Bergsjø, B.

    2010-01-01

    Outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are described. The outbreaks occurred in late summer and autumn 2007 and 2008, subsequent to periods with an unusually high number of days with precipitation and high air temperature. Lesions were....... necrophorum was cultured from the foot lesions of six animals. Five of these isolates were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The sequences were identical and differed from all other strains listed in GenBank. These results are consistent with circulation of a reindeer-adapted pathogenic strain of F....... necrophorum in the wild reindeer population, causing outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis following warm and humid summers....

  3. Salivary glands in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

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    Svein D. Mathiesen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to compare the size of salivaty glands in Svalbard reindeer {Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus in relation to feeding strategy, season and reproductive status. The mean body mass (BM, standard deviation j in adult non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer was 72.0, s = 4.2, kg (n = 8 in September and 46.7, s = 7.1, kg (« = 4 in April. The mean BM of adult non-lactating Norwegian reindeer was 67.5, s = 7.7, kg (» = 8 in September and 59.2, s = 9.6, kg (n = 9 in March. In non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer the mean combined mass of parotid glands was 82.7, s = 4.5, g in September and 58.8, s = 8.7, g in April (P < 0.05. In the Norwegian reindeer the mean combined mass of the parotid glands was 95.2, s = 14.4, g in Septembet and 68.1, s = 9.5, g in Match (P < 0.05. We wete not able to find any sub-species differences in the size of the salivaty glands which could be related to phenotypic difference in feeding strategy. Both sub-species had parotid glands sizes similar to that of intermediate ruminant types, ranging from 0.11-0.14% of BM. The larger absolute size of salivaty glands in summer compared to winter reflects the importance of high rates of production of saliva when the dry matter intake and microbial fermentation is high.

  4. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

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    Magdalena eLarska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linneus 1758 includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies and North America (caribou subspecies. Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990’s. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2 closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the

  5. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linnaeus, 1758) includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies) and North America (caribou subspecies). Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however, the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however, a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990's. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2) closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the susceptibility of reindeer

  6. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linnaeus, 1758) includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies) and North America (caribou subspecies). Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however, the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however, a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990’s. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2) closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the susceptibility of

  7. Genetic variation in caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

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    Cronin, M A; Patton, J C; Balmysheva, N; MacNeil, M D

    2003-02-01

    Genetic variation at seven microsatellite DNA loci was quantified in 19 herds of wild caribou and domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) from North America, Scandinavia and Russia. There is an average of 2.0-6.6 alleles per locus and observed individual heterozygosity of 0.33-0.50 in most herds. A herd on Svalbard Island, Scandinavia, is an exception, with relatively few alleles and low heterozygosity. The Central Arctic, Western Arctic and Porcupine River caribou herds in Alaska have similar allele frequencies and comprise one breeding population. Domestic reindeer in Alaska originated from transplants from Siberia, Russia, more than 100 years ago. Reindeer in Alaska and Siberia have different allele frequencies at several loci, but a relatively low level of genetic differentiation. Wild caribou and domestic reindeer in Alaska have significantly different allele frequencies at the seven loci, indicating that gene flow between reindeer and caribou in Alaska has been limited.

  8. Clinical outbreak of babesiosis caused by Babesia capreoli in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Sprong, Hein; Broens, Els M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314627723; Kik, Marja J L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/080432565

    2017-01-01

    From a herd of captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) consisting of two males and seven females with five calves, three calves were diagnosed on post mortem examination with a Babesia capreoli infection. The diagnosis was indicated by PCR and when the other reindeer were examined two adult

  9. Clinical outbreak of babesiosis caused by Babesia capreoli in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Sprong, Hein; Broens, Els M; Kik, Marja J L

    From a herd of captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) consisting of two males and seven females with five calves, three calves were diagnosed on post mortem examination with a Babesia capreoli infection. The diagnosis was indicated by PCR and when the other reindeer were examined two adult

  10. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus.

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    Gordon B Mitchell

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, remains prevalent in North American elk, white-tailed deer and mule deer. A natural case of CWD in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus has not been reported despite potential habitat overlap with CWD-infected deer or elk herds. This study investigates the experimental transmission of CWD from elk or white-tailed deer to reindeer by the oral route of inoculation. Ante-mortem testing of the three reindeer exposed to CWD from white-tailed deer identified the accumulation of pathological PrP (PrP(CWD in the recto-anal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT of two reindeer at 13.4 months post-inoculation. Terminal CWD occurred in the two RAMALT-positive reindeer at 18.5 and 20 months post-inoculation while one other reindeer in the white-tailed deer CWD inoculum group and none of the 3 reindeer exposed to elk CWD developed disease. Tissue distribution analysis of PrP(CWD in CWD-affected reindeer revealed widespread deposition in central and peripheral nervous systems, lymphoreticular tissues, the gastrointestinal tract, neuroendocrine tissues and cardiac muscle. Analysis of prion protein gene (PRNP sequences in the 6 reindeer identified polymorphisms at residues 2 (V/M, 129 (G/S, 138 (S/N and 169 (V/M. These findings demonstrate that (i a sub-population of reindeer are susceptible to CWD by oral inoculation implicating the potential for transmission to other Rangifer species, and (ii certain reindeer PRNP polymorphisms may be protective against CWD infection.

  11. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

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    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  12. Reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus response towards human activities

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    Eigil Reimers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the question of how human activities and infrastructure influence reindeer/caribou’s (Rangifer tarandus behaviour and habitat use and review studies based on current methodologies. Anthropogenic activities have a direct affect on Rangifer behaviour through the senses hearing, sight and smell, and all of these are important tools for behavioural risk assessment. Short term indirect responses, such as habituation, sensitisation, avoidance, and displacement, develop through neutral, positive or negative associations towards stimulus in terms of Rangifer’s ability to experience, learn, and remember. Long term behavioural responses develop through interaction with predators and, for reindeer, also domestication. A survey of the literature dealing with behavioural studies reveals that although Rangifer in most cases retreat from anthropogenic activities, comfort distances (i.e. distances beyond which animal behaviour or activity are not influenced are relatively short. In most cases, energetic implications appear moderate and small compared to other natural, biotic influences such as disturbance (and death caused by insect and/or predator harassment. Unless obstructing access, physical constructions of various kinds apparently have limited effects on Rangifer behaviour or habitat use. On the other hand, constructions that do obstruct or limit access and recreational or other motorized and non-motorized activities appear to have stronger impacts on avoidance and redistribution of Rangifer. Behavioural effects that might decrease survival and reproduction include retreat from favourable habitat near disturbance sources and reduction of time spent feeding with resulting energy depletion over time. Rangifer habitat use, habitat avoidance, and feeding preferences are governed by a complexity of natural interacting factors. Domestication, habituation and sensitisation are essential in shaping Rangifer’s adaptability, and should be included

  13. Biochemical and hematologic reference values for free-ranging, chemically immobilized wild norwegian reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) during early winter.

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    Miller, Andrea L; Evans, Alina L; Os, Øystein; Arnemo, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemistry values were evaluated in free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) as part of a reintroduction program in southwestern Norway in November 1995 and 1996. Animals were immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine by dart from a helicopter. Blood was drawn for serum chemistry from 31 adults (nine males and 22 females) and for hematology from 29 adults (eight males and 21 females). Significant differences (Ppaper provides the first report of baseline hematologic and serum biochemistry reference ranges for free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer during early winter.

  14. Clinical outbreak of babesiosis caused by Babesia capreoli in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Sprong, Hein; Broens, Els M; Kik, Marja J L

    2017-08-01

    From a herd of captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) consisting of two males and seven females with five calves, three calves were diagnosed on post mortem examination with a Babesia capreoli infection. The diagnosis was indicated by PCR and when the other reindeer were examined two adult females and a one-year-old male were Babesia-positive. Molecular characterization of the 18S rDNA of the parasite showed complete identity with known B. capreoli sequences. Ixodes ricinus has been demonstrated to be a competent vector for B. capreoli from infected roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), the natural host of B. capreoli. The B. capreoli infection in these reindeer may have been transmitted by infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus) originating from roe deer living in the forest and meadows surrounding the enclosure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Fibre composition and enzyme activities in six muscles of the Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

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    K-H. Kiessling

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available Six skeletal muscles have been studied as regards fibre properties and enzyme activities. The muscles are cranial part of M. gluteobiceps, M. semitendinosus, M. semimembranosus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. brachiocephalicus and M. sternocephalicus. Two histochemical methods were used for fibre identification, one based on myosin ATPase activities after preincubation at pH 4.3 and 4.6 and the other on oxidative capacity measured as NADH dehydrogenase activity. The two methods gave slightly differing results but allowed the general conclusion that of the three fibre types (I, II A and II B the type II B fibres, which are fast-twitch, glycolytic, make up some 40 - 60 % (mean 50 % of the muscles. Type I fibres, which are slow-twitch, oxidative, account for 30% of the total muscle volume in the two neck muscles but for only 20% or less in the rest. The third type, II A, which is fast-twitch, oxidative, glycolytic, accounts for only 20% of the volume in the neck muscles but as much as 40% in M. longissimus dorsi. Oxidative capacity is high throughout. This is valid also to the capacity to oxidize fatty acids, though reaching only half the activity previously found in the Svalbard reindeer (Kiessling and Kiessling, 1983. Lactate dehydrogenase activity is comparatively low in all muscles. The high respiratory chain activity and fatty acid oxidation and the low lactate dehydrogenase activities do not fit at all well with the high content of type II B fibres in the muscles. This high II B content is also unexpected when considering the activity pattern of the reindeer. An altogether different role for the type II B fibres, besides the traditional one, is therefore discussed.Fibersammansåttning och enzymaktiviteter i sex muskler från svensk tamren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Sex skelettmuskler har undersokts med avseende på fiberegenskaper och enzymaktiviteter. De sex musklerna år kranial del av M. gluteobiceps. M

  16. Forage chemistry and the digestive system in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in northern Norway and on South Georgia

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    Svein D. Mathiesen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chemical and botanical analyses of the reticulo-rumen content (RR and the fill of the digestive system were carried out in free-living Norwegian reindeer {Rangifer t. tarandus on South Georgia (SG in summer (mean body mass (BM = 74 kg, n - 10, and in northern Norway in late summer (NS (mean BM = 77 kg, n = 6 and winter (NW (mean BM = 60 kg, n = 11. The RR of SG reindeer contained mainly grasses, while grasses dominated in NS reindeer and woody plants and lichens in NW reindeer. Mean ruminal plant cell-wall contents (CWC comprised 37% of organic dry matter (OM in SG reindeer and 50 and 69% in NS and NW reindeer, respectively. The high CWC in NW reindeer was due to high intake of lichens containing as much as 45% hemi-cellulose. Mean ruminal content of lignin was as low as 5% of OM in SG reindeer, which was different (P < 0.05 from NS (14% and NW reindeer (15%, respectively. The mean total gastro-inresrinal tract (GIT (fill and tissue weight was 27% of BM in SG reindeer, different (P < 0.05 from NS (18% of BM and NW reindeer (22% of BM, respectively. Wet weight RR content was 14.5% of BM in SG reindeer, not different from NS (12.2% of BM and NW reindeer (14.2% of BM. The ratio between the wet weight content of the distal fermentation chamber (DFC and the RR wet weight content was 1:10 in SG reindeer, different (P < 0.05 from NS (1:14 and NW reindeer (1:14. We did not find any significant differences between the intestinal lengths of the groups investigated. It was concluded that the degree of fill of the different parts of GIT in reindeet seems to be related to the lignin content of plants eaten and not only of seasonal changes in appetite and availability of plants. Our data stress the fact that reindeer are highly adaptable to a wide range of different dietary plants, even in the southern hemisphere.

  17. Growth and relationship of live weight to body measurements in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

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    Mauri Nieminen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of live weight from measurements of body dimensions is useful in many management activities with domestic animals. In present study live weight was measured from 2932 female and 1037 male semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. during different seasons in 1969-85. The age of reindeer varied between 1 day and 14 yrs. Back length (along back from second spinous process to base of tail and chest girth (just behind front legs were taken also from 1490 female and 510 male reindeer. The growth of reindeer from birth to adulthood was cumulative consisting of a rapid weight accretion during summers followed by a weight loss or stasis during winters. The mathematical analyses of the growth based on exponential solutions gave average values for growth of female and male reindeer. Body weight of females increased until the age of 4.5 yrs and that of males until the age of 5.5 yrs. During winter and spring body weight of hinds decreased 10 to 15 kg and that of stags 30 to 50 kg in different age groups. Significant linear regressions were found between live weight and back length (r = 0.809 and 0.892, live weight and chest girth (r = 0.860 and 0.872 and live weight and combined body measure (back length + chest girth (r = 0.877 and 0.941 and live weight and body volume (r = 0.905 and 0.954, respectively in female and male reindeer. Exponential regressions gave, however, the best estimations of live weight with combined body measure.

  18. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus feeding on lichens and mushrooms: traditional ecological knowledge among reindeer-herding Sami in northern Sweden

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    Berit Inga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed in four reindeer-herding districts (Sami villages in northern Sweden. Reindeer herding Sami, born in 1950 or earlier, were interviewed about reindeer foraging behaviour on lichens and mushrooms, especially relating to non-summer grazing habits, and about characteristics of a good winter feeding ground. The informants claimed that lichens are preferably grazed in the wintertime, but that they also may be eaten in the summertime when the weather is cold and humid. Mushrooms were chosen in the autumn months August and September, but according to some informants mushrooms may also be eaten during late autumn (from Oct. when frozen and under the snow. The reindeer herders had different names for lichens, which in general terms describe their appearance and habitat. For mushrooms they only used one Sami name. Ground lichens preferred by reindeer are Cladonia species, while the nitrogen-fixing lichen species such as Nephroma arcticum and Stereocaulon pascale were said not to be preferred by the reindeer. Snow conditions are very important, and the less snow (and the softer it is, the better. Habitats where reindeer herders know from experience that snow conditions tend to be problematic, e.g. in moist and open areas with small trees, are used early in the winter (Oct.–Jan., before too much snow has accumulated. A good winter grazing area should have lichens. It is preferably a dry pine (Pinus sylvestris forest heath with large, old and wide-crowned trees to shelter the ground from snow and thereby ease the cratering by reindeer. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Renens (Rangifer tarandus tarandus bete av lavar och svampar: Traditionell ekologisk kunskap bland renskötande samer i norra Sverige Studien genomfördes i fyra renskötseldistrikt (samebyar i norra Sverige. Totalt 22 renskötande samer, födda 1950 eller tidigare, blev intervjuade om renens betande av lavar och svampar, renens vinterbete och om vad som karakt

  19. Linguatula serrata in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

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    Claes Rehbinder

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available A high prevalence (24,2% of the tongue-worm Lingutula serrata was found in reindeer yearlings. Apparently the high incidence found in this material indicates that the parasite is well adapted to reindeer; the reaction of the nasal mucosa is very mild. The abscence of clinical manifestations and the hidden localization in sinuses which are rarely inspected at slaughter or autopsy is most probably the reason why L. serrata is seldom observed.Tungmask (Linguatula serrata hos svensk skogsren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: En hög frekvens(24,2% av tungmask (Linguatula serrata påvisades hos årskalv av skogsren. Den ringa våvnadsreaktion som forelag antyder att L serrata troligen ar val anpassad till ren. Att endast ett fåtal rapporter om forekomst av L serrata hos ren foreligger torde bero på att parasiten inte ger några kliniska symptom samt dess i huvudsak gomda lokalisation i overkåkshåligheterna vilka sållan inspekteras vid slakt eller obduktion. L serrata år dårfor sannolikt vanligare hos svenska renar ån man tidigare antagit.

  20. Evidence of parapox-, alphaherpes- and pestivirus infections in carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus from Finnmark, Norway

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    Morten Tryland

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available During March to May 2000, 48 carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus were collected on winter pastures and calving grounds from two herds in western Finnmark and two herds in eastern Finnmark, northern Norway. The animals were autopsied and blood and tissue samples were collected for serology (alphaherpes- and pestivirus; virus neutralization test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; parapoxvirus; B2L gene investigations. Autopsy revealed that 39 of 48 animals (81% had died of emaciation. Parapoxvirus-specific DNA was detected in samples from 6 of 48 animals (12.5%; liver, parotid salivary gland and/or pulmonary lymph nodes. A DNA sequence of 376 base pairs from a PCR amplicon obtained from a liver sample from one animal showed 98-99% identity with orf virus strain Orf-11 and reindeer parapoxvirus isolates from Norway and Finland (1992 and 1994, 92-93% similarity with pseudocowpoxvirus and 87% similarity with bovine papular stomatitis virus. Alphaherpes- and pestivirus antibodies were detected in 10% and 33% of the animals, respectively. These results indicates that parapoxvirus, presumably orf-virus, is present among reindeer also in Finnmark, although contagious ecthyma has never been reported in reindeer in this important reindeer herding area. Furthermore, they show that herpes- and pestiviruses are still endemic in reindeer herds in Finnmark. The nature of these viruses and their impact on reindeer health and reproduction and reindeer herding economy should be further addressed, as well as the possibility that these viruses may be transferred between reindeer and domestic animals in this region.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: I løpet av perioden mars-mai 2000 ble 48 reinsdyrkadavre (Rangifer tarandus tarandus samlet inn fra vinterbeiter og kalvingsområder fra to flokker i Vest-Finnmark og to i Øst-Finnmark, Norge. Dyrene ble obdusert, og blod og vevsprøver ble samlet for påvisning av antistoffer mot

  1. Rutting behavior and androgen variation in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.).

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    Mossing, T; Damber, J E

    1981-03-01

    The rutting behavior of captive reindeer was studied during three rutting seasons. Blood samples from three males were taken for androgen analysis before, during, and afterthe rut. The amount of androgen increased at the end of August to a peak during late September-early October and decreased thereafter. Flehmen, urinating on the hindlegs, and two different low-stretch displays emerged during the prerut period. The preorbital gland enlarged and secretion occurred at the rim of the pocket. A conspicuous breath odor appeared very abruptly during the most intense period of rutting. A few days later a strong odor also appeared in the urine. The urination behavior and the two odors were confined to a brief period during the rut, while other behavior persisted afterwards.

  2. Calf mortality of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in the Finnish reindeer-herding area

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    Mauri Nieminen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} During 1999-2008 calf mortality was studied in six reindeer-herding cooperatives in Northern Finland, where 3942 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were equipped with radio mortality collars. The calves were weighed and earmarked mostly at 2-5 days of age, or at 2-8 weeks of age. Altogether 460 dead radio-collared calves were found from calving in May until winter round-ups in October-January. In northern mountain herding cooperatives, the average mortality of calves varied between 7-12%. On average, 39-54% of calves found dead were attributed to predation. Golden eagles killed 0-3.5% of calves in different years and areas in Ivalo and Käsivarsi cooperatives. Golden eagles were responsible for 33-43% of the cases and 84-93% of all identified predation. Most calves killed by golden eagles were found in July-August and in open areas. Calves killed by golden eagles were significantly (P<0.01 lighter than those not predated. No predation occurred in the Poikajärvi cooperative, but the annual mortality of calves varied between 0-35% in cooperatives near the Russian border. In Oivanki cooperative brown bears killed on average 2% of the radio-collared calves. Most predation (87% occurred at the end of May and in early June. In the Kallioluoma cooperative, predator-killed calves found

  3. Occurrence of Babesia species in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Germany.

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    Wiegmann, Lisa; Silaghi, Cornelia; Obiegala, Anna; Karnath, Carolin; Langer, Sandra; Ternes, Kerstin; Kämmerling, Jens; Osmann, Christine; Pfeffer, Martin

    2015-06-30

    Two cases of acute babesiosis in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in two German zoos in 2009 and 2012 triggered this study to investigate the occurrence and species diversity of Babesia parasites infecting reindeer in different zoos and deer parks in Germany. Between June and December 2013, blood samples were taken from 123 clinically inapparent reindeer from 16 different facilities. Samples were tested for the presence of Babesia species DNA by conventional PCR and sequence analysis of part of the 18S rRNA gene. Also, Giemsa-stained smears of reindeer blood samples were examined for parasitaemia by light microscopy. The overall PCR-prevalence in blood samples was 23.6% (n=29). Comparison of sequenced amplicons with GenBank entries possibly revealed up to five different Babesia species: B. venatorum (n=19), B. capreoli (n=2) and B. capreoli-like (n=4), B. odocoilei-like (n=2) and B. divergens (n=1), while one sample turned out to be a Theileria sp. Out of the 16 facilities in the study, 12 housed at least one positive animal. In Giemsa-stained blood smears, intra-erythrocytic Babesia parasites were detected in samples of three reindeer from three locations. The high prevalence of Babesia infections implicates babesiosis to be a relevant infectious disease threat for captive reindeer in Germany. Consequently, reindeer with clinical signs compatible to those of acute babesiosis should either be tested for the presence of Babesia spp. DNA or blood smears should be examined for parasitaemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Allosuckling in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus): milk-theft, mismothering or kin selection?

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    Engelhardt, Sacha C; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; de Rioja, Covadonga M; Ehmann, Rosina K; Nieminen, Mauri

    2014-09-01

    Allosuckling, the suckling of offspring from females other than their own mother, has been reported in a number of mammalian species, including reindeer. The causes and function of this behaviour are still being investigated. We monitored 25 doe-calf pairs of semi-domestic reindeer Rangifer tarandus over 10 weeks to test three allosuckling/allonursing hypotheses: (1) milk theft, calves opportunistically allosuckle; (2) mismothering, misdirected maternal care; and (3) kin-selected allonursing. A calf soliciting an allosuckling bout was categorized as non-filial (NF), and a calf soliciting a suckling bout from its mother was categorized as filial (F). We recorded 9757 solicitations, of which 5176 were successful F bouts and 1389 were successful NF bouts. The rejection rates were greater for NF than F calves. The proportions of antiparallel positions adopted were greater for F than NF calves. The odds of an allobout were lower for calves arriving 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th or 6th than for those arriving 2nd, but the odds did not vary with position adopted and relatedness. Our results provided support to the milk-theft hypothesis, whereas limited support for the mismothering hypothesis was found. Our results did not support the hypothesized kin selection function of allosuckling in reindeer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Snow conditions and usability value of pastureland for semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in northern boreal forest area

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    Jouko Kumpula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied variation in snow conditions and selection of pasture area according to altitude by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus during 1999 - 2002 in a pine forest area utilised by forest industry in the Ivalo reindeer herding district, northern Finland. Snow conditions were measured over the course of three winters along equilateral triangles (side 3.5 km for three times per winter. The altitudinal selection of pasture area by reindeer was studied using GPS tracking data (10 977 locations from 29 female reindeer. We observed that interannual weather variation mostly affected the depth, density and hardness of snow in the study area. At the forest landscape level, snow depth and density increased with altitude. Thinnest and deepest snow cover occurred on western and northern slopes, respectively. In contrast, forest harvesting did not seem to affect snow conditions. From spring to autumn, reindeer mainly used higher altitudes in pastures. In early and mid-winter, when snow conditions were easy or moderate reindeer still preferred higher altitudes, but in late winter when snow conditions and food accession were at their most difficult, they preferred lower altitudes. We conclude that especially the use of high elevation forestland pastures may become more difficult for reindeer if the global climatic change causes higher winter precipitation to the northern boreal forest area. In general, the low-elevation forestland areas have primary winter grazing value for reindeer but these areas are also intensively used by forest industry.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä:Lumiolosuhteet ja laidunten käyttöarvo poronhoidossa pohjoisella havumetsäaluella Lumiolosuhteiden vaihtelua ja porojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus laidunalueen valintaa maaston korkeuden perusteella tutkittiin vuosina 1999–2002 metsätalouden hyödyntämällä mäntymetsäalueella Ivalon paliskunnassa, Pohjois-Suomessa. Lumiolosuhteet mitattiin kolme kertaa

  6. Effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on serum glucose and cortisol levels in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

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    Jon M. Arnemo

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Serum concentrations of glucose and Cortisol were measured in five adult captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus at 24 h and 10 min before, and at 0.5, 1,2,4, 8, 12 and 24 h after, treatment with 60 p.g/kg of medetomidine i.v. followed by 300 jig/kg of atipamezole i.v. 60 min later. The experiments were performed in January and repeated in July-August. The animals were used as their own controls and treated with saline in July-August. The wash-out period between experiments in summer was 2 weeks or more. No obvious seasonal differences were observed. Mederomidine induced a 2.5-fold increase in glucose (mean ± standard error of the mean being 15.4 ± 0.6 mmol/1 at 1 h and a 3.5-fold increase Cortisol (349 ± 28 nmol/1 at 0.5 h. Serum glucose reached control levels within 12 h, and Cortisol declined to baseline levels within 4 h after injection og medetomidine. The use of blood concentrations of glucose and Cortisol to assess nutritonal status, body condition and stress may be significantly biased in animals chemically immobilized with medetomidine or other alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists.

  7. Pathology, clinical signs, and tissue distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

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    Émilie Bouchard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii via stomach intubation to assess clinical signs of infection, pathology, and tissue distribution. An unexposed reindeer served as a negative control. Signs of stress, aggression, and depression were noted for the first two weeks following infection. By 4 weeks post infection, all infected reindeer were positive on a modified agglutination test at the highest titer tested (1:200 for antibodies to T. gondii. At 20 weeks post infection, no gross abnormalities were observed on necropsy. Following histopathology and immunohistochemistry, tissue cysts were visualized in the reindeer given the highest and lowest dose of oocysts. Focal pleuritis and alveolitis were associated with respiratory problems in reindeer given the middle dose. DNA of T. gondii was detected following traditional DNA extraction and conventional PCR on 25 mg samples from 17/33 muscles and organs, and by magnetic capture DNA extraction from 100 g samples from all 26 tissues examined. This research demonstrated that reindeer/caribou can serve as intermediate hosts for T. gondii, and that the parasite may be associated with health effects in wildlife. The presence of T. gondii in all tissues tested, many of which are commonly consumed raw, smoked, or dried in northern communities, suggests that caribou may serve as a source of human exposure to T

  8. Ultrastructure of the cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from skeletal muscle of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

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    Bjørn Gjerde

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Mature muscle cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from Rangifer tarandus were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The long and slender cysts were located within skeletal muscle cells, and were bounded by a unit membrane, the cyst membrane. The cysts were provided with closely spaced flexible, hairlike surface processes, measuring up to 12.6 |im in length and 0.3 to 0.6 \\lm in diameter. The projections had a smooth surface, whereas the cyst membrane formed numerous hexagonally packed vesicular invaginations between the bases of the projections. The cyst membrane was reinforced by an underlying thin layer of electron-dense material, except at the points where it was invaginated. Cyst ground substance formed a thin layer at the periphery of the cysts, filled the core of the projections, and formed thin septa that divided the interior of the cysts into numerous compartments. Most compartments contained a large number of tightly packed cystozoites, whereas a few metrocytes were forund in each of a few compartments at the periphery of the cysts. Some of the cystozoites multiplied by endodyogeny. The metrocytes displayed a vacuolation of their cytoplasm. The cysts of S. rangi were similar in surface morphology to the sarcocysts of certain other Sarcocystis species reported from other intermediate hosts.Ultrastrukturen til cyster av Sarcocystis rangi frå skjelettmuskulaturen hos rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Samandrag: Muskelcyster av S. rangi frå rein vart undersøkt ved transmisjonselektronmikroskopi. Dei lange cystene låg intracellulært i skjelettmuskelceller, og var avgrensa av ein elementærmembran, cystemembranen. Cystene var utstyrt med talrike hårliknande overflateprosessar, som strekte seg langsetter cysteoverflata. Prcsessane var opptil 12.6 Hm lange, og målte 0.3 til 0.6 \\lm i diameter. Prosessane hadde ei glatt overflate, medan cystemembranen danna talrike regelmessige ordna, små invaginasjonar innimellom basis av prosessane

  9. Pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus infections in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.).

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    Kautto, Arja H; Alenius, Stefan; Mossing, Torgny; Becher, Paul; Belák, Sándor; Larska, Magdalena

    2012-04-23

    Herding semi-domesticated reindeer has economic and social value for Sami people in the northern territories of Fennoscandia. However, with the intensification of reindeer husbandry, interspecies transmission of pathogens between reindeer and domestic animals may become a problem, especially for countries such as Sweden, Norway, and Finland where pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus have been eradicated in domestic ruminants. This study, which included 1158 Swedish reindeer, showed relatively high prevalence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) (32%) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) (53%). Adult animals were more often seropositive for BVDV and BoHV-1 (50% and 78%, respectively) than were calves (18 and 11%, respectively). While the seroprevalence of alphaherpesvirus was similar in different herding districts, pestivirus seropositivity was highest in the South and diminished towards the North of the Swedish reindeer herding area. High correlation of the seropositivity against both pathogens at both individual and herd levels may indicate possible mutual synergetic effects and may be explained by the immunosuppressive nature of the viruses. While alphaherpesvirus seroprevalence was probably related to putative cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2), the pestivirus infecting reindeer remains undefined. The virus neutralisation test of reindeer sera using different pestivirus strains, revealed higher titres against Border disease virus strains like 137/4 (BDV-1) and Reindeer-1 (BDV-2) than against BVDV-1. However, the virus was not identified by real time RT-PCR in any of the samples (n=276) from seronegative reindeers. The study showed that pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus infections are endemic in the Swedish reindeer population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Is transport distance correlated with animal welfare and carcass quality of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)?

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    Laaksonen, Sauli; Jokelainen, Pikka; Pusenius, Jyrki; Oksanen, Antti

    2017-03-15

    Slaughter reindeer are exposed to stress caused by gathering, handling, loading and unloading, and by conditions in vehicles during transport. These stress factors can lead to compromised welfare and trauma such as bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, and abnormal odour in carcasses, and causing condemnations in meat inspection and lower meat quality. We investigated the statistical association of slaughter transport distance with these indices using meat inspection data from years 2004-2016, including inspection of 669,738 reindeer originating from Finnish reindeer herding areas. Increased stress and decreased welfare of reindeer, as indicated by higher incidence of carcass condemnation due to bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, or abnormal odour, were positively associated with systems involving shorter transport distances to abattoirs. Significant differences in incidence of condemnations were also detected between abattoirs and reindeer herding cooperatives. This study indicates that in particular the short-distance transports of reindeer merit more attention. While the results suggest that factors associated with long distance transport, such as driver education, truck design, veterinary supervision, and specialist equipment, may be favourable to reducing pre-slaughter stress in reindeer when compared with short distance transport systems, which occur in a variety of vehicle types and may be done by untrained handlers. Further work is required to elucidate the causal factors to the current results.

  11. Remote blood collection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L: a preliminary study

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    E. Wiklund

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE was used successfully to collect blood samples from two reindeer. During blood sampling, two methods of restraint were applied which caused no short term changes in plasma concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or total protein. Plasma Cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated by the two restraint techniques. The value of ABSE in studies of stress in reindeer is discussed.

  12. Case report: Malnutrition and undernutrition as cause of mortality in farmed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

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    Erik O. Ågren

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhoea evolved during the third year of farming in a group of six reindeer farmed in central Sweden. The first death occurred in July, and despite offering supplemental feed, the deaths continued. Within 9 months five animals (83% were dead. The necropsy findings indicated emaciation in all cases. The initially adequate clover vegetation in the paddock had been depleted over the years, leading to malnutrition and undernutrition of reindeer in the summer season.

  13. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus response to feces and urine from sheep (Ovis aries and reindeer

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    Stein R. Moe

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In many Norwegian alpine and tundra areas sheep and reindeer graze sympatrically. Areas covered with dung or urine may have consequences for reindeer pasture utilization. Experiments were conducted on 5 stall fed male reindeer calves where animals were individually presenred with two troughs (experimental and control containing 200 g of concentrate. Fresh and dry sheep and reindeer pellets (50 g wet weight were mixed with the concentrate in the experimental trough and the aversive response was tested against the control. Both fresh sheep (P < 0.0001 and reindeer (P < 0.0001 pellets were associated with aversive response by reindeer. A similar response was found for dry sheep (P = 0.006 and dry reindeer (P = 0.0009 pellets. Similar trials were conducted using sheep and reindeer urine (20 g sprayed evenly on the food and the aversive response by reindeer was tested against the control (sprayed with 20 g of water. Both sheep and reindeer urine stimulated an aversive response by reindeer {P = 0.03 for both tests. The differences in the aversive response of reindeer ro fresh sheep and reindeer pellets, dry sheep and reindeer pellets and sheep and reindeer urine were also tested. No differences by reindeer were found between sheep and reindeer pellets, either for fresh (P = 0.28 or dry (P = 0.07, or between food treated with sheep and reindeer urine (P = 0.28. Possible habituation to sheep and reindeer pellets was tested using 8 consecutive trials with dry pellets, followed by 2 additional trials when dry pellets were soaked in water. This was done to simulate natural dry periods followed by rain showers. Habituation effects were found in trials with dry sheep and reindeer pellets. Subsequent trials with fecal pellets soaked in water significantly reduced food intake when compared with the last habituation trial with dry pellets (P < 0.05.

  14. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus: Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

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    Mørk Torill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting, analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18% and effusions to body cavities (18%. Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi, throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack

  15. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L

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    Timo Rahko

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The histological structure and secretory function of the common bile duct (ductus hepaticus communis has not been previously described in reindeer. Macroscopical studies were thus performed in 25 reindeer to reveal the morphology and topography of the ductus hepaticus communis and adjoining organs. Histologic structure of the common bile duct was investigated in 20 animals. Our studies showed that the ductus hepaticus communis and pancreaticus join about 2 cm before the duodenal opening to form the common duct. The common bile duct is an elastic tube about 3 to 5 cm long and 2 to 3 mm thick partly surrounded by fat and pancreatic tissues. The wall of the duct, being about 1 mm thick by light microscopy, consisted of folded mucosa surrounded by connective tissue fibres and a serosal layer. Distally, also muscular bands were seen. In some areas separate leucocytes and even lymphatic nodules were present. Surprisingly pancreatic acini occurred in certain areas of the wall, even in close contact to subepithelial tissues. Mucosal epithelium consisted of surface and glandular epithelial cells with mucous secretion. Numerous intraepithelial globule leucocytes were identifiable within the lamina epithelialis.Tutkimus yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteesta porolla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Yhteisen sappikäytävän (ductus hepaticus communis histologista rakennetta ja eritystoimintaa ei ole aikaisemmin kuvattu porolla. Makroskooppisia tutkimuksia suoritettiin 25 porolla yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteen ja topografian selvittämiseksi. Seinämän histologinen rakenne selvitettiin 20 porolla. Tutkimukset osoittivat, että porolla ductus hepaticus communis ja ductus pancreaticus yhtyvät noin 2 cm ennen ohutsuolta muodostaakseen yhteisen tiehyeen. Ductus hepaticus communis on noin 3-5 cm pitkä ja 2-3 mm:n läpimittainen käytävä. Se on elastinen ja osit-tain rasva- ja haimakudoksen ympäröimä. Seinämä on mikroskooppisesti noin 1 mm paksu

  16. Concentrations and geographical variations of selected toxic elements in meat from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in mid- and northern Norway: evaluation of risk assessment.

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    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-05-01

    Meat samples (n = 100) from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) were randomly collected from 10 grazing districts distributed over four Norwegian counties in 2008 and 2009. The main aim was to study concentrations and geographical variations in selected toxic elements; cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) in order to assess the risk associated with reindeer meat consumption. Sample solutions were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometer (ICP-HRMS), whereas analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Geographical variations in element concentrations were revealed, with As and Cd demonstrating the largest geographical differences. No clear geographical gradient was observed except for the east-west downward gradient for As. The As concentrations were highest in the vicinity of the Russian border, and only Cd was shown to increase with age (p < 0.05). Sex had no significant effect on the concentration of the studied elements. The concentrations of all the studied elements in reindeer meat were generally low and considerably below the maximum levels (ML) available for toxic elements set by the European Commission (EC). Thus, reindeer meat is not likely to be a significant contributor to the human body burden of toxic elements.

  17. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

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    Salgado-Flores, Alejandro; Hagen, Live H; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Wright, André-Denis G; Pope, Phillip B; Sundset, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4), or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3). Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa) were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads), with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences). Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001) and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027), were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively). UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-Flichen-fed reindeer.

  18. Level of selected nutrients in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.

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    Ammar Ali Hassan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To acquire new knowledge on the nutritional composition of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L. and their nutritional value for humans. The results could be useful in updating the Norwegian Food Composition Database, whose current data on reindeer is limited. Study design: Cross-sectional study on population of semi-domesticated reindeer from 2 northern Norwegian counties (Finnmark and Nordland. Methods: Semi-domesticated reindeer carcasses (n=31 were randomly selected, from which meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow samples were collected. Selected vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and total lipids were studied. Results: As expected, reindeer meat was found to be lean (2% total lipid, thus it is a good source of low-fat meat. The meat was also found to be a good source of vitamin B12, docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 in most of the nutrient levels between meat and the rest of the studied reindeer tissues were observed. In most cases, the liver, tallow and bone marrow had higher nutritional values when compared to meat. Liver had the highest concentrations of vitamin A, all vitamin B types, vitamin C, iron, selenium and the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3. Additionally, liver was the only edible tissue that contained vita-mins B9 and C. The vast majority of the vitamin concentrations in liver, tallow and bone marrow were significantly correlated with the concentrations in meat (p<0.05. Conclusions: The studied tissues from reindeer demonstrated that reindeer is a valuable food source that could meet or contribute to the consumers’ nutritional recommended daily allowance (RDA.

  19. Lymphatic dwelling filarioid nematodes in reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus, (cervidae) in Finland, identified as Rumenfilaria andersoni Lankester & Snider, 1982 (nematoda: Onchocercidae: Splendidofilariinae).

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    Laaksonen, S; Saari, S; Nikander, S; Oksanen, A; Bain, O

    2010-03-01

    A filarioid nematode inhabiting the lymphatic vessels of the subserosal rumen and mesenteries associated with a high prevalence of its microfilariae in peripheral blood was observed in Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in 2004 and 2006. Adult specimens were collected by dissecting lymphatic vessels from slaughtered animals, where some of the nematodes were seen through the wall of the dilated vessels as thin white winding threads obscuring the vessel. The morphology of adult worms and microfilaria is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. These filariae belong to the subfamily Splendidofilariinae of the Onchocercidae and resemble Rumenfilaria andersoni, recovered from different host and localization, the ruminal veins of Alces alces in Canada. Comparison of paratypes of this species revealed only minor differences which were not sufficient to separate the filarioid parasitic in R. tarandus in Finland and we identify the nematode as R. andersoni. However, the findings suggest two different parasite populations. The finalizing of this taxonomic question in the future requires an integrated approach, in which the DNA-based and morphological identifications are consistent.

  20. Lymphatic dwelling filarioid nematodes in reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus, (Cervidae in Finland, identified as Rumenfilaria andersoni Lankester & Snider, 1982 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Splendidofilariinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laaksonen S.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A filarioid nematode inhabiting the lymphatic vessels of the subserosal rumen and mesenteries associated with a high prevalence of its microfilariae in peripheral blood was observed in Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in 2004 and 2006. Adult specimens were collected by dissecting lymphatic vessels from slaughtered animals, where some of the nematodes were seen through the wall of the dilated vessels as thin white winding threads obscuring the vessel. The morphology of adult worms and microfilaria is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. These filariae belong to the subfamily Splendidofilariinae of the Onchocercidae and resemble Rumenfilaria andersoni, recovered from different host and localization, the ruminal veins of Alces alces in Canada. Comparison of paratypes of this species revealed only minor differences which were not sufficient to separate the filarioid parasitic in R. tarandus in Finland and we identify the nematode as R. andersoni. However, the findings suggest two different parasite populations. The finalizing of this taxonomic question in the future requires an integrated approach, in which the DNAbased and morphological identifications are consistent.

  1. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

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    Alejandro Salgado-Flores

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4, or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3. Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads, with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences. Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001 and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027, were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively. UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-F<0.05. Based upon previous literature, we suggest that the

  2. Flexible mating tactics and associated reproductive effort during the rutting season in male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eliana PINTUS; Stefania UCCHEDDU; Knut H RED; Javier Prez GONZALZ; Juan CARRANZA; Mauri NIEMINEN; ystein HOLAND

    2015-01-01

    Polygynous males can change their mating tactics across their lifetime, but information is scarce on the flexibility of this trait within a given season and the relative costs and benefits of using different tactics. Here, we monitored individually marked male reindeerRangifer tarandus and classified their mating tactics as harem-defense, sneaking, or mixed. The costs of the male reproductive effort were assessed using both direct (i.e. percentage of body mass lost) and indirect measures (i.e. activity patterns such as feeding, standing, and walking), while mating group size and reproductive success were recorded as mating ef-fort benefits. Our results show that reindeer males may switch between the harem-defense and sneaking tactics throughout the same breeding season, providing further support to the notion that reproductive tactics are flexible in ungulates. The costs and benefits of male mating effort vary according to the mating tactic, reaching the highest values in harem-holders and the lowest values in sneaking males. Moreover, males who switched between the sneaking tactic and the harem-defence tactic tended to achieve higher mating success than males who consistently used the least costly tactic. Indeed, all harem-holders successfully sired offspring, whereas only two out of three mixed-tactic males sired one calf, and sneaking males did not sire any calves. In conclusion, our results show that reindeer males can modulate their mating efforts during the same breeding season by switching between the most costly harem-defense tactic and the least costly sneaking tactic, suggesting individual solutions to the balance between reproductive effort and mating opportunities [Current Zoology 61 (5): 802–810, 2015].

  3. The Scandinavian Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) after the last glacial maximum: time, seasonality and human exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Erik Brinch; Aaris Sørensen, Kim; Mühldorff, Rudi

    2006-01-01

    in the area with ca. 1300 14C yr. Thus the first occurrence is pushed back to ca. 12 500 14C yr BP (late Bølling chronozone) while the youngest date lies at ca. 9200 14C yr BP (late Preboreal chronozone) establishing that the reindeer survives well into the Holocene. The seasonal dates of the reindeer...

  4. High female mortality resulting in herd collapse in free-ranging domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Sweden.

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    Birgitta Åhman

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sámi population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October-December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007-2012 revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively. A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community.

  5. Effect of "owners" selection strategies on autumn weight in reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus calves

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    Robert B. Weladji

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Many northern indigenous peoples, including the Sami are dependent on reindeer herding for their livelihood. In view of the socio-cultural and economical importance of reindeer herding, emphasis should be put on appropriate herd structure and selection strategies that maximise marketable products, such as meat (the primary marketable product nowadays. Empirical observations reveal that within a herd, some owners seem to have better productivity in term of carcass autumn weight of calves, than others. We hypothesized that there may be an "owner" effect in reindeer herding, i.e. some owners may be applying particular selection strategies that might be beneficial. We investigated this in three reindeer grazing districts in South Norway, using mixed linear models. We found that autumn carcass weight of calves varied significantly with year and "owner" within herd in all three districts. Consistently some particular owners within a herd had higher average autumn carcass weight of their calves than others. We attributed this difference to "individual selection strategies", meaning that some owners may follow more accurately the sex, age and weight-based recommended strategy and in addition, they may make superior choices when selecting animals for slaughtering. We conclude that individual owners have the capability, through appropriate selection decisions to improve the average annual autumn weight of their reindeer calves. This might be an important aspect of "Traditional Ecological Knowledge", in addition to the recommended modern sex, age and weight-based selection criteria.

  6. Variations in mountain vegetation use by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) affects dry heath but not grass heath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, J.; Boogerd, C.; Skarin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Question: Are differences in landscape use of semi-domesticated reindeer reflected in the vegetation of summer grazing grounds? Location: Alpine heaths, central east Sweden. Methods: Dry heath and grass heath vegetation plots with inferred grazing intensities (high, intermediate and low) were

  7. The method by which Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer larvae invade reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

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    John R. Anderson

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory electrostimulated C. trompe (Modeer females forcefully expelled (sprayed larvae for 5-20 cm. The watery spray consisted of about 20 tiny droplets containing two to several larvae. Crawling first-instar larvae exhibited negative geotactic and phototropic responses; they were subject to rapid desiccation and became immobile as the tiny droplets dried within a few seconds. When 5-50 larvae from dissectedfemales were dropped in physiological saline onto different areas of the muzzle of restrained reindeer, only larvae placed deep within the nostrils and on the lips crawled out-of-sight down the nostril passage or into the mouth. Drops of larvae placed elsewhere quickly desiccated and the larvae became immobile. Larvae deposited by wild females onto a COz-baited reindeer model with the muzzle, lips and nostrils coated with insect trapping adhesive all were stuck only along the dorsal lip below the philtrum. All experimental evidence supports a natural per os mode of invasion.

  8. Accuracy of the tritium water dilution method for determining water flux in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R D; White, R G; Luick, J R

    1976-06-01

    The accuracy of the tritium water dilution method in estimating water flux was evaluated in reindeer under various conditions of temperature and diet. Two non-pregnant female reindeer were restrained in metabolism stalls, within controlled-environment chambers, at temperatures of +10, -5, and -20/sup 0/C; varying amounts of a commercial pelleted ration (crude protein, 13 percent) or mixed lichens (crude protein, 3 percent) were offered, and water was provided ad libitum either as snow or in liquid form. Total body water volume and water turnover were estimated using tritiated water, and the daily outputs of feces and urine were measured for each of 12 different combinations of diet and temperature. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the tritium water dilution technique gives accurate determinations of total body water flux over a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions.

  9. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus – effects on animal performance and meat quality

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    Greg Finstad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår unders

  10. Seasonal variations in general activity, behaviour and cutaneous glandular structures in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mossing, Torgny

    1980-01-01

    The locomotor activity of the reindeer is separated into a diurnal and a nocturnal phase which, in turn, consists of a  number of short-term activity bursts. The onset and termination  of diurnal and nocturnal activity are largely in synchrony  with sunrise and sunset. Since the diurnal phase is  longer, total activity is dependent on the photoperiod. Total  activity as well as the number of activity bursts is greater  in Jùne with continuous daylight than in December with 6  hours daylight. ...

  11. Genetic variation in meat production related traits in reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus

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    Kirsi Muuttoranta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} In reindeer husbandry, animal breeding could offer tools for improving productivity by selection. The traits affecting meat production efficiency are primarily related to calf growth and survival, and to dam’s longevity and lifetime ability to raise heavy calves. Information on genetic (covariation in these traits is scarce but needed in estimating the potential and effectiveness of selection as well as biological constraints. The objectives of the study were to estimate these genetic parameters from the data of an experimental reindeer herd at Kutuharju (Inari, Finland. Heritabilities (h2 and genetic correlations (rg among the average daily gain of calves (ADG, dams’ age at maturity, individual fitness (λind and the cumulative sum of her calves’ weaning weight over seven years (WW7 were studied with AS-Reml software using the dataset from the experimental herd. The pedigree included also sire information to allow the separation of the maternal effects. Direct and maternal heritabilities of ADG were moderate (0.24±0.09 and 0.18±0.05, respectively and the direct-maternal correlation was highly negative (-0.73±0.17. Indeed, selection on growth necessitates information on both calf and dam. The genetic correlation of growth with birth date and birth weight could not be detected with the data. The age

  12. The influence of stress on substrate utilization in skeletal muscle fibres of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

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    B. Essén-Gustavsson

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Moderate stress in connection with handling, sampling and herding of reindeer caused a very pronounced depletion of glycogen in mainly type IIA and IIB fibres. Also intramuscular triglyceride levels decreased but mainly in type I fibres. Muscle lactate levéls increased in all animals but not to the levels found in pigs exposed to stress or exertion. Reindeer muscles appeared to have a great capacity to oxidize both carbohydrates and lipids. All animals showed increased Cortisol, urea and AS AT values. A marked depletion of glycogen and lipids in many of the fibres may be a factor involved in the development of skeletal muscle degeneration in connection with mental stress and exertion as there seems to be a correlation between high ASAT values and substrate depleted musclefibres. A connection may therefore exist between high instramuscular substrate stores and the ability of a muscle to tolerate stress.Av stress påverkat substratutnyttjande i skelettmuskelfibrer hos renAbstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Måttlig stress betingad av hantering, provtagning och drivning av ren orsakade en mycket kraftig minskning av muskelglykogen i fråmst typ IIA och typ IIB fibrer. Aven triglycerider minskade framfor allt i typ I fibrer. Muskellaktatnivåerna okade i samtliga undersokta djur, men inte till nivåer som ses hos gris utsatta for stress eller fysisk anstrångning.Renens muskler uppvisade en mycket hog kapacitet att oxidera, forbranna, både kolhydrat och fett. Alla djur uppvisade forhojda Cortisol, urea och ASAT varden. Den mycket kraftiga tomningen av kolhydrat och fett i många muskelfibrer kan vara en faktor medverkande till muskeldegeneration i samband med mental stress och anstrangning då hoga ASAT-vården synes vara korrelerade till uttomda muskelfibrer. Ett samband mellan hog instramuskulår substratupplagring och formåga att tåla stress kan således foreligga.Stressin vaikuttaneen poron substraattihyvåk-sikåytto luurangon lihaksiston

  13. Effect of calf stimulation on milk ejection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

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    Hallvard Gjøstein

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish methods for stimulating the milk ejection in reindeer kept for milking purpose. Calves were used to stimulate milk does’ let down. In experiment 1, five does were allowed olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with their calves during milking, whereas four does were milked in isolation. The treatment of the groups was alternated every day during the eight days experiment. Olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with the calf did not influence the doe’s milk yield. The milk yield varied significantly between individual females within treatment (P < 0.01. In experiment 2, the calves were allowed to suckle their mother for a short period (two seconds prior to milking being initiated. The same alternate design as in experiment 1 with groups consisting of three and two animals respectively was used, and the experiment lasted four days. The pre-suckling stimulation significantly increased the milk ejection measured as milk yield (P < 0.05, and the residual milk after the treatment was negectible. Moreover, the milk ejection varied between individual females within treatment (P < 0.05. We conclude that it is possible to achieve a complete milk removal by machine milking after the does have been pre-stimulated by suckling of calves. Olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with calves during milking failed to influence the milk ejection in this study. However, the results have to be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Formålet med dette forsøket var å prøve ut ulike metoder for å stimulere nedgivninga av melk hos rein. Kalvene ble tatt i bruk for å stimulere nedgivninga. I forsøk 1 hadde simla lyd-, lukt og synskontakt med kalven mens melkingen pågikk. Vi benyttet et ”switch back design” der fem simler hadde kontakt med kalven under melkingen og fire ble melket uten kontakt. Behandlingen ble byttet om annenhver dag i de åtte dagene fors

  14. Use of length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR as non-invasive approach for dietary analysis of Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus.

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    Sungbae Joo

    Full Text Available To efficiently investigate the forage preference of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, we applied length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR based on length differences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of ribosomal RNA (rRNA to fecal samples from R. tarandus platyrhynchus. A length-heterogeneity (LH database was constructed using both collected potential food sources of Svalbard reindeer and fecal samples, followed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. In total, eighteen fecal samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 from 2 geographic regions and 15 samples were successfully amplified by PCR. The LH-PCR analysis detected abundant peaks, 18.6 peaks on an average per sample, ranging from 100 to 500 bp in size and showing distinct patterns associated with both regions and years of sample collection. Principal component analysis (PCA resulted in clustering of 15 fecal samples into 3 groups by the year of collection and region with a statistically significant difference at 99.9% level. The first 2 principal components (PCs explained 71.1% of the total variation among the samples. Through comparison with LH database and identification by cloning and sequencing, lichens (Stereocaulon sp. and Ochrolechia sp. and plant species (Salix polaris and Saxifraga oppositifolia were detected as the food sources that contributed most to the Svalbard reindeer diet. Our results suggest that the use of LH-PCR analysis would be a non-invasive and efficient monitoring tool for characterizing the foraging strategy of Svalbard reindeer. Additionally, combining sequence information would increase its resolving power in identification of foraged diet components.

  15. Productivity factors of the Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t.tarandus stock during the 1990s

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    Jouko Kumpula

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive reindeer grazing and the increase of other land use forms have caused a decline in the amount of arboreal (Alectoria, Bryoria spp. and reindeer (Cladina spp. lichens in the Finnish reindeer management area during the last few decades. Supplementary feeding of reindeer has increasingly compensated for the lack of natural winter fodder. The amount of the supplementary feeding and the quantity and quality of summer pastures should therefore have an increasing effect on the productivity of reindeer stock. In order to outline better the present carrying capacity problems on pastures in the Finnish reindeer management area we focused some of the most important productivity factors of Finnish reindeer stock from 1993 to 1999. The results showed that the productivity of reindeer stock in Finland was dependent especially on two main elements: amount of reindeer feeding and reindeer densities on summer pastures. Winter pastures had no clear effect on productivity when analysing the entire management area. High productivity figures in reindeer stock (calf production, carcass mass and meat production per reindeer were reached in the management districts where winter feeding was the most abundant, reindeer densities relatively low and summer pastures abundant. An increase in reindeer density on summer pastures raised meat production per total summer pasture area but decreased carcass mass of reindeer calves and meat production per reindeer. It seems that the fundamental factor for keeping the reindeer stock productivity sustainable at a high enough level is to optimize the longterm reindeer densities on pastures. Summer pastures may gradually become a limiting factor for reindeer stock productivity in some areas if overgrazed and decreased winter pastures are only compensated for by winter feeding of reindeer

  16. Population genetics of the native caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) and the semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Southwestern Greenland: evidence of introgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, B.I.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Fredholm, Merete

    2002-01-01

    . Although the reindeer and caribou were initially kept separated, mixing has occurred since the 1970's. We investigated the genotypic structure of caribou and reindeer in South-west Greenland, using five polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from cattle, sheep, goat and red deer. A total of ninety...

  17. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of the only population of Aoluguya Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan; Liu, Huamiao; Rong, Min; Zhang, Ranran; Dong, Yimeng; Zhou, Yongna; Xing, Xiumei

    2018-04-16

    Aoluguya Reindeer is the only reindeer species in China and currently approximately 1000 Aoluguya Reindeer remain semi-domesticated. A relative low diversity estimate was found by investigating genetic variability and demographic history of its population. Mismatch distribution curve of its nucleotide sequences and neutral test indicate its population has not experienced expansion. Genetic diversity and population structure were also analysed by using its mtDNA and microsatellites technology. Statistical results of these analyses showed there were varying degrees of population inbreeding and suggested that gene flow existed among its populations at one time. Three mutation models were also used to detect the bottleneck effect of reindeer population. The genetic variation of eight populations is relatively small. In addition, the clustering program STRUCTURE was used to analyse Aoluguya Reindeer population structure, to determine its optimal K and first time to analyse the phylogenetic status of Aoluguya Reindeer among other reindeer subspecies. It is recommended that the government establish a natural conservation area in Aoluguya Reindeer growing geography, forbade the trade and hunting of Aoluguya Reindeer, and strengthen the protection of this endangered species.

  18. Size and composition of the wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus population in the Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alendal, Einar; Bie, Steven de; van Wieren, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    In the summer of 1977 we studied the reindeer population on the islands Barentsøya and Edgeøya in the eastern part of the Svalbard archipelago. A total of 1374 reindeer were observed: 326 animals in the western parts of Barentsøya and 1048 animals on Edgeøya. Considering those parts of Edgeøya which

  19. Sensory meat quality, ultimate pH values, blood metabolites and carcass parametersin reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. fed various diets

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    Eva Wiklund

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was made to study and compare the effects of different diets on sensory meat quality and ultimate pH values in reindeer muscles and to relate stress-induced blood metabolites and carcass parameters to the meat quality traits measured. Altogether 23 female reindeer calves were included in the study. During an adaptation period, all reindeer were allowed free access to a mimicked natural diet containing 80% lichens (lichen diet. On January 28, 8 reindeer (group Cjan were slaughtered. Five reindeer (group C.Mar were allowed continuous free access to the lichen diet throughout the experiment. During 8 days, the other reindeer (groups PL and PS were given the lichen diet, half of the amount offered to the control group, and were then starved for one day. Thereafter, these reindeer were fed 80% commercial reindeer feed (pellets and either 20% lichens (group PL, or 20% silage (group PS for 5 weeks. After this, all animals were slaughtered. The average carcass weight and dressing percentage in the group fed commercial reindeer feed and lichens (PL were higher than in group CMar- Fat registrations were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in the groups Cj2n and CMar- Ultimate pH values in M. triceps brachii and M. longissimus were significantly lower in the group CMST than in PL. The levels of all blood metabolites (urea, ASAT and Cortisol were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in groups Cja„ and CMEF- NO significant differences were found in any of sensory attributes of the meat (monitored according to ISO standards. The present study shows that muscle and fat depots in reindeer can be improved by feeding a diet based on reindeer pellets but suggests that a feeding period of 35 days might be too short to affect the sensory properties of reindeer meat.

  20. Methods for estimating the density of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi Mitskevich (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea larvae in faeces from reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L.

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    Odd Halvorsen

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for estimating the density of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi larvae in reindeer faeces that have been deep frozen is described. The method involves the use of an inverted microscope with plankton counting chambers. Statistical data on the efficiency and sensitivity of the method are given. With fresh faeces, the results obtained with the method were not significantly different from those obtained with the Baermann technique. With faeces that had been stored in deep freeze, the method detected on average 30 per cent more larvae than the Baermann technique.Metoder for å estimere tettheten av hjernemarklarver i avføring fra reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: En metode for å estimere tettheten av hjernemarklarver i avføring som har vært dypfryst blir beskrevet. Anvendelse av et invertert mikroskop med plankton tellekammer inngår i metoden. Det blir gitt statistiske data for metodens effektivitet og følsomhet. Ved undersøkelse av fersk avføring skilte ikke de resultatene metoden ga seg fra de som ble oppnådd med Baermanns metode. Ved undersøkelse av avføring som hadde vært lagret dypfrosset ga metoden i gjennomsnitt 30 prosent flere larver enn Baermanns metode.

  1. Influence of production system, age an sex on carcass parameters and some biochemical meat quality characteristics of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

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    Sabine Sampels

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcass composition in reindeer is affected by feed intake and the age and sex of the animal. Studies have also shown that age, sex, carcass trim fat content and total intramuscular fat content (IMF influence lipid class composition. The aim of this study was to compare lipid class composition and IMF in relation to carcass weight, conformation and trim fat content, and to investigate how these parameters are affected by age, sex and different feed sources. Five groups of reindeer were studied. Two groups of calves were fed two grain-based pelleted feeds with different lipid compositions for approximately two months before slaughter. One of these groups was fed with conventional pellets, and the other with pellets enriched with linseed cake to increase the amount of n-3 fatty acids in the diet. Three groups of grazing reindeer were also included in the study, consisting of adult males, adult females or calves. Reindeer calves fed pellets had higher slaughter weights, higher trim fat content and better carcass conformation scores compared to the grazing calves. However, there was no significant difference in IMF between pellet-fed and grazing calves. Adult female reindeer had the highest and grazing calves the lowest slaughter weights, trim fat and IMF. There was no difference in lipid class composition in meat from calves fed with the two pelleted feeds, whereas grazing calves had a higher amount of phospholipids. Squalene was identified and quantified as a component of intramuscular lipids in reindeer meat. Effekt av produktionssystem, ålder och kön på slaktkroppskvalitet och några biokemiska egenskaper hos renköttAbstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Slaktkroppssammansättningen hos renar påverkas av både foderintag, fodersammansättning och djurens ålder och kön. Tidigare har vi visat att renens kön, ålder, mängden intramuskulärt fett (IMF och putsfett på slaktkroppen påverkar sammansättningen av lipidklasser. Syftet med denna

  2. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth seasonality in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus - comparisons with temperate and tropical cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Suttie

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth in temperate and arctic deer is seasonal, with higher growth rates in spring and summer while growth rates are low or negative in autumn and winter. We have measured IGF1 concentrations in the plasma of reindeer calves exposed to a manipulated photoperiod, indoors, of either 16 hours light followed by 8 hours dark each day (16L:8D (n = 3 or 8L:16D (n = 3 from about the autumnal to the vernal equinox, to determine whether the seasonal growth spurt normally seen in spring is associated with changes in the circulating level of IGF1. A high quality concentrate diet was available ad libitum. The animals were weighed, and bled every 2 weeks and plasma samples assayed for IGF1 by radioimmunoassay. 6-8 weeks after the start of the study those calves exposed to 16L.-8D showed a significant increase in plasma IGF1 concentration which was maintained until the close of the experiment, 24 weeks after the start. In contrast IGF1 plasma concentrations in those calves exposed to a daylength of 8L:16D did not significantly alter during the study. The elevated IFG1 in the 16L:8D group was associated with rapid weight gain compared with the 8L:16D group. We have shown that the seasonal growth spurt is preceded by an elevation in plasma IFG1 concentration. Further, this elevation in IGF1 is daylength dependent. For comparison IGF1 and growth rate seasonal profiles from temperate and tropical deer are included. This comparison reveals that seasonal increases in IGF1 take place only in animals with a seasonal growth spurt. Thus IGF1 plasma level elevations seem most closely associated with the resumption of rapid growth in spring following the winter.

  3. 我国驯鹿 Rangifer tarandus 的种群分布、数量及致危原因%Current Distribution,Population Trends and Causes of Decline of Reindeer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾治; 孟凡露; 王朋; 孟秀祥

    2016-01-01

    2012年7月至2013年8月间,在大兴安岭对我国驯鹿 Rangi f er tarandus开展了野外调查,以确定其分布及种群数量波动,并分析其致危原因.结果表明:我国驯鹿仅分布于大兴安岭西北麓的内蒙古根河地区(E 121°11′-122°25′,N 50°42′-51°50′),其分布区与我国鄂温克族聚居区完全重叠.我国现存驯鹿种群718头,分布于12个彼此隔离的种群,各驯鹿种群数量分布极不均匀,每个种群由9~240头驯鹿组成,大部分种群呈典型小种群状态,其平均种群大小仅为59.83头(±18.42, n=12);驯鹿分布生境的海拔区间为700~926 m ,平均海拔为813.67 m (±21.72 m , n=12);小种群及相关的近交衰退、生境丧失及适宜性下降、管理政策不合理、高强度的生态旅游和盗猎及天敌捕杀是制约我国驯鹿种群发展的主要因素.%The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is an endangered species distributed in the sub‐arctic region in the northeastern part of China .To determine the current status of the population and the distribution pat‐terns of reindeer ,this study was conducted in the Great Xing’Anling of China during July 2012 to August 2013 .The results showed that the reindeer in China only occurs in Genhe area of Inner Mongolia (E 121° 11′-122°25′,N 50°42′-51°50′) ,where has been the dwelling region of Ewenki people .There were 718 reindeer in 12 populations in 2013 with the population range from 9 to 240 and the average population size of 59.83 ( ± 18.42 ,n=12) ,which indicated that the most reindeer populations in China were small popula‐tions .The preferred habitats of reindeer locates from 700 to 926 m with the average of 813.67 m (± 21.72 , n=12) .Small populations and the related inbreeding ,habitat loss and degradation ,management policy ,in‐tensive tourism and poaching and the predation have been the main factors influencing the population increase

  4. Estimation of biodiversity and population structure of Russian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus breeds inhabiting Northeastern Siberia (Republic of Sakha - Yakutia using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Ruslanovna Kharzinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Three semi-domesticated reindeer breeds inhabiting the Republic of Sakha – Yakutia have been characterized using nine microsatellite markers. Genomic DNA was isolated from tissue samples of 123 individuals of the Chukotka (Khargin (CHU, n=47, the Evenk (EVK, n=32 and the Even (EVN, n=44 breeds, collected from different regions of Yakutia. Fragment analysis and sizing were run on ABI 3131xl genetic analyzer. Allele frequencies were calculated and used for the characterization of reindeer breeds and the evaluation of their genetic biodiversity. Nei’s standard genetic distance was calculated and used for the construction of a neighbor-joining tree. Statistical analysis was conducted with GenAIEx 6.5.1, PAST2.15 and STRUCTURE2.3.4 software. The highest number of alleles, such as informative (with a frequency more than 5%, effective (Ne and private (Pr, was detected in the CHU breed: Na≥5%=5.333±0.441, Ne=4.517±0393 and Pr =1.111±0.389, while the EVN breed had the lowest number: 4.778±0.324, 4.315±0.488 and 0.444±0.242, respectively. The EVN breed occupied an intermediate position (5.000±0.373, 4.408±0.315 and 0.889±0.261. Among reindeer breeds, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.729 ± 0.026 to 0.608±0.050 with the lowest value found in CHU reindeer and the highest in EVK reindeer. A heterozygotes’ deficiency was observed in all reindeer breeds. At K=3, STRUCTURE analysis matches with the data of Nei's genetic distance dimension results, indicating the presence of a common consistent pattern. CHU and EVK reindeer breeds are characterized by a closer genetic relationship in comparison with the EVN breed, which formed a separate cluster.

  5. A study of nutritional status of Finnish reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus L. in differents months: I. Composition and volume of the rumen microbiota

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    Liisa Syrjälä

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota were studied in free-ranging semi-domestic reindeer in Finnish Lapland under the nutritional conditions obtaining at two different sampling times. Qualitative and quantitative investigations were made of the rumen ciliate fauna and quantitative investigations of the rumen bacterial flora. The volume coefficients for rumen ciliates obtained by Westerling (1970 and that for rumen bacteria obtained by Warner (1962 were used to obtain an indication of the volume of the rumen microbe mass in reindeer. The rumen samples were collected in connection with the round-up and slaughter of reindeer, being taken from 30 animals in December and 29 animals in March. The reindeer slaughtered in December had normal access to food, but those slaughtered in March had grazed on better pastures and received a supplementary feed of hay. The total number of ciliate cells was over six times as high in March as in December, the numbers being 1 182900 and 188 300 per ml rumen contents, respectively. The corresponding total numbers of bacterial cells were 9.65 x 109 in March and 6.65 x 109 in December. The reason for the statistically significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers in March than in December is probably the better nutritional conditions of the herd slaughtered in March, not the time of the year. The ciliate fauna consisted of 19 different species, although not all the species were found in every sample. The percentage composition of the ciliate fauna did not vary considerably between the two sampling times. The volume of the total microbe mass constituted 8.2% of the rumen contents in March and 1.9 % in December, the average being 5.1 %. The proportion of the ciliate volume in the total microbe mass was clearly higher than that of the bacteria at both sampling times: 7.2 times as high in March and 1.7 times in December, the average being 4.7 times.

  6. Selected Vitamins and Essential Elements in Meat from Semi-Domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in Mid- and Northern Norway: Geographical Variations and Effect of Animal Population Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Brustad, Magritt

    2012-01-01

    Meat samples (n = 100) were collected from semi-domesticated reindeer originating from 10 grazing districts in Norway. We aimed at studying concentrations, correlations, geographical variations and the effect of animal population density on vitamins A, B3, B7, B12 and E, and calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, chromium and cobalt. Mean concentrations of vitamins A, B3, B7; B12 and E were Vitamin E and selenium were the nutrients that exhibited the largest geographical variations (p vitamin B12 with zinc (r = 0.35, p vitamin B12, iron, zinc and selenium concentrations when compared to Norwegian beef, lamb, mutton, pork and chicken meat. PMID:22852060

  7. Selected vitamins and essential elements in meat from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in mid- and northern Norway: geographical variations and effect of animal population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Brustad, Magritt

    2012-07-01

    Meat samples (n = 100) were collected from semi-domesticated reindeer originating from 10 grazing districts in Norway. We aimed at studying concentrations, correlations, geographical variations and the effect of animal population density on vitamins A, B3, B7, B12 and E, and calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, chromium and cobalt. Mean concentrations of vitamins A, B3, B7; B12 and E were Vitamin E and selenium were the nutrients that exhibited the largest geographical variations (p vitamin B12 with zinc (r = 0.35, p vitamin B12, iron, zinc and selenium concentrations when compared to Norwegian beef, lamb, mutton, pork and chicken meat.

  8. Comparative response of Rangifer tarandus and other northern ungulates to climatic variability

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    Robert B. Weladji

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the factors influencing life history traits and population dynamics, attention is increasingly being given to the importance of environmental stochasticity. In this paper, we review and discuss aspects of current knowledge concerning the effect of climatic variation (local and global on population parameters of northern ungu¬lates, with special emphasis on reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus. We also restrict ourselves to indirect effects of climate through both forage availability and quality, and insect activity. Various authors have used different weather variables; with sometime opposite trends in resulting life history traits of ungulates, and few studies show consistent effects to the same climatic variables. There is thus little consensus about which weather variables play the most sig¬nificant role influencing ungulate population parameters. This may be because the effects of weather on ungulate pop¬ulation dynamics and life history traits are scale dependent and it is difficult to isolate climatic effects from density dependent factors. This confirms the complexity of the relationship between environment and ecosystem. We point out limits of comparability between systems and the difficulty of generalizing about the effect of climate change broadly across northern systems, across species and even within species. Furthermore, insect harassment appears to be a key climate-related factor for the ecology of reindeer/caribou that has been overlooked in the literature of climatic effects on large herbivores. In light of this, there is a need for further studies of long time series in assessing effects of climate variability on reindeer/caribou.

  9. Effective Field Sampling for Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Reindeer(Rangifer tarandus) with Help of the Gibbs Sampler%借助吉布斯抽样器有效地进行野外抽样预测驯鹿(Rangifer tarandus)的空间分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alex Teterukovskiy; Lars Edenius

    2003-01-01

    我们介绍一种估计驯鹿(Rangifer mrandus)的空间分布的方法。描述野生动物物种分布的数据,其内在的空间自相关性包含可以用来提高野外调查效率的信息。我们的数据包括驯鹿粪便小球数、卫星图像和一个数字化地形模型。基于这些综合数据,我们采用普通逻辑回归、自动逻辑回归和吉布斯抽样器预测驯鹿的空间分布。通过训练数据集.对每种方法所采取的不同抽样设计结果讲行比较.结果表明.

  10. Orphan caribou, Rangifer tarandus, calves: A re-evaluation of overwinter survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Low sample size and high variation within populations reduce power of statistical tests. These aspects of statistical power appear to have affected an analysis comparing overwinter survival rates of non-orphan and orphan Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calves by an earlier study for the Porcupine Caribou Herd. A re-evaluation of the data revealed that conclusions about a lack of significant difference in the overwinter survival rates between orphan and non-orphan calves were premature.

  11. Growth, condition, and mortality of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in the Sisimiut Population, West Greenland

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    Vidar Holthe

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and condition of the Sisimiut caribou was anlysed by means of mandible length, carcass weight, and back fat indices. Mandible lenght showed unchanged growth conditions since the late 1960s, and growth stops at 4 years of age. The Sisimiut caribou seems to be smaller than North American caribous, Greenlandic semi-domesticated reindeer and of same size or smaller than Scandinavian reindeer. Carcass weight showed similar results, however cow growth rate seems not to prolong sexual maturation. Back fat deposits were less than what is known from other reindeer and caribou populations. Sex and age distribution of mandibles from various materials and survival curves based on the same material shows — an uneven distribution between bulls and cows and a relatively large proportion of old cows in the bag from the last years, which seems to be caused by a light hunting pressure when the population peaked in the 1960s. Heavy natural mortality for animals born before or after a winter with unfavorable snow conditions was also showed.Vækst, kondition og dødelighed hos vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus i Sisimiut-bestanden, Vestgrønland.Abstract in Danish / Sammendrag: Vækst- og konditionsforhold for Sisimiut-vildrenbestanden i Vestgrønland er beskrevet ved hjæip af underkæbelængde, slagtevægt og rygfedt. Undersøgelsen af kæbelængde viste, at vækstforholdene havde været uforandret siden sidste halvdel af 1960-erne, at væksten standser ved 4-års alderen, samt at Sisimiut-vildrenen er mindre end de nordamerikanske caribou, Itinnera-tamrenen og på størrelse med eller mindre end skandinaviske rensdyr. Dette viste sig også ved sammenligninger af slagtevægt. Vægten af simlerne er dog ikke så ringe, at der kan iagttages nogen forsinkelse i kønsmodningen. Fedtreserverne ved indgangen til vinteren synes at være dårligere end i andre undersøgte rensdyrbestande. Køns- og aldersfordelingen blandt forskellige typer af indsamlet k

  12. Goose droppings as food for reindeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, R; Loonen, MJJE

    Feeding conditions for Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, on Spitsbergen are generally poor, owing to low availability of forage. We report on coprophagy: the use of goose faeces as an alternative food source for reindeer. Fresh droppings from Barnacle Geese, Branta leucopsis,

  13. Fertility in female reindeer: the effects of nutrition and growth

    OpenAIRE

    N. J.C. Tyler

    1987-01-01

    Pregnancy rates in juvenile reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) vary considerably both within and between flocks. This potentially has considerable economic significance for reindeer husbandry. This paper discusses the influence of nutrition and growth on fertility in female reindeer using examples taken from the literature. Fertility in reindeer is related to body weight, like in many other mammals, but the relationship is not invariant. Weight-specific pregnancy rates appear to be density dependen...

  14. Wild reindeer of the Kamchatka Peninsula - past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mosolov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique subspecies of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus phylarchus Hollister that is endemic to the Kamchatka Peninsula has been declining in number since the 1950s due to commercial hunting, increasing industrial development and competition with domestic reindeer. The largest remaining herd of wild reindeer occurs in the Kronotsky Reserve in northeastern Kamchatka, and the reserve is now critical to the preservation of this subspecies of reindeer.

  15. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    (PFGE). Methods and Results: The material, collected during the slaughter period in autumn 1998, comprised 399 faecal contents from the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), a semi-domesticated, meat-producing ruminant of northern Finland. These samples came from 16 herds in the areas of eight reindeer...

  16. Wild reindeer of Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Safronov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Three major herds of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., totaling over 200,000 animals, occur in the tundra and taiga of northern Yakutia. These herds have been expanding since the late 1950s and now occupy most of their historic range. In addition, several thousand wild reindeer occupy the New Siberian Islands and adjacent coastal mainland tundra, and there are about 60,000 largely sedentary forest reindeer in mountainous areas of the southern two-thirds of the province. Wild reindeer are commercially hunted throughout the mainland, and the production of wild meat is an important part of the economy of the province and of individual reindeer enterprises which produce both wild and domestic meat.

  17. Mineral constraints on arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus): a spatial and phenological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, K. W.; Barboza, P.S.; Gustine, David D.; Joly, Kyle; Shively, R. D.

    2018-01-01

    Arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus) have the longest terrestrial migration of any ungulate but little is known about the spatial and seasonal variation of minerals in summer forages and the potential impacts of mineral nutrition on the foraging behavior and nutritional condition of arctic caribou. We investigated the phenology, availability, and mechanistic relationships of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in three species of woody browse, three species of graminoids, and one forb preferred by caribou over two transects bisecting the ranges of the Central Arctic (CAH) and Western Arctic (WAH) caribou herds in Alaska. Transects traversed three ecoregions (Coastal Plain, Arctic Foothills and Brooks Range) along known migration paths in the summer ranges of both herds. Concentrations of mineral in forages were compared to estimated dietary requirements of lactating female caribou. Spatial distribution of the abundance of minerals in caribou forage was associated with interactions of soil pH and mineral content, while temporal variation was related to plant maturity, and thus nitrogen and fiber content of forages. Concentrations of sodium were below caribou requirements in all forage species for most of the summer and adequate only on the Coastal Plain during the second half of summer. Phosphorus declined in plants from emergence to senescence and was below requirements in all forages by mid‐summer, while concentrations of copper declined to marginal concentrations at plant senescence. Interactions of sodium with potassium, calcium with phosphorus, and copper with zinc in forages likely exacerbate the constraints of low concentrations sodium, phosphorus, and copper. Forages on the WAH contained significantly more phosphorus and copper than forages collected on the CAH transect. We suspect that migrations of caribou to the Arctic Coastal Plain may allow parturient females to replenish sodium stores depleted by

  18. Status of northern mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy M. Hegel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are an important ecological, cultural and economic resource in Yukon, Canada. Three caribou ecotypes occur within Yukon: Grant’s (R. t. granti, northern mountain (R. t. caribou, and boreal (R. t. caribou. Northern mountain caribou are classified as a species of special concern under Canada’s Species at Risk Act, and a national management plan for northern mountain caribou was recently completed. Twenty-six northern mountain caribou herds occur at least partially within Yukon, representing approximately 30,000 – 35,000 animals. Active monitoring of Yukon’s northern mountain caribou began in earnest in the early 1980s. To date, over 200 fall composition surveys have been carried out, over 1000 animals have been fitted with radio-collars, and nearly 40 formal population estimates have been completed. Disease and contaminant monitoring of these caribou has indicated relatively low disease prevalence and contaminant loading. Northern mountain caribou are harvested in Yukon, with an average of 230 caribou harvested per year by licensed hunters (1995 – 2012 and an unknown number by First Nation hunters. Future challenges related to caribou management and conservation in Yukon include increasing levels of industrial development primarily through mineral exploration and development, ensuring harvest of these herds is conducted sustainably given the absence of total harvest information, inter-jurisdictional management of shared herds, existing uncertainty surrounding herd distribution and delineation, and dealing with vehicle-related mortality of caribou for certain herds. Overall, the population status (i.e., trend of eight herds is known, with two increasing, two decreasing, and four stable.

  19. Influence of In-Situ Oil Sands Development on Caribou (Rangifer tarandus Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Muhly

    Full Text Available In-situ oil sands development (ISD involves a network of facilities, wells, roads and pipelines to extract and transport subsurface bitumen. This technology is rapidly expanding and there is uncertainty whether ISDs restrict animal movement, leading to increased extinction probabilities for some wide-ranging species. Here we test for effects of simulated future (i.e., 50 years from now and current ISDs on simulated movements of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus, a threatened species across North America. In simulations of future scenarios, we varied the spacing and permeability of ISDs and the presence/absence of protected areas. Permeability was measured as the number of times simulated caribou crossed ISDs with different levels of modelled permeability. We estimated the effects of these factors on caribou step length and annual home range size, key metrics of small and large spatiotemporal scales of movement, respectively. Current caribou crossings of above-ground pipeline features of ISDs were measured using camera traps and compared to expected caribou crossing rates based on present-day caribou movement simulations. Current crossing rates were evaluated within the context of predicted future crossing success rates necessary to maintain caribou step lengths and home ranges. With few exceptions, permeability across ISDs was the main factor affecting caribou movement, more so than spacing between developments or the presence of protected areas. However, minimal permeability (crossing rates of c. 15% to 60%, relative to an undisturbed site was needed to maintain existing home range size and step lengths. The effect of permeability on home range size and step length was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in permeability would provide a disproportionately greater benefit to caribou movement. Our predictions demonstrate that maintaining permeability across ISDs is more important than spacing between leases or including protected areas

  20. Structure and annual increase in a population of West Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Thing

    1982-05-01

    .  Calving adds as much as 40% new individuals to the herd, but following their two first months of life calf numbers were reduced to only 17 - 18% of the population (Fig. 6. This drastic die-off is mainly caused by an epidemical Escherischia coli arthritis. The mean calf mortality from September through May is only about 2 - 3% (Fig. 7, and consequently the annual recruitment averages 15%. Considering the average mortality rates of the other age classes in the population (approx. 7% the herd increment at the start of the hunting season (August amounts to only 10%. Mortality in the first year of life (60% is comparable to that of a broad spectrum of other wild Rangifer populations in northern regions (Fig. 7. However, in the Sisimiut herd reduction of calf numbers almost exclusively takes place during the first three months after birth, while in the other Rangifer populations calf mortality is more evenly distributed throughout the whole year. Struktur og årlig tilvækst i en bestand af vestgønlandsk vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus.Abstract in Danish / Sammendrag: Som et led i en større økologisk undersøgelse af den vestgrønlandske vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus er bestanden i Sisimiut-området (ca. 67 gr N blevet studeret med hensyn til køns- og aldersstruktur, flokstørrelse, kalv-simle forhold og kalvetilvækst. Sisimiut-bestanden tæller mellem 2500 og 3000 dyr, og består det meste af året hovedsagelig af ganske små flokke på op til 5 dyr. Koncentrationer på flere hundrede dyr ses kun i sommertiden i forbindelse med insektforstyrrelser. Der er en tydelig årsrytme i gennemsnitsstørrelsen af flokkene, således at der sker en jævn stigning fra midvinterens 1,4 dyr pr. flok til et højdepunkt i efter-kælvningstiden med knap 25 dyr pr. flok. Manglen på ulve samt de dårlige, nedslidte føderessourcer i området gør, at dyrene på alle årstider har en meget lille flokstørrelse sammenlignet med andre landes vildrenbestande. Omkring 50% af

  1. Macro-microscopic research in reideer (Rangifer tarandus hoof suitable for efficient locomotion on complex grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reindeer are adapted to long distance migration. This species can cope with variations in substrate, especially in ice and snow environment. However, few detailed studies about reindeer hoof are available. Thus this article describes the results of studies on macro- and micro-structures of reindeer hoof.

  2. Trip report: a visit to the Swedish reindeer industry, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, J.; Dieterich, R.A.; Thomas, W.C.; Davis, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    The State of Alaska indicated recently that it will become more strict in enforcing inspection requirements for reindeer meat that is mixed with meat from domestic animals (e.g., In sausage production). Therefore. we wanted to observe how reindeer are slaughtered to meet Swedish meat inspection requirements. Additionally, by following the processing and marketing of reindeer in Sweden, we hoped to discover alternative products that do not require blending reindeer with beef or pork. The Chernobyl tragedy further affected our decision to visit Sweden in two ways It gave us the opportunity to review the Impacts of widespread, Intense radioactive contamination on reindeer and the reindeer industry: and it created a shortage or reindeer for human consumption in Sweden which In turn appeared to open a market for Alaska reindeer products. Between 13 and 23 November 1986, we traveled to Sweden to meet suppliers and processors in the Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) industry. Wholesale and retail marketing of reindeer were reviewed in Stockholm; corralling, slaughter, and processing of reindeer were observed in Swedish Lapland. The specific objectives of this trip were as follows: 1) to observe reindeer slaughter facilities and techniques used in Sweden; 2) to trace the marketing of reindeer from Sami herders to retail outlets; 3) to assess radioactive contamination of reindeer and their ranges and observe how the problem is being handled; 4) to observe as many reindeer husbandry techniques as possible; and 5) to explore the possibility of establishing a market for Alaskan reindeer meat in Sweden

  3. Comparative ecological and behavioral adaptations of Ovibos moschatus and Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribou/reindeer and muskoxen are the only two ungulate species that have successfully occupied arctic tundra habitats. Although confronted with similar environmental constraints, their morphological dissimilarities have enabled them to develop unique behavioral and ecological adaptations that under most circumstances result in minimal overlap in use of forage resources. The large body and gut capacity of muskoxen have enabled them to adopt a strategy maximizing rate of forage intake and energy conservation, whereas caribou/reindeer of substantially smaller body size must pursue selective feeding, requiring high mobility and high energy expenditure. Responses to predators and insects by the two species show similar contrasts in associated energy costs. When confronted with environmental extremes that limit forage availability, competition for food may occur and the resulting differential success is a reflection of their divergent evolutionary routes.

  4. Phylogeographical analysis of mtDNA data indicates postglacial expansion from multiple glacial refugia in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelya F C Klütsch

    Full Text Available Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ~1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544-22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou.

  5. An examination of recovery planning for forest-dwelling woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. A. Wilkinson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ontario’s population of forest-dwelling woodland caribou is listed both federally and provincially as a species at risk. It is estimated that 20 000 woodland caribou remain in Ontario, of which approximately one quarter inhabit the boreal forest and are described as the sedentary forest-dwelling population. This paper examines the recovery strategy for this population developed by the Ministry of Natural Resources, as well as discussing the implications of provincial forestry policy on woodland caribou management. Commercial timber harvesting will likely soon be allowed in parts of the northern third of the province, in which woodland caribou habitat currently is relatively unimpaired by industrial development. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Planlegging for bevaring av skogsøkotypen av Rangifer tarandus caribou i Ontario, CanadaSkogsvillreinen av skogsøkotypen i Ontario er vurdert som sårbar både føderalt og på provinsnivå. Av provinsens rundt 20 000 skogsvillrein hører omtrent en fjerdepart til den stasjonære skogsboende skogsøkoypen. Artikkelen ser på bevaringsstrategien som er utarbeidet av naturressursdepartementet i Ontario for denne spesielle bestanden og diskuterer konsekvensene for villreinen av provinsens skogpolitikk. Kommersiell hogst vil mest sannsynlig og snart bli tillatt i deler av Ontarios nordlige tredel der skogvillreinens leveområder er relativt upåvirket av industriell virksomhet.

  6. Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickbeil, Gregory J M; Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984-2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen's slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006-2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou

  7. Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C.; White, Joanne C.; Wulder, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984–2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen’s slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006–2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou

  8. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven...... reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003......, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum...

  9. A remarkable collection of Late Pleistocene reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) remains from Woerden (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kolfschoten, Thijs; van der Jagt, Inge; Beeren, Zoe; Argiti, Vasiliki; van der Leije, Judith; van Essen, Hans; Busschers, Freek S.; Stoel, Pieter; van der Plicht, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Woerden, in the central part of The Netherlands, is a locality where the amateur-archaeologist Pieter Stoel collected several thousands of fossil mammalian remains of Pleistocene age. The stratigraphically-mixed assemblage includes a broad variety of taxa including species that are indicative of

  10. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

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    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  11. Observation of Arctic island barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus migratory movement delay due to human induced sea-ice breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Dumond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The seasonal migration of the Dolphin and Union caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus herd between Victoria Island and the mainland (Nunavut/Northwest Territories, Canada relies on the formation of sea-ice that connects the Island to the mainland from late-October to early-June.  During an aerial survey of the Dolphin and Union caribou herd in October 2007 on southern Victoria Island, Nunavut, Canada, we documented the short-term effects of the artificial maintenance of an open water channel in the sea-ice on caribou migratory movements during staging along the coast.

  12. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

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    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  13. Results of the 2000 census of wild reindeer on the Taimyr Peninsula

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    Leonid A. Kolpashchikov

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a census of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus on the Taimyr Peninsula during 21-25 July 2000. This was the eighteenth aerial population census of wild reindeer on the Taimyr since counts began in 1959. Prior to the census, we conducted reconnaissance flights to identify areas of reindeer concentration. After the reindeer became aggregated, we estimated group size both visually and by photographing the larger groups. Unusually hot and dry weather (temperatures of 25-30 °C and a high density of mosquitoes during the census likely forced the reindeer to group into unusually large concentrations. In late July most of the reindeer in the Taimyr population were distributed in two groupings that contained at least 450 000 animals, and one area that contained about 110 000. Smaller groups found during the census and the estimated 43 000 resident wild reindeer that were not counted during the census brought the total minimum population estimate to about 1 040 000. The maximum number of wild reindeer present could have been as high as about 1 100 000.

  14. Differences in the ecology and behaviour of reindeer populations in the USSR

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    Leonid M. Baskin

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The population differences in ecology and behaviour of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus spp. is closely paralleled by the characteristic features of reindeer husbandry which reveals the close relationship between behaviour and husbandry. The western portion of the reindeer husbandry region in the USSR is vast. The reindeer are maintained on a semi-loose basis; the herd is scattered over the range; the social activity of the reindeer is lower; the herdsmen gather the herd using dogs, the herdsmen migr.ate together with the herd during the summer, grazing the herd in the vicinity of the tent for 2-5 days at a time. In the eastern portion of the region (Yakutia, Chukotka, Kamchatka, the ranges are more restrictive; the reindeer are grazed in a compact mass in summer; their feeding and movement are rigidly regulated; their social activity is high; the herd is gathered in foot without dogs. In summer, herdsmen follow the herd with light tents, the place of grazing being changed almost daily. In the taiga reindeer are raised mostly for transportation, although the hides and meat are also important; the reindeer are bigger, tamer and can be used for riding. The herds are small and the management of them is aimed at retaining the reindeer near home or the camp; migrations are short; often forest reindeer husbandry is of a sedentary nature. Attempts to change the pattern of reindeer husbandry and the methods of herding are not always successful. The harmony of environmental conditons, morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour of reindeer and methods of husbandry are more easily disrupted than altered.

  15. Thermoregulation in reindeer

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    Päivi Soppela

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermoregulation was studied in Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L on captive and herded individuals during 1977-85. Newborn calves maintained a high rectal temperature (Tre (+39 to +41°C even at —23°C by increasing heat production 5- to 6-fold through non-shivering thermogenesis, stimulated by cold-induced noradrenaline (NA. Plasma NA and thyroxine (T4 were high (18 ng/ml and 459 nmol/1 in neonatal reindeer. Sensitivity to exogenous NA was lost during the first 3-4 weeks of life. At +20°C and above, calves increased Tre (ca 1°C, oxygen consumption and heart rate, thereby showing poor heat tolerance. Thermal conductance was low in a cold environment, but rose sharply as ambient temperature (Ta increased above + 10°C. The Tre of adults (+ 38 to +39°C was independent of Ta (—28 to +15°C. Coarse (hollow hair density and length in adults averaged 2000/cm2 and 12 mm on the legs, 1000/cm3 and 30 mm on the abdomen and 1700/cm2 and 30 mm on the back (calves 3200/cm2, 10 mm, respectively. The dependence of skin temperature on the Ta was linear in excised fur samples, but complex in living animals being strongest in the legs. Serum adrenaline correlated with the weight, age and total lipids. Serum NA and dopamine-fi-hydroxylase were highest in spring and decreased by autumn. Serum T4 was highest in summer and lowest in spring.

  16. The bacterial population adherent to plant particles in the rumen of reindeer fed lichen, timothy hay or silage

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    Monica Alterskjær Olsen

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves taken from a natural winter pasture were given ad lib. access to lichen (n = 3, timothy silage (n = 3 and hay (n = 3 for 7 weeks. Median numbers of viable anaerobic bacteria adherent to the plant particles (cells/g wet weight of rumen solids, growing on a habitat simulating medium (M8V, were significantly higher (P = 0.05 in the rumen of reindeer fed lichen (26.5 x 109- 53.0 x 109 and hay (4.0 x 109- 40.5 x 109, compared to reindeer fed silage (1.15 x 109 - 3.25 x 109. Anaerobic bacterial strains (n = 551 from the plant particles obtained from the rumen of the nine reindeer examined, were isolated using an acid swollen cellulose medium (M8SC and tested for their ability to hydrolyse carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. The proportion of CMC hydrolysing adherent bacteria isolated from M8SC was significantly higher in reindeer fed hay (21.5% compared ro animals fed lichen (5.3% and silage (2.7% (P = 0.05. The CMC hydrolysing bacterial srrains (n=42 isolated from reindeer fed hay where characterised as non-cellulolytic Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (9.5%, cellulolytic B. fibrisolvens (50.0%, Clostridium sp. (2.4% and unknowns (38.1%, while CMC hydrolysing strains (n=11 isolated from animals fed lichen and strains (n=4 isolated from animals fed silage where all characterised as B. fibrisolvens. None of the bacterial strains isolated from the rumen solids of reindeer fed lichen or silage were found to be cellulolytic. This study suggests that both lichen and timothy silage have a negative influence, compared to hay, on the numbers of cellulolytic bacteria adherent to the plant particles in the rumen of reindeer.

  17. Assessment of Alaska reindeer populations and range conditions

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    J. D. Swanson

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Populations of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus have fluctated greatly since their introduction to Alaska in 1891. In the 1930s, reported numbers exceeded 600 000. Presently, 38 000 reindeer graze 6.2 million ha of rangeland and woodland in Western Alaska (from 66°54'N to 52°07'N latitude. Condition of winter range producing fruticose lichens (Cladina rangiferina, Cladina arbuscula, Cladina stellaris, Cetraria cucullata, Cetraria islandica is of major concern. Monitoring programs have been established for vegetation, fire, reindeer and wildlife. Reindeer have overgrazed lichen resources on some Bering Sea Islands. Wildfires have had the greatest impact on lichen range depletion on the mainland. Overgrazing has been a problem in localized areas. Moose (Alces alces and muskox (Ovibos moschatus rarely contribute to major lichen depletion. 60-80% of the mainland and 5-30% of most island winter lichen ranges are presently estimated to be in good to excellent ecological condition. Procedures for assessing condition of the lichen ranges are being further refined.

  18. Some herding, record keeping and treatment methods used in Alaskan reindeer herds

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    Robert A. Dieterich

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20000 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus in Alaska are gathered once or twice yearly to facilitate identification, serologic sampling, treatment and antler removal. Various air and land craft are used to bring the animals into a corral system from which they can be herded into a padded, pneumatically operated, squeeze apparatus. Ear tags are applied or read if already in place and ears are notched. A portable, computerized rapid data retrieval system is used to record reproductive success, vaccination and treatment status and other miscellaneous information. Ivermectin is being administered in the early winter months to treat reindeer in many herds for warbles, nasal bots and internal parasites. A killed, homologous Brucella suis type 4 vaccine is being used in two large (3500 herds. Efforts are being made to incorporate other innovative methods to improve herding and corralling methods.

  19. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

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    J. M. Blanchard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  20. Rangifer 1981 Vol. 1 (1: 1-56

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    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available The first issue/volume of Rangifer was published in autumn 1981 and contained six articles, two of them in English. Besides the scientific contributions, the publication included information about the mandates of the Nordic Council for Reindeer Research (NOR and Rangifer. The aims of the journal were to give reindeer researchers possibilities for "high speed" publishing and to create a link between the researchers and the management/reindeer husbandry advisors to the best of the reindeer industry. Therefore abstracts were provided in several languages.

  1. Caribou recovery and coexistence with introduced feral reindeer on the Nuussuaq Peninsula (70-71°N, West Greenland

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    Christine Cuyler

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The small native caribou population (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus of Nuussuaq Peninsula was supplemented in 1968 with 10 semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Hunting was prohibited in the early 1990s, but resumed with a quota of 100 animals in 1996 after the population was estimated to be around 400. Despite local criticism that herd size had increased, managers kept the estimate unchanged and permitted similar quotas for the next 5 years. To ascertain current status of the population, a late winter ground survey for minimum count, recruitment and distribution was done in April 2002 employing local hunters. Data collected included group size, location and animal sex/age. Only two age classes were used; calf (<1 year and "adult" (>1 year. The 2002 ground survey observed 1164 individuals and a calf percentage of approximately 30%. The bull to cow ratio was 0.32. This data did not allow a calculation of population size, because areas where maximum animal numbers were expected were preferentially sampled. Spatial segregation of these two subspecies is suggested, given the observed and unexpected dissimilar behavior, pheno-type and spatial distribution. If true, then by 2002 feral reindeer had established a successful population, while native caribou had recovered to number several hundred. Genetic sampling is necessary to examine this hypothesis. At current late winter recruitment rates animal density could increase rapidly making both range expansion and genetic mixing likely in future. Since the total non-ice covered area available is about 6000 km2, greater caribou/reindeer densities may not be compatible with sustainable range use. Harvest quotas were increased in 2002 and 2003, and may reduce densities and preserve caribou range for the future.

  2. Insect avoidance may override human disturbances in reindeer habitat selection

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    Anna Skarin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat selection of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was investigated through faecal pellet- group counts and by direct observations of reindeer from helicopter in the Långfjället area in Idre reindeer herding district (62˚10’N and in Mittådalen reindeer herding district (62˚50’N, aerial observations only. Reindeer pellets were found to be most abundant in habitats at high altitudes, and in some vegetation types. Pellet-group densities tended to be higher near the tourist trails, which often follow higher altitudes in the terrain. The aerial surveys showed that the reindeer moved towards higher altitudes when the wind speed was low and the temperature was high both in June and July. In June they moved towards lower regions when temperature was low and the wind speed was strong. The conclusion is that the reindeer use Långfjället to escape insect harassment and warm weather, even though disturbance by tourism sometimes is high.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Habitatval hos tamren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus undersöktes genom att göra en spillningsinventering och genom att göra flygobservationer från helikopter. Studien gjordes på Långfjället (62˚10’N i Idre nya sameby och i Mittådalens samebys sommarbetesområde (62˚50’N, endast flygobservationer. På Långfjället finns det vandringsleder som är frekventerade av vandrare från juni månad fram till september. Spillningen visade att renarna föredrog höjderna i området samt en del av vegetationstyperna. Det var också mer spillning närmare vandringslederna. Detta kan förklaras av att vandringslederna följer höjderna i terrängen. Flyginventeringarna under både juni och juli visade att renarna rörde sig mot högre terräng när det var varmt och lugnt väder. I juni rörde dom sig också i lägre terräng när det var stark vind och kallt väder. Slutsatsen är att renarna väljer att vistas i högre terräng för att undvika st

  3. Effect of wind on Svalbard reindeer fur insulation

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    Christine Cuyler

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer through Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus fur samples was studied with respect to wind velocity, season and animal age. A total of 33 dorsal fur sections were investigated using a wind tunnel. Insulation varied with season (calving, summer, autumn and winter. At zero wind velocity, fur insulation was significantly different between seasons for both calf and adult fur samples. At the same time, there was no significant difference between calf and adult insulation for the summer, autumn and winter seasons. Calf fur insulated as well as adult fur. Winter insulation of Svalbard reindeer was approximately 3 times that of summer. Increasing wind veloci¬ty increased heat loss, however, the increase was not dramatic. When wind coefficients (slope of the heat transfer regression lines were compared, between season and between calf and adult, no significant differences were reported. All fur samples showed similar increases in heat transfer for wind velocities between 0 and 10 m.s-1. The conductance of winter fur of Svalbard reindeer was almost half that of caribou fur. Also, conductance was not as greatly influenced by wind as caribou fur

  4. Molecular diversity of the rumen microbiome of Norwegian reindeer on natural summer pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundset, Monica A; Edwards, Joan E; Cheng, Yan Fen; Senosiain, Roberto S; Fraile, Maria N; Northwood, Korinne S; Praesteng, Kirsti E; Glad, Trine; Mathiesen, Svein D; Wright, André-Denis G

    2009-02-01

    The molecular diversity of the rumen microbiome was investigated in five semi-domesticated adult female Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) grazing on natural summer pastures on the coast of northern Norway (71.00 degrees N, 25.30 degrees E). Mean population densities (numbers per gram wet weight) of methanogenic archaea, rumen bacteria and ciliate protozoa, estimated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were 3.17x10(9), 5.17x10(11) and 4.02x10(7), respectively. Molecular diversity of rumen methanogens was revealed using a 16S rRNA gene library (54 clones) constructed using pooled PCR products from the whole rumen contents of the five individual reindeer. Based upon a similarity criterion of rumen exhibited a high degree of sequence similarity to methanogens affiliated with the families Methanobacteriaceae (14 OTUs) and Methanosarcinaceae (one OTU). Four of the OTUs detected belonged to a group of uncultivated archaea previously found in domestic ruminants and thought to be dominant in the rumen together with Methanobrevibacter spp. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of the rumen bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the protozoal 18S rRNA gene indicated a high degree of animal variation, although some bands were common to all individuals. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) profiling of the ruminal Neocallimastigales population indicated that the reindeer are likely to contain more than one type of anaerobic fungus. The ARISA profile from one animal was distinct from the other four. This is the first molecular investigation of the ruminal methanogenic archaea in reindeer, revealing higher numbers than expected based on methane emission data available. Also, many of the reindeer archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were similar to those reported in domesticated ruminants in Australia, Canada, China, New Zealand and Venezuela, supporting previous findings that there seems to be no host type or geographical

  5. Heavy metals in reindeer and their forage plants

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    O. Eriksson

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to assess the level of heavy metal transfer from forage plants to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L. in an area in northern Lapland affected from dust from an open pit copper mine. Botanical analyses of rumen contents from reindeer provided information about the main plant species in the diet. Representative plant material was collected from sample plots within an 8 km radius from the central part of the mine and from a reference area situated about 200 km upwind of the mining site. The following plant species were analysed: Bryoria jremontii, Br. juscescens, Cladina rangiferina, Equisetum fluviatile, Descbampsiaflexuosa, Eriopborum vaginatum, Salix glauca, Salix pbylicifolia, Betula nana, and Vaccini-um myrtillus. The greatest difference between metal concentrations in the plants collected from dust contaminated area and from the reference area was found in lichens. Copper is the main metallic component of the ore and was found in higher concentrations in lichens coming from the area around the mine than in lichens from the reference area. Smaller differences were found in vascular plants. Dust particles, remaining on outer surfaces after snow smelt contributed to a limited extent to the metal contents. Species—specific accumulation of metals was observed in some plants. The uptake of lead and cadmium in some vascular plants was somewhat higher in the reference area compared with plants growing in the perifery of the mining center, probably due to the metal concentrations in the bedrock. Organ material (liver and kidney was collected from reindeer in both areas. No noticable effect on metal concentrations in the liver of the reindeer were found. Although the lead, cadmium and copper concentrations were higher in the organs collected from animals in the reference area than in those from the mining area, the levels were still below the concentrations regarded as harmful for the animals from toxicological point of view. The

  6. Loss of deuterium in faecal solids and by sequestration in reindeer: effect on doubly labelled water studies

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    Geir Gotaas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An underlying assumption when estimating total energy expenditure (TEE using doubly labelled water (DLW is that the injected isotopes (lsO and 2H leave the body only in the form of CO, and H20. However, both isotopes have additional routes of loss. We quantified the loss of 2H (i attached to faecal solids and (ii by sequestration into newly synthesised fat in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Estimates of the errors caused by these processes were applied to data from DLW studies with reindeer in summer and in winter. Given the net rate of faecal dry matter output and lipid synthesis in the present study, ignoring both sources of error caused the TEE of reindeer to be underestimated by approximately 5% in winter and approximately 9% in summer. The separate effect of each source of error was evaluated in summer. If ignored, loss of 2H through sequestration alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 3.7%. Similarly, if ignored, loss of 2H attached to faecal solids alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 5.9%.

  7. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  8. Development of temperature regulation in newborn reindeer

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    R. Hissa

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of temperature regulation was investigated by determining the ability of newborn reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus to maintain a normal body temperature when exposed to an incrementially decreasing ambient temperature. Newborn calves (1 day old can maintain their body temperature even at -15 °C. They can increase their metabolic rate five- to sixfold. Heat production is primarily stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. The response to exogenous administration of noradrenaline and propranolol was investigated.Poronvasan låmmonsååtelyn syntymånjålkeinen kehittyminen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vastasyntyneiden poronvasojen kylmansietoa ja lammonsaatelya tutkittiin toukokuussa 1981 Inarin Kaamasessa Paliskuntain yhdistyksen koetarhassa. Tutkittavat vasat olivat 1-10 vuorokauden ikaisia. Vasa asetettiin jååhdytettåvaån mittauskammioon. Sen aineenvaihdunta, lampotilat niin ihon eri kohdista kuin perasuolesta, lihasvarina ja sydanfrekvenssi rekisteroitiin jatkuvasti. Tulosten mukaan nayttåa siltå kuin 1 vuorokauden ikaiselle vasalle -15 °C olisi ehdoton alaraja låmpotilan sååtelyssa. Se kykeni kohottamaan hapenkulutusta talloin 5-kertaisesti. Lihasvarinan merkitys on vahainen verrattuna kemialliseen låmmontuottoon kylmassa. Tama voitiin osoittaa injisoimalla vasaan sympaattisen hermoston valittajaainetta noradrenaliinia.Temperaturreguleringens utvikling hos nyfødte reinkalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Temperaturreguleringens utvikling er studert ved å bestemme nyfødte reinkalvers evne til å opprettholde normal kroppstemperatur under påvirkning av gradvis synkende omgivelsestemperatur. Nyfødte kalver (1 døgn gamle kan opprettholde sin kroppstemperatur selv ved -15 °C. De kan øke sin omsetningshastighet fem til seks ganger. I starten er varmeproduksjonen stimulert av det sympatiske nervesystem. Virkningen av tilført noradrenalin og propranolol ble studert og skjelving synes å spille

  9. The Anatomy of Alimentary Tract in Chinese Reindeer(Rangifer ta randus)%中国驯鹿消化道的结构特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘为民; 杨银凤; 都格尔斯仁; 乔灵; 额尔敦木图; 嘎拉扎布

    2001-01-01

    对分布于中国东北地区的驯鹿消化道进行了大体解剖学的观察。驯鹿无鼻唇镜,仅有不发达的唇镜。舌无叶状乳头。雌、雄鹿均具有上犬齿。主要的唾液腺包括腮腺、下颌腺、单口舌下腺。胃包括瘤胃、网胃、瓣胃、皱胃。升结肠分为初袢、旋袢和终袢。旋袢具有5周向心回和5周离心回,在离心回的最后1周具有1个“S”状袢。%The digestive tract ana tomy of reindeer that live in northeastChina was studied.The reindeer has no pl anum nasonabiale,but has an undeveloped planun labiales.There are filiform papil lae,fungiform papillae,valate papillae and lenticular papillae,but no foliate pa pillae on the tongue.Both the male and female have uper canine tooth.The primary major salivary glands included parotid gland,mandibular gland,and monostomalica l sublingual gland.The stomach included rumen,reticulum,omasum and abomasum.The spiral loop of ascending colon have 5 centripeta turns and 5 centrifugal turns.I n the last centrifugal turn there is an “s”formed loop in the ventro-caudal qu adrant.

  10. Translocation of reindeer from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands

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    Cameron M. Bell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the first translocation of reindeer Rangifer tarandus from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Reindeer were introduced from Norway to the subantarctic island of South Georgia on three occasions in the early 1900s by Norwegian whalers, and today they exist as two discrete herds, numbering approximately 2600 individuals in total. Because of concerns over the impact on native vegetation, the long-term eradication of reindeer from South Georgia has recently been proposed. A translocation of reindeer to the Falkland Islands was undertaken in 2001 by the Falkland Island Government with two objectives: (1 to preserve the genetic resources of at least one of the South Georgia herds; and (2 to facilitate the diversification of the agricultural sector of the Falkland Islands by establishing a commercial reindeer herd. Techniques developed and used in North America for the successful relocation of large numbers of calves were adopted for the translocation. A total of 59 calves (26 females and 33 males were successfully translocated from South Georgia to the Falklands Islands in 2001, and subsequently produced their first offspring in 2003. Good husbandry practices and an understanding of biology and behaviour are essential for the successful translocation of reindeer.Flytting av rein fra Sør-Georgia til FalklandsøyeneAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Artikkelen beskriver den første overføring av rein Rangifer tarandus fra Sør-Georgia til Falklandsøyene i søratlanteren. Tamrein fra Norge ble flyttet til den subarktiske øya Sør-Georgia ved tre anledninger i perioden 1911 til 1925 i forbindelse med den norske hvalfangsten der. I dag består bestanden av rundt regnet 2600 dyr fordelt på to geografisk atskilte flokker. Av hensyn til den naturlige vegetasjonen på øya er det forslag om å på sikt utrydde reinbestanden på øya. Regjeringen på Falklandsøyene foretok en første overføring av

  11. Composition of late summer diet by semi-domesticated reindeer in different grazing conditions in northernmost Finland

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    Pauline Bezard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the diet composition of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in late summer in different kinds of grazing conditions in northernmost Finland. The composition of diet by reindeer was determined on the grounds of microhistological analysis of feces samples collected in early August in different seasonal grazing areas (winter or summer/year-round grazing areas in three reindeer management districts. Although the proportion of different plant groups varied between the studied districts, the quantified group of ground lichens (which also contained small amounts of mushrooms was the most abundant, varying from 33.0 to 46.4% in the analyzed samples. In general, there were significant differences in the proportions of lichen between districts, but not between grazing areas. The proportion of lichen in samples increased significantly when the amount of lichen pasture around a sample site increased. The proportion of dwarf shrubs and leaves in samples varied from 24.9 to 37.9% and differed significantly between districts, but not between grazing areas. In the same way, the proportion of graminoids varied between 20.9 and 36.2% and differed significantly between districts and also between grazing areas. Higher amounts of graminoids in feces were observed in summer/year-round grazing areas than in winter grazing areas. Finally, the proportion of bryophytes varied between 2.9 and 6.5% and was significantly different between districts, but not between grazing areas. An increase in old and mature coniferous forest around a sample site significantly increased the amounts of bryophytes in samples. The results indicate that reindeer adapt their summer diet composition according to the availability of food plants. The results also show that when reindeer are allowed to select their summer ranges freely, reindeer tend to use lichen pastures intensively also during summer, which causes a considerable reduction in

  12. Impacts of human activity on reindeer and caribou: The matter

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    Ingunn Vistnes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of human activity and infrastructure development on reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus have been studied for decades and have resulted in numerous debates among scientists, developers and indigenous people affected. Herein, we discuss the development within this field of research in the context of choice of spatial and temporal scale and concurrent trends in wildlife disturbance studies. Before the 1980s, the vast majority of Rangifer disturbance studies were behavioural studies of individual animals exposed directly to potential disturbance sources. Most of these local studies reported few and short-term impacts on Rangifer. Around the mid 1980s focus shifted to regional scale landscape ecology studies, reporting that reindeer and caribou reduced the use of areas within 5 km from infrastructure and human activity by 50-95%, depending on type of disturbance, landscape, season, sensitivity of herds, and sex and age distribution of animals. In most cases where avoidance was documented a smaller fraction of the animals, typically bulls, were still observed closer to infrastructure or human activity. Local-scale behavioural studies of individual animals may provide complementary information, but will alone seriously underestimate potential regional impacts. Of 85 studies reviewed, 83% of the regional studies concluded that the impacts of human activity were significant, while only 13% of the local studies did the same. Traditional ecological knowledge may further increase our understanding of disturbance effects.Effekter av menneskelig aktivitet på rein og caribou: Betydningen av valg av skalaAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Effektene av menneskelig aktivitet og utbygging på rein og caribou (Rangifer tarandus har vært studert i flere tiår og har resultert i utallige debatter mellom forskere, utbyggere og berørt urbefolkning. I denne artikkelen diskuterer vi utviklingen innenfor dette forskningsfeltet i forhold til valg av

  13. Treatment of reindeer with ivermectin - effect on dung insect fauna

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    Arne C. Nilssen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug widely used in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus (L. in Fennoscandia and North America. Most of the ivermectin injected in the animal is excreted unchanged in the faeces. Several reports show that ivermectin in cattle dung disrupts colonisation and survival of beneficial dung breeding insects. The present study investigated the effect of ivermectin on the reindeer dung fauna. Four reindeer calves (males, 6 months of age were injected subcutaneously with standard doses of ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg body weight in early December. The daily produced faeces was collected until day 30 after treatment, and the concentration of ivermectin was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The highest concentration measured (mean 1632 ng/g faeces (dry weight, range 907 to 2261 ng/g among the animals was on day 4 after treatment. The concentration decreased gradually to 28 ng/g (range 6 to 58 ng/g on day 30. Faeces portions from day 4 and from untreated reindeer were placed in the field on 2-4 July and recollected on 13-22 September in order to detect possible differences in decomposition fauna between the samples. The most important coprophilous beetles (Apbodius spp. and flies (Scatbophaga spp. were not detected in this winter dung whether it contained ivermectin or not, probably because of the dry consistency and small size of the pellets. On the other hand, these insects (larvae and imagines were common in summer dung, which had been deposited naturally in the field and later placed together with the ivermectin-containing winter dung for comparison. The summer dung has a more soft and lumpy consistency. Treatment in autumn or early winter implies that the bulk of the ivermectin from the animal will be present in faeces with winter consistency, since this bulk portion is excreted during the first 30 days after treatment. This dry and pelleted faeces is not utilized by the important

  14. St. Matthew Island reindeer crash revisited: Their demise was not nigh—but then, why did they die?

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    Frank L. Miller

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine yearling reindeer (Rangifer tarandus were released on St. Matthew Island in the Bering Sea Wildlife Refuge in 1944: 24 females and five males. They were reported to have increased to 1350 reindeer by summer 1957 and to 6000 by summer 1963. The 6000 reindeer on St. Matthew Island in summer 1963 were then reduced by 99% to 42 by summer 1966. The evidence suggests that after growing at a high average annual rate of lamda = 1.32 for 19 years, the entire die-off occurred in winter 1963—64, making it the largest single-year crash ever recorded in any R. tarandus population. Although a supposedly meaningful decline in successful reproduction and early survival of calves was originally reported for the population between 1957 and 1963, our reevaluation indicates this is an error resulting from the wrong sample being used in the between-year comparison. The quantitative data indicate no meaningful change occurred, and the calf:cow ratio was about 60 calves:100 cows in both 1957 and 1963. Calf production and survival were high up to the crash, and in the die-off population the age distribution (72%, 1—3 years old and the sex ratio (69 males:100 females reflected a still fast-growing R. tarandus population. All of these parameters do not support the hypothesis that the limited abundance of the absolute food supply was at a lethal level between 1957 and 1963 or in winter 1963—64. We now know from other studies that a high density of R. tarandus is not a prerequisite for a major single-year winter die-off. Existing population dynamics data do not support lack of lichens as a major causative factor in this single-year crash. If a decline had been caused by the limitation of the absolute food supply, it would have followed a multi-year pattern—it would not have been a single-year event. There was no evidence of a sudden, massive, island-wide loss of the absolute food supply, or that its nutritional value was inadequate for sustaining the

  15. Highly competitive reindeer males control female behavior during the rut.

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    Guillaume Body

    Full Text Available During the rut, female ungulates move among harems or territories, either to sample mates or to avoid harassment. Females may be herded by a male, may stay with a preferred male, or aggregate near a dominant male to avoid harassment from other males. In fission-fusion group dynamics, female movement is best described by the group's fission probability, instead of inter-harem movement. In this study, we tested whether male herding ability, female mate choice or harassment avoidance influence fission probability. We recorded group dynamics in a herd of reindeer Rangifer tarandus equipped with GPS collars with activity sensors. We found no evidence that the harassment level in the group affected fission probability, or that females sought high rank (i.e. highly competitive and hence successful males. However, the behavior of high ranked males decreased fission probability. Male herding activity was synchronous with the decrease of fission probability observed during the rut. We concluded that male herding behavior stabilized groups, thereby increasing average group size and consequently the opportunity for sexual selection.

  16. Eubacterium rangiferina, a novel usnic acid-resistant bacterium from the reindeer rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundset, Monica A.; Kohn, Alexandra; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Præsteng, Kirsti E.

    2008-08-01

    Reindeer are able to eat and utilize lichens as an important source of energy and nutrients. In the current study, the activities of antibiotic secondary metabolites including usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid commonly found in lichens were tested against a collection of 26 anaerobic rumen bacterial isolates from reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus) using the agar diffusion method. The isolates were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. Usnic acid had a potent antimicrobial effect against 25 of the isolates, belonging to Clostridiales, Enterococci, and Streptococci. Isolates of Clostridia and Streptococci were also susceptible to atranoric and lobaric acid. However, one isolate (R3_91_1) was found to be resistant to usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid. R3_91_1 was also seen invading and adhering to lichen particles when grown in a liquid anaerobic culture as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. This was a Gram-negative, nonmotile rod (0.2-0.7 × 2.0-3.5 μm) with a deoxyribonucleic acid G + C content of 47.0 mol% and main cellular fatty acids including 15:0 anteiso-dimethyl acetal (DMA), 16:0 iso-fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), 13:0 iso-3OH FAME, and 17:0 anteiso-FAME, not matching any of the presently known profiles in the MIDI database. Combined, the phenotypic and genotypic traits including the 16S rRNA gene sequence show that R3_91_1 is a novel species inside the order Clostridiales within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which we propose the name Eubacterium rangiferina. This is the first record of a rumen bacterium able to tolerate and grow in the presence of usnic acid, indicating that the rumen microorganisms in these animals have adapted mechanisms to deal with lichen secondary metabolites, well known for their antimicrobial and toxic effects.

  17. Decay rate of reindeer pellet-groups

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    Anna Skarin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Counting of animal faecal pellet groups to estimate habitat use and population densities is a well known method in wildlife research. Using pellet-group counts often require knowledge about the decay rate of the faeces. The decay rate of a faecal pellet group may be different depending on e.g. substrate, size of the pellet group and species. Pellet-group decay rates has been estimated for a number of wildlife species but never before for reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. During 2001 to 2005 a field experiment estimating the decay rate of reindeer pellet groups was performed in the Swedish mountains close to Ammarnäs. In total the decay rate of 382 pellet groups in three different habitat types (alpine heath, birch forest and spruce forest was estimated. The slowest decay rate was found in alpine heath and there the pellet groups persisted for at least four years. If decay was assumed to take place only during the bare ground season, the estimated exponential decay rate was -0.027 pellet groups/week in the same habitat. In the forest, the decay was faster and the pellet groups did not persist more than two years. Performing pellet group counts to estimate habitat use in dry habitats, such as alpine heath, I will recommend using the faecal standing crop method. Using this method makes it possible to catch the animals’ general habitat use over several years. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Nedbrytningshastighet av renspillningInom viltforskningen har spillningsinventeringar använts under flera årtionden för att uppskatta habitatval och populationstäthet hos olika djurslag. För att kunna använda data från spillningsinventeringar krävs ofta att man vet hur lång tid det tar för spillningen att brytas ner. Nedbrytningshastigheten är olika beroende på marktyp och djurslag. Nedbrytningshastighet på spillning har studerats för bland annat olika typer av hjortdjur, men det har inte studerats på ren (Rangifer tarandus tidigare. I omr

  18. Mineral absorption in relation to nutritional ecology of reindeer

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    H. Staaland

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the way which absorption of minerals relate to nutritional ecology and mineral conservation processes. A latin square designed experiment was used to assess the effects of diet on mineral (Ca, Mg, K, Na absorption processes in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.. Three male calves were fed 3 different diets: concentrate with 25% grass meal (RF-71, lichens, and a mixed diet of lichens and RF-71. Two other male calves were fed the lichen or mixed diet, supplemented with 4 g Ca/day. Ca supplementation significantly increased fecal Ca excretion, reduced the excretion of K and Mg, but had no significant effect on Na excretion. Rates of intake and fecal exretion of Ca, Mg and K were highly correlated (P<0.001, while no correlations were found for Na. Negative digestibilities of Ca, Mg and K, and a positive Na digestibility were noted for the lichen diet. For the other diets, all minerals were in positive digestibility, and Ca supplements increased the digestibility of all minerals. Digesta from different sections of the alimentary tract were collected after termination of the experiment. Alimentary pools of Ca and K were equal for animals fed lichen or RF-71, whereas the Na pool was largest on the lichen diet and the Mg pool largest on the RF-71 diet. Rumen turnover time (rumen mineral pool size/daily mineral intake was consistently less than 3 days for Ca and Mg, but was 22 and 82 days for Na on the RF-71 and lichen diets respectively. Estimates of mineral exchange in various parts of the tract showed that the intestines play and important role in scavanging endogenously secreted minerals. Results are discussed with respect to mineral binding by lichens and the possible role of natural mineral supplements in the nutritional ecology of reindeer.

  19. Utilization of old meadow by reindeer in spring in northern Norway

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    Svein M. Eilertsen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of abandoned coastal meadows in northern Norway by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus were investigated for 25 days in spring 1996 (« = 12, 40-57 kg body mass (BM and 24 days in 1997 (» = 12, 39-61 kg BM. Grass production on grazed and ungrazed meadow was measured both years. Faecal dry matter (DM production and ruminai in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD of selected plants were measured in the reindeer 15-22 days after the grazing experiment started each year. During the grazing period mean, standard deviation (s, temperature was 8.7, s = 2.8, °C in 1996 and 11.0, s = 3.0, °C in 1997, while temperature the first week was significantly higher in 1997 (P < 0.05. Mean herbage mass, on ungrazed meadow (control, after one week of plant growth in 1996 (408, J" = 166, kg DM ha"1 was significantly different (P < 0.05 from 1997 (576, s = 110, kg DM ha'. We believe the low temperature the first week in 1996 affected the plant production, and was the main reason for the significant (P < 0.05 difference in mean daily plant DM production on the grazed meadow between 1996 (57, s = 16, kg DM ha' and 1997 (81, s = 16, kg DM ha"1. Mean ruminai IVDMD of a mixture of meadow plants, differed (P<0.05 between 1996 (72.4, s = 1.0, % and 1997 (83.9, s = 1.3, %, and mean daily food intake in 1996 (82, s = 13.5, g DM/kg0 75 was significantly lower than the intake in 1997 (131, s = 15.8, g DM/kg0 75. Daily digestible energy intake in reindeer was estimated to 0.96 Ml/kg07"5 X d 1 in 1996 and 1.85 Ml/kg""5 X d"1 in 1997, which was 1.3 and 2.5 times the resting metabolic rate in reindeer, respectively. We therefore assume the difference in food intake could be due to the initial difference in herbage mass.

  20. Assessing dental wear in reindeer using geometric morphometrical methods

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    Rolf Rødven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing dental wear is a useful tool for monitoring the interaction between ungulates and their food resources. However, using a univariate measurement for dental wear, like for instance height of the first molar may not capture the variation in dental wear important for the dental functional morphology. We here demonstrate a method for assessing dental wear for ungulates by using geometric morphometrical methods on 11 mandibles from nine Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Shape measurements were obtained from a combination of fixed and sliding semi-landmarks, and dental wear was estimated using residual variation of the landmarks. The morphometric measurements obtained showed a good fit when compared to subjective scores of dental wear. We conclude that this method may give a more integrated and robust assessment of dental wear than univariate methods, and suggest it to be used as an alternative or in addition to traditional measurements of dental wear.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Vurdering av tannslitasje hos rein ved hjelp av geometrisk morfometriske metoder Vurdering av tannslitasje er en anvendbar metode for å overvåke betydningen av miljøet for livshistorien til hovdyr. Imidlertid vil bruk av et enkelt mål, som for eksempel høyde på første molar, ikke nødvendigvis fange opp variasjonen i tannslitasje som er viktig i forhold til tennenes funksjonelle morfologi. I denne artikkelen viser vi hvordan tannslitasje kan vurderes ved å anvende geometrisk morfometriske metoder på 11 underkjever fra ni Svalbardrein (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Formen på tannrekka ble målt ved hjelp av en kombinasjon av fikserte og glidende semi-landemerker, hvor tannslitasje ble estimert ved å bruke residual variasjon av landemerkene. De morfometriske målene stemte godt overens med subjektiv vurdering av tannslitasje. Vi konkluderer at denne metoden kan gi en mer integrert og robust vurdering av tannslitasje enn univariate

  1. The quality of the forage eaten by Norwegian reindeer on South Georgia in summer

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    Svein D. Mathiesen

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and digestibility of plants selected by Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus on the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia (SG were investigated in the austral summer and compared with two qualities of standard grasses of Phleum pratense of European origin. Paridiochola flabellata, Poa pratense, Poa annua, Deschampsia antarctka, and Phleum alpinum collected on SG contained 14.8, 17.6, 22.8, 16.1 and 10.1% respectively of crude protein of dry matter (DM. Aceana magellanica also collected on SG contained 19.8% of crude protein and 18.8% of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC of DM, while the tussock grass P. flabellata, contained as much as 29-3% of WSC of DM. Total plant cell-wall contents (CWC, including cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin in P. flabellata, P. pratense, P. annua and P. alpinum were 53.2, 49.6, 41.7 and 40.4% of DM respectively, while A. magellanica contained only 17.5% of DM CWC. The lignin concentrations of plants analysed varied between 1.2 and 3.2% of DM. Mean in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of selected plants ranged from 70% in P. flabellata to 83% in P. alpinum after 48 h incubation in rumen fluid from these reindeer. In contrast, the IVDMD of the poor and high quality standard grass Phleum pratense were 54% and 73% of DM, respectively. The forage eaten by reindeer on SG in summer was of high quality, with low lignin content, moderate protein concentration and high degradability in rumen fluid.

  2. Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States

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    Jeffrey T. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp., white-tailed deer (WTD (Odocoileus virginianus, and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT, comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT, and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak, and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP. Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3% were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids.

  3. Health, body condition and blood metabolites in reindeer after submaintenance feed intake and subsequent feeding

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    A. Nilsson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition from experimentally induced poor nutritional conditions to feeding was studied with 69 eight-month-old female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. During a pre-experimental period, all reindeer were fed a simulated winter diet with 80% lichens Cladina spp. and 20% Vaccinum myrtillus shrubs and Salix spp. leaves (lichen diet ad lib. The reindeer were divided into five groups. A control group (group C was fed the lichen diet ad lib. throughout the experiment. Four groups were fed half of that ration for eight days and were then totally deprived of feed for one day (restriction period. During the following 34 days (feeding period the groups were re-fed the lichen diet (group L, fed pelleted reindeer feed combined with either lichen (group PL or grass silage (group PS, or fed silage with a gradually increasing addition of pellets (group SP. Weekly measurements of blood samples and body weighr showed that the control group remained clinically healthy and had stable blood plasma concentrations of protein, urea, glucose and insulin throughout the experiment, but they lost weight. At slaughter, before and after the restriction period, all animals had lost rumen-free body weight, but the reindeer fed a restricted amount of feed lost more than the control group. Also the plasma metabolites were affected by the restricted feeding, with increased concentrations of urea and decreased concentrations of glucose. Group L responded immediately to the ad lib. feeding with blood metabolite levels rapidly approaching those of group C. The body weight developments were similar in groups L and C. Although the feed rations were increased gradually, diarrhoea occurred in some animals belonging to groups PL and PS within the first week of the feeding period. All reindeer recovered, after antibiotic treatment of the worst affected animals. The PL and PS groups, which had high contents of metabolisable energy and crude protein in their diets, showed

  4. Anatomic Observation of Nose,Pharynx and Throat of Chinese Reindeers(Rangifer Tarandus)%中国驯鹿鼻、咽、喉的解剖学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘为民; 乔灵; 都格尔斯仁; 杨银凤; 嘎拉扎布; 额尔德木图

    2001-01-01

    采用大体解剖学的方法对驯鹿上呼吸道的形态结构进行了观察,结果如下:驯鹿鼻部较长,鼻翼内有内、外鼻翼软骨.固有鼻腔发达,每侧鼻腔内含一大的下鼻甲和一小的上鼻甲.鼻泪管开口于鼻前庭腹外侧壁.咽部的软腭长而厚,鼻咽部的后壁上形成咽隐窝,内含一杯状粘膜褶.喉前庭深陷,会厌大而弹性较弱,喉室平坦,不形成喉小囊,但具有喉中室,位于喉前庭底壁上,环状软骨板宽.

  5. Refugial origin and postglacial colonization of holarctic reindeer and caribou

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    Knut H. Røed

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The classification and colonization of reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus was assessed from analysis of both proteins, nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA. I demonstrate that the current subspecies designations are not compatible with the differentiation at these markers, suggesting that the morphological differences among extant subspecies did not evolve in separate glacial refugia. Thus, morphological differences among extant subspecies probably evolved as adaptive responses to post-glacial environmental changes. An exception to this is the North American woodland caribou, where all three marker systems support a subspecies-specific refugium as the ancestral origin of these animals. Three major mtDNA haplogroups reported, represent three separate origins of the species during the last glaciation. The most influential origin has contributed to the gene pool of all extant subspecies, suggesting the existence of a large and continuous glacial population ranging across extensive areas of tundra in Eurasia and Beringia. The North American tundra forms (R.t. granti and groenlandicus and the arctic forms (R.t platyrhynchus, R.t pearyi and R.t eogroenlandicus almost exclusively comprise haplotypes of such an origin. Another small and isolated refugium seems to have arisen in western Eurasia in close connection to the extensive ice sheet that covered Fennoscandia. The two Eurasian subspecies R.t. tarandus and R.t. fennicus appear to have a diphyletic origin as both the putatively small and isolated Eurasian refugium and the large Beringia refugium have contributed to their gene pools. A third distinct and geographically well-defined refugial area was probably located south to the extensive North American continental ice sheet from where the ancestors of the present North American woodland caribou (R.t. caribou likely originated.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Systematisk inndeling og kolonisering av rein (Rangifer tarandus ble bestemt ved

  6. Digestion of energy and nutrients in Svalbard reindeer

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    Hans Staaland

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding trials with 5 male Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus Vrolik were conducted at the Man and the Biosphere (MAB Research Station in Adventdalen, Svalbard. Five different diets were used, 1: commercial reindeer food, (RF-71, 2: a mixture of locally harvested grasses and sedges (mainly Dupontia pelligera and Eriphorum scheusczeri, 3: a pure moss (Pleurozium scheberi diet, 4: a lichen diet using the dominant Svalbard species Cetraria delisei, and 5: a mixed diet of RF-71, moss (P. schreberi and lichens (mainly Cladonia alpestris and Cladonia rangiferina. When fed the RF-71 diet the digestibility by Svalbard and Norwegian reindeer were similar with respect to dry matter (DM 75 v 74% and crude protein (CP 74 v 70% as were the availabilities of P (72 v 76% a and Ca (18 v 36% in the diet. The mixture of grasses and sedges was highly digestible with respect to DM ((66,5% but had low availabilities of Ca (12%, Mg (10% and P (-11%. DM digestibility of the lichen C delisei was low (33% however this lichen could constitute a good source of Ca. Moss palatability was very low (174-252 g or 9-13g/kg 0 75 intake daily. DM, CP and energy digestibilities, respectively 48, 53 and 49%, and the availabilities of P (66% and Ca (20% were indicative that they could add to the energy and protein intake while contributing significantly to nutrient balance of Svalbard reindeer when present in a mixed diet.Fordøyelse av energi og næringsstoffer hos Svalbard-rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Ved MAB-stasjonen i Adventdalen på Svalbard ble det utført foringsforsøk med fem voksne bukker av Svalbardrein, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus Vrolik. Det ble nyttet fem forskjellige forty per, 1: pelletert reinfor, RF71, 2: en blanding av gras og siv høstet i Adventdalen (vesentlig Dupontia pelligera og Eriophorum scheuchzeri, 3: en ren mosediett (Pleurozium schreberi, 4: lav av den vanlige Svalbard -arten, Cetraria delisei, 5: en blandet diett av RF

  7. Failure of cellulolysis in the rumen of reindeer fed timothy silage

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    Monica A. Olsen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Three male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were brought from mountain pastures in April and fed regrowth timothy (Phleum pratense silage with 76% leaves and 24.0% dry matter (DM ad libitum. The silage contained (on DM basis 25.4% cellulose, 12.0% crude protein and 19-6% water soluble carbohydrates. After an initial period of 11 days the daily silage intake rose to almost similar values for all animals, but independently of food intake, body mass (BM increased by as much as 13.3 kg for animal R3 during the first 21 days, compared to 4.4 kg and 2.8 kg for Rl and R2, respectively. At slaughter the wet weight of the rumen contents of animal R3 constituted 30.2% of the total BM, compared to 18.5% and 19.1% in animals Rl and R2, respectively. A reduced ability of the rumen micro-biota to ferment pure cellulose in vitro was observed in R3. The ruminal pH was 7.07 and the concentration of volatile fatty acids was only 50.0 mM in R3, indicating a low rate of fermentation. The initial rates of in vitro dry matter digestibility of timothy silage and standard hay were also affected by the rumen fermentation failure in animal R3. Depressed rumen cellulolysis, which may be related to natural periods of starvation prior to the feeding experiment, could have caused the low rate of fermentation and the large rumen size observed in this animal.

  8. Metagenomics of the Svalbard reindeer rumen microbiome reveals abundance of polysaccharide utilization loci.

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    Phillip B Pope

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass remains a largely untapped source of renewable energy predominantly due to its recalcitrance and an incomplete understanding of how this is overcome in nature. We present here a compositional and comparative analysis of metagenomic data pertaining to a natural biomass-converting ecosystem adapted to austere arctic nutritional conditions, namely the rumen microbiome of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Community analysis showed that deeply-branched cellulolytic lineages affiliated to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are dominant, whilst sequence binning methods facilitated the assemblage of metagenomic sequence for a dominant and novel Bacteroidales clade (SRM-1. Analysis of unassembled metagenomic sequence as well as metabolic reconstruction of SRM-1 revealed the presence of multiple polysaccharide utilization loci-like systems (PULs as well as members of more than 20 glycoside hydrolase and other carbohydrate-active enzyme families targeting various polysaccharides including cellulose, xylan and pectin. Functional screening of cloned metagenome fragments revealed high cellulolytic activity and an abundance of PULs that are rich in endoglucanases (GH5 but devoid of other common enzymes thought to be involved in cellulose degradation. Combining these results with known and partly re-evaluated metagenomic data strongly indicates that much like the human distal gut, the digestive system of herbivores harbours high numbers of deeply branched and as-yet uncultured members of the Bacteroidetes that depend on PUL-like systems for plant biomass degradation.

  9. Fertility in female reindeer: the effects of nutrition and growth

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    N. J.C. Tyler

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rates in juvenile reindeer (Rangifer tarandus vary considerably both within and between flocks. This potentially has considerable economic significance for reindeer husbandry. This paper discusses the influence of nutrition and growth on fertility in female reindeer using examples taken from the literature. Fertility in reindeer is related to body weight, like in many other mammals, but the relationship is not invariant. Weight-specific pregnancy rates appear to be density dependent in juvenile reindeer although not in adults. This strongly suggests that nutrition has an important influence on fertility in juveniles.Fruktbarhet hos simler: effekter av ernæring og vekst.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Drektighetsprosenten i ungrein varierer sterkt fra individ til individ og fra flokk til flokk. En høy fruktbarhet i reinflokken er selve grunnlaget for en vellykket reindrift. Overraskende er det derfor at man vet lite om hvilke faktorer som bestemmer om rein skal bli drektig eller ikke. I denne artikkelen blir effekten av ernæring på reinsimlenes fruktbarhet diskutert. Undersøkelser indikerer at rein er som andre pattedyr, der fruktbarheten er relatert til kroppsvekten. Forholdet mellom reinens kroppsvekt og fruktbarhet varierer likevel sterkt. Mye tyder på at drektighetsprosenten i ungrein er avhengig av reintettheten. Dette indikerer at ernæringen er en viktig faktor når det gjelder fruktbarhet i ungrein. Vekt-spesifikk fruktbarhet kan derfor være en brukbar indikator for reinflokkens fortilgang. I prinsippet vil slike fruktbarhetsundersøkelser gi et en brukbar indikator for reinflokkens fortilgang. I prinsippet vil slike fruktbarhetsundersøkelser gi et tidlig varsel om reintallet er for høyt i forhold til beitegrunnlaget før en markert nedgang i slaktevekten observeres.Ravitsemustilan ja kasvun vaikutus vaatimien hedelmållisyyteen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Nuorten porojen hedelmåliisyys vaihtelee suuresti

  10. Habitat use by semi-domesticated reindeer, estimated with pellet-group counts

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    Anna Skarin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat selection theory predicts that herbivores should select for or against different factors at different spatial scales. For instance, quantity of forage is expected to be a strong factor influencing habitat choice at large scales, while forage quality may be important at finer scales. However, during summer, herbivores such as reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus can be limited in their grazing time by insect harassment, and do not always have the possibility to select for high quality forage. Human disturbances from hikers, etc., can also have a limiting effect on the possibility for reindeer to graze in high quality foraging habitats. Reindeer habitat selection at the landscape level was investigated through faecal pellet-group counts during the summers of 2002 and 2003 in two reindeer herding districts in Sweden. Resource utilization functions (RUFs were developed using multiple linear regressions, where the pellet densities were related to vegetation types, topographic features, distances to tourist resorts, and distances to hiking trails. Validations of the models were performed through cross-validation correlations. Results show that high altitudes with high quality forage were important habitats. Areas that offer both snow patches and fresh forage plants for the reindeer were used in relation to their availability. The reindeer also seemed able to habituate to human intervention to a certain extent. The predictive capabilities of the RUF models were high and pellet-group counts seemed well suited to study how abiotic factors affect the habitat use at large temporal and spatial scales Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Renens användning av sommarbetesområdet, uppskattat med spillningsinventeringar Hierarkiskt habitatval innebär att djur väljer för och emot olika faktorer beroende på den rumsliga skalan. Mängden bete kan t ex spela stor roll för en växtätares habitatval på en stor skala medan kvalitén på betet kan ha

  11. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in winter slaughtered reindeer of northern Finland

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    Jackie T. Hrabok

    2009-01-01

    .005. Suolistosukkulamatoja Nematodirus tarandi ja Nematodirella longispiculata tavattiin ainoastaan vasoilla. Näiden matojen määrä ei eronnut naaras- ja urosvasojen välillä, mutta maantieteellisiä eroja yleisyydessä havaittiin. Tutkimuksen poroille leimallinen loisten korkea prevalenssi ja matala infektioaste viittaa oireettomuuteen ja siihen, että ne ehkä eivät aiheuta tuotantotappioita. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Prosentvis forekomst (prevalens av rundmark (nematoder i mage-tarm fra vinterslakta rein i nordlige Finland Studien ble gjennomført på rein (Rangifer tarandus tarandus fra nordlige reindistrikter i Finland i perioden 2002 til 2004. Rundmarken Ostertagia gruehneri fra løpemagen var vanlig og fantes i lavt infeksjonsnivå (dvs. i relativt lite antall i alle undersøkte kalver (100% forekomst i 53 dyr med et gjennomsnittlig antall marker per kalv på ca 1300 og i 98% av de 41 undersøkte voksne dyrene der gjennomsnittet per voksent dyr var ca 3900 marker. Andelen med hvilende (inhiberte larver var statistisk sannsynlig høyere i kalver (81% enn i voksen rein (39% (P = 0.05. Tarmnematodene Nematodirus tarandi og Nematodirella longispiculata fantes bare i kalver. Her varierte prosentvis infeksjon fra 25% til 100% i flokkene. Det var ingen forskjell i intensitet (antall mark mellom han- og hunkalver. Høy prevalens og lav intensitet var det karakteristiske infeksjonsmønsteret i denne studien. Vi antar derfor at infeksjonene er ubetydelige (er subkliniske og at de ikke vil bidra til produksjonstap.

  12. Feed intake, gastrointestinal system and body composition in reindeer calves fed early harvested first cut timothy silage (Phleum pratense

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    Harri J. Norberg

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Early harvested first cut (EFC timothy silage was fed to five reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. taken from their natural summer pasture and brought to Tromsø for feeding trial. The calves were housed indoors in metabolism cages and fed EFC timothy silage ad lib. during the trial, which lasted from late November 1994 until the end of February 1995, when animals subsequently were slaughtered. Daily feed intake, gastrointestinal (GI anatomy, body weight and body composition of the animals were examined. Timothy silage {Phleum praténse was harvested 21 June, 1994 in Tromsø, prewilted and stored as round bales containing 97% leaves. The EFC silage contained 42.1% dry matter (DM, and 18.1% crude protein, 20.7% cellulose, 16.9% hemicellulose and 28.0% water soluble carbohydrates (WSC of DM. Mean feed intake (DM 24 hours after the trial started (day 1 was 9-4 g/kg body mass (BM (S.D.+ 3-9, while the mean daily DM intake during days 15-74 comprised 24.2 g/kg BM (S.D.+ 6.1. All animals except one gained body weight during the trial. The median (range BM at start and at slaughter was 48.5 kg (34.5¬58.0 kg and 50.0 kg (42.0-53.5 kg, respectively. Median (range carcass weight % of BM was 58.0% (51.2-58.7% and muscle index value 0.0132 (0.0106-0.0176. The median reticulo-rumen (RR content wet weight (WW was 4601 g (range 2697-5000 g comprising 9.3% of the BM, and 85.1% of the total gastrointestinal wet weight content. The median (range gastrointestinal tract weight was 14.1% of BM (10.7-16.4%. Based on feed intake during the trial and body composition at slaughtet we conclude that first cut timothy silage is suitable as emergency feed to reindeer, as long as it is harvested in early growth stage with high proportion of leaves.

  13. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of EGFR Gene in Reindeer%驯鹿EGFR基因克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强辉; 翟健程; 夏彦玲; 刘伟石; 李和平

    2017-01-01

    The epidermal tissue of antler-tip of male reindeer was used as the research materials,and total RNA was extracted from it.The homologous primers were designed according to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene sequence of cattle and sheep in GenBank database.Part cDNA sequences EGFR gene in coding region,which had 910 base pairs in length,was first obtained by RT-PCR and the molecular cloning technique.The EGFR gene homology between reindeer and cattle,sheep,horse,human,whale,and wild boar respectively was 97%,96%,88%,86%,92% and 89% by the bioinformatics and Blast analysis.The homologies,all of them,were above 85%.The reindeer EGFR gene was more conserved in its evolution.In the construction of phylogenetic tree,the genetic relationship of reindeer EGFR gene with cattle was the closest,and with human was the furthest.The minimum free energy secondary structure of the EGFR gene sequence was predicted by the online analysis software.%以快速生长期雄性驯鹿(Rangifer tarandus)鹿茸顶端表皮组织为研究材料,提取其顶端表皮组织总RNA,参考GenBank数据库中牛、羊的表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)基因序列设计同源引物;采用RT-PCR技术、分子克隆技术首次成功获得雄性驯鹿茸顶端表皮组织EGFR基因编码区部分cDNA序列,片段大小为910 bp;Blast比对发现驯鹿EGFR基因与牛、羊、马、人、鲸、野猪的同源性分别是97%、96%、88%、86%、92%、89%,同源性均在85%以上,表明驯鹿EGFR基因在进化上比较保守;构建系统进化树发现驯鹿EGFR基因与牛亲缘关系最近,与人的亲缘关系最远;最后通过在线分析软件预测获得EGFR基因序列对应mRNA最小自由能二级结构.

  14. A hypothesis to explain lichen-Rangifer dynamic relationships

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    Eldar Gaare

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A small group of fruticous lichen species, viz. Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia mitis, C. stellaris, and Stereocaulon paschale forms extensive mats in the most winter habitats of Rangifer tarandus populations in Norway. The plant communities accessible for grazing are often found on easily drained, moraine ridges. These lichen species are perennial, lying on the ground while growing slowly at the top. As they decompose they add humus to the top of the soil profile. The lichen mats catch all water from small showers, thus preventing vascular plants from obtaining a more regular water supply. Grazing removs whole plants and gradually makes larger and larger holes in the lichen mats. Wind and water erode the humus, with only coarse gravel remaining. This diminishes the soil water storage capacity. Without grazing, lichens will gradually build a humus layer, which would improve the soil water storage capacity. In time vascular plants then would take the place of the lichens. I propose the hypothesis that by (over-grazing Rangifer improve their winter pastures by making conditions more favourable for lichens than for vascular plants.The fact that lichens are more scarce on habitats with more and regular precipitation, 1 in more oceanic climates, 2 on soils with more silt, and 3 on bird perches with thick peat due to regular fertilising, support this hypothesis.

  15. Impacts of introduced Rangifer on ecosystem processes of maritime tundra on subarctic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Eviner, Valerie T.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of mammalian herbivores to remote islands without predators provide a natural experiment to ask how temporal and spatial variation in herbivory intensity alter feedbacks between plant and soil processes. We investigated ecosystem effects resulting from introductions of Rangifer tarandus (hereafter “Rangifer”) to native mammalian predator- and herbivore-free islands in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska. We hypothesized that the maritime tundra of these islands would experience either: (1) accelerated ecosystem processes mediated by positive feedbacks between increased graminoid production and rapid nitrogen cycling; or (2) decelerated processes mediated by herbivory that stimulated shrub domination and lowered soil fertility. We measured summer plant and soil properties across three islands representing a chronosequence of elapsed time post-Rangifer introduction (Atka: ~100 yr; Adak: ~50; Kagalaska: ~0), with distinct stages of irruptive population dynamics of Rangifer nested within each island (Atka: irruption, K-overshoot, decline, K-re-equilibration; Adak: irruption, K-overshoot; Kagalaska: initial introduction). We also measured Rangifer spatial use within islands (indexed by pellet group counts) to determine how ecosystem processes responded to spatial variation in herbivory. Vegetation community response to herbivory varied with temporal and spatial scale. When comparing temporal effects using the island chronosequence, increased time since herbivore introduction led to more graminoids and fewer dwarf-shrubs, lichens, and mosses. Slow-growingCladonia lichens that are highly preferred winter forage were decimated on both long-termRangifer-occupied islands. In addition, linear relations between more concentrated Rangifer spatial use and reductions in graminoid and forb biomass within islands added spatial heterogeneity to long-term patterns identified by the chronosequence. These results support, in part, the hypothesis that Rangifer

  16. Reindeer and Wind Power - Study from the installation of two wind farms in Mala sameby; Renar och Vindkraft - Studie fraan anlaeggningen av tvaa vindkraftparker i Malaa sameby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarin, Anna; Nellemann, Christian; Sandstroem, Per; Roennegaard, Lars; Lundqvist, Henrik

    2013-05-15

    In the track of ever-expanding new infrastructure, such as wind power, roads and power lines, it becomes increasingly important to map and understand how free-ranging animals and wildlife respond. During the past decades, human - rangifer interactions have been assessed in over a hundred studies, with a strong bias on wild reindeer and caribou, although more recently also studies on domesticated reindeer in Norway, Finland, Sweden and Russia have been done with similar results. To clarify further the possible responses of domesticated reindeer to various disturbance sources, a review was made of over 15 existing disturbance studies of domesticated reindeer, we also discuss the effect of domestication on reindeer. The review shows the same pattern of avoidance in domesticated reindeer as for wild reindeer and caribou despite the domestication process. Sami reindeer husbandry today is an extensive form of pastoralism, which has led to a low degree of tameness among the reindeer. Domesticated reindeer can avoid infrastructure and human activity up to 12 km from the disturbance source and the avoided distance may shift between seasons and years and type of disturbance source, as well as diminish during periods of extreme starvation or insect harassment, similar to observation in wild reindeer and caribou. To get an overall picture of how the reindeer use their grazing land, it is therefore important to study large-scale and long-term habitat use of the reindeer whether they are domesticated or not. In this report, we want to share new information on how existing infrastructure such as roads and power lines in the landscape and construction phase of a new infrastructure for a wind farm affects the free roaming of the reindeer in a summer grazing area in a managed forest in northern Sweden.

  17. The nitrogen window for arctic herbivores: plant phenology and protein gain of migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Perry S.; Van Someren, Lindsay L.; Gustine, David D.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial plants are often limited by nitrogen (N) in arctic systems, but constraints of N supply on herbivores are typically considered secondary to those of energy. We tested the hypothesis that forage N is more limiting than energy for arctic caribou by collecting key forages (three species of graminoids, three species of woody browse, and one genus of forb) over three summers in the migratory range of the Central Arctic Herd in Alaska from the Brooks Range to the Coastal Plain on the Arctic Ocean. We combined in vitro digestion and detergent extraction to measure fiber, digestible energy, and usable fractions of N in forages (n = 771). Digestible energy content fell below the minimum threshold value of 9 kJ/g for one single forage group: graminoids, and only beyond 64–75 d from parturition (6 June), whereas all forages fell below the minimum threshold value for digestible N (1% of dry matter) before female caribou would have weaned their calves at 100 d from parturition. The window for digestible N was shortest for browse, which fell below 1% at 30–41 d from parturition, whereas digestible N contents of graminoids were adequate until 46–57 d from parturition. The low quality of browse as a source of N was also apparent from concentrations of available N (i.e., the N not bound to fiber) that were distribution and growth of the population.

  18. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Hervieux

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

  19. The nitrogen window for arctic herbivores: plant phenology and protein gain of migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Perry S.; Van Someren, Lindsay L.; Gustine, David D.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial plants are often limited by nitrogen (N) in arctic systems, but constraints of N supply on herbivores are typically considered secondary to those of energy. We tested the hypothesis that forage N is more limiting than energy for arctic caribou by collecting key forages (three species of graminoids, three species of woody browse, and one genus of forb) over three summers in the migratory range of the Central Arctic Herd in Alaska from the Brooks Range to the Coastal Plain on the Arctic Ocean. We combined in vitro digestion and detergent extraction to measure fiber, digestible energy, and usable fractions of N in forages (n = 771). Digestible energy content fell below the minimum threshold value of 9 kJ/g for one single forage group: graminoids, and only beyond 64–75 d from parturition (6 June), whereas all forages fell below the minimum threshold value for digestible N (1% of dry matter) before female caribou would have weaned their calves at 100 d from parturition. The window for digestible N was shortest for browse, which fell below 1% at 30–41 d from parturition, whereas digestible N contents of graminoids were adequate until 46–57 d from parturition. The low quality of browse as a source of N was also apparent from concentrations of available N (i.e., the N not bound to fiber) that were <1% at 72–80 d from parturition. The Coastal Plain may be favored by female caribou because available and digestible concentrations of N are not only greater than those on the Brooks Range, the window of usable N on the Coastal Plain extends the period of protein gain for females and their calves by 17 d. Conversely, inland areas with greater biomass and densities of digestible N than the Coastal Plain may be more favorable for large male caribou that begin gaining protein from spring to breed in autumn. Our study provides evidence that phenological windows for protein gain in caribou are both spatially and temporally dynamic and likely to affect the distribution and growth of the population.

  20. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Shuter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was very high. There was little to no overlap between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units, but distances between adjacent unit boundaries were relatively low. Additional sampling effort is needed to further delineate demographic structure in Ontario caribou.

  1. Clarification of some api characteristics in relation to caribou (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Pruitt, Jr.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2177 comparisons of api hardness vs. density in northern Saskatchewan, southeastern Manitoba and northeastern Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.70 to -.17. A total of 1395 comparisons of horizontal hardness of the top layer of api to vertical hardness of the same layer of api in southeastern Manitoba, northeastern Finland and far eastern middle Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.99 to -.20. Therefore one cannot substitute density for hardness nor horizontal hardness of the top layer for vertical hardness of the top layer in the terms of the Värriö Snow Index.

  2. Radiocesium metabolism in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt-E. V. Jones

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Early in the era of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, the reindeer was found to be an interesting animal concerning the transfer of environmental radioactive contaminants to man via the production of contaminated reindeer meat. The reason for the high transfer factors for some radionuclides is the feeding habits of the reindeer with a substantial intake of lichens, especially in the wintertime. One effect of the seasonal changes in feeding is also a considerable cyclic, seasonal variation in radiocesium content of soft tissues. The effective half-life of radiocesium was determined to about 30 days in an experiment where a herd of reindeer was moved form a high (>20 kBq/m2137Cs to a low (<3 kBq/m2 137Cs contamination area. The fractional transfer of 137Cs, during natural grazing, was determined to about 0.65 d/kg during wintertime on the low- contamination area and about 0.30 d/kg in summertime grazing in a more contaminated area. The radiation dose received by reindeers in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to <200 mSv/a. The dose rate would be highest during the later part of winter but would not exceed 1 mSv/d.

  3. Radiocesium metabolism in reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.E.V.; Eriksson, O.; Nordkvist, M.

    1990-01-01

    Early in the era of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, the reindeer was found to be an interesting animal concerning the transfer of environmental radioactive contaminants to man via the production of contaminated reindeer meat. The reason for the high transfer factors for some radionuclides is the feeding habits of the reindeer with a substantial intake of lichens, especially in the wintertime. One effect of the seasonal changes in feeding is also a considerable cyclic, seasonal variation in radiocesium content of soft tissues. The effective half-life of radiocesium was determined to about 30 days in an experiment where a herd of reindeer was moved form a high (>20 kBq/m2137Cs) to a low (<3 kBq/m2 137Cs) contamination area. The fractional transfer of 137Cs, during natural grazing, was determined to about 0.65 d/kg during wintertime on the low- contamination area and about 0.30 d/kg in summertime grazing in a more contaminated area. The radiation dose received by reindeers in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to <200 mSv/a. The dose rate would be highest during the later part of winter but would not exceed 1 mSv/d. (author)

  4. On nature and reindeer luck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Oskal

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the reindeer Sami understanding of a worthy life expressed in qualitative distinctions centred around the term 'reindeer luck'. Reindeer luck does not in itself mean a good life but is an ingredient of a good life. Reindeer luck lasts from cradle to grave but it can change along the way. To a certain degree it is possible to influence your own reindeer luck, but you can also spoil it through actions, behaviour, words and thoughts. These are more important than means-to-end rational actions with the aim of intentionally improving reindeer luck. The paths to reindeer luck are discussed with the aim of articulating the moral ideals implied in this type of understanding. This theme is discussed in regard to what we may learn from relations to nature.

  5. Chernobyl radioactivity persists in reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Gaare, Eldar; Eikelmann, Inger Margrethe; Hove, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2005-01-01

    Transfer of 137 Cs in the soil-plant/lichen-reindeer food chain was studied in central (Ostre Namdal) and southern Norway (Vaga) during 2000-2003. Reindeer from these areas have been continuously subjected to countermeasure application since the 1986 Chernobyl accident. In both areas no decline in 137 Cs concentrations was detectable in reindeer slaughtered in autumn since 1995, or in reindeer slaughtered in winter since 1998-1999. Seasonal differences in 137 Cs concentrations in reindeer have been less pronounced in recent years, with 137 Cs concentrations occasionally higher in autumn than in winter. Soil-to-plant 137 Cs transfer was significantly higher in Ostre Namdal than in Vaga. Climatic influences on lichen growth and abundance, and on soil properties that influence the availability of 137 Cs for plant uptake, are hypothesized to have a larger impact on long-term transfer of radiocaesium in the soil-plant/lichen-reindeer food chain than has been previously observed

  6. A serological survey for brucellosis in reindeer in Finnmark county, northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Åsbakk

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available During September-December, 1990 to 1994, serum samples from a total of 5792 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandm tarandm from Finnmark county, northern Norway, were screened for brucellosis on an indirect ELISA. There were no serologically positive animals. Twenty six of the animals had levels of antibodies detectable on the ELISA and were classed as suspicious, but the ELISA optical density readings were low compared to the readings for reindeer that were both culture positive and seropositive for Brucella suis biovar 4. When assayed on the standard tube agglutination test (STAT, all the 26 animals were seronegative. When absorbed with cells of Yersinia enterocolitica 0-9, the antibody detectable on the ELISA could be removed to a great extent from most of the sera, indicating previous or ongoing exposure to bacteria serologically cross-reacting with Brucella in these animals. We concluded that brucellosis was not present among reindeer in Finnmark during this study. This is supported by the absence of any reports of brucellosis among reindeer in Norway.

  7. Radiation effects in reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.

    1990-01-01

    A considerable part of the Swedish and Norwegian areas used for reindeer herding was contaminated by radioactivity from the accident on April 26, 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Both winter and summer grazing areas were affected, mainly by radiocesium. Limited areas in the Swedish mountain region were found to be contaminated by more than 80 kBq/m 2 of 137 Cs, but generally 40 to 60 kBq/m 2 were found. The levels of 137 Cs in lichens growing in such areas were up to 120 kBq/kg dry matter (Eriksson et al., 1987) but generally the levels were lower, around 30 kBq/kg d.m. Regular sampling of reindeer meat in the first year after the accident (NFA 1987) confirmed the seasonal variation observed earlier in radiocesium content of the muscular tissue (Linden &£ Gustafsson 1967)

  8. Lichen species preference by reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, D F; Luick, J R

    1977-08-01

    The preference by reindeer for five species of lichens commonly found on Central Alaska rangelands was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that reindeer are strongly selective species in their lichen grazing habits. The five tested species ranged as follows in order of decreasing acceptibility: Caldonia alpestris, C. rangiferina, Stereocaulon paschale, Cetraria richardsonii, and Peltigera aphthosa.

  9. Glucose metabolism in lactating reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R G; Luick, J R

    1976-01-01

    Changes in glucose synthesis during the lactation cycle were estimated in pen-fed and grazing reindeer. The pool size, space, transfer rate, and irreversible loss of glucose were determined using simultaneous injections of (2-/sup 3/H)glucose and primed infusions of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose in reindeer lactating for 1-2, 4-5, 8-9, and 12-16 weeks. Glucose transfer rate and irreversible loss were higher during early to midlactation than at other times of the year; maximum estimates were at 8-9 week postpartum (July), and a decline was noted at 12-16 weeks (August). During the first 1-2 weeks in pen-fed and 4-5 weeks in grazing reindeer, glucose transfer rate and irreversible loss were almost twice the values reported for reindeer at maintenance. No difference in the irreversible loss of glucose was noted between lactating and non-lactating reindeer at 18-20 weeks postpartum (September), and there is evidence that this may occur as early as 12-16 weeks postpartum. No significant trend was noted in the glucose space throughout lactation; however, a significant increase in plasma glucose concentration and pool size was noted when glucose synthesis was highest (8-9 weeks postpartum). Glucose turnover time was consistently faster (78-88 min) in lactating than in non-lactating reindeer (107-140 min). Reindeer used a smaller proportion of plasma glucose-C for lactose synthesis than did other domestic species. This probably results from the low lactose content of reindeer milk and the relatively low rate of milk secretion. (auth)

  10. Gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract in reindeer, free-living and fed baled timothy silage in summer and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove H. Aagnes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal (GI tract was investigated in reindeer calves (Rangtfer tarandus tarandus, free-living and fed two different qualities of timothy silage in September 1992 (summer and April 1993 (winter and related to the body condition. At both seasons nine male reindeer calves were taken from a natural pasture. Three animals were slaughtered directly (NP reindeer, three offered first cut (FC silage and three regrowth (RG silage ad lib., for 46 days. The FC silage contained 27% leaves and 57.8% dry matter (DM cell wall content (CWC and the RG silage 89 % leaves, and 38.7% DM CWC. The reticulo-rumen (RR digesta wet weight in the NP reindeer in summer was 6.7-7.7% of body mass (BM, compared to 25.1-32.8% and 9.6-12.9% of BM, respectively, in the animals fed FC and RG silage. In winter the RR digesta wet weight relative to BM in the NP reindeer and in the animals fed FC and RG silages were 9-5-11.5%, 25.4-33.3% and 10.4-18.3%, respectively. The distal fermentation chamber (DFC digesta wet weight in the NP animals in summer was 0.48-0.80% of BM, compared to 0.77-1.26% and 0.57¬0.65% of BM, respectively, in the animals fed FC and RG silage. In winter the DFC digesta wet weight relative to BM in the animals fed FC and RG silage did not differ significantly from the summer values (P>0.05, while in the NP reindeer it was 1.0-1.2% of BM which is significantly greater than in summer (P<0.05. The differences in relative weight of the fermentation chambers between the animals fed FC and RG silage both summer and winter were not reflected in total BM, which was similar in all groups fed silage. This is explained by a significantly lower carcass weight in the animals fed FC silage compared to the animals fed RG silage. Thus, the GI-tract gross anatomy in the silage fed animals seem to be highly affected by the plant structure and composition, and not by the season.

  11. Does connectivity exist for remnant boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou along the Lake Superior Coastal Range? Options for landscape restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine C. Drake

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis can provide important information on the dynamic and spatial structure of groups of animals or populations. Little is known of the genetic population structure of caribou that inhabit the Lake Superior Coastal Range (LSCR and the level of gene flow between individuals within the range and beyond. From a landscape perspective, this range is spatially isolated and genetic connectivity within the range is presumed limited due to large water crossings on Lake Superior. This study aims to answer if animal movement can be discerned, using genetic population and relatedness analyses, within and beyond the LSCR. Faecal and hair samples collected between 2005 and 2015 in Pukaskwa National Park were analyzed for genetic markers and compared to 131 unique genotypes previously obtained from both within the LSCR and in the two next closest ranges. Animals from one nearshore island (i.e. Otter were more closely associated with offshore islands than other mainland caribou, likely a result of past movement and translocation rather than ongoing movement. Conversely, on another nearshore island (i.e. Pic, individuals assigned to a different genetic cluster and were related to animals further north outside the range, demonstrating some connectivity through the discontinuous distribution to the coast. Long-term population declines have been observed in the LSCR range despite genetic connectivity within the range and relatively low total habitat disturbance. Restoring connectivity of the LSCR so that it is not isolated from populations to the north is required for the recovery of the mainland portion of the coastal range. These genetic analyses provide some insights on where movements may occur and where landscape restoration efforts may best be directed to enhance connectivity.

  12. Radiocesium concentration in reindeer meat and reindeer keepers from various reindeer pasture types in Finnish Lapland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillander, M.; Jaakkola, T.; Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.

    1992-01-01

    In Finnish Lapland the food chain lichen-reindeer-humans has been investigated since the beginning of the nineteen sixties. At that time the consequences of the atomic weapon tests in the atmosphere could be seen directly in humans. After the major accident in Chernobyl both cesium-137 and cesium-134 were spread in the atmopshere which resulted in a conglomeration of both old and new radiocesium in the food chain. Reindeer pastures in Finland are relatively homogeneous in character. As radiocesium deposition from Chernobyl was very uneven it was possible to differentiate between conditions of cesiums' radioisotopes. Measurements of whole carcase concentration showed no significatn seasonal variations in concentration. Maximum concentration was reached in the autumn of 1987, since the spring of 1988 the concentration has steadily been reducing, yet it is still too soon to talk of biological half-life. Participants had collected samples of reindeer meat from their own herds, representing their own diet. (AB) (11 refs.)

  13. Radiocesium contamination and the reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Raunistola, T.; Jones, B.E.V.

    1991-01-01

    The high transfer factors calculated for radiocesium in this study are partly due to the feeding habits of the reindeer with a substantial intake of lichens, especially in the wintertime. Seasonal changes in grazing plant selection caused a considerable cyclic, seasonal variation in radiocesium content of soft tissues. The effective half-life of radiocesium in reindeer during winter feeding conditions was determined to about 30 days in an experiment where a herd of reindeer was moved from a high (> 20 kBq/m 2 Cs-137) to a low (> 3 kBq/m 2 Cs-137) contamination area. During natural grazing conditions the fractional transfer of Cs-137 was determined to about 0.65 d/kg during wintertime in the low-contamination area and about 0.30 d/kg in summertime after grazing on highly contaminated pastures. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in reindeer lichens was seven to ten years both before and after the Chernobyl accident. In areas with initially high contamination the half-life was shorter, 6.2±0.9 years, than in areas with lower contamination, 15.0 ± 5.1 years. In heather, bilberry and crowberry negative effective half-lives, increasing concentrations, were observed. Precipitation during the growth period could change the Cs-137 activity of some plant species. (au) (32 refs.)

  14. Reindeer husbandry, the Swedish market for reindeer meat, and the Chernobyl effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostedt, G.

    1998-01-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Sweden is an exclusive right for the Sami, northern Scandinavia's indigenous people, and a cornerstone in the Sami culture. During the latest decades reindeer husbandry has however been under significant pressure for different reasons, among them low profitability. Part of the explanation for the low profitability lies in the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Due to the prevailing winds at the time of the accident northern Sweden, and consequently the grazing areas for the reindeer husbandry, was relatively heavily affected by radioactive fallout. This meant that reindeer meat suffered from a relatively high level of contamination. This has had effects both on the supply, since large numbers of reindeer had to be discarded, and on the demand, since the problem with contamination induced preference shifts away from reindeer meat. The purpose of this paper is to present an economic model of the Swedish reindeer husbandry and the market for reindeer meat, and to report some econometric results based on a data set from 1973/74 to 1995/96 on prices, quantities and other variables connected to the Swedish reindeer herding industry. The time period covers the main aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. In the theoretical section a model for the reindeer herder's supply of reindeer meat is presented. The model is based on the fact that most reindeer herders only receive part of their income from reindeer husbandry. In the econometric section the demand and supply curves that are relevant for the reindeer herding industry are identified, using two-stage least squares regression. The most striking feature of the empirical results is a 'backward-bending' supply function for the number of slaughtered reindeer, which is consistent with the theoretical model. The results also show a strong negative demand effect on reindeer meat after the Chernobyl accident

  15. Reindeer husbandry, the Swedish market for reindeer meat, and the Chernobyl effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostedt, G

    1998-12-31

    Reindeer husbandry in Sweden is an exclusive right for the Sami, northern Scandinavia`s indigenous people, and a cornerstone in the Sami culture. During the latest decades reindeer husbandry has however been under significant pressure for different reasons, among them low profitability. Part of the explanation for the low profitability lies in the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Due to the prevailing winds at the time of the accident northern Sweden, and consequently the grazing areas for the reindeer husbandry, was relatively heavily affected by radioactive fallout. This meant that reindeer meat suffered from a relatively high level of contamination. This has had effects both on the supply, since large numbers of reindeer had to be discarded, and on the demand, since the problem with contamination induced preference shifts away from reindeer meat. The purpose of this paper is to present an economic model of the Swedish reindeer husbandry and the market for reindeer meat, and to report some econometric results based on a data set from 1973/74 to 1995/96 on prices, quantities and other variables connected to the Swedish reindeer herding industry. The time period covers the main aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. In the theoretical section a model for the reindeer herder`s supply of reindeer meat is presented. The model is based on the fact that most reindeer herders only receive part of their income from reindeer husbandry. In the econometric section the demand and supply curves that are relevant for the reindeer herding industry are identified, using two-stage least squares regression. The most striking feature of the empirical results is a `backward-bending` supply function for the number of slaughtered reindeer, which is consistent with the theoretical model. The results also show a strong negative demand effect on reindeer meat after the Chernobyl accident 8 refs, 10 figs. Arbetsrapport 268

  16. Of reindeer and man, modern and Neanderthal: A creation story founded on a historic perspective on how to conserve wildlife, woodland caribou in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerius Geist

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of successful systems of wildlife conservation, the North American included, suggests that broad public support and determined effort by volunteers is essential for wildlife conservation. Since North American wildlife conservation is the only large-scale system of sustainable natural resource use, and exemplifies the great economic and cultural benefits of a renewable resource held in common, its lessons may be profitably applied to Rangifer conservation. Animals that have value are surrounded by myths that tell of their relationship to humans. In our Anglo-American culture reindeer and caribou are rather deficient in this respect. However, reindeer feature prominently in the rise of modern humans and the demise of Neanderthal man early in the Upper Paleolithic. The colonization by humans of the periglacial environments during the last glaciation depended on the rich periglacial megafauna, Rangifer included. Archeological sites of the European Upper Paleolithic show that reindeer were the most important food source. The Upper Paleolithic, characterized by exceptional physical development and health of people, as well as by the first flowering of art, extended from Spain to Crimea with surprisingly little cultural change for some 25 000 years. While the cave paintings express an infatuation with dangerous game (woolly mammoth, woolly rhino, steppe wisent, giant deer, cave lions, bears etc, the archeological sites indicate that reindeer was the staple food. Reindeer play a minor role in cave art. Neither this art, nor archeological sites, show any evidence of warfare. It is hypothesized that during a mid-glacial interstadial modern people entered Europe having developed a highly successful system of hunting reindeer using interception based on the discovery of chronologic time. This led to a first flowering of culture based on a rich economy, but also to additional hunting mortality of the periglacial mega-herbivores that Neanderthal

  17. Morphological keys to advance the understanding of protostrongylid biodiversity in caribou (Rangifer spp. at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kafle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Protostrongylidae is a diverse family of nematodes capable of causing significant respiratory and neuromuscular disease in their ungulate and lagomorph hosts. Establishing the species diversity and abundance of the protostrongylid fauna has been hindered because the first stage larvae, commonly referred as dorsal spined larvae (DSL, that are shed in the feces are morphologically very similar among several genera. We aimed to determine the protostrongylid diversity and distribution in caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and R. t. pearyi in the central and high Canadian Arctic. We first developed, tested and validated a morphological diagnostic guide for the DSL of two important protostrongylids, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis, and then applied this guide to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection of these parasites in fecal samples from 242 caribou. We found that DSL of V. eleguneniensis and P. andersoni can be differentiated morphologically based on the structural differences at the caudal extremity. The presentation and morphology of the dorsal spine, and caudoventral bulging at the start of the tail extension were identified as the key identifying features. The two species were found in caribou on the arctic mainland and southern Victoria Island in single and co-infections, but the prevalence and intensity of infection was low. No protostrongylids were detected in caribou from the high arctic islands. Through this study, we provide a simple, efficient, and robust method to distinguish the DSL of the two protostrongylids, and present the current status of infection in different herds of caribou of the central Canadian Arctic. We report new geographic and host records for P. andersoni infection in Dolphin and Union caribou herd. Keywords: Parelaphostrongylus andersoni, Varestrongylus eleguneniensis, Diagnostic parasitology, Morphological diagnosis, Dorsal spined larvae, Canadian Arctic

  18. Taimyr Reindeer and Environmental Change: Monitoring Wild Reindeer Migration in Changing Natural and Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Taimyr Reindeer Herd (TRH) is both the largest and the longest monitored wild reindeer herd in Eurasia. An important part of Arctic ecosystems and Indigenous livelihood, wild reindeer have been continuously monitored for almost 50 years. During this time, herds have exhibited large changes in size and these changes have been recorded in almost all herds across the animal's range. An increasing number of wild reindeer in the Soviet times was followed by a significant population loss in the last decade. In addition, recent monitoring revealed substantial shifts in the distribution of wild populations. The decline in wild reindeer is likely related to natural cycles and changes in the Arctic environment caused by climate variability and anthropogenic activity. This study investigates patterns and possible drives of reindeer population dynamics in space and time. We identify key climatic factors, possible relationships with biomass dynamics, as well as with hunting practices and other human impacts.

  19. Distribution of cesium-137 in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Rissanen

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 on the Finnish reindeer herding area was much smaller than the effects of the nuclear bomb tests in the 1960s. Only in one small area somewhat more Cs-137 was deposited than in the rest of the reindeer herding area. From that area 20 reindeer were chosen for investigation of the distribution of Cs-137. All tissues, organs, the skeleton, digestive tract, hide, head and hooves were sampled quantitatively. Three reindeer were pregnant and also the foetuses were studied. The Cs-137 amounts were determined by gammaspectrometric measurements. The results showed that the differences in the Cs-137 concentrations between muscle tissue from different parts of an individual reindeer were not more than 10 percent. Thus it is not essential from which part of the reindeer meat samples for surveillance purposes are taken. The concentration of Cs-137 in edible tissues other than muscle was lower except in the kidneys and scapula cartilage.

  20. Traditional ecological knowledge among Sami reindeer herders in northern Sweden about vascular plants grazed by reindeer

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    Berit Inga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge about how reindeer utilize forage resources was expected to be crucial to reindeer herders. Seventeen Sami reindeer herders in four reindeer herding communities in Sweden (“samebyar” in Swedish were interviewed about plants species considered to be important reindeer food plants in scientific literature. Among 40 plant species, which the informants were asked to identify and indicate whether and when they were grazed by reindeer, they identified a total of 21 plant taxa and five plant groups. They especially recognised species that were used as human food by the Sami themselves, but certain specific forage plants were also identified. Detailed knowledge of vascular plants at the species level was surprisingly general, which may indicate that knowledge of pasture resources in a detailed species level is not of vital importance. This fact is in sharp contradiction to the detailed knowledge that Sami people express for example about reindeer (as an animal or snow (as physical element. The plausible explanation is that observations of individual plant species are unnecessarily detailed information in large-scale reindeer pastoralism, because the animals graze freely under loose herding and border surveillance.

  1. Reindeer as hosts for nematode parasites of sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabok, J T; Oksanen, A; Nieminen, M; Rydzik, A; Uggla, A; Waller, P J

    2006-03-31

    The reindeer husbandry range of Scandinavia overlaps with sheep, goat, and cattle pastures. The aim of this study was to determine whether reindeer are suitable hosts for ovine or bovine nematode parasites, and thus may spread these parasites into the reindeer husbandry regions. To render worm-free, twelve 4-month-old male reindeer calves, six lambs, and six bovine calves were given ivermectin at 200 microg/kg body weight. Five weeks post-treatment, six reindeer calves were each artificially dosed with 10,000 third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from sheep, and an additional six reindeer with L3 derived from cattle. Lambs and bovine calves received the same dose of ovine and bovine larvae as reindeer, from the same larval source, respectively. Faecal samples collected on five occasions after the larval dosing revealed that by the fourth week, all reindeer calves, lambs, and bovine calves were infected. Animals were slaughtered on days 40 (reindeer) or 47 (lambs and bovine calves) after the larval dosing. Reindeer calves were most susceptible to L3 derived from sheep. The overall mean intensity of Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, and Teladorsagia circumcincta, did not differ between reindeer and sheep; however, early fourth-stage larvae of H. contortus were more abundant in reindeer (p = 0.002). The establishment of bovine-derived Ostertagia ostertagi was similar in reindeer (62%) and bovine calves (57%), but larval inhibition was much higher in reindeer (91%, p bovine derived Cooperia oncophora was recorded in reindeer calves (2%) compared with bovine calves (59%). These results show that young reindeer are susceptible hosts to the important gastrointestinal parasites of sheep (T. circumcincta, H. contortus) and cattle (O. ostertagi), as well as being a suitable host for T. axei.

  2. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

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    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  3. Reindeer husbandry and local planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars P. Niia

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available A central theme in the reindeer husbandry is the conflicts between this and other economic interests as tourism, community development etc. in connection with the utilization of common territory. A retrospective glance will show that this is an old problem and not a new phenomenon. The Nordic Sami Institute has carried out a research project with the following objectives: 1.to give an account of the terms of planning for the reindeer husbandry, 2.to find out how the Såmi (Lapp community's and so the reindeer husbandry's interests are taken into account in local planning. 3.find ways for how the reindeer husbandry's use of land can be described. 4.give suggestions as to how the interests of the Sami community can better be taken into account or how it can increase its influence in relation to planning. The suggestions based upon the results from the research project are: —that the Sami community aquire competence by preparing itself for the changes in its environment. —that it builds up its own organization. —that it aquires a more noticeable influence in community planning and decision making. This project and earlier experiencies have shown that the way of influencing e.g. by land-use-planning is weak and unreliable today.Renskötsel och kommunal planering.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Ett centralt tema i renskotselsammanhang ar konflikterna mellan renskotsel och andra ekonomiska intressen som turism, samhållsutbyggnad etc. vid utnyttjande av gemensamma arealer. En historisk tillbakablick visar att denna problematik inte på något sått år någon ny foreteelse utan ett gammalt tema med variationer i tid och rum. I ett forskningsprojekt vid Sami Instituhtta har en studie genomforts med syftet att: 1.soka beskriva planeringsforutsåttningarna for renskotseln. 2. soka forklara hur renskotselns intressen tas tillvara i den kommunala fysiska planeringen. 3. finna former for hur renskotselns markanvåndning kan beskrivas. 4. att l

  4. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.

    1989-07-01

    More than 5000 reindeer were moved from highly contaminated winter pasture areas (20 - greater than 80 kBq/m 2 ) to less contaminated areas (1.3 - 2 kBq/m 2 ) with the aim to study the possibility to reduce radiocesium uptake in muscular tissue under practical management conditions. The initial body content of 137 Cs was about 12000 Bq/kg meat. After moving to the less contaminated area the radiocesium level decreased with an effective half-time of about 30 days to 3000 Bq/kg. A further decrease was seen in the summer when the animals mainly graze vascular plants with a higher fibre and potassium content than found in the winter diet. The transfer factor was calculated to 0.65 d/kg in winter and to 0.30 d/kg in summer grazing conditions. The potassium intake was calculated to 7 g/d on winter pasture with about 65% lichen intake and about 30 g/d on summer pasture with more than 65% vascular plant intake

  5. Determination of 241Am in reindeer bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahtinen, P.; Hakanen, M.; Jaakkola, T.; Nikula, A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure to separate americium from other alpha active nuclides present in reindeer bone samples, especially 228 Th and its daughter nuclides. The 241 Am-spectrum of a reindeer bone sample analyzed using the proposed method is given. The α-spectrum was measured one week after electrodeposition. The absence of the alpha peak of 224 Ra, the daughter nuclide of 228 Th, indicates that no 228 Th was electrodeposited onto the platinum disc. Four reindeer bone samples were analyzed for 241 Am using the method developed. The 241 Am/ 239 240 Pu activity ratio in reindeer bone was 0.9 :- 0.4. These results indicate that compared to plutonium, americium is accumulated in reindeer bone more heavily than in liver. All 241 Am values presented are concentrations at the time of radioassay, and no correction has been made for the ingrowth of 241 Am formed by the decay of 241 Pu during stockpilling. However, all 241 Am determinations were made 1 to 3 yrs after sample collection, and thus the corrections due to the ingrowth can be considered slight. About 60% of plutonium body burden is located in liver and 20% in skeleton. The activity ratio 241 Am/ 239 240 Pu in these animals was about 0.2 and 1.0 in liver and skeleton, respectively. This indicates that about 60% of the 241 Am body burden is located in skeleton and about 30% in liver. It can be roughly estimated that the whole-body activity of 241 Am is thus about 40% of the 239 240 Pu body burden

  6. Herbivore grazing—or trampling? Trampling effects by a large ungulate in cold high- latitude ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Heggenes, Jan; Odland, Arvid; Chevalier, Tomas; Ahlberg, Jörgen; Berg, Amanda; Larsson, Håkan; Bjerketvedt, Dag Kjartan

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian herbivores have important top-down effects on ecological processes and landscapes by generating vegetation changes through grazing and trampling. For free-ranging herbivores on large landscapes, trampling is an important ecological factor. However, whereas grazing is widely studied, low-intensity trampling is rarely studied and quantified. The cold-adapted northern tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is a wide-ranging keystone herbivore in large open alpine and Arctic ecosystems. Re...

  7. Herbivore grazing?or trampling? Trampling effects by a large ungulate in cold high?latitude ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Heggenes, Jan; Odland, Arvid; Chevalier, Tomas; Ahlberg, J?rgen; Berg, Amanda; Larsson, H?kan; Bjerketvedt, Dag K.

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian herbivores have important top-down effects on ecological processes and landscapes by generating vegetation changes through grazing and trampling. For free-ranging herbivores on large landscapes, trampling is an important ecological factor. However, whereas grazing is widely studied, low-intensity trampling is rarely studied and quantified. The cold-adapted northern tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is a wide-ranging keystone herbivore in large open alpine and Arctic ecosystems. Re...

  8. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity in Swedish reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.; Aahman, G.

    1995-01-01

    Fallout radiocesium is effectively transferred to reindeer and the transfer is highly dependent on the season. The reduction of radiocesium from the soil-pasture-reindeer ecosystem has occurred with a higher rate after the Chernobyl fallout than after the nuclear weapons tests. Effective countermeasures have helped to prevent contamination of reindeer meat intended for human consumption. Nevertheless, the fallout from Chernobyl will probably remain a problem for reindeer husbandry in the contaminated parts of Sweden for a least 20 more years. 6 refs., 2 figs

  9. Assessing risk of mercury exposure and nutritional benefits of consumption of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation community of Old Crow, Yukon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Roseanne C; Gamberg, Mary; Dickson, Cindy; Chan, Hing Man

    2011-08-01

    The contamination of traditional foods with chemical pollutants is a challenge to the food security of Aboriginal Peoples. Mercury levels are generally low in terrestrial animals; however renal mercury levels have been shown to change over time in the Porcupine Caribou Herd, the principal food source for the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation of Old Crow in Yukon, Canada. Seventy-five Porcupine Caribou muscle, sixty-three kidney and three liver samples were analyzed for total mercury. Average concentrations were 0.003, 0.360 and 0.120mg/kg wet weight total mercury for muscle, kidney and liver, respectively. Consumption data of caribou muscle, kidney and liver were collected from twenty-six adults in Vuntut Gwitchin households. Women of child-bearing age (n=5) consumed a median of 71.5g/person/day of caribou muscle and 0.0g/person/day kidney but consumed no liver; median consumptions for all other adults (women aged 40+ and all men, n=21) were 75.8, 3.2 and 2.5g/person/day for meat, kidney and liver, respectively. Median dietary exposures to total mercury from caribou tissues were estimated to be 0.138μg/kg body weight for women of child-bearing age and 0.223μg/kg body weight for other adults. Caribou tissues were found to contribute high levels of important nutrients to the diet and pose minimal health risk from mercury exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 2nd Nordic NJF Seminar on Reindeer Husbandry Research "Reindeer herding and land use management - Nordic perspectives"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Soppela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd NJF Seminar on Reindeer Husbandry Research was held at the Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland from 19 to 21 October 2014. The seminar was organised under the framework of Reindeer Husbandry Research Section of NJF (Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists, established in 2012. Over 100 Nordic and international delegates including researchers, managers, educators, students and reindeer herders participated in the seminar.

  11. Radiocesium in reindeer the slaughter-season 1996/97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1997-10-01

    During the slaughter season 1996/1997 (1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997), 731 reindeer in Sweden (1.2% of the total number of slaughtered reindeer) were condemned because of too high levels of radiocaesium (over 1 500 Bq 137 Cs per kg fresh meat). This was less than during the previous year, 1995/1996 (when 2% were condemned) and a large improvement compared to earlier years (before 1994). The main reason was that a large part of the slaughtered animals had been slaughtered early in the autumn - when radiocaesium levels are lower than in winter- (8952 reindeer) or that they had been fed uncontaminated feed during some period before slaughter (about 9 900 reindeer). The decreasing number of condemned reindeer is also an effect of generally declining radiocaesium levels in reindeer. The average decline in freely grazing reindeer corresponds to an effective ecological half-life at 3.4 years for the period 1986/87 to 1991/92 and a corresponding half-life 5.6 years for the following 5 years (until 1996/97). The predictions for 1996/97 and the official regulations for control of radiocaesium in reindeer meat were well in accordance with the measured levels of radiocaesium in the slaughtered reindeer. Totally about 22 000 reindeer carcasses were monitored for 137 Cs. The main part of the meat control was made by direct monitoring of gamma radiation from reindeer carcasses at the slaughter house. In this way, the number of muscle samples that were monitored for radiocaesium was kept at a low level (4 198 samples)

  12. Reindeer lichen productivity: Problems and possibilities

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    Bjartmar Sveinbjörnsson

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer lichens are important in the structure and function of tundra and taiga ecosystems, as exemplified by cover values, biomass, mineral content, and effect on other ecosystem components. They are particularly important for winter ecology of reindeer and caribou which largely relay on them. Growth measurement is difficult due to the very slow rate and the methods that have been used are not sufficiently documented, precise, or appropriate. Use of carbon dioxide exchange models, coupled with models of lichen microclimate and water relations, based on microclimatic data are suggested as alternatives for land managers. The assumptions of such models are discussed and the performance of mixed species lichen mats and of the lichen CO2 environment and its effect on lichen CO2 exchange.

  13. Kola reindeer herder measured by Finns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illukka, E.; Rahola, T.

    1995-01-01

    Experts from the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and from the Department of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki travelled in August 1994 to Lovozero in the Kola peninsula, Russia, to study the local radioactivity contents. The purpose of the study, which formed a part of the science and technology cooperation programme between Finland and Russia, was to compare activity levels in Kola and in Finnish Lapland, in the food chain between lichen, reindeer and people. By means of samples taken from nature, the study group also determined the composition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests and from the Chernobyl accident. Using a whole-body counting system, the experts measured 33 people from Lovozero. Samples were collected, for instance, of reindeer meat, lichen and the bottom sediment of Lovozero lake. On the basis of preliminary findings, it seems that the levels of radiocesium do ALARA 1/1995. (orig.)

  14. Water turnover in reindeer. Some environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.D.; Luick, J.R.; White, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The nutritional and climatic effects on water turnover (determined using tritiated water) in reindeer are described. At low ambient temperatures (ca. -20 0 C) water turnover is related to protein and mineral intake, which is reflected in the relations of faecal and urinary water to nitrogen and ash excretion via these avenues. As ambient temperature increases, respiratory water, faecal water and urine flow increase, resulting in an increase in water turnover

  15. Selection decisions among reindeer herders in Finland

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    Kirsi Muuttoranta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of breeding animals is a tool to improve the revenues in animal production. Information about selection practices and criteria are essential in assessing the possibilities for systematic selection schemes. Attitudes of reindeer herders towards use of selection in improving production were investigated by means of interviews. We interviewed the managers of reindeer herding cooperatives concerning their selection decisions. Fortyfive out of 56 managers answered to the semi-structured questionnaire. Among herding operations, selection of breeding animals was regarded by managers as critical for calf’s autumn weight and survival. The main selection criteria were calf’s health, vigour, body size and muscularity, dam or dam line, and maternal care. Hair quality and hair length were important as well, while such often quoted traits as antler characteristics, e.g. early shedding of antler velvet and thick antler bases, were unimportant. The results show that reindeer herders i acknowledge the importance and effects of selective breeding, and ii have empirical knowledge to list the most important selection criteria.

  16. Live monitoring of cattle, reindeer and sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the fallout differed considerably from area to area in Norway and specially were found from soil samples that the mountain pasture in Middle and South of Norway were heavily contaminated. These natural ecosystem is important in several nutrition pathways; notably sheep, goat, reindeer and cattle. In June 1986 the Health Directorate imposed action levels for the nuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137. The action levels were 370 Bq/kg for milk and baby food and 600 Bq/kg for all other types of food. In November 1986, the action level for reindeer meat were increased to 6000 Bq/kg, and in June 1987 the level was also increased to 6000 Bq/kg for wild freshwater fish. The most effected meat production were reindeer, sheep and cattle. Almost 20 to 35% of the sheep had activity levels above the action limits. This fact initiated a broad program to establish effective measure to increase the activity levels and to sort out the animals which could be slaughtered. Three main approaches have been utilized in Norway in order to achieve this and to limit the potential health risk: action aimed at reducing uptake from soil to vegetation (plowing, use of fertilizing etc.); action aimed at reducing uptake from fodder to animals (use of cesium binder, change of slaughter time), or reducing unacceptable activity levels in animals (downfeeding); action aimed at reducing intake to human (interdiction, dietary advice). Live monitoring were in several of these actions necessary for a successful result

  17. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

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    Lennart Lundmark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 16th century we get the first opportunity to a more detailed knowledge of reindeerpastoralism in Sweden. At that time the Sami lived in a hunter-gatherer economy. A family had in average about 10-20 domesticated reindeer, mainly used for transport. They could also be milked and used as decoys when hunting wild reindeer. During late 16th century the Swedish state and merchants bought large amounts of fur from the Sami. The common payment was butter and flour. This created a new prosperity, which lead to a considerable increase in population in Swedish Lapland. The population became too large for a hunter-gatherer economy. A crisis in early 17th century was the starting point for the transition to a large-scale nomadic reindeer pastoralism. Up to the middle of the 18th century intensive reindeer pastoralism was successful. But the pastoralism became gradually too intensive and diseases started to spread when the herds were kept too densely crowded for milking in summertime. During the first decades of the 19th century reindeer pastoralism in Sweden went through a major crisis. The number of reindeer herding mountain-Sami decreased considerably, mainly because they went to live permanently along the Norwegian coastline. Intensive reindeer pastoralism started to give way for extensive herding towards the end of the 19th century. In the north of Sweden influences from the Kautokeino Sami were an important factor, in the south extensive reindeer herding started to expand when the market for meat came closer to the Sami. During the 1920s the milking of reindeer ceased in Sweden, except in a few families. At that time Sami families from the north had been removed southwards. They further demonstrated the superiority of extensive herding to the Sami in mid- and southern Lapland. Reindeer pastoralism is basically a system of interaction between man and animal, but it has been heavily influenced by market forces and state intervention

  18. Relationship between potassium intake and radiocesium retention in the reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleman, D.F.; Luick, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of dietary potassium on radiocesium retention was studied in reindeer fed winter diets of lichens. Potassium added to the diet markedly decreased radiocesium retention; this suggests that seasonal changes in cesium retention observed earlier in reindeer might be caused largely by nutritional factors. Data indicate that a 20-fold increase in dietary potassium results in a 2-fold decrease in radiocesium retention

  19. Characteristics of the reindeer electrocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Timisjärvi

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG provides reliable information about heart rate, initiation of heart beat and also, to some degree, indirect evidence on the functional state of the heart muscle. A wide range of such information is readily obtainable from conventional scalar leads, even if the records are limited to a single plane. The present investigation deals with the normal reindeer ECG in the frontal plane. The technique used is the scalar recording technique based on the Einthovenian postulates. The P wave was positive in leads II, III and aVF, negative in lead aVL and variable in leads I and aVR. The direction of the P vector was 60 to 120°. The QRS complex was variable. The most common forms of QRS complex were R and rS in leads I and aVR; R, Rs and rS in lead aVL and Qr or qR in other leads. The most common direction of the QRS vector was 240 to 300°. The T wave was variable. The duration of various intervals and deflection depended on heart rate.Elektrokardiogram på ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Elektrokardiogramet (EKG ger tillförlitliga uppgifter om hjärtfrekvens, retledning och, indirekt, delvis även om hjärtmuskelns funktionell tillstånd. Största delen av denna information fås med normal skalar koppling även om registrering sker i ett plan. I detta arbete har renens normala EKG i frontalplanet undersökts. Kopplingarna har baserats på Einthovs postulat. P-vågen var riktad uppåt i koppling II, III och aVF, nedåt i koppling aVL och den varierade i koppling I och aVR. P-vektorns riktning var 60 - 120°. QRS-komplexet varierade. De vanligaste formerna var R och rS i koppling I och aVR; R, Rs och rS i koppling aVL och Qr eller qR i andra kopplingar. Vanligen var QRS-vektorns riktning 240 - 300°. T-vågen varierade. Awikelserna och intervallernas längd var beroende av hiärtfrekvenssen.Poron sydänsähkökäyrän ominaisuuksia.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Sydänsähkökäyrästä saadaan luotettavaa tietoa syd

  20. Pathways of fallout radiocaesium via reindeer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaare, E.; Staaland, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident triggered a world wide monitoring and research activity. In the Nordic countries a renewed interest was taken in the lichen reindeer food chain. A wealth of data has been put on record, data that confirm experience from nuclear weapons tests. Like other animals reindeer are exposed to radioactive fallout through their food, and because they alone utilise lichens as forage, a high level of radiocaesium is found in their muscle. The lichen intake of reindeer varies from 70-80% of the diet in winter to 10-20% in summer. This factor, coupled with the short biological half-life of caesium in the reindeer body (10-20 days), leads to a strong seasonal variation: a late winter high that in the first years is about five times the late summer low of radiocaesium in the meat. The effective ecological halflives of reindeer food lichens are 5-7 years for species growing on ridgetops. Species from more sheltered habitats show longer halflives, 6-11 years. This is partly due to local resuspension. Predictions based upon experience so far show that it will take about 20 years before radiocaesium burdens are the same as those prior to the accident. Estimates indicate that the effective half-life of radiocaesium in the meat of grazing reindeer is 3-4 years for the post-Chernobyl period. This has justified early slaughter in the domestic reindeer industry and when hunting wild reindeer. Countermeasures based on fodder additives were tested successfully for domestic animals, both bentonite and ammonium iron(III)hexacyanoferrate may be given in several different ways prior to slaughter, in order to reduce the radiocaesium burden to below the critical level in the meat. We suggest that more research is needed on ecosystem recycling of 137 Cs as well as other resuspension in wilderness areas. The developing of countermeasures should also be continued, and a monitoring of fixed plots should be undertaken in major reindeer ranges. (orig.)

  1. Palatability of two artificial feeds for reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Rognmo

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of 15 reindeer were used to test the palatability of two artificial diets. None of the animals had experienced the diets before. Trials were carried out from April to mid May. Each group of animals was kept in a separate corral (600 sq. meters. Both groups were fed lichens for three days befort trials began. Then they were offered a concentrate feed (RF-80 or «Mill Waste Product» (MWP ad libitum. Both groups ate little or nothing for the first three days of the trial and so lichens were mixed with the two experimental feeds. The mean voluntary food intake of the RF-80-group increased from 0.8 Kg/day/animal to 1.8 Kg/day/animal after three weeks. A mixed feed, RF-80/lichen, was only used the first day for animals in the RF-80 group. Reindeer refused to eat MWP for twelve days despite mixing it with lichens. They were then offered RF-80 ad lib. without a mixture of lichens. The mean voluntary intake of these animals increased from 1.3 Kg RF-80/day/animal on day 13 to 2.3 Kg/day/animal by day 26. Two calves in the MWP-group got diarrhoea after refeeding with RF-80.

  2. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurki

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The somatic cell count (SCC and total bacterial count (TBC as well as the presence of major food-borne pathogens and udder pathogens in reindeer raw milk were studied. Two groups of 4 female reindeer were milked on alternate days for six weeks. A milk sample from each quarter was taken before milking and of the bulk milk at the end of milking. Micrococcus sp. was observed in one, Staphylococcus aureus in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five of the quarter samples (n=318. In the bulk milk (n=19 TBC varied between 700 and 1 700 000 cfu (colony forming units/ml and SCC between 52 000 and 183 000 cells/ml. No Bacillus cereus, S. aureus or Listeria monocytogenes were detected in the bulk milk, but Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 bulk milk samples. According to the bacteriological examination the udder health of the reindeer was good. Indicative information on the SCC of healthy reindeer was obtained. None of the common potential food-poisoning bacteria were found in raw milk. There was great variation in the bulk milk TBC and the average TBC was rather high (ca. 300 000 cfu/ml. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk makes it well suited for food manufacture. However, the results indicate that the milking conditions may be crucial for the quality of raw milk.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Tutkimuksen kohteena oli poron raakamaidon solupitoisuus ja kokonaispesäkeluku sekä tärkeimpien elintarvike- ja utarepatogeenien esiintyminen raakamaidossa. Kaksi 4 vaatimen ryhmää lypsettiin vuoropäivinä 6 viikon ajan. Ennen lypsyä vaatimista otettiin vedinkohtaiset näytteet ja lypsyn päätyttyä näyte yhteismaidosta. Micrococcus sp. todettiin yhdessä, Staphylococcus aureus yhdessä ja koagulaasinegatiivisia stafylokokkeja viidessä vedinkohtaisessa näytteessä (n=318. Yhteismaitonäytteiden (n=19 kokonaispesäkeluvut vaihtelivat välillä 700-1 700 000 pmy (pesäkkeitä muodostava yksikkö/ml ja somaattisten

  3. Improvement of meat production capacity in reindeer farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Petersson

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The poster describes the main activities in a joint Swedish-Norwegian research project. The ultimate purpose is to develope tools for individual production control and flock management in domestic reindeer production.

  4. Long-term decline of radiocaesium in Fennoscandian reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Aahman, B.; Solatie, D.; Gaare, E.

    2009-06-01

    The NKS-B project REIN was established to synthesize the available information on contamination levels and effective half-times for 137Cs in reindeer in Finland, Sweden and Norway. Several studies of radiocaesium contamination in reindeer have been carried out in the Nordic countries over the last 50 years. However, the current slow decline in concentrations, which will maintain the consequences of the Chernobyl deposition for Swedish and Norwegian reindeer husbandry for at least another 10-20 years, have not previously been observed nor predicted. In the Chernobyl affected areas 137Cs concentrations in reindeer initially declined by effective half-times of 3-4 years, whereas the current decline appears to be mainly governed by the nuclide's physical half-life (30 years). The review of effective half-times of 137Cs in reindeer across Fennoscandia suggests that concentrations declined more rapidly in the northernmost areas. The reason(-s) remains unclear, and demonstrates the need for more long-term sampling of the various components of reindeer's diet. Such sampling should aim at covering climatically different areas, as climate may influence transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer via lichen growth and weathering rates, composition of plant communities and lichen availability, as well as soil-to-plant radiocaesium uptake. The lack of long-term data on radiocaesium in natural vegetation in the Nordic countries is one of the main limitations for the development of mechanistic models for radiocaesium in reindeer, and for further elucidation of the observed long-term trends in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer. Currently our understanding of the long-term trends observed in various areas is not good enough to predict how future radiocaesium deposition will behave. The high transfer of nuclides to reindeer, the geographical extension of reindeer herding and the special position of the Sami population in Finland, Sweden and Norway, demonstrates the need for maintaining

  5. Long-term decline of radiocaesium in Fennoscandian reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration (Norway)); AAhman, B. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)); Solatie, D. (STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Gaare, E. (Norwegian Institute for Nature Researc (Norway))

    2009-06-15

    The NKS-B project REIN was established to synthesize the available information on contamination levels and effective half-times for 137Cs in reindeer in Finland, Sweden and Norway. Several studies of radiocaesium contamination in reindeer have been carried out in the Nordic countries over the last 50 years. However, the current slow decline in concentrations, which will maintain the consequences of the Chernobyl deposition for Swedish and Norwegian reindeer husbandry for at least another 10-20 years, have not previously been observed nor predicted. In the Chernobyl affected areas 137Cs concentrations in reindeer initially declined by effective half-times of 3-4 years, whereas the current decline appears to be mainly governed by the nuclide's physical half-life (30 years). The review of effective half-times of 137Cs in reindeer across Fennoscandia suggests that concentrations declined more rapidly in the northernmost areas. The reason(-s) remains unclear, and demonstrates the need for more long-term sampling of the various components of reindeer's diet. Such sampling should aim at covering climatically different areas, as climate may influence transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer via lichen growth and weathering rates, composition of plant communities and lichen availability, as well as soil-to-plant radiocaesium uptake. The lack of long-term data on radiocaesium in natural vegetation in the Nordic countries is one of the main limitations for the development of mechanistic models for radiocaesium in reindeer, and for further elucidation of the observed long-term trends in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer. Currently our understanding of the long-term trends observed in various areas is not good enough to predict how future radiocaesium deposition will behave. The high transfer of nuclides to reindeer, the geographical extension of reindeer herding and the special position of the Sami population in Finland, Sweden and Norway, demonstrates the need for

  6. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åhman, G.; Rydberg, A.; Åhman, B.

    1990-01-01

    Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  8. A model for analyzing influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Olof; Sandewall, Mats; Wilhelmsson, Erik

    1987-01-01

    A model for long-term analysis of the influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing (Cladina, Alectoria, Bryoria spp and others) in Sweden is presented. The annual production of and demand for lichens are estimated and compared. Production of these lichens is presumed to set the upper limit for the reindeer population. Reindeer graze on both ground and tree lichens, which both must be accessible in sufficient amounts and at the right times of the year if reindeer husbandry is...

  9. 6th Nordic Workshop on Reindeer Research, 8-10 October 1990, Tromsø, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sixth Nordic Reindeer Scientist's Meeting, organised by the Nordic Council for Reindeer Research, was held at Tromsø, Norway, 8-10 October, 1990. The principal themes of the meeting were ' Reindeer husbandry. Basis for resources and the man' and ' Meat quality'.

  10. Analysis of the economic adaptation of Sami reindeer management. Reindeer; source of income or cultural linkage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Labba

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this partial study is to analyse how the economies of different Sami reindeer management households are structured, and how the adaptation is structured if profit maximation is a goal. Earlier research demonstrates that different regions provides various terms. Consequently there exists a different economic structure among different households. Based on a selection of households from districts /villages from a range of geographical locations, management patterns, and region size, different economic structures are searched for. Households with similar economic structures are grouped in categories. The standard deviation confirms whether the grouping in categories. Sami Reindeer Management in Norway and Sweden has during the period from 1992/93 to 2002/03 provided recognized slaughterhouses with an even quantum of meat supply. That indicates that it probably is the same set of factors that influence the slaughter quantities of both countries. The relationship between the stock value of reindeer and the commercial value of reindeer meat, with in each household, suggests whether there is an accumulation in herd size and its magnitude. The herd increment depends on the competitive situation between the households in the district/village. As a single household cannot influence wholesale price of reindeer meat, the sales quantum is the single factor that can influence total sales. The efforts to increase herd size, due to the competitive situation, prevent the household from a maximum slaughter quantum, which thereby reduce the returns from reindeer management. Common factors for the different structures are sought for. The indication is that nether sale price of reindeer meat or line of politics influence sales quantum. The Sami reindeer herding seams to be a way of life were the size of the reindeer herd is in focus.Analys av den samiska renskötselns ekonomiska tillpassning. Renen, intäktskälla eller kulturfäste?Abstract in Swedish

  11. Success and failure of reindeer herding in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal husbandry is a recent innovation in Greenland, specifically reindeer husbandry is less than 50 years old. Reindeer husbandry was first established in mid-west Greenland and later in southern Greenland. The Greenland hunter tradition and culture is, however, still dominant in many communities. During the 1980s and 1990s, the incompatibility of these two traditions resulted in the failure of reindeer husbandry in mid-west Greenland. There were neither herding nor seasonal herd movements. Animals remained year round on the winter range, which was destroyed as lichens were trampled every summer. Without seasonal herd movements both sustainable range use and control of the herd were lost. Today, there are just two semi-domestic reindeer herds left, and both are in southern Greenland. One herd is commercially successful, and the other is under development. In mid-west Greenland, semi-domestic reindeer husbandry officially ended in 1998, and a hunt was initiated to remove the remaining population. Possibly, by the year 2000 any animals left in this region will be considered wild caribou.

  12. Wild reindeer in Norway – population ecology, management and harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigil Reimers

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild reindeer in Norway, presently (winter 2005-06 numbering some 25 000 animals, are found in 23 more or less separated areas in the mountainous southern part of the country (see map in appendix. All herds are hunted and management is organized in close cooperation between owner organizations and state agencies. I will provide a historical review of the wild reindeer management and research in Norway and conclude with the present situation. We identify 3 types of wild reindeer on basis of their origin: (1 the original wild reindeer with minor influence from previous domestic reindeer herding activities (Snøhetta, Rondane and Sølenkletten, (2 wild reindeer with some influx of animals from past domestic reindeer herding in the area (Nordfjella, Hardangervidda, Setesdal-Ryfylke and (3 feral reindeer with a domesticated origin (reindeer released or escaped from past reindeer husbandry units; Forolhogna, Ottadalen North and Ottadalen South, Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell and several smaller areas. In Norway, genetic origin (wild or domesticated, body size and reproductive performance of reindeer differ among areas. Feral reindeer have higher body weights and enjoy higher reproductive rates than their originally wild counterparts. These differences may partially be explained by differences in food quality and availability among the populations. However, there is a growing suspicion that other explanatory factors are also involved. Wild reindeer are more vigilant and show longer fright and flight distances than feral reindeer. Number of animals harvested was 4817, or ca. 20% of the total population in 2005, but varies between 40% in feral reindeer areas to below 20% in some of the "wild" reindeer areas. Causal factors behind this variation include differences in age at maturation, postnatal calf mortality and herd structure. The Norwegian Institute for nature research (NINA in cooperation with the Directorate for nature management (DN allocate considerable

  13. Blood composition of the reindeer. I. Haematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available The semi-domestic reindeer is a ruminant which exhibits a highly advanced adaptation to the marked seasonality of the northern environment. Since the reindeer has an economic importance and previous information about its blood composition is scanty in respect to age, season, calving and nutrition, the haematology of 578 reindeer were studied. The blood samples were taken from the jugular vein mainly in connection with the marking of calves during summer and at reindeer round-ups in autumn and winter at 10 reindeer rearing subunits in Northern Finland in various seasons in 1973-79. The red blood cell count (8xl012/l, haemoglobin (108 g/1, packed cell volume (35%, white blood cell count (6x109/l and serum iron (26 micromol/1 were low in newborn calves and reached their adult levels in autumn at the age of 5 months (average 11 x 1012/1, 182 g/1, 51%, 9x109/l, 44 micromol/1, respectively. The total serum bilirubin was relatively stable and vitamin B12 high in the first days after birth. The stable serum bilirubin indicates a relatively small breakdown of foetal erythrocytes. E-MCV of adult females was about 49 fl and the diameter of round erythrocytes about 5.5 microm and their thickness about 1.5 microm. No sickling was observed. The red cell osmotic fragility had a initial and final haemolysis points of 0.71 and 0.37% NaCl solution. The relative proportions of neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil granulocytes and agranular lymphocytes and monocytes were 52, 5, 2, 42 and 2 %, respectively. The calving of the reindeer occurs without visible haemorrhage. The body weight, red blood cell count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and serum iron of pregnant hinds dropped, however, during the early lactation period, and a relative anaemia developed is partly due to iron deficiency and, perhaps, also breakdown of foetal erythrocytes. The means of body weight (range 50-70 kg, red blood cell count (8-11 x 1012/l, haemoglobin (118-185 g/1, packed cell volume (42

  14. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, K.; Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G.

    1990-01-01

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation

  15. Multivariate clustering of reindeer herding districts in Sweden according to range prerequisites for reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lundqvist

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The 51 reindeer herding districts in Sweden vary in productivity and prerequisites for reindeer herding. In this study we characterize and group reindeer herding districts based on relevant factors affecting reindeer productivity, i.e. topography, vegetation, forage value, habitat fragmentation and reachability, as well as season lengths, snow fall, ice-crust probability, and insect harassment, totally quantified in 15 variables. The herding districts were grouped into seven main groups and three single outliers through cluster analyses. The largest group, consisting of 14 herding districts, was further divided into four subgroups. The range properties of herding districts and groups of districts were characterized through principal component analyses. By comparisons of the suggested grouping of herding districts with existing administrative divisions, these appeared not to coincide. A new division of herding districts into six administrative sets of districts was suggested in order to improve administrative planning and management of the reindeer herding industry. The results also give possibilities for projections of alterations caused by an upcoming global climate change. Large scale investigations using geographical information systems (GIS and meteorological data would be helpful for administrative purposes, both nationally and internationally, as science-based decision tools in legislative, economical, ecological and structural assessments. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Multivariat gruppering av svenska samebyar baserat på renbetesmarkernas grundförutsettningar Svenska renskötselområdet består av 51 samebyar som varierar i produktivitet och förutsättningar för renskötsel. Vi analyserade variationen mellan samebyar med avseende på 15 variabler som beskriver topografi, vegetation, betesvärde, fragmentering av betesmarker, klimat, skareförekomst och aktivitet av parasiterande insekter och vi föreslår en indelning av

  16. A deworming field trial with ivermectin (MSD) in reindeer

    OpenAIRE

    Nordkvist, M.; Christensson, D.; Rehbinder, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983) as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females), as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females) were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD) at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly ...

  17. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in summer pasture plants that reindeer feed on in the reindeer management area of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, Annukka [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK, Laehteentie 2, Rovaniemi, FIN 96400 (Finland); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka, E-mail: ari.leppanen@stuk.fi [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK, Laehteentie 2, Rovaniemi, FIN 96400 (Finland); Rissanen, Kristiina; Ylipieti, Jarkko [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK, Laehteentie 2, Rovaniemi, FIN 96400 (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    Samples of summer pasture plants that reindeer feed on were collected in order to study {sup 137}Cs concentrations in different plant species and in species nested in certain site types, and to study the regional distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the Finnish reindeer management area. Plant species were categorized by the site types of mineral soil forest (xeric heath forest and mesic heath forest) and peatland. A third category called 'other plant species' included plants with various site types, poorly determined species and species with poor statistics. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in different site types differed significantly. The mean {sup 137}Cs concentrations of the whole reindeer management area in the xeric heath forest plant species was 44 {+-} 27 Bq/kg dw, in the mesic heath forest plant species 75 {+-} 59 Bq/kg dw and in the peatland plant species 219 {+-} 150 Bq/kg dw. The peatland species uptake {sup 137}Cs more efficiently than plant species of mineral soil forests. A particularly efficient collector of {sup 137}Cs was Trichophorum sp. It is suggested that Trichophorum sp. could be used as an indicator species for reindeer summer fodder plants. The highest concentrations of {sup 137}Cs were found in Southern Lapland and the lowest in Northern Lapland. Today, the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in summer pasture plants that reindeer feed on in Finland are at such a level that there is no need to avoid any plant species. In the case of future nuclear fallout, reindeer grazing in peatlands would increase concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in reindeer meat. - Highlights: > The {sup 137}Cs concentrations were found to be higher in the plants of peatlands. > There was also a decreasing trend {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the plants of peatlands when moving northwards while xeric heath and mesic heath forest did not show clear spatial pattern. > No significant difference was found between plants species from xeric and mesic heath forest plants. > The

  18. Developing an ecologically and economically more stable semi-domestic reindeer management - a Finnish point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Kumpula

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In arctic and sub-arctic regions semi-domestic reindeer management forms an important livelihood which should be able to provide enough income for herders. Reindeer management has natural limits of growth. Consequently it should be managed to optimise both the use of reindeer pastures and herder income. Reindeer pastures should be grazed at the economic carrying capabity level. This gives the maximum sustained harvest from reindeer stock and also the maximum sustained foraging from pastures. How is this to be accomplished? First, reliable knowledge about reindeer pastures in time and place is necessary: to estimate the quantity and quality of specific reindeer pastures within each management district, as well as the productive capacity and the changes in condition and productivity of those pastures. Secondly, data is needed on the accurate productivity of reindeer stock and the production costs for each management district. Thirdly, study the relationships between pasture resources and productivity of reindeer stock together with the effects of long-term reindeer densities on pasture condition and productivity. Finally, knowledge is needed about the effects of herd structure on reindeer stock productivity as well as the factors which restrict the use of reindeer pastures. Models based on adequate data could provide a useful tool for optimising the use of reindeer pastures and herder income. First the economic carrying capacity of reindeer pastures should be studied. Subsequently the economy of reindeer husbandry could be modelled with respect to reindeer stock density. Also the economy of reindeer husbandry based on different levels of feeding, and the effects of this husbandry practice on pastures, should be modelled. Models should be accurate and flexible enough to use when looking for solutions to practical questions and challenges in reindeer management.

  19. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rissanen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  20. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident considerable efforts have been made in Sweden to reduce radiocaesium intake via food by the general population. Countermeasures have been used especially in reindeer husbandry. In this investigation intake of radiocaesium via reindeer meat was estimated, and the corresponding collective radiation dose to humans was calculated for the first 10 years following the Chernobyl fallout. The transfer of radiocaesium and the collective dose were compared with the potential transfer and corresponding human dose, that would have occurred in the absence of radioactivity limits and countermeasures. According to the estimates, the collective dose for the first year after the Chernobyl accident (May 1986 to April 1987) was reduced from 193 man Sv (potential dose) to below 3 man Sv (actual dose). The cost for this was 117 million SEK. Because of the relatively rapid reduction of radiocaesium in reindeer pasture, both the potential and the actual dose decreased with time. For the reindeer slaughter period from July 1995 to June 1996, the potential dose was estimated to 18 man Sv and the actual dose to 7 man Sv. The total expenditure on control and countermeasures for that year was 17 million SEK

  1. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-03

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area.

  2. Reindeer & Wolves: Exploring Sensory Deprivation in Multiplayer Digital Bodily Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Velloso, Eduardo; Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer...

  3. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  4. Productivity of semi-domesticated reindeer in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilpo Kojola

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a twofold increase in the density of reindeer in Finland from 1974 to 1987, meat production per reindeer increased during this period. This was possible due to calf harvesting and supplemental feeding. Results from multiple regression models indicated that calf harvesting influenced both per unit area and per capita production more than supplemental feeding. Correlation between meat production and animal density decreased with increased supplemental feeding. Traditionally, southern and central herds of reindeer fed mainly on arboreal lichens in late winter; however, due to large-scale logging, woodlands rich of arboreal lichens had been greatly reduced. Economic carrying capacity of the winter range apparently has been exceeded in the south; a heavy crash in the number of reindeer is likely if supplemental feeding ceases. In northern herds, intensive calf harvesting enabled satisfactory yield without supplemental feeding. In northern herds, yield increased mainly per unit area (i.e. by increases in herd size; in the south yield per reindeer increased.Lithantuotantoon vaikuttavat tekijat Suomen poron-hoidossa.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmd: Huolimatta Suomessa vuosien 1974 ja 1987 valilla tapahtuneesta porotiheyden kaksinkertaistumisesta, lihantuotto poroa kohti kasvoi jakson aikana. Tama johtui oletettavasti vasateurastuksesta ja lisaruokinnasta. Monimu-uttujaregressiomallien tulosten perusteella vasateurastuksella nayttaisi olevan lisaruokintaa suurempi vaikutus seka poroa etta pinta-alaa kohti laskettuun tuottoon. Ruokinnan tehostuessa pienentyi lihantuoton ja porotiheyden valinen riippuvuus. Etelaosan ja keskiosan porot syovat perinteisesti puussa kasvavia jakalia kevattalvella. Hakkuista johtuen luppometsien osuus on suuresti vahentynyt. Talvilaidunten ekonomien kantokyky on ilmeisesti ylitetty etela- ja keski-osassa; syva romahdus poromaarissa on todennakoista, jos ruokinta lopetettaisiin. Pohjoisosassa voima-perainen vasate

  5. Functional and comparative digestive system anatomy of Arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Hofmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary niche, feeding type classification and seasonal strategies of Rangifer tarandus and Ovibos moschatus discussed in relation to the anatomy of their digestive system. Classification criteria for the flexible feeding type system, originally established in bovids and later adapted to cervids, are substantiated and critically discussed in the light of recent attempts to invalidate the system. Eurasian mountain reindeer, North American barren-ground caribou, Svalbard reindeer and Victoria Island caribou are seasonally adaptable, opportunistic ruminants of the intermediate feeding type but the long evolutionary sepatation of Svalbard reindeer has modified several morphological features for winter survival without lichen, resulting in better adaptation to fibrous forage. Muskoxen, despite their seasonal selectivity, are typical grass and roughage eaters with extremely long mean retention time. Detailed data on the entire digestive system from muzzle to anus on both species are still insufficient and extended studies are worthwhile for understanding their nutritional niche and feeding adaptations.

  6. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

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    Morten Tryland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time being, but reindeer herding is sometimes challenged by disease outbreaks, and diseases play an important role for survival and fitness of reindeer. Reindeer herding is also facing changes and challenges, which also may impact reindeer health and the disease status. Introduction of infectious agents not commonly present in the reindeer population may take place through import of animals, as well as by contact between reindeer, livestock and wildlife. Further, changes in the herding, such as increased feeding, transport, size of herds, animal density and stress load on the animals, may affect the animals ability to cope with infectious diseases. Also changes in weather conditions and climate, such as increased precipitation and mean temperature, may over time lead to restricted availability of pastures, changes in vegetation and changed conditions for parasites and insect vectors. These changes might be especially important for the reproductive success, including fitness of the calves during their first winter. To be able to cope with these changes and their potential impact on reindeer health, increased efforts should be made to gather reference data on health and disease parameters from the different reindeer herding districts, along with epidemiological risk factor analysis. This would increase the ability for the reindeer herding to cope with changes and to continue to produce quality meat products for the market.

  7. Mycotic skin lesions in an adult reindeer caused by Debaryomyces bansenii. A case report

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    Claes Rehbinder

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This report apparently is the first to describe candidosis in reindeer. It is imperative that reindeer kept in corrals during winter and spring for supplementary feeding, are provided clean, dry conditions and that strict hygenic measures are followed. If reindeer on the other hand are kept in dirty, wet and muddy corrals, among other things, skin lesions due to fungal infections may possibly appear rather frequently.

  8. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  9. Effects of Power Lines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flydal, K.; Reimers, E.; Johansen, F.; Colman, J.E.; Korslund, L.; Colman, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted large-scale, replicated experiments to test the effects of two parallel power lines on area use, behaviour, and activity of semidomestic reindeer in enclosures. Yearling female reindeer were released into four 50 x 400 m enclosures; two treatment enclosures with power lines and two control enclosures. Reindeer from two herds, one from Kautokeino (domestic tame) and one from Vaga, (domestic wild) were tested separately and compared. Individual location within the enclosures was not affected by the power lines. Effects on restless behaviour were ambiguous, with slightly more restless behaviour in the treatment enclosures for the domestic tame reindeer, while the domestic wild reindeer maintained a stable level in the treatment enclosures, increasing with time in the control enclosures. Activity changes were slightly more common among animals within treatment enclosures for both herds, with no indication of habituation during the experiment. The domestic wild reindeer had more than three times the amount of restless behaviour than the domestic tame reindeer. Our study indicates that for reindeer in enclosures, the disturbance from a power line construction is negligible. This suggests that power lines are a minor disturbing factor compared to human handling when using fenced in areas like grazing gardens in reindeer husbandry.

  10. Traffic deaths of reindeer in Finland during 1974 — 83

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    Mauri Nieminen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available During 1974 — 83 a total of 23.298 reindeer died in traffic accidents in Finland. Vehicles killed 19.962 reindeer (85,7% of traffic deaths and trains 3.336 reindeer (14,3%. During 1978 — 82 the majority of reindeer killed by vehicles were hinds (52,2% and calves (24,6%. Reindeer road deaths were concentrated in the southern and central, heavily trafficked herding areas. Most reindeer were killed by vehicles in the marked herding areas of Pudasjårvi, Kuusamo, Raudanjoki and Sodankyiå. The most destructive section of road was highway number 20 between Pudasjårvi and Taivalkoski where 559 reindeer died during 1978 — 82 on a 36 km stretch. The worst railway stretch was between Ii and Kemi where an average of 115 reindeer/10 km died during 1976 — 82. Most reindeer died in traffic in November, December and January during the soft snow period when the movement of reindeer is most difficult. In summer, most reindeer died in traffic in July — August. The number of reindeer deaths on the roads in May — September depended slightly on the temperature in the different months (r=0,398. Throughout the whole reindeer herding area the amount of reindeer deaths also depended on the average 24-hour traffic (r=0,445.Porojen liikennekuolemat Suomessa 1974 — 83.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vuosina 1974—83 kuoli liikenteesså Suomessa yhteenså 23.298 poroa. Auton alle jåi 19.962 poroa (85,7% liikennekuolemista ja junan alle 3.336 poroa (14,3%. Vuosina 1978—82 oli autojen alle jååneistå poroista suurin osa vaatimia (52,2% ja vasoja (24,6%. Porojen maantiekuolemat keskittyivåt etelå- ja keskiosan pieniin ja runsaasti liikennoityihin paliskuntiin. Eniten poroja jåi auton alle Pudasjårven, Kuusamon, Raudanjoen ja Sodankylån merkkipiirien paliskunnissa. Tuhoisin tieosuus oli valtatie n:o 20 vålillå Pudasjårvi—Taivalkoski, jossa kuoli vuosina 1978—82 yhteenså 559 poroa 36 km:n matkalla. Pahin rataosuus olivålillå li

  11. Trials with different feeds to reindeer

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    Ulla-Britt Bøe

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available When changing over from natural pasture to artificial feeding it is often neccessary to supplement with the natural fodder lichen in order to avoid digestibility disturbances. The high contant of water makes it difficult to store and transport lichen. We have therefore observed whether dried lichen in form of pellets can subsitute natural lichen as a fodder for reindeer. In a feeding experiment with 6 calves which were brought in from natural pasture just before the experiment started, 3 calved were fed natural lichen and the other 3 pelleted lichen for a period of 5 weeks. The calves on pelleted lichen had a higher feed intake and a correspondingly higher weight gain compared with a 38 g weight loss pr. day (Fig. 1 in the other group. Another experiment was conducted to test the effect on digestibility disturbances when changing over from natural pasture to artificial feeding. Two new fodders were composed, RF-80 and RFL (The chemical an biological compositions are given in Table 1 and 2. The feed intake during the first days of the experiments is used as a measure of the digestibility disturbances. The calves were in poor condition and starved one day before the experiment started. Compared to RF-71, the commercial reindeer fodder in Norway, both turned out to be usable. The animals did not seem to have digestibility disturbances when feeding on the new fodders.Porojen ruokintakokeita erilaisilla rehuilla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Kun porojen ruokinnassa siirrytåån våkirehun kåyttoon, on usein vålttåmåtontå ruuansulatushåirioiden vålttåmiseksi antaa elåimille ensimmåisinå påivinå lisarehuna jåkålåa. Jåkålån suuri vesipitoisuus vaikeuttaa sen varastoimista ja kuljetusta laiduntamispaikalle. Sen vuoksi olemme tutkineet voiko puristeen muodossa oleva kuivattu jåkålå korvata tavallisen jåkålån poron rehuna. Erååsså ruokintakokeessa kåytettiin kuutta poronyasaa, jotka nuodettiin suoraan luonnolliselta

  12. Elaphostrongylus spp. from Scandinavian cervidae - a scanning electron microscope study (SEM

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    Margareta Stéen

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes of the genus Elaphostrongylus collected from moose (Alces alces L., reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., and red deer (Cervus elaphus L., respectively, were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. Morphological differences in the ribs of the genital bursa were demonstrated. The Elaphostrongylus species from reindeer and red deer differed from each other in four ribs of the genital bursa. These results agree with the morphological characters of E. cervi and E. rangiferi described by Cameron (1931 and Mitskevitch (1960. The genital bursa of Elaphostrongylus sp. from moose, in accordance with the description of E. alces by Steen et al. (1989 showed characteristics differing from those found in Elaphostrongylus spp. from reindeer and red deer respectively. These results support the hypothesis that there are three separate species of Elaphostrongylus present in Scandinavian Cervidae. Svep-elektroniska studier på Elaphostrongylus spp. hos skandinaviska hjortdjur.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Rundmaskar inom slaktet Elaphostrongylus funna hos alg (Alces alces L., ren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. och kronhjort(Cervus elaphus L. studerades med hjalp av svepelelektronmikroskop. De hanliga bursorna med sin a stodjeribbor uppvisade variationer i utseende, langd och placering mellan dessa rundmaskar. De arter av Elaphostrongylus funna hos ren och kronhjort skilde sig åt avseende fyra stodjeribbor på de hanliga bursorna. Dessa resultat stammer val overens med de karaktarer som tidigare ar beskrivna av Cameron(1931 och av Mitskevich (1960. Den hanliga bursan hos arten Elaphostrongylus funnen hos alg, vilken tidigare ar beskriven av Steen et al. (1989, visade upp ett utseende som skilde sig från bursorna hos de Elaphostrongylus-arter funna hos ren och kronhjort. Dessa resultat stoder hypotesen om tre skilda arter av Elaphostrongylus hos skandinaviska hjortdjur.

  13. A new Eimeria species (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) from caribou in Ameralik, West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, K; Cuyler, C

    2016-04-01

    Fecal samples of 11 calves shot in the Ameralik area, West Greenland, in August-September 2014 were examined for coccidian parasites. The calves belonged to a population of interbreeding indigenous caribou Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and feral semi-domestic Norwegian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Two coccidian species were found: Eimeria rangiferis and a coccidium that was identified and described as a new species. The latter's sporulated oocyst is spherical or slightly subspherical. Average size is 25.6 × 24.8 μm. The oocyst has two distinct walls. Wall thickness is ∼1.4 μm. The unicolored outer wall is brown, the inner wall is dark gray. The oocysts contain a small polar granule but are devoid of a microphyle. The oocysts enclose four ovoid-shaped sporocysts with a rounded end opposite to the Stieda body. The average size of sporocysts is 15.2 × 7.8 μm. Sporocysts contain a granular sporocyst residuum that forms a spherical cluster between the sporocysts, one large refractile body is present in each sporozoite. The spherical form easily distinguishes oocysts of the new species from the seven previously described eimerid species in R. tarandus. This is the first eimerid described as a new species to the sciences from caribou in the Nearctic.

  14. Radiocesium in reindeer breeders in Northern Norway since 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selnaes, T.D.; Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    Reindeer breeders in Kautokeino, Northern Norway, have been monitored for whole body content of 137 Cs every years since 1965. The group was chosen because of it's large intake of reindeer meat (65 kg/year). The same group has been monitored throughout the years. Some supplements have been made, to maintain the average age within the group. Whole body countings have been performed with a scintillation detector and i single- or multichannel analyzer. The highest values were monitored in 1966, when the average body content of 137 Cs was 39,500 Bq for men, and 18,600 Bq for women. Whole body contents are today around 2,000 Bq, giving a calculated whole body dose of 0.1 mSv/year. 5 refs., 4 figs

  15. Ecological Impacts of Reindeer Herding in Oulanka National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Helgard

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of reindeer grazing on Cladonia lichen ranges have been receiving increasing attention from both scientists and the general public. Often, grazing pressure is seen as too high and as endangering lichen vegetation ecosystems. During the PAN Park verification process in Oulanka National Park in north-eastern Finland, a study was requested to evaluate the condition of lichen ranges and, if needed, to make recommendations for improvements. In addition to the requested information, thi...

  16. The effects of stand characteristics on reindeer lichens and range use by semi-domesticated reindeer

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    T. Helle

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Kuusamo (66°15'N, 29°05'E and Inari (68°30'N, 28°15'E, northern Finland, where 24 and 22 Scots pine stands were studied respectively. Clear-cutting (logging residue caused a decline in lichen biomass for some few years, but otherwise the age of the stand had no effect upon lichen biomass. Instead, a positive correlation was found between litter/logging residue and the mean height of lichens; in Kuusamo, logging residue decreased significantly with the age of the stand. Grazing pressure in terms of fecal group density increased with the age of the stand. The preference of old forests came visible also as a lower mean height of lichens, which eliminates the possibility that the preference of old forests is associated only to the use of arboreal lichens. In Inari, grazing pressure sharply increased after the stand had reached the age of 100 years despite scarce litter/logging residue and fair lichen ranges in younger forests; there prevailed a negative correlation between stand density and grazing pressure. It has been suggested that there might be three main reasons for reindeers preferring old forests: 1 hardening of the snow (because of winds on clear-cut areas, 2 logging residue preventing digging for the food beneath the snow, and 3 poor visibility in young pine stands (Inari which might increase predation risk.

  17. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Røed, K.H.; Jacobsen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

  18. Insights for caribou/reindeer management using optimal foraging theory

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    Gary E. Belovsky

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal foraging theory is useful to wildlife managers, because it helps explain the nutritional value of different habitats for wildlife species. Based upon nutritional value, the use of different habitats can be predicted, including how factors such as insect harassment, predation and migration might modify habitat selection. If habitat value and use can be understood, then changes in habitat availability which are of concern to wildlife managers can be assessed. The theory is used to address diet choice and habitat use of caribou/reindeer. Diet choice is examined in terms of lichen composition of the diet and is demonstrated to be a function of daily feeding time, food abundance and digestive capacity. The diet choice model is then used to assess the nutritional profitability of different habitats and which habitat should be preferred based upon nutritional profitability. Caribou/reindeer use of habitats is demonstrated to be easily modified by insect harassment and predation which change the nutritional profitability of habitats differentially. The same type of approach could be used to explain migratory behaviour; however, the needed parameter values are unavailable. The results of this analysis lead one to question some common conceptions about caribou/reindeer ecology.

  19. Activity and heart rate in semi-domesticated reindeer during adaptation to emergency feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Ahman, B; Norberg, H; Redbo, I; Eloranta, E; Olsson, K

    2006-06-15

    Although reindeer are well adapted to limited food resources during winter, semi-domesticated reindeer are regularly fed when snow conditions are bad in order to prevent starvation. Feeding sometimes results in health problems and loss of animals. This study was made to assess if activity pattern in reindeer could be used as a tool for the reindeer herder in early detection of animals that are not adapting to feeding. The frequency of 10 behavioural categories was recorded in five groups of penned, eight-month-old, female semi-domesticated reindeer. Three reindeer per group were fitted with heart rate monitors. Lying was the most frequent behaviour, whilst there were few cases of agonistic behaviour. Heart rate varied during the day, with peaks during feeding and low heart rates in the early morning. Restricted feed intake resulted in more locomotion and seeking but less ruminating compared to feeding ad libitum. This was followed by a generally lower heart rate in reindeer in the restricted groups compared to controls. Subsequent feeding with different combinations of lichens, silage and pellets ad libitum resulted initially in significantly more of the animals lying curled up, compared to controls, combined with increased heart rates. As the experiment continued the general activity pattern, as well as the heart rate, gradually became more similar in all groups. Lying curled was the behavioural indicator most consistently affected by feed deprivation and adaptation to feeding and may thus be a useful indicator to distinguish individual reindeer that are not adjusting to feeding.

  20. Similarities and differences in composition and selected sensory attributes of reindeer, caribou and beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rincker, P.J.; Bechtel, P.J.; Finstadt, G.; Buuren, Van R.G.C.; Killefer, J.; McKeith, F.K.

    2006-01-01

    The longissimus from caribou (n = 6), reindeer (n = 6) and beef (n = 6) were evaluated to determine differences in composition, color and sensory properties. Caribou contained the least fat followed by reindeer, and then beef (P <0.05). Both venison sources contained more heme pigment and had a

  1. The Norwegian system for wild reindeer management — major development since the 19th century

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    Hans Olav Bråta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 19th century the hunting of wild reindeer was relatively unrestricted in Norway. This, combined with a more efficient hunting, caused a severe reduction in the number of wild reindeer at the turn of the century. The national authorities responded by stricter hunting control, and in 1930 hunting quotas related to the size of the wild reindeer areas were introduced. The Ministry of Agriculture decided the number of licences, and the number of wild reindeer increased. During the 1950s a major controversy between the Ministry and local people arose in the Snøhetta area. People there increased their power over the wild reindeer management by organising a "Wild Reindeer Board" (WRB. This inspired people in other districts to organise similar boards. These WRBs had no formal power according to the law, but became important managers of the herds. An official organisation for each wild reindeer area, the Wild Reindeer Committee (WRC, was introduced in 1988. Since the WRCs are official institutions, legal power is decentralised to them.

  2. 210Po and 210Pb in food chains lichen - reindeer - man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solatie, D.; Yunttila, M.; Vesterbakka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Migration of 210 Po and its precursor 210 Pb from radioactive fallout through food chain lichen - reindeer - man is studied. Samples of lichens, leaves, grass, mushrooms, soils, and samples of reindeer tissues are selected; their specific radioactivity and ratio 210 Po/ 210 Pb are determined [ru

  3. Conflicts between reindeer herding and an expanding caribou herd in Alaska

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    Greg L. Finstad

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The reindeer industry has existed in Alaska since 1892. This industry has largely been concentrated on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska because suitable habitat has been available and caribou have been absent here for over 100 years. Until recently, reindeer meat and velvet antler production consistently generated millions of dollars in revenue critical to the economies of rural Alaskan communities. From 1976 to 1996 the Western Arctic Caribou Herd (WACH increased from about 75 000 to 463 000 animals. Concurrently, seasonal range use of the WACH shifted westward onto traditional reindeer ranges of the Seward Peninsula. Reindeer herders lost 75-100% of their herds through commingling and out¬migration with wild caribou. This loss of over 12 000 reindeer represents a potential economic value of 13 million dollars. Sustainable meat and velvet antler production and the economies of western Alaskan are likely to be affected by these changes.

  4. The modern Saamish reindeer husbandry in Sweden after the reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.

    1992-01-01

    Large parts of the reindeer herding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout deposited mainly between 62 and 66 n.lat. by heavy rain-and snowfalls between April 28-30, the fjell and boreal forest regions of north-western Jaemtland and south-western Vaesterbotten being the home of 500 reindeer Saamis, organized in 19 Saamebys, and being the winter- and summer reindeer grazing areas for about 100000 reindeer worst contaminated, with a maximum soil contamination of 60000 Bq/m 2 Cs137 along a line Gaevle-Gaeddede. The socio-economic effects and consequences of Chernobyl have on the hand changed the daily and yearly work routine patterns by applying early slaughter and feeding programs. On the other hand it has shown the vulnerability of reindeer husbandry in particular and of Saami culture and livelihood in general. It has also pointed out the influence of the state compensation payments have helped the mostly hit Saamebys to survive economically and the Saami herders to preserve their ethic identity and specific way of life. The measure of introducing a strict radioactivity limit should be fixed internationally. In reindeer meat where the average annual consumption is as low as 200 g per person a limit as low as 300 pr 1500 Bq/kg is in fact ineffective in reducing cancer risks but it has proved disastrous for the reindeer meat market

  5. Reindeer meat – is it always tender, tasty and healthy?

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    Eva Wiklund

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat with high pH values, so called DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry meat, is a persistent quality defect foundmin all meat species. DFD shortens shelf life, especially for vacuum-packed meat and affects meat colour, tenderness and water-holding properties. High pH values in reindeer meat have been related to pre-slaughter handling stress and poor nutritional status of the animals. There are numerous reports that variation in muscle pH and glycogen content give rise to considerable variations in meat tenderness in species such as beef and lamb. In contrast, reindeer meat has been found to be extremely tender regardless of ultimate pH. This phenomenon has been related to the speed of post mortem protein degradation and the small muscle fibre size in reindeer. Previous research has demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of meat changes in response to diets. Generally, a higher proportion of long, unsaturated fatty acids were found in meat from grazing animals compared with animals fed a grain-based diet. Reindeer meat has been found to contain moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially so-called n-3 (or omega-3 PUFAs. The PUFAs are known to be susceptible to oxidation and may therefore be easily oxidized during processing by techniques like smoking and drying. A trained sensory panel concluded that meat from reindeer fed commercial feed scored higher for liverish and sweet flavours and lower for off-flavou (i.e. ‘grass’, ‘wild’ and ‘game’ compared with meat from grazing animals. Consumer preference tests on reindeer meat showed that 50 per cent of the consumers preferred meat from grazing reindeer and 50 per cent meat from pellet-fed animals. Recent reindeer meat research has included new feed mixtures using ingredients like linseed and fishmeal. Crushed linseed in the feed gave meat with a fat composition similar to that of natural pasture, which meant more PUFA than in meat from reindeer fed the normal grain

  6. Applying a synthetic approach to the resilience of Finnish reindeer herding as a changing livelihood

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    Simo Sarkki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding is an emblematic livelihood for Northern Finland, culturally important for local people and valuable in tourism marketing. We examine the livelihood resilience of Finnish reindeer herding by narrowing the focus of general resilience on social-ecological systems (SESs to a specific livelihood while also acknowledging wider contexts in which reindeer herding is embedded. The questions for specified resilience can be combined with the applied DPSIR approach (Drivers; Pressures: resilience to what; State: resilience of what; Impacts: resilience for whom; Responses: resilience by whom and how. This paper is based on a synthesis of the authors' extensive anthropological fieldwork on reindeer herding and other land uses in Northern Finland. Our objective is to synthesize various opportunities and challenges that underpin the resilience of reindeer herding as a viable livelihood. The DPSIR approach, applied here as a three step procedure, helps focus the analysis on different components of SES and their dynamic interactions. First, various land use-related DPSIR factors and their relations (synergies and trade-offs to reindeer herding are mapped. Second, detailed DPSIR factors underpinning the resilience of reindeer herding are identified. Third, examples of interrelations between DPSIR factors are explored, revealing the key dynamics between Pressures, State, Impacts, and Responses related to the livelihood resilience of reindeer herding. In the Discussion section, we recommend that future applications of the DPSIR approach in examining livelihood resilience should (1 address cumulative pressures, (2 consider the state dimension as more tuned toward the social side of SES, (3 assess both the negative and positive impacts of environmental change on the examined livelihood by a combination of science led top-down and participatory bottom-up approaches, and (4 examine and propose governance solutions as well as local adaptations by

  7. Radiocaesium in reindeer in relation to ground deposition, levels in vegetation, season and diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1999-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, reindeer pastures in Fennoscandia were contaminated with radioactive material (mainly 137 Cs). There were large geographical variations in contamination of reindeer and in apparent transfer of 137 Cs from ground and vegetation to reindeer. There could be several reasons for the observed differences between areas. This work aims at collecting basic data on 137 Cs activity concentrations in soil, vegetation and reindeer and constructing a model to describe the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer over time. Field data on 137 Cs in soil and vegetation has been collected during two years from one reindeer herding district (Jiingevaerie) in central Sweden. Data on 137 Cs in reindeer is available from the same area from 1986 to 1998. The collected data, and data from earlier investigations, has been put in a simple dynamic model, taking into account ground deposition, initial transfer of 137 Cs from fallout to different types of vegetation and long term change of 137 Cs in vegetation as well as food intake, diet composition, absorption and biological half-time of 137 Cs in reindeer. The ground contamination of 137 Cs was 9 441 Bq/m 2 , at average, within reindeer pastures used during the summer period and 22 629 Bq/m 2 within the areas used in wintertime. The relation between ground contamination and vegetation differed very much between sampling sites but were generally higher for lichens (however, not statistically significant) and fungi (significant). The relation between ground contamination and reindeer (T ag ) counted back to 1986 with the observed effective ecological half-time (t ef = 3. 6 years), was 0. 14 m 2 /kg for the season August-September and 0. 69 and 0. 66 m 2 /kg for the seasons October-December and January-April, respectively. Three simulations of 137 Cs in reindeer over 12 years were made with the constructed model and simulated values were compared to observed activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer from 1986 to

  8. Serosurvey of three virus infections in reindeer in northern Norway and Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stuen

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 326 Norwegian reindeer (NR and from 40 Svalbard reindeer (SR were examined for antibodies to reindeer herpesvirus (RHV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV and parainfulenza type 3 virus (PIV-3. No antibodies to any of these three viruses were detected in sera from SR. Sixty-three percent of sera from 101 adult NR (> 12 months old and 15% of 225 NR calves (6 months old had antibodies to RHV; corresponding values for BVDV were 41% and 6%, respectively. Twenty-seven percent of adult NR and 1% of NR calves had antibodies to both viruses. No antibodies to PIV-3 were detected in any NR sera.

  9. Radioactive contamination in reindeer herders and other people in Kautokeino 1965-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Skuterud, L.

    2012-01-01

    NRPA's measurements of radioactive caesium in reindeer herders and other people from Kautokeino in northern Norway were finalised in December 2010. This report summarises the monitoring program which was started in 1965.(Author)

  10. Caesium-137 in the foodchain lichen-reindeer-man during 1976 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillander, M.; Jaakkola, T.; Miettinen, J.K.

    1978-01-01

    The behaviour of the 137 Cs isotope in the subarctic environment has been an object of investigations in this laboratory since 1960. The 137 Cs body burden of a group of about 100 Lapps has been determined annually each spring since 1962 using a mobile whole-body counting system accommodated in a truck. In spring 1977, 31 reindeer herders and reindeer herding fishermen residing in Inari were thus measured. In spring 1978, no 137 Cs body burden measurements of the Lapps were carried out. Instead, analysis of 137 Cs in lichen and reindeer muscle samples was continued in order to check possible changes in the environmental 137 Cs level. In this paper 137 Cs concentrations in lichen in 1977 and in reindeer muscle in 1977 and 1978 are reported. Using these results the 137 Cs body burden of Finnish Lapps is estimated

  11. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. Progress report to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1997-09-01

    The level of 137 CS in freely grazing reindeer, and thus in reindeer pasture, continue to decrease, with an average T ef at 3.9 years from 1986/87 (the first year after the Chernobyl fallout) to 1996/97. The decline was more rapid during the first five years after the fallout than during the following five years. This, together with a tendency to a relatively slow decline in areas with mainly old fallout (from the nuclear weapon tests) indicate that radiocesium become more fixed in reindeer pasture with time. As a combined effect of the general decline and of different countermeasures, the transfer of radiocaesium via reindeer meat and the corresponding radiation dose to humans has been reduced with time. By different countermeasures, the total collective dose to the Swedish population, over a 10-year period following the Chernobyl accident, has been reduced with 676 manSv at a cost of 489 million SEK

  12. Caesium-137 in Saamis and reindeer in Kautokeino, Norway, 1965-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Mehli, H.; Floe, L.

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1960ies, during the period of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, it was realised that people consuming reindeer meat contained higher concentrations of radioactive caesium (i.e. 137 Cs) than the rest of the population of Northern areas. This is because reindeer graze significant amounts of lichen during winter, and lichen absorb and accumulate nutrients and contaminants directly from air and precipitation. In 1965, as a response to this knowledge, Norwegian authorities started a monitoring programme among reindeer herding Saamis in Kautokeino (60 deg. N, 23 deg. E), a 0687 km 2 municipality of Finnmark county where reindeer herding is an important way of living. The aim of the programme was to assess internal doses to the group of the Norwegian population that was assumed to be subject to the highest exposures from 137 Cs from the nuclear testing in general, and the testing at the Soviet test site at Novaya Zamlya in particular. (au)

  13. Impacts of a Changing Climate and Land Use on Reindeer Pastoralism: Indigenous Knowledge and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.; Oskal, A.; Turi, A.; Mathiesen, J. M.; Eira, S. D.; Yurchak, I. M. G.; Etylin, B.; Gebelein, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic is home to many indigenous peoples, including those who depend on reindeer herding for their livelihood, in one of the harshest environments in the world. For the largely nomadic peoples, reindeer not only form a substantial part of the Arctic food base and economy, but they are also culturally important, shaping their way of life, mythologies, festivals and ceremonies. Reindeer pastoralism or husbandry has been practiced by numerous peoples all across Eurasia for thousands of years and involves moving herds of reindeer, which are very docile animals, from pasture to pasture depending on the season. Thus, herders must adapt on a daily basis to find optimal conditions for their herds according to the constantly changing conditions. Climate change and variability plus rapid development are increasingly creating major changes in the physical environment, ecology, and cultures of these indigenous reindeer herder communities in the North, and climate changes are occurring significantly faster in the Arctic than the rest of the globe, with correspondingly dramatic impacts (Oskal, 2008). In response to these changes, Eurasian reindeer herders have created the EALAT project, a comprehensive new initiative to study these impacts and to develop local adaptation strategies based upon their traditional knowledge of the land and its uses - in targeted partnership with the science and remote sensing community - involving extensive collaborations and coproduction of knowledge to minimize the impacts of the various changes. This chapter provides background on climate and development challenges to reindeer husbandry across the Arctic and an overview of the EALAT initiative, with an emphasis on indigenous knowledge, remote sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and other scientific data to 'co-produce' datasets for use by herders for improved decision-making and herd management. It also provides a description of the EALAT monitoring data integration and sharing

  14. 1 Driftsøkonomi med planlegging 2 Wild reindeer of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Ansgar J. Kosmo. 1986. "Driftsøkonomi med planlegging". Reindriftsadministrasjonen, Alta. 111s. (Foreligger i januaer 1986. Utgis i samarbeid med Samisk utdanningsråd.E.E. Syroechovskij (ed.. 1984. "Wild reindeer of the Soviet Union". English version by U.S. Department of Interior and National Science Foundation. Lectures presented at a research conference at Dudinka, Taimyr in 1975. 43 lectures , some also with direct importance for the reindeer husbandry.

  15. Survival, persistence, and regeneration of the reindeer lichens, Cladina stellaris, C. rangiferina, and C. mitis following clearcut logging and forest fire in northwestern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Webb

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The responses of the reindeer lichens (Cladina stellaris, C. rangiferina, and C. mitis to logging and fire were compared in lichen-rich forest stands in northwestern Ontario. In the summer of 1992, reindeer lichen cover, in total and by species, was visually estimated and detailed notes were taken on reindeer lichen conditions, modes of reproduction, and substrate use on 34 undisturbed, burned, or logged sites. While virtually no reindeer lichens survived forest fire, much of the reindeer lichen cover remained after logging. Reindeer lichen cover increased with time since fire. Total reindeer lichen cover was not correlated with time since logging. Fragment growth was found to be an important mode of reproduction on logged sites, and occurred with greater frequency on logged sites than on burned sites. Colonization of organic substrates by reindeer lichens was observed on both logged and burned sites.

  16. Approaches to estimate body condition from slaughter records in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olofsson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term fluctuations in population densities of reindeer and caribou are common, where pasture is the limiting resource. Pasture quality affects the nutritional status and production of the animals. Therefore, continuous information about changes in the grazing resources is important when making management decisions. The objective of this study was to investigate different possibilities of using routine and additional slaughter records as body condition indicators, and thereby indicators of pasture resources in the summer ranges of reindeer husbandry. Records from 696 reindeer slaughtered in the winter 2002/2003 were included in the study. We developed a model with carcass weight as body condition indicator and two different models combining fatness, conformation, carcass weight, and body size as body condition indicators. The results showed age and sex dependent differences between the variables, and differentiation of animal age and sex improved the precision of models. Adjusting weight for body size also improved weight as a body condition indicator in adults. Conformation and fatness had good resemblance to weight and body size adjusted weight and should preferably be included, together with carcass weight and body size measures, when estimating body condition from carcasses. Our analysis showed that using non-invasive slaughter records is a good and non-expensive method of estimating body condition in reindeer. Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Tillvägagångssätt för skattning avkroppskondition hos ren från slaktregistreringarFluktuationer i ren- och caribou-populationers täthet över tiden är vanliga då betet är en begränsad resurs och beteskvalitén påverkar djurens kondition och produktion. Kontinuerligt uppdaterad information om förändringar i betesresurserna är viktigt i samband med beslutsfattande om förvaltning avresurserna. Syftet med denna studie var att utvärdera olika möjliga sätt att anv

  17. Transferrin variation and genetic structure of reindeer populations in Scandinavia

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    Knut H. Røed

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyse transferrin variation in herds of semi-domestic reindeer from Scandinavia. The results are compared with previously reported values for other populations of both semi-domestic and wild reindeer using the same techniques as in the present study. In all populations the number of alleles was high, ranging from seven to eleven, and the heterozygosity was correspondingly high, with a mean of 0.749. This high genetic variation in all populations suggests that inbreeding is not widespread among Scandinavian reindeer. The pattern of allele frequency distribution indicates a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in the transferrin locus, both between the different semi-domestic herds and between the different wild populations. The mean value of genetic distance was 0.069 between semi-domestic herds and 0.091 between wild populations. Between semi-domestic and wild populations the genetic distance was particularly high, with a mean of 0.188. This high value was mainly due to a different pattern in the distribution of the two most common transferrin alleles: Tfu was most common among semi-domestic herds, while TfEI was most common among wild populations. These differences in transferrin allele distribution are discussed in relation to possible different origins of semi-domestic and wild reindeer in Scandinavia, or alternatively, to different selection forces acting on transferrin genotypes in semi-domestic and wild populations.Transferrin-variasjon og genetisk struktur hos rein i Skandinavia.Abstact in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Transferrin-variasjon i tamreinflokker ble analysert ved hjelp av polyacrylamid gel elektroforese. Resultatene er sammenlignet med verdier som tidligere er beskrevet for både tamrein og villrein hvor det ble benyttet samme metode som i denne undersøkelsen. I alle populasjonene ble det registrert et høyt antall alleler (7-11 og heterozygositeten var tilsvarende høy med en

  18. From the Reindeer Path to the Highway and Back – Understanding the Movements of Khanty Reindeer Herders in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Dudeck

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article explores the meaning of roads and the practices of movement for a small group of forest inhabitants in the Western Siberian lowlands on the middle Ob. The indigenous people known as the Khanty live as reindeer herders, fishermen and hunters in the midst of oil fields in the Surgut Rayon. The article examines their emic point of view opposed to the evaluation of the state administration. Anthropological research can access the mobility of people in two ways. At first researchers map movement in physical and metaphysical time and space, they observe and record the practice of movement. The second important source for anthropological insight is what people say about their practices of movement and how they evaluate them and the spaces in which they move. The following article tries to show that these perspectives remain incomplete without a synthesis of both. The first perspective allows only for a functionalist classification and the second allows the researcher to be taken in by the black and white pictures of moral evaluations that render the complexity of everyday life invisible. Only a synthesis of both, a careful interpretation of indigenous narratives before the background of social and political circumstances let us understand the practices of movement we can observe in the everyday life of people. Khanty reindeer herders try to build up a distance from the world of intruders and try to defend their autonomy in the forest. By accessing everyday practices and motivations instead of ready-made explanations it is revealed that the Khanty are not doomed to adapt to new situations, but they try to negotiate and manipulate them in their favour. The article tries to prove that one has to skip the objectifying approach to a hermeneutic one to grasp their abilities to do so.

  19. Transferrin variation and evolution of Canadian barren-ground caribou

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    Knut H. Røed

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were obtained from 95 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus of the Beverly herd in Northwest Territories, Canada. Polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis was used to score for genetic variation in the locus coding for transferrin. The pattern of allele frequency distribution are compared with previously reported values of Eurasian tundra reindeer (R.t. tarandus, Alaska caribou (R.t. granti, Peary caribou (R.t. pearyi, and Svalbard reindeer (R.t. platyrhynchus. In the Beverly herd a total of 21 different transferrin alleles were detected. The amount of genetic variation was higher in the Canadian barren-ground caribou than what has been detected in other subspecies of reindeer/caribou. Highly gene-tical differences in the allele frequencies were detected between the Canadian barren-ground caribou and the other subspecies. The genetic identity analyses indicates approximately the same amount of genetic differentiation when the Canadian barren-ground caribou are compared with Alaska caribou as with the Peary caribou. The allele frequency pattern could be explained by a possible origin of the Canadian barren-ground caribou from an ancestral population which was genetical influenced by animals surviving the We-ichselian glaciation in refugia both in high Arctic, in Beringia, and south of the ice sheet.

  20. Museum specimens reveal changes in the population structure of northern Fennoscandian domestic reindeer in the past one hundred years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnstad, G; Røed, K H

    2010-06-01

    Traditional reindeer herding of northern Fennoscandia has been based on seasonal movements independent of national borders. At the beginning of the 19th century, these yearly movements of reindeer were excessive, but during that century the borders between the Fennoscandian countries were closed. By analysing a 190-base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region in 79 museum samples, we show that the reindeer of northern Fennoscandia were one homogenous population shortly after the national borders were closed. However, anthropogenic activity has effectively ended genetic exchange within northern Fennoscandia and has made the reindeer population within this region heterogeneous. Genetic input of eastern origin is also suggested within the extant Russian reindeer of the Kola Peninsula.

  1. Seasonal variation of cesium 134 and cesium 137 in semidomestic reindeer in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H.; Bye, K.; Sletten, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident had a great impact on the semidomestic reindeer husbandry in central Norway. Seasonal differences in habitat and diet resulted in large variations in observed radiocesium concentrations in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. In three areas with high values of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in lichens, the main feed for reindeer in winter, reindeer were sampled every second month to monitor the seasonal variation and the decrease rate of the radioactivity. The results are based on measurements of cesium-134 and cesium-137 content in meat and blood and by whole-body monitoring of live animals. In 1987 the increase of radiocesium content in reindeer in Vågå were 4x from August to January. The mean reductions in radiocesium content from the winter 1986/87 to the winter 1987/88 were 32%, 50% and 43% in the areas of Vågå, Østre-Namdal and Lom respectively

  2. The reindeer companies of southern Norway: Natural resources, husbandry, prerogatives and challenges (Article in Norwegian and in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaute Elvesæter Helland

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available From the middle of the 18th century there have been domesticated reindeer herds in the mountains of South-Norway. The people living in these areas, mostly farmers and hunters, bought reindeer from the Sami further east and north. Or Sami families came with their reindeer and started a new living. These events took place in many regions such as Setesdal, Hardangervidda, Hardanger, Voss, Hallingdal, Valdres, northern Gudbrandsdalen, Norefjell and Rendalen. In 1962 there were 20 000 tame reindeer held by 14 reindeer companies in southern Norway. Today five of these companies still exist. The reindeer owners have organized themselves as joint companies and to be a shareholder one must be living in the local municipality. The four companies in Valdres and northern Gudbrandsdalen keep in all about 11 000 reindeer in the winter herd which produces about 190 tons of reindeer meat each year. The legal basis of this reindeer management is regulated through agreements between the owners of the rough grazing properties and the company. In large areas the Norwegian State is the landowner, and in these cases the so-called Mountain law of 1975 regulates the agreement. The ways of managing the companies will be a matter of adjusting the management to all the other events in society. The structure of the herd, the extent of tameness and degree of domestication are key requisites. It is also of major importance that society supports this kind of management and regards the traditions and the long history of local interests in reindeer management. A future challenge will be to get these ways of living secured and warranted by law.

  3. Research for annual travel-route changes of reindeer living around the Arctic Circle using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, G.; Sakka, T.; Tashiro, T.; Kawamata, H.; Tatsuzawa, S.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    For a long time, nomads living in the Arctic Circle around Siberia have been making a living by hunting reindeer traditionally. Wild reindeer have a recurrent migration every year, however, the travel-route of reindeer has been changing recently, so the nomads cannot expect the route in their traditional experience. To support them, one of authors (Tatsuzawa) investigated the route by installing GPS transmitter to some reindeer. The reason of the changing route, however, remain unclear. Previous works indicated that the reason of changing the route must be a global warming, forest fires, thunders, and floods, but they only discuss only on the basis of measurements in specific area. The purpose of this study is to research why the arctic reindeer alter the travel route annually through 1) the annual change of vegetation (NDVI: normalized difference vegetation index) in reindeer ground, and through 2) the annual change of soil water content (mNDWI: modified normalized difference water index) which can be reflected precipitation near Lena river. First, we analyzed NDVI using MODIS images that can be observed over a wide area, filmed in July and August; the reindeer started to travel. We have compared the seasonal changes of the NDVI images with the trace obtained by GPS data from 2010 to 2012. Although NDVI images in July showed similar numerical values in every year, the satellite images taken at August 29 is annually different; NDVI values become lower (0.5 or less) when the reindeer travel to the north area in winter. This suggests that reindeer move to secure enough food in the end of summer. In contrast, mNDWI becomes high when the reindeer travel to the north area. The annual changes of the route may be related to the amount of rainfall.

  4. 1 H NMR study and multivariate data analysis of reindeer skin tanning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizheng; Ilott, Andrew J; Del Federico, Eleonora; Kehlet, Cindie; Klokkernes, Torunn; Jerschow, Alexej

    2017-04-01

    Reindeer skin clothing has been an essential component in the lives of indigenous people of the arctic and sub-arctic regions, keeping them warm during harsh winters. However, the skin processing technology, which often conveys the history and tradition of the indigenous group, has not been well documented. In this study, NMR spectra and relaxation behaviors of reindeer skin samples treated with a variety of vegetable tannin extracts, oils and fatty substances are studied and compared. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA), one can recognize patterns and identify groupings of differently treated samples. These methods could be important aids in efforts to conserve museum leather artifacts with unknown treatment methods and in the analysis of reindeer skin tanning processes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Permafrost and indigenous land use in the northern Urals: Komi and Nenets reindeer husbandry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Kirill V.; Habeck, Joachim Otto

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost is an integral part of the environmental conditions that frame indigenous peoples' livelihoods in many parts of the circumpolar region. On the basis of their long-term ethnographic field researches, the authors describe the various ways in which permafrost dynamics influence the lives and economic activities of two groups of reindeer-herding nomads in North-Eastern Europe and Western Siberia: Komi and Nenets. Permafrost affects the herders directly, for the herders have to take into account the probability of thermokarst while choosing the campsite and performing certain herding procedures. It also affects the herders indirectly, through its influence on landscape and vegetation and thus on reindeer behavior. More rapid permafrost degradation will have a range of adverse effects on reindeer herding.

  6. Warming Climate and Changing Societies - a Challenge or an Opportunity for Reindeer Herding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käyhkö, J.; Horstkotte, T.; Kivinen, S.; Vehmas, J.; Oksanen, L.; Forbes, B. C.; Johansen, B.; Jepsen, J. U.; Markkola, A.; Pulliainen, J.; Olofsson, J.; Oksanen, T.; Utsi, T. A.; Korpimäki, E.; Menard, C.; Ericson, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic region will warm more rapidly than the global mean, influencing dramatically the northern ecosystems. Simultaneously, our societies transform towards urbanized, highly educated, service-based culture, where a decreasing population will gain its livelihood from primary production. We study various ecosystem interactions in a changing climate and integrate these with reindeer husbandry and the indigenous Sámi culture dependent on it1. Potential climate impacts include the transformation of arctic-alpine tundra to dense scrubland with conceivable consequences to reindeer husbandry, but also global warming due to decreasing albedo. The social-ecological system (SES) of reindeer husbandry includes administrative and ecological processes that do not always correspond (Figure 1). Consequently, management priorities and administration may conflict with local social and ecological processes, bringing about risks of environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity and defeat of traditional livelihoods. We hypothesize the plausibility to support the indigenous reindeer herding livelihood against rapid external changes by utilizing the migratory reindeer grazing system of the Sámi as a management tool for sustaining the high-albedo tundra and mitigating global warming. Our first-of-a-kind satellite-based high resolution vegetation map covering Northern Fennoscandia allows detailed management plans. Our ecological research demonstrates the important role of herbivory on arctic vegetation communities. Interactive workshops with reindeer herders offer indigenous knowledge of state and changes of the ecosystems, and reflect the threats and expectations of the herders. We are currently building models of the complex social-ecological system of Northern Fennoscandia and will report the first findings of the exercise. 1 www.ncoetundra.utu.fi Figure 1. The scales of administrative and ecological processes do not always coincide. This may bring about challenges in managing

  7. Comparison between grass-silages of different dry matter content fed to reindeer during winter

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    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of whether the dry matter content of silage influenced performance when 17-month-old male reindeer were fed solely silage outdoor during winter. Two kinds of round-baled silages with different wilting times were offered to the animals; low dry matter (LDM silage with a mean of 39% DM, or high dry matter (HDM silage with a mean of 53% DM. The 115 reindeer were allotted to slaughter at the start of the experiment in October or to be fed until slaughter in January or March. During the first three weeks of the experiment small amounts of lichens were mixed with the silages and the reindeer adapted to the feeding without problems. The daily intake of DM did not differ significantly between reindeer fed the LDM or the HDM silage despite a highly significant difference in daily silage intake. This resulted in small but significantly higher gains in live weight for animals fed the LDM silage, caused by increased weight of the rumen content. All groups of reindeer either retained or lost carcass weight during the experiment, and no improvements or differences were obtained between the kinds of silages in carcass assessment or gains in fat in the abdominal cavity. Animals slaughtered in January had a lower carcass weight and dressing percentage than reindeer slaughtered in October and March. Environmental conditions during the experiment were good but nonetheless mobbing and illness still occurred. The present results concur with those of earlier studies suggesting that it seems to be the bulk of the ration rather than the dry matter content of the silage that limits the intake.

  8. Reindeer habitat use in relation to two small wind farms, during preconstruction, construction, and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Anna; Alam, Moudud

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide there is a rush toward wind power development and its associated infrastructure. In Fennoscandia, large-scale wind farms comprising several hundred windmills are currently built in important grazing ranges used for Sámi reindeer husbandry. In this study, reindeer habitat use was assessed using reindeer fecal pellet group counts in relation to two relatively small wind farms, with 8 and 10 turbines, respectively. In 2009, 1,315 15-m 2 plots were established and pellet groups were counted and cleaned from the plots. This was repeated once a year in May, during preconstruction, construction, and operation of the wind farms, covering 6 years (2009-2014) of reindeer habitat use in the area. We modeled the presence/absence of any pellets in a plot at both the local (wind farm site) and regional (reindeer calving to autumn range) scale with a hierarchical logistic regression, where spatial correlation was accounted for via random effects, using vegetation type, and the interaction between distance to wind turbine and time period as predictor variables. Our results revealed an absolute reduction in pellet groups by 66% and 86% around each wind farm, respectively, at local scale and by 61% at regional scale during the operation phase compared to the preconstruction phase. At the regional, scale habitat use declined close to the turbines in the same comparison. However, at the local scale, we observed increased habitat use close to the wind turbines at one of the wind farms during the operation phase. This may be explained by continued use of an important migration route close to the wind farm. The reduced use at the regional scale nevertheless suggests that there may be an overall avoidance of both wind farms during operation, but further studies of reindeer movement and behavior are needed to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms behind this suggested avoidance.

  9. Lichen ranges, animal densities and production in Finnish reindeer management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Helle

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, mean lichen biomass ranged by the earmark districts (comprising of 2-9 adjacent herding associations between 54 kg and 380 kg DM per ha correlating negatively with animal density per lichen ranges (range 1.5 - 14.3 ind. per km2. Biomasses were far below economic carrying capacity of lichen ranges (900 kg DM per ha. The condition of lichen ranges was poorest in the southern half of the area where alternative food to reindeer lichens (Deschampsia flexuosa, arboreal lichens and supplementary feeding was available. In 1980-86, recruitment (calves per 100 females was 33% higher than in the 1970's, on an average (65 vs. 49, despite a 90% increase in animal numbers between 1970 and 1986; recruitment has not been dependent on the condition of lichen ranges. The increase in production has been some higher than expected on the basis of animal numbers. The reasons for the increasing trends in animal numbers, recruitment and production remains some unclear, but they may include favorable winter conditions, supplementary feeding, medical treatment against parasites and proper harvesting policy.

  10. Septicaemic listeriosis in reindeer calves – a case report

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    Tuomo Nyyssönen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 4 reindeer calves as a nearly pure growth from several internal organs, pointing to a septicaemic form of listeriosis. The calves were born in a calving corral. Silage feeding was considered the most probable source of the infection.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä:Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys poronvasoilla – tapausselostus Toukokuussa 2005 Suomen poronhoitoalueen kaakkoisosassa sijaitsevassa vasotustarhassa kuoli neljä poronvasaa pian syntymän jälkeen 5-11 päivän ikäisinä. Kaikkien vasojen kuolinsyyksi todettiin Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys. Tartunnan todennäköisin lähde oli vaatimien lisäruokinnassa käytetty säilörehu. Kyseessä on ensimmäinen poronvasoilla todettu Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys Suomessa. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tilfelle av sjukdomsfremkallende Listeriabakterie i reinkalver Listeria monocytogenes ble isolert fra 4 reinkalver som en nesten ren vekst fra flere indre organer, noe som antyder en sykdomsfremkallende form av listeriose. Kalvene nedkom i en kalveinnhegning, og man antok at dårlig silofôr var smittekilden.

  11. Coming Back to the Same Places: The Ethnography of Human-Reindeer Relations in the Northern Baikal Region

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    Vladimir Davydov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the results of recent fieldwork among the Evenk reindeer herders in the northern Baikal region. It argues that reindeer domestication should be approached as a never-ending process that happens in the context of animal and human movement and can be described as domestication-in-practice and domestication-on-the-move. An important signal of the fact that animals became closer to people is their constant return to a camp. This article presents the ethnography of how people try to facilitate these returns by feeding reindeer with salt, producing smoke and binding calves to stakes and poles. On the one hand, animals periodically come back to a camp. On the other hand, reindeer herders know the places to which the animals return outside the camp and this helps them to find reindeer in certain places. Reindeer herding in the northern Baikal region is based on constant relocation of the herd from place to place, implying daily short-term movement in order to bring animals to the camp and meaning a continuous monitoring of reindeer and predator movements.

  12. The market of reindeer meat in Finland, Scarce resource – high-valued products

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    Kaija Saarni

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 the total production of reindeer meat was about 2.5 million kilos in Finland. About 1.8 million kilos were sold to consumers through the retailing or catering sector. The reindeer owners consumed themselves or sold directly to final customers about 0.7 million kilos of meat. The majority of reindeer meat processors were small enterprises. They employed less than five persons and the turnover was modest. Large companies processed most of the reindeer meat. These companies sold reindeer products like other products to nationwide retailing markets. Reindeer meat was sold most commonly as frozen meat. The main product was frozen sliced reindeer. The majority of the processed reindeer meat was sold to consumers through retailing. The export of reindeer meat was of minor importance to the processors. At the moment reindeer meat is a source of livelihood to a small and skilled group of professionals. Reindeer meat could be processed and sold more effectively to well paying niche markets by improving the cooperation between the companies. Poronlihatuotteiden markkinat SuomessaAbstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: Vuonna 2004 poronlihaa tuotettiin Suomessa noin 2,5 miljoonaa kiloa. Vähittäismyymälöiden, suurtalouksien, tukkuliikkeiden ja jalostusteollisuuden kautta myytiin kuluttajille noin 1,80 miljoonaa kiloa poronlihatuotteita. Poronomistajien omaan käyttöön mennyt tai poronomistajien suoraan kuluttajille myyty poronlihamäärä oli noin 0,7 miljoonaa kiloa. Lihanjalostajille poro on niukka raaka-aine, josta valmistetaan arvostettuja tuotteita erikoislihamarkkinoille. Yli puolet poronlihaa jalostavista yrityksistä on perustettu 1990-luvulla tai sen jälkeen. Näistä suurin osa on pieniä yrityksistä, joille poronlihanjalostus on tärkein toimiala. Pienten yritysten kilpailukyky perustuu lähialueelta hankittuun raaka-aineeseen ja ne ovat yleensä erikoistuneet lähimarkkinoihin, omaan tuotteistoon tai räätälöityyn asiakaspalveluun

  13. Preliminary assessment of the impact of fluctuating water levels on northern pike in Reindeer Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.

    1993-03-01

    Reindeer Lake in north eastern Saskatchewan regulates water levels for the Island Falls hydroelectric power plant. Since inception of the Whitesand Dam on the lake, there have been concerns that fluctuating water levels could be adversely impacting the habitat and population of northern pike in the lake. The extent of water level fluctuations during the pike spawning period of Reindeer Lake and its effect on spawning success was investigated. Since construction of the Whitesand Dam in 1942 Reindeer Lake water levels have averaged ca 1.71 m higher than had the dam not existed, creating ca 430 km 2 of new surface area. Much of this area is shallow water and prone to growth of aquatic vegetation, which is suitable spawning and nursery habitat for northern pike. Annual and periodic water level fluctuations of Reindeer Lake have been higher than under natural conditions. During northern pike spawning and nursing periods, water levels in the lake have generally increased, in 60 out of 64 y. It is concluded that operation of the dam has not caused any direct negative impacts on the northern pike habitat in the lake. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Resistance to chemotherapy: What are the risks for the reindeer industry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Waller

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Although no drug resistance has been reported so far for parasites of reindeer, it would be unwise to assume that this situation will remain the same indefinitely. It is important to consider the principles of selection for resistance and plan ways of limiting these so that the emergence of resistance can be avoided.

  15. Radioecological modelling of Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lichen-reindeer-man and top predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Bertil R R; Gjelsvik, Runhild; Holm, Elis

    2018-06-01

    This work deals with analysis and modelling of the radionuclides 210 Pb and 210 Po in the food-chain lichen-reindeer-man in addition to 210 Po and 137 Cs in top predators. By using the methods of Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) the atmospheric deposition of 210 Pb and 210 Po is predicted at the sample locations. Dynamic modelling of the activity concentration with differential equations is fitted to the sample data. Reindeer lichen consumption, gastrointestinal absorption, organ distribution and elimination is derived from information in the literature. Dynamic modelling of transfer of 210 Pb and 210 Po to reindeer meat, liver and bone from lichen consumption, fitted well with data from Sweden and Finland from 1966 to 1971. The activity concentration of 210 Pb in the skeleton in man is modelled by using the results of studying the kinetics of lead in skeleton and blood in lead-workers after end of occupational exposure. The result of modelling 210 Pb and 210 Po activity in skeleton matched well with concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in teeth from reindeer-breeders and autopsy bone samples in Finland. The results of 210 Po and 137 Cs in different tissues of wolf, wolverine and lynx previously published, are analysed with multivariate data processing methods such as Principal Component Analysis PCA, and modelled with the method of Projection to Latent Structures, PLS, or Partial Least Square Regression PLSR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Individually Coded Telemetry: a Tool for Studying Heart Rate and Behaviour in Reindeer Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudas T

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the performance of a silver wire modified version of the coded telemetric heart rate monitor Polar Vantage NV™ (PVNV and to measure heart rate (HR in a group of captive reindeer calves during different behaviour. The technical performance of PVNV HR monitors was tested in cold conditions (-30°C using a pulse generator and the correlation between generated pulse and PVNV values was high (r = 0.9957. The accuracy was tested by comparing the HR obtained with the PVNV monitor with the standard ECG, and the correlation was significant (r = 0.9965. Both circadian HR and HR related to behavioural pattern were recorded. A circadian rhythm was observed in the HR in reindeer with a minimum during night and early morning hours and maximum at noon and during the afternoon, the average HR of the reindeer calves studied being 42.5 beats/min in February. The behaviour was recorded by focal individual observations and the data was synchronized with the output of the HR monitors. Running differed from all other behavioural categories in HR. Inter-individual differences were seen expressing individual responses to external and internal stimuli. The silver wire modified Polar Vantage NV™ provides a suitable and reliable tool for measuring heart rate in reindeer, also in natural conditions.

  17. Trace elements in the alimentary tract of Svalbard reindeer

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    Hans Staaland

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available In the alimentary tract of Svalbard reindeer concentrations of Fe and Co were higher in winter than in summer, whereas the concentrations of Mn and Cu were equal in both seasons. Zn concentrations were higher in summer throughout the alimentary tract, but Mo were highest only in the distal part. The general pattern of absorption in the alimentary tract seems to correspond to findings in other ruminants. The very high levels of Fe and Co are emphasized.Sporelementer i fordøyelseskanalen hos Svalbard-rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Konsentrasjonen av Fe og Co i fordøyelsessystemet hos Svalbard-rein var høyere om vinteren enn om sommeren, mens konsentrasjonene av Mn og Cu var like vinter og sommer. Zn konsentrasjonene var høyest om sommeren gjennom hele fordøyelsessystemet, mens Mo konsentrasjonene var høyest i det distale avsnittet. Det generelle absorbsjonsmønster synes å stemme overens med funn fra andre drøvtyggere. De svært høye nivåer av Fe og Co blir fremhevet.Huippuvuorten peuran ruoansulatuskanavan ilmaisijaelementeistå.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Huippuvuorten peuran ruoansulatuskanavassa mitattiin talvella korkeammat Fe- ja Co-pitoisuudet kuin kesalla, kun taas Mn- ja Cu-pitoisuudet olivat samanlaisia kesålla ja talvella. Zn-pitoisuudet olivat korkeimmillaan kesållå koko ruoansulatuskanavassa, kun taas Mo-pitoisuudet olivat korkeimmat kanavan distaaliosassa. Yleinen absorptiomalli nayttaa hyvin sopivan yhteen muilla mårehtijoilla tehtyjen loydosten kanssa. Tutkimuksessa korostetaan raudan ja koboltin erityisen korkeaa tasoa.

  18. Radiocesium concentrations in wild reindeer at Dovrefjell, Norway

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    Terje Skogland

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal radiocesium concentrations varied about 6 times in wild reindeer following the Chernobyl accident, from 8 KBq/kg in August to 46 KBq/kg in March. These results agree with the predictions of earlier models. The within-season coefficient of variation was 52-62%. Between one half and 3/4 of this variation was explained by altitudinal and geographical factors, i.e. a 5-fold increase in concentrations from the westernmost to the easternmost locations across the watershed at Dovrefjell, and a 6-fold increase in concentrations from feeding locations in the subalpine to the high alpine zone in autumn. The positive correlation with altitude was reversed in winter for animals foraging in the subalpine coniferous zone on arboreal lichens.Radiocesium-konsentrasjoner hos villrein på Dovrefjell, Norge.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Konsentrasjonene»av radiocesium hos villrein gjennom sesongene som fulgte Tsjernobyl-ulykken varierte meget, fra 8 KBq/kg i august til 46 KBq/kg i mars. Disse resultater samsvarer med hva som kunne forutsies i tidlige modeller. Variasjonskoeffisienten innen sesong var 52-62%. Mellom halvdelen og tre fjerdedeler av variasjonen kunne forklares fra høydemessige og geografiske faktorer, d.v.s. en 5-foldig økning i konsentrasjonen fra den vestligste til de østligste lokaliseringer over vannskillet på Dovrefjell og en 6-foldig økning i konsentrasjonene fra beitelokaliseringer fra den subalpine til den høyalpine sone om høsten. Den positive korrelasjon med høyden ble snudd om vinteren for dyr som beitet på skjegglav i den subalpine bar-skogsone.

  19. Experiences of being a young male Sami reindeer herder: a qualitative study in perspective of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Niclas; Ruong, Terje; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2013-01-01

    To explore experiences of what it is to be a young male Sami reindeer herder in Sweden, a group with previously known stigma and specific health issues, and to understand experiences in perspective of mental health. A qualitative content analysis was employed. Data were collected by in-depth interviews with 15 strategically selected reindeer herders aged 18-35 years old. The analysis resulted in 5 sub-themes: (a) being "inside" or "outside" is a question of identity; (b) a paradox between being free/bound; (c) an experience of various threats and a feeling of powerlessness; (d) specific norms for how a "real" reindeer herder should be; and (e) the different impacts and meanings of relations. The overarching theme is summarized thus: being a young reindeer herder means so many (impossible) dreams and conditions. Overall, the experience of the informants was that being a reindeer herder is a privileged position that also implies many impossibilities and unjust adversities they have no control over, and that there is nothing they can do but "bite the bullet or be a failure." Knowledge about this group's experiences can be used to understand difficulties faced by young reindeer herders and its consequences regarding mental health problems. This also implies a need for a broader perspective when discussing future interventions aimed at preventing mental health problems in this group.

  20. Experiences of being a young male Sami reindeer herder: a qualitative study in perspective of mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Kaiser

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore experiences of what it is to be a young male Sami reindeer herder in Sweden, a group with previously known stigma and specific health issues, and to understand experiences in perspective of mental health. Methods. A qualitative content analysis was employed. Data were collected by in-depth interviews with 15 strategically selected reindeer herders aged 18–35 years old. Results. The analysis resulted in 5 sub-themes: (a being “inside” or “outside” is a question of identity; (b a paradox between being free/bound; (c an experience of various threats and a feeling of powerlessness; (d specific norms for how a “real” reindeer herder should be; and (e the different impacts and meanings of relations. The overarching theme is summarized thus: being a young reindeer herder means so many (impossible dreams and conditions. Overall, the experience of the informants was that being a reindeer herder is a privileged position that also implies many impossibilities and unjust adversities they have no control over, and that there is nothing they can do but “bite the bullet or be a failure.” Conclusions. Knowledge about this group's experiences can be used to understand difficulties faced by young reindeer herders and its consequences regarding mental health problems. This also implies a need for a broader perspective when discussing future interventions aimed at preventing mental health problems in this group.

  1. Effects of wind turbines on area use and behaviour of semi-domestic reindeer in enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Flydal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, industrial developments have expanded into reindeer ranges in the arctic and adjacent higher latitudes in search for energy, minerals, timber and other resources. Several wind turbine parks are under planning in reindeer ranges in Norway, and there is concern about possible negative effects on behaviour and area use of wild and semi-domestic reindeer. We tested whether a wind turbine and its rotor movement had any effect on area use, activity changes, vigilance bouts, and restless behaviour like running, walking, and standing for enclosed semi-domestic reindeer. Five different groups of reindeer in a 450 m long, 8 hectare, enclosure close to a wind turbine were manipulated by turning the wind turbine rotor on and off, and compared with reindeer in a control enclosure without wind turbine exposure. When exposed to rotor movement, two groups used locations farther from the wind turbine, two groups showed no shift, while one group moved closer to the wind turbine. The reindeer showed no systematic differences in the measured behaviour patterns between the two enclosures that could indicate fright or stress as a consequence of the wind turbine or rotor movement. We conclude that semi-domestic reindeer in an enclosure showed no negative behavioural response and little or no aversion towards a wind turbine. The possibility of rapid habituation in a small enclosure with continuous wind turbine exposure suggests that effects on area use should be studied at a larger scale or with free-ranging reindeer.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:I løpet av de senere tiår har industriell utbygging til utnytting av energi, mineraler, tømmer og andre ressurser ekspandert inn i reinens beiteområder i nordområdene. Flere vindmølleparker er under planlegging i norske reinbeiteområder, og det spekuleres i mulige konsekvenser av disse på atferd og arealbruk hos villrein og tamrein. Vi testet om en vindmølle og dens rotorbevegelse hadde noen

  2. Damage from predation on the reindeer husbandry area in Finland during the years 1976-83

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1976-1983 predators killed a total of 8900 reindeer in Finland. The highest numbers of reindeer killed by predators were found in the marked areas of Inari, Kuusamo and Sodankyla and in the reindeer herding areas of Kasivarsi (a total of 873 reindeer, Kemi-Sompio (731, Lappi (658 and northern Salla (632. With the exception of the Kasivarsi reindeer herding area, predator damage was more or less concentrated on the reindeer herding areas on the eastern border. During 1977- 1982 the majority of reindeer killed by predators were hinds (49,6% and calves (41,0%. Predators killed most reindeer in April-June. In May and June the majority of reindeer killed by predators were calves. During 1977-83 most reindeer were killed by wolves (27,6%. wolverine (25,4%, bear (24,8% and eagles (14,5%. Wolves killed reindeer mainly in the autumn and early winter during the soft snow period. Wolverine and lynx killed reindeer in February-April in crusted snow conditions. Bears killed most reindeer during the calving period in May-June and reindeer killed by eagles were found in plenty in spring and summer.Petovahingot Suomen poronhoitoalueella vuosina 1976-83.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vuosina 1976-83 pedot tappoivat Suomessa yhteenså 8 900 poroa. Eniten petojen tappamia poroja lôytyin Inarin, Kuusamon ja Sodankylån merkkipiireisså sekå Kåsivarren (yhteenså 873 poroa, Kemin-Sompion (731, Lapin (685, ja Sallan pohjoisen (632 paliskunnissa. Kåsivarren paliskuntaa lukuunottamatta petovahingot keskittyivåt låhinnå itårajan paliskuntiin. Vuosina 1977-82 petojen tappamista poroista suurin osa oli vaatimia (49,6% ja vasoja (41,0%. Eniten pedot tappoivat poroja huhti - kesåkuun aikana. Tuoko - ja kesåkuussa suurin osa petojen tappamista poroista oli vasoja. Vuosina 1977-83 eniten poroja tappoivat susi (27,6%, ahma (25,4%, karhu (24,8% ja kokta (14,5%. Sudet tappoivat poroja pååasiassa syksyllå ja alkutalvella pehmeån lumen aikana

  3. Sea Ice, Hydrocarbon Extraction, Rain-on-Snow and Tundra Reindeer Nomadism in Arctic Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Kumpula, T.; Meschtyb, N.; Laptander, R.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Verdonen, M.

    2015-12-01

    It is assumed that retreating sea ice in the Eurasian Arctic will accelerate hydrocarbon development and associated tanker traffic along Russia's Northern Sea Route. However, oil and gas extraction along the Kara and Barents Sea coasts will likely keep developing rapidly regardless of whether the Northwest Eurasian climate continues to warm. Less certain are the real and potential linkages to regional biota and social-ecological systems. Reindeer nomadism continues to be a vitally important livelihood for indigenous tundra Nenets and their large herds of semi-domestic reindeer. Warming summer air temperatures over the NW Russian Arctic have been linked to increases in tundra productivity, longer growing seasons, and accelerated growth of tall deciduous shrubs. These temperature increases have, in turn, been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, winters have been warming and rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense, leading to record-breaking winter and spring mortality of reindeer. What is driving this increase in ROS frequency and intensity is not clear. Recent modelling and simulation have found statistically significant near-surface atmospheric warming and precipitation increases during autumn and winter over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to regions of sea-ice loss. During the winter of 2013-14 an extensive and lasting ROS event led to the starvation of 61,000 reindeer out of a population of ca. 300,000 animals on Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia. Historically, this is the region's largest recorded mortality episode. More than a year later, participatory fieldwork with nomadic herders during spring-summer 2015 revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from this extreme event will unfold for years to come. There is an urgent need to understand whether and how ongoing Barents and Kara Sea ice retreat may affect the region's ancient

  4. Management of reindeer husbandry in Norway – power-sharing and participation

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    Birgitte Ulvevadet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Many governments have come to realize that the best way to manage natural resources is to include the resource users in order to increase legitimacy for governance. For the Sami reindeer industry, the Norwegian government has implemented two different management models in order to meet this challenge. On the one hand, there is a corporative management model where a few democratically elected reindeer owners represent the whole industry in the annual negotiations with the government. On the other hand, there is a co-management model where reindeer owners are represented in boards at the local, regional and national levels where the government has delegated a number of management functions. In addition, there is also a hierarchical administrative management system, with only public officials as employees. Nevertheless, through media, surveys and interviews, there has been observed some dissatisfaction among reindeer owners; they claim that the system is not inclusive. I argue that the election of reindeer owners to the different co-management boards and the election of reindeer owners to the corporative units have been challenging because it is difficult to establish systems of representation that are fair for everyone. I also argue that it is complicated to make such comprehensive systems work in practice, as initially planned on paper. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Forvaltningen av reindriften i Norge – maktfordeling og deltakelseMyndigheter i mange land har erkjent at å innbefatte ressursbrukere i forvaltningsmessige beslutningsprosesser skaper en mer rettmessig forvaltningspolitikk. For å øke medvirkningen for ressursbrukere har norske myndigheter iverksatt to ulike forvaltningsmodeller i den samiske reindriften. På den ene siden er det innført et korporativt system hvor utvalgte reineiere representerer reindriften i de årlige forhandlingene med myndighetene. På den andre siden er det iverksatt et medforvaltningssystem hvor

  5. A deworming field trial with ivermectin (MSD in reindeer

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    M. Nordkvist

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983 as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females, as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly corresponding to 200 meg ivermectin per kg body weight, subcutaneous injection. Remaining 25 calves (14 males + 11 females served as untreated controls. The entire group of calves was then returned to the herd for free grazing during winter. During the winter 3 treated calves were found dead, all three of them had been suffering from keratoconjunctivitis. If any of the control animals had succumbed during the same time is not known. On April 21st, 1983 (approx. 150 days post treatment 44 calves (24 treated + 20 controls were weighed. 5 treated and 5 controls were randomly selected for slaughter. Carcasses and organs were thoroughly examined from a parasitological and, as far as lungs were concerned, pathological point of view. The efficacy of the treatment was 100(M> or nearly 100% against Oedemagena tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe, Dictyocaulus viviparus, Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and nematode eggs in faeces. The efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes was, probably due to date of treatment, somewhat difficult to judge (Tab 1. A statistical analysis of the weight changes, relative to initial weights, (Tab. 2 supports the statements — that all animals had lost weight — that treated males had lost significantly less of their body weights than control males — That weight change of treated females did not differ significantly from that of control females — that the average weight loss of the entire treated group was significantly less than that of the

  6. Adaptation and niche construction in human prehistory: a case study from the southern Scandinavian Late Glacial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Felix

    2011-03-27

    The niche construction model postulates that human bio-social evolution is composed of three inheritance domains, genetic, cultural and ecological, linked by feedback selection. This paper argues that many kinds of archaeological data can serve as proxies for human niche construction processes, and presents a method for investigating specific niche construction hypotheses. To illustrate this method, the repeated emergence of specialized reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) hunting/herding economies during the Late Palaeolithic (ca 14.7-11.5 kyr BP) in southern Scandinavia is analysed from a niche construction/triple-inheritance perspective. This economic relationship resulted in the eventual domestication of Rangifer. The hypothesis of whether domestication was achieved as early as the Late Palaeolithic, and whether this required the use of domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris) as hunting, herding or transport aids, is tested via a comparative analysis using material culture-based phylogenies and ecological datasets in relation to demographic/genetic proxies. Only weak evidence for sustained niche construction behaviours by prehistoric hunter-gatherer in southern Scandinavia is found, but this study nonetheless provides interesting insights into the likely processes of dog and reindeer domestication, and into processes of adaptation in Late Glacial foragers.

  7. Herd composition and slaughtering strategy in reindeer husbandry – revisited

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    Øystein Holand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available I will review the drastic change seen in herd composition and slaughtering strategy the last decades inthe reindeer husbandry of Fennoscandia (i. e. Finland, Norway and Sweden. Herd composition was traditionally a function of the multipurpose herd, where reproduction of draught power played a major role. Hence, the slaughter scheme was based on adult males, in particular castrates. The herd represented the owner's capital and was viewed as the best insurance for staying in business. Indeed, a big and well composed herd announced social status as well as authority. Historically this has resulted in rises and falls in reindeer numbers. Control of the herd was being emphasized through age and sex composition and selection of behavioural traits and easily recognisable animals which favour handling. A high proportion of adults alleviated control of the herd as it eased the herding and reduced the mortality risk as they were able to withstand the highly stochastic environment. The introduction of the snowmobiles in the 1960s revolutionized the herding and transportation and hence reduced the importance of the male segment of the herd and amplified the ongoing transformation of the modern society into a market based economy. Now, the challenge was to efficiently convert the limited primary plant production into animal product, mainly meat. This is primarily achieved by balancing the animal numbers in accordance to the forage resources. However, also herd composition and slaughtering strategy are essential for maximizing the meat output per area unit. A highest possible proportion of reproductive females combined with a slaughtering scheme based on calves was tested and partly implemented in Soviet-Union already in the 1930s and introduced in the 1960s in Finland. Also in parts of Norway and Sweden this scheme was modified and tested. However, the formal work of refining and testing this new strategy based on modern population theory blended with

  8. Blood composition of the reindeer . II. Blood chemistry

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    Mauri Nieminen

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available The blood chemical composition of 578 semi-domestic reindeer were investigated in respect to age, season, calving and nutrition in Northern Finland during 1973-79. The weight gain was maximally 400 g/day at an age of 4-8 weeks as also reflected by high serum thyroxine (T4, alkaline phosphatase (SAP, creatine phosphokinase (CPK and blood glucose values. Low SAP activity in winter indicated a cessation of growth. The pH of the venous blood was 7.35 and the clotting activity very high (21 sec, 100 % in summer and autumn. 15 protein bands and 15 fatty acids were discernible in reindeer serum. The total serum protein was 58 g/1 in the 20-day-old calf and 87 g/1 in adult hind in the autumn, the difference being caused by changes in globulins. The neonatal fluctuation of immunoglobulins suggests that the calf acquires its passive immunity soon after birth by the intestinal absorption of proteins and that its endogenous synthesis of gamma globulins begins in the 4th week of life. The serum total lipids (2.9 g/1, triglycerides (0.29 mmol/1 and cholesterol (1.6 mmol/1 were low in newborn calves and reached their adult levels at the age of 5 months (average 5.1 g/1, 0.4 mmol/1, 2.7 mmol/1, respectively. The young calves had higher serum cholesterol, total and free fatty acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid, but lower stearic and oleic acid values than adult hinds. The reindeer calf liberates considerable amounts of catecholamines during the first days after birth, but the postpartum dopamine-B-hydroxylase activity was rather low. The means of blood glucose (3.4-4.6 mmol/1, total serum proteins (63 - 87 g/1, albumin (39 - 43 g/1, total globulins (23 - 44 g/1, urea (5.7-9 mmol/1, total lipids (2.7 - 5.2 g/1, triglycerides (0.17 - 0.33 mmol/1, total fatty acids (0.89 - 1.54 g/1, calcium (2.2 - 2.6 mmol/1, inorganic phosphorus (1.6 - 2.2 mmol/1, magnesium (0.8 - 1.2 mmol/1 and copper (6.7 - 18 |Jmol/l of free-grazing adult hinds were highest in summer and

  9. Genetic polymorphism of adult reindeer coat colour in a herding cooperative in Finnish Lapland

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    Jean J. Lauvergne

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a random sample of 188 adult reindeer belonging to a reindeer herding cooperative in Finnish Lapland, the following coat colour mutants were identified: Abf at the locus Agouti (A, kalppinokka (WNk at the locus White Nose (WN and white at the locus W (White. Coefficients of coat colour phenotypic polymorphism K were estimated, in order to quantify this genetic polymorphism. Estimations of K were 12.8% for the locus A (Agouti, 5.1% for the locus WN (White Nose, and 7.5% for the locus W (White. This polymorphism results probably from a change in fitness coefficient of genotypes carrying colour mutants following domestication in a random mating context which has not yet been proved.

  10. Factors affecting velvet antler weights in free-ranging reindeer in Alaska

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    Alexander K. Prichard

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Free-ranging reindeer on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska are rounded up from late May to early July and antlers are removed. We used data collected from 1987 to 1997 to determine how velvet antler weights of males and females varied with age, year, reproductive status, Julian date, and body weight. Male antler weights increased with age up to age five years, and were lower in castrates than in bulls. There was a significant positive relationship between body weight and antler weight in both sexes. Female antler weights increased with age until at least age nine. Lactating females had lower antler weights than non-lactating females, but this effect is better explained by differences in body weight. Antler weight of individual reindeer at age two years was better predicted by their antler weights as yearlings than their body weight as yearlings.

  11. Public perceptions of planning objectives for regional level management of wild reindeer in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenborn, Bjørn Petter; Hongslo, Eirin; Gundersen, Vegard; Andersen, Oddgeir

    2015-01-01

    We examined community perceptions of preferred objectives for wild reindeer management in Southern Norway as the former population-based model is being replaced with an area-based, multi-level regional management model spanning large mountain regions. Communally oriented objectives are favoured over economic benefits to landowners. Environmental attitudes discriminate on many of the issues and can be useful factors in sorting out levels of support for proposed management actions and compromis...

  12. The content of cesium-137 in Swedish reindeer meat, 1974-1975. Data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagberg, N.

    1976-03-01

    Measurements on deep-frozen reindeer meat have been made since 1961. Samples were requested twice a year from 13 regions. The time variation of the average concentration together with the highest and lowest measured values are presented in a table. During the period investigated, the values obtained for the autumn slaughters prior that of 1968 have been significantly lower then the values obtained for the winter slaughters. Since then the seasonal variation has been less pronounced. (author)

  13. Microbiological shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat (M. longissimus dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study loin muscles (M. longissimus dorsi from six reindeer calves (aged 4 months were used to determine shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat stored at +4 °C, measured as microbiological quality (aerobic microorganisms and Escherichia coli. The loins were collected at boning 3 days post slaughter and divided in five pieces that were randomly assigned to five different storage times; sampling directly after packaging and after chilled storage for 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks at +4 °C. Samples were vacuum packaged and transported chilled to Hjortens Laboratory in Östersund, Sweden (accredited by SWEDAC according to SS-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 for food analysis where the storage, microbiological sampling and analysis took place according to the protocols of Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL. The total amount of aerobic microorganisms at the first sampling directly after packaging (three days post slaughter was 3.4 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. After two and three weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage at +4°C the microbiological quality of the samples was on the border-line to poor (6.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. At four and five weeks of chilled storage the levels of aerobic microorganisms were significantly highest (P≤0.05 and the limit for acceptable quality of 7 log10 CFU/g aerobic bacteria had been passed (7.3 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g and 7.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g, respectively. Very few of the reindeer meat samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli bacteria. The results from the present pilot study suggest that storage time for vacuum packaged fresh, chilled reindeer meat should not exceed 3 weeks at a temperature of +4 °C.

  14. Range use and food selectivity by wild reindeer in Southern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogland, T.

    1975-01-01

    Year-round direct ground observations are in progress to determine the portion of active time that reindeer spend feeding in different vegetation types within the arctic-alpine ecosystem. Reindeer ranged through nine phytosociological plant communities during their annual cycle of movement in 1971. Cladonia heaths received 60 percent of the annual use and approximately 95 percent of the December-April use. Deschampsia dominated grass meadows received 14 percent of the annual use and approximately 50 percent of the early spring and late fall use. Salix and herb-dominated snowbeds received 22.5 percent of the annual use and approximately 95 percent of the early and late summer use. Bogs received 3 percent of the annual use and approximately 45 percent of the midsummer use. Grazing succession followed a gradient of altitude, and aspect related to snow conditions and phenology of key Salix and Deschampsia spp. Concentration of feeding on the relatively level and low midwinter range (1,100 m altitude), changed towards south-facing slopes and higher altitudes (1,400 m altitude) during late winter and the early spring snowmelt. A reversed movement downward toward wet areas (1,200 m altitude) relates to emergence of dwarf Salices in bogs and along riverbanks. In late summer reindeer followed the spring growth of north-facing snowbeds upward toward the edge of glaciers (1,450 m altitude). Toward winter reindeer descended eastward to their winter range. Observations of feeding rates were used as an index of food intake. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in eating rate related to slope and aspect in late winter and spring. The X 2 test showed no significant differences in eating rates between age and sex groups. Between lactating females and other herd members a ''t'' test showed significant differences at post-calving

  15. The bacteriology of the small intestinal mucosa of free-living reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Sørmo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in close associaton with the intestinal mucosa are thought to protect the mucosa from pathogenic microorganisms. The pH of the small intestinal mucosa and the viable populations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria associated with the proximal and distal jejunal mucosa, were measured in four free-living reindeer in winter. The anaerobic bacterial populations were characterized. The median pH of the mucosa of the duodenum was 6.6 (n=4 at point 0.2 m from the pyloric sphincter. The mucosal pH increased along the length of the intestine to 8.3 at 14 m and then decreased to 7.9 at 19.8 m from the pyloric sphincter. Examination by transmission electron microscopy and cultivation techniques failed to reveal any bacteria on the mucosa of the proximal jejunum in two of the animals. In two other reindeer the median anaerobic bacterial densities in the proximal jejunum ranged from 25-2500 cells/g mucosa. The median anaerobic bacterial populations in the distal jejunum ranged from 80 to 20000 bacteria/g mucosa (n=4. The anaerobic population of bacteria in the proximal jejunum was dominated by streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods. Bacteroidaceae, streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods were common in the distal jejunum. The low density and the species diversity of bacteria in the small intestine suggests that these microorganisms are inhibited by components in the natural winter diet of reindeer. Bacteria evidently play a minor role in protection of the mucosa of reindeer in winter.

  16. On the quality of Svalbard reindeer pasture in the summer and autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Late summer and autumn reindeer pasture plants from Adventdalen, Svalbard were analyzed for contents of fatty acids, energy content, protein, fibre, ether extract as well as content of macro minerals. Food intake of grazing reindeer in Adventdalen was estimated from fecal production. Large intake of high quality food seems to account for the growth and fattening of Svalbard reindeer during summer.Om kvaliteten på reinbeite av reinbeite på Svalbard sommer og høst.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Innholdet av fettsyrer, energi, protein, fiber, eterekstrakt og makromineraler ble analysert i reinbeiteplanter fra Adventdalen på Svalbard. Plantene ble samlet på ettersommeren. Forinntaket hos beitende rein i Adventdalen ble estimert ut fra fecesproduksjonen. Et stort inntak av for med høy kvalitet synes å kunne forklare vekst og fettlagring hos Svalbard-reinen om sommeren.Huippuvuorten poronlaidunten laadusta kesalla ja syksylla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Rasvahappojen, energian, fiiberin, eetteriuutteen ja makromineraalien sisaltoa analysoitiin poronlaidunkasveissa Huippuvuorten Adventtilaaksosta. Kasvit kerattiin loppukesalla. Adventtilaaksossa laiduntavien porojen rehun kulunki arvioitiin lannan maarasta. Korkealaatuisen rehun suuri kulutus nayttaa vovan selittaa Huippuvuorten porojen kasvun ja rasvakerrostuman kesalla.

  17. 137Cs concentrations in reindeer meat in the Paistunturi, Ivalo and Kemin Sompio reindeergrazing co-operatives during 1986-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, K.; Ylipieti, J.; Niskala, N.

    2003-01-01

    The 137 Cs concentration in reindeer meat varies throughout the year due to changes in food selection. During summer, the reindeer eat herbaceous vegetation, and in the autumn large amounts of mushrooms - if available. In winter they prefer to eat ground and arboreal lichen, and these have a much higher radiocaesium concentration than the vegetation eaten during summer. The increase in the reindeer stock in Finland as well as in Norway and Sweden, has lead to overgrazing and degradation of the lichen ranges. The range of winter fodder available for reindeer today is not the same as that in the 60's and 70's following the nuclear weapons fallout period and the previously used ecological half-life values may no longer be applicable to the present situation. After the accident at Chernobyl in 1986 an extensive program was started to monitor 137 Cs concentrations in the reindeer meat produced in Finland. At the present time the program, which is carried out every 5th year, covers the whole of the Finnish reindeer herding area, i.e. 56 co-operatives. In addition STUK annually measures samples from the 11 northernmost Sami reindeer herding co-operatives as well as from 3 co-operatives close to the Russian border. In this paper the decrease in the 137 Cs concentration in reindeer meat in three co-operatives, Paistunturi, Ivalo and Kemin Sompio, are presented and ecological half-lives estimated. (orig.)

  18. Feed selection and radiocaesium intake by reindeer, sheep and goats grazing alpine summer habitats in southern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staaland, H.; Garmo, T.H.; Hove, K.; Pedersen, O.

    1995-01-01

    Radiocaesium concentrations ( 137 Cs) were measured in extrusa from oesophageally fistulated sheep, goats and reindeer grazing alpine summer vegetation in Griningsdalen, Southern Norway in the period 1987-1989. The experiments with sheep and goats were conducted in different sub-alpine areas. The reindeer were, in addition, grazed in three areas in the low alpine zone. Grazing bouts lasted for 10-20 min and bite selections were recorded every 15 s through the grazing bout. Reindeer and goats had the most diverse food selection whereas sheep fed mainly on grasses, forbs and to some extent, on leaves of willow. The reindeer extrusa had the highest radiocaesium activity, apparently to a large extent caused by intake of lichens in areas where this type of plants were present. Depending on the type of vegetation in the grazed areas the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to grazed vegetation (Bq kg -1 dry extrusa/Bq m -2 soil) was estimated to 0.02-0.04 in sheep, 0.02-0.05 in goats and 0.02-0.43 in reindeer for 1987. (author)

  19. Some estimated effects of the planned harnessing of the Ounasjoki river on reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirkko Nieminen

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available The harnessing of waterways for electrical power has caused permanent pasture losses and prevented the free movement of the reindeer herds in Finland. Many great changes occurred after construction of the two large artificial lakes of Lokka and Porttipahta (total 630 km2 in the Lappi reindeer herders association in the 1960s. The planned harnessing of the Ounasjoki river consists of 10 power plants and 2 big and 12 smaller artificial lakes (total 270 km2. The plan will have effects on the income of 1070 owners in 7 reindeer herders associations. The losses in reindeer husbandry estimated by three different methods were maximally 476, 2824 and 9900 reindeer (value of meat production 0.12 to 2.5 million FIM/year, 64 jobs and various herding buildings (value 3.9 million FIM. Two new reindeer farmes would become unusuable (0.5 million FIM and in addition hay production from seasonally flooded fields (approx. 25 000 - 30 000 FIM/year would be lost. The building of new forces in the reindeer herders association areas of Ounasjoki river would require 6.2 million FIM.Ounasjoen rakentamissuunnitelman mahdolliset vaikutukset porotalouteen.Abstract in Finnsish / Yhteenveto: Vesistojen valjastaminen såhkontuottoon on tuhonnut porolaitumia ja vaikcuttanut porojen vapaata liikkumista Suomessa. Tasta on hyvånå esimerkkinå Lokan ja Portipahdan tekoaltaiden (yhteenså 630 km2 rakentaminen Lapin paliskunnassa 1960-luvulta alkacn. Ounasjoen rakentamissuunnitelma kåsittåå 10 voimalaitosta ja 2 isoa ja 12 picnempåå tekoallasta (yhteenså 270 km2. Rakennussuunnitelma vaikuttaa 1070 poronomistajan talouteen 7 cri paliskunnassa. Kolmella eri mcnetelmallå laskien jouduttaisiin enimmillåån våhentåmåån 476, 2824 ja 9900 lukuporoa (lihantuotto 0,12-2,5 milj. mk/vuosi sekå menetettåisim 64 ympårivuotista tyopaikkaa ja kocttaisiin useita eri rakennevahinkoja (arvoltaan noin 3,9 milj. mk. Kaksi uutta porotilaa jåisi kåyttokclvottomiksi (0,5 milj. mk ja

  20. Wind power on Gabriel mountain - Follow-up of the consequences for reindeer herding, third year results; Vindkraft paa Gabrielsberget - Uppfoeljning av konsekvenserna foer rennaeringen, tredje aarets resultat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to the Environmental Court's decision Gabriel Mountain the wind plant's impact on reindeer husbandry followed up by a control program. According to the Environmental Court's decision Gabrielsberget the wind plant's impact on reindeer husbandry followed up by a control program. The control program was initiated in autumn 2008. Reporting to the County Board will be made annually until the trial period ends. The construction of roads on Gabriel Mountains began in November / December 2008. No construction work was carried out, however, during the period that the reindeer were in the area (January-March 2009). The construction work started again in the summer / fall of 2009. The first 20 wind turbines began operating in January 2011. During these periods, the continuous interviews were held with reindeer herders from grazing district Byrkije. Reindeer herding utilization of the area before the wind farm been built and under construction has thus been mapped. Despite good grazing conditions Byrkije experienced difficulty in reindeer herding in and around wind power construction at Gabriel Mountain, especially during the second winter season (2010/11), when construction has been more extensive. Byrkije had to support feeding and use helicopter, something that previous seasons only was done in poor grazing conditions. The herders were also more people who worked actively with the reindeer and the working day has been longer and more strenuous compared to the seasons before the wind farm was built. The reindeer has moved more and were more spread out. The herders have also been forced to retrieve outside reindeer winter Loegdeaa land, something that has rarely happened in previous seasons. The reindeer's movement patterns and utilization of pastures have been different during the construction of the wind farm than in previous years. This report will be based on the new data over the years monitoring program runs.

  1. Winter-catastrophies in the reindeer husbandry of Finland: Losses and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Helle

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurreance of disastrous winters to the reindeer industry in Finland with special attention on the winter catastrophies and tje condition of the pastures, the influence of the disasters upon the population dynamic of the reindeer and the methods used to prevent catastrophies. A reindeer catastrophy has been defined as a situation where the number of reindeer stays 20% below the mean of the reindeer numbers during the two preceeding years. During the winter-catastrophies from 1970/71 to 1980/81 4.5% of the total reindeer number was lost. The highest losses were found in the northwesternmost part of Lappland, where there is no alternative to the reindeer lichen as it is in the middle and southern part of the reindeer industry area (arboreal lichens and supplemental feeding. In Kaldoaivi reindeer association (district, which has been studied in detail, the calf percentage is depending upon how the reindeer is able to manage the winter (r=0.62, n=ll, p«0.05. There is also a positive correlation between the slaughterweight of the calves in the early winter and the calf rate (r=0.79, n=7, p«0.05.During severe winters the mortality rate of males exceeds that of the females. Winter-catastrophies may be prevented by deminishing the numer of reindeer and by guiding the harvest to the most risky cohorts of the population. It has been proved that supplementary and emergency feeding are the most effective methods. In a normal year during the 1970s the total use of dry hay was 0.5—1.5 mill, kg., being up to 5.9—12.5 kg. per reindeer/year. In normal winters 10—16% of the total reindeer stock was intensively fed in enclosures. Supplementary feeding in enclosures is most common in the middle and southern parts of the reindeer industry area, where the essential feed is grown on own land.Katotalvet suomen poronhoidossa: menetykset ja Niiden Torjunta.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Artikkeli käsittelee katastrofitalvien

  2. Electron microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Rahko

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available In a previous publication the authors have described some ultrastructural characteristics of granulated cells in the common bile duct of the reindeer. On the basis of the same material, electron microscopic observations on other tissue elements of bile duct wall are now reported. The surface and glandular epithelium were composed of tall columnar epithelial cells with villous structures on the luminal surfaces. The parietal cytoplasmic membranes of epithelial cells were equipped with intercellular desmosomes while intraepithelial globule leucocytes did not form any junctional complex with other cells. Apical cytoplasmic areas of superficial epithelial cells showed electron-dense small bodies possibly consisting of mucinous substances. The goblet and deep glandular cells, on the other hand, contained numerous large mucin granules with less electron-dense matrices. It appears that their secretions are more abundant than those in superficial epithelial cells which obviously are absorptive as their main function. The nuclei and other cytoplasmic organelles showed profiles similar to those in epithelial cells generally. The lumen of the bile ducts was usually empty or contained fine-granular or amorphous material. An unusual feature was the presence of parts of globule leucocytes or even almost whole cells occurring freely in ductal secretions.Elektronimikroskooppinen tutkimus yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteesta porolla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Aikaisemmassa julkaisussa tekijät kuvasivat poron yhteisen sappikäytävän (ductus hepaticus communis seinämän jyväsellisten solujen hienorakennetta. Tässä artikkelissa selostetaan saman aineiston perusteella (6 tervettä teurasporoa elektronimikroskooppisia havaintoja sappikäytäväseinämän muista kudosrakenteista. Sappikäytäväseinämän pinta- ja rauhasepiteeli koostuu korkeista epiteelisoluista. Pinnallisia epiteelisoluja kattavat säännölliset mikrovillukset, ja niillä on vain v

  3. Use of total {sup 137}Cs deposition to predict contamination in feed vegetation and reindeer 25 years after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, Lavrans [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration, P.O. Box 1104, N-9504 Alta (Norway); Thoerring, Haavard; Ytre-Eide, Martin A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Chernobyl fallout has so far caused contamination challenges for animal production in various areas of Norway for nearly 30 years, particularly for sheep, goats and reindeer. The persistent uptake and long-term trends of radiocaesium in forest and mountain areas still justifies maintaining the elevated permissible level for radiocaesium of 3,000 Bq/kg in reindeer meat. In comparison, Japanese authorities chose 100 Bq/kg as the permissible level for radiocaesium in Japanese foodstuffs. The slow decline in contamination levels in reindeer during the last 10-15 years have necessitated an evaluation of the remediation strategy for reindeer herding. The former seasonal differences in contamination levels in reindeer meat made 'early slaughtering' (in autumn instead of winter) an effective measure. However, such seasonal differences are no longer systematic, and differences in contamination levels in reindeer at slaughter now appear to be more strongly related to the differences in deposition levels in the areas grazed prior to slaughter. In 2011 Norwegian authorities (i.e. the Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, and the Geological Survey of Norway) therefore carried out an aerial survey covering 2,500 km{sup 2} of the most contaminated grazing areas to obtain more detailed information on geographical variability in deposition levels. The area included major parts of the grazing areas of three reindeer herding companies. The usefulness of deposition maps as bases for directing animal grazing to less contaminated areas depends on how well the total deposition correlate with the contamination levels in grazed vegetation. In the case of reindeer this covers both green plants and lichens. In 2012 the aerial survey was therefore supplemented by geo-referenced deposition measurements and sampling of various plant and lichen species at totally 17 sites ranging in deposition levels from 2.6 to 190 kBq/m{sup 2

  4. From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Fjellheim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer

  5. The modern Saamish reindeer husbandry in Sweden after the reactor accident of Chernobyl. Die moderne samische Rentierwirtschaft Schwedens nach dem Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl; Eine humangeographische Struktur- und Problemanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J

    1992-01-01

    Large parts of the reindeer herding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout deposited mainly between 62 and 66 n.lat. by heavy rain-and snowfalls between April 28-30, the fjell and boreal forest regions of north-western Jaemtland and south-western Vaesterbotten being the home of 500 reindeer Saamis, organized in 19 Saamebys, and being the winter- and summer reindeer grazing areas for about 100000 reindeer worst contaminated, with a maximum soil contamination of 60000 Bq/m[sup 2] Cs137 along a line Gaevle-Gaeddede. The socio-economic effects and consequences of Chernobyl have on the hand changed the daily and yearly work routine patterns by applying early slaughter and feeding programs. On the other hand it has shown the vulnerability of reindeer husbandry in particular and of Saami culture and livelihood in general. It has also pointed out the influence of the state compensation payments have helped the mostly hit Saamebys to survive economically and the Saami herders to preserve their ethic identity and specific way of life. The measure of introducing a strict radioactivity limit should be fixed internationally. In reindeer meat where the average annual consumption is as low as 200 g per person a limit as low as 300 pr 1500 Bq/kg is in fact ineffective in reducing cancer risks but it has proved disastrous for the reindeer meat market.

  6. A study of a possible early reindeer domestication site on the Iamal peninsula (Russia) using geoarchaeological methods and lipid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrault, Loic; Milek, Karen; Dawson, Lorna; Anderson, David

    2016-04-01

    In past centuries, indigenous hunters in Northern Eurasia shifted from being hunters to being herders of reindeer. Even at low human population densities, large reindeer herds can alter the landscape and leave long-term biochemical signatures in the soil. Although indigenous social-ecological systems have been thought to be resilient in space and time, most are considered to be at risk due to climate and socio-economic changes related to anthropogenic activities. This situation calls for a long-term perspective to place human-animal relations in their respective contexts. As an ancient livelihood still practiced across vast areas of Northern Eurasia, reindeer herding is a nexus for feedbacks between humans, animals and environment. The Iarte site, on the Iuribei River in the central part of the Iamal peninsula is thought to be an important site of reindeer domestication dating back to the 12th century due to the enormous quantities of butchered reindeer bones found in recent excavations. The large amount of buried reindeer bones found at the settlement suggests that herds should have stood near the site despite the lack of any architectural remains of corrals or pens. The history of a possible early relation to domesticate reindeer can be described with geoarchaeological methods, including lipid biomarkers, which can indicate the presence of past human and animal activities. Among lipid biomarkers, faecal markers such as stanols and bile acids have already been used in archaeological contexts to identify and distinguish between different species because they are persistent over time and can have a species specific profile. Near the Iarte settlement, we conducted a soil survey and sampling programme and combined geoarchaeological measurements (including electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and elemental analysis) with lipid analysis of soil samples, to identify the potential presence of standing reindeer herds. The different soil layers have been

  7. Coping with the Chernobyl disaster: a comparison of social effects in two reindeer-herding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, H. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden)

    1990-07-01

    Lapland reindeer herders in the Vilhelmina and Jokkmokk municipalities of Sweden were interviewed in summer, autumn and winter 1987/88. The great variability in nuclear contamination between these areas has occasioned obvious but also unforeseen differences in the social effects for the Sami. The variability of contamination has also been compounded by the variability of compensation policy, variability of expert statements about risk, and also the change in state limits on Bq. concentrations set for meat marketability. This paper will illustrate the broad spectrum of Chernobyl-related social problems and the methods of coping with them.

  8. Coping with the Chernobyl disaster: a comparison of social effects in two reindeer-herding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, H.

    1990-01-01

    Lapland reindeer herders in the Vilhelmina and Jokkmokk municipalities of Sweden were interviewed in summer, autumn and winter 1987/88. The great variability in nuclear contamination between these areas has occasioned obvious but also unforeseen differences in the social effects for the Sami. The variability of contamination has also been compounded by the variability of compensation policy, variability of expert statements about risk, and also the change in state limits on Bq. concentrations set for meat marketability. This paper will illustrate the broad spectrum of Chernobyl-related social problems and the methods of coping with them

  9. Ecological half-life of radiocesium in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1992-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in April, 1986, a large part of the reindeer herding area of Sweden was contaminated with radioactive cesium. Radiocesium levels in four Saami communities have been studied from 1986-1992. Levels vary throughout the year with low values in summer and high in winter. Long-term half-lives were determined as being in most cases between the range of 2.5 - 4 years which is much shorter than that found after nuclear weapon tests (i.e. 7 years). (AB)

  10. Behaviour of reindeer as an indicator of an adaptation to feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We assessed behaviour of reindeer affected by nutritional deprivation and how they adapted to various feeding strategies. The activity pattern of 61 penned eight month old female reindeer calves was observed during 20 of a total of 42 experimental days in winter 1997. The dominant activities were lying, ruminating, intake of feed and water, and standing. Few recordings of agonistic behaviour or snow intake occured. Restricted feed intake, half the ad lib. ration of a lichen-based diet, affected the eating behaviour of the reindeer, and more animals were standing and fewer lying compared to reindeer fed ad lib. Lack of energy in the diet correlated with animals lying curled up (lying with the muzzle close to the hind legs. This behaviour could be a useful complement to other measurements and registrations when studying adaptations to various feeding regimens.Abstract in Swedish/Sammanfattning:Syftet med studien var att undersöka om, och i så fall hur renars beteende påverkades av otillräckligt näringsintag och vid anpassning till olika utfodringsstrategier. Aktivitetsmönstret hos 61 inhägnade åtta månader gamla honrenkalvar studerades under 20 av totalt 42 försöksdagar. De vanligaste beteendekategorierna genom hela försöket var ligga, idissla, intag av foder och vatten samt stå passivt. Endast ett fåtal observationer av aggressivt beteende och snöätande registrerades. En begränsad giva dvs. halva mängden av fodergivan vid fri tillgång av en lavbaserad diet påverkade djuren ätbeteende. Dessutom observerades fler djur stå passivt medan färre låg jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Under första fasen av utfodring efter restriktionsperioden låg fler djur låg ihoprullade (med mulen tätt intill bakbenet jämfört med kontrollgruppen, vilket tolkades som ett tecken på energibrist. Beteendestudierna visade sig vara ett värdefullt komplement till övriga mätningar och provtagningar vid studier av renars anpassning till

  11. Vectors and transmission dynamics for Setaria tundra (Filarioidea; Onchocercidae, a parasite of reindeer in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuusela Jussi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed expansion by an array of Filarioid nematodes' into the northern boreal region of Finland. The vector-borne nematode, Setaria tundra, caused a serious disease outbreak in the Finnish reindeer population in 2003–05. The main aim of this study was to understand the outbreak dynamics and the rapid expansion of S. tundra in the sub arctic. We describe the vectors of S. tundra, and its development in vectors, for the first time. Finally we discuss the results in the context of the host-parasite ecology of S. tundra in Finland Results Development of S. tundra to the infective stage occurs in mosquitoes, (genera Aedes and Anopheles. We consider Aedes spp. the most important vectors. The prevalence of S. tundra naturally infected mosquitoes from Finland varied from 0.5 to 2.5%. The rate of development in mosquitoes was temperature-dependent. Infective larvae were present approximately 14 days after a blood meal in mosquitoes maintained at room temperature (mean 21 C, but did not develop in mosquitoes maintained outside for 22 days at a mean temperature of 14.1 C. The third-stage (infective larvae were elongated (mean length 1411 μm (SD 207, and width 28 μm (SD 2. The anterior end was blunt, and bore two liplike structures, the posterior end slight tapering with a prominent terminal papilla. Infective larvae were distributed anteriorly in the insect's body, the highest abundance being 70 larvae in one mosquito. A questionnaire survey revealed that the peak activity of Culicidae in the reindeer herding areas of Finland was from the middle of June to the end of July and that warm summer weather was associated with reindeer flocking behaviour on mosquito-rich wetlands. Conclusion In the present work, S. tundra vectors and larval development were identified and described for the first time. Aedes spp. mosquitoes likely serve as the most important and competent vectors for S. tundra in Finland. Warm summers

  12. Estimation of lichen biomass with emphasis on reindeer winter pastures at Hardangervidda, S Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Arvid Odland; Sylvi M. Sandvik; Dag K. Bjerketvedt; Linn L. Myrvold

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of lichen abundance is important for management of reindeer populations. We measured dry lichen biomass in 876 micro plots (16.5 cm × 16.5 cm) systematically sampled within 219 vegetation plots (2 m × 2 m) from 7 different areas in S Norway. Lichen biomass was quantified as: (a) dry weight in g m-2, (b) lichen height in cm, (c) lichen cover, and (d) lichen volume (lichen height × lichen cover). Lichen biomass decreased with increasing precipitation and increasing altitude. On l...

  13. Effects of reindeer density on vascular plant diversity on North Scandinavian mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Olofsson

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of reindeer grazing on species richness and diversity of vascular plants on dolomite influenced low alpine sites in the species rich northern part of the Scandes using 8 sites with different reindeer densities. Two sites were situated inside Malla Strict Nature Reserve, where reindeer grazing have been totally prohibited since 1981, and strongly restricted since 1950s. The six other sites were located in other species rich hotspot sites standardized to be as similar to the dolomite-influenced sites in Malla Strict Reserve as possible but varying in reindeer densities commonly found in the Fennoscandian mountain chain. Each site with a habitat complex especially rich in rare vascular plants (the Dryas heath – low herb meadow complex was systematically sampled in four plots of 2 m x 10 m. The plots were divided to 20 squares of 1 m x 1 m, and complete species lists of vascular plants were compiled for each of the squares. The first DCA (detrended correspondence analysis axis was strongly related to an index of reindeer grazing, indicating that grazing has a strong impact on the composition of the vegetation. None of the characteristics indices of biodiversity (species richness, evenness or Shannon-Wiener H’ was correlated with reindeer density. The local abundances of categories consisting of relatively rare plants (Ca favored plants and red listed plants of Finland showed significant, positive correlation with the intensity of reindeer grazing. We conclude that even though the density of reindeer has no influence on the total species richness or diversity of vascular plants, reindeer may still be important for regional biodiversity as it seems to favour rare and threatened plants. Moreover, our results imply that standard diversity indices may have limited value in the context of conservation biology, as these indices are equally influenced by rarities and by trivial species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Vi

  14. Coping with the Chernobyl disaster: a comparision of social effects in two reindeer-herding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Beach

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Lapland reindeer herders in the Vilhelmina and Jokkmokk municipalities of Sweden were interviewed in summer, autumn and winter 1987/88. The great variability in nuclear contamination between these areas has occasioned obvious but also unforeseen differences in the social effects for the Sami. The variability of contamination has also been compounded by the variability of compensation policy, variability of expert statements about risk, and also the change in state limits on Bq. concentrations set for meat marketability. This paper will illustrate the broad spectrum of Chernobyl-related social problems and the methods of coping with them.

  15. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åhman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their winter diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic

  16. Ultimate pH values and bacteriological condition of meat and stress metabolites in blood of transported reindeer bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three reindeer bulls, aged 2-3 years, fed during two winter months at the Vuolda reindeer research station in Arjeplog, Sweden, were used in the study. The first group of eight reindeer was moved from their feeding corral to a selection corral, captured by lasso and stunned with a captive bolt outside the selection corral. The second group of seven reindeer was moved to the selection corral, captured by lasso and restrained, after which they were loaded onto a lorry- and transported for 1 hour and then slaughtered. The third group of eight reindeer was moved to the selection corral and herded directly onto the lorry, without any manual handling. They were transported for 5 h and then slaughtered. In both transport groups, four reindeer were fitted with pre-programmed automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE. ABSE sampled blood at predetermined times via a jugular vein catheter. Ultimate pH-values in three muscles (Mm. longissimus, triceps brachii and biceps femoris were significantly lower in the group carefully handled and transported for 5 h compared with the other two groups. The physiological mechanisms behind these results are discussed. Samples from M. semimembranosus were collected at slaughter and after 2, 6 and 10 days of refrigerated storage (+4 °C. The samples were analysed for total counts of aerobic bacteria (pour-plated in Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar, Difco, incubated at 20 °C and 30 °C, respectively for 72 h, coliform bacteria 37 °C (pour-plated in Violet Red Bile Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 37 °C for 24 h, Enterococci (surface-plated onto Slantez and Bartley Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 44 °C for 48 h and Bacillus cereus (surface-plated onto Blood Agar Plates (Blood Agar Base, Difco, supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood 30 °C for 24 h. All samples fell in the range 'fit for consumption'. At slaughter, there was no difference in ASAT activity, urea and Cortisol concentrations between the two transported groups

  17. Dietary survey and whole-body counting on reindeer herdsmen of Kautokeino 1989 and 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boee, E.; Soerlie, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The dietary study revealed a group characterized by an especially high consumption of reindeer meat, almost 100 kg a year for women and about 150 kg on average for men. Average intake of radiocesium were calculated to 48000 and 39000 Bq by women and 76000 and 58000 Bq by men for the two years, respectively. Both for women and men this indicated a reduction of about 20% from 1989 to 1990. In 1990 samples of reindeer meet were collected for analysis of radiocesium. The average level of radiocesium in the samples were 350-400 Bq/kg. Norwegian Food Control Authorities recommended that individual intake of radiocesium should not exceed 80000 Bq/year, for pregnant and breast-feeding women not more than 40000 Bq/year. For the first year after the Chernobyl accident corresponding levels were set to 400000 and 80000 Bq, respectively. In 1989 42% of the men and 8% of the women had a calculated intake of radiocesium of more than 80000 Bq/year. In 1990 18% of the men and no women exceeded this level. None had an intake of 400000 Bq or more, the highest calculated intake was 162000 Bq. 10 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Fencing the forest: early use of barrier fences in Sami reindeer husbandry

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    Gudrun Norstedt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Barrier fences are generally not considered to have been used in Sami reindeer husbandry in Sweden before the early 20th century. As a rule, they are thought to have been introduced with the transition from intensive to extensive herding that is assumed to have taken place at this time. However, in this study, we show that barrier fences were widely used in Gällivare, Jokkmokk and Arjeplog Municipalities from the mid-18th century onwards, especially in the forests. Until the early 20th century, these fences were built of local materials, mainly whole trees and boulders, and we therefore call them whole-tree fences. Some of the barrier fences were used during periods of loose supervision by herders who otherwise practised intensive methods, while others were built in a context of extensive herding, large herds and conflicts over land use. Extensive reindeer herding was thus practised in the area much earlier than usually presumed, and it overlapped with intensive herding in both time and space.

  19. Partial county development plans as a means for preserving wild reindeer habitats in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Olav Bråtå

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian wild reindeer habitats are threatened by human intervention. Wild reindeer habitats are joint region wide common pool resources (CPR. Municipalities may be free-riders to that resource if they prefer investments boosting municipal economy despite negative consequences for wild reindeer as a regional resource. Partial county development plans, following the rules of the Planning and Building Act (PBA, are a means that may combine preservation of habitats and development. In order to analyze such plans, theory on CPR management is applied to spatial development planning in the Rondane and Hardangervidda wild reindeer areas. It is shown that the nested system is in accordance with most of Ostrom’s principles. Still, a joint Planning Board ought to be established at Hardangervidda and a partial county plan for the whole wild reindeer area there ought to be established. It is recommended that regular monitoring of interventions and planning is established. Finally, a system or mechanism for low cost conflict resolution is needed; but is not easily included into a system based on official actors at different levels, the planning and building act and public anticipation on equal management. The last point is important for mutual acceptance of restrictions on own activity. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Kunnskap om forvaltning av fellesressurer øker forståelsen av regionale planer for villreinområderNorske villreinområder er truet av menneskelige inngrep. Villreinområdene er en regional fellesressurs, men kommunene kan bli gratispassasjerer i forhold til utnytting av denne ressursen ettersom de kan bli fristet til å vektlegge utbygging som gir lokaløkonomiske effekter, på tross av negative konsekvenser for villreinen som en regional ressurs. Fylkesdelplaner, som er basert på plan- og bygningsloven, er et virkemiddel som kan kombinere bevaring og utvikling. For å forstå slike planers muligheter og begrensninger analyses her

  20. Characteristics of venison. The research of vitamin and fatty acid composition of the meat of domesticated reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan E. G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin and fatty acid composition of meat of the domesticated reindeer shoulder in order to experimentally prove its rational use as a component of healthy diet not only population of the Kola Peninsula, but also in other regions of the world has been researched. Reindeer herd population figures have been given. The value of reindeer herding for life of the indigenous peoples of the Far North has been proved. There are the results of studying vitamin content of domesticated reindeer meat on the main important parameters by the fluorimetric method using the fluid analyzer based on the acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis test, which results in release of bound forms of vitamins, as well as by alkaline hydrolysis of the sample followed by separation and determination of the mass fraction of vitamins. The study of fatty acids contained in venison has been labeled and graphically reflected. The composition of saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids using the gas chromatography method based on the solvent extraction of animal lipids organic solvents, and triglyceride lipid methylation by hydrolysis has been determined. The results of these studies have shown extraordinary characteristics of reindeer meat, its well-balanced ratio of fatty acids and high mass fractions of vitamins. High percentage of these fatty acids as saturated – palmitic (26.79 %, stearic (19.15 %, margarine (1.22 % and unsaturated – oleic acid (36.23 %, linoleic (5.12 %, and palmitoleic (2.68 % and their importance for the human body have been noted. Comparative characteristics of the vitamin content of venison with other kinds of meat (beef, pork, and lamb which clearly reflects the high vitamin C content (2.63 mg per 100 g product and vitamin B2 (0.27 mg per 100 g product has been presented.

  1. We adapt… but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, Gloria; Saunders, Fred; Sokolova, Tatiana; Börebäck, Kristina; van Laerhoven, F.S.J.; Kokko, Suvi; Tuvendal, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Reindeer herding (RDH) is a livelihood strategy deeply connected to Sami cultural tradition. This article explores the implications of two theoretical and methodological approaches for grasping complex socioenvironmental relationships of RDH in Subarctic Sweden. Based on joint fieldwork,

  2. Radioactive contamination in reindeer herders and other people in Kautokeino 1965-2010; Radioaktiv forurensning i befolkningen. Reindriftsutoevere og andre personer i Kautokeino 1965-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Skuterud, L.

    2012-07-01

    NRPA's measurements of radioactive caesium in reindeer herders and other people from Kautokeino in northern Norway were finalised in December 2010. This report summarises the monitoring program which was started in 1965.(Author)

  3. Digestive studies with a feed developed for realimentation of starving reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sletten

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The properties of three different feeds were compared when offered to reindeer calves as single feeds after a starvation period of the 48 h. The feeds were lichen and two pelleted commercial reindeer feeds, RF-71 and RF-80. The two latter differed in concentration of readily digestible carbohydrates (high in RF-71 and in the inclusion of seaweed meal in RF-80. Seven calves were offered the three diets in a latin square design. Measurements involved feed intake and rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids, ammonia and pH during a five day period after the end of the starvation period. Feeding RF-80 gave rise to higher feed intakes and more rapid normalisation of rumen VFA and ammonia concentration than the other pelleted feed. Rumen pH reached a minimum of 5.4 in animals fed RF-71, while the average minimum pH during the observation period was 6.1-6.2 when RF-80 was given. Inappetance for 1-2 days after refeeding occurred only with RF-71. RF-80 has now replaced RF-71 as the commercial reindeer feed in Norway.Fordøyelsesforsøk med et for utviklet til overgangsforing av sveltende rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: En har sammenlignet egenskapene til tre forskjellige fortyper gitt til reinkalver som eneste for etter en sveltperiode på 48 timer. Fortypene var reinlav og to pelletterte, kommersielle reinfor: RF-71 og RF-80. De siste to adskilte seg fra hverandre i konsentrasjonen av lettfordøyelige karbohydrater (høyest i RF-71 og i innblanding av tangmel i RF-80. Syv reinkalver ble gitt de tre dietter i «latin square» forsøksmønster. Målingene omfattet: forinntak, konsentrasjon i vominnhold av flyktige fettsyrer (VFA og ammonium samt verdier av pfi gjennom en fem-dagers periode etter avsluttet sveltperiode. Foring med RF-80 økte forinntaket og forårsaket en raskere normalisering av VFA- og ammoniumkonsentrasjonene enn foring med RF-71. pfi nådde et minimum på 5,4 hos dyr som fikk RF-71, mens gjennomsnittlig verdi av pH gjennom

  4. Modelling of radiocesium transfer in the lichen-reindeer/caribou-wolf food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Holleman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental contaminate radiocesium (cesium-137 has been shown to be of value as a marker in food selection and intake studies. Its greatest potential value as a food marker is in the subarctic/arctic regions, particularly in the lichen to reindeer/caribou to wolf food chain. A kinetic model describing the movement of radiocesium through the food chain has been developed using the SAAM computer program and is presented here. The program has been written so that the various paramenters affecting the transfer of radiocesium in the food chain can be altered more realistically to describe the system being modeled. The values of the parameters as given in this example are realistic for interior Alaska, however caution should be exercised in the application of the present results to regions that may be vastly different from the Alaskan interior without first evaluating the parameters and assumptions of the model.

  5. 驯鹿头骨解剖%THE ANATOMY OF THE SKULL BONES OF REINDEER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都格尔斯仁; 刘为民; 苏布登格日勒; 杨银凤; 乔灵; 额尔德木图

    2001-01-01

    With cross anatomical method,the anatomy of the skull bones ofreindeer was studied and compared with that of camel,horse and cattle.The results were as follows:The vomer of reindeer is very developed.A group of ethmoidal cellules were formed among the lacrimal bone,frontal bone and nasal bone.The mandible is longer and narrower than that of cattle,horse and camel.The angle of mandible is obtuse.The lacrimal bone has a pair of lacrimal foramen which lie on the cranral part of orbital margin and separated by the lacrimal process.The reindeer has no lacrimal saccus fossa.On the ventral part of the orbital margin,the zygomatic bone formed a deep notch of the orbital margin.%运用大体解剖的方法对驯鹿头骨进行了形态学观察,并将其与双峰驼、牛、马的头骨进行了比较。结果表明:驯鹿的犁骨特别发达。泪骨,额骨和鼻骨之间围成一个狭长的筛鼻甲窦(部)。下颌骨比牛、马、驼窄而长,下颌角钝圆。泪骨的形态较特殊,颜而形成纵形深窝,泪孔有两个,位于眶缘上,并有尖状的泪突分开,眶缘与颧骨交界处有一个深切迹,无泪囊窝。

  6. Phylogenetic relationships between Sarcocystis species from reindeer and other Sarcocystidae deduced from ssu rRNA gene sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, S.S.; Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Gjerde, B.

    2008-01-01

    any effect on previously inferred phylogenetic relationships within the Sarcocystidae. The complete small subunit (ssu) rRNA gene sequences of all six Sarcocystis species from reindeer were used in the phylogenetic analyses along with ssu rRNA gene sequences of 85 other members of the Coccidea. Trees...... the six species in phylogenetic analyses of the Sarcocystidae, and also to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the species from reindeer and those from other hosts. The study also aimed at revealing whether the inclusion of six Sarcocystis species from the same intermediate host would have....... tarandivulpes, formed a sister group to other Sarcocystis species with a canine definitive host. The position of S. hardangeri on the tree suggested that it uses another type of definitive host than the other Sarcocystis species in this clade. Considering the geographical distribution and infection intensity...

  7. Entheseal changes and pathological lesions in draught reindeer skeletons - Four case studies from present-day Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Anna-Kaisa; Niinimäki, Sirpa

    2016-09-01

    Draught use and being ridden often result in typical pathological patterns in animal skeletons. Moreover, physical activity patterns may be reflected in bone biomechanical properties and entheseal changes at muscle attachment sites. This paper presents the pathologies and entheseal changes observed in four draught and/or racing reindeer skeletons against information on their life histories and discusses the probability of linking the observed changes to their use. The results of this study are a useful point of comparison to researchers working on reindeer and other species of draught animals. However, our results also emphasize that entheseal changes and many pathologies have multifactorial etiologies and that interpretation of skeletal change patterns is not straightforward, even when there is information on the life history of the animal and its complete skeleton can be examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pastures, calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Kumpula

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climatic and density-dependent factors on calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves were studied between the years 1965-87 in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland (67°50´N. The Oraniemi area is divided into five pasture regions, in which the annual home range of the reindeer varied from 300 to 600 km2. The more than trebled reindeer density over the period 1965-87 in Oraniemi had no detrimental effect on calf production (range 15-74 calves/100 females, nor on the mean carcass weight of the calves in 1974-87 (range 16.8-23.2 kg. The annual variations in calf% were explained best by snow conditions during the previous winter and spring and their effects on the nutritional status of the females. The carcass weights of the calves were greater following a warm, rainy May and lower following a warm, rainy June and July. The weather in spring affects the emergence of green vegetation, which is reflected in the condition of females and their milk production, while the weather in early and mid-supper probably affects the quantities of blood-sucking insects and their activity. Carcass weights upon slaughtering rose from September to the beginning of December but then fell quickly. The differences in reindeer densities between the five pasture regions was not reflected in the calf% over the period 1984-87, but the carcass weights of calves were lower following high densities in the pasture regions, especially in the winter pastures.

  9. Comparative studies of natural and artificial α-emitters (actinides) in the lichen-reindeer-man food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Persson, B.R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fallout of actinide elements has been investigated by studying samples of lichen collected at different places in Scandinavia. Maximum-activity concentrations of plutonium isotopes in lichen were found in 1965. Americium-241 has been formed in situ from the decay of 241 Pu, and the maximum-activity concentration found in lichen is 35 PCi/kg. In reindeer, the activity concentrations of 239+240 Pu, 241 Pu, and 241 Am have been studied in liver and bone. The fraction of Pu activity ingested and retained in reindeer liver is about two to three times higher than that of Am. Investigations of Pu and Am in human food chains raise the question of comparisons with the natural α-emitting radionuclides uranium, thorium, and their daughters. Americium and thorium exhibit very similar biophysical behavior in the environement. The fraction of activity that is absorbed by gastrointestinal ingestion seems to be of the same order of magnitude. High concentrations of uranium in reindeer tissues probably depend on a high intake from drinking water and other foodstuffs than lichen

  10. Habitat use by domestic reindeer in relation to food quality and disturbance - need for research? (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Skarpe

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Competition for land in the mountains can be foreseen to increase in the near future. This development will result in trade offs and prioritization between the different demands for land. For reindeer husbandry it is essential to motivate the need for control over good grazing land for different seasons and situations, not only by preventing direct exploitation of such land, but also to minimize disturbance by traffic and people in the vicinity. It will therefore be important to demonstrate in quantitative terms 1 what habitat types and areas that are essential for the reindeer in different seasons and situations and for different activities (grazing, resting, protection for insects etc, and 2 how different forms and intensities of disturbance affect the reindeer. We plan a project with these aims and will primarily work with the summer grazing situation. For many years we have run a similar project related to sheep grazing in the vicinity of Hessdalen, and we have developed methods and techniques that to a large extent are applicable to reindeer. We will discuss methods and results from the sheep study, how they can apply to reindeer, and provide the quantitative information needed. We use modern, high resolution GPS telemetry with very high spatial resolution (95% within ca 6.4 m, and frequent recording, e.g., every five minutes during some periods. This provides knowledge not only of the movements by the animals in the landscape, but also on their activities and will be related to vegetation maps with the same accuracy as the telemetry data (from aerial photographs, offering higher resolution than available satellite data. Results show that sheep use only a very small portion of the available rangeland, and that selectivity varies with season and weather conditions. Almost certainly the situation is similar with reindeer, although the two species have rather different grazing pattern, with reindeer being much more mobile than sheep. We plan

  11. A model for analyzing influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Eriksson

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available A model for long-term analysis of the influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing (Cladina, Alectoria, Bryoria spp and others in Sweden is presented. The annual production of and demand for lichens are estimated and compared. Production of these lichens is presumed to set the upper limit for the reindeer population. Reindeer graze on both ground and tree lichens, which both must be accessible in sufficient amounts and at the right times of the year if reindeer husbandry is to succeed without supplementary feeding. The model is based mainly on existing data, and uses are estimations from the National Forest Survey and the Hugin system for calculation of longterm potential cut (Bengtsson, 1981. Geographically the study is limited to Vasterbotten and Norrbotten, the northernmost counties in Sweden, where most reindeer husbandry in Sweden is located, and where reindeer grazing takes place over almost the whole area. The calculations cover a period of one hundred years from 1980, and are based on a timber production programme which relies more on «multiple use» than the current Swedish forest policy (Bengtsson, 1986. The annual production of ground lichens is calculated by multiplying the area covered with ground lichens by their increment as estimated from their rate of biomass increase, which in turn depends on site factors and age of the stand. The estimation of the area is based on data from the National Forest Survey. Sample plots with ground lichens are assumed to maintain lichens during the whole hundred year period. Areas with stands that have been thinned within ten years and stands younger than 20 years are excluded due to logging residues from thinnings and packed snow. Some of the remaining area cannot practically be utilized for reindeer grazing. Representatives of three communities of reindeer herders classified 212 plots from the National Forest Survey with ground lichens and assessed that 3/4 of the plots can be

  12. The robustness of reindeer husbandry – need for a new approach to elucidate opportunities and sustainability of the reindeer industry in its socio-ecological context (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öje Danell

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of transformations and adaptations in the Sami use of land for their subsistence over a long period of time has led to the reindeer husbandry of today. In Sweden the Sami rights to land and water are today legally connected to the practising of reindeer husbandry as a livelihood. Together with a few associated commodities, it has become considered is the only lasting Sami land-use. In the Sami culture, a central element is the association of the people with the land and the subsistence on what is provided in nature. Consequently, this association between people and land is today kept alive by the reindeer husbandry practiced as a livelihood, which thereby also produces and manages an essential base for the culture. The developments in the surrounding society are currently reducing the latitude for the reindeer industry at an accelerated rate and thereby also its capacity to handle new situations. In the complicated ecological, economic, social and institutional contexts, where reindeer husbandry is practiced, there is a large risks for sudden and unpredicted disintegrations and collapses at different system levels. The consequences thereof for the long term continuation and adaptability of Sami land use are largely unpredictable. If it leads to a collapse of reindeer industry as mode of land-use, the risks of additional deterioration of the Sami indigenous rights is also apparent and thereby the scope for new solutions as well. This will likely have serious negative consequences for the viability of the Sami culture concurrently with declining live dependences of the land. The situation of reindeer husbandry has similarities with management crises in many other integrated socio-ecological systems, which have led to sustainability failures and unpredicted consequences. These insights seem to be deficient in the treatment of the problems, which reindeer industry is facing. Scientists could probably make a very important contribution by

  13. Report: Tamreinen på Grønland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Larsen, P. & Aastrup, P. 1981: Undersøgelser over tamrenbestanden (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. ved Itivnera, Vestgrønland. - Viltundersøgelser, Hæfte 35. Viltbiologisk Station, Kalø, DK-8410 Rønde.

  14. Lead-210, polonium-210, and stable lead in the food-chain lichen, reindeer and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.

    1972-01-01

    The measurements of stable lead and the natural fallout radionuclides lead-210 and polonium-210 in communities of lichen (Cladonia alpestris) in central Sweden from 1961 to 1970 indicate a quite constant level. The average lead-210 content per unit area in lichen carpets was found to be 15 +- 2 nCi m -2 , the average lead-210 activity concentration 6.7 +- 0.9 nCi per kg dry weight and the lead-210 specific activity 630 +- 60 nCi per g of stable lead. The polonium-210/lead-210 activity ratio was about 0.9 +- 0.1. The vertical distribution of lead-210 in the lichen carpet showed a maximum concentration in the top layer. The distribution was similar during 1967 and 1968 but the low amount of precipitation during 1968 and 1969 disturbed the distribution pattern in 1969 and 1970. The transfer of lead-210, polonium-210 and stable lead through the food chain: lichen, reindeer, and man was characterized. The absorbed dose rate in Lapps due to polonium-210 was estimated to be about 6 to 8 mrad per year in gonads and 8 to 20 mrad per year in bone tissues. This is about ten percent of their entire absorbed dose contribution from all natural radiation sources. (U.S.)

  15. Movements of tagged and radio-instrumented wild reindeer in relation to habitat alteration in the Snøhetta region, Norway

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    Terje Skogland

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In winter, 1981, 103 reindeer, out of a population of 3600, were herded into a fence by snowmobiles and marked. During the next 4 1/2 years reindeer were followed from the ground, or by radiolocations from an airplane. On the average one animal was tagged per 42 animals in any group. A total sample of 175 locations in all seasons indicated that snow conditions, traffic on a road lying parallel to a railroad, and the damming of a lake significantly affected annual distribution as compared with expected modern as well as prehistoric distribution.

  16. Effects of forest fertilization on nitrate and crude protein content in some important reindeer forage species

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    Gustaf Åhman

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available When forests are fertilized with ammonia nitrate it is possible that grazing reindeer ingest ammonia nitrate by eating grains of fertilizer from the ground or by drinking contaminated water. They can also get nitrate through plants that have absorbed and disposed nitrate. This latter factor is studied in this report. In addition the effect of fertilization on crude protein content in forage plants is investigated. Fertilizing trials were done within two different areas. One was a dry scotch pine forest and the other a humid scotch pine forest. Both were situated 10 to 15 km north west of Lycksele (northern Sweden. Three different rations (75, 150 and 250 kg N/ha of ammonianitrate and one (150 kg N/ha of urea was used. Fertilization was done at two occations, in June and in July. To investigate the effect of fertilization on nitrate and crude protein content in reindeer forage plants, samples were taken of reindeer lichens (Cladina spp., heather {Calluna vulgaris, crowberry (Empetrum spp., cowberry (Vaccinium vitis ideae, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus and hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa at different times after fertilization. In this trial we could not find any higher degree of contamination of nitrate in lichens. The highest value was 0.013% nitrate-N in dry matter (table 1. Nitrate accumulation was low in shrubs and grass (table 2. The highest value (0.05% was found in heather. The concentrations were definitly below the level that could be considered as injurious to the reindeer. The effect of fertilization on crude protein content in reindeer forage plants was obvious. It was most evident in hair-grass. Four weeks after fertilization with 150 kg N/ha, crude protein content was more than doubled and reached 20% in dry matter (figure 1 and 2. In withered hair-grass in the autumn the effect was very small. One year after fertilization a small rise in crude protein was registered in both grass and shrubs (table 3. Some effect still remained

  17. Human-animal agency in reindeer management: Sami herders' perspectives on Fennoscandian tundra vegetation dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Horstkotte, T.; Utsi, T. A.; Larsson-Blind, Å.; Burgess, P.; Käyhkö, J.; Oksanen, L.; Johansen, B.

    2016-12-01

    Many primary livelihoods in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions are increasingly faced with accelerating effects of climate change and resource exploitation. The often close connection between indigenous populations and the dynamics of their respective territories allows them to make detailed observations of how these changes transform the landscapes where they practice their daily activities. Here, we report Sami reindeer herders' observations based on their long-term occupancy and use of contrasting pastoral landscapes in northern Fennoscandia. In particular, we focus on the capacity for various herd management regimes to prevent a potential transformation of open tundra vegetation to shrubland or woodland. Fennoscandian Sami herders did not confirm a substantial, rapid or large-scale transformation of treeless arctic-alpine areas into shrub- and/or woodlands as a consequence of climate change. However, where encroachment of open tundra landscapes has been observed, a range of drivers were deemed responsible. These included abiotic conditions, anthropogenic influences and the direct and indirect effects of reindeer. Mountain birch tree line advances were in some cases associated with reduced or discontinued grazing, depending on the seasonal significance of these particular areas. In the many places where tree line has risen, herding practices have by necessity adapted to these changes. Exploiting the capacity of reindeer grazing/browsing as a conservation tool offers new adaptive strategies of ecosystem management to counteract a potential encroachment of the tundra by woody plants. However, such novel solutions in environmental governance are confronted with difficult trade-offs involved in ecosystem management for ecologically reasonable, economically viable and socially desirable management strategies.

  18. Development, control and counter-measures regarding radioactive caesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident; Utveckling, oevervakning och aatgaerder naer det gaeller radioaktivt cesium i renar efter Tjernobylolyckan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahman, Birgitta [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Reindeer Husbandry Unit

    2005-10-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, monitoring of {sup 137}Cs in reindeer has been made at slaughter, by measuring muscle samples or by direct monitoring of gamma radiation on reindeer carcasses. Carcasses above the accepted limit have been discarded. Many carcasses were discarded during the first years, but now the number is only some per cent of the total slaughter. The radiocaesium intake in reindeer varies with season, which is reflected in the levels in reindeer, which are low in summer and high in winter. The levels of {sup 137}Cs have declined from 1986 to 2004 with an average effective half-life of 5.3 years. The decline was faster during the first years than during later years. Presently, 16 out of totally 51 reindeer herding districts in Sweden are included in the control of {sup 137}Cs in reindeer. Control is often necessary only in defined areas or at certain periods of the year. Monitoring of {sup 137}Cs in live reindeer is made in addition to the monitoring at slaughter. Counter-measures have been applied in areas where many reindeer are above the accepted limit for {sup 137}Cs. Change of slaughter time and feeding are the most used counter-measures. The reindeer owners are compensated economically from the state for costs related to these counter-measures. The need for measures, and thereby the costs, have decreased with time. In the southern parts of the county of Vaesterbotten and in the northernmost part of Jaemtland, where the Chernobyl fallout was the highest, it will probably still take at least ten to twenty years until measures and control are no longer needed.

  19. Dynamics and life histories of northern ungulates in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichsen, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Regional climate and local weather conditions can profoundly influence life history parameters (growth, survival, fecundity) and population dynamics in northern ungulates (Post and Stenseth 1999, Coulson et al. 2001). The influence is both direct, for example through reduced growth or survival (Aanes et al. 2000, Tyler et al. 2008), and indirect, for example through changes in resource distribution, phenology and quality, changes which subsequently influence consumer dynamics (Post et al. 2008). By comparing and contrasting data from three spatially independent populations of ungulates, I discuss how variation in local weather parameters and vegetation growth influence spatial and temporal dynamics through changes in life history parameters and/or behavioural dynamics. The data originate from long term (11-15 years) monitoring data from three populations of ungulates in one subarctic and two high Arctic sites; semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in northern Norway, Svalbard reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) on Spitsbergen and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in Northeast Greenland. The results show that juvenile animals can be particularly vulnerable to changes in their environment, and that this is mirrored to different degrees in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the three populations. Adverse weather conditions, acting either directly or mediated through access to and quality of vegetation, experienced by young early in life, or even by their dams during pregnancy, can lead to reduced growth, lower survival and reduced reproductive performance later in life. The influence of current climatic variation, and the predictions of how local weather conditions may change over time, differs between the three sites, resulting in potentially different responses in the three populations. Aanes R, Saether BE and Øritsland NA. 2000. Fluctuations of an introduced population of Svalbard reindeer: the effects of density dependence and climatic variation. Ecography

  20. Anatomy of a reindeer dissected in Copenhagen in 1672 by Niels Stensen as reported by Thomas Bartholin. I. Introduction by Troels Kardel. II. Translation by Paul Maquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Kardel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A report by Professor Thomas Bartholin on the dissection of a reindeer performed in 1672 by his former student Niels Stensen as Royal Anatomist in Copenhagen is presented in English translation with biographical introduction and bibliographical notes. The report is most likely the first of its kind being an early contribution to comparative anatomy.

  1. Artificial feeding and nutritional status of semi-domesticated reindeer during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Three feeding experiments were done during 1980-82 with semi-domesticated reindeer in captivity out of doors in Northern Finland. Calves and adult hinds were fed with lichens (Cladina spp., hay, dry molasses pulp and other feeds containing different amounts of proteins and other nutrients. The body weight, blood and faecal N were lowest in lichen fed groups. Slightly higher values were measured in groups fed with dry or ground hay, dry molasses pulp, oat bran and commercial feeds.Poron kunto talvella keimoruokinnalla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vuosina 1980-82 tehtiin poroilla tarhaoloissa Pohjois-Suomessa kolme ruokintakoetta. Vasoja ja vaatimia ruokittiin jåkålållå (Cladina spp., heinållå, melassileikkeellå ja muilla rehuilla, joissa oli eri mååriå valkuaista ja muita ravintoaineita. Porojen elopaino, veriarvot ja ulosteen typpipitoisuus olivat alhaisimmat jåkålållå ruokitulla poroilla. Hieman karkeampia arvoja mitattiin muissa ryhmisså, joita ruokittiin, kuivalla tai jauhetulla heinållå, melassileikkeellå, kaurajauholla ja kaupallisilla rehuilla.Foring og næringsstatus hos finsk rein gjennom vinteren.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tre forsøk med foring av rein ble utført i årene 1980-82. Dyrene ble holdt utendørs i innhegning i Nord-Finland. Kalver og voksne simler ble gitt lav (Cladina spp., høy, tørket melasse-pulp og andre forsor-ter med forskjellig innhold av protein og andre næringsstoffer. Kroppsvekt, blod verdier og total-N-innhold i fæces var lavest i de lav-forede grupper. Litt høyere verdier ble målt i andre grupper som ble gitt vanlig eller malt høy, tørket melasse-pulp, havrekli og kommersielle forsorter.

  2. Radiostrontium, radiocesium and stable mineral composition of bones of domestic reindeer from Vågå, Norway

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    Hans Staaland

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiostrontium, radiocesium and macromineral concentrations were measured in metatarsal or metacarpal bones from 78 reindeer (59 calves and 19 adults in the Vågå reindeer herding district in Southern Norway. Samples were collected in the period August 1988 to May 1989. Radiocesium concentrations increased from August through the winter. Radiostrontium varied slightly around an average value 1810 Bq/kg DM. Mg concentrations decreased through the winter, the concentrations of other minerals and bone density showed only small variations. No signs of mineral deficiencies were observed. It is concluded that radiostrontium mainly originated from the Chernobyl nuclear accident.Radiostrontium, radiocesium og stabile mineraler in reinknokler fra Vågå, NorgeAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Innhold av radiostrontium, radiocesium og makromineraler ble målt i reinsdyrknokler (metatarsus og metacarpus innsamlet fra 78 dyr (59 kalver og 19 voksne tilhørende Vågå tamreinlag. Prøvene ble samlet i perioden august 1988 til mai 1989. Innholdet av radiocesium økte fra august og gjennom vinteren, mens innholdet av radiostrontium var temmelig konstant (1810 Bq/ kg tørrstoff. Magnesium innholdet avtok gjennom vinteren, mens innholdet av andre mineraler samt knoklenes tetthet varierte lite. Det ble ikke observert noen tegn på mineralmangel. Mesteparten av det radioaktive strontium kom fra atomkraftulykken i Tsjernobyl.

  3. Food and snow intake, body mass and rumen function in reindeer fed lichen and subsequently starved for 4 days

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    T.H. Aagnes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and snow intake, body mass, rumen fluid volume, rumen fluid turnover time and ruminal dry matter content were examined in four female rumen fistulated reindeer which were first fed lichen ad libitum in 14 days and then starved for 4 days in March. When the animals were eating lichen median daily dry matter food intake was 15.7 g/kg (range 12.2-19.9 g/kg, while median daily snow intake only amounted to 0.6 g/kg (range 0-3.3 g/kg. The median body mass decreased from 67.5 kg (range 62.5-69.5 kg to 63.5 kg (range 60.5-68.5 kg during this period, and dropped further to 62.5 kg (range 57.5-66.0 kg after four days of starvation. Rumen fluid volume and fluid turnover time were fairly constant in individual animals, but varied between animals fed lichen ad libitum. Neither of these parameters changed significantly (P>0.05, but ruminal dry matter decreased, while snow intake rose conspicuously in reponse to starvation. Thus, aside from the latter, which mitigate the reduction of total rumen volume, we have failed to expose any special adaptions aimed at the maintenance of ruminal integrity in starving reindeer.

  4. 驯鹿及其生物学特性研究%Reindeer and Its Biological Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常悦; 张玉; 陈巴特尔; 孙亚红

    2013-01-01

    驯鹿分布于北极圈及其周边地区,耐寒怕燥,处于野生或半驯化状态.本文通过对驯鹿的生态分布,形态特征(包括个体大小、被毛、茸角、鼻、蹄、视力),进食习性,繁殖习性,迁徙活动以及天敌等几方面对驯鹿的生物学特性做出较为全面的介绍,以便为今后的驯鹿保护工作奠定基础,从而制定出针对性更强的保护措施.%The reindeer inhabits in the Arctic Circle and its surrounding areas, which is cold resistant and afraid of dryness and in the wild or semi-domesticated state. The paper comprehensively introduced the biological characteristics of the reindeer through such aspects as its ecological distribution, morphological character (including body size, fur, antler, nose, feet and eyesight), eating habit, breeding habit, migrating activities as well as its natural enemies, so as to lay a foundation for the protection work and therefore developing more effective protective measures.

  5. Diet shift of a facultative scavenger, the wolverine, following recolonization of wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jiska; Gustavsen, Line; Mysterud, Atle; May, Roel; Flagstad, Øystein; Brøseth, Henrik; Andersen, Roy; Andersen, Reidar; Steen, Harald; Landa, Arild

    2008-11-01

    1. Wolves Canis lupus L. recolonized the boreal forests in the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula during the late 1990s, but so far there has been little attention to its effect on ecosystem functioning. Wolf predation increases the availability of carcasses of large prey, especially moose Alces alces L., which may lead in turn to a diet switch in facultative scavengers such as the wolverine Gulo gulo L. 2. Using 459 wolverine scats collected during winter-spring 2001-04 for DNA identity and dietary contents, we compared diet inside and outside wolf territories while controlling for potential confounding factors, such as prey density. We tested the hypothesis that wolverine diet shifted towards moose in the presence of wolves, while taking into account possible sexual segregation between the sexes. Occurrence of reindeer, moose and small prey was modelled against explanatory covariates using logistic mixed-effects models. Furthermore, we compared diet composition and breadth among habitats and sexes. 3. Occurrence of reindeer, moose and small prey in the diet varied with prey availability and habitat. As expected, diet contained more moose and less reindeer and small prey in the presence of wolves. Their diet in tundra consisted of 40% reindeer Rangifer tarandus L., 39% moose and 9% rodents. In forest with wolf, their diet shifted to 76% moose, 18% reindeer and 5% rodents; compared to 42% moose, 32% reindeer and 15% rodents in forest without wolf. This diet switch could not be explained by higher moose density in wolf territories. Female diet consisted of more small prey than for males, but there was a tendency for females to use the highly available moose carrion opportunistically and to hunt less on small prey within wolf territories. 4. Our study highlights how wolves increase scavenging opportunities for wolverines, and how sexual differences in diet may also apply to large scavengers. Due to their more restricted home range, female wolverines are

  6. Ancient wild reindeer pitfall trapping systems as indicators for former migration patterns and habitat use in the Dovre region, southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Jordhøy

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of ancient reindeer pitfall trap systems suggests an extensive regional migration of reindeer between seasonal pastures in parts of southern Norway. The migration routes were funnelled by natural barriers across a high, rolling mountain plateau. In the Dovre area, two pitfall trapping systems, totalling at least 1547 individual pitfalls, were identified and measured using a standard procedure and GPS to record location. Migrating reindeer typically cross over valleys between areas of higher ground and reindeer pitfall trap lines are therefore aligned along the valley, individually placed so that their long axis is perpendicular to the direction of the valleys. Pitfall trap systems for moose are also evident in the landscape. In contrast to reindeer, migrating moose mainly follow the line of the valley. Pitfall rows built for moose trapping are therefore placed mainly across the main direction of the valleys, and the individual pitfalls are also larger than those intended for reindeer. Migration and lichen utilization are important factors in reindeer adaption to limited food resources and existence in marginal mountain habitats. The trap systems and their ecological context support the hypothesis of ancient large-scale reindeer migration over the west-east Dovre axis between summer pastures and winter grazing land. This migration has ceased entirely because of increasing traffic on the north-south railway and highway and probably also because of reduced reindeer populations. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Gamle fangstgropsystemer for rein som indikatorer for tidligere trekkmønster og habitatbruk i Dovreregionen, Sør-NorgeUtbredelse av fangstgropsystemer for rein tyder på at det har vært et regionalt trekkmønster mellom ulike sesongbeiter innen deler av Sør-Norge. Trekket har vært styrt av naturlige barrierer over et variert, bølgende fjellandskap. I dovreområdet er to store fangstgropsystemer på totalt minst 1547

  7. The effects of density dependent resource limitation on size of wild reindeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogland, Terje

    1983-11-01

    A density-dependent decrement in size for wild reindeer from 12 different Norwegian herds at 16 different densities was shown using lower jawbone-length as the criterion of size. This criterion was tested and found to adequately predict body size of both bucks and does. Lactation in does did not affect jaw length but significantly affected dressed weights.A decrement in the size of does as a result of gross density was found. This size decrement was further analysed in relation to the habitat densities in winter (R 2 =0.85) and in summer (R 2 =0.75) separately, in order to estimate the relative effects of each factor. For herds with adequate food in winter (no signs of overgrazing of lichens) density in relation to summer habitat and mires yielded the highest predictive power in a multiple regression. For herds with adequate summer pastures, densities per winter habitat and lichen volumes showed likewise a highly significant correlation. The inclusion of the lichen volume data in the regression increased its predictive power. The major effect of resource limitation was to delay the time of calving because a maternal carry-over effect allowed the calf a shorter period of growth to be completed during its first summer. Neonate size at birth was highly correlated with maternal size regardless of the mean calving date although the latter was significantly delayed for small-sized does in food resource-limited herds. Likewise the postnatal growth rate of all calves were not significantly different during 50 days postpartum regardless of maternal conditions in winter feeding. The summer growth rates of bucks ≧1 year did not vary significantly between herds. The age of maturity of food resource-limited does was delayed by one year and growth ceased after the initiation of reproduction. This shows that under conditions of limited resources the does with delayed births of calves allocated less energy to body growth simply because they had less time to replenish body

  8. Oil Companies, Reindeer-Herding Communities, and Local Authorities: Rights to Land from the Perspective of Various Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tulaeva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the consideration of land disputes between oil companies and reindeer-herding communities. This research analyzes the legal framework within which the participants of conflict act, with particular reference to legal anthropology. Most of the focus is not so much on formal laws as on the way in which they are understood and interpreted by the participants in relations. It is shown that various groups are guided by different laws and regulations, determining for themselves their priority over others. Emphasis is placed on the role of custom and the way in which it influences the appeal of locals to the state legal system. Starting from the specificity of legal environment, this article explains the use by the participants of conflicts of various strategies to settle them.

  9. Whose landscape? - An anthropological perspective on landscape perception in reindeer tending (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Järpe

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available When we talk publicly about landscape and land use, both in legal and in popular contexts, the evaluation of our natural environment is usually based on an industrial concept of land and landscape. "Nature" is seen as a resource to be used or managed in different ways. My research originates in a questioning of this assumption: can we take for granted that the same perceptions and evaluations are shared by all concerned parties? In this article, I will use an ecologic anthropological perspective to consider the livelihood of reindeer tending and suggest an alternative to what can be called a scientific understanding of the world. I maintain that the relations that people have with their environment, and the values that they ascribe to it, are perceptions that are shaped and affected in our interactions with the surrounding world, and that these perceptions vary between different groups of people. Land use, land rights, access to fishing waters, and who gets to hunt what; these are not only questions about how we should manage the landscape, but also about whose landscape we are managing. Arguing that the reindeer tenders' landscape is a shifting mosaic of varying conditions that they must relate to rather than an object to be used and controlled by human interests, I want to show how anthropological research can provide an insight into the different perspectives and modes of understanding that we need to consider in the formulation of future policies and laws. At least if we want to resolve land use conflicts in contested areas fairly and on a sustainable long-term basis.

  10. Monitoring of caesium-137 in food plants and muscle from moose, red deer and wild reindeer in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiberg, Vebjoern; Gaare, Eldar; Stokke, Sigbjoern; Solberg, Erling J.; Skuterud, Lavrans

    2011-01-01

    The monitoring of Cs-137 fall-out from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, started the same year. Several plants and wild reindeer in natural ecosystems in Nord-Rondane have been followed annually ever since. Four more wild reindeer ranges were included in 2001: Setesdal-Ryfylkeheiene, Hardangervidda, Nord-Ottadalen, Snoehetta and Nord-Rondane. From 2007 Forollhogna was also included. On fixed plots in Nord-Rondane and Snoehetta some of the reindeer forage plants, including both higher plants and fruticose lichens, have been sampled and analyzed annually since 1986. This was also done in 2010. In addition plants and lichens were sampled at five locations along an altitudinal gradient at Soendre Knutshoe, and at 7-8 locations along an east-west gradient from Kollaflata to Skarhoe in the Jora valley continuing along the Aursjoe to Torbudalen. All these locations were sampled annually between 1987-1990, but they have not been sampled since. In 2010 samples from red deer and moose was also collected from eight different regions located within the following counties: Oppland, Telemark, Vest-Agder, Rogaland, Sogn and Fjordane, Nord-Troendelag, Nordland and Troms. Red deer were sampled in four regions and moose in six. Both species were sampled in Oppland. In 2010 76, 49 and 61 samples were collected from wild reindeer, red deer and moose respectively. All measures of caesium levels were performed on dried samples. For the 596 samples of plants and lichen the results refer to caesium-levels in dried samples. For the meat samples, results refer to caesium-137 levels in raw meat. Due to large variation in measured levels of caesium within species and sampling area, we give median values instead of mean values.The highest caesium levels in wild reindeer were found in Snoehetta (1010 Bq/kg) and Nord-Rondane (2686 Bq/kg). The levels found in the other areas were considerably lower. The highest caesium levels in both red deer (Sel, 677 Bq/kg) and moose (Vaaga, 365 Bq/kg) were found

  11. Intercomparison of Finnish and Russian whole-body counters used for the determination of 137Cs body burden in reindeer-herding populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Tillander, M.

    1995-01-01

    Intercalibration is a very important quality control in whole-body counting, as the human body is a very difficult ''sample'' to calibrate for. In 1994 the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki and the Institute of Radiation Hygiene (IRH) of St. Petersburg agreed to undertake the first Finnish-Russian intercalibration project for whole-body counters. The monitoring of body burdens of indigenous inhabitants in the far north of Russia, from the Kola Peninsula to Chuhodka, has been the responsibility of the ISH since 1960; the above-.mentioned Finnish institutes have monitored reindeer breeders in Finnish Lapland since 1961. The intercalibration was done in the field by measuring the same persons with both systems in Finnish Lapland and in the Kola Peninsula. Mean body burdens in the reindeer-herding population in the areas of current interest are presented in the present paper. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Failure of two consecutive annual treatments with ivermectin to eradicate the reindeer parasites (Hypoderma tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe and Linguatula arctica from an island in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C. Nilssen

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient endectocide ivermectin is used to reduce the burden of parasites in many semidomestic reindeer herds in northern Fennoscandia. In the autumn of 1995 and 1996 all reindeer on the island of Silda (42 km2 were treated with ivermectin in an attempt to eradicate the warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi (L., the nose bot fly (Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer (Diptera: Oestridae and the sinus worm (Linguatula arctica Riley, Haugerud and Nilssen (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae. Silda is situated 2-3 km off the mainland of Finnmark, northern Norway, and supports about 475 reindeer in summer. A year after the first treatment, the mean abundance of H. tarandi was reduced from 3.5 to 0.6, but a year after the second treatment the mean abundance unexpectedly had increased to 4.5. After one year without treatment, the mean abundance and prevalence of the three target parasites were at the same level, or higher, than pre-treatment levels. The main hypothesis for the failure to eliminate the parasites is that gravid H. tarandi and C. trompe females originating from untreated reindeer in adjacent mainland areas dispersed to the island during the warm summer of 1997 (possibly also in 1998. As these oestrids are strong flyers, it may not be too difficult for them to cross >2-3 km of oceanic waters. There are no good explanations for the failure to eradicate L. arctica, but the results indicate that there may be elements in its life cycle that are unknown. The conclusion of the study is that it may be difficult or impossible to eradicate these parasites permanently, even locally such as on islands unless adjacent areas on the mainland are also cleared.

  13. Case study of the effects of hypothetical nuclear power plant accident to the northern food chain of lichen-reindeer-man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, A.P.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are plans to open a new nuclear power plant in Northern Finland at Pyhaejoki. The currently planned reactor type is AES 2006 built by Rosenergoatom. The power output of the AES 2006 is 1200 MWe. In a hypothetical reactor accident at Pyhaejoki large amounts of radioactivity would be released to the environment in Northern Europe. With suitable wind conditions the contaminants would contaminate large areas in the Euro-Arctic region in Northern Scandinavia and in Kola Peninsula. Northern parts of Scandinavia belongs to the sub-arctic region where reindeer herding is an important livelihood for the local and for the indigenous Sami people. As a results of the CEEPRA-project ('Collaboration Network on Environmental Radiation Protection and Research') funded by the EU's Kolarctic ENPI CBC program estimated a possible fallout to Finnish Lapland from a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident occurring at the planned site. Lichen-reindeer-man food chain is an important food chain to the people living in Lapland from traditional and from economical point of views. The food chain is known to enrich radioactive contaminants efficiently. In case of nuclear fallout this food chain would be one of the primary sources of {sup 137}Cs into the inhabitants in Northern regions. The food chain has been well-studied where studies began in the 1960's and was intensified after the Chernobyl accident. This study concentrates on the effects caused by the hypothetical accident, occurring at the planned Pyhaejoki power plant, to the lichen-reindeer-man food chain. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs to the reindeer meat and possible doses to the man will be estimated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  14. 25 years of Chernobyl: Still need for countermeasures in reindeer herding; 25 aar med Tsjernobyl: Stadig behov for mottiltak i reindrifta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    Even 25 years after Chernobyl, both in Jotunheimen and in North-Troendelag and Nordland reindeer are containing radioactive cesium over the action limit. A review of the pollution level in many areas indicate that cesium concentrations are reduced very little over the years, and that year with a lot of mushrooms can still give high concentrations in many areas. We must therefore prepare ourselves to use Countermeasures for several decades yet. (AG)

  15. The effects of food and maternal conditions in fetal growth and size in wild reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Skogland

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth rates and birth weights were studied in four wild reindeer areas in Southern Norway (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø, Forelhogna, representing high and low density populations, with a 5-fold difference in mean lichen winter-food availability. Fetal growth was depressed by 42% in the high-densitv Hardangervidda population, and mean birth weights were 3.7 vs. 6.2 kg, with a 10 days difference in mean birth dates. Fetal size was better correlated with maternal weight, than age. Maternal weights increased until 5 yrs. of age and then decreased in the high-density Hardangervidda population (but not so in the low density Knutshø-Forclhogna populations. 55% of the offspring died before weaning in the Hardangervidda herd, but no significant calf losses were found amont the large-sized does in the food-abundant areas.Effekter av ernæring og simlas kondisjon på vekst og størrelse av foster hos villrein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fostervekst og fødselsvekter ble undersøkt i fire villreinområder i Sør-Norge (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø og Forelhogna som representerer høg- og lågtetthetsstammer, med en 5-foldig forskjell i gjennomsnittlig lavbeite-tilgang om vinteren. Fosterveksten ble nedsatt med 42% i høgtetthetsstammen på Hardangervidda og fødselsvektene var i gjennomsnitt 3,7 kg, mot 6,2 kg i det beste området, og med en 10 dagers forsinkelse i midlere fødselsdato. Fosterets størrelse var korrelert med morens vekt, som igjen var avhengig av hennes alder. Hos de minste simlene i det dårligste området økte vektene til 5-års alder, for deretter å avta for hvert gjenlevende år. Hos simlene i det beste området økte vektene til 10-års alder, og var da dobbelt så tunge som fra det dårligste området. 55% av avkommet døde før de var avvent med diing hos Hardangervidda-simlene, mens det ikke var noen statistisk målbar dødelighet hos kalvene i Knutshø-Forelhogna.Ravinnon vaikutus ja

  16. Sized-related changes in winter condition of male calves in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Helle

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Size-related changes in body condition of free-ranging male calves of semi-domesticated reindeer were studied in northern Finland from October 1983 to February 1984. In October-November, back fat depth or muscle fat percent correlated positively with the body size (=back length. In January, the highest means especially for muscle fat percent were found among medium-sized calves. Carcass weight and weight/back length ratio correlated positively with size, excluding February sample, where correlation for carcass weight was non-significant and for weight/back length ratio negative. Weight in the autumn correlated negatively with weight in February. Therefore, normalizing selection for body size (working against small and large phenotypes is expected to occur in late winter. Small calves may be at greater mortality risk because of lower initial body reserves. Large calves commonly disperse during the rutting season and they may suffer most from increased food competition later in winter. Using of medium-sized calves for breeding might be the safest policy on ranges characterized by short food supply and difficult snow conditions.Koon vaikutus poron urosvasojen talviseen kuntoon.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: Koon vaikutusta vapaana laiduntavien poron urosvasojen kuntoon tutkittiin Pohjois-Suomessa loka-helmikuussa talvella 1983-84. Loka-marraskuussa selkärasvan paksuus tai lihaksen rasvaprosentti riippui vasan koosta ( = selän pituus. Tammikuussa sen sijaan lihaksen rasvaprosentti oli korkein keskikokoisilla vasoilla. Ruhopaino sekä ruhopaino/selän pituus oli yleensa riippuvainen koosta. Helmikuussa ruhopainon riippuvuus koosta ei ollut enää tilastollisesti merkitsevä, ja koon ja ruhopainon/selänpituuden välinen korrelaatio oli negatiivinen. Eniten painoa menettivät (% loka-helmikuun välillä suurikokoisimmat vasat. Havainnot viittaavat siihen, että talvella esiintyvä kuolleisuus on normalisoivaa koon suhteen (karsii pieniä ja

  17. A comparative study on the efficacy of four anthelmintics on some important reindeer parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Nordkvist

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available Four anthelmintic preparations were tested against some of the most important parasites of reindeer, i.e. warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi, nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe, brainworm (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Their efficacy against intestinal nematodes was also registered. Test drugs were Fenthion (Bayer, Fenbendazole (Hoechst, Mebendazole (Janssen, and Ivermectin (Merk Sharp & Dohme. Against O. tarandi and C. trompe Ivermectin was 100% effective and Fenthion 86 and 100% respectively. The efficacy of Fen- and Mebendazole against these parasites was not significant. Against E. rangiferi the benzimidazole compounds were highly effective, with Mebendazole a bit ahead. Ivermectin had a moderate effect and Fenthion had no effect on this parasite. Against D. viviparus Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and Ivermectin were of equal, moderate-high effectiveness. No drug had a complete effect on the «arrested» larvae of D. viviparus. Fenthion had no effect at all. Fenbendazole and Ivermectin were both 100% effective against intestinal nematodes. Mebendazole was less effective and Fenthion had no effects. Ivermectin is considered to be the overall most effective anthelmintic in this test.En jamforande studie av effekten av fyra anthelmintika mot några betydelsesfulla parasiter hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Fyra antiparasitmedel har prôvats mot några av renens viktigaste parasiter, nàmligen hudkorm (Oedemagena tarandi, svalgkorm (Cephenemyia trompe, hjårnmask (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi och lungmask (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Vidare har medlens effekt på mag- tarmnematoder (Trichostongylider också noterats. De prôvade medicinerna var Fenthion (Bayer, Mebendazole (Leo/Janssen, Fenbendazole (Hoechst och Ivermectin (Merck Sharp & Dohme. Mot hud- och svalgkorm var Ivermectin 100% effektivt medan for Fenthion effekten var 86 resp 100%. Effekten av Fen- och Mebendazole mot de båda parasiterna var inte

  18. The effects of human disturbance on the activity of wild reindeer in different physical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Skogland

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared two Norwegian wild reindeer herds, Knutsho in excellent physical condition and Hardangervidda in poor physical condition, before and during disturbance by human hunters in order to test whether physical condition effected foraging strategy under stress. Both herds were being regularly hunted (man had been a natural predator on reindeer since prehistoric time. The well-fed Knutsho animals were ca. 30% larger at the start of the hunting season in late August. Before exposure they foraged less and walked more, i.e. were more selective than the Hardangervidda animals which were in energetically lower condition and foraged significantly more and spent less time moving between habitat patches and less time standing. After exposure to hunters disturbed Knutsho animals aggregated into significantly larger groups than before hunting and stood alert more, while Hardangervidda animals spent the same minimum amount of time foraging but moved significantly more and spent almost no time standing. The frequency of disturbance was not significantly different between the two herds and their speeds of movement after disturbances were similar. The hunter kill success rate was also similar in the two areas. The energetic costs, measured as relative body weight loss during the hunting season, was higher for the initially less well-fed Hardangervidda animals, and higher for both herds compared to that from a less disturbed herd (Forelhogna. We hypothezise that while standing still and alert in aggregated groups is risky, it is still more risky to move, but potentially more rewarding if a better habitat could be found. More well-fed Knutsho animals, which aggregated and stood still, conserved allready stored energy, compatible with a time minimizer risk aversive strategy. The Hardangervidda animals which were in poorer condition increased travelling time to an extent that suggested a risky nutrient miximizer strategy in the phase of stress.Effekter av

  19. Correlations between physicochemical properties of PAHs and their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhen; Ma Xindong; Na Guangshui; Lin Zhongsheng [National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Ding Qian [Environmental Science and Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Yao Ziwei, E-mail: zwyao@nmemc.gov.c [National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, moss and reindeer dung collected at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic were measured to investigate their accumulation trends and distribution in the three compartments. Compared with the other regions, the proportions of 2 + 3 ring PAHs to the total PAHs were higher, whereas the proportions of 5 + 6 ring PAHs were lower in the three compartments at Ny-Alesund. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (p{sub L}{sup o}) and the soil/moss quotient (Q{sub SM}). The relation was similar to the relationship between the gas/particle partition coefficient (K{sub P}) and p{sub L}{sup o} of PAHs, implying Q{sub SM} would be a 'mirror image' of K{sub P}. Excellent log/log-linear relationships were observed between Q{sub SM} and K{sub OA} as well as between the moss/dung quotient (Q{sub MD}) and K{sub OW}. The results presented here indicate the physicochemical properties are suitable for characterizing the distribution of PAHs in soil, moss and reindeer dung. - The physicochemical properties of PAHs are suitable for characterizing their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung.

  20. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  1. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae - A Primary Cause of Severe Pneumonia Epizootics in the Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handeland, Kjell; Tengs, Torstein; Kokotovic, Branko; Vikøren, Turid; Ayling, Roger D.; Bergsjø, Bjarne; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G.; Bretten, Tord

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian muskox (Ovibos moschatus) population lives on the high mountain plateau of Dovre and originates from animals introduced from Greenland. In the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. During the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. High throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing) of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in all six animals examined by this method and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida in four animals, whereas no virus sequences could be identified. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and P. multocida multocida were also isolated by culture. Using real time PCR on lung swabs, M. ovipneumoniae was detected in all of the 19 pneumonic lungs examined. Gross pathological examination revealed heavy consolidations primarily in the cranial parts of the lungs and it also identified one case of otitis media. Histologically, lung lesions were characterized as acute to subacute mixed exudative and moderately proliferative bronchoalveolar pneumonia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination revealed high load of M. ovipneumoniae antigens within lung lesions, with particularly intensive staining in the neutrophils. Similar IHC finding were observed in archived lung tissue blocks from animals examined during the 2006 epidemic. An M. ovipneumoniae specific ELISA was applied on bio-banked muskox sera from stray muskoxen killed in the period 2004–2013 and sick muskoxen culled, as well as sera from wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) on Dovre and muskoxen from Greenland. Serology and mycoplasma culturing was also carried out on sheep that had been on pasture in the muskox area during the outbreak in 2012. Our findings indicated separate introductions of M. ovipneumoniae infection in 2006 and 2012 from infected co-grazing sheep. Salt licks shared by the two species were a

  2. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--a primary cause of severe pneumonia epizootics in the Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos moschatus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Handeland

    Full Text Available The Norwegian muskox (Ovibos moschatus population lives on the high mountain plateau of Dovre and originates from animals introduced from Greenland. In the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. During the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. High throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in all six animals examined by this method and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida in four animals, whereas no virus sequences could be identified. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and P. multocida multocida were also isolated by culture. Using real time PCR on lung swabs, M. ovipneumoniae was detected in all of the 19 pneumonic lungs examined. Gross pathological examination revealed heavy consolidations primarily in the cranial parts of the lungs and it also identified one case of otitis media. Histologically, lung lesions were characterized as acute to subacute mixed exudative and moderately proliferative bronchoalveolar pneumonia. Immunohistochemical (IHC examination revealed high load of M. ovipneumoniae antigens within lung lesions, with particularly intensive staining in the neutrophils. Similar IHC finding were observed in archived lung tissue blocks from animals examined during the 2006 epidemic. An M. ovipneumoniae specific ELISA was applied on bio-banked muskox sera from stray muskoxen killed in the period 2004-2013 and sick muskoxen culled, as well as sera from wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus on Dovre and muskoxen from Greenland. Serology and mycoplasma culturing was also carried out on sheep that had been on pasture in the muskox area during the outbreak in 2012. Our findings indicated separate introductions of M. ovipneumoniae infection in 2006 and 2012 from infected co-grazing sheep. Salt licks shared by the two

  3. Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zintl Annetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1 were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed.

  4. Domestication of ruminant livestock and the impact of nematode parasites:possible implications for the reindeer industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Waller

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In a balanced ecological system, both host and nematode parasite populations are firmly controlled by a complex array of interacting factors. However domestication of livestock has tipped the balance in favour of the parasites. This is due to increasing the proportion of susceptible animals in the herd or flock (lactating females and weaned young animals, increasing stocking rate, increasing productivity demands and decreasing the movement of the animals. In contrast with microbial infections, where multiplication takes place entirely within the host, metazoan parasites have both a parasitic phase and a free-living phase. Every worm present has been separately acquired by the ingestion of free-living stages on pasture. Immunity to nematodes develops slowly, it is labile, and its maintenance is dependent upon a good nutritional state of the animal. Consequently, worm parasites are ubiquitous wherever livestock are kept and they impose a constant and often a high infectious pressure on grazing animals. Nematode infections in grazing livestock are almost always a mixture of species. All have deleterious effects and collectively lead to chronic ill thrift. Economic evaluations repeatedly show that the major losses due to parasites are on animal production, rather than on mortality. This paper focuses on the problems of nematode parasites; problems associated with drug use (anthelmintic resistance, environmental impact and costs of nematode infections for the common ruminant livestock industries (cattle, sheep, goats, with possible analogies for the semi-domesticated reindeer industry.

  5. Kelp-Fed Beef, Swimming Caribou, Feral Reindeer, and Their Hunters: Island Mammals in a Marine Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Reedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula residents have selectively introduced land mammals to their primarily marine based economy over the past two centuries. This paper describes these many introductions, contexts, and the longer term roles of these cattle, sheep, reindeer, and other land mammals in discrete island settings and the regional food economy based upon interviews in ten communities and comprehensive household surveys in eight of these. Caribou are indigenous and traditionally hunted in other parts of the state but are legally “invasive” in island contexts now managed by the federal government. Access to land and natural resources by Alaska Natives and rural peoples is regulated by state and federal agencies, but Aleutian residents have shaped their environment and engineered food sources to support their communities. This paper demonstrates that hardline approaches to removing invasive land mammal species will have human consequences and an integrated management policy emphasizing food security and conservation that includes reducing the density of these introduced species is most appropriate.

  6. Observed Regional Climate Variability during the Last 50 Years in Reindeer Herding Cooperatives of Finnish Fell Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Lépy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Finnish Lapland, reindeer herders’ activity is strongly dependent on the surrounding natural environment, which is directly exposed to environmental changes and climatic variations. By assessing whether there is any evidence of change in climate in Fell Lapland over the last 50 years, this paper attempts to link global climatic trends with local conditions and respond to the need of information at the local level. It aims at assessing the changes in temperature, precipitation and snow cover at a regional and local scale, as well as determining the climatic trends for the period 1960–2011. Statistical methods were used to conduct analyses of the regional homogeneity, the annual and seasonal variability, and the cold intensity. The results show that the regional climate is not homogeneous and differences exist between locations. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that, in general, a warming trend is discernible for the period 1960–2011, frost and thaw cycles slightly increase, and variations in mean temperatures are more important in the winter. Precipitation is more variable according to the site but, in general, precipitation is increasing with time, especially in the winter, and the snow cover does not seem to contain any discernible trend.

  7. 25 years of Chernobyl: Countermeasures are still required to keep radiation doses to reindeer herders under the recommended limits; 25 aar med Tsjernobyl: Mottiltak er framleis noedvendige for aa halde straaledosane til reindriftsutoevarane under tilraadde grenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The government's goal was that no one should get radiation doses above 5 mSv the first year after the Chernobyl accident, and not more than 1 mSv per year in the following years. Radiation doses to reindeer herders in the most polluted areas in North-Troendelag and Nordland would have been about 10 mSv per year at most without all the measures that was initiated. From 1986 to 2009 was radiation doses to reindeer herders in Snaasa region reduced with approx. 70%, and in the Roeros region with approx. 40%. (AG)

  8. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. II. Feeding of silage and concentrate from January to March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving 56 male reindeer calves, with a mean initial live weight of 39 kg (SD=4.6, was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the concentrate:silage ratio on the performance during feeding to slaughter. Forty four of the calves were divided in four groups, two groups each being allotted to diets with low, 60% (LC, or high, 80% (HC proportions of a commercial pelleted feed. The remaining twelve calves were slaughtered at the start of the experiment. The experimenral period lasted from January to March. The proportions of concentrate to silage were based on the dry matter (DM content. The silage, 44% DM, was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Animal health was good throughour the experimenr. Small amounts of lichens were mixed into the diets during the first rwo weeks of feeding and may have contributed to the lack of adapta-tionai problems. The mean daily intakes of DM and metabolisable energy were higher (P<0.01 for calves offered the HC-diet. Despite the higher feed intakes, the increased proportion of concentrate in the diet did not significantly alter live weight gains or carcass weight gains. However, the greater fat deposition (P<0.05 and better carcass gradings indicated a better condition of the animals at slaughtet when less silage was fed. This experiment was the the final part of a three year study of silage based diets for reindeer intended for slaughter and the general conclusion is that the best role of grass silage of this quality is as a limited part of the ration. The silage may, however, play an important role during the adaptation period and further detailed studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of silage as a part of the diet to reindeer.

  9. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  10. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. I. Feeding of silage and barley from September to March

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Nilsson; Ingemar Olsson; Per Lingvall

    1996-01-01

    An experiment involving 75 male reindeer calves (mean initial live weight 39.6 kg, SD=3.7) intended for slaughter was undertaken to study the effect of proporrion of barley to silage in the diets on animal performance. The calves were alloted to five groups including one group slaughtered at the start of the experiment in September. The remaining groups were offered diets containing either, 30% (LB), or 60% (HB) rolled barley, based on the dry matter (DM) content, until slaughter in November ...

  11. 挪威野生驯鹿中心展馆,耶尔欣,挪威%NORWEGIAN WILD REINDEER CENTRE PAVILIONI HJERKINN, NORWAY, 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    业主/Ctient:挪威野生驯鹿中心/NorwegianWitdRe{ndeerCenter所用材料/UsedMateHats:松木生铁玻璃/Pinewood,rawsteeltglass施工方法/ConstructionMethods:计算机数控铣削%By appointment of the Norwegian Wild Reindeer Foundation Snehetta has designed an observation and information pavition at Hjerkinn in Dovre, Norway, The spectacutar site is located on the outskirts of Dovrefjell National Park at around 1 250meters above sea fever,

  12. The complementarity of luminescence dating methods illustrated on the Mousterian sequence of the Roc de Marsal: A series of reindeer-dominated, Quina Mousterian layers dated to MIS 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Frouin, Marine; Tuquoi, Joséphine

    2017-01-01

    that place mixed faunal assemblages in the initial MIS 4; however, while the Quina ages overlap with several other Quina assemblages from the region, they place the reindeer dominated fauna well after the peak cold of MIS 4 and suggest a more extended and complex period of contemporaneous lithic techno...

  13. Cultural Resilience of Nenets Social-Ecological Systems in Arctic Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs) are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighbouring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g. geese), to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio-economic, climate and

  14. A note on the manipulation of sodium and potassium concentrations in the rumen of reindeer and the possible effect on digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Rumen Na+ and K+ concentrations in reindeer were manipulated by introducing 4 M KC1 or 4 M NaCl into the reindeer rumen. A positive correlation was found between salivary and ruminal concentrations of Na+ and K+. Decreased ruminal Na+ concentrations seemed to decrease dry matter digestibility in nylon bags incubated in the rumen.Om manipulering av natrium og kalium konsentrasjoner i vomma hos rein og om de mulige effekter på fordøyeligheten.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Na+ og K+ konsentrasjoner i vomma hos rein ble regulert ved å gi reinen 4 M KC1 eller 4 M NaCl direkte i vomma. Det ble funnet en positiv korrelasjon mellom spytt og vomkonsentrasjoner av Na+ og K+. Redusert Na+ konsentrasjon i vomma synes å redusere tørrstoff-fordøyelighet i nylonposer plassert i vomma.Poron pötsin natrium- ja kaliumkonsentraation kokeellisesta mu-uttamisesta ja tämän mahdollisesta vaikutuksesta sulavuuteen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Poron potsin natrium- ja kaliumkonsentraatioita muutettiin antamalla 4 M KC1 tai 4 M NaCl suo-raan potsiin. Syljen ja potsin Na ja K -konsentraatioiden vålillå todettiin positiivinen korrelaatio. Alentunut Na -konsentraatio potsisså nåyttåå våhentåvån kuiva-aineen sulavuutta potsiin sijoitetuissa nailonpusseissa.

  15. Integrating Indigenous Traditional, Local and Scientific Knowledge for Improved Management, Policy and Decision-Making in Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Aissi-Wespi, Rita L.

    2004-01-01

    As scientists and policy-makers from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities begin to build closer partnerships to address common sustainability issues such as the health impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities, it becomes increasingly important to create shared information management systems which integrate all relevant factors for optimal information sharing and decision-making. This paper describes a new GIs-based system being designed to bring local and indigenous traditional knowledge together with scientific data and information, remote sensing, and information technologies to address health-related environment, weather, climate, pollution and land use change issues for improved decision/policy-making for reindeer husbandry. The system is building an easily-accessible archive of relevant current and historical, traditional, local and remotely-sensed and other data and observations for shared analysis, measuring, and monitoring parameters of interest. Protection of indigenous culturally sensitive information will be respected through appropriate data protocols. A mechanism which enables easy information sharing among all participants, which is real time and geo-referenced and which allows interconnectivity with remote sites is also being designed into the system for maximum communication among partners. A preliminary version of our system will be described for a Russian reindeer test site, which will include a combination of indigenous knowledge about local conditions and issues, remote sensing and ground-based data on such parameters as the vegetation state and distribution, snow cover, temperature, ice condition, and infrastructure.

  16. The occurrence and prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteropathogens in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kemper

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The information about pathogens excreted by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus that might represent a health risk to humans and animals is insufficient. The objectives of this study are to find the occurrence and prevalence of important potentially enteropathogenic, zoonotic bacteria and parasites in reindeer. Faecal samples from clinically healthy, semi-domesticated reindeer (n=2243 from northern regions of Finland and Norway were examined for important potentially enteropathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. and parasites (Cryptosporidium spp. following standard procedures. Escherichia coli were isolated in 2123 (94.7%, Enterococcus spp. in 2084 (92.9%, Yersinia spp. in 108 (4.8% samples and Campylobacter sp., identified as C. hyointestinalis, in one sample only (0.04%. Neither Salmonella spp. nor Cryptosporidium-oocysts were detected. This study clearly shows that E. coli and Enterococcus spp. belong to the normal intestinal flora of healthy reindeer. However, only few of the isolated E. coli-strains possess genes encoding stx1 (0.14%, stx2 (0%, eae (0.52% and hlyEHEC (0.99%, detected by PCR, that have the ability to cause health problems in humans and also animals. The isolated Yersinia spp. were further analysed for virulence factors, but examinations revealed no pathogenic strains. The public health risk due to excretion of important enteropathogenic microorganisms from reindeer has to be considered very low at present but a putative epidemiological threat to human health might arise when herding conditions are changed towards intensification and crowding. This study was performed as part of the EU-project RENMAN (www.urova.fi/home/renman/. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er mangelfull kunnskap om hvorvidt det i reinmøkk kan finnes mikroorganismer som kan representere en helserisiko for dyr og mennesker. Hensikten med denne studien var

  17. Expansion of deciduous tall shrubs but not evergreen dwarf shrubs inhibited by reindeer in Scandes mountain range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowles, Tage; Gunnarsson, Bengt; Molau, Ulf; Hickler, Thomas; Klemedtsson, Leif; Björk, Robert G

    2017-11-01

    One of the most palpable effects of warming in Arctic ecosystems is shrub expansion above the tree line. However, previous studies have found that reindeer can influence plant community responses to warming and inhibit shrubification of the tundra.We revisited grazed (ambient) and ungrazed study plots (exclosures), at the southern as well as the northern limits of the Swedish alpine region, to study long-term grazing effects and vegetation changes in response to increasing temperatures between 1995 and 2011, in two vegetation types (shrub heath and mountain birch forest).In the field layer at the shrub heath sites, evergreen dwarf shrubs had increased in cover from 26% to 49% but were unaffected by grazing. Deciduous dwarf and tall shrubs also showed significant, though smaller, increases over time. At the birch forest sites, the increase was similar for evergreen dwarf shrubs (20-48%) but deciduous tall shrubs did not show the same consistent increase over time as in the shrub heath.The cover and height of the shrub layer were significantly greater in exclosures at the shrub heath sites, but no significant treatment effects were found on species richness or diversity.July soil temperatures and growing season thawing degree days (TDD) were higher in exclosures at all but one site, and there was a significant negative correlation between mean shrub layer height and soil TDD at the shrub heath sites. Synthesis . This study shows that shrub expansion is occurring rapidly in the Scandes mountain range, both above and below the tree line. Tall, deciduous shrubs had benefitted significantly from grazing exclosure, both in terms of cover and height, which in turn lowered summer soil temperatures. However, the overriding vegetation shift across our sites was the striking increase in evergreen dwarf shrubs, which were not influenced by grazing. As the effects of an increase in evergreen dwarf shrubs and more recalcitrant plant litter may to some degree counteract some of

  18. 'The Finn line' - a historical curiosity or a juridicial rality? The Sami reindeer herders' land rights in southern Sami areas evaluated from land consolidation practice (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Ravna

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards the land rights of Sami reindeer herders have changed considerably during the last 100 years. So, too, has consideration of how such rights should be treated by Land Consolidation Courts. This paper reviews changes in attitudes to the Sami land rights with respect to how these are considered in Land Con¬solidation Courts in southern Sami areas in Norway. The review also considers changing attitudes regarding the competence of Land Consolidation Courts to deal with such matters. There were several cases in the 20th Century in which Land Consolidation Courts treated Sami land rights in a restricted and unfortunate manner. Legal practice, however, was not always like that, evidenced by the so-called 'Finn line' (Norwegian: 'finnelinja' -'Finn' is an archaic name for Sami. This boundary was established during a land consolidation case in 1873 and was confirmed in 1883. At that time, Sami land rights were evidently accepted as appurtenant right in privately owned mountain pasture and the Sami were treated in the same way as others who enjoyed rights of usufruct on it. The regulation of 1883 included rules governing compensation for grazing damage on farming land. In particular, responsibility for grazing damage was divided between owners and the reindeer herders, providing these looked after their animals properly, 'The Finn line' subsequently achieved wider importance. The case of 1873¬1883 has been referred to several times as a valuable and valid precedent for a way in which to organize grazing conflicts in other Sami areas. It was used in 1964 as evidence of the special rights of Sami reindeer people in the Brekken common land case. The Sami won this case in 1968 and, in its judgement, the Norwegian Supreme Court of Justice emphasised the importance of the line (Rt. 1968, p. 394. Although, owing to changes in land use practices, the 'Finn line' no longer has any practical significance, its juridical significance remains

  19. 驯鹿足底非规则特征形貌数学模型构建及验证%Mathematical model establishment and validation of irregular characteristic morphology for reindeer foot bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐; 乔钰; 吉巧丽; 李建桥

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the traffic accidents occur frequently in winter and how to prevent frequent traffic accidents has become an urgent problem to be solved. Reindeer lives in frigid areas and possesses the superior walking ability on ice. Reindeer feet are the exclusive parts which contact with the ice directly. The sole characteristic morphology of foot bottom is the key factor to the excellent anti-skid performance of reindeer. The research of the reindeer feet bottom characteristics will help to apply the superior characteristics to snow tire tread and improve the trafficability property of tire on ice ground. Therefore, the mathematical models of the reindeer feet were studied. The feet were taken from 4 eighteen-year-old adult homebred reindeers, which were bought from the Ewenki nationality located in Genhe City, Inner Mongolia, China. In order to avoid impurity interference, the feet were cleared up before the experiments. The geometric point clouds of the reindeer feet were obtained by using a three-dimensional (3D) hand-held non-contact laser scanner. After that, the data were imported to Geomagic Studio software and we reconstructed the analytical model. With the cutting function of the software, the reconstructed model of reindeer foot was divided into 4 typical characteristic areas: The edge curves (inside edge and outside edge), the ridge groove surface and spherical cap surface. In addition, these point clouds were imported to CATIA (computer aided three-dimensional interactive application) to be filtered, which reduced the calculation amount of the fitting curves and surfaces. We filtered the dense point clouds through adopting the reasonable method and the retained characteristic points that reflected the edge and sole morphology of reindeer foot with the digitized shape editor module of CATIA. Through the above processes, the 3D coordinate data points of these characteristic areas were exported. The edge curves were fitted using curve fitting

  20. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. I. Feeding of silage and barley from September to March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving 75 male reindeer calves (mean initial live weight 39.6 kg, SD=3.7 intended for slaughter was undertaken to study the effect of proporrion of barley to silage in the diets on animal performance. The calves were alloted to five groups including one group slaughtered at the start of the experiment in September. The remaining groups were offered diets containing either, 30% (LB, or 60% (HB rolled barley, based on the dry matter (DM content, until slaughter in November (LB and HB or in March (HB. The silage (43% DM was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Small amounts of lichens were mixed with the rations during rhe first two weeks of the experiment and the calves adapted well to the experimental diets. However, health problems and deaths occurred on borh rarions after five weeks of feeding. Since the animals fed the LB diet lost live weight and condition the experimental feeding of these calves were interrupted at the slaughter in November. Calves fed the LB diet had significantly lower daily DM intake (P<0.01. They also had lower live weighr gain (not significant, greater losses of carcass weight and fat in the abdominal cavity relative to those offered the HB diet. During the second period of the study the remaining animals offered the HB diet showed no signs of ill-health and increased live weight, carcass weighr, and fat in the abdominal cavity. The results of the presenr experiment indicate that when silage of the investigated quality is fed to reindeer calves rhe proportion of silage should not exceed 40% of the DM.

  1. Farming or seasonal migration? - Potential futures of reindeer husbandry in Fennoscandia studied with Social-Ecological System (SES) approach, co-production of knowledge, and scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käyhkö, Jukka; Horstkotte, Tim; Vehmas, Jarmo; Forbes, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The area allocated for reindeer husbandry in Finland, Sweden and Norway covers approximately 40 % of each country. As the livelihood requires large, relatively unfragmented territories while being marginal in terms of direct income, land-use conflicts between various livelihoods and activities, such as forestry, agriculture, mining, energy production, tourism, and nature protection are common phenomena in the region. Simultaneously, rapid societal change, urban exodus and fading traditions as well as climate warming and subsequent ecosystem change may put the livelihood at stake. We have probed potential futures of reindeer husbandry in Northern Fennoscandia using the Social-Ecological System (SES) approach, knowledge co-production in stakeholder-scientist workshops in all three countries, and scenario building based on quantitative data and narratives. Regarding the future of the livelihood, we have identified some crucial components in the SES that are influential in determining the direction of development. We produced four potential pathways of future development and demonstrate that important factors controlling the direction of development include governance and actor relations. Governance is often considered distant and opaque by local stakeholders, fostering conflicts in land allocation, while unclear regulations at local level reinforce emerging conflict situations leading to distrust and restrained communication between the actors. Regionally, these conflicts may lead to decreased resilience and threaten the future of the livelihood altogether. Therefore, research should focus on supporting the reform process of institutional arrangements and governance mechanisms, and fostering co-design and co-production processes that ease distrust and improve resilience of the livelihood in multifunctional landscapes.

  2. Winter habitat selection by caribou in relation to lichen abundance, wildfires, grazing, and landscape characteristics in northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle Joly; F. Stuart III Chapin; David R. Klein

    2010-01-01

    Lichens are an important winter forage for large, migratory herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that can influence population dynamics through effects on body condition and in turn calf recruitment and survival. We investigated the vegetative and physiographic characteristics of winter range of the Western Arctic Herd in northwest Alaska, one...

  3. $sup 155$Eu, $sup 144$Ce, $sup 125$Sb, $sup 106$Ru, $sup 95$Zr, $sup 54$Mn, and $sup 7$Be in the reindeer lichen Cladonia alpestris: deposition, retention and internal distribution, 1961--1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, L J.S.

    1972-09-01

    The retention and distribution of the fallout radionuclides , /sup 106/ Ru, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 54/Mn and the naturally occurring radionuclide /sup 7/Be were studied in undisturbed natural carpets of the lichen Cladonia alpesiris, a major component of the diet of reindeer in the Lake Rogen district in central Sweden during the period 1961 to 1970. The contents of the artificially produced radionuclides in the lichen-carpet reached their maxima in 1963 to 1966 and all showed high retention values. During the seven-year period of 1962 to 1968 the average absorbed dose in the gut of a reindeer was calculated to be about 3 rad due to the passage of the food alone. The dominating contributions (about 40%) came from /sup 144/Ce. (CH)

  4. Between Oil and Reindeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulaeva, S.; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2017-01-01

    This research provides insight into various modes of benefit-sharing agreements between oil and gas companies and indigenous people in the Russian Arctic and Subarctic regions. We indicate three main modes of benefit sharing, as follows: (1) paternalism, (2) corporate social responsibility, and (3)

  5. The localization of the larvae of the nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx of reindeer in an earlier unknown tonsil tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available The localization of the larvae of the reindeer nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx was investigated in 21 reindeer, 11 months old, during April, and in 5 animals during November. In reindeer, without the presence of larvae, no preformed pharyngeal pouch was found at the predilection site, dorsomedially in the pharynx, but an unpaired tronsil, tentatively named Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis. In 12 of the animals investigated during April, a puch containing larvae of C. trompe was found at the predilection site, i.e. the site of the dorsomedially located tonsil. Histologically remnants of tonsil tissue was present at the opening of the pouch. In 3 animals a pouch, containing larvae, was found in the left lateral wall and in 2 animals in the right lateral wall of the pharynz between the opening of Tuba auditiva and the tonsil. In one animal 2 pouches were found, one in the tonsil tissue and one located in the right lateral wall of pharynx. In serial sections from two animals investigated during November, 1 :st instar larvae of Cephenomyia trompe were found in the crypts of the tonsills. The fact that the tonsil tissue is a predilection site for C. trompe larvae may be due to the mechanical protection the 1st instar larvae can find in the crypts. Larvae may, however, also attach to other parts of the pharyngeal mucosa. During their development the larvae penetrate the mucosa forming a pouch. The wall of this pouch consists of a naked acute granulation tissue heavily infiltrated with eosinophilic leucocytes. In connection with the healing process, starting when the larvae have left, a pouch may remain, characterized by walls of chronic granulation tissue covered by a mucous membrane. This pouch could well be misinterpreted as a preformed pouch.Lokalisationen av svalgkormflugans (Cephenemyia trompe L larver i svalget på ren i en tidigare okänd tonsillvävnad (Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning

  6. Growing season changes in Fennoscandia and Kola peninsula during the period 1982 to 1999 - Implications for reindeer husbandry (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Tømmervik

    2005-04-01

    the most continental section of northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland as well as the mountainous areas of northern and southern Norway. This also means that the growing season is prolonged for the whole area, except the northern continental section (northern part of Sweden and Finland and parts of Kola peninsula. In contrast, the timing of midsummer shows less change in all the study area. There is no specific or significant trend for the timing of the peak NDVI value. These changes in the onset of spring and autumn as well as the change in the length of the growing season may if they seem to be prolonged in the future lead to another use of the reindeer pastures as well as changes in timing of migration and in migration patterns. For example the migration to the summer pastures can start earlier now than 20 years earlier for most of the reindeer husbandry districts in Fennoscandia. In addition the migration back to winter pastures can start later, and this will reduce the length and the use of the autumn, winter and spring pastures, and these changes may be positive. If these trends will be prolonged, we have to recalculate the estimations of the carrying capacity for the different reindeer pastures in Fennoscandia. We have used the NOAA AVHRR GIMMS NDVI dataset to assess the change in maximum NDVI on regional level. It is observed that the trend is towards a higher peak NDVI-value in midsummer in the most of northern Fennoscandia. For larger parts of Fennoscandia the trends are positive and causes for this could be increased extent of the mountain birch forests and changes in the vegetation cover from lichen dominated cover to more heather vegetation and scrubs but these changes may be negative for the reindeer pasture. Also overgrowing of the cultural landscape as well as general increase of the boreal forests may reduce the carrying capacity for the reindeer. It is also observed in the EU-funded HIBECO-project and the NFR (Norwegian Research Council funded

  7. Сomposition and ratio of the chemical elements on the surfaces different by height of reindeer lichen podetia Cladonia rangiferina

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    Byazrov Lev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the composition of 21 elements – Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ba, Pb – was compared in the upper, central, and lower parts of podetia surfaces of the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina, sampled on the slope of Barguzinsky chain. For the measurement of the elements content (%, a sample-nondestructive μ-XRF spectrometer was used. It was stated that the share (% of the most elements, except for Cu and Zn, was highly variable. The content of the elements on the surfaces differs significantly between the studied parts of C. rangiferina podetia: mean values of the content of P, S, Cl, and K were statistically higher on the surface of the upper part of podetia, while those of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Co, and the total content – on the surface of the lower part of podetia. On all the parts of podetia very high value of the enrichment factor for As and Pb was established, and It was increased for P, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn.

  8. Biotic turnover rates during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivrins, Normunds; Soininen, Janne; Amon, Leeli; Fontana, Sonia L.; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heikkilä, Maija; Heiri, Oliver; Kisielienė, Dalia; Reitalu, Triin; Stančikaitė, Miglė; Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki

    2016-11-01

    The Northern Hemisphere is currently warming at the rate which is unprecedented during the Holocene. Quantitative palaeoclimatic records show that the most recent time in the geological history with comparable warming rates was during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) about 14,000 to 11,000 years ago. To better understand the biotic response to rapid temperature change, we explore the community turnover rates during the PHT by focusing on the Baltic region in the southeastern sector of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, where an exceptionally dense network on microfossil and macrofossil data that reflect the biotic community history are available. We further use a composite chironomid-based summer temperature reconstruction compiled specifically for our study region to calculate the rate of temperature change during the PHT. The fastest biotic turnover in the terrestrial and aquatic communities occurred during the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift at 11,700 years ago. This general shift in species composition was accompanied by regional extinctions, including disappearance of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and many arctic-alpine plant taxa, such as Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris and Saxifraga aizoides, from the region. This rapid biotic turnover rate occurred when the rate of warming was 0.17 °C/decade, thus slightly lower than the current Northern Hemisphere warming of 0.2 °C/decade. We therefore conclude that the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift with its rapid turnover rates and associated regional extinctions represents an important palaeoanalogue to the current high latitude warming and gives insights about the probable future turnover rates and patterns of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem change.

  9. Climate-mediated shifts in Neandertal subsistence behaviors at Pech de l'Azé IV and Roc de Marsal (Dordogne Valley, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W; Turq, Alain; Sandgathe, Dennis; McPherron, Shannon J P; Dibble, Harold

    2016-07-01

    Neandertals disappeared from Europe just after 40,000 years ago. Some hypotheses ascribe this to numerous population crashes associated with glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene. The goal of this paper is to test the hypothesis that glacial periods stressed Neandertal populations. If cold climates stressed Neandertals, their subsistence behaviors may have changed-requiring intensified use of prey through more extensive nutrient extraction from faunal carcasses. To test this, an analysis of Neandertal butchering was conducted on medium sized bovid/cervid remains composed of predominately red deer (Cervus elaphus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), and roe deer (Capreolus caprelous) deposited during global warm and cold phases from two French sites: Pech de l'Azé IV (Pech IV, Bordes' excavation) and Roc de Marsal (RDM). Analysis of surface modification on high survival long bones and proximal and middle phalanges demonstrates that skeletal elements excavated from the cold levels (RDM Level 4, Pech IV Level I2) at each cave have more cut marks and percussion marks than elements from the warm levels (RDM Level 9, Pech IV Level Y-Z) after controlling for fragment size. At both sites, epiphyseal fragments are rare, and although this pattern can result from carnivore consumption, carnivore tooth marks are almost nonexistent (climate, but may have been a general Neandertal behavioral characteristic, suggesting that these hominids were regularly on the edge of sufficient nutrient availability even during interglacials. Overall, the faunal assemblages from Roc de Marsal and Pech IV provide some support for the hypothesis that Neandertals were processing faunal remains more heavily during glacial periods, suggesting a response to increased nutritional stress during colder time periods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cultural Resilience of Social-ecological Systems in the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Forbes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighboring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g., geese, to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio

  11. Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

  12. 驯鹿干扰素β1基因的克隆及遗传进化分析%Cloning and Phylogenetic Analysis of IFNβ1 Gene of Reindeer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟健程; 王强辉; 夏彦玲; 李和平

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to clone the full-length sequence of interferon beta 1 (IFNβ1) gene from the top of reindeer antler,and analyze its molecular characteristics,to lay a foundation for its biological activity and practical application.One pair of primers was designed based on the conserved sequence of IFNβ1 gene of cattle and sheep published in GenBank.IFNβ1 gene of reindeer was amplified by PCR from genome DNA extracted from mesenchyme of reindeer antler tip,and the product was cloned and sequenced.The result showed that the full length sequence of reindeer IFNβ1 gene was 561 bp,encoded 186 amino acids and contained 3 glycosylation sites.The encoded protein contained4 alpha helixes,4 beta fold zones and 7 beta turn angles.Compared the amino acids of IFNβ1 gene with other mammal species,the homology was 45.1% to 92.0%.The results of sequence andphylogenetic tree analysis showed that IFNβ1 gene had species diversity,the relationship was proportional to homology.This result laid the foundation for further research on the expression,biological activity and application of reindeer IFNβ1 gene.%试验旨在从驯鹿鹿茸顶端组织中克隆干扰素β1 (interferon beta 1,IFNβ1)基因全长序列,分析其分子特性,为研究其生物学活性及实际应用奠定基础.根据GenBank数据库中牛、羊等近缘物种IFNβ1基因的保守序列设计1对引物,以驯鹿鹿茸顶端间充质层组织基因组DNA为模板,采用PCR技术扩增得到驯鹿IFNβ1基因并克隆、测序,利用相关生物信息学软件对该序列进行分析.结果发现,驯鹿IFNβ1基因全长561 bp,共编码186个氨基酸,含有3个糖基化位点;其编码蛋白含有4个α螺旋、4个β折叠区、7个β转角.将驯鹿IFNβ1基因推导的氨基酸序列与其他14种哺乳动物进行遗传进化分析发现,其同源性为45.1%~92.0%;驯鹿与其他动物IFNβ1基因序列分析和系统进化树分析表明,IFNβ1基因存在种属差异性,亲缘关系

  13. Monitoring of caesium-137 in food plants and muscle from moose, red deer and wild reindeer in 2010.; Overvaaking av cesium-137 i beitevekster og kjoett av elg, hjort og villrein i 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiberg, Vebjoern; Gaare, Eldar; Stokke, Sigbjoern; Solberg, Erling J.; Skuterud, Lavrans

    2011-07-01

    The monitoring of Cs-137 fall-out from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, started the same year. Several plants and wild reindeer in natural ecosystems in Nord-Rondane have been followed annually ever since. Four more wild reindeer ranges were included in 2001: Setesdal-Ryfylkeheiene, Hardangervidda, Nord-Ottadalen, Snoehetta and Nord-Rondane. From 2007 Forollhogna was also included. On fixed plots in Nord-Rondane and Snoehetta some of the reindeer forage plants, including both higher plants and fruticose lichens, have been sampled and analyzed annually since 1986. This was also done in 2010. In addition plants and lichens were sampled at five locations along an altitudinal gradient at Soendre Knutshoe, and at 7-8 locations along an east-west gradient from Kollaflata to Skarhoe in the Jora valley continuing along the Aursjoe to Torbudalen. All these locations were sampled annually between 1987-1990, but they have not been sampled since. In 2010 samples from red deer and moose was also collected from eight different regions located within the following counties: Oppland, Telemark, Vest-Agder, Rogaland, Sogn and Fjordane, Nord-Troendelag, Nordland and Troms. Red deer were sampled in four regions and moose in six. Both species were sampled in Oppland. In 2010 76, 49 and 61 samples were collected from wild reindeer, red deer and moose respectively. All measures of caesium levels were performed on dried samples. For the 596 samples of plants and lichen the results refer to caesium-levels in dried samples. For the meat samples, results refer to caesium-137 levels in raw meat. Due to large variation in measured levels of caesium within species and sampling area, we give median values instead of mean values.The highest caesium levels in wild reindeer were found in Snoehetta (1010 Bq/kg) and Nord-Rondane (2686 Bq/kg). The levels found in the other areas were considerably lower. The highest caesium levels in both red deer (Sel, 677 Bq/kg) and moose (Vaaga, 365 Bq/kg) were found

  14. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Draft Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Alaskan Radar System Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Mustela vison wolverine Gulo Kulo river otter Lutra canadensis lynx Lynx canadensis moose Alces alces caribou Rangifer tarandus Dall’s sheep Ovic dalli...tissue respiratory chain function at a power density of 5 mW/cm2 . It is unlikely that such effects would be detectable at the power densities at ground...Vulves vulpes black bear Ursus americanus grizzly bear Ursus arctos marten Martes americana ermine Mustela erminea least weasel Mustela nivalis mink

  15. Geographic pattern of serum antibody prevalence for Brucella spp. in caribou, grizzly bears, and wolves from Alaska, 1975-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, Randall L; Ver Hoef, Jay M; DeLong, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from 2,635 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 1,238 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 930 wolves (Canis lupus) from throughout mainland Alaska during 1975-98. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Brucella spp. Serum antibody prevalences were highest in the northwestern region of the state. In any specific area, antibody prevalences for caribou and wolves were of a similar magnitude, whereas antibody prevalence for bears in these same areas were two to three times higher.

  16. Predation rate by wolves on the Porcupine caribou herd

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Robert D.; Russell, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    Large migratory catibou {Rangifer tarandus) herds in the Arctic tend to be cyclic, and population trends are mainly driven by changes in forage or weather events, not by predation. We estimated daily kill rate by wolves on adult caribou in winter, then constructed a time and space dependent model to estimate annual wolf (Canis lupus) predation rate (P annual) on adult Porcupine caribou. Our model adjusts predation seasonally depending on caribou distribution: Pannual = SIGMAdaily* W *Ap(2)*Dp...

  17. Ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R. Whitten

    1996-01-01

    Researchers have described general patterns of population regulation that fit most caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds. Nevertheless, specific factors operating on particular populations vary greatly, and efforts to categorize herds according to the general patterns often lead to confusion. It is difficult for biologists to attempt to describe population dynamics in terms of density relationships for wide-ranging arctic caribou such as the Porcupine Herd. In these herds density varies as a func...

  18. Modeling the decline of the Porcupine Caribou Herd, 1989-1998: the importance of survival vs. recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Stephen M.; Whitten, Kenneth R.; Mauer, Francis J.; Cooley, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) herd increased from approximately 100 000 animals during the 1970s to 178 000 in 1989, then declined to 129 000 by 1998. Our objective was to model the dynamics of this herd and investigate the potential that lower calf recruitment, as was observed during 1991-1993, produced the observed population changes. A deterministic model was prepared using estimates of birth and survival rates that reproduced the pattern of population growth from 1971-1...

  19. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  20. Integrating data from multiple sources for insights into demographic processes: Simulation studies and proof of concept for hierarchical change-in-ratio models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Strand, Olav

    2018-01-01

    We developed a model for estimating demographic rates and population abundance based on multiple data sets revealing information about population age- and sex structure. Such models have previously been described in the literature as change-in-ratio models, but we extend the applicability of the models by i) using time series data allowing the full temporal dynamics to be modelled, by ii) casting the model in an explicit hierarchical modelling framework, and by iii) estimating parameters based on Bayesian inference. Based on sensitivity analyses we conclude that the approach developed here is able to obtain estimates of demographic rate with high precision whenever unbiased data of population structure are available. Our simulations revealed that this was true also when data on population abundance are not available or not included in the modelling framework. Nevertheless, when data on population structure are biased due to different observability of different age- and sex categories this will affect estimates of all demographic rates. Estimates of population size is particularly sensitive to such biases, whereas demographic rates can be relatively precisely estimated even with biased observation data as long as the bias is not severe. We then use the models to estimate demographic rates and population abundance for two Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) populations where age-sex data were available for all harvested animals, and where population structure surveys were carried out in early summer (after calving) and late fall (after hunting season), and population size is counted in winter. We found that demographic rates were similar regardless whether we include population count data in the modelling, but that the estimated population size is affected by this decision. This suggest that monitoring programs that focus on population age- and sex structure will benefit from collecting additional data that allow estimation of observability for different age- and

  1. Contrasting effects of summer and winter warming on body mass explain population dynamics in a food-limited Arctic herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albon, Steve D; Irvine, R Justin; Halvorsen, Odd; Langvatn, Rolf; Loe, Leif E; Ropstad, Erik; Veiberg, Vebjørn; van der Wal, René; Bjørkvoll, Eirin M; Duff, Elizabeth I; Hansen, Brage B; Lee, Aline M; Tveraa, Torkild; Stien, Audun

    2017-04-01

    The cumulative effects of climate warming on herbivore vital rates and population dynamics are hard to predict, given that the expected effects differ between seasons. In the Arctic, warmer summers enhance plant growth which should lead to heavier and more fertile individuals in the autumn. Conversely, warm spells in winter with rainfall (rain-on-snow) can cause 'icing', restricting access to forage, resulting in starvation, lower survival and fecundity. As body condition is a 'barometer' of energy demands relative to energy intake, we explored the causes and consequences of variation in body mass of wild female Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) from 1994 to 2015, a period of marked climate warming. Late winter (April) body mass explained 88% of the between-year variation in population growth rate, because it strongly influenced reproductive loss, and hence subsequent fecundity (92%), as well as survival (94%) and recruitment (93%). Autumn (October) body mass affected ovulation rates but did not affect fecundity. April body mass showed no long-term trend (coefficient of variation, CV = 8.8%) and was higher following warm autumn (October) weather, reflecting delays in winter onset, but most strongly, and negatively, related to 'rain-on-snow' events. October body mass (CV = 2.5%) increased over the study due to higher plant productivity in the increasingly warm summers. Density-dependent mass change suggested competition for resources in both winter and summer but was less pronounced in recent years, despite an increasing population size. While continued climate warming is expected to increase the carrying capacity of the high Arctic tundra, it is also likely to cause more frequent icing events. Our analyses suggest that these contrasting effects may cause larger seasonal fluctuations in body mass and vital rates. Overall our findings provide an important 'missing' mechanistic link in the current understanding of the population biology of a

  2. 驯鹿的皮蝇蛆线粒体CO1基因序列分析%Sequence analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene of warble fly larvae from reindeer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧; 杨晓野; 李云章; 莫内; 阿拉腾保力格; 赵治国; 王瑞

    2011-01-01

    The specificity of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidaae 1 ( CO1) gene sequence of warble fly larvae of unknown species from reindeer in Inner Mongolia region of China were analyzed by molecular biological techniques. The results showed that the size of CO1 gene fragment from UEA7 to UEA10 was approximately 689 bp. The analysis of phylogenic tree showed that the unknown species from the reindeer in Inner Mongolia had high homology with Hypoderma diana France isolate. The differences analysis between the different fly species showed:the sequences between Hypodermatidae and Oestridae were obviously different, ranged from 19. 3% to 25. 5% . The divergences of different fly larvae in deer ranged from 1. 9% to 25. 5% . The divergences of Hypoderma. ranged from 6. 7% to 18. 7%. The divergences of Cephenemyia. ranged from 1. 9% to 9. 6% and the variation of the different Hypoderma diana strains was 6. 0%. It suggested that the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial CO1 genes could indicate the phylogenetic relationships among different genera, species and strains to some extent.%利用分子生物学技术对内蒙古驯鹿未定种皮蝇蛆线粒体CO1基因种属特异性序列进行了研究.DNA核苷酸测序结果证实:该种皮蝇线粒体CO1种属特异性基因UEA7到UEA10特殊目标编码区域片段长度约为689 bp;种系发生进化树和同源性分析显示其与鹿皮蝇法国株同源性非常接近,因此确定内蒙古地区感染驯鹿的皮蝇蛆为鹿皮蝇(Hypoderma diana).不同蝇种间差异性分析显示:皮蝇科(Hypodermatidae)与狂蝇科(Oestridae)之间序列差异明显,差异性为19.3%~25.5%;寄生于鹿的不同蝇蛆种间差异性为1.9%~25.5%;皮蝇属(Hypoderma)不同种间差异性为6.7%~18.7%;鹿蝇属(Cephenemyia)不同种间差异性为1.9%~9.6%;而同种不同株的鹿皮蝇差异性为6.0%;说明生物线粒体CO1基因核苷酸序列在一定程度上可反映出种属及株间在进化上的差异性.

  3. 使鹿鄂温克族的生态智慧——基于敖鲁古雅鄂温克民族乡的调研%Ecological Wisdom of Reindeer Herding Ewenki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫平; 任国英

    2012-01-01

    At present, the global eco--environmental problems have increasingly become fierce. Some eth- nic minority areas have used their own "ecological wisdom" to maintain the ecological environment of their homeland. In the production of long life, the China currently only "reindeer herding tribe" -- Aoluguya Ewenki hunters have been adapted, used and improved the environment. This process reflects profound ec ological wisdom, so that they have been sustaining the ecological environment to develop healthily.%当前,在全球生态环境问题愈演愈烈的情况下,一些身处边远地区的少数民族却用他们的“生态智慧,,实现着人与自然的和谐共生,为解决人类与社会发展中所面临的生态环境危机提供了一定的借鉴,生活在大兴安岭密林深处的使鹿鄂温克族就是这样一个具有典型意义的小民族族群。他们是目前唯一的“使鹿部落”——敖鲁古雅鄂温克族,这些猎民在长期的生产生活中,适应环境、并利用和改善环境,体现着深刻的生态智慧,本文用生态人类学的理论对此进行了分析。

  4. Overview of session and situation in Fukushima. Stakeholder Involvement and the CRPPH: A Learning Process - From Chernobyl to Fukushima. Public dialogue and policy making: The UK's Science-wise programme. Post-Chernobyl experience: Sami reindeer herders in Norway. JAEC's initiative to encourage public understanding in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo; Boyd, Mike; ); Mayall, Andrew; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Oughton, Deborah; Liland, Astrid; Skuterud, Lavrans; Eikelmann, Inger; Kawabuchi, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    situations and take decisions. Professionals may need to mount a steep learning curve to provide information and guidance in an accessible way, but engaging in the exchange and dialogue can lead to better, more effective protection decisions. Another example of the need for government, experts and local populations to work together on addressing radiological protection concerns was found in Norway following the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Ms Tomkiv highlighted the success of the Norwegian government's intervention with Sami reindeer herders, and discussed how a flexible approach, sensitive to stakeholder needs, produced decisions that significantly improved the livelihoods and also the well-being of these herders. Reindeer meat in Norway, a key food source for the Sami indigenous population, had high levels of radiation contamination following the accident. The Norwegian government provided compensation to farmers who lost their herd due to mandatory slaughter of animals with high exposure levels; raised the intervention level to 6000 Becquerel per kilogram for reindeer meat in Norway; changed slaughter season from winter to autumn; and fed reindeer caesium binders in order to prevent transfer of caesium into meat. These successful and effective protection decisions were built with and accepted by the Sami reindeer herders of Norway and allowed them to maintain their traditional livelihood and culture. Mr Kawabuchi, representing Japan's Atomic Energy Commission, described how the commission has worked to improve messaging and transparency regarding nuclear power. In response to the public's concern about nuclear safety following Fukushima, Japan's Atomic Energy Commission has promoted relations with the public through interactive dialogue, open meetings that are broadcast live on the internet, and a knowledge-based internet offering intended to be accessible to both the general public and experts

  5. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  6. Predation and caribou populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Predation, especially wolf (Canis lupus predation, limits many North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations below the density that food resources could sustain. The impact of predation depends on the parameters for the functional and numerical response of the wolves, relative to the potential annual increment of the caribou population. Differences in predator-avoidance strategies largely explain the major differences in caribou densities that occur naturally in North America. Caribou migrations that spatially separate caribou from wolves allow relatively high densities of caribou to survive. Non-migratory caribou that live in areas where wolf populations are sustained by alternate prey can be eliminated by wolf predation.

  7. Growth rates and morphological measurements of Porcupine caribou calves

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Katherine L.

    1989-01-01

    Body weights, leg lengths, and surface area were monitored for bottle-raised barren-ground caribou calves (Rangifer tarandus granti) from the Porcupine herd up to 1 year of age. Body weights were compared with maternally-raised calves from the same cohort in the wild and from the Delta herd. A successful feeding regime for bottle-raising caribou calves is presented.Veksthastigheter og morfologiske mål hos Porcupine karibu-kalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Kroppsvekter, visse kn...

  8. Tracking wildlife by satellite: Current systems and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard B.; Fancy, Steven G.; Douglas, David C.; Garner, Gerald W.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Pank, Larry F.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has used the Argos Data Collection and Location System (DCLS) and Tiros-N series satellites to monitor movements and activities of 10 species of large mammals in Alaska and the Rocky Mountain region. Reliability of the entire system was generally high. Data were received from instrumented caribou (Rangifer tarandus) during 91% of 318 possible transmitter-months. Transmitters failed prematurely on 5 of 45 caribou, 2 of 6 muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and 1 of 2 gray wolves (Canis lupus). Failure rates were considerably higher for polar (Ursus maritimus) and brown (U. arctos) bears than for caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Efficiency of gathering both locational and sensor data was related to both latitude and topography.Mean error of locations was estimated to be 954 m (median = 543 m) for transmitters on captive animals; 90% of locations were indices of animal activity were developed and evaluated. For several species, the long-term index was correlated with movement patterns and the short-term index was calibrated to specific activity categories (e.g., lying, feeding, walking).Data processing and sampling considerations were evaluated. Algorithms for choosing the most reliable among a series of reported locations were investigated. Applications of satellite telemetry data and problems with lack of independence among locations are discussed.

  9. Growth rates and morphological measurements of Porcupine caribou calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Parker

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Body weights, leg lengths, and surface area were monitored for bottle-raised barren-ground caribou calves (Rangifer tarandus granti from the Porcupine herd up to 1 year of age. Body weights were compared with maternally-raised calves from the same cohort in the wild and from the Delta herd. A successful feeding regime for bottle-raising caribou calves is presented.Veksthastigheter og morfologiske mål hos Porcupine karibu-kalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Kroppsvekter, visse knokkel-lengder og kropps-overflate areal ble målt hos flaske-oppfødde kalver av barren-ground karibu (Rangifer tarandus granti fra Porcupine-stammen opp til 1 års alder. Kroppsvekter ble sammelignet med normalt oppfødde kalver av samme type i det fri og fra Delta-stam-men. Det presenteres et vellykket system for flaske-oppforing av karibu-kalver.Porcupine-lauman karibuvasojen kasvunopeus ja morfologiset mitat.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Porcupine -lauman pulloruokinnalla olleiden tundrakaribuvasojen ruumiinpainot, jalanpituu-det ja ruumiin pinta-alat mitattiin 1 vuoden ikäään saakka. Ruumiinpainoja verrattiin vastaaviin luonnon-oloissa kasvaneisiin saman lauman ja Delta -lauman vasoihin. Tutkimus kuvaa toimivan vasojen pulloruo-kintamenetelmän.

  10. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the current status of vertebrate invasive species throughout Chile, updating information on terrestrial exotics and reporting for the first time the situation of exotic freshwater fishes. In addition, we document the legislation and programs that the Chilean government has implemented to limit the entry of exotics to the country or minimize their impact on native wild flora and fauna and on natural ecosystems. We document what is known about the introduction of 26 exotic fish species to continental waters of the country, discussing the distribution and putative effects of those 11 species that may be considered invasive. From a previous list of 24 terrestrial vertebrate invaders, we withdraw the Argentine tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and mouflon (Ovis ammon because there are no data on their subsistence in the wild. On the other hand, we add three new species: red-eared freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus, and red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata, thus keeping the total number of terrestrial invaders unchanged at 24 species. The chief agency in charge of existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic freshwater species is the National Fisheries Service (SERNAPESCA, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Economy. The main agency in charge of enforcing existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic terrestrial species to Chile is the Agriculture and Livestock Service (SAG, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Agriculture. Currently, SAG is not only controlling major border passes, seaports and airports, but also is funding studies to monitor and control already existing invaders. In addition, the Chilean Forest Service (CONAF, in Spanish is also concerned about invasive species, but only if they enter national parks and reserves within the National System of Protected Wildlife Areas (SNASPE, in Spanish

  11. Prokaryotic Expression of Reindeer β-defensin-1 (reBD-1) Gene and Bioactivity Identification of the Recombinant Protein%驯鹿β-防御素-1(reBD-1)基因的原核表达及蛋白活性的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丽娜; 杨银凤; 景岚; 曹贵方

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to construct prokaryotic expression vector of reindeer β-defensin-l(reBD-l), induce the expression of reBD-1 fusion protein in E. Coli, and evaluate the bioactivity of the expression products. The prepro-peptide of reBD-1 was amplified by RT-PCR. The mature peptide of encoding reBD-1 was amplified from recombinant cloning vector PMD19T/ reBD-1, and then cloned into pET-32a (+ ), in which reBD-1 fusion protein expression was induced by IPTG in E. Coli BL2KDE3). The expressed product was further cultured and purified for experiment of bacteriostasis in vitro. The results showed that the amplified products of prepro-peptide and mature peptide were 215 and 138 bp, respectively, and the homology of the sequences of the targeted gene and reBD-1 mRNA was up to 100%. The molecular weight of fusion proteins of prepro-peptide and mature peptide were 28 and 24 ku. The agar diffusion method has demonstrated that 0. 08 mg · mL-1 purified mature peptide protein has obvious antimicrobial activity against S. Aureus and E. Coli. From the results we can conclude that the prepro-peptide and mature peptides have high expression level in E. Coli, and the mature peptide has resistance to both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria.%旨在构建驯鹿β防御素-1(Reindeerβ-defensin-1,reBD-1)基因的原核表达载体pET-32a(+ )/reBD-1,诱导reBD-1融合蛋白在大肠杆菌中表达,并对其表达产物的生物学活性进行评价.利用RT-PCR技术扩增reBD-1前原肽.从重组克隆载体PMD19T/reBD-1中扩增reBD-1成熟肽编码基因,并克隆入pET-32a(+)中,在大肠杆菌BL21 (DE3)中用IPTG诱导表达reBD-1融合蛋白.表达的融合蛋白扩大培养,进一步纯化后进行体外抑菌试验.结果表明,reBD-1前原肽和成熟肽扩增产物大小分别为215和138 bp,目的基因的序列与驯鹿防御素-1 mRNA序列同源性为100%.前原肽和成熟肽融合蛋白分子量分别为28和24 ku.利用琼脂糖扩散法表明,0

  12. The Development of Characteristic Industry in the Frontier Minority Area:Taking the Reindeer Industry in Aoluguya Ewenqi Nationality Village as an Example%边疆民族地区特色产业发展--以敖鲁古雅鄂温克族乡驯鹿产业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 周文

    2016-01-01

    边疆民族地区社会发展滞后,经济技术基础薄弱,但资源丰富并具稀缺性。因此,密切结合边疆民族地区实际,走特色产业化的发展道路,是加快地区经济发展的现实选择。文章以敖鲁古雅鄂温克族乡驯鹿产业为例,阐述了边疆民族地区特色产业发展的现状,分析了特色产业促进了边疆民族地区的发展,探讨特色产业发展的方法,以达到促使经济快速、稳健、持续的发展的目的。%In the border minority regions, social development is slow and economic and technological foundation is weak, but resource is rich and scarce. Therefore, close combination with the actual of frontier minority area and development of characteristic industry are the realistic choice to accelerate regional economic development . In this paper, it takes the reindeer industry in Aoluguya Ewenqi Nationality Village as an example to expound the present situation of the development of characteristic industry in the frontier minority area, analyze that the characteristic industry has promoted the development of frontier minority areas and explore the methods of characteristic industry development, so as to make the economy fast, steady and sustainable development.

  13. Selection of the Theory and Method Comes from Real Understanding of the Society:Based on the Investigation of Hunting, Reindeer in Hinggan Society by the Author%理论、方法选择需要对社会的真实认识--结合笔者在兴安岭狩猎、驯鹿社会的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何群

    2014-01-01

    在多大程度上实现对社会的真实认识,作为直接指导研究者进行理论预设与假定以及影响研究方法、实地调查方法选择的认识前提和基础,是决定研究成果是否具有一定创新性的核心问题及灵魂。尤其对人类学而言,随着容易控制的、如同实验室式的小规模社会的日渐转型,从而提出怎样重新判断、识别研究对象的现实需要。笔者在中国东北大、小兴安岭地区传统狩猎、驯鹿群体中的调查对此有所初步体会。%The extension of achieving the real understanding of society ,is to determine whether the re-search results are the innovative core issue of the soul ,as it provides the premise understanding and foun-dation by directiy guiding theory researchers to do theory default and assumptions and research method , field-work method .Especially for anthropology ,as the gradual transformation of society easy to control and like a laboratory ,it is the real need that is how to rejudge and identify the research object .The author has some preliminary understanding by researching traditional hunting and the reindeer group in xiaoxinganling region ,northeast China .

  14. Limiting factors in caribou population ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribou and wild reindeer populations fluctuate over time. On this fact there is general agreement. Factors responsible for population limitation and subsequent declines have been examined within the framework of animal population theory. There is, however, little agreement when factors limiting specific populations are generalized to Rangifer populations over broad geographic regions. Comparative examinations of wild Rangifer populations worldwide discloses that factors that have regulated those populations are highly variable between populations, apparently as a reflection of the differences in environmental variables unique to each population. Examples exist of populations where major regulating factors have been climatic extremes, predation, hunting mortality, food limitation, insects, parasites, disease, interspecific competition, and human developmental impacts or combinations of these factors. This diversity of limiting factors affecting caribou and wild reindeer populations is a reflection of the ecologial complexity of the species, a concept that has often been ignored in past efforts to reach management decisions by extrapolation from the limited localized knowledge available on the species.

  15. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    in West Greenland. In a newly started PhD-project the focus will be the implementation of spatially explicit individual based modeling (IBM). The project relies on existing knowledge on caribou behavior and feeding ecology along with data on variations in the vegetation. By relating vegetation, snow......Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland...... in an area. Further, enhanced or lowered hunting pressure, and changed weather conditions can be studied using IBM. Thus, both short and long term changes in the landscape will be studied and provide insights in how the specific spatial changes impact caribou in West Greenland....

  16. Will ecosystem management supply woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Euler

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is emerging as an important concept in managing forests. Although the basic conceptual idea is not new, important defining principles are developing that elucidate some of the specific attributes of ecosystem management. These principles include: the maintenance of all ecosystems in the managed forest, rhe emulation of natural disturbance patterns on rhe landscape and the insurance that structure and function of forested ecosystems are conserved. Forest management has an impact on woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, although the presence of wolves (Canis lupus and moose (Alces alces in the same northern ecosystems also affects the caribou-forestry interacrion. Specific management for caribou as a featured species has been proposed, based on managing large landscape blocks. Ecosystem management would also produce habitat in a manner that might accomplish the goal of conserving woodland caribou as well as maintaining other important ecosystem functions.

  17. Review of forestry practices in caribou habitat in southeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Stevenson

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern British Columbia feed mainly on arboreal lichens in winter. Some modified forestry practices that have been used or proposed for caribou ranges are reviewed. Partial cutting results in the retention of some forage lichens. Partial cutting and small patch harvesting may improve lichen growth on the remaining trees. Retention of advanced regeneration and some residual trees may improve lichen growth in the remaining stand. Extension of the rotation age increases the amount of harvestable forest useful to caribou at any one time. Progressive cutting minimizes road access to caribou ranges, and may be combined with partial cutting. Most forestry practices intended to maintain lichen production will result in increased human activity in caribou ranges, unless road access is controlled. The management strategy selected depends on site conditions and on the relative importance assigned to the impact of habitat alteration and human activity on caribou.

  18. Canopy, snow, and lichens on woodland caribou range in southeastern Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available I examined the relationships among snow cover (api, lichen abundance, and canopy composition on the range of the Aikens Lake population of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern Manitoba. Percent cover of forage lichens (Cladina spp. was positively correlated with maximum total thickness and with maximum vertical hardness of api. Mixed communities of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides, spruce (Picea spp., and balsam fir (Abies balsamea showed the most favourable nival conditions for caribou but had low lichen abundance; those dominated by jack pine (Pinus banksiana were the converse. The results suggest an energetic compromise for woodland caribou when foraging for terrestrial lichens. During winter, caribou exhibited significant selection for jack pine communities whereas mixed communities were avoided.

  19. A fire suppression model for forested range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq herds of caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A fire suppression model was developed for forested winter range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq (formerly Kaminuriak herds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in north-central Canada. The model is a balance between total protection, as voiced by some aboriginal people, and a let-burn policy for natural fires advocated by some ecologists. Elements in the model were caribou ecology, lichen recovery after fire, burn history, community priorities for caribou hunting, and fire cycle lengths. The percent ratio of current productive caribou habitat to the goal for that habitat determines whether fire should be suppressed in a specific area. The goals for productive caribou habitat, defined as forests older than 50 years, were scaled by fire cycle length and community priority ranking. Thus, the model is an example of co-management: traditional knowledge combined with science in a joint forum, the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board.

  20. The relationship between weather and caribou productivity for the La-Poile Caribou Herd, Newfoundland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Ferguson

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship between weather and caribou (Rangifer tarandus productivity, we compared weather variables (snow on ground, winter temperature and measures of growing season with measures of productivity (calves seen by hunters, calves and yearlings in the harvest and percent calves and yearlings and pregnancy rate for caribou classified during fall and spring surveys for the LaPoile Caribou Herd in southwestern Newfoundland. Hunter statistics reliably estimated changes in population demography. Percent calves seen by hunters was correlated with calves/100 females classified in fall. Weather may have influenced productivity for the LaPoile Caribou Herd in Newfoundland. Colder winter temperatures were associated with fewer calves the next fall and pregnancy rates and yearlings/100 females in the spring were negatively correlated with snow on ground the previous winter. These relationships appear to be density related.

  1. Caribou response to human activity: research and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Miller

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the need by researchers and managers of caribou (Rangifer tarandus to carefully assess the impact of their study methods on animals and results. An error made during a study of barren-ground caribou is described. Assumptions made during preparation of study methods need to be tested during collection of data. Study plans should include communication with, and respect for, residents who depend on the caribou resource. During field observations of caribou behavior, feeding habits, rutting activity or sex and age composition, closer is not better. During capture, handling and marking activities, shorter processing time is better. During aerial surveys, photography, sex and age determinations, higher is better. When interpreting data collected from marked caribou, and generally applying to the unmarked population, caution is advised. The merits and drawbacks of helicopter use to capture and mark caribou for research and management need to be discussed.

  2. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Thing

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of antlerless adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus was studied in four separate populations in west Greenland. Between the herds antlerlessness varied from 21% to 79%. An inverse relationship between winter range quality and percentage of unantlered cows is demonstrated. Relationship between calf percentage and maternal antler status was studied in one population and antlerless cows showed higher reproductive rate than antlered ones. In another population antlerless cows were almost absent outside the calving area. Calves of antlerless mothers were more susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation, and length of period between calving and midsummer is discussed.

  3. Perinatal mortality in caribou from the Porcupine herd, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T J

    1993-04-01

    During the 1989 caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calving season on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (USA), 61 calf carcasses were examined for cause of death and associated pathology. Dead calves were located by low-level aerial searches with two fixed-wing aircraft and a helicopter over high density calving areas between the Hulahula and Aichilik rivers. Primary diagnoses included emaciation (39%), malnutrition (8%), stillbirth (21%), trauma (16%), other primary causes (7%), and undetermined causes (8%). Twenty calves had contributory renal tubular degeneration. The findings indicate that factors contributing to nutritional deprivation in calves were the major cause of neonatal mortality; however, factors affecting stillbirth, abortion, or the urogenital system may have major effects on neonatal caribou and warrant further investigation.

  4. Parasite prevalence, infection intensity and richness in an endangered population, the Atlantic-Gaspésie caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Turgeon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic-Gaspésie caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou population is a small isolated relict herd considered endangered according to the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA. This population has low recruitment and survival rates but the potential role of parasites on individual fitness is unknown. In this context, we explored the parasite status of this population with the aim of 1 assessing the occurrence and intensity of parasite infections and the spatial, temporal and individual variations, 2 quantifying parasite richness and investigating factors such as sex and host body condition that may be associated with this variable and 3 evaluating the effects of parasite infections on survival in the Atlantic-Gaspésie caribou population. We examined fecal samples from 32 animals captured in 2013–2014 for eggs, oocysts and larvae of parasites and detected 7 parasite species: dorsal-spined larvae protostrongylids, presumably Parelaphostrongylus andersoni based on PCR identification of a subset, Nematodirus odocoilei and other unidentified Strongyles, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Moniezia sp. and Eimeria sp. For each caribou, mean parasite species richness was 1.8 ± 1.1 (SD. Sex, body condition, year and capture location did not explain parasite prevalence, intensity of infection or richness except for intensity of infection of Capillaria sp. that was positively influenced by body condition. Parasites did not influence survival although mortality was higher for males than for females. We suggest that the relatively low and common gastrointestinal and protostrongylid parasite infections will not be a short-term threat leading to extinction. Keywords: Capillaria, Eimeria, Moniezia, Nematodirinae, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni, Rangifer tarandus

  5. MRI and unilateral NMR study of reindeer skin tanning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizheng; Del Federico, Eleonora; Ilott, Andrew J; Klokkernes, Torunn; Kehlet, Cindie; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-04-07

    The study of arctic or subarctic indigenous skin clothing material, known for its design and ability to keep the body warm, provides information about the tanning materials and techniques. The study also provides clues about the culture that created it, since tanning processes are often specific to certain indigenous groups. Untreated skin samples and samples treated with willow (Salix sp) bark extract and cod liver oil are compared in this study using both MRI and unilateral NMR techniques. The two types of samples show different proton spatial distributions and different relaxation times, which may also provide information about the tanning technique and aging behavior.

  6. Reindeer Culture of the Reindeer Erwenkes%论驯鹿鄂温克人的驯鹿文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卡丽娜

    2007-01-01

    驯鹿鄂温克人是我国鄂温克族中的特殊群体.他们生活在兴安岭的深山老林,以饲养驯鹿谋生.在漫长的历史发展进程中,驯鹿鄂温克人在狩猎驯鹿和使用驯鹿以及饲养驯鹿的生产生活实践中,用共同的劳动和智慧创造出了我国独一无二而独具风格的驯鹿文化.我们拟从人类文化学与民族文化学的理论视角,对这一特殊族群的驯鹿文化形态进行客观实在的分析和讨论.

  7. Irruptive dynamics of introduced caribou on Adak Island, Alaska: an evaluation of Riney-Caughley model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores introduced to islands without predators are predicted to undergo irruptive population and spatial dynamics, but only a few well-documented case studies support this paradigm. We used the Riney-Caughley model as a framework to test predictions of irruptive population growth and spatial expansion of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) introduced to Adak Island in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska in 1958 and 1959. We utilized a time series of spatially explicit counts conducted on this population intermittently over a 54-year period. Population size increased from 23 released animals to approximately 2900 animals in 2012. Population dynamics were characterized by two distinct periods of irruptive growth separated by a long time period of relative stability, and the catalyst for the initial irruption was more likely related to annual variation in hunting pressure than weather conditions. An unexpected pattern resembling logistic population growth occurred between the peak of the second irruption in 2005 and the next survey conducted seven years later in 2012. Model simulations indicated that an increase in reported harvest alone could not explain the deceleration in population growth, yet high levels of unreported harvest combined with increasing density-dependent feedbacks on fecundity and survival were the most plausible explanation for the observed population trend. No studies of introduced island Rangifer have measured a time series of spatial use to the extent described in this study. Spatial use patterns during the post-calving season strongly supported Riney-Caughley model predictions, whereby high-density core areas expanded outwardly as population size increased. During the calving season, caribou displayed marked site fidelity across the full range of population densities despite availability of other suitable habitats for calving. Finally, dispersal and reproduction on neighboring Kagalaska Island represented a new dispersal front

  8. Various Russian Ethnic Reindeer Husbandry and Reindeer Culture%俄罗斯各民族的驯鹿饲养业与驯鹿文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任国英

    2009-01-01

    俄罗斯驯鹿饲养业广泛分布于亚欧大陆的寒带、亚寒带地区,有20多个民族从事驯鹿饲养业.拥有世界上数量最多的驯鹿、最多样化的驯鹿饲养业类型、最多的驯鹿民族单位和最丰富多彩的驯鹿文化.

  9. Peary caribou distribution within the Bathurst Island Complex relative to the boundary proposed for Qausuittuq National Park, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G. Poole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How caribou (Rangifer tarandus, including Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi, use their annual ranges varies with changes in abundance. While fidelity to some seasonal ranges is persistent, use of other areas changes. Consequently, understanding changes in seasonal distribution is useful for designing boundaries of protected areas for caribou conservation. A case in point is the proposed Qausuittuq (Northern Bathurst Island National Park for Bathurst Island and its satellite islands in the High Arctic of Canada. Since 1961, Peary caribou have been through three periods of high and low abundance. We examined caribou distribution and composition mapped during nine systematic aerial surveys (1961–2013, unsystematic helicopter surveys (1989–98, and limited radio-collaring from 1994–97 and 2003–06. While migration patterns changed and use of southern Bathurst Island decreased during lows in abundance, use of satellite islands, especially Cameron Island for winter range, persisted during both highs and lows in abundance. The northeast coast of Bathurst Island was used to a greater extent during the rut and during summer at low abundance. We suggest that Park boundaries which include Cameron Island and the northeast coast of Bathurst Island will be more effective in contributing to the persistence of Peary caribou on the Bathurst Island Complex.

  10. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.D.; Reed, D.J.; Smith, W.T.; Dau, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted annually in June 1978-87 near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to determine changes in the distribution of calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that accompanied petroleum-related development. With construction of an oil field access road through a calving concentration area, mean caribou density (no./km 2 ) decreased from 1.41 to 0.31 within 1 km and increased from 1.41 to 4.53, 5-6 km from the road. Concurrently, relative caribou use of the adjacent area declined apparently in response to increasing surface development. It is suggested that perturbed distribution associated with roads reduced the capacity of the nearby area to sustain parturient females and that insufficient spacing of roads may have depressed overall calving activity. Use of traditional calving grounds and of certain areas therein appears to favor calf survival, principally through lower predation risk and improved foraging conditions. Given the possible loss of those habitats through displacement and the crucial importance of the reproductive process, a cautious approach to petroleum development on the Arctic Slope is warranted. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Modeling influences on winter distribution of caribou in northwestern Alaska through use of satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I hypothesize that the distribution of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, terrain and snow characteristics as well as predation pressure and habitat. To test this hypothesis, I attributed caribou locations derived from satellite telemetry over a 6 year period with terrain (elevation, slope, aspect, and ruggedness, habitat characteristics, and moose density - potentially an index of wolf predation pressure. These locations were compared to random locations, attributed using the same data layers, using logistic regression techniques to develop resource selection functions (RSFs. I found that caribou moved significantly less during mid-winter than early- or late-winter and that cows moved significantly more in April than bulls due to their earlier departure on their spring migration. Distribution was different between cows and bulls. Terrain variables were important factors but were scale-dependent. Cows avoided forested areas, highlighting the importance of tundra habitats, and selected for dwarf shrub, with relatively high lichen cover, and sedge habitat types. Bulls selected for dryas, coniferous forest and dwarf shrub habitats but against lowland sedge, upland shrub and burned tundra. Cow distribution was negatively correlated with moose density at the scale of the Seward Peninsula. My results support the hypothesis that caribou distribution during winter in northwest Alaska is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These results may be useful for researchers to track and/or model changes in future patterns of range use over winter.

  12. Managing for Caribou Survival in a Partitioned Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Cumming

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest management guidelines for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario need to be re-examined in light of the finding that caribou partition habitat with moose (Alces alces, partly to find virtual refuges from predation by gray wolves (Canis lupus. Forest-wide guidelines seem inappropriate for a species that is widely scattered and little known. Management should concentrate on and around currently used virtual refuges to ensure their continued habitability. Cutting these areas may force the caribou into places with higher densities of predators; winter use of roads might bring poachers, increased wolf entry, and accidents. A proposal for 100 km2 clear-cuts scheduled over 60+ years across the forest landscape would probably minimize moose/wolf densities in the long run as intended, but because of habitat partitioning might forfeit any benefits to caribou in the short-term. Sharply reducing moose densities near areas where caribou have sought refuge might incline wolves to switch to caribou. Cutting beyond caribou winter refuge areas should aim at maintaining current moose densities to prevent wolves from switching prey species. Operations level manipulation of the forest around each wintering area should provide winter habitat for the future, while treatment replications with controls across the whole forest would provide reliable knowledge about which approaches work best. The remainder of the forest should be managed to maintain suitable densities of all other species.

  13. Wildlife Co-management defined: The Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Thomas

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of indigenous and scientific forms of wildlife data gathering and conservation/management reveals similarities and differences. The two systems are needed to effectively manage wildlife in northern Canada, particularly migratory, trans-boundary species. The Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board brought multi-jurisdictional caribou users and managers together to co-manage two large herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlan-dicus. The advisory Board's principal duties and responsibilities are communication and to maintain the two herds at population levels that will meet user needs. Goals, objectives, and principles are set out in a management plan. Board activities are structured in 15 action plans under major categories of communication, supply of caribou, use of caribou, and habitat. Board successes are attributed to use of the plan to guide actions; to the Chairmen and vice-Chairmen; to the quality of founding members and their continuity; to effective vehicles of communication such as a newspaper, radio, video, and community meetings; to a spirit of cooperation; and to high caribou numbers because of high productivity combined with poor accessibility. Problem areas include technical limitations, members' decreasing powers and increasing turnover, inadequate communication of Board objectives and activities within the communities, and accountability. Future challenges include the management of caribou shortages, obtaining better herd data, and the need for more intensive management as user populations grow.

  14. Ecosystem management and the conservation of caribou habitat in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia inhabit a wide variety of forest ecosystems. Numerous research projects have provided information that has been used to develop caribou habitat management recommendations for different areas. Recently, the province has implemented guidelines to protect biodiversity that are based on an ecosystem management strategy of mimicking natural forest conditions. There is a great deal of similarity between caribou management recommendations and biodiversity recommendations within different forest types. In mountain caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining a landscape dominated by old and mature forests, uneven-aged management, small cutblocks, and maintaining mature forest connectivity. In northern caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining some older stands on the landscape (but less than for mountain caribou, even-aged management, and a mosaic of large harvest units and leave areas. The ecosystem management recommendations provide a useful foundation for caribou habitat conservation. More detailed information on caribou and other management objectives can then be used to fine-tune those recommendations.

  15. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Sellers

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  16. What to eat now? Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Under current climate trends, spring ice breakup in Hudson Bay is advancing rapidly, leaving polar bears (Ursus maritimus) less time to hunt seals during the spring when they accumulate the majority of their annual fat reserves. For this reason, foods that polar bears consume during the ice-free season may become increasingly important in alleviating nutritional stress from lost seal hunting opportunities. Defining how the terrestrial diet might have changed since the onset of rapid climate change is an important step in understanding how polar bears may be reacting to climate change. We characterized the current terrestrial diet of polar bears in western Hudson Bay by evaluating the contents of passively sampled scat and comparing it to a similar study conducted 40 years ago. While the two terrestrial diets broadly overlap, polar bears currently appear to be exploiting increasingly abundant resources such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and newly available resources such as eggs. This opportunistic shift is similar to the diet mixing strategy common among other Arctic predators and bear species. We discuss whether the observed diet shift is solely a response to a nutritional stress or is an expression of plastic foraging behavior. PMID:24223286

  17. Caribou conservation and recovery in Ontario: development and implementation of the Caribou Conservation Plan

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    Ted (E.R. Armstrong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The range of Ontario’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou (forest-dwelling ecotype has receded northward substantially over many decades, leading to its current Threatened designation. Ontario released its Caribou Conservation Plan (CCP in the fall of 2009. This policy responded to public input and recommendations from the Ontario Woodland Caribou Recovery Team and the Caribou Science Review Panel, and outlines conservation and recovery actions to conserve and recover caribou. Within an adaptive management framework, the CCP builds upon a recent history of managing at large landscape scales in Ontario to implement a range management approach as the basis for recovery actions. These commitments and actions include enhanced research and monitoring, improved caribou habitat planning at the landscape scale, an integrated range analysis approach using advanced assessment tools to evaluate thresholds of habitat amount, arrangement and disturbance, the assessment of probability of persistence, consideration of cumulative effects, meeting forest management silvicultural performance requirements, consideration of caribou recovery implications when managing other wildlife, an initial focus on the southern edge of caribou distribution where threats are most significant, improved outreach and stewardship, and consideration of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge in recovery actions. Implementation of the CCP signifies a long-term provincial commitment to caribou recovery, initially focusing on identified priorities within the CCP.

  18. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Jessica I.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Wasser, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS. - Highlights: • We measured PAHs from areas with varying degrees of in situ oil production activity. • PAH levels were measured in scat samples from three terrestrial species. • Caribou indicated pyrogenic PAHs in the area previously devastated by forest fire. • High oil production area moose and wolf showed petrogenic PAH characteristics. • Further scientific investigation of PAH exposures in these areas is warranted. - We demonstrate a distinction of PAH level and source profile in scat samples of three large mammals collected from areas with varying degrees of in situ oil production.

  20. Reconstruction of caribou evolutionary history in Western North America and its implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, Byron V; Musiani, Marco; McDevitt, Allan D; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mariani, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    The role of Beringia as a refugium and route for trans-continental exchange of fauna during glacial cycles of the past 2million years are well documented; less apparent is its contribution as a significant reservoir of genetic diversity. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences and 14 microsatellite loci, we investigate the phylogeographic history of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in western North America. Patterns of genetic diversity reveal two distinct groups of caribou. Caribou classified as a Northern group, of Beringian origin, exhibited greater number and variability in mtDNA haplotypes compared to a Southern group originating from refugia south of glacial ice. Results indicate that subspecies R. t. granti of Alaska and R. t. groenlandicus of northern Canada do not constitute distinguishable units at mtDNA or microsatellites, belying their current status as separate subspecies. Additionally, the Northern Mountain ecotype of woodland caribou (presently R. t. caribou) has closer kinship to caribou classified as granti or groenlandicus. Comparisons of mtDNA and microsatellite data suggest that behavioural and ecological specialization is a more recently derived life history characteristic. Notably, microsatellite differentiation among Southern herds is significantly greater, most likely as a result of human-induced landscape fragmentation and genetic drift due to smaller population sizes. These results not only provide important insight into the evolutionary history of northern species such as caribou, but also are important indicators for managers evaluating conservation measures for this threatened species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. What does it mean to put caribou knowledge into an ecosystem context?

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    Fred H. Harrington

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems are envisioned as integrated, complex systems with both living and non-living components, that are linked through processes of energy flow and nutrient cycling (Bowen, 1971; Ricklefs, 1979. The ecosystem approach seeks to describe the components of this system, the pathways through which energy and nutrients move, and the processes that govern that movement. The goal is a better understanding of the role or effect of each component (abiotic or biotic within the system. Theorerically, the more we know, the better we can predict the future behaviour of the ecosystem and therefore manage the system on whatever sustainable basis we deem appropriate. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus presently inhabit two ecosystems, tundra (arctic and alpine and taiga (or boreal forest, both characterized by relatively low productivity and diversity (Bowen, 1971; Bliss, 1981; Bonan, 1992a. As increased anthropogenic impacts are expected in these ecosystems through the next century, our ability to ensure the continued survival of caribou requires that we pay increasing attention to the processes that drive these systems. In this endeavour, an awareness of the effects of both spatial and temporal scale, in both ecosystem processes and our research programs to understand those processes, is critical.

  2. Effects of maternal characteristics and climatic variation on birth masses of Alaskan caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Layne G.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence birth mass of mammals provides insights to nutritional trade-offs made by females to optimize their reproduction, growth, and survival. I evaluated variation in birth mass of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in central Alaska relative to maternal characteristics (age, body mass, cohort, and nutritional condition as influenced by winter severity) during 11 years with substantial variation in winter snowfall. Snowfall during gestation was the predominant factor explaining variation in birth masses, influencing birth mass inversely and through interactions with maternal age and lactation status. Maternal age effects were noted for females ≤ 5 years old, declining in magnitude with each successive age class. Birth mass as a proportion of autumn maternal mass was inversely related to winter snowfall, even though there was no decrease in masses of adult females in late winter associated with severe winters. I found no evidence of a hypothesized intergenerational effect of lower birth masses for offspring of females born after severe winters. Caribou produce relatively small offspring but provide exceptional lactation support for those that survive. Conservative maternal investment before parturition may represent an optimal reproductive strategy given that caribou experience stochastic variation in winter severity during gestation, uncertainty of environmental conditions surrounding the birth season, and intense predation on neonates.

  3. Conservation of erupting ungulate populations on islands – a comment

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    Anne Gunn

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A generalised model for herbivores experiencing abundant forage over time is that their numbers erupt and then decline. This model has been applied to fluctuations in caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations especially those on islands. Since this generalised model for erupting herbivores was first proposed, two assumptions have slipped in (1 that an erupting population will crash; and (2 that the crash will be density-dependent. The problem with the assumptions is that, without testing, they can lead to inappropriate management such as culls. The first assumption arises from uncritical use of earlier accounts and the second assumption from not discriminating between the effects of environmental variation from the effects of the high herbivore numbers on forage availability (density-dependence. Often typical densitydependent effects such as lowered initial reproduction, reduced early survival of calves, and subsequent calf, yearling and juvenile survival are used to justify the contention that there are too many herbivores. But such reasoning is flawed unless cause/effect relationships are established and the role of environmental variation is evaluated. We argue that it is overly simplistic to believe that every population’s subsequent performance and fate will follow a singular pattern with only one paramount factor driving and ultimately dictating an inevitable outcome. The relative importance of unpredictable abiotic factors in influencing and causing variation in the response of ungulate populations should be investigated, no matter whether those factors are sporadic or periodic.

  4. Vigilance and foraging behaviour of female caribou in relation to predation risk

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    Pernille S. Bøving

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of female caribou (Rangifer tarandus was investigated during the calving season on ranges in Alaska and West Greenland with the purpose of determining whether investment in vigilance behaviour differed between areas with and without natural predators of caribou. Female caribou in Alaska foraged in larger groups, displayed a higher rate of vigilance during feeding, spent less time feeding and, when lying, more often adopted a vigilant posture (with head up than did female caribou in West Greenland. Moreover, a predation-vulnerable posture of lying down flat was observed in West Greenland but not in Alaska. Within Alaska, females with calves spent more time searching the environment than did those without calves. Finally, the amount of time individuals spent searching declined more gradually with group size in Alaska than in West Greenland, suggesting that what caribou perceive as a predator-safe threshold differs in the two areas. These results indicate that caribou, like several other species of ungulates, show behavioural adaptations to the risk of prédation which are relaxed when this risk is reduced.

  5. Using ultrasound measurements of rump fat to assess nutritional condition of woodland caribou in northern British Columbia, Canada

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    David D. Gustine

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Body reserves (fat and protein of cervids are important to the reproductive success of individuals, and therefore may limit productivity of populations. We used a portable ultrasound machine to measure thickness of rump fat for 39 woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou captured in the winters (January–February of 2003 and 2004. We compared thickness of rump fat between pregnant and non-pregnant individuals in the Besa-Prophet drainage of northern British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-eight of the 39 females captured in British Columbia were adults and 34 of the adult caribou were pregnant (89.5 ± 5.1%, x– ± binomial SE. Pregnant individuals had more rump fat (0.60 ± 0.067 cm than nonpregnant animals (0.20 ± 0.029 cm. Recognizing that deposition and mobilization of fat vary with age and possibly across the winter season, ultrasonography can be used as a non-invasive technique in the field to assist in estimating body fat of caribou.

  6. 8000 years of caribou and human seasonal migration in the Canadian Barrenlands

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    Bryan C. Gordon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are the common thread running through thousands of years of cultural evolution in northern mainland Canada. From the earliest Indian traditions, through the Pre-Dorset and Dene cultural evolution, up to historic times, the vast herds of migratory Barrenland caribou provided food, clothing and shelter. They determined the human cycle -- seasonal migrations, seasonal levels of fitness, and season of procreation. Caribou even permeated Dene mythology and supernatural beliefs. Within the Beverly caribou (R. t. groenlandicus range in the Canadian Barrenlands, investigation of 1002 archaeological sites points to long-term stability of human band and caribou herd interaction. Caribou bone and hunting tools occur in multiple levels, the earliest to 8000 years, based on 131 radiocarbon dates. Through time, specific hunting bands aligned with specific migratory barren-ground caribou herds. This relationship helps to explain observed archaeological and ethnological differences within different caribou ranges for these hunting bands. In general, biological evidence concurs with ethnographic and archaeological evidence. But short-term variations in migration routes between northern boreal forest, taiga and tundra may have followed changes in herd size and environment, e.g., unfavorable snow and ice conditions or forest fires. However, such influences were not discernible archaeologically.

  7. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  8. Changing Arctic ecosystems: resilience of caribou to climatic shifts in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Adams, Layne G.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative strives to inform key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information and forecasts for current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. Over the past 5 years, a focal area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the North Slope of Alaska. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past 60 years, yet the rate of change has been varied across the North Slope, leading scientists to question the future response and resilience of wildlife populations, such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus), that rely on tundra habitats for forage. Future changes in temperature and precipitation to coastal wet sedge and upland low shrub tundra are expected, with unknown consequences for caribou that rely on these plant communities for food. Understanding how future environmental change may affect caribou migration, nutrition, and reproduction is a focal question being addressed by the USGS CAE research. Results will inform management agencies in Alaska and people that rely on caribou for food.

  9. Structures for caribou management and their status in the circumpolar north

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    D.R. Klein

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Large herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus in Canada, Alaska, and Russia that winter in northern coniferous forests and summer in tundra of the Arctic have provided a sustainable source of meat and other products for indigenous peoples for thousands of years. Several different administrative structures for management of large caribou herds have emerged throughout the circumpolar North. In Russia under the previous Soviet government, the herd of the Taimyr Region, numbering around 500 000 caribou, was managed under a harvest quota system for both subsistence use by indigenous people and commercial sale of meat and skins. In North America, as indigenous peoples have gained increasing political empowerment, systems for caribou management have been undergoing change. Establishment of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board in Canada, with majority representation from users of the resource, provides a model and a test of the effectiveness of a comanagement system. The Western Arctic Herd in northwestern Alaska, numbering close to 500 000 caribou, has been managed under the traditional American system of game management, with user advisory groups, but with management decisions resting with a statewide Board of Game, whose major representation is from sport-hunting interests. The Porcupine Caribou Herd, which is shared by the United States and Canada, is the focus of an international agreement, in principle designed to assure its continued productivity and well-being. The diversity of systems for caribou management in the circumpolar North provides an opportunity for comparing their effectiveness.

  10. Habitat selection by a focal predator (Canis lupus) in a multiprey ecosystem of the northern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milakovic, B.; Parker, K.L.; Gustine, D.D.; Lay, R.J.; Walker, A.B.D.; Gillingham, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Large predators respond to land cover and physiography that maximize the likelihood of encountering prey. Using locations from global positioning system-collared wolves (Canis lupus), we examined whether land cover, vegetation productivity or change, or habitat-selection value for ungulate prey species themselves most influenced patterns of selection by wolves in a large, intact multiprey system of northern British Columbia. Selection models based on land cover, in combination with topographical features, consistently outperformed models based on indexes of vegetation quantity and quality (using normalized difference vegetation index) or on selection value to prey species (moose [Alces americanus], elk [Cervus elaphus], woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus], and Stone's sheep [Ovis dalli stonei]). Wolves generally selected for shrub communities and high diversity of cover across seasons and avoided conifer stands and non-vegetated areas and west aspects year-round. Seasonal selection strategies were not always reflected in use patterns, which showed highest frequency of use in riparian, shrub, and conifer classes. Patterns of use and selection for individual wolf packs did not always conform to global models, and appeared related to the distribution of land cover and terrain within respective home ranges. Our findings corroborate the biological linkages between wolves and their habitat related to ease of movement and potential prey associations. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Using social-ecological systems theory to evaluate large-scale comanagement efforts: a case study of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region

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    William Tyson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Comanagement efforts are increasingly tasked with overseeing natural resource governance at a large scale. I examine comanagement of subsistence harvesting in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR of the western Canadian Arctic, using a social-ecological systems framework. In doing so, this study joins a growing list of research that reviews design principles commonly found in successful small-scale commons management and applies them to a large resource area. This research uses the management of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas and barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus as case studies in understanding the management framework of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, as each species is important in Inuvialuit culture and is actively managed and monitored. Comanagement bodies in the study area display many of the institutional design principles that are characteristic of successful social-ecological systems. Particularly mentionable are the presence of well-organized nested enterprises and a strong incorporation of local knowledge and monitoring. This supports the application of institutional design principles in large-scale analyses of resource management. However, due to the network of policy and management outside the ISR that influences each species, this research suggests that in cases of wide-ranging resource bases, these types of analyses may be better suited to evaluating broad management networks rather than discrete governing regions.

  12. Morphological change in Newfoundland caribou: Effects of abundance and climate

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    Shane P. Mahoney

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The demographic and environmental influences on large mammal morphology are central questions in ecology. We investigated the effects of population abundance and climate on body size and number of male antler points for the La Poile and Middle Ridge caribou (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758 herds, Newfoundland, Canada. Across 40 years and 20-fold changes in abundance, adult males and females exhibited diminished stature as indicated by jawbone size (diastema and total mandible length and the number of antler points at the time of harvest. Associations between jawbone size and population abundance at birth were consistently negative for both herds, both sexes, and all age classes. Large-scale climate patterns, as measured by the North Atlantic Oscillation in the winter prior to birth, were also negatively associated with jawbone size. Declines in male antler size, as measured by the number of antler points, were not well predicted by either abundance or climate, suggesting other factors (e.g., current, rather than latent, foraging conditions may be involved. We conclude that these morphological changes indicate competition for food resources.

  13. Annual and monthly range fidelity of female boreal woodland caribou in respons to petroleum development

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    Boyan V. Tracz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-sector development in northern Alberta, Canada has been implicated as one factor influencing the decline of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Previous research showed that caribou are farther from petroleum-sector disturbances within their home range than expected. As petroleum development increases, the distance caribou can selectively place themselves relative to industrial disturbance must decrease, because distances between disturbances decrease. Conceptually, the number of local disturbances becomes so large that caribou either abandon their local avoidance behaviour or leave their traditional home range. We evaluated whether an intense petroleum- development event in northern Alberta was sufficient to result in home range abandonment by female woodland caribou. Using well locations as an index of petroleum development, we found that caribou studied from 1992 to 2000 did not change their annual or monthly range fidelity as a function of development intensity. Caribou remained in peatland complexes containing a large number of petroleum-sector disturbances rather than move to new areas, presumably because the risks of dispersing across upland habitat to reach other suitable habitat are high. Such range fidelity may have fitness consequences for woodland caribou if they suffer greater predation in areas where petroleum development is occurring.

  14. The spatial structure of habitat selection: A caribou's-eye-view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Stephen J.; Schaefer, James A.; Schneider, David C.; Mahoney, Shane P.

    2009-03-01

    Greater understanding of habitat selection requires investigation at the scales at which organisms perceive and respond to their environment. Such knowledge could reveal the relative importance of factors limiting populations and the extent of response to habitat changes, and so guide conservation initiatives. We conducted a novel, spatially explicit analysis of winter habitat selection by caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland, Canada, to elucidate the spatial scales of habitat selection. We combined conventional hierarchical habitat analysis with a newly developed geospatial approach that quantifies selection across scales as the difference in variance between available and used sites. We used both ordination and univariate analyses of lichen and plant cover, snow hardness and depth. This represents the first use of ordination with geostatistics for the assessment of habitat selection. Caribou habitat selection was driven by shallow, soft snow and high cover of Cladina lichens and was strongest at feeding microsites (craters) and broader feeding areas. Habitat selection was most evident at distance lags of up to 15 km, perhaps an indication of the perceptual abilities of caribou.

  15. Utility of stable isotope analysis in studying foraging ecology of herbivores: Examples from moose and caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Merav; Shochat, Einav; Adams, Layne G.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, researchers emphasized that patterns of stable isotope ratios observed at the individual level are a result of an interaction between ecological, physiological, and biochemical processes. Isotopic models for herbivores provide additional complications because those mammals consume foods that have high variability in nitrogen concentrations. In addition, distribution of amino acids in plants may differ greatly from that required by a herbivore. At northern latitudes, where the growing season of vegetation is short, isotope ratios in herbivore tissues are expected to differ between seasons. Summer ratios likely reflect diet composition, whereas winter ratios would reflect diet and nutrient recycling by the animals. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from blood samples of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces) in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. Stable isotope ratios of moose and caribou were significantly different from each other in late summer-autumn and winter. Also, late summer-autumn and winter ratios differed significantly between seasons in both species. Nonetheless, we were unable to evaluate whether differences in seasonal isotopic ratios were a result of diet selection or a response to nutrient recycling. We believe that additional studies on plant isotopic ratios as related to ecological factors in conjunction with investigations of diet selection by the herbivores will enhance our understanding of those interactions. Also, controlled studies investigating the relation between diet and physiological responses in herbivores will increase the utility of isotopic analysis in studying foraging ecology of herbivores.

  16. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

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    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  17. Movement pathways and habitat selection by woodland caribou during spring migration

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    D. Joanne Saher

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou are a threatened species throughout Canada. Special management is therefore required to ensure habitat needs are met, particularly because much of their current distribution is heavily influenced by resource extraction activities. Although winter habitat is thought to be limiting and is the primary focus of conservation efforts, maintaining connectivity between summer and winter ranges has received little attention. We used global positioning system data from an interprovincial, woodland caribou herd to define migratory movements on a relatively pristine range. Non-linear models indicated that caribou movement during migration was punctuated; caribou traveled for some distance (movement phase followed by a pause (resting/foraging phase. We then developed resource selection functions (RSFs, using case-controlled logistic regression, to describe resting/foraging sites and movement sites, at the landscape scale. The RSFs indicated that caribou traveled through areas that were less rugged and closer to water than random and that resting/foraging sites were associated with older forests that have a greater component of pine, and are further from water than were random available locations. This approach to analyzing animal location data allowed us to identify two patterns of habitat selection (travel and foraging/resting for caribou during the migratory period. Resultant models are important tools for land use planning to ensure that connectivity between caribou summer and winter ranges is maintained.

  18. Caribou calf deaths from intraspecific strife — a debatable diagnosis

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    Frank L. Miller

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available led to the deaths of several newborn barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus calves within a short period of time and on a small area. This event took place during calving in June 1958 on the calving ground of the Beverly caribou herd in the Northwest Territories. The lack of other examples of multiple deaths of newborn caribou calves from intraspecific strife and our findings on the same calving ground during a study of calf mortality in June 1981, 1982, and 1983 and a study of cow-calf behaviour in June 1981 and 1982 cause us to question the published explanation. As we rarely saw aggressive behaviour among cows and newborn calves that involved actual physical contact and none that resulted in injury or death and because we found instances of multiple killings of calves by wolves {Canis lupus we suggest that a probable alternative explanation of the 1958 findings is surplus killing by wolves. Most importantly, only direct observation of an event allows separation of a death caused by injuries due to intraspecific strife from a death caused by accidental injuries.

  19. Traditional behaviour and fidelity to caribou calving grounds by barren-ground caribou

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    Anne Gunn

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the fidelity of female barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp. of each herd to specific calving grounds is convincing. Involvement of learned behaviour in the annual return of those cows to the same calving grounds implies such actions are a form of «traditional» behaviour. Even wide variations in population size have not yet knowingly led to marked changes in size or location of calving grounds or prolonged abandonment of established ones. Rarely is the adoption of new calving grounds reported and emigration to another herd's calving ground or interchange between calving grounds has not yet been unequivocally documented. The calving experience of individual caribou and environmental pressures may modify the cow's use patterns of her calving grounds. The current definition of herds based on traditional calving grounds may require modification, if increasing caribou numbers result in changes in traditions. However, current data do not contradict either the fidelity to traditional calving grounds or the concept of herd identity based on that fidelity.

  20. Decision-support model to explore the feasibility of using translocation to restore a woodland caribou population in Pukaskwa National Park, Canada

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    Emily K. Gonzales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou have declined dramatically in the past century. Without intervention the most southern population of caribou in eastern North America is expected to disappear within 20 years. Although translocations have reintroduced and reinforced some populations, approximately half of caribou translocation efforts fail. Translocations are resource intensive and risky, and multiple interrelated factors must be considered to assess their potential for success. Structured decision-making tools, such as Bayesian belief networks, provide objective methods to assess different wildlife management scenarios by identifying the key components and relationships in an ecosystem. They can also catalyze dialogue with stakeholders and provide a record of the complex thought processes used in reaching a decision. We developed a Bayesian belief network for a proposed translocation of woodland caribou into a national park on the northeastern coast of Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. We tested scenarios with favourable (e.g., good physical condition of adult caribou and unfavourable (e.g., high predator densities conditions with low, medium, and high numbers of translocated caribou. Under the current conditions at Pukaskwa National Park, augmenting the caribou population is unlikely to recover the species unless wolf densities remain low (<5.5/1000 km2 or if more than 300 animals could be translocated.

  1. Caribou nursery site habitat characteristics in two northern Ontario parks

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    Natasha L. Carr

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent further range recession, habitat features essential to the life-history requisites of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou such as calving and nursery sites need to be protected for the persistence of the species. Woodland caribou may minimize predation risk during calving by either spacing out or spacing away from predators in the forest to calve on islands, wetlands, or shorelines. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of shoreline habitats used as calving and nursery sites by female woodland caribou in northern Ontario. Detailed vegetation and other site characteristics were measured at nursery sites used by cow-calf pairs in Wabakimi and Woodland Caribou Provincial Parks for comparison with shoreline sites that were not used by caribou within each park. Differences in habitat variables selected by female caribou in the two study areas reflect broad ecoregional differences in vegetation and topography. In Wabakimi Provincial Park, understorey tree density and ground detection distance played key roles in distinguishing nursery sites from sites that were not used. In Woodland Caribou Provincial Park, groundcover vegetation and shrub density were important in the selection of nursery sites by female caribou. Generally, female caribou in both parks selected nursery sites with greater slope, lower shrub density but thicker groundcover vegetation, including greater lichen abundance, and higher densities of mature trees than shoreline sites that were not used. The identification of these important features for caribou nursery sites provides a basis for improving their protection in future management policies and legislation.

  2. Little Smoky Woodland Caribou Calf Survival Enhancement Project

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    Kirkby G. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Little Smoky woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus herd is a boreal ecotype located in west central Alberta, Canada. This herd has declined steadily over the past decade and is currently thought to number approximately 80 animals. Factors contributing to the herds' decline appear related to elevated predator-caused mortality rates resulting from industrial caused landscape change. At current rates of decline, the herd is at risk of extirpation. A calf survival enhancement project was initiated in the first half of 2006 as a means of enhancing recruitment while other longer-term approaches were implemented. A total of 10 pregnant females were captured in early March and held in captivity until all calves were at least 3 weeks old. Before release, calves were radiocollared with expandable drop-off collars. Following release, survival of mother and offspring were tracked at intervals until the fall rut. Survival of penned calves was compared to "wild-born" calves at heel of non captive radiocollared females. This approach is compared to other techniques designed to increase recruitment in caribou.

  3. Energy-expending behaviour in frightened caribou when dispersed singly or in small bands

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    Otto Blehr

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of single, and small bands of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus when confronted by humans was compared with the energy—saving behaviour zoologists have ascribed to caribou in encounters with non-hunting wolves (Canis lupus. When confronted by me, or upon getting my scent, caribou ran away on all occasions. Their flight was occasionally interrupted by short stops to look back in my direction, but would continue on all occasions until they were out of sight. This behaviour is inconsistent with the one ascribed to caribou by zoologists when the intruder is a wolf instead of a human. In their view, the caribou stop their flight soon after the wolf gives up the chase, and accordingly save energy owing to their ability to distinguish between hunting and non-hunting wolves. However, small bands of caribou, as well as single animals, have never been observed to behave in this manner. On the contrary, the behaviour of caribou in such encounters is known to follow the same pattern as in their encounters with humans. Energy—saving behaviour is, however, sometimes observed when caribou become inquisitive about something in their surroundings. They will then readily approach as well as try to get down-wind of the object. When the object does not induce fear, it may simply be ignored, or charged before the caribou calm down. The effect of this "confirming behaviour" is that energy which would otherwise have been spent in needless flights from non-predators is saved.

  4. George’s Island, Labrador - A high-density predator-free refuge for a woodland caribou subpopulation?

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    Rebecca A. Jeffery

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The movement patterns and demographic parameters were measured for caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou on George’s Island (Labrador, Canada to determine if the population is separate from the Mealy Mountain Caribou Herd. Movements between George’s Island caribou and nearby Mealy Mountain caribou were examined through satellite telemetry (April 2005 to April 2006. Demographic information was collected through aerial classification surveys. The predator-free island is currently maintaining a density of 22.5-26.5 caribou/km2. Female survival appears high and the recruitment rate in late fall-early spring was 19.0-29.2% calves. Mainland caribou moved very little throughout the year, travelling no more than 53.7 km on average from their initial collaring locations. Also, satellite data indicated no mixing between animals on George’s Island and the mainland. The elevated caribou density and high proportion of calves suggest that George’s Island could at times be acting as a predator-free recruitment area and that George’s Island may be a subpopulation from which animals disperse to the mainland.

  5. Analysis of forest stands used by wintering woodland caribou in Ontario

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    K. Antoniak

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Two summers' field surveys at 9 locations in northwestern Ontario showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou wintering areas supported jack pine and black spruce stands with low tree densities (mean 1552 trees/ ha, 39% of a fully stocked stand, low basal areas (mean 14.14 m2/ha, low volumes (mean 116 mVha, 68% of Normal Yield Tables and short heights (95% of stands 12 m or less. Ecologically, most sights were classed V30. Significantly more lichen (averaging 39% lichen ground cover was found on plots used by caribou. Three measured areas showed few shrubs, possibly enhancing escape possibilities and reducing browse attractive to moose. An HIS model predicted known locations of caribou winter habitat from FRI data with 76% accuracy. Landsat imagery theme 3 (open conifer produced 74% accuracy. Combining these methods permitted prediction of all 50 test sites. The low volumes of timber found in caribou wintering areas suggest that setting aside reserves for caribou winter habitat would not sacrifice as much wood product value as might at first appear.

  6. The eastern migratory caribou: the role of genetic introgression in ecotype evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Manseau, Micheline; Trim, Vicki; Polfus, Jean; Wilson, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of contemporary animal groups is essential for conservation and management of endangered species like caribou (Rangifer tarandus). In central Canada, the ranges of two caribou subspecies (barren-ground/woodland caribou) and two woodland caribou ecotypes (boreal/eastern migratory) overlap. Our objectives were to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype and to assess the potential role of introgression in ecotype evolution. STRUCTURE analyses identified five higher order groups (i.e. three boreal caribou populations, eastern migratory ecotype and barren-ground). The evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype was best explained by an early genetic introgression from barren-ground into a woodland caribou lineage during the Late Pleistocene and subsequent divergence of the eastern migratory ecotype during the Holocene. These results are consistent with the retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet and the colonization of the Hudson Bay coastal areas subsequent to the establishment of forest tundra vegetation approximately 7000 years ago. This historical reconstruction of the eastern migratory ecotype further supports its current classification as a conservation unit, specifically a Designatable Unit, under Canada's Species at Risk Act. These findings have implications for other sub-specific contact zones for caribou and other North American species in conservation unit delineation.

  7. 137Cs concentrations in northern Alaskan Eskimos, 1962-79: effects of ecological, cultural and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of worldwide fallout 137 Cs were measured in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food chain of northern Alaska during the period 1962-79. Pronounced inputs of fallout occurred after major nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and 137 Cs was transmitted through the food chain to Eskimos with about a 2-yr delay due to environmental parameters. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) meat sampled during spring harvest contained 4 times the 137 Cs concentration of lichens obtained from their winter range. Calculated caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass Eskimos during winter ranged from approximately equal to 1 kg/day in 1964 to 0.16 kg/day in 1977. Several environmental factors affected seasonal patterns and amounts of 137 Cs transferred through the food chain. Maximum 137 Cs concentrations of approximately equal to 20 nCi/kg body weight in Eskimos occurred in 1964 and have now decreased to approximately equal to 0.5 nCi/kg, largely because of cultural and political factors. Radiation doses from 137 Cs body burdens during the study period ranged from 60 mrad/yr in 1962 to approximately equal to 140 mrad/yr during the 1962-64 maxima and decreased to 8 mrad/yr in 1979. (author)

  8. Towards a Caribou Habitat Management Strategy for Northwestern Ontario: Running the Gauntlet

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    Gerald D. Racey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A management strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou habitat is being developed in northwestern Ontario. This strategy is based upon a set of draft Timber Management Guidelines for the Provision of Woodland Caribou Habitat. These guidelines recommend maintaining a sustainable supply of winter habitat within large tracts of old forest, protecting calving areas and minimizing human disturbance. Due to the large temporal and spatial scale of caribou habitat management, an ecosystem-based approach is recommended. Public response to the strategy shows a strong dichotomy between environmental and utilitarian values among all the major stakeholder groups. The major issues raised by the public include security of industrial wood supply, quality of the knowledge base, level of awareness of caribou, economic impacts on remote communities, concern about environmental impacts and silvicultural know-how. The government is responding to these concerns as the strategy evolves. Current emphasis is placed on increasing awareness of the public, training resource managers in caribou biology, management and habitat planning, implementing interim habitat management prescriptions and studying the potential impact on wood supply. The final direction for a northwestern Ontario strategy to conserve woodland caribou habitat has yet to be decided, although a commitment has been made to strive for the conservation of woodland caribou populations and their habitat.

  9. Effects of global warming on the biology and management of the Porcupine caribou herd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou herd is a large migratory herd of Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that moves from winter ranges in taiga to calving and summering grounds north of the treeline in Alaska and the Northwest Territories. The migratory habits of the herd are described with reference to the major factors that govern the migration: spring snowmelt, summer insects, and winter snowfall. The effects of climate change (assuming a scenario involving a 2-4 week earlier period of snowmelt, a 2-4 degree C increase in summer temperature, and a 30-50% increase in winter snowfall) on caribou energetics are examined. Early snowmelt could have a potential benefit to caribou in early spring but could be detrimental by mid-June when energy and nutrient requirements are highest. Mosquito activity would increase, leading to a decrease in feeding time and an increased importance of insect relief areas in the mountains. Higher snowfall would also decrease feeding time and a tendency for the caribou to move to areas of low snow (Richardson Mountains and Ogilvie/Hart basins). An energetics model is applied to assess climate change effects on the weight change of productive adult female caribou. A 40% decline in parturition rate is predicted from the best-case to the worst-case (bad winter and high insect harassment). The impact of climate change on current wildlife management decisions is discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Vegetation characteristics of forest stands used by woodland caribou and those disturbed by fire or logging in Manitoba

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    Juha M. Metsaranta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in an area known as the Kississing-Naosap caribou range in west central Manitoba. The vegetation characteristics of areas used by caribou and areas disturbed by fire or logging were measured in order to develop a model to estimate habitat quality from parameters collected during stan¬dard resource inventories. There was evidence that habitat index values calculated using a visual score-sheet index could be used as the basis to relate parameters commonly collected during resource inventories to habitat suitability. Use of this model to select long and short-term leave areas during forest management planning could potentially mitigate some of the negative impacts of forest harvesting. Abundance of arboreal lichen and wind-fallen trees were important predictor variables in the suitability model, but their inclusion did not explain more variance in habitat suitability than models that did not include them. Extreme post-fire deadfall abundance may play a role in predator-prey dynamics by creating habitat that is equally unsuitable for all ungulates, and thus keeping both moose and caribou densities low.

  11. Further observations on rangiferine brucellosis in Alaskan carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiland, K A

    1975-01-01

    Antibodies against rangiferine brucellosis, Brucella suis type 4, are commonly found in the serum of various domestic and wild alaskian carnivores which feed on caribou, Rangifer tarandus granti, arctic Alaska. Sled dogs from five native villages on the range of the Artic caribou herd, but not from two villages on the the range of the Porcupine caribou herd, are commonly infected. Wolves (Canis lupus) and red foxes (Vulpes fulva) are less commonly infected. About 90% of the grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) associated with the Artic caribou herd and 30% of those associated with the porcupine caribou herd show serologic signs of exposure to Brucella, presumalby the enzootic strain present in Alaska caribou. This is the first evidence of natural Brucella infection in bears. It is concluded that infection of predators by enzootic strains of Brucella present in prey species (e.g., ruminants) is common to many areas of the world. Evidence from the literature and unpublished experimental data suggest that such infections may intefere with reproduction in wild species, but additional study is needed to clearly resolve this question.

  12. Seasonal climate variation and caribou availability: Modeling sequential movement using satellite-relocation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Craig; Berman, Matthew; West, Colin Thor; Kofinas, Gary P.; Griffith, Brad; Russell, Don; Dugan, Darcy

    2013-01-01

    Livelihood systems that depend on mobile resources must constantly adapt to change. For people living in permanent settlements, environmental changes that affect the distribution of a migratory species may reduce the availability of a primary food source, with the potential to destabilize the regional social-ecological system. Food security for Arctic indigenous peoples harvesting barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) depends on movement patterns of migratory herds. Quantitative assessments of physical, ecological, and social effects on caribou distribution have proven difficult because of the significant interannual variability in seasonal caribou movement patterns. We developed and evaluated a modeling approach for simulating the distribution of a migratory herd throughout its annual cycle over a multiyear period. Beginning with spatial and temporal scales developed in previous studies of the Porcupine Caribou Herd of Canada and Alaska, we used satellite collar locations to compute and analyze season-by-season probabilities of movement of animals between habitat zones under two alternative weather conditions for each season. We then built a set of transition matrices from these movement probabilities, and simulated the sequence of movements across the landscape as a Markov process driven by externally imposed seasonal weather states. Statistical tests showed that the predicted distributions of caribou were consistent with observed distributions, and significantly correlated with subsistence harvest levels for three user communities. Our approach could be applied to other caribou herds and could be adapted for simulating the distribution of other ungulates and species with similarly large interannual variability in the use of their range.

  13. Modeling the decline of the Porcupine Caribou Herd, 1989-1998: the importance of survival vs. recruitment

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    Stephen M. Arthur

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Porcupine caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd increased from approximately 100 000 animals during the 1970s to 178 000 in 1989, then declined to 129 000 by 1998. Our objective was to model the dynamics of this herd and investigate the potential that lower calf recruitment, as was observed during 1991-1993, produced the observed population changes. A deterministic model was prepared using estimates of birth and survival rates that reproduced the pattern of population growth from 1971-1989. Then, parameters were changed to simulate effects of lower calf recruitment and adult survival. Reducing recruitment for 3 years caused an immediate reduction in population size, but the population began to recover in 5-6 years. Even a dramatic temporary reduction in recruitment did not explain the continuing decline after 1995. In contrast, a slight but persistent reduction in adult survival caused a decline that closely followed the observed pattern. This suggests that survival of adults, and perhaps calves, has declined since the late 1980s.

  14. "Letting the leaders pass": barriers to using traditional ecological knowledge in comanagement as the basis of formal hunting regulations

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    Elisabeth Padilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied a case of failure in applying traditional ecological knowledge (TEK in comanagement as the basis for formal hunting regulations. We based the study on the Porcupine Caribou (Rangifer tarandus Herd "let the leaders pass" policy, established for the Dempster Highway of the Western Canadian Arctic, and identified conditions creating barriers in the successful application of TEK through comanagement. Stated as propositions, identified barriers include: (1 the context-specific nature of TEK limits its application in resource management regulations; (2 changes in traditional authority systems, hunting technology, and the social organization of harvesting caribou affect the effectiveness of TEK approaches in a contemporary social setting; (3 indigenous efforts toward self-government and political autonomy limit regional comanagement consensus in a heterogeneous cultural landscape; (4 the mismatch of agency enforcement of hunting regulations and TEK-based education is problematic. We analyzed the case through four historical phases of caribou management, complementing the study with a literature review of TEK and wildlife comanagement to explain why TEK integration of caribou leaders in regulatory resource management fell short of success. Identifying and understanding the social dynamics related to these barriers make apparent solutions for transforming the comanagement process.

  15. The porcupine caribou herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Brad; Douglas, David C.; Walsh, Noreen E.; Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Russell, Donald E.; White, Robert G.; Cameron, Raymond D.; Whitten, Kenneth R.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Documentation of the natural range of variation in ecological, life history, and physiological characteristics of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the Porcupine caribou herd is a necessary base for detecting or predicting any potential effects of industrial development on the performance (e.g., distribution, demography, weight-gain of individuals) of the herd. To demonstrate an effect of development, post-development performance must differ from pre-development performance while accounting for any natural environmental trends.We had 2 working hypotheses for our investigations: 1) performance of the Porcupine caribou herd was associated with environmental patterns and habitat quality, and 2) access to important habitats was a key influence on demography.We sought to document the range of natural variation in habitat conditions, herd size, demography (defined here as survival and reproduction), sources and magnitude of mortality, distribution, habitat use, and weight gain and loss, and to develop an understanding of the interactions among these characteristics of the herd.In addition, we investigated ways that we could use this background information, combined with auxiliary information from the adjacent Central Arctic caribou herd, to predict the direction and magnitude of any potential effects of industrial oil development in the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on Porcupine caribou herd calf survival on the herd's calving grounds during June.

  16. Ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd

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    Kenneth R. Whitten

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described general patterns of population regulation that fit most caribou (Rangifer tarandus herds. Nevertheless, specific factors operating on particular populations vary greatly, and efforts to categorize herds according to the general patterns often lead to confusion. It is difficult for biologists to attempt to describe population dynamics in terms of density relationships for wide-ranging arctic caribou such as the Porcupine Herd. In these herds density varies as a function of dispersal and erratic movement patterns and is not simply the number of caribou divided by a fixed range area. Density is also a poor surrogate for resource availability per individual caribou because climatic factors affect forage and/or access to forage independendy of caribou numbers. Thus classic signs of nutritional stress such as delayed puberty, reduced productivity, and winter starvation can occur when a population is small as well as large and do not necessarily denote food competition brought on by high density, per se. Nutritional stress and exacerbated predation due to adverse weather conditions occasionally cause the Porcupine Herd to decline, and limiting factors such as poor nutrition, predation, harvest, accidents, and disease act in combination to keep herd growth rates low during periods of good weather. Adverse weather setbacks occur frequently, and the herd remains within a fairly restricted range of densities over long time periods. There is no true density dependent regulation and no equilibrium in this system.

  17. Grizzly bears and calving caribou: What is the relation with river corridors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Researchers have debated the effect of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline (TAP) and associated developments to caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the central Arctic herd (CAH) since the 1970s. Several studies have demonstrated that cows and calves of the CAH avoided the TAP corridor because of disturbance associated with the pipeline, whereas others have indicated that female caribou of the CAH avoided riparian habitats closely associated with the pipeline. This avoidance was explained as a predator-avoidance strategy. We investigated the relation between female caribou and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) use of river corridors on the yet undisturbed calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH) in northeastern Alaska. On the coastal plain, caribou were closer to river corridors than exp