Sample records for reindeer rangifer tarandus

  1. Wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (L. in Chukotka

    Felix B. Chernyavskii


    Full Text Available We reviewed historical records of the abundance and distribution of wild reindeer {Rangifer tarandus L. in Chukotka and studied reindeer numbers, distribution and behavior from 1983 to 1993. There were large numbers of wild reindeer in Chukotka until the end of the eighteenth century, but during the nineteenth century the population declined probably from intensive harvest after the introduction of firearms by the Cossacks. During the nineteenth century herding of domestic reindeer also increased, and reindeer herders continued to hunt wild reindeer intensively. During the 1950s there were only about 8500 wild reindeer in two separate herds in Chukotka. By the late 1970s the wild reindeer population had increased to about 11 000. Ten years later we estimated 16 534 reindeer, and found only one contiguous population. Presently, the population calves and spends the summer in the Anadyr Uplands and migrates west and southwest to spend the winter in forest tundra and northern taiga regions. Predators, primarily wolves and brown bears, kill a significant number of calves. Today, the wild reindeer in Chukotka coexist with 300 000 domestic reindeer. However, current costs of gasoline and helicopters make it prohibitive to herd reindeer in much of central Chukotka, so that wild reindeer have room for expansion. Poaching is a major conservation problem. Poachers shoot wild reindeer from helicopters to obtain velvet antlers. Leaders of domestic reindeer cooperatives encourage poaching by telling people that wild reindeer are in fact just stray domestic reindeer and there is no enforcement of game laws.

  2. Salivary glands in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Svein D. Mathiesen


    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to compare the size of salivaty glands in Svalbard reindeer {Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus in relation to feeding strategy, season and reproductive status. The mean body mass (BM, standard deviation j in adult non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer was 72.0, s = 4.2, kg (n = 8 in September and 46.7, s = 7.1, kg (« = 4 in April. The mean BM of adult non-lactating Norwegian reindeer was 67.5, s = 7.7, kg (» = 8 in September and 59.2, s = 9.6, kg (n = 9 in March. In non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer the mean combined mass of parotid glands was 82.7, s = 4.5, g in September and 58.8, s = 8.7, g in April (P < 0.05. In the Norwegian reindeer the mean combined mass of the parotid glands was 95.2, s = 14.4, g in Septembet and 68.1, s = 9.5, g in Match (P < 0.05. We wete not able to find any sub-species differences in the size of the salivaty glands which could be related to phenotypic difference in feeding strategy. Both sub-species had parotid glands sizes similar to that of intermediate ruminant types, ranging from 0.11-0.14% of BM. The larger absolute size of salivaty glands in summer compared to winter reflects the importance of high rates of production of saliva when the dry matter intake and microbial fermentation is high.

  3. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Magdalena eLarska


    Full Text Available Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linneus 1758 includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies and North America (caribou subspecies. Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990’s. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2 closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the

  4. Digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    Handeland, K; Boye, M; Bergsjø, B; Bondal, H; Isaksen, K; Agerholm, J S


    Outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are described. The outbreaks occurred in late summer and autumn 2007 and 2008, subsequent to periods with an unusually high number of days with precipitation and high air temperature. Lesions were generally restricted to one foot and the disease incidence was highest in calves. Single limbs from 20 animals and six whole carcasses were submitted for laboratory examination. Gross lesions were characterized by swelling of the fetlock to coronary band area and cutaneous sinus tracts with sparse discharge of pus. Subcutaneous tissue was inflamed and oedematous with focal necrosis. Tendons, tendon sheaths, joints and periosteum of the digital bones were often affected. Animals shot during winter showed severe chronic periostitis and osteomyelitis and necrotizing deforming arthritis. Microscopically, skin lesions were characterized by deep ulcers with centrally located necrotic tissue, bordered by a zone of oedema and intense inflammation with granulation tissue and fibrosis. Necrosis, suppurative inflammation and oedema were found in the synovial membranes, tendons and tendon sheaths. Digital bone lesions were characterized by necrosis, fibrosis and extensive bone proliferation. Vasculitis and thrombosis were common in all lesions. Elongate filamentous gram-negative bacteria in necrotic lesions from all animals were identified as Fusobacterium necrophorum by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. F. necrophorum was cultured from the foot lesions of six animals. Five of these isolates were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The sequences were identical and differed from all other strains listed in GenBank. These results are consistent with circulation of a reindeer-adapted pathogenic strain of F. necrophorum in the wild reindeer population, causing outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis following warm and humid summers.

  5. Nikander's Thesis: Studies on the exocrine ducts of the pancreas and the liver in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L

    Sven Nikander


    Full Text Available This thesis is based on the following papers, which will be referred to in the next by their Roman numerals:I Nikander, S. 1990. On the anatomy and topography of the pancreas and the pancreatic duct in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.. Rangifer 10: 25-29.II Rahko, T. & Nikander, S. 1990. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.. Rangifer 10: 3-8.III Rahko, T. & Nikander, S. 1990. Histochemical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer. Rangifer 10: 9-15.IV Rahko, T. & Nikander, S. 1990. Electron microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer. Rangifer 10: 17-23.V Nikander, S. & Rahko, T. 1990. Ultra-structure of granulated cells in the bile duct of reindeer. Rangifer Special Issue No. 3: 363-367.

  6. Laparoscopic-Assisted Cryptorchidectomy in an Adult Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Romain Pizzi


    Full Text Available A successful laparoscopic-assisted cryptorchidectomy is reported in a novel species, the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. The procedure was performed in an 8-year-old adult positioned in dorsolateral oblique recumbency, with an open approach midline subumbilical placement of the primary 10 mm optical port and carbon dioxide insufflation at 12 mmHg. Three 5 mm instrument ports were inserted under visualization in the left caudal abdomen as the retained testicle was localized to the internal inguinal ring. A 5 mm flexible organ retractor was used to assist in localizing the retained testicle. This procedure provided a less invasive alternative to open laparotomy. The authors are unaware of any published reports of laparoscopy in reindeer, or of laparoscopic assisted cryptorchidectomy in deer species.

  7. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Thrine Moen Heggberget


    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  8. Variation in gestation length among captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    Rowell, J E; Shipka, M P


    An estimated 90% of reindeer females are mated in a 10- to 21-d interval and give birth in an equally synchronized manner. Reported gestation length in reindeer is highly variable (range, 203 to 240 d), almost twice the reindeer estrous cycle length. Previously, we identified a significant, negative relationship between gestation length and conception date in a small group of reindeer. In the current study, the negative relationship was investigated in a switchback design, where reindeer were divided into two groups synchronized for early and late mating over a 2-yr trial. Regression analysis of 11 paired observations produced a negative (Pgestation length and conception date (slope= -0.31). Dam weight at breeding and prior to parturition, calf birth weight, and calf sex were not significant variables in the regression. Regression analysis of a larger data set from two University of Alaska Fairbanks reindeer herds, where conception date (verified by systemic progesterone) and gestation length were recorded (historical data set), supported previous conclusions (n=70; slope= -0.37; Pgestation length, there was a positive relationship (r(2)=0.19; P=0.014) between male birth weight and gestation length in the larger data set. The negative relationship between conception date and gestation length enhanced calving synchrony, though the limits of gestation plasticity and underlying mechanisms are not clear. The potential role of photoperiod on early embryonic development is discussed.

  9. Reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus response towards human activities

    Eigil Reimers


    Full Text Available We address the question of how human activities and infrastructure influence reindeer/caribou’s (Rangifer tarandus behaviour and habitat use and review studies based on current methodologies. Anthropogenic activities have a direct affect on Rangifer behaviour through the senses hearing, sight and smell, and all of these are important tools for behavioural risk assessment. Short term indirect responses, such as habituation, sensitisation, avoidance, and displacement, develop through neutral, positive or negative associations towards stimulus in terms of Rangifer’s ability to experience, learn, and remember. Long term behavioural responses develop through interaction with predators and, for reindeer, also domestication. A survey of the literature dealing with behavioural studies reveals that although Rangifer in most cases retreat from anthropogenic activities, comfort distances (i.e. distances beyond which animal behaviour or activity are not influenced are relatively short. In most cases, energetic implications appear moderate and small compared to other natural, biotic influences such as disturbance (and death caused by insect and/or predator harassment. Unless obstructing access, physical constructions of various kinds apparently have limited effects on Rangifer behaviour or habitat use. On the other hand, constructions that do obstruct or limit access and recreational or other motorized and non-motorized activities appear to have stronger impacts on avoidance and redistribution of Rangifer. Behavioural effects that might decrease survival and reproduction include retreat from favourable habitat near disturbance sources and reduction of time spent feeding with resulting energy depletion over time. Rangifer habitat use, habitat avoidance, and feeding preferences are governed by a complexity of natural interacting factors. Domestication, habituation and sensitisation are essential in shaping Rangifer’s adaptability, and should be included

  10. Terje Skogland; Life history charcteristics of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in relation to their food resources; ecological effects and behavioral adaptations

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.)


    The thesis Life history characteristics of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) is approved for the Phil.dr's degree at the University of Oslo. The dissertation took place in Oslo November 9. 1985.

  11. Terje Skogland; Life history charcteristics of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. in relation to their food resources; ecological effects and behavioral adaptations

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.


    Full Text Available The thesis Life history characteristics of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. is approved for the Phil.dr's degree at the University of Oslo. The dissertation took place in Oslo November 9. 1985.

  12. The diagnosis of early pregnancy and missed abortion in European and Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus and Rangifer tarandus platyrhyncus

    Tata Ringberg


    Full Text Available Progesterone levels in peripheral plasma from a total of 38 pregnant an non-pregnant Norwegian and Svalbard reindeer (R. tarandus tarandus and R. t. platyrhyncbus, respectively, were measured 5 to 6 times between November and May, and the size of 18 corresponding fetuses determined. The serum levels of progesterone were similar in the two subspecies, and increased from 1.5 nmol/1 (non-pregnant level to 10—30 nmol/1 in November in pregnant animals. A maximum of 40—80 nmol/1 was reached in April whereafter the levels declined as time of delivery (beginning of June approached. Animals with «missed» abortions had progesterone levels in serum of 5—6 nmol/1 in November. The size of the fetuses in November (average 3.7 and 30.7 mm makes delayed implantation in reindeer unlikely.Tidlig diagnostisering av drektighet og skjult abort i europeisk rein og Svalbardrein (Rangifer tarandus tarandus og Rangifer tarandus platyrhuncus.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Progesteron er det viktigste drektighetshormon hos pattedyr, og allerede tidlig i drektighetsperioden kan man hos en rekke arter påvise en økning i konsentrasjonen av dette hormon i blodet. Det har vært diskutert om det samme var tilfelle hos rein. Hvis det var så, ville det være mulig ved hjelp av en enkelt blodprøve på høsten å bestemme om dyret var drektig eller ei, og således ha et bedre grunnlag for å velge ut simler for slakt. Formålet med de forsøkene som er beskrevet i denne artikkel var derfor å måle progesteron-verdiene i blodet hos drektige og ikke-drektige simler for å se om de førstnevnte hadde høyere nivå, og dernest å se om det var en sammenheng mellom fosterets størrelse og progesteron-nivået. Til forsøkene ble det brukt tretti V2—2V2 år gamle simler fra reineier John Nordfjells flokk på Røros, samt åtte Svalbard-rein simler. Fra de norske rein ble blodprøver og fostre samlet under slaktning d. 26. november 1979, og fra Svalbard-reinen ble det

  13. Theileriosis in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) associated with a potentially novel Theileria sp.

    Garner, Bridget C; Holman, Patricia; Berent, Linda M


    A 5-year-old male neutered reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from Missouri was presented with a 3-week history of anorexia, respiratory distress, lethargy, and weight loss. Blood smear review revealed that a small percentage of RBCs contained small (1-2 μm in length) pleomorphic piroplasms (signet ring, rod- or pear-shaped, and elongate forms) with an eccentric magenta nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm. Nested PCR to specifically amplify a portion of the piroplasm small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was performed on DNA extracted from an EDTA specimen of whole blood. Subsequent sequence analyses showed similarity between the reindeer hemoparasite and Theileria spp SSU rRNA gene sequences in the GenBank database, with highest similarity to those of a Theileria sp in a White-tailed deer from North Texas (AY735132, AY735133). The reindeer and North Texas Theileria sp are genetically distinct from, albeit closely related to, the White-tailed deer Theileria sp (subsequently referred to as T cervi). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first identification of Theileria of this genotype in a reindeer. Historically, T tarandirangiferis infection was found with associated mortality in reindeer in Russia, but reports predate molecular characterization. Hence, the relationship of T tarandirangiferis with either T cervi or this agent remains unknown. T cervi is not typically pathogenic in White-tailed deer in the US unless the animal is immune-compromised by stress or disease; however, mortality from T cervi infection in reindeer has been reported.

  14. Endocrinology of pregnancy and early pregnancy detection by reproductive hormones in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    Ropstad, E; Veiberg, V; Säkkinen, H; Dahl, E; Kindahl, H; Holand, O; Beckers, J F; Eloranta, E


    The endocrinology was studied throughout pregnancy in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) located in Oulu, Finland (65 degrees N, 25 degrees E) with 13 captive, semi domestic adult females. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and estrone sulphate (E1SO4), 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha (PG-metabolite) and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG). The mean plasma P4 concentration peaked twice during gestation: at around 24 and three weeks prior to calving. In pregnant females the plasma PAG concentration increased over basal concentrations 21-30 days after the estimated day of conception and peaked at the time of calving. The concentrations of E2 and E1SO4 remained low until 60 days before calving when a rapid increase was found for both hormones. The mean plasma concentration of PG-metabolite increased throughout pregnancy to a maximum at parturition. The estimated mean (range) gestation length was 216 (212-220) days. Judged from measures on reproductive organs collected from 86 free-ranging, semi-domestic female reindeer of unknown age presented for slaughter at Roros, Norway (63 degrees N, 11 degrees E) in the second week of December 1999, it was concluded that the breeding season lasted from early September until the end of November. The results also showed that plasma PAG concentration could provide a tool for detection of pregnancy in reindeer.

  15. The Scandinavian Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) after the last glacial maximum: time, seasonality and human exploitation

    Petersen, Erik Brinch; Aaris Sørensen, Kim; Mühldorff, Rudi


    Antlers and bones of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most frequently found vertebrate remains from the Late Glacial deposits of Southern Scandinavia. The Danish collection now consists of more than 350 specimens and of these 47 have been radiocarbon dated extending the range of occurrence...

  16. Rumen function in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus after sub-maintenance feed intake and subsequent feeding

    Anna Nilsson


    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to ascertain how different feeding strategies affect the rumen function of reindeer after nutritional deprivation. Rumen adaptation to various diets, after restricted feeding, was studied in 44 eight-month-old semi-domesticated female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. All animals were initially fed a simulated winter diet based on lichens (lichen diet. A control group, continuously offered the lichen diet ad libitum, was compared to four groups of reindeer that were first restrictively fed (half the ad libitum ration for eight days followed by one day without feed. The rumen content of restrictively fed animals had higher pH, lower dry matter content and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration, a changed composition of VFAs, and lower counts of bacteria compared to that of the control group. The effect was less dramatic than previously reported for reindeer starved for several days. On day 10, the four restrictively fed groups were introduced to different diets. One group was re-fed the lichen diet ad libitum and did not differ from the control group when the experiment ended after five weeks of feeding. Two groups were fed grain-based reindeer feed (pellets combined with either lichens or grass silage, and one group was fed silage with a gradually increased addition of pellets. Diarrhoea and so called “wet belly” occurred initially in the three latter groups. After five weeks of feeding, the reindeer in the three pellet-fed groups had an altered composition of VFAs and higher counts of protozoa, and also tended to have higher total VFA concentration in the rumen, compared to the control animals and those re-fed the lichen diet. Only small changes were observed in the size of rumen papillae and these could be associated with energy intake. Protozoa decreased over time on the lichen diet. This study confirmed that rumen function was significantly affected by a relatively short period of restricted feed intake

  17. Forage chemistry and the digestive system in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in northern Norway and on South Georgia

    Svein D. Mathiesen


    Full Text Available Comparative chemical and botanical analyses of the reticulo-rumen content (RR and the fill of the digestive system were carried out in free-living Norwegian reindeer {Rangifer t. tarandus on South Georgia (SG in summer (mean body mass (BM = 74 kg, n - 10, and in northern Norway in late summer (NS (mean BM = 77 kg, n = 6 and winter (NW (mean BM = 60 kg, n = 11. The RR of SG reindeer contained mainly grasses, while grasses dominated in NS reindeer and woody plants and lichens in NW reindeer. Mean ruminal plant cell-wall contents (CWC comprised 37% of organic dry matter (OM in SG reindeer and 50 and 69% in NS and NW reindeer, respectively. The high CWC in NW reindeer was due to high intake of lichens containing as much as 45% hemi-cellulose. Mean ruminal content of lignin was as low as 5% of OM in SG reindeer, which was different (P < 0.05 from NS (14% and NW reindeer (15%, respectively. The mean total gastro-inresrinal tract (GIT (fill and tissue weight was 27% of BM in SG reindeer, different (P < 0.05 from NS (18% of BM and NW reindeer (22% of BM, respectively. Wet weight RR content was 14.5% of BM in SG reindeer, not different from NS (12.2% of BM and NW reindeer (14.2% of BM. The ratio between the wet weight content of the distal fermentation chamber (DFC and the RR wet weight content was 1:10 in SG reindeer, different (P < 0.05 from NS (1:14 and NW reindeer (1:14. We did not find any significant differences between the intestinal lengths of the groups investigated. It was concluded that the degree of fill of the different parts of GIT in reindeet seems to be related to the lignin content of plants eaten and not only of seasonal changes in appetite and availability of plants. Our data stress the fact that reindeer are highly adaptable to a wide range of different dietary plants, even in the southern hemisphere.

  18. Growth and relationship of live weight to body measurements in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Mauri Nieminen


    Full Text Available Estimation of live weight from measurements of body dimensions is useful in many management activities with domestic animals. In present study live weight was measured from 2932 female and 1037 male semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. during different seasons in 1969-85. The age of reindeer varied between 1 day and 14 yrs. Back length (along back from second spinous process to base of tail and chest girth (just behind front legs were taken also from 1490 female and 510 male reindeer. The growth of reindeer from birth to adulthood was cumulative consisting of a rapid weight accretion during summers followed by a weight loss or stasis during winters. The mathematical analyses of the growth based on exponential solutions gave average values for growth of female and male reindeer. Body weight of females increased until the age of 4.5 yrs and that of males until the age of 5.5 yrs. During winter and spring body weight of hinds decreased 10 to 15 kg and that of stags 30 to 50 kg in different age groups. Significant linear regressions were found between live weight and back length (r = 0.809 and 0.892, live weight and chest girth (r = 0.860 and 0.872 and live weight and combined body measure (back length + chest girth (r = 0.877 and 0.941 and live weight and body volume (r = 0.905 and 0.954, respectively in female and male reindeer. Exponential regressions gave, however, the best estimations of live weight with combined body measure.

  19. Variation in blood selenium and serum vitamin E in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus described by location, husbandry, and season

    Karyn Bischoff


    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are important livestock for arctic and subarctic herders, including those in North America, but as climate change affects traditional herding practices, alternative methods of rearing (such as captive rearing will likely become common. Proper nutrition is critical in livestock production, but there is minimal information available on circulating nutrient concentrations in reindeer, who are adapted to a unique climate. This study looks at 2 important antioxidants. Blood and serum were taken from female reindeer from three herds:  a free-ranging herd from the Seward Peninsula, Alaska (AK, during the summer, and two captive herds (one in Fairbanks, AK and one in Upstate New York (NY during the summer and winter. Selenium (Se and vitamin E concentrations were described stratified on season (when possible, location, and management practices (captive or free range. Herd mean values across seasons for Se ranged from 2.42 to 4.88 µmol/L. Herd mean values across seasons for vitamin E ranged from 5.27 to 6.89 µmol/L.

  20. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus feeding on lichens and mushrooms: traditional ecological knowledge among reindeer-herding Sami in northern Sweden

    Berit Inga


    Full Text Available The study was performed in four reindeer-herding districts (Sami villages in northern Sweden. Reindeer herding Sami, born in 1950 or earlier, were interviewed about reindeer foraging behaviour on lichens and mushrooms, especially relating to non-summer grazing habits, and about characteristics of a good winter feeding ground. The informants claimed that lichens are preferably grazed in the wintertime, but that they also may be eaten in the summertime when the weather is cold and humid. Mushrooms were chosen in the autumn months August and September, but according to some informants mushrooms may also be eaten during late autumn (from Oct. when frozen and under the snow. The reindeer herders had different names for lichens, which in general terms describe their appearance and habitat. For mushrooms they only used one Sami name. Ground lichens preferred by reindeer are Cladonia species, while the nitrogen-fixing lichen species such as Nephroma arcticum and Stereocaulon pascale were said not to be preferred by the reindeer. Snow conditions are very important, and the less snow (and the softer it is, the better. Habitats where reindeer herders know from experience that snow conditions tend to be problematic, e.g. in moist and open areas with small trees, are used early in the winter (Oct.–Jan., before too much snow has accumulated. A good winter grazing area should have lichens. It is preferably a dry pine (Pinus sylvestris forest heath with large, old and wide-crowned trees to shelter the ground from snow and thereby ease the cratering by reindeer. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Renens (Rangifer tarandus tarandus bete av lavar och svampar: Traditionell ekologisk kunskap bland renskötande samer i norra Sverige Studien genomfördes i fyra renskötseldistrikt (samebyar i norra Sverige. Totalt 22 renskötande samer, födda 1950 eller tidigare, blev intervjuade om renens betande av lavar och svampar, renens vinterbete och om vad som karakt

  1. Linguatula serrata in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    Claes Rehbinder


    Full Text Available A high prevalence (24,2% of the tongue-worm Lingutula serrata was found in reindeer yearlings. Apparently the high incidence found in this material indicates that the parasite is well adapted to reindeer; the reaction of the nasal mucosa is very mild. The abscence of clinical manifestations and the hidden localization in sinuses which are rarely inspected at slaughter or autopsy is most probably the reason why L. serrata is seldom observed.Tungmask (Linguatula serrata hos svensk skogsren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: En hög frekvens(24,2% av tungmask (Linguatula serrata påvisades hos årskalv av skogsren. Den ringa våvnadsreaktion som forelag antyder att L serrata troligen ar val anpassad till ren. Att endast ett fåtal rapporter om forekomst av L serrata hos ren foreligger torde bero på att parasiten inte ger några kliniska symptom samt dess i huvudsak gomda lokalisation i overkåkshåligheterna vilka sållan inspekteras vid slakt eller obduktion. L serrata år dårfor sannolikt vanligare hos svenska renar ån man tidigare antagit.

  2. Evidence of parapox-, alphaherpes- and pestivirus infections in carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus from Finnmark, Norway

    Morten Tryland


    Full Text Available During March to May 2000, 48 carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus were collected on winter pastures and calving grounds from two herds in western Finnmark and two herds in eastern Finnmark, northern Norway. The animals were autopsied and blood and tissue samples were collected for serology (alphaherpes- and pestivirus; virus neutralization test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; parapoxvirus; B2L gene investigations. Autopsy revealed that 39 of 48 animals (81% had died of emaciation. Parapoxvirus-specific DNA was detected in samples from 6 of 48 animals (12.5%; liver, parotid salivary gland and/or pulmonary lymph nodes. A DNA sequence of 376 base pairs from a PCR amplicon obtained from a liver sample from one animal showed 98-99% identity with orf virus strain Orf-11 and reindeer parapoxvirus isolates from Norway and Finland (1992 and 1994, 92-93% similarity with pseudocowpoxvirus and 87% similarity with bovine papular stomatitis virus. Alphaherpes- and pestivirus antibodies were detected in 10% and 33% of the animals, respectively. These results indicates that parapoxvirus, presumably orf-virus, is present among reindeer also in Finnmark, although contagious ecthyma has never been reported in reindeer in this important reindeer herding area. Furthermore, they show that herpes- and pestiviruses are still endemic in reindeer herds in Finnmark. The nature of these viruses and their impact on reindeer health and reproduction and reindeer herding economy should be further addressed, as well as the possibility that these viruses may be transferred between reindeer and domestic animals in this region.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: I løpet av perioden mars-mai 2000 ble 48 reinsdyrkadavre (Rangifer tarandus tarandus samlet inn fra vinterbeiter og kalvingsområder fra to flokker i Vest-Finnmark og to i Øst-Finnmark, Norge. Dyrene ble obdusert, og blod og vevsprøver ble samlet for påvisning av antistoffer mot

  3. Calf mortality of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in the Finnish reindeer-herding area

    Mauri Nieminen


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} During 1999-2008 calf mortality was studied in six reindeer-herding cooperatives in Northern Finland, where 3942 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were equipped with radio mortality collars. The calves were weighed and earmarked mostly at 2-5 days of age, or at 2-8 weeks of age. Altogether 460 dead radio-collared calves were found from calving in May until winter round-ups in October-January. In northern mountain herding cooperatives, the average mortality of calves varied between 7-12%. On average, 39-54% of calves found dead were attributed to predation. Golden eagles killed 0-3.5% of calves in different years and areas in Ivalo and Käsivarsi cooperatives. Golden eagles were responsible for 33-43% of the cases and 84-93% of all identified predation. Most calves killed by golden eagles were found in July-August and in open areas. Calves killed by golden eagles were significantly (P<0.01 lighter than those not predated. No predation occurred in the Poikajärvi cooperative, but the annual mortality of calves varied between 0-35% in cooperatives near the Russian border. In Oivanki cooperative brown bears killed on average 2% of the radio-collared calves. Most predation (87% occurred at the end of May and in early June. In the Kallioluoma cooperative, predator-killed calves found

  4. Ultrastructure of the cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from skeletal muscle of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Bjørn Gjerde


    Full Text Available Mature muscle cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from Rangifer tarandus were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The long and slender cysts were located within skeletal muscle cells, and were bounded by a unit membrane, the cyst membrane. The cysts were provided with closely spaced flexible, hairlike surface processes, measuring up to 12.6 |im in length and 0.3 to 0.6 \\lm in diameter. The projections had a smooth surface, whereas the cyst membrane formed numerous hexagonally packed vesicular invaginations between the bases of the projections. The cyst membrane was reinforced by an underlying thin layer of electron-dense material, except at the points where it was invaginated. Cyst ground substance formed a thin layer at the periphery of the cysts, filled the core of the projections, and formed thin septa that divided the interior of the cysts into numerous compartments. Most compartments contained a large number of tightly packed cystozoites, whereas a few metrocytes were forund in each of a few compartments at the periphery of the cysts. Some of the cystozoites multiplied by endodyogeny. The metrocytes displayed a vacuolation of their cytoplasm. The cysts of S. rangi were similar in surface morphology to the sarcocysts of certain other Sarcocystis species reported from other intermediate hosts.Ultrastrukturen til cyster av Sarcocystis rangi frå skjelettmuskulaturen hos rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Samandrag: Muskelcyster av S. rangi frå rein vart undersøkt ved transmisjonselektronmikroskopi. Dei lange cystene låg intracellulært i skjelettmuskelceller, og var avgrensa av ein elementærmembran, cystemembranen. Cystene var utstyrt med talrike hårliknande overflateprosessar, som strekte seg langsetter cysteoverflata. Prcsessane var opptil 12.6 Hm lange, og målte 0.3 til 0.6 \\lm i diameter. Prosessane hadde ei glatt overflate, medan cystemembranen danna talrike regelmessige ordna, små invaginasjonar innimellom basis av prosessane

  5. Remote blood collection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L: a preliminary study

    E. Wiklund


    Full Text Available Automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE was used successfully to collect blood samples from two reindeer. During blood sampling, two methods of restraint were applied which caused no short term changes in plasma concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or total protein. Plasma Cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated by the two restraint techniques. The value of ABSE in studies of stress in reindeer is discussed.

  6. Case report: Malnutrition and undernutrition as cause of mortality in farmed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Erik O. Ågren


    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhoea evolved during the third year of farming in a group of six reindeer farmed in central Sweden. The first death occurred in July, and despite offering supplemental feed, the deaths continued. Within 9 months five animals (83% were dead. The necropsy findings indicated emaciation in all cases. The initially adequate clover vegetation in the paddock had been depleted over the years, leading to malnutrition and undernutrition of reindeer in the summer season.

  7. Gammaherpesvirus infection in semidomesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): a cross-sectional serological study in northern Norway

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a disease caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses that primarily affect domestic and wild ruminants. A serological study using cELISA was performed on a total of 3339 apparently healthy semi-domesticated reindeer (R. t. tarandus) from Finnmark County, Norway, sampl...

  8. Histopathological lesions in spontaneous dictyocaulotic pneumonia of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Timo Rahko


    Full Text Available The histopathology of pneumonitic lesions in natural lungworm infection has not been previously described in reindeer. In the present study, light microscopical studies of dictyocaulotic lung tissues were performed on 12 slaughtered reindeer specimens obtained from the eastern part of Finnish Lapland in order to reveal the histopathological lesions characteristic of spontaneous Dictyocaulus eckerti infection. The lungs of 8 healthy reindeer carrying no lung worms were investigated to elucidate normal microscopic structure. Parasites in different stages of development and their eggs were detected not only in inflamed sections of small airways, but also wandered freely in the alveolar lumina. The eggs were rich in carbohydrates for reserve energy and were surrounded by a superficial layer of acidic mucins. The pleural serosa over acutely inflamed areas was swollen and in chronically altered sections, fibrotic thickenings of pleural and subpleural tissues were evident. The lung tissues were either condensed by an inflammatory exudate rich in migrating cells or emphysematically altered. Mucus secretions were abnormally profuse and apparently less acidic in histochemical compositon. Interstitial tissues were also inflamed and contained separated foreign body and eosinophilic granulomes. Furthermore, a vasculitis with endothelial vacuolations and muscular hypertrophy was noticeable in some tissue sections.

  9. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

    Josefsen, Terje D; Sørensen, Karen K; Mørk, Torill; Mathiesen, Svein D; Ryeng, Kathrine A


    Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting), analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18%) and effusions to body cavities (18%). Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi), throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe) and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack of appropriate amounts

  10. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus: Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

    Mørk Torill


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting, analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18% and effusions to body cavities (18%. Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi, throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack

  11. Some vector borne parasites in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Claes Rehbinder


    Full Text Available A review presented at the Fifth European Regional Meeting of the Society for Vector Ecology, September 2.-6. 1990, Uppsala, Sweden. The clinical and pathological manifestations as well as some meat hygienic aspects of Megatrypanum trypanosomes, Babesia divergens, Setaria tundrae, Onchocerca tarsicola and Lappnema auris infections in reindeer are reported on.Vektorburna parasiter hos svensk ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfatting: En oversikt presenterad vid «the Fifth European Regional Meeting of the Society for Vector Ecology», September 2.-6. 1990, Uppsala, Sverige. Kliniska och patologiska manifestationer liksom i viss utsträckning livsmedelshygieniska aspekter diskuteras med avseende på infektioner med Vektorburna parasiter hos svensk ren. trypanosomer, Babesia divergens, Setaria tundrae, Onchocerca tarsicola och Lappnema auris.

  12. Different methods of preparing rumen and caecum content from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus for the analyses of minerals

    Birgitta Åhman


    Full Text Available Different methods were used for preparation of samples of rumen and caecum content from reindeer. The mineral contents of the samples were compared. Rumen and caecum samples from three reindeer were centrifuged at sampling and the fluid was stored frozen. Further preparation of these samples caused a gradient in mineral concentration at centrifugation, varying between samples. This procedure consequently gave no reliable results. Hence, three methods of preparing total rumen content after freezing were compared: centrifugation, wet and dry ashing (after drying. Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn were analysed. The mineral analyses of rumen fluid, 41 compared to total rumen content, gave divergent results for the different minerals, depending on solubility. Wet ashing and dry ashing gave approximately the same results. Considering these results, analyses of minerals in samples of total rumen or caecum content is recommended, rather than analyses in fluid samples. The samples should be frozen or dried immediately at collection, and later be used for either wet or dry ashing.Olika metoder vid preparering av vom- och blindtarmsinnhåll från ren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus för analys av mineraler.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Prov av vom- och blindtarmsinnehåll från ren preparerades på olika sätt och mineralåmnesinnehållet i proverna jämfördes. Vom- och blindtarmsprover från tre renar centrifugerades vid provtagningen och vätskan frystes. Vid vidare preparering av de fryslagrade vätskeproverna, uppstod vid centrifugering en gradient i fråga om mineralhalt. Denna var olika fôr olika prover. Detta tillvagagångssatt gav således inte tillförlitliga resultat. På grund härav jämfördes tre metoder fôr preparering av fryslagrat totalt vominnehåll: centrifugering samt våt- och torrföraskning (efter torkning. Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu och Zn analyserades. Mineralanalyserna på vomvätska, jämfört med analyserna på totalt

  13. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L

    Timo Rahko


    Full Text Available The histological structure and secretory function of the common bile duct (ductus hepaticus communis has not been previously described in reindeer. Macroscopical studies were thus performed in 25 reindeer to reveal the morphology and topography of the ductus hepaticus communis and adjoining organs. Histologic structure of the common bile duct was investigated in 20 animals. Our studies showed that the ductus hepaticus communis and pancreaticus join about 2 cm before the duodenal opening to form the common duct. The common bile duct is an elastic tube about 3 to 5 cm long and 2 to 3 mm thick partly surrounded by fat and pancreatic tissues. The wall of the duct, being about 1 mm thick by light microscopy, consisted of folded mucosa surrounded by connective tissue fibres and a serosal layer. Distally, also muscular bands were seen. In some areas separate leucocytes and even lymphatic nodules were present. Surprisingly pancreatic acini occurred in certain areas of the wall, even in close contact to subepithelial tissues. Mucosal epithelium consisted of surface and glandular epithelial cells with mucous secretion. Numerous intraepithelial globule leucocytes were identifiable within the lamina epithelialis.Tutkimus yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteesta porolla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Yhteisen sappikäytävän (ductus hepaticus communis histologista rakennetta ja eritystoimintaa ei ole aikaisemmin kuvattu porolla. Makroskooppisia tutkimuksia suoritettiin 25 porolla yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteen ja topografian selvittämiseksi. Seinämän histologinen rakenne selvitettiin 20 porolla. Tutkimukset osoittivat, että porolla ductus hepaticus communis ja ductus pancreaticus yhtyvät noin 2 cm ennen ohutsuolta muodostaakseen yhteisen tiehyeen. Ductus hepaticus communis on noin 3-5 cm pitkä ja 2-3 mm:n läpimittainen käytävä. Se on elastinen ja osit-tain rasva- ja haimakudoksen ympäröimä. Seinämä on mikroskooppisesti noin 1 mm paksu

  14. Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., and Cryptosporidium oocysts in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Northern Finland and Norway

    Aschfalk A


    Full Text Available Abstract The specific aim of this study was to assess the faecal shedding of zoonotic enteropathogens by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus to deduce the potential risk to human health through modern reindeer herding. In total, 2,243 faecal samples of reindeer from northern regions of Finland and Norway were examined for potentially enteropathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter species, Enterococcus species, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Yersinia species and parasites (Cryptosporidium species in accordance with standard procedures. Escherichia coli were isolated in 94.7%, Enterococcus species in 92.9%, Yersinia species in 4.8% of the samples and Campylobacter species in one sample only (0.04%. Analysis for virulence factors in E. coli and Yersinia species revealed no pathogenic strains. Neither Salmonella species nor Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected. The public health risk due to reindeer husbandry concerning zoonotic diseases included in this study has to be considered as very low at present but a putative epidemiological threat may arise when herding conditions are changed with respect to intensification and crowding.

  15. Level of selected nutrients in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.

    Ammar Ali Hassan


    Full Text Available Objectives: To acquire new knowledge on the nutritional composition of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L. and their nutritional value for humans. The results could be useful in updating the Norwegian Food Composition Database, whose current data on reindeer is limited. Study design: Cross-sectional study on population of semi-domesticated reindeer from 2 northern Norwegian counties (Finnmark and Nordland. Methods: Semi-domesticated reindeer carcasses (n=31 were randomly selected, from which meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow samples were collected. Selected vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and total lipids were studied. Results: As expected, reindeer meat was found to be lean (2% total lipid, thus it is a good source of low-fat meat. The meat was also found to be a good source of vitamin B12, docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 in most of the nutrient levels between meat and the rest of the studied reindeer tissues were observed. In most cases, the liver, tallow and bone marrow had higher nutritional values when compared to meat. Liver had the highest concentrations of vitamin A, all vitamin B types, vitamin C, iron, selenium and the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3. Additionally, liver was the only edible tissue that contained vita-mins B9 and C. The vast majority of the vitamin concentrations in liver, tallow and bone marrow were significantly correlated with the concentrations in meat (p<0.05. Conclusions: The studied tissues from reindeer demonstrated that reindeer is a valuable food source that could meet or contribute to the consumers’ nutritional recommended daily allowance (RDA.

  16. Pathology of acute and subchronic nitrate poisening in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    M. Nordkvist


    Full Text Available The pathology of nitrate poisoning by forest fertilizers to reindeer was studied. The post mortem picture differed with substance, dose and time of exposure. Animals that died from acute ammonium nitrate intoxication had lesions similar to those found in acute ammonium and nitrate poisoning in sheep and cattle, without developing methaemoglobinemia. The animal that died from acute sodium nitrate poisoning probably died from acute collapse of the blood pressure without developing methaemoglobinemia and without any significant post mortem lesions. Animals dead of subchronic sodium nitrate poisoning all developed methaemoglobinemia. Animals dead within 24 hours only revealed subserous haemorrhages in the pleura and haemorrhages in musculus longissimus costarum and musculus longissimus dorsi. Similar pleural and muscular haemorrhages were also found in animals that died 60 - 200 hours after exposure but in these animals were also found what is considered common lesions in connection with nitrate/nitrite posoning; i.e. discolorated and poorly clotted blood, cardiac hamorrhages etc. The constant finding of these pleural and muscular haemorrhages may indicate almost pathognomonic lesions, in reindeer, in connection with nitrate poisoning of subchronic and chronic nature. The two animals that died from voluntarily drinking ammonium-nitrate dissolved in water developed lesions indicative of a combined effect of ammonium and nitrate poisoning. Patologin vid akut och subkronisk nitratforgiftning hos ren (Rangifer tarandus L Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Patologin vid nitratforgiftning, orsakad av skogsgodselmedel, hos ren har undersokts. Obduktionsbilden varierade med godselmedel, dosering och exponeringstid. Djuren som dog av akut ammoniumnitratforgiftning uppvisade likartade forandringar som ses vid akut ammonium-och nitratforgiftning hos får och notkreatur. Inget av djuren utvecklade methaemoglobinemi. Det djur som dog av akut

  17. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

    Alejandro Salgado-Flores

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4, or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3. Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads, with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences. Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001 and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027, were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively. UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-F<0.05. Based upon previous literature, we suggest that the

  18. Population genetics of the native caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) and the semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Southwestern Greenland: evidence of introgression

    Jepsen, B.I.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Fredholm, Merete


    samples were collected, which included samples from caribou of four different regions and samples from two different reindeer herds. Based on the genetic variation of the five markers, our results shows that the caribou and the reindeer populations in the six regions sampled are genetically differentiated...... within each group and the two subspecies are differentiated from each other. A likely explanation for the genetic isolation of the populations investigated is that natural barriers (glaciers and wide fjords) exists in the area. Furthermore we found that introduced Norwegian domestic reindeer hybridized...

  19. Flexible mating tactics and associated reproductive effort during the rutting season in male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758)

    Eliana PINTUS; Stefania UCCHEDDU; Knut H RED; Javier Prez GONZALZ; Juan CARRANZA; Mauri NIEMINEN; ystein HOLAND


    Polygynous males can change their mating tactics across their lifetime, but information is scarce on the flexibility of this trait within a given season and the relative costs and benefits of using different tactics. Here, we monitored individually marked male reindeerRangifer tarandus and classified their mating tactics as harem-defense, sneaking, or mixed. The costs of the male reproductive effort were assessed using both direct (i.e. percentage of body mass lost) and indirect measures (i.e. activity patterns such as feeding, standing, and walking), while mating group size and reproductive success were recorded as mating ef-fort benefits. Our results show that reindeer males may switch between the harem-defense and sneaking tactics throughout the same breeding season, providing further support to the notion that reproductive tactics are flexible in ungulates. The costs and benefits of male mating effort vary according to the mating tactic, reaching the highest values in harem-holders and the lowest values in sneaking males. Moreover, males who switched between the sneaking tactic and the harem-defence tactic tended to achieve higher mating success than males who consistently used the least costly tactic. Indeed, all harem-holders successfully sired offspring, whereas only two out of three mixed-tactic males sired one calf, and sneaking males did not sire any calves. In conclusion, our results show that reindeer males can modulate their mating efforts during the same breeding season by switching between the most costly harem-defense tactic and the least costly sneaking tactic, suggesting individual solutions to the balance between reproductive effort and mating opportunities [Current Zoology 61 (5): 802–810, 2015].

  20. Wet Belly in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Relation to Body Condition, Body Temperature and Blood Constituents

    Olsson K


    Full Text Available Wet belly, when the reindeer becomes wet over the lower parts of the thorax and abdomen, sometimes occurs in reindeer during feeding. In a feeding experiment, 11 out of 69 reindeer were affected by wet belly. The problem was first observed in 7 animals during a period of restricted feed intake. When the animals were then fed standard rations, 3 additional animals fed only silage, and 1 fed pellets and silage, became wet. Four animals died and 1 had to be euthanised. To investigate why reindeer developed wet belly, we compared data from healthy reindeer and reindeer affected by wet belly. Urea, plasma protein, glucose, insulin and cortisol were affected by restricted feed intake or by diet but did not generally differ between healthy reindeer and those with wet belly. The wet animals had low body temperature and the deaths occurred during a period of especially cold weather. Animals that died were emaciated and showed different signs of infections and stress. In a second experiment, with 20 reindeer, the feeding procedure of the most affected group in the first experiment was repeated, but none of the reindeer showed any signs of wet belly. The study shows that wet belly is not induced by any specific diet and may affect also lichen-fed reindeer. The fluid making the fur wet was proven to be of internal origin. Mortality was caused by emaciation, probably secondary to reduced energy intake caused by diseases and/or unsuitable feed.

  1. Evaluation of three commercial bovine ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against Alphaherpesviruses in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Yoccoz Nigel G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Varicellovirus (family Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a group of viruses genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 among which cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2 can be of importance in reindeer. These viruses are known to be responsible for different diseases in both wild and domestic animals. Reindeer are a keystone in the indigenous Saami culture and previous studies have reported the presence of antibodies against alphaherpesviruses in semi-domesticated reindeer in northern Norway. Mortality rates, especially in calves, can be very high in some herds and the abortion potential of alphaherpesvirus in reindeer, unlike in bovines, remains unknown. ELISA kits are the most used screening method in domestic ruminants and given the close genetic relationship between viruses within this genus, it might be possible to use such kits to screen cervids for different alphaherpesviruses. We have compared three different commercial ELISA kits in order to validate its use for reindeer and CvHV-2. Methods Three commercial bovine ELISA kits (A, B and C, using either indirect (A or blocking (B and C ELISA techniques to detect antibodies against BoHV-1 were tested with sera from 154 reindeer in order to detect antibodies against CvHV-2. A Spearman's rank-based coefficient of correlation (ρ was calculated. A dilution trial was performed for all kits. A virus neutralization test using both BoHV-1 and CvHV-2 was carried out. Results Seroprevalence was almost the same with all kits (40–41%. Despite a similar qualitative score, quantitatively kits classified samples differently and a strong correlation was only identified between Kits B and C. Blocking kits performed better in both repeatability and in the dilution trial. The virus neutralization results confirmed the ELISA results to a very high degree. Neutralizing titres ranged from 1:2 to 1:256 and from 0 to 1:16 against CvHV-2 and Bo

  2. High female mortality resulting in herd collapse in free-ranging domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Sweden.

    Birgitta Åhman

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sámi population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October-December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007-2012 revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively. A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community.

  3. Different Cell Types In the Lower Respiratory Tract of the Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. - A Transmission Electron Microscopical Study

    Seppo A.m. Saari


    Full Text Available The epithelium of the trachea and distal airways of 12 healthy adult reindeer were studied with transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the reindeer respiratory tract corresponded to the findings of previous investigators studying other mammalian species. The epithelium of the trachea and bronchi, down to the level of the distal bronchioli, was composed of three main types of cell: ciliated, goblet, and basal. In the distal brochioli, non-ciliated cells similar to those known as Clara cells were predominant. Numerous electron-dense granules and the cell organelle pattern resembled the Clara cell type observed in laboratory rodents, rabbit, sheep, pig, horse, and llama. Pneumocyte 1 and pneumocyte 2 cells were readily identified in the alveoli. The pneumocyte 2 cells possessed short microvilli and granules with lamellar content. Micropinocytotic vesicles were very numerous in the alveolar wall, and a small number of alveolar macrophages occasionally seen in the alveolar lumen.

  4. The method by which Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer larvae invade reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    John R. Anderson


    Full Text Available Laboratory electrostimulated C. trompe (Modeer females forcefully expelled (sprayed larvae for 5-20 cm. The watery spray consisted of about 20 tiny droplets containing two to several larvae. Crawling first-instar larvae exhibited negative geotactic and phototropic responses; they were subject to rapid desiccation and became immobile as the tiny droplets dried within a few seconds. When 5-50 larvae from dissectedfemales were dropped in physiological saline onto different areas of the muzzle of restrained reindeer, only larvae placed deep within the nostrils and on the lips crawled out-of-sight down the nostril passage or into the mouth. Drops of larvae placed elsewhere quickly desiccated and the larvae became immobile. Larvae deposited by wild females onto a COz-baited reindeer model with the muzzle, lips and nostrils coated with insect trapping adhesive all were stuck only along the dorsal lip below the philtrum. All experimental evidence supports a natural per os mode of invasion.

  5. A suspected virus infection of the oral mucosa in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    C. Rehbinder


    Full Text Available During the winter 1980 reindeer herds in the Tornedalen area, along the Finnish border, were hit by grazing difficulties. Thus minor parts of the reindeer her*ds in this area were given supplementary feed in pens. Some of the supplementary fed animals were taken ill and some deaths occurred. According to the owners sick animals showed loss of appetite and signs of fever. A total of 8 carcasses were necropsied at The National Veterinary Institute. In 5 of these cases oral lesions were observed. The histological investigation of the oral mucosa revealed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, inter- and intracellular oedema and vesicle formation. An electron-microscopical study of 2 of the cases confirmed the histological findings. At the bacteriological investigations Coli, ß-haemolyzing streptococci, Conrynebacterium pyogenes and Fusobacterium necrophorum could be indentified. The found bacteria were all considered secondary invaders. Serological samples from four affected reindeer flocks were tested for antibodies against BVD-, P13 and IBR-virus as well as Chlamydia. A few samples showed low positive titres for agents tested but for BVDV. The result of the investigation indicates that a still unidentified virus could be the primary cause of this enzootically appearing disease of the oral mucosa in reindeer.Misstanke om virusinfektion i munnslemhinnan på svensk ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Under vintern 1980 drabbades renhjordar i Tornedalsområdet av betessvårigheter. Av denna anledning fördes mindre flockar, ur hjordarna, till inhägnader och tillskottsutfodrades. En del av de tillskottsutfodrade djuren insjuknade och dödsfall inträffade. Enligt djurägarna förlorade de sjuka djuren aptiten och uppvisade tecken på feber. Av de döda renarna erhölls åtta fôr obduktion vid Statens Veterinärmedicinska anstalt. Hos fem av de obducerade renarna forelåg skador i munhålan. Vid histologisk undersokning av munslemhinnan p

  6. Genetic variation in meat production related traits in reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus

    Kirsi Muuttoranta


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} In reindeer husbandry, animal breeding could offer tools for improving productivity by selection. The traits affecting meat production efficiency are primarily related to calf growth and survival, and to dam’s longevity and lifetime ability to raise heavy calves. Information on genetic (covariation in these traits is scarce but needed in estimating the potential and effectiveness of selection as well as biological constraints. The objectives of the study were to estimate these genetic parameters from the data of an experimental reindeer herd at Kutuharju (Inari, Finland. Heritabilities (h2 and genetic correlations (rg among the average daily gain of calves (ADG, dams’ age at maturity, individual fitness (λind and the cumulative sum of her calves’ weaning weight over seven years (WW7 were studied with AS-Reml software using the dataset from the experimental herd. The pedigree included also sire information to allow the separation of the maternal effects. Direct and maternal heritabilities of ADG were moderate (0.24±0.09 and 0.18±0.05, respectively and the direct-maternal correlation was highly negative (-0.73±0.17. Indeed, selection on growth necessitates information on both calf and dam. The genetic correlation of growth with birth date and birth weight could not be detected with the data. The age

  7. Concentrations and Geographical Variations of Selected Toxic Elements in Meat from Semi-Domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. in Mid- and Northern Norway: Evaluation of Risk Assessment

    Ammar Ali Hassan


    Full Text Available Meat samples (n = 100 from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. were randomly collected from 10 grazing districts distributed over four Norwegian counties in 2008 and 2009. The main aim was to study concentrations and geographical variations in selected toxic elements; cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, arsenic (As, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni and vanadium (V in order to assess the risk associated with reindeer meat consumption. Sample solutions were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometer (ICP-HRMS, whereas analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. Geographical variations in element concentrations were revealed, with As and Cd demonstrating the largest geographical differences. No clear geographical gradient was observed except for the east-west downward gradient for As. The As concentrations were highest in the vicinity of the Russian border, and only Cd was shown to increase with age (p < 0.05. Sex had no significant effect on the concentration of the studied elements. The concentrations of all the studied elements in reindeer meat were generally low and considerably below the maximum levels (ML available for toxic elements set by the European Commission (EC. Thus, reindeer meat is not likely to be a significant contributor to the human body burden of toxic elements.

  8. The influence of stress on substrate utilization in skeletal muscle fibres of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    B. Essén-Gustavsson


    Full Text Available Moderate stress in connection with handling, sampling and herding of reindeer caused a very pronounced depletion of glycogen in mainly type IIA and IIB fibres. Also intramuscular triglyceride levels decreased but mainly in type I fibres. Muscle lactate levéls increased in all animals but not to the levels found in pigs exposed to stress or exertion. Reindeer muscles appeared to have a great capacity to oxidize both carbohydrates and lipids. All animals showed increased Cortisol, urea and AS AT values. A marked depletion of glycogen and lipids in many of the fibres may be a factor involved in the development of skeletal muscle degeneration in connection with mental stress and exertion as there seems to be a correlation between high ASAT values and substrate depleted musclefibres. A connection may therefore exist between high instramuscular substrate stores and the ability of a muscle to tolerate stress.Av stress påverkat substratutnyttjande i skelettmuskelfibrer hos renAbstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Måttlig stress betingad av hantering, provtagning och drivning av ren orsakade en mycket kraftig minskning av muskelglykogen i fråmst typ IIA och typ IIB fibrer. Aven triglycerider minskade framfor allt i typ I fibrer. Muskellaktatnivåerna okade i samtliga undersokta djur, men inte till nivåer som ses hos gris utsatta for stress eller fysisk anstrångning.Renens muskler uppvisade en mycket hog kapacitet att oxidera, forbranna, både kolhydrat och fett. Alla djur uppvisade forhojda Cortisol, urea och ASAT varden. Den mycket kraftiga tomningen av kolhydrat och fett i många muskelfibrer kan vara en faktor medverkande till muskeldegeneration i samband med mental stress och anstrangning då hoga ASAT-vården synes vara korrelerade till uttomda muskelfibrer. Ett samband mellan hog instramuskulår substratupplagring och formåga att tåla stress kan således foreligga.Stressin vaikuttaneen poron substraattihyvåk-sikåytto luurangon lihaksiston

  9. Use of length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) as non-invasive approach for dietary analysis of Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus.

    Joo, Sungbae; Han, Donguk; Lee, Eun Ju; Park, Sangkyu


    To efficiently investigate the forage preference of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), we applied length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) based on length differences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to fecal samples from R. tarandus platyrhynchus. A length-heterogeneity (LH) database was constructed using both collected potential food sources of Svalbard reindeer and fecal samples, followed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. In total, eighteen fecal samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 from 2 geographic regions and 15 samples were successfully amplified by PCR. The LH-PCR analysis detected abundant peaks, 18.6 peaks on an average per sample, ranging from 100 to 500 bp in size and showing distinct patterns associated with both regions and years of sample collection. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in clustering of 15 fecal samples into 3 groups by the year of collection and region with a statistically significant difference at 99.9% level. The first 2 principal components (PCs) explained 71.1% of the total variation among the samples. Through comparison with LH database and identification by cloning and sequencing, lichens (Stereocaulon sp. and Ochrolechia sp.) and plant species (Salix polaris and Saxifraga oppositifolia) were detected as the food sources that contributed most to the Svalbard reindeer diet. Our results suggest that the use of LH-PCR analysis would be a non-invasive and efficient monitoring tool for characterizing the foraging strategy of Svalbard reindeer. Additionally, combining sequence information would increase its resolving power in identification of foraged diet components.

  10. Effect of calf stimulation on milk ejection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Hallvard Gjøstein


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish methods for stimulating the milk ejection in reindeer kept for milking purpose. Calves were used to stimulate milk does’ let down. In experiment 1, five does were allowed olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with their calves during milking, whereas four does were milked in isolation. The treatment of the groups was alternated every day during the eight days experiment. Olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with the calf did not influence the doe’s milk yield. The milk yield varied significantly between individual females within treatment (P < 0.01. In experiment 2, the calves were allowed to suckle their mother for a short period (two seconds prior to milking being initiated. The same alternate design as in experiment 1 with groups consisting of three and two animals respectively was used, and the experiment lasted four days. The pre-suckling stimulation significantly increased the milk ejection measured as milk yield (P < 0.05, and the residual milk after the treatment was negectible. Moreover, the milk ejection varied between individual females within treatment (P < 0.05. We conclude that it is possible to achieve a complete milk removal by machine milking after the does have been pre-stimulated by suckling of calves. Olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with calves during milking failed to influence the milk ejection in this study. However, the results have to be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Formålet med dette forsøket var å prøve ut ulike metoder for å stimulere nedgivninga av melk hos rein. Kalvene ble tatt i bruk for å stimulere nedgivninga. I forsøk 1 hadde simla lyd-, lukt og synskontakt med kalven mens melkingen pågikk. Vi benyttet et ”switch back design” der fem simler hadde kontakt med kalven under melkingen og fire ble melket uten kontakt. Behandlingen ble byttet om annenhver dag i de åtte dagene fors

  11. A field study of management stress in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    C. Rehbinder


    Full Text Available The impact of stress was studied in semidomesticated reindeer subjected to various herding and handling methods. In herded and handled animals, stress lesions were found, such as abomasal haemorrhage, muscular and myocardial degeneration and marked changes in blood constituents. The degree of change was dependent of the magnitude of stress the animal had been exposed to. Manual handling and restraint was found to be one of the major stress factors. There were evident indications of a cumulative effect of repeated stress events. The use of motor vehicles (helicopter and snow-scooter, for herding and transporting the animals, was found to be an important stress factor. It is concluded that various herding and handling methods studied in the present investigation led to varying degrees of deleterious effects on the health of the animals and a poorer meatquality from slaughtered animals. Hence herding should be undertaken as carefully as possible, the time taken for manual handling should be minimized, and the corrals be so constructed as to cause a minimum of disturbance, capture and restraint. Transportation should be undertaken very cautiously with as little manual handling as possible during loading and unloading. To obtain a good meat quality, animals to be slaughtered should be subjected to a minimum of handling, i.e. slaughter should take place as quickly as possible. Transportation of live animals to slaughterhouses and the keeping of animals in corrals, pens or crates whilst awaiting slaughter will result in a lowered meat quality and should therefore be avoided.En fåltstudie av stress hos ren i samband med olika hanteringsformer.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfatning: Betydelsen av stress hos ren studerades i hjordar i vilka olika typer av samlings- och hanteringsmetoder anvandes. I samtliga hjordar som utsatts for olika former av drivning forelag hos slaktdjur skador betingade av stress i form av magblodningar, muskelsonderfall och

  12. The impact of large carnivores on the mortality of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. calves in Kainuu, southeastern reindeer-herding region of Finland

    Mauri Nieminen


    Full Text Available During 2006-2008 the survival of reindeer calves was studied in the reindeer-herding cooperative of Halla in Kainuu area where totally 546 calves were equipped with radio mortality collars mainly at the age of 1-3 days. The survival was monitored from the calving in May until winter round-ups in October to January. The rate, timing and causes of mortality of reindeer were assessed. In 2006-08 totally 177 radio-collared calves were found dead (mean mortality 32.4% until mid-January. The results showed significant annual variation in calf mortality and predation. Independent of year the mortality of radio-collared calves was highest during the first two months after birth, and the total mortality was 30.7% at the end of October and reached 34.6% by mid-January. The sex of calves and pelt colour did not affect significantly survival of calves. Predation comprised 70.0% of total mortality. Predation by wolf, bear, lynx and wolverine comprised on average 38.4%, 20.3%, 9.0% and 2.3%, respectively. Birth weight of calves lost or killed by predators did not differ from surviving calves. However, birth weight of calves killed by brown bears was significantly lighter (mean 5.84 kg, whereas calves killed by Eurasian lynx was significantly heavier (mean 6.67 kg than birth weight of calves that survived (mean 6.26 kg. Bears killed calves mainly in May to July, wolves in July to October and lynx in August to December. Of 209 radio-collared adult females, 17 were found dead (8.0%. These females had calved in May and they were killed mainly by wolves (52.0% in August to October.

  13. Productivity factors of the Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t.tarandus stock during the 1990s

    Jouko Kumpula


    Full Text Available Intensive reindeer grazing and the increase of other land use forms have caused a decline in the amount of arboreal (Alectoria, Bryoria spp. and reindeer (Cladina spp. lichens in the Finnish reindeer management area during the last few decades. Supplementary feeding of reindeer has increasingly compensated for the lack of natural winter fodder. The amount of the supplementary feeding and the quantity and quality of summer pastures should therefore have an increasing effect on the productivity of reindeer stock. In order to outline better the present carrying capacity problems on pastures in the Finnish reindeer management area we focused some of the most important productivity factors of Finnish reindeer stock from 1993 to 1999. The results showed that the productivity of reindeer stock in Finland was dependent especially on two main elements: amount of reindeer feeding and reindeer densities on summer pastures. Winter pastures had no clear effect on productivity when analysing the entire management area. High productivity figures in reindeer stock (calf production, carcass mass and meat production per reindeer were reached in the management districts where winter feeding was the most abundant, reindeer densities relatively low and summer pastures abundant. An increase in reindeer density on summer pastures raised meat production per total summer pasture area but decreased carcass mass of reindeer calves and meat production per reindeer. It seems that the fundamental factor for keeping the reindeer stock productivity sustainable at a high enough level is to optimize the longterm reindeer densities on pastures. Summer pastures may gradually become a limiting factor for reindeer stock productivity in some areas if overgrazed and decreased winter pastures are only compensated for by winter feeding of reindeer

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and wild moose (Alces alces) meat in Finland.

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli


    Semi-domesticated reindeer and wild moose meat samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Both calves and adults were studied. Individual reindeer and moose meat samples and pooled reindeer calf meat samples were collected from the northern, the middle, and the southern reindeer herding regions in Finland. Samples represented the edible parts of carcasses. In individual samples of reindeer the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was on average 3.2pgg(-1) in calves and 2.3pgg(-1) in adults. In moose calves the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration (1.9pgg(-1)) was lower than in reindeer calves. WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration in the adult moose samples was equal as in the adult reindeer samples. The mean fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was highest in reindeer calf samples from the middle region. These samples contained also the highest content of fat. Individual samples of reindeer contained on average more WHO-PCB-TEQ than WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ, while the opposite was true for moose samples, and also samples of adult reindeer from the southern area. The contributions of PCDD/Fs and PCBs to the total TEQ were similar in the reindeer calves' pooled samples which were collected from more western regions than individual samples.

  15. Sensory meat quality, ultimate pH values, blood metabolites and carcass parametersin reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. fed various diets

    Eva Wiklund


    Full Text Available This investigation was made to study and compare the effects of different diets on sensory meat quality and ultimate pH values in reindeer muscles and to relate stress-induced blood metabolites and carcass parameters to the meat quality traits measured. Altogether 23 female reindeer calves were included in the study. During an adaptation period, all reindeer were allowed free access to a mimicked natural diet containing 80% lichens (lichen diet. On January 28, 8 reindeer (group Cjan were slaughtered. Five reindeer (group C.Mar were allowed continuous free access to the lichen diet throughout the experiment. During 8 days, the other reindeer (groups PL and PS were given the lichen diet, half of the amount offered to the control group, and were then starved for one day. Thereafter, these reindeer were fed 80% commercial reindeer feed (pellets and either 20% lichens (group PL, or 20% silage (group PS for 5 weeks. After this, all animals were slaughtered. The average carcass weight and dressing percentage in the group fed commercial reindeer feed and lichens (PL were higher than in group CMar- Fat registrations were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in the groups Cj2n and CMar- Ultimate pH values in M. triceps brachii and M. longissimus were significantly lower in the group CMST than in PL. The levels of all blood metabolites (urea, ASAT and Cortisol were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in groups Cja„ and CMEF- NO significant differences were found in any of sensory attributes of the meat (monitored according to ISO standards. The present study shows that muscle and fat depots in reindeer can be improved by feeding a diet based on reindeer pellets but suggests that a feeding period of 35 days might be too short to affect the sensory properties of reindeer meat.

  16. Proteolytic enzyme and inhibitor levels in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. vs. bovine longissimus muscle, as they relate to ageing rate and response

    V. M.H. Barnier


    Full Text Available Eight reindeer bulls (age 1.5 years and six Friesian bulls (age 1.5 years were included in the study for comparison of tenderness. The reindeer were slaughtered at a commercial reindeer slaughter plant in northern Sweden and the Friesian bulls at a commercial slaughter plant in The Netherlands. Samples for determination of calpain/calpastatin activity were taken from the M. longtssimus (LO within 1 h post mortem (p.m., and at various times p.m. pH and temperature were registered in LO; ultimate pH values were measured at 24 h p.m. for beef and at 35 h p.m. for reindeer. At day 1 p.m., samples of LO from both carcass sides were excised, divided in two parts, vacuum packaged and stored at 0-2 °C. One part of each muscle was randomly sampled at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days p.m. for determination of shear force, proteolytic enzyme activity, myofibrillar protein degradation, collagen content and heat solubility. pH and temperature fall was faster in reindeer than in beef. Collagen content in reindeer muscle was found to be low but collagen was 4 times less soluble as compared with beef. Reindeer LO was found to be extremely tender, at 3 days p.m. shear force values were only 2-3 kg/cm2 (8-12 kg/cm2 for beef LO. In reindeer meat, the jJ.-calpain levels dropped to about 55% within 3 days. Troponin T and 30 kDa values were not related to changes in tenderness in reindeer meat. Cathepsin activities in reindeer were up to ten times higher than in beef. As in beef, cathepsin B+L levels in reindeer increased during storage, which is probably associated with a decrease in cystatin-like inhibitor levels.

  17. The effects of pre-slaughter selection of reindeer bulls (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. on technological and sensory meat quality, blood metabolites and abomasal lesions

    E. Wiklund


    Full Text Available Thirty reindeer bulls (age 1 1/2 years were subjected to different pre-slaughter treatments to study the effects on ultimate pH values, muscle glycogen content, blood metabolites and abomasal lesions. Gathering and herding into a grazing corral were followed by various selection procedures. Before starting these, a control group of 10 reindeer were captured by lasso and slaughtered outside the grazing corral. Ten reindeer were then selected by hand from a small group of animals (100-150 head in a small selection corral. Another 10 reindeer were selected from a large herd of about 1000-2000 animals, by the traditional technique of using a lasso. During a 6-hour selection, animals were captured and slaughtered after 1.5 hours (n = 2, 3-5 hours (n = 2, 5 hours (n = 3 and 6 hours (n=3 respectively. The results showed the technique of using a lasso to be stressful and glycogen-depleting, as the two lasso captured groups (the control group and the reindeer exposed to the protracted lasso selection had the highest ultimate pH values and lowest muscle glycogen values measured. By contrast, the selection procedure where reindeer were captured by hand, was not found to be detrimental to glycogen content and ultimate pH values. Nevertheless, both selection techniques expose the reindeer to acute stress during the capture and manual restraint, which in the present study was reflected in high plasma Cortisol values in all treatment groups. The frequency of abomasal lesions was highest in the group of reindeer subjected to the prolonged selection procedure. No connection between technological and sensory meat quality was found in this study. The technique of selecting animals by hand ought to be further developed so that existing practical problems can be solved. The technique could then be recommended for wider use.

  18. Pre-slaughter handling of reindeer bulls {Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. — effects on technological and sensory meat quality, blood metabolites and muscular and abomasal lesions

    E. Wiklund


    Full Text Available Forty-one reindeer bulls (age 1 1/2 years were subjected to different pre-slaughter treatments: herding for a short distance to a grazing corral, selection by use of a lasso, lorry transport and helicopter herding for 1, 2 and 3 days respectively. As control, 9 reindeer were shot without previous handling (in the mountains. The results indicated the traditional selection technique of using a lasso to be the most stressful and glycogen-depleting handling procedure so far studied. In the lasso-selected reindeer the lowest glycogen values and the highest ultimate pH values in the meat were measured. The values of the measured parameters indicating stress (aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, urea, Cortisol and abomasal lesions were also highest in these reindeer. By contrast, the modern method of herding by helicopter was not found to be detrimental to glycogen content, ultimate pH, the measured blood metabolites, or the frequency of abomasal lesions. In all treatment groups degenerative lesions were observed in the skeletal muscles. No relarionship between technological and sensory meat quality characteristics and skeletal muscle lesions in reindeer could, however, be found in this study. The study confirmed an earlier finding that a 'stress-flavour' could develop in reindeer meat after intensive pre-slaughter handling of the animals. Further study of when and how such "stress-flavour" develops ought to be undertaken.

  19. The use of Cloprostenol and prostaglandin F2alpha to induce luteolysis in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus

    Erik Ropstad


    Full Text Available A total of 126 reindeer of about 7 months of age, were isolated from a flock at the end of the breeding season. The animals were treated either with 12.5 mg prostaglandin F2alpha (n = 41 or 0.25 mg cloprostenol (n = 50. Thirty-five animals were left untreated. Blood samples were collected before treatment and 2 Vi days later and the plasma progesterone concentrations were determined. A significant fall in progesterone concentration was seen in both treatment groups. A large proportion of animals responded to treatment with cloprostenol than with prostaglandin F2alpha. It was concluded that prostaglandins can be used to induce luteolysis in reindeer.

  20. Level of selected toxic elements in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow of young semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. from Northern Norway

    Ammar Ali Hassan


    Full Text Available Objectives. To gain knowledge on toxic elements in semi-domesticated reindeer and their distribution in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow. The correlations between concentrations in meat and liver, as well as the use of the latter as an indicator for toxic elements in meat, were also investigated. Study design. Cross-sectional study on population of semi-domesticated reindeer from 2 northern Norwegian counties (Finnmark and Nordland. Methods. Semi-domesticated reindeer carcasses (n = 31 were randomly selected, from which meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow samples were collected. Selected toxic elements (cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel and vanadium were studied. Results. Liver was the organ with the highest level of all elements except for nickel, which was highest in bone marrow. Meat had the lowest levels, whereas levels in tallow and bone marrow were between those of meat and liver. Concentrations of cadmium, lead and arsenic were significantly different (p < 0.05 between meat and liver, while only arsenic and cadmium were significantly correlated in meat (rs=0.71, p < 0.01 and liver (rs=0.72, p < 0.01. The cadmium level exceeded the European Commission's (EC maximum level set for bovine meat and live in 52% of the liver samples (n = 29. Nevertheless, the estimated monthly cadmium intake from liver of 2.29 µg/kg body weight was well below the provisional tolerable monthly intake of 25 µg/kg body weight set by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Conclusions. Based on the measured levels and their relation to the maximum level and to the provisional tolerable weekly/monthly intake limits, it could be inferred that consumption of reindeer meat is not associated with any health risk related to the studied toxic elements for consumers.

  1. Methods for estimating the density of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi Mitskevich (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea larvae in faeces from reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L.

    Odd Halvorsen


    Full Text Available A method for estimating the density of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi larvae in reindeer faeces that have been deep frozen is described. The method involves the use of an inverted microscope with plankton counting chambers. Statistical data on the efficiency and sensitivity of the method are given. With fresh faeces, the results obtained with the method were not significantly different from those obtained with the Baermann technique. With faeces that had been stored in deep freeze, the method detected on average 30 per cent more larvae than the Baermann technique.Metoder for å estimere tettheten av hjernemarklarver i avføring fra reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: En metode for å estimere tettheten av hjernemarklarver i avføring som har vært dypfryst blir beskrevet. Anvendelse av et invertert mikroskop med plankton tellekammer inngår i metoden. Det blir gitt statistiske data for metodens effektivitet og følsomhet. Ved undersøkelse av fersk avføring skilte ikke de resultatene metoden ga seg fra de som ble oppnådd med Baermanns metode. Ved undersøkelse av avføring som hadde vært lagret dypfrosset ga metoden i gjennomsnitt 30 prosent flere larver enn Baermanns metode.

  2. Differential passage of fluids and different-sized particles in fistulated oxen (Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces): rumen particle size discrimination is independent from contents stratification.

    Lechner, Isabel; Barboza, Perry; Collins, William; Fritz, Julia; Günther, Detlef; Hattendorf, Bodo; Hummel, Jürgen; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Clauss, Marcus


    Ruminant species differ in the degree that their rumen contents are stratified but are similar insofar that only very fine particles are passed from the forestomach to the lower digestive tract. We investigated the passage kinetics of fluid and particle markers (2, 10 and 20 mm) in fistulated cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces) on different diets. The distribution of dry matter in the rumen and the viscosity of rumen fluids suggested that the rumen contents were more stratified in muskoxen than moose. Correspondingly, as in previous studies, the species differed in the ratio of mean retention times of small particles to fluids in the reticulorumen, which was highest in cattle (2.03) and muskoxen (1.97-1.98), intermediate in reindeer (1.70) and lowest in moose (0.98-1.29). However, the ratio of large to small particle retention did not differ between the species, indicating similarity in the efficiency of the particle sorting mechanism. Passage kinetics of the two largest particle classes did not differ, indicating that particle retention is not a continuous function of particle size but rather threshold-dependent. Overall, the results suggest that fluid flow through the forestomach differs between ruminant species. A lower relative fluid passage, such as in moose, might limit species to a browse-based dietary niche, whereas a higher relative fluid passage broadens the dietary niche options and facilitates the inclusion of, or specialization on, grass. The function of fluid flow in the ruminant forestomach should be further investigated.

  3. 我国驯鹿 Rangifer tarandus 的种群分布、数量及致危原因%Current Distribution,Population Trends and Causes of Decline of Reindeer in China

    曾治; 孟凡露; 王朋; 孟秀祥


    2012年7月至2013年8月间,在大兴安岭对我国驯鹿 Rangi f er tarandus开展了野外调查,以确定其分布及种群数量波动,并分析其致危原因.结果表明:我国驯鹿仅分布于大兴安岭西北麓的内蒙古根河地区(E 121°11′-122°25′,N 50°42′-51°50′),其分布区与我国鄂温克族聚居区完全重叠.我国现存驯鹿种群718头,分布于12个彼此隔离的种群,各驯鹿种群数量分布极不均匀,每个种群由9~240头驯鹿组成,大部分种群呈典型小种群状态,其平均种群大小仅为59.83头(±18.42, n=12);驯鹿分布生境的海拔区间为700~926 m ,平均海拔为813.67 m (±21.72 m , n=12);小种群及相关的近交衰退、生境丧失及适宜性下降、管理政策不合理、高强度的生态旅游和盗猎及天敌捕杀是制约我国驯鹿种群发展的主要因素.%The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is an endangered species distributed in the sub‐arctic region in the northeastern part of China .To determine the current status of the population and the distribution pat‐terns of reindeer ,this study was conducted in the Great Xing’Anling of China during July 2012 to August 2013 .The results showed that the reindeer in China only occurs in Genhe area of Inner Mongolia (E 121° 11′-122°25′,N 50°42′-51°50′) ,where has been the dwelling region of Ewenki people .There were 718 reindeer in 12 populations in 2013 with the population range from 9 to 240 and the average population size of 59.83 ( ± 18.42 ,n=12) ,which indicated that the most reindeer populations in China were small popula‐tions .The preferred habitats of reindeer locates from 700 to 926 m with the average of 813.67 m (± 21.72 , n=12) .Small populations and the related inbreeding ,habitat loss and degradation ,management policy ,in‐tensive tourism and poaching and the predation have been the main factors influencing the population increase

  4. Polymorphisms and variants in the prion protein sequence of European moose (Alces alces), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in Scandinavia.

    Wik, Lotta; Mikko, Sofia; Klingeborn, Mikael; Stéen, Margareta; Simonsson, Magnus; Linné, Tommy


    The prion protein (PrP) sequence of European moose, reindeer, roe deer and fallow deer in Scandinavia has high homology to the PrP sequence of North American cervids. Variants in the European moose PrP sequence were found at amino acid position 109 as K or Q. The 109Q variant is unique in the PrP sequence of vertebrates. During the 1980s a wasting syndrome in Swedish moose, Moose Wasting Syndrome (MWS), was described. SNP analysis demonstrated a difference in the observed genotype proportions of the heterozygous Q/K and homozygous Q/Q variants in the MWS animals compared with the healthy animals. In MWS moose the allele frequencies for 109K and 109Q were 0.73 and 0.27, respectively, and for healthy animals 0.69 and 0.31. Both alleles were seen as heterozygotes and homozygotes. In reindeer, PrP sequence variation was demonstrated at codon 176 as D or N and codon 225 as S or Y. The PrP sequences in roe deer and fallow deer were identical with published GenBank sequences.

  5. A Non-Destructive Method for Distinguishing Reindeer Antler (Rangifer tarandus) from Red Deer Antler (Cervus elaphus) Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Coupled with SVM Classifiers

    Lefebvre, Alexandre; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Santos, Frédéric; Le Denmat, Dominique; Salmon, Benjamin; Pétillon, Jean-Marc


    Over the last decade, biomedical 3D-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. While initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. The distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. In addition to the range of destructive physicochemical identification methods available (mass spectrometry, isotopic ratio, and DNA analysis), X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) provides convincing non-destructive 3D images and analyses. This paper presents the experimental protocol (sample scans, image processing, and statistical analysis) we have developed in order to identify modern and archaeological antler collections (from Isturitz, France). This original method is based on bone microstructure analysis combined with advanced statistical support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. A combination of six microarchitecture biomarkers (bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular separation, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index) were screened using micro-CT in order to characterise internal alveolar structure. Overall, reindeer alveoli presented a tighter mesh than red deer alveoli, and statistical analysis allowed us to distinguish archaeological antler by species with an accuracy of 96%, regardless of anatomical location on the antler. In conclusion, micro-CT combined with SVM classifiers proves to be a promising additional non-destructive method for antler identification, suitable for archaeological artefacts whose degree of human modification and cultural heritage or scientific value has previously made it impossible (tools, ornaments, etc.). PMID:26901355

  6. Obligate larval inhibition of Ostertagia gruehneri in Rangifer tarandus? Causes and consequences in an Arctic system.

    Hoar, Bryanne M; Eberhardt, Alexander G; Kutz, Susan J


    Larval inhibition is a common strategy of Trichostrongylidae nematodes that may increase survival of larvae during unfavourable periods and concentrate egg production when conditions are favourable for development and transmission. We investigated the propensity for larval inhibition in a population of Ostertagia gruehneri, the most common gastrointestinal Trichostrongylidae nematode of Rangifer tarandus. Initial experimental infections of 4 reindeer with O. gruehneri sourced from the Bathurst caribou herd in Arctic Canada suggested that the propensity for larval inhibition was 100%. In the summer of 2009 we infected 12 additional reindeer with the F1 and F2 generations of O. gruehneri sourced from the previously infected reindeer to further investigate the propensity of larval inhibition. The reindeer were divided into 2 groups and half were infected before the summer solstice (17 June) and half were infected after the solstice (16 July). Reindeer did not shed eggs until March 2010, i.e. 8 and 9 months post-infection. These results suggest obligate larval inhibition for at least 1 population of O. gruehneri, a phenomenon that has not been conclusively shown for any other trichostrongylid species. Obligate inhibition is likely to be an adaptation to both the Arctic environment and to a migratory host and may influence the ability of O. gruehneri to adapt to climate change.

  7. The status of Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon, Canada

    R. Farnell


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the population trends as well as research and management programs for woodland caribou {Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon. Most herds are stable although not all are counted regularly and systematic monitoring of herds remains an essential need. Over the past decade the Southern Lakes, Aishihik, and Finlayson herds have been well studied and provide valuable models for guiding Yukon management programs. Over harvest and the spread of agriculture, forestry and mining are ongoing human activities are of concern to caribou managers.

  8. Digital Necrobacillosis in Norwegian Wild Tundra Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    Handeland, K.; Boye, Mette; Bergsjø, B.;


    of pus. Subcutaneous tissue was inflamed and oedematous with focal necrosis. Tendons, tendon sheaths, joints and periosteum of the digital bones were often affected. Animals shot during winter showed severe chronic periostitis and osteomyelitis and necrotizing deforming arthritis. Microscopically, skin...

  9. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Selkirk Mountains Population of Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Rangifer tarandus caribou (Southern Selkirk Mountains population of Woodland Caribou).

  10. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Selkirk Mountains Population of Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Rangifer tarandus caribou (Southern Selkirk Mountains population of Woodland Caribou).

  11. Comparative response of Rangifer tarandus and other northern ungulates to climatic variability

    Robert B. Weladji


    Full Text Available To understand the factors influencing life history traits and population dynamics, attention is increasingly being given to the importance of environmental stochasticity. In this paper, we review and discuss aspects of current knowledge concerning the effect of climatic variation (local and global on population parameters of northern ungu¬lates, with special emphasis on reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus. We also restrict ourselves to indirect effects of climate through both forage availability and quality, and insect activity. Various authors have used different weather variables; with sometime opposite trends in resulting life history traits of ungulates, and few studies show consistent effects to the same climatic variables. There is thus little consensus about which weather variables play the most sig¬nificant role influencing ungulate population parameters. This may be because the effects of weather on ungulate pop¬ulation dynamics and life history traits are scale dependent and it is difficult to isolate climatic effects from density dependent factors. This confirms the complexity of the relationship between environment and ecosystem. We point out limits of comparability between systems and the difficulty of generalizing about the effect of climate change broadly across northern systems, across species and even within species. Furthermore, insect harassment appears to be a key climate-related factor for the ecology of reindeer/caribou that has been overlooked in the literature of climatic effects on large herbivores. In light of this, there is a need for further studies of long time series in assessing effects of climate variability on reindeer/caribou.

  12. Growth, condition, and mortality of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in the Sisimiut Population, West Greenland

    Vidar Holthe


    Full Text Available Growth and condition of the Sisimiut caribou was anlysed by means of mandible length, carcass weight, and back fat indices. Mandible lenght showed unchanged growth conditions since the late 1960s, and growth stops at 4 years of age. The Sisimiut caribou seems to be smaller than North American caribous, Greenlandic semi-domesticated reindeer and of same size or smaller than Scandinavian reindeer. Carcass weight showed similar results, however cow growth rate seems not to prolong sexual maturation. Back fat deposits were less than what is known from other reindeer and caribou populations. Sex and age distribution of mandibles from various materials and survival curves based on the same material shows — an uneven distribution between bulls and cows and a relatively large proportion of old cows in the bag from the last years, which seems to be caused by a light hunting pressure when the population peaked in the 1960s. Heavy natural mortality for animals born before or after a winter with unfavorable snow conditions was also showed.Vækst, kondition og dødelighed hos vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus i Sisimiut-bestanden, Vestgrønland.Abstract in Danish / Sammendrag: Vækst- og konditionsforhold for Sisimiut-vildrenbestanden i Vestgrønland er beskrevet ved hjæip af underkæbelængde, slagtevægt og rygfedt. Undersøgelsen af kæbelængde viste, at vækstforholdene havde været uforandret siden sidste halvdel af 1960-erne, at væksten standser ved 4-års alderen, samt at Sisimiut-vildrenen er mindre end de nordamerikanske caribou, Itinnera-tamrenen og på størrelse med eller mindre end skandinaviske rensdyr. Dette viste sig også ved sammenligninger af slagtevægt. Vægten af simlerne er dog ikke så ringe, at der kan iagttages nogen forsinkelse i kønsmodningen. Fedtreserverne ved indgangen til vinteren synes at være dårligere end i andre undersøgte rensdyrbestande. Køns- og aldersfordelingen blandt forskellige typer af indsamlet k

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: reindeer [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available a Rangifer_tarandus_L.png Rangifer_tarandus_NL.png Rangifer_tarandus_S.png Rangifer_tarandus_NS.png ...

  14. Influence of In-Situ Oil Sands Development on Caribou (Rangifer tarandus Movement.

    Tyler Muhly

    Full Text Available In-situ oil sands development (ISD involves a network of facilities, wells, roads and pipelines to extract and transport subsurface bitumen. This technology is rapidly expanding and there is uncertainty whether ISDs restrict animal movement, leading to increased extinction probabilities for some wide-ranging species. Here we test for effects of simulated future (i.e., 50 years from now and current ISDs on simulated movements of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus, a threatened species across North America. In simulations of future scenarios, we varied the spacing and permeability of ISDs and the presence/absence of protected areas. Permeability was measured as the number of times simulated caribou crossed ISDs with different levels of modelled permeability. We estimated the effects of these factors on caribou step length and annual home range size, key metrics of small and large spatiotemporal scales of movement, respectively. Current caribou crossings of above-ground pipeline features of ISDs were measured using camera traps and compared to expected caribou crossing rates based on present-day caribou movement simulations. Current crossing rates were evaluated within the context of predicted future crossing success rates necessary to maintain caribou step lengths and home ranges. With few exceptions, permeability across ISDs was the main factor affecting caribou movement, more so than spacing between developments or the presence of protected areas. However, minimal permeability (crossing rates of c. 15% to 60%, relative to an undisturbed site was needed to maintain existing home range size and step lengths. The effect of permeability on home range size and step length was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in permeability would provide a disproportionately greater benefit to caribou movement. Our predictions demonstrate that maintaining permeability across ISDs is more important than spacing between leases or including protected areas

  15. Status of northern mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon, Canada

    Troy M. Hegel


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are an important ecological, cultural and economic resource in Yukon, Canada. Three caribou ecotypes occur within Yukon: Grant’s (R. t. granti, northern mountain (R. t. caribou, and boreal (R. t. caribou. Northern mountain caribou are classified as a species of special concern under Canada’s Species at Risk Act, and a national management plan for northern mountain caribou was recently completed. Twenty-six northern mountain caribou herds occur at least partially within Yukon, representing approximately 30,000 – 35,000 animals. Active monitoring of Yukon’s northern mountain caribou began in earnest in the early 1980s. To date, over 200 fall composition surveys have been carried out, over 1000 animals have been fitted with radio-collars, and nearly 40 formal population estimates have been completed. Disease and contaminant monitoring of these caribou has indicated relatively low disease prevalence and contaminant loading. Northern mountain caribou are harvested in Yukon, with an average of 230 caribou harvested per year by licensed hunters (1995 – 2012 and an unknown number by First Nation hunters. Future challenges related to caribou management and conservation in Yukon include increasing levels of industrial development primarily through mineral exploration and development, ensuring harvest of these herds is conducted sustainably given the absence of total harvest information, inter-jurisdictional management of shared herds, existing uncertainty surrounding herd distribution and delineation, and dealing with vehicle-related mortality of caribou for certain herds. Overall, the population status (i.e., trend of eight herds is known, with two increasing, two decreasing, and four stable.

  16. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Laaksonen, Sauli


    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven ...

  17. Structure and annual increase in a population of West Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus

    Henning Thing


    .  Calving adds as much as 40% new individuals to the herd, but following their two first months of life calf numbers were reduced to only 17 - 18% of the population (Fig. 6. This drastic die-off is mainly caused by an epidemical Escherischia coli arthritis. The mean calf mortality from September through May is only about 2 - 3% (Fig. 7, and consequently the annual recruitment averages 15%. Considering the average mortality rates of the other age classes in the population (approx. 7% the herd increment at the start of the hunting season (August amounts to only 10%. Mortality in the first year of life (60% is comparable to that of a broad spectrum of other wild Rangifer populations in northern regions (Fig. 7. However, in the Sisimiut herd reduction of calf numbers almost exclusively takes place during the first three months after birth, while in the other Rangifer populations calf mortality is more evenly distributed throughout the whole year. Struktur og årlig tilvækst i en bestand af vestgønlandsk vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus.Abstract in Danish / Sammendrag: Som et led i en større økologisk undersøgelse af den vestgrønlandske vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus er bestanden i Sisimiut-området (ca. 67 gr N blevet studeret med hensyn til køns- og aldersstruktur, flokstørrelse, kalv-simle forhold og kalvetilvækst. Sisimiut-bestanden tæller mellem 2500 og 3000 dyr, og består det meste af året hovedsagelig af ganske små flokke på op til 5 dyr. Koncentrationer på flere hundrede dyr ses kun i sommertiden i forbindelse med insektforstyrrelser. Der er en tydelig årsrytme i gennemsnitsstørrelsen af flokkene, således at der sker en jævn stigning fra midvinterens 1,4 dyr pr. flok til et højdepunkt i efter-kælvningstiden med knap 25 dyr pr. flok. Manglen på ulve samt de dårlige, nedslidte føderessourcer i området gør, at dyrene på alle årstider har en meget lille flokstørrelse sammenlignet med andre landes vildrenbestande. Omkring 50% af

  18. Reconstructing ecological niches and geographic distributions of caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus) during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Colombeau, Guillaume


    A variety of approaches have been used to reconstruct glacial distributions of species, identify their environmental characteristics, and understand their influence on subsequent population expansions. Traditional methods, however, provide only rough estimates of past distributions, and are often unable to identify the ecological and geographic processes that shaped them. Recently, ecological niche modeling (ENM) methodologies have been applied to these questions in an effort to overcome such limitations. We apply ENM to the European faunal record of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to reconstruct ecological niches and potential ranges for caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus), and evaluate whether their LGM distributions resulted from tracking the geographic footprint of their ecological niches (niche conservatism) or if ecological niche shifts between the LGM and present might be implicated. Results indicate that the LGM geographic ranges of both species represent distributions characterized by niche conservatism, expressed through geographic contraction of the geographic footprints of their respective ecological niches.

  19. Gestation length in farmed reindeer.

    Shipka, M P; Rowell, J E


    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarundus) are the only cervids indigenous to the arctic environment. In Alaska, reindeer are a recognized agricultural species and an economic mainstay for many native populations. Traditionally raised in extensive free-ranging systems, a recent trend toward intensive farming requires a more in-depth knowledge of reproductive management. Reported gestation length in reindeer varies, ranging from 198 to 229 d in studies performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A switchback study that manipulated only breeding date demonstrated a mean increase in gestation length of 8.5 d among females bred early in the season. The negative correlation between conception date and gestation length is consistent with reindeer research at other locations and reports of variable gestation length in a growing number of domestic and non-domestic species. This paper reviews the phenomenon in reindeer and discusses some of the factors known to affect gestation length as well as possible areas for future research.


    Lian, Marianne; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Bentzen, Torsten W; Demma, Dominic J; Arnemo, Jon M


    Carfentanil-xylazine (CX) has been the primary drug combination used for immobilizing free-ranging ungulates in Alaska, US since 1986. We investigated the efficacy of a potential new drug of choice, thiafentanil (Investigational New Animal Drug A-3080). Captive trials indicated that thiafentanil-azaperone-medetomidine could provide good levels of immobilization. However, field trials conducted in October 2013 on free-ranging caribou ( Rangifer tarandus granti) calves showed the combination too potent, causing three respiratory arrests and one mortality. The protocol was revised to thiafentanil-azaperone-xylazine (TAX), with good results. The induction time was not significantly different between the two combinations. However, the recovery time was significantly shorter for the TAX group than for the CX group. A physiologic evaluation was performed on 12 animals immobilized on CX and 15 animals on TAX. Arterial blood was collected after induction and again after 10 min of intranasal oxygen supplements (1 L/min). Both groups had significant increases in partial pressure of arterial oxygen after oxygen treatment. There was a concurrent significant increase in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide in both groups. Rectal temperature increased significantly in both groups during the downtime, which is consistent with other studies of potent opioids in ungulates. On the basis of our results, we found TAX to be a potential alternative for the current CX protocol for immobilizing free-ranging caribou calves via helicopter darting.

  1. Reindeer avoidance of pasture contaminated with sheep and reindeer faeces

    Jonathan E. Colman


    Full Text Available Contamination by excrements will increase in areas with high animal densities, such as snow free patches with accessible forage in winter and holding paddocks. Avoidance of faeces dropped by other grazers may result in interference competition by reducing optimal forage intake, or offer protection from the transfer of parasites or disease. We conducted two enclosure experiments investigating reindeer (Rangifer tarandus reactions towards faeces. The first experiment tested whether reindeer avoid pasture contaminated with faeces from reindeer or sheep (Ovis aries. Both high (0.5 kg/m2 and low (0.05 kg/m2 concentrations of faeces reduced reindeer grazing compared to no faeces. Reindeer grazed significantly less in areas with high concentration of faeces compared to areas with low concentrations, with equally strong avoidance regardless of faeces source. The second experiment analysed the defecation pattern (random or not of reindeer in a 50 m x 40 m enclosure to investigate how this pattern might change following the introduction of female sheep or additional female reindeer. Both reindeer and sheep defecated in a non-random pattern that was related to their preferred bedding sites. When sheep visited reindeer, the species' faeces distributions were positively correlated, indicating that reindeer and sheep had an overlap in area utilization, at least while bedding. When additional reindeer were introduced and then removed, the combined resident and visiting reindeers' faeces distributions were negatively correlated with the resident reindeers' faeces distribution following the removal of the visiting reindeer. This suggested that resident reindeer avoided the visiting reindeers' faeces. Resident reindeer also produced fewer total droppings when visited by new reindeer, while the number of droppings did not change when visited by sheep. Thus, resident reindeer were more adversely affected by the introduction of new reindeer even after their removal

  2. Arctic hiking mattress from processed reindeer pelt

    E. Mäntysalo


    Full Text Available Quality of clothing and equipment has always been the most important matter when hiking in extreme, arctic conditions. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus hides were processed with the aid of irreversible tannage and careful hydrophobic treatment. As a result, a processed reindeer-pelt hiking mattress was obtained, superior to the best hiking mattresses on the market made of plastic materials. Its physical properties are: weight 1.7 kg, width 60 cm and length 190 cm. The reindeer pelt has a low initial isothermal compressibility, 0.71 Pa-1, a low thermal conductivity, 0.070 Wm-1°C-1, and an R-value of 0.35 m2°CW-1. The heat-flow experimenrs have been carried our at a pressure of 810 Pa. In addition, the reindeer pelt stays dry in use because of its good ventilation. In these respects the reindeer pelr is superior to plastic mattresses.

  3. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on pregnancy rates in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus

    Erik Ropstad


    Full Text Available In September 1990, a total of 69 calves with a minimum body weight of 46 kg were allocated into two groups, one treated with a single injection of 75 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (N = 35, the other serving as control (N=34. Blood samples were collected for progesterone analysis in December 1990 and 1991. Udder palpation was performed in July and September 1990. Treated animals had significantly lower plasma progesterone levels in December 1990. The pregnancy rate as determined by udder palpation was 16.7% for treated animals and 48.3% for controls (P<0.01. All animals which were found to be pregnant had high progesterone levels (>5 ng/ml the following winter. The mean body weight increase was 5.1 kg lower in females which kept their calves until September than in barren females (P<0.05. More than 50% of the pregnant females lost their calves during the summer.

  4. Translocation techniques used to establish pen farmed Alaskan reindeer

    R. A. Dieterich


    Full Text Available Small herds of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus frequently have been needed to be established in fenced holding pens for research or commercial reasons in Alaska and other areas. Native ranges of reindeer in Alaska were not on road systems, and the diet of the native reindeer had to be changed when they were translocated to small pens. Economics of transportation and feeding played an important role in the feasibility of translocation. Gathering and holding of reindeer for shipment, transport methods, adjustment of free-ranging reindeer to confinement, and a new diet were primary considerations to insure survival. Minimal psychologic stress of short duration, thermoregulation, and physical comfort were extremely important in carrying out a successful translocation. Receiving facilities, feed, and personnel were equally important. A minimum of one month was required to adjust reindeer to confinement and diet change.

  5. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Yngve Espmark


    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  6. What is a reindeer? Indigenous perspectives from northeast Siberia

    Vitebsky, Piers; Alekseyev, Anatoly


    This version is the author accepted manuscript and will appear in a revised by Cambridge University Press in Polar Record. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 The article can also be viewed on the Polar Record website here: The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is the mainstay of most of the indigenous cultures and economies of the Eurasian north. Yet much of th...

  7. Experimental infection of reindeer, sheep and goats with Elaphostrongylus spp. (Nematoda, Protostrongylidae from moose and reindeer

    Margarets Stéen


    Full Text Available Six reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, five sheep and six goats (Ovis ovis and Capra hircus were experimentally infected with the nematode Elaphostrongylus alces. Additionally, one sheep was infected with E. rangiferi. Reindeer infected with E. alces showed no neurological signs. Sheep and goats infected with the same parasite also remained clinically healthy; however, the sheep infected with E. rangiferi showed severe neurological signs and became paralysed. Pathological lesions were minimal in reindeer and domestic ruminants infected with E. alces, but were prominent in the lamb infected with E. rangiferi. Our results indicate that keeping and transferring sheep and goats into ateas inhabited by moose, which is a natural host of E. alces may not harm the livestock, while keeping sheep in areas inhabited by reindeer infected with E. rangiferi may result in petiodic outbreaks of cerebrospinal elaphostrongylosis in sheep.

  8. Experimental infection of reindeer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    J.K. Morton


    Full Text Available Two 8-month reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and a 1-month-old Hereford-Holstein calf (Bos taurus were inoculated intranasally with the Singer (cytopathogenic strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus. Clinical signs in reindeer included loose stools containing blood and mucus, and transient laminitis or coronitis. Signs in the calf were limited to bloody mucus in the stool and lesions in the nasal mucosa. Antibody titers to BVD virus in the reindeer were intermittent, and titers in the calf persisted from days 14 to 63 post-inoculation (PI. Viremia was detected on PI day 4 in one reindeer, days 3-7 in the other, and days 2-7 in the calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from the lung of the calf at necropsy (PI day 63.

  9. Observation of Arctic island barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus migratory movement delay due to human induced sea-ice breaking

    Mathieu Dumond


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The seasonal migration of the Dolphin and Union caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus herd between Victoria Island and the mainland (Nunavut/Northwest Territories, Canada relies on the formation of sea-ice that connects the Island to the mainland from late-October to early-June.  During an aerial survey of the Dolphin and Union caribou herd in October 2007 on southern Victoria Island, Nunavut, Canada, we documented the short-term effects of the artificial maintenance of an open water channel in the sea-ice on caribou migratory movements during staging along the coast.

  10. Toxin types of Clostridium perfringens isolated from free-ranging, semi-domesticated reindeer in Norway.

    Aschfalk, A; Valentin-Weigand, P; Müller, W; Goethe, R


    Samples of faeces were taken from 166 healthy domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from three flocks in different reindeer husbandry districts in northern Norway and examined bacteriologically for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. The organism was isolated from 98 (59 per cent) of the reindeer. The isolates were classified into C perfringens toxin types by PCR analysis specific for the genes encoding the four major toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon and tau) and were subclassified by the detection of the genes encoding C perfringens beta2-toxin and enterotoxin. All the isolates belonged to C perfringens toxin type A. In addition, 15 of the 98 isolates were PCR-positive for the beta2-toxin gene, and two of the isolates had the the gene encoding for enterotoxin.

  11. Barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) behaviour after recent fire events; integrating caribou telemetry data with Landsat fire detection techniques.

    Rickbeil, Gregory J M; Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A


    Fire regimes are changing throughout the North American boreal forest in complex ways. Fire is also a major factor governing access to high-quality forage such as terricholous lichens for barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Additionally, fire alters forest structure which can affect barren-ground caribou's ability to navigate in a landscape. Here, we characterize how the size and severity of fires are changing across five barren-ground caribou herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. Additionally, we demonstrate how time since fire, fire severity, and season result in complex changes in caribou behavioural metrics estimated using telemetry data. Fire disturbances were identified using novel gap-free Landsat surface reflectance composites from 1985 to 2011 across all herd ranges. Burn severity was estimated using the differenced normalized burn ratio. Annual area burned and burn severity were assessed through time for each herd and related to two behavioural metrics: velocity and relative turning angle. Neither annual area burned nor burn severity displayed any temporal trend within the study period. However, certain herds, such as the Ahiak/Beverly, have more exposure to fire than other herds (i.e. Cape Bathurst had a maximum forested area burned of less than 4 km(2) ). Time since fire and burn severity both significantly affected velocity and relative turning angles. During fall, winter, and spring, fire virtually eliminated foraging-focused behaviour for all 26 years of analysis while more severe fires resulted in a marked increase in movement-focused behaviour compared to unburnt patches. Between seasons, caribou used burned areas as early as 1-year postfire, demonstrating complex, nonlinear reactions to time since fire, fire severity, and season. In all cases, increases in movement-focused behaviour were detected postfire. We conclude that changes in caribou behaviour immediately postfire are primarily driven by

  12. Level of selected toxic elements in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow of young semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) from Northern Norway

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Rylander, Charlotta; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M


    .... Selected toxic elements (cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel and vanadium) were studied. Liver was the organ with the highest level of all elements except for nickel, which was highest in bone marrow...

  13. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

    Morten Ryg


    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  14. Discovery and description of the "davtiani" morphotype for Teladorsagia boreoarcticus (Trichostrongyloidea: Ostertagiinae) abomasal parasites in muskoxen, Ovibos moschatus, and caribou, Rangifer tarandus, from the North American Arctic: implications for parasite faunal diversity.

    Hoberg, Eric P; Abrams, Arthur; Pilitt, Patricia A; Kutz, Susan J


    Collections to explore helminth diversity among free-ranging ungulates in the North American Arctic revealed the occurrence of a third male, or " davtiani ," morphotype for Teladorsagia boreoarcticus . Designated as T. boreoarcticus forma (f.) minor B, the males occurred with T. boreoarcticus f. major and T. borearcticus f. minor A in endemic populations of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus wardi) and barrenground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) on Victoria Island, Nunavut, Canada, and in muskoxen and Peary caribou ( Rangifer tarandus pearyi ) on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. These specimens differ from conspecific morphotypes in the structure of the genital cone and Sjöberg's organ. Relative to T. boreoarcticus f. minor A, specimens of T. boreoarcticus f. minor B are consistently smaller, and mean dimensions for the bursa and spicules do not overlap. The robust spicules are similar in form, particularly in the relative length of the dorsal and ventral processes, but mean total length is substantially less in specimens of T. boreoarcticus f. minor B. Differences that distinguish the minor morphotypes of T. boreoarcticus parallel those demonstrated for the T. trifurcata and T. davtiani morphotypes in association with T. circumcincta sensu stricto. New host and geographic records include the 3 morphotypes of T. boreoarcticus in muskoxen and Peary caribou from Banks Island and in barrenground caribou from Victoria Island. Recognition of the ubiquitous nature of cryptic species emphasizes the need to effectively develop and use our collections-based resources and museum archives to build a robust understanding of the biosphere. Field inventory should include provisions for integrative approaches that preserve specimens suitable for comparative morphology, multi-faceted molecular investigations, and population genetics.

  15. Differences in the ecology and behaviour of reindeer populations in the USSR

    Leonid M. Baskin


    Full Text Available The population differences in ecology and behaviour of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus spp. is closely paralleled by the characteristic features of reindeer husbandry which reveals the close relationship between behaviour and husbandry. The western portion of the reindeer husbandry region in the USSR is vast. The reindeer are maintained on a semi-loose basis; the herd is scattered over the range; the social activity of the reindeer is lower; the herdsmen gather the herd using dogs, the herdsmen migr.ate together with the herd during the summer, grazing the herd in the vicinity of the tent for 2-5 days at a time. In the eastern portion of the region (Yakutia, Chukotka, Kamchatka, the ranges are more restrictive; the reindeer are grazed in a compact mass in summer; their feeding and movement are rigidly regulated; their social activity is high; the herd is gathered in foot without dogs. In summer, herdsmen follow the herd with light tents, the place of grazing being changed almost daily. In the taiga reindeer are raised mostly for transportation, although the hides and meat are also important; the reindeer are bigger, tamer and can be used for riding. The herds are small and the management of them is aimed at retaining the reindeer near home or the camp; migrations are short; often forest reindeer husbandry is of a sedentary nature. Attempts to change the pattern of reindeer husbandry and the methods of herding are not always successful. The harmony of environmental conditons, morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour of reindeer and methods of husbandry are more easily disrupted than altered.

  16. Lactation in yearling Alaskan reindeer: Implications for growth, reproduction, and survival

    Alexander K. Prichard


    Full Text Available Unlike most Rangifer herds, free-ranging female reindeer {Rangifer tarandus on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska frequently give birth as yearlings (12 months. In other reindeer herds this early reproduction has led to negative effects such as decreased future weight gain and reproduction. We analyzed reindeer data collected on the Seward Peninsula between 1987 and 1997 to determine what effect lactating as yearlings had on future weight gain, reproductive rates, and survival. Reindeer were rounded up during June and early July. Individual ear tag numbers were recorded, females were visually inspected for the presence of a distended udder, and some animals were weighed. Females with distended udders as yearlings had subsequent recapture rates, survival rates, weight gain, and future reproductive success comparable to females that did not have distended udders as yearlings. These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of increased calf weight gain outweigh potential negative effects of early reproduction in these reindeer. This may be due to high quality range leading to heavy calves and the ability of females to maintain body reserves during lactation.

  17. Antler development in reindeer in relation to age and sex

    Amund Høymork


    Full Text Available Yearling male and adult female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are similar in size and shape. If sexual clues are hidden, it can be difficult to distinguish between them. Antlers can be a useful aid in classifying yearling males and adult females, depending on whether specific antler characteristics are identifiable for these two groups. We recorded antler characteristics in a domestic reindeer herd (Vågå and found considerable overlap in antler height, width and circumference between the different age and sex groups. Total tines and number of tine split-offs are use¬ful for the field biologist when discriminating among adult females, yearling males and 2.5 year-old males. For example, when using the tine split-offs with the suggested classification, 79% of the observed adult females and 76% of the yearling males were classified correctly. The antler height, width and circumference provide other biological dif¬ferences between groups, but are not easy to use to identify free ranging reindeer. This is due to the great overlap in antler size between the groups and measuring difficulties in a field study situation. Male and female calves have very similar antlers, and only the antler width is possible for sex discrimination, giving 67% accuracy of discriminating between these two groups.

  18. Populations of wild and feral reindeer in Siberia and Far East of Russia

    Leonid M. Baskin


    Full Text Available Identification and cataloging of discrete reindeer (Rangifer tarandus populations in Siberia and the Far East of Russia has not been carried out. This prohibits accurate measures of population structure and dynamics that would allow more intensive management of this important renewable resource. To rectify the lack of information, an inventory was made that identifies 84 wild populations and 3 feral populations originating from domestic reindeer. This inventory summarizes the information available on the location, approximate population size, approximate range size, and occurrence by ecoregions and habitat types of each of those 87 reindeer populations. The 87 reindeer populations used a collective landmass of about 3 000 000 km2. The range size for each population was calculated to be between 446 km2 and 392 267 km2, with a mean ± SE of 34 033 ± 5734 km2. The 86 populations for which population size could be approximated totaled 790 655 reindeer, with an approximate mean ± SE of 9194 ± 2517, a minimum size of 50, and maximum size of 145 000. The location of the calving grounds could be determined for only 26 (30% of the 87 reindeer populations.

  19. Assessment of Alaska reindeer populations and range conditions

    J. D. Swanson


    Full Text Available Populations of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus have fluctated greatly since their introduction to Alaska in 1891. In the 1930s, reported numbers exceeded 600 000. Presently, 38 000 reindeer graze 6.2 million ha of rangeland and woodland in Western Alaska (from 66°54'N to 52°07'N latitude. Condition of winter range producing fruticose lichens (Cladina rangiferina, Cladina arbuscula, Cladina stellaris, Cetraria cucullata, Cetraria islandica is of major concern. Monitoring programs have been established for vegetation, fire, reindeer and wildlife. Reindeer have overgrazed lichen resources on some Bering Sea Islands. Wildfires have had the greatest impact on lichen range depletion on the mainland. Overgrazing has been a problem in localized areas. Moose (Alces alces and muskox (Ovibos moschatus rarely contribute to major lichen depletion. 60-80% of the mainland and 5-30% of most island winter lichen ranges are presently estimated to be in good to excellent ecological condition. Procedures for assessing condition of the lichen ranges are being further refined.

  20. Some herding, record keeping and treatment methods used in Alaskan reindeer herds

    Robert A. Dieterich


    Full Text Available Approximately 20000 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus in Alaska are gathered once or twice yearly to facilitate identification, serologic sampling, treatment and antler removal. Various air and land craft are used to bring the animals into a corral system from which they can be herded into a padded, pneumatically operated, squeeze apparatus. Ear tags are applied or read if already in place and ears are notched. A portable, computerized rapid data retrieval system is used to record reproductive success, vaccination and treatment status and other miscellaneous information. Ivermectin is being administered in the early winter months to treat reindeer in many herds for warbles, nasal bots and internal parasites. A killed, homologous Brucella suis type 4 vaccine is being used in two large (3500 herds. Efforts are being made to incorporate other innovative methods to improve herding and corralling methods.

  1. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

    J. M. Blanchard


    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  2. Insect avoidance may override human disturbances in reindeer habitat selection

    Anna Skarin


    Full Text Available Habitat selection of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was investigated through faecal pellet- group counts and by direct observations of reindeer from helicopter in the Långfjället area in Idre reindeer herding district (62˚10’N and in Mittådalen reindeer herding district (62˚50’N, aerial observations only. Reindeer pellets were found to be most abundant in habitats at high altitudes, and in some vegetation types. Pellet-group densities tended to be higher near the tourist trails, which often follow higher altitudes in the terrain. The aerial surveys showed that the reindeer moved towards higher altitudes when the wind speed was low and the temperature was high both in June and July. In June they moved towards lower regions when temperature was low and the wind speed was strong. The conclusion is that the reindeer use Långfjället to escape insect harassment and warm weather, even though disturbance by tourism sometimes is high.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Habitatval hos tamren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus undersöktes genom att göra en spillningsinventering och genom att göra flygobservationer från helikopter. Studien gjordes på Långfjället (62˚10’N i Idre nya sameby och i Mittådalens samebys sommarbetesområde (62˚50’N, endast flygobservationer. På Långfjället finns det vandringsleder som är frekventerade av vandrare från juni månad fram till september. Spillningen visade att renarna föredrog höjderna i området samt en del av vegetationstyperna. Det var också mer spillning närmare vandringslederna. Detta kan förklaras av att vandringslederna följer höjderna i terrängen. Flyginventeringarna under både juni och juli visade att renarna rörde sig mot högre terräng när det var varmt och lugnt väder. I juni rörde dom sig också i lägre terräng när det var stark vind och kallt väder. Slutsatsen är att renarna väljer att vistas i högre terräng för att undvika st

  3. Effect of wind on Svalbard reindeer fur insulation

    Christine Cuyler


    Full Text Available The heat transfer through Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus fur samples was studied with respect to wind velocity, season and animal age. A total of 33 dorsal fur sections were investigated using a wind tunnel. Insulation varied with season (calving, summer, autumn and winter. At zero wind velocity, fur insulation was significantly different between seasons for both calf and adult fur samples. At the same time, there was no significant difference between calf and adult insulation for the summer, autumn and winter seasons. Calf fur insulated as well as adult fur. Winter insulation of Svalbard reindeer was approximately 3 times that of summer. Increasing wind veloci¬ty increased heat loss, however, the increase was not dramatic. When wind coefficients (slope of the heat transfer regression lines were compared, between season and between calf and adult, no significant differences were reported. All fur samples showed similar increases in heat transfer for wind velocities between 0 and 10 m.s-1. The conductance of winter fur of Svalbard reindeer was almost half that of caribou fur. Also, conductance was not as greatly influenced by wind as caribou fur

  4. Potential of Svalbard reindeer winter droppings for emission/absorption of methane and nitrous oxide during summer

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Cooper, Elisabeth J.; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W.; Motohka, Takeshi; Uchida, Masaki; Nakatsubo, Takayuki


    Droppings of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) could affect the carbon and nitrogen cycles in tundra ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of reindeer droppings originating from the winter diet for emission and/or absorption of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in summer. An incubation experiment was conducted over 14 days using reindeer droppings and mineral subsoil collected from a mound near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, to determine the potential exchanges of CH4 and N2O for combinations of two factors, reindeer droppings (presence or absence) and soil moisture (dry, moderate, or wet). A line transect survey was conducted to determine the distribution density of winter droppings at the study site. The incubation experiment showed a weak absorption of CH4 and a weak emission of N2O. Reindeer droppings originating from the winter diet had a negligible effect on the exchange fluxes of both CH4 and N2O. Although the presence of droppings resulted in a short-lasting increase in N2O emissions on day 1 (24 h from the start) for moderate and wet conditions, the emission rates were still very small, up to 3 μg N2O m-2 h-1.

  5. Modeling Regional Dynamics of Human-Rangifer Systems: a Framework for Comparative Analysis

    Matthew Berman


    Full Text Available Theoretical models of interaction between wild and domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus; caribou in North America can help explain observed social-ecological dynamics of arctic hunting and husbandry systems. Different modes of hunting and husbandry incorporate strategies to mitigate effects of differing patterns of environmental uncertainty. Simulations of simple models of harvested wild and domestic herds with density-dependent recruitment show that random environmental variation produces cycles and crashes in populations that would quickly stabilize at a steady state with nonrandom parameters. Different husbandry goals lead to radically different long-term domestic herd sizes. Wild and domestic herds are typically ecological competitors but social complements. Hypothesized differences in ecological competition and diverse human livelihoods are explored in dynamic social-ecological models in which domestic herds competitively interact with wild herds. These models generate a framework for considering issues in the evolution of Human-Rangifer Systems, such as state-subsidized herding and the use of domestic herds for transportation support in hunting systems. Issues considered include the role of geographic factors, markets for Rangifer products, state-subsidized herding, effects of changes in husbandry goals on fate of wild herds, and how environmental shocks, herd population cycles, and policy shifts might lead to system state changes. The models also suggest speculation on the role of geographic factors in the failure of reindeer husbandry to take hold in the North American Arctic. The analysis concludes with suggested empirical strategies for estimating parameters of the model for use in comparative studies across regions of the Arctic.

  6. Loss of deuterium in faecal solids and by sequestration in reindeer: effect on doubly labelled water studies

    Geir Gotaas


    Full Text Available An underlying assumption when estimating total energy expenditure (TEE using doubly labelled water (DLW is that the injected isotopes (lsO and 2H leave the body only in the form of CO, and H20. However, both isotopes have additional routes of loss. We quantified the loss of 2H (i attached to faecal solids and (ii by sequestration into newly synthesised fat in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Estimates of the errors caused by these processes were applied to data from DLW studies with reindeer in summer and in winter. Given the net rate of faecal dry matter output and lipid synthesis in the present study, ignoring both sources of error caused the TEE of reindeer to be underestimated by approximately 5% in winter and approximately 9% in summer. The separate effect of each source of error was evaluated in summer. If ignored, loss of 2H through sequestration alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 3.7%. Similarly, if ignored, loss of 2H attached to faecal solids alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 5.9%.

  7. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.


    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  8. The Hardangervidda wild reindeer herd: a problematic management history

    Dag K. Bjerketvedt


    Full Text Available The unique and internationally important wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus herd on the Hardangervidda plateau of southern Norway  has shown frequent and extreme fluctuations in harvest numbers for the past 60 years, despite considerable effort to stabilize the herd size at a winter carrying capacity of  9000 – 12 000 animals . In the absence of large mammalian predators, herd size is managed through hunting.  Here we attempt to unravel the causes of the management problems related to this population by examining the relative roles of historical, biological and management-related processes. From 1900 - 1950 the population remained mainly low due to a combination of generous harvest quotas, poaching and competition from domestic reindeer.  From 1950 - 2012 three extreme harvest peaks of between 4500 - 9500 animals occurred, followed by three equally extreme troughs including two shorter periods of total protection.  This extreme harvest fluctuation contrasts with the estimated annual harvest of 2300 - 3000 needed to stabilize the winter herd between 9000 - 12 000 animals.  We conclude that this population has been difficult to manage mainly because of 1 a management based on frequently unreliable population data on herd size (especially before 2001, 2 lack of  in depth analyses and evaluation of both recruitment and sex and age composition and 3 a low and highly variable harvest success (harvest/quota due mainly to poor hunter mobility, a disadvantage when reindeer must be harvested from large flocks that constantly move upwind, seeking refuge on small areas with few hunters.  More reliable population data to create better harvest models plus increased hunter mobility are necessary to attain a more sustainable herd size, implying an improvement of the current herd survey methodology available to local reindeer boards.  Finally, a critical and independent evaluation of the scientific methodology employed to study and manage this herd is

  9. Relationships between carcass characteristics, meat quality, age and sex of free-ranging Alaskan reindeer: a pilot study

    Teresa A. Renecker


    Full Text Available Twenty-four reindeer (Rangifer tarandus carcasses from male and female animals that ranged in age from calves to adults were purchased from Bering Sea Reindeer Products (BSRP, Nunivak Island, Alaska, USA. Preslaughter and abattoir procedures were observed and evaluated. Carcasses were split in half, weighed, and broke into wholesale primal cuts of chuck, rib, loin, and hindquarter. Each primal cut was weighed, boxed, and frozen. Each half carcass of primal cuts was later dissected into lean tissue, bone, and the three compartments of fat: subcutaneous, intermuscular, and peritoneal. A portion of the loin was collected from each animal in order to obtain data on pH and shear force. Sensory panel analysis was performed on loin steaks. Due to management and environmental effects, pH values were high and the meat was dark in colour. Carcasses from adult male reindeer contained significantly lower levels of fat than carcasses of adult females. Data indicated that yearling reindeer are of greatest economic value for meat production.

  10. Macrominerals in free-ranging Swedish reindeer during winter

    Birgitta Åhman


    Full Text Available Samples of blood, rumen, and caecal contents were taken from 238 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus slaughtered between September and March in two consecutive years. Levels of magnesium, calcium and phosphorus were measured to evaluate the extent to which levels of these minerals reflected changes in the grazing conditions through the winter. Twenty-one reindeer in poor conditon were included in the investigation and compared with normal animals with respect to the investigated minerals. Serum values in September were within the normal range for domestic sheep (Ovis spp. and cattle (Bos spp. (Church, 1979. Magnesium was 0.9±0.1 mmol/l, calcium 2.8 ± 0.3 mmol/l and phosphorus 2.5 ± 0.5 mmol/l. Calcium values did not change very much through the winter while magnesium and phosphorus constantly decreased from September to February. Extremely low serum magnesium values (below 0.3 mmol/l in some animals where found in January and February. The majority of the animals in poor condition had low serum-magnesium values.

  11. Development of temperature regulation in newborn reindeer

    R. Hissa


    Full Text Available Development of temperature regulation was investigated by determining the ability of newborn reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus to maintain a normal body temperature when exposed to an incrementially decreasing ambient temperature. Newborn calves (1 day old can maintain their body temperature even at -15 °C. They can increase their metabolic rate five- to sixfold. Heat production is primarily stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. The response to exogenous administration of noradrenaline and propranolol was investigated.Poronvasan låmmonsååtelyn syntymånjålkeinen kehittyminen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vastasyntyneiden poronvasojen kylmansietoa ja lammonsaatelya tutkittiin toukokuussa 1981 Inarin Kaamasessa Paliskuntain yhdistyksen koetarhassa. Tutkittavat vasat olivat 1-10 vuorokauden ikaisia. Vasa asetettiin jååhdytettåvaån mittauskammioon. Sen aineenvaihdunta, lampotilat niin ihon eri kohdista kuin perasuolesta, lihasvarina ja sydanfrekvenssi rekisteroitiin jatkuvasti. Tulosten mukaan nayttåa siltå kuin 1 vuorokauden ikaiselle vasalle -15 °C olisi ehdoton alaraja låmpotilan sååtelyssa. Se kykeni kohottamaan hapenkulutusta talloin 5-kertaisesti. Lihasvarinan merkitys on vahainen verrattuna kemialliseen låmmontuottoon kylmassa. Tama voitiin osoittaa injisoimalla vasaan sympaattisen hermoston valittajaainetta noradrenaliinia.Temperaturreguleringens utvikling hos nyfødte reinkalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Temperaturreguleringens utvikling er studert ved å bestemme nyfødte reinkalvers evne til å opprettholde normal kroppstemperatur under påvirkning av gradvis synkende omgivelsestemperatur. Nyfødte kalver (1 døgn gamle kan opprettholde sin kroppstemperatur selv ved -15 °C. De kan øke sin omsetningshastighet fem til seks ganger. I starten er varmeproduksjonen stimulert av det sympatiske nervesystem. Virkningen av tilført noradrenalin og propranolol ble studert og skjelving synes å spille

  12. Estimating the daily dry matter intake of Svalbard reindeer in late winter

    Nicholas Tyler


    Full Text Available Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus store large reserves of subcutaneous fat during summer and autumn which, it has been suggested, might be sufficient to meet a substantial part of their energy requirements during winter. An alternative suggestion, however, is that fat is not their main source of energy after all and, moreover, that the principal role of their fat reserves is for enhancing reproductive success rather than for substituting for forage (Tyler, in press. Is it realistic to suggest that these high arctic herbivores could meet the greater part of their energy requirements in winter by feeding, given that the aerial biomass of available forage in Svalbard in late winter is very low? This question was investigated by using a simple model to predict what rate of food intake Svalbard reindeer would have to achieve to maintain energy balance in late winter. The results were surprisingly low: pregnant and nonpregnant females could mett their daily energy demands by consuming 3.1 and 1.7 g dry matter per grazing minute, respectively. This supports the suggestion that Svalbard reindeer could live principally off forage in winter.

  13. Record-keeping, management decisions and productivity of extensive reindeer herding on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Lyle A. Renecker


    Full Text Available Alaska's reindeer (Rangifer tarandus industry has been faced with the competitive need to increase productivity but cautioned to avoid range degradation as a result of high stocking rates. Consumer demand for lean, healthy, high quality meat has increased throughout the world and has surpassed production. For herders to tap these new domestic and off-shore markets, there will be the need for higher herd numbers and animal productivity, consistent slaughter protocol, and a focused marketing plan. In this paper, we illustrate how record-keeping can benefit reindeer herders in husbandry and management decisions that are necessary to increase animal productivity and, eventually, product quality and profits. These biological parameters were tested in a Lotus® spreadsheet model designed to predict herd growth and economics. Records of three reindeer herds on the Seward Peninsula have shown that calf production for adults has ranged from 35 to 98%. Sensitivity analysis predicted that in some herds, the model was sensitive to small changes in calf survival which could result in insufficient recruitment to maintain long-term harvest. Productivity may be ultimately related to management decisions that cull animals before productivity begins to decline.

  14. Translocation of reindeer from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands

    Cameron M. Bell


    Full Text Available This report describes the first translocation of reindeer Rangifer tarandus from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Reindeer were introduced from Norway to the subantarctic island of South Georgia on three occasions in the early 1900s by Norwegian whalers, and today they exist as two discrete herds, numbering approximately 2600 individuals in total. Because of concerns over the impact on native vegetation, the long-term eradication of reindeer from South Georgia has recently been proposed. A translocation of reindeer to the Falkland Islands was undertaken in 2001 by the Falkland Island Government with two objectives: (1 to preserve the genetic resources of at least one of the South Georgia herds; and (2 to facilitate the diversification of the agricultural sector of the Falkland Islands by establishing a commercial reindeer herd. Techniques developed and used in North America for the successful relocation of large numbers of calves were adopted for the translocation. A total of 59 calves (26 females and 33 males were successfully translocated from South Georgia to the Falklands Islands in 2001, and subsequently produced their first offspring in 2003. Good husbandry practices and an understanding of biology and behaviour are essential for the successful translocation of reindeer.Flytting av rein fra Sør-Georgia til FalklandsøyeneAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Artikkelen beskriver den første overføring av rein Rangifer tarandus fra Sør-Georgia til Falklandsøyene i søratlanteren. Tamrein fra Norge ble flyttet til den subarktiske øya Sør-Georgia ved tre anledninger i perioden 1911 til 1925 i forbindelse med den norske hvalfangsten der. I dag består bestanden av rundt regnet 2600 dyr fordelt på to geografisk atskilte flokker. Av hensyn til den naturlige vegetasjonen på øya er det forslag om å på sikt utrydde reinbestanden på øya. Regjeringen på Falklandsøyene foretok en første overføring av

  15. Impacts of human activity on reindeer and caribou: The matter

    Ingunn Vistnes


    Full Text Available The impacts of human activity and infrastructure development on reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus have been studied for decades and have resulted in numerous debates among scientists, developers and indigenous people affected. Herein, we discuss the development within this field of research in the context of choice of spatial and temporal scale and concurrent trends in wildlife disturbance studies. Before the 1980s, the vast majority of Rangifer disturbance studies were behavioural studies of individual animals exposed directly to potential disturbance sources. Most of these local studies reported few and short-term impacts on Rangifer. Around the mid 1980s focus shifted to regional scale landscape ecology studies, reporting that reindeer and caribou reduced the use of areas within 5 km from infrastructure and human activity by 50-95%, depending on type of disturbance, landscape, season, sensitivity of herds, and sex and age distribution of animals. In most cases where avoidance was documented a smaller fraction of the animals, typically bulls, were still observed closer to infrastructure or human activity. Local-scale behavioural studies of individual animals may provide complementary information, but will alone seriously underestimate potential regional impacts. Of 85 studies reviewed, 83% of the regional studies concluded that the impacts of human activity were significant, while only 13% of the local studies did the same. Traditional ecological knowledge may further increase our understanding of disturbance effects.Effekter av menneskelig aktivitet på rein og caribou: Betydningen av valg av skalaAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Effektene av menneskelig aktivitet og utbygging på rein og caribou (Rangifer tarandus har vært studert i flere tiår og har resultert i utallige debatter mellom forskere, utbyggere og berørt urbefolkning. I denne artikkelen diskuterer vi utviklingen innenfor dette forskningsfeltet i forhold til valg av

  16. Composition of late summer diet by semi-domesticated reindeer in different grazing conditions in northernmost Finland

    Pauline Bezard


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the diet composition of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in late summer in different kinds of grazing conditions in northernmost Finland. The composition of diet by reindeer was determined on the grounds of microhistological analysis of feces samples collected in early August in different seasonal grazing areas (winter or summer/year-round grazing areas in three reindeer management districts. Although the proportion of different plant groups varied between the studied districts, the quantified group of ground lichens (which also contained small amounts of mushrooms was the most abundant, varying from 33.0 to 46.4% in the analyzed samples. In general, there were significant differences in the proportions of lichen between districts, but not between grazing areas. The proportion of lichen in samples increased significantly when the amount of lichen pasture around a sample site increased. The proportion of dwarf shrubs and leaves in samples varied from 24.9 to 37.9% and differed significantly between districts, but not between grazing areas. In the same way, the proportion of graminoids varied between 20.9 and 36.2% and differed significantly between districts and also between grazing areas. Higher amounts of graminoids in feces were observed in summer/year-round grazing areas than in winter grazing areas. Finally, the proportion of bryophytes varied between 2.9 and 6.5% and was significantly different between districts, but not between grazing areas. An increase in old and mature coniferous forest around a sample site significantly increased the amounts of bryophytes in samples. The results indicate that reindeer adapt their summer diet composition according to the availability of food plants. The results also show that when reindeer are allowed to select their summer ranges freely, reindeer tend to use lichen pastures intensively also during summer, which causes a considerable reduction in

  17. A road in the middle of one of the last wild reindeer migration routes in Norway: crossing behaviour and threats to conservation

    Manuela Panzacchi


    Full Text Available The development of roads and associated infrastructure has interrupted several traditional migrations of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Norway. The population in the Setesdal Austhei wild reindeer area still migrates from winter to calving grounds by semi-annually crossing a cabin-lined road through a narrow corridor, in which further anthropogenic development is planned. To understand if and how infrastructure affected reindeer migration patterns we studied the movements of 10 female reindeer equipped with GPS collars between 2002 and 2010. First, we identified the start and end of the migration period, and then we compared trajectory parameters (net displacement, step length and turning angles recorded during migration with those recorded in proximity of the road. The analysis of the net displacement indicated that during spring migration reindeer moved at a constant pace towards the calving ground covering a net linear distance of 25 km in 40 days. In the middle of migration, reindeer changed travel direction and roamed parallel to the road for ca. 5 days without approaching further, possibly searching for an undisturbed place and time to cross. Reindeer finally crossed the road before daylight with highly directed movements, increasing their travel speed up to the highest values recorded during migration (4 km/3 hrs vs. 0.5 km/3 hrs. After crossing, reindeer moved quickly toward their calving ground covering the remaining 25 km net distance in less than a week. Migration patterns were markedly affected by disturbance during spring, as the road crossings occurred in the period characterized by the high traffic volume and intense human activities related to Easter holidays; during autumn, on the contrary, the hampering effect of the road was minimal. The results suggest that the current disturbance associated to the road hampers spring migration and might delay the arrival to the calving ground. The planned construction of a

  18. Grazing by reindeer in subarctic coniferous forests - how it is affecting three main greenhouse gas emissions from soils.

    Köster, Kajar; Köster, Egle; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka


    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most important large mammalian herbivores in the northern ecosystems, strongly affecting Arctic lichen dominated ecosystems. Changes caused by reindeer in vegetation have indirect effects on physical features of the soil e.g. soil microclimate, root biomass and also on soil carbon dynamics, and little is known about reindeer and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions between the soil and atmosphere. In a field experiment in northern boreal subarctic coniferous forests in Finnish Lapland, we investigated the influence of reindeer grazing on soil GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes, ground vegetation coverage and biomass, soil temperature and water content. The study was carried out in the growing season of the year 2014. We established the experiment as a split plot experiment with 2 blocks and 5 sub-plots per treatment that were divided into grazed and non-grazed parts, separated with a fence. The sample plots are located along the borderline between Finland and Russia, where the non-grazed area was excluded from reindeer already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the Russian side and there are not many reindeer on Russian side of the area. Our study showed that grazing by reindeer significantly affected lichen and moss biomasses. Lichen biomass was significantly lower in the grazed. We also observed that when lichens were removed, mosses were quickly overtaking the areas and moss biomass was significantly higher in grazed areas compared to non-grazed areas. Our results indicated that grazing by reindeer in the northern boreal subarctic forests affects the GHG emissions from the forest floor and these emissions largely depend on changes in vegetation composition. Soil was always a source of CO2in our study, and soil CO2 emissions were significantly smaller in non-grazed areas compared to grazed areas. The soils in our study areas were CH4 sinks through entire measurement period, and grazed areas consumed

  19. Treatment of reindeer with ivermectin - effect on dung insect fauna

    Arne C. Nilssen


    Full Text Available Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug widely used in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus (L. in Fennoscandia and North America. Most of the ivermectin injected in the animal is excreted unchanged in the faeces. Several reports show that ivermectin in cattle dung disrupts colonisation and survival of beneficial dung breeding insects. The present study investigated the effect of ivermectin on the reindeer dung fauna. Four reindeer calves (males, 6 months of age were injected subcutaneously with standard doses of ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg body weight in early December. The daily produced faeces was collected until day 30 after treatment, and the concentration of ivermectin was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The highest concentration measured (mean 1632 ng/g faeces (dry weight, range 907 to 2261 ng/g among the animals was on day 4 after treatment. The concentration decreased gradually to 28 ng/g (range 6 to 58 ng/g on day 30. Faeces portions from day 4 and from untreated reindeer were placed in the field on 2-4 July and recollected on 13-22 September in order to detect possible differences in decomposition fauna between the samples. The most important coprophilous beetles (Apbodius spp. and flies (Scatbophaga spp. were not detected in this winter dung whether it contained ivermectin or not, probably because of the dry consistency and small size of the pellets. On the other hand, these insects (larvae and imagines were common in summer dung, which had been deposited naturally in the field and later placed together with the ivermectin-containing winter dung for comparison. The summer dung has a more soft and lumpy consistency. Treatment in autumn or early winter implies that the bulk of the ivermectin from the animal will be present in faeces with winter consistency, since this bulk portion is excreted during the first 30 days after treatment. This dry and pelleted faeces is not utilized by the important

  20. St. Matthew Island reindeer crash revisited: Their demise was not nigh—but then, why did they die?

    Frank L. Miller


    Full Text Available Twenty-nine yearling reindeer (Rangifer tarandus were released on St. Matthew Island in the Bering Sea Wildlife Refuge in 1944: 24 females and five males. They were reported to have increased to 1350 reindeer by summer 1957 and to 6000 by summer 1963. The 6000 reindeer on St. Matthew Island in summer 1963 were then reduced by 99% to 42 by summer 1966. The evidence suggests that after growing at a high average annual rate of lamda = 1.32 for 19 years, the entire die-off occurred in winter 1963—64, making it the largest single-year crash ever recorded in any R. tarandus population. Although a supposedly meaningful decline in successful reproduction and early survival of calves was originally reported for the population between 1957 and 1963, our reevaluation indicates this is an error resulting from the wrong sample being used in the between-year comparison. The quantitative data indicate no meaningful change occurred, and the calf:cow ratio was about 60 calves:100 cows in both 1957 and 1963. Calf production and survival were high up to the crash, and in the die-off population the age distribution (72%, 1—3 years old and the sex ratio (69 males:100 females reflected a still fast-growing R. tarandus population. All of these parameters do not support the hypothesis that the limited abundance of the absolute food supply was at a lethal level between 1957 and 1963 or in winter 1963—64. We now know from other studies that a high density of R. tarandus is not a prerequisite for a major single-year winter die-off. Existing population dynamics data do not support lack of lichens as a major causative factor in this single-year crash. If a decline had been caused by the limitation of the absolute food supply, it would have followed a multi-year pattern—it would not have been a single-year event. There was no evidence of a sudden, massive, island-wide loss of the absolute food supply, or that its nutritional value was inadequate for sustaining the

  1. Highly competitive reindeer males control female behavior during the rut.

    Guillaume Body

    Full Text Available During the rut, female ungulates move among harems or territories, either to sample mates or to avoid harassment. Females may be herded by a male, may stay with a preferred male, or aggregate near a dominant male to avoid harassment from other males. In fission-fusion group dynamics, female movement is best described by the group's fission probability, instead of inter-harem movement. In this study, we tested whether male herding ability, female mate choice or harassment avoidance influence fission probability. We recorded group dynamics in a herd of reindeer Rangifer tarandus equipped with GPS collars with activity sensors. We found no evidence that the harassment level in the group affected fission probability, or that females sought high rank (i.e. highly competitive and hence successful males. However, the behavior of high ranked males decreased fission probability. Male herding activity was synchronous with the decrease of fission probability observed during the rut. We concluded that male herding behavior stabilized groups, thereby increasing average group size and consequently the opportunity for sexual selection.

  2. Highly competitive reindeer males control female behavior during the rut.

    Body, Guillaume; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; Nieminen, Mauri


    During the rut, female ungulates move among harems or territories, either to sample mates or to avoid harassment. Females may be herded by a male, may stay with a preferred male, or aggregate near a dominant male to avoid harassment from other males. In fission-fusion group dynamics, female movement is best described by the group's fission probability, instead of inter-harem movement. In this study, we tested whether male herding ability, female mate choice or harassment avoidance influence fission probability. We recorded group dynamics in a herd of reindeer Rangifer tarandus equipped with GPS collars with activity sensors. We found no evidence that the harassment level in the group affected fission probability, or that females sought high rank (i.e. highly competitive and hence successful) males. However, the behavior of high ranked males decreased fission probability. Male herding activity was synchronous with the decrease of fission probability observed during the rut. We concluded that male herding behavior stabilized groups, thereby increasing average group size and consequently the opportunity for sexual selection.

  3. Decay rate of reindeer pellet-groups

    Anna Skarin


    Full Text Available Counting of animal faecal pellet groups to estimate habitat use and population densities is a well known method in wildlife research. Using pellet-group counts often require knowledge about the decay rate of the faeces. The decay rate of a faecal pellet group may be different depending on e.g. substrate, size of the pellet group and species. Pellet-group decay rates has been estimated for a number of wildlife species but never before for reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. During 2001 to 2005 a field experiment estimating the decay rate of reindeer pellet groups was performed in the Swedish mountains close to Ammarnäs. In total the decay rate of 382 pellet groups in three different habitat types (alpine heath, birch forest and spruce forest was estimated. The slowest decay rate was found in alpine heath and there the pellet groups persisted for at least four years. If decay was assumed to take place only during the bare ground season, the estimated exponential decay rate was -0.027 pellet groups/week in the same habitat. In the forest, the decay was faster and the pellet groups did not persist more than two years. Performing pellet group counts to estimate habitat use in dry habitats, such as alpine heath, I will recommend using the faecal standing crop method. Using this method makes it possible to catch the animals’ general habitat use over several years. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Nedbrytningshastighet av renspillningInom viltforskningen har spillningsinventeringar använts under flera årtionden för att uppskatta habitatval och populationstäthet hos olika djurslag. För att kunna använda data från spillningsinventeringar krävs ofta att man vet hur lång tid det tar för spillningen att brytas ner. Nedbrytningshastigheten är olika beroende på marktyp och djurslag. Nedbrytningshastighet på spillning har studerats för bland annat olika typer av hjortdjur, men det har inte studerats på ren (Rangifer tarandus tidigare. I omr

  4. Mineral absorption in relation to nutritional ecology of reindeer

    H. Staaland


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the way which absorption of minerals relate to nutritional ecology and mineral conservation processes. A latin square designed experiment was used to assess the effects of diet on mineral (Ca, Mg, K, Na absorption processes in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.. Three male calves were fed 3 different diets: concentrate with 25% grass meal (RF-71, lichens, and a mixed diet of lichens and RF-71. Two other male calves were fed the lichen or mixed diet, supplemented with 4 g Ca/day. Ca supplementation significantly increased fecal Ca excretion, reduced the excretion of K and Mg, but had no significant effect on Na excretion. Rates of intake and fecal exretion of Ca, Mg and K were highly correlated (P<0.001, while no correlations were found for Na. Negative digestibilities of Ca, Mg and K, and a positive Na digestibility were noted for the lichen diet. For the other diets, all minerals were in positive digestibility, and Ca supplements increased the digestibility of all minerals. Digesta from different sections of the alimentary tract were collected after termination of the experiment. Alimentary pools of Ca and K were equal for animals fed lichen or RF-71, whereas the Na pool was largest on the lichen diet and the Mg pool largest on the RF-71 diet. Rumen turnover time (rumen mineral pool size/daily mineral intake was consistently less than 3 days for Ca and Mg, but was 22 and 82 days for Na on the RF-71 and lichen diets respectively. Estimates of mineral exchange in various parts of the tract showed that the intestines play and important role in scavanging endogenously secreted minerals. Results are discussed with respect to mineral binding by lichens and the possible role of natural mineral supplements in the nutritional ecology of reindeer.

  5. Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States

    Jeffrey T. Nelson


    Full Text Available In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp., white-tailed deer (WTD (Odocoileus virginianus, and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT, comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT, and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak, and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP. Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3% were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids.

  6. Rangifer and man: An ancient relationship

    Bryan Gordon


    Full Text Available A long-term relationship between Rangifer and humans is documented in three case studies: the Canadian Barrenlands (8000 years ago to Historic period, Ice-Age France (11 000-19 000 years ago and Mesolithic Russia (7000¬10 000 years ago. Ancient human and herd migration occurred in all areas, based upon Rangifer remains and seasonal variations in tools along reconstructed migration routes, with few if any hunting camps outside the routes. An April peak of ancient human births is inferred from the historic record where we see births occurring nine months after peak nutritional states in herds and people. The origin of reindeer domestication and breeding in Eurasia is discussed.

  7. Refugial origin and postglacial colonization of holarctic reindeer and caribou

    Knut H. Røed


    Full Text Available The classification and colonization of reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus was assessed from analysis of both proteins, nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA. I demonstrate that the current subspecies designations are not compatible with the differentiation at these markers, suggesting that the morphological differences among extant subspecies did not evolve in separate glacial refugia. Thus, morphological differences among extant subspecies probably evolved as adaptive responses to post-glacial environmental changes. An exception to this is the North American woodland caribou, where all three marker systems support a subspecies-specific refugium as the ancestral origin of these animals. Three major mtDNA haplogroups reported, represent three separate origins of the species during the last glaciation. The most influential origin has contributed to the gene pool of all extant subspecies, suggesting the existence of a large and continuous glacial population ranging across extensive areas of tundra in Eurasia and Beringia. The North American tundra forms (R.t. granti and groenlandicus and the arctic forms (R.t platyrhynchus, R.t pearyi and R.t eogroenlandicus almost exclusively comprise haplotypes of such an origin. Another small and isolated refugium seems to have arisen in western Eurasia in close connection to the extensive ice sheet that covered Fennoscandia. The two Eurasian subspecies R.t. tarandus and R.t. fennicus appear to have a diphyletic origin as both the putatively small and isolated Eurasian refugium and the large Beringia refugium have contributed to their gene pools. A third distinct and geographically well-defined refugial area was probably located south to the extensive North American continental ice sheet from where the ancestors of the present North American woodland caribou (R.t. caribou likely originated.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Systematisk inndeling og kolonisering av rein (Rangifer tarandus ble bestemt ved

  8. Neandertal mobility and large-game hunting: the exploitation of reindeer during the Quina Mousterian at Chez-Pinaud Jonzac (Charente-Maritime, France).

    Niven, Laura; Steele, Teresa E; Rendu, William; Mallye, Jean-Baptiste; McPherron, Shannon P; Soressi, Marie; Jaubert, Jacques; Hublin, Jean-Jacques


    Neandertals were effective hunters of large ungulates throughout their geographic and temporal ranges. Equipped with this knowledge, researchers in paleoanthropology continue to seek insight on the relationships between hunting and subsistence strategies with other components of the Neandertals' niche, such as mobility, site use, and lithic technology. The Quina Mousterian deposits from the rockshelter site of Chez Pinaud Jonzac (Charente-Maritime, France; hereafter Jonzac) offer an excellent opportunity to pursue these issues. This paper focuses on the extensive and well-preserved skeletal remains of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) recovered from recent excavations of the site, representing at least 18 individuals that were hunted by Neandertals during the fall through winter. Our zooarchaeological results indicate that all ages of reindeer were hunted but adult individuals predominate. No bias is evident in the comparable frequencies of males and females. These prey were butchered on-site, with abundant evidence of meat filleting and marrow exploitation. In the excavated sample, the absence of hearths and the almost complete lack of burned bones or stones suggest that Neandertals were not using fire to assist with processing the reindeer carcasses. The zooarchaeological results presented here indicate that reindeer were hunted during a restricted window of time when they were seasonally abundant in the local area near Jonzac. Taken together with the lithic industry based on bifacial elements, the evidence is consistent with a pattern of site use by highly mobile hunter-gatherers making frequent, short-term visits. Ongoing research at Jonzac and other Quina Mousterian localities will contribute to a better understanding of Neandertal behavior during cold climate phases.

  9. Digestion of energy and nutrients in Svalbard reindeer

    Hans Staaland


    Full Text Available Feeding trials with 5 male Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus Vrolik were conducted at the Man and the Biosphere (MAB Research Station in Adventdalen, Svalbard. Five different diets were used, 1: commercial reindeer food, (RF-71, 2: a mixture of locally harvested grasses and sedges (mainly Dupontia pelligera and Eriphorum scheusczeri, 3: a pure moss (Pleurozium scheberi diet, 4: a lichen diet using the dominant Svalbard species Cetraria delisei, and 5: a mixed diet of RF-71, moss (P. schreberi and lichens (mainly Cladonia alpestris and Cladonia rangiferina. When fed the RF-71 diet the digestibility by Svalbard and Norwegian reindeer were similar with respect to dry matter (DM 75 v 74% and crude protein (CP 74 v 70% as were the availabilities of P (72 v 76% a and Ca (18 v 36% in the diet. The mixture of grasses and sedges was highly digestible with respect to DM ((66,5% but had low availabilities of Ca (12%, Mg (10% and P (-11%. DM digestibility of the lichen C delisei was low (33% however this lichen could constitute a good source of Ca. Moss palatability was very low (174-252 g or 9-13g/kg 0 75 intake daily. DM, CP and energy digestibilities, respectively 48, 53 and 49%, and the availabilities of P (66% and Ca (20% were indicative that they could add to the energy and protein intake while contributing significantly to nutrient balance of Svalbard reindeer when present in a mixed diet.Fordøyelse av energi og næringsstoffer hos Svalbard-rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Ved MAB-stasjonen i Adventdalen på Svalbard ble det utført foringsforsøk med fem voksne bukker av Svalbardrein, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus Vrolik. Det ble nyttet fem forskjellige forty per, 1: pelletert reinfor, RF71, 2: en blanding av gras og siv høstet i Adventdalen (vesentlig Dupontia pelligera og Eriophorum scheuchzeri, 3: en ren mosediett (Pleurozium schreberi, 4: lav av den vanlige Svalbard -arten, Cetraria delisei, 5: en blandet diett av RF

  10. A comparative study of hepatic trace element levels in wild moose, roe deer, and reindeer from Norway.

    Vikoren, Turid; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Lierhagen, Syverin; Handeland, Kjell


    Liver samples from 422 wild moose (Alces alces), 280 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and 73 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) collected by hunters in various localities in Norway, 2002-2003, were analyzed for the essential trace elements cobalt, copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum, selenium (Se), and zinc. Significant differences in hepatic concentrations among species were found for all elements except for Mn, and considerable individual and geographic variations were seen. Roe deer had statistically significant lower Se levels (median: 0.51 μg Se/g dry weight) than did moose (0.77 μg Se/g) and reindeer (0.85 μg Se/g). Moose from two coastal municipalities with high precipitation had considerably higher Se concentrations than those from the other localities studied. Seventy-nine roe deer (28%) and 36 moose (9%) had Se concentrations below that regarded as deficient in domestic ruminants. The Se status in roe deer was lower than previously reported in Europe. Moose had a significantly higher Cu (222 μg Cu/g dw) than did roe deer (112 μg Cu/g) and reindeer (105 μg Cu/g). The Cu status of moose and roe deer in Norway are among the highest reported in Europe. However, a suboptimal Se and Cu status was found in moose from Tvedestrand, a population which has suffered from a reduced condition and productivity. The variability in trace element status among hunted cervids, with no apparent signs of deficiency or toxicity, probably reflects adaptations in these wild ruminant species to cope with this. However, subtle clinical signs and lesions are difficult to detect and further research is needed.

  11. Associations between annual and seasonal variations in body mass and reproductive success and blood biochemical parameters in semi-domesticated reindeer

    Ingrid H. Holmøy


    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to follow reproductive performance and blood biochemical parameters associated with fat and carbohydrate metabolism in a herd of free-ranging, semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus over a two-year period, with extreme between-year variation in forage availability. The effects of climatic factors on reindeer reproductive performance were investigated by analysing whether time of onset of luteal function in autumn and calf survival were associated with changes in body mass and weather conditions, such as snow depth, precipitation, and temperature. Considerable between-year variation in the onset of luteal activity was found. In 1997, 4.2% of the female reindeer were either cycling or pregnant in the second week of October, whilst in 1998, in the same week, 100% were cycling or pregnant. Although energy balance was important for timing of the onset of luteal activity, delayed conception had no apparent effect on calf survival. The results indicated that maternal body mass (BM in spring was of primary importance for calf survival, and the productivity of the herd. Since climatic factors influence the availability of forage, and hence female BM, it also has an indirect impact on calf survival. Females with low BM demonstrated greater seasonal variation in BM than heavier females. Plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and β-hydroxy butyric acid responded to changes in forage availability, but the initial condition of the reindeer and their fat reserves also seemed to have a major influence on these parameters.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Sammenheng mellom års- og sesongvariasjon i kroppsvekt og henholdsvis reproduksjonssuksess og biokjemiske blodparametre hos tamreinHovedformålet med studien var å følge reproduksjonen og blodparametre knyttet til fett og karbohydratmetabolismen hos en tamreinflokk (Rangifer tarandus tarandus gjennom en toårs periode med stor årlig variasjon i n

  12. Failure of cellulolysis in the rumen of reindeer fed timothy silage

    Monica A. Olsen


    Full Text Available Three male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were brought from mountain pastures in April and fed regrowth timothy (Phleum pratense silage with 76% leaves and 24.0% dry matter (DM ad libitum. The silage contained (on DM basis 25.4% cellulose, 12.0% crude protein and 19-6% water soluble carbohydrates. After an initial period of 11 days the daily silage intake rose to almost similar values for all animals, but independently of food intake, body mass (BM increased by as much as 13.3 kg for animal R3 during the first 21 days, compared to 4.4 kg and 2.8 kg for Rl and R2, respectively. At slaughter the wet weight of the rumen contents of animal R3 constituted 30.2% of the total BM, compared to 18.5% and 19.1% in animals Rl and R2, respectively. A reduced ability of the rumen micro-biota to ferment pure cellulose in vitro was observed in R3. The ruminal pH was 7.07 and the concentration of volatile fatty acids was only 50.0 mM in R3, indicating a low rate of fermentation. The initial rates of in vitro dry matter digestibility of timothy silage and standard hay were also affected by the rumen fermentation failure in animal R3. Depressed rumen cellulolysis, which may be related to natural periods of starvation prior to the feeding experiment, could have caused the low rate of fermentation and the large rumen size observed in this animal.

  13. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions

    Brage Bremset Hansen


    Full Text Available One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of “extreme” weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus to use marine habitat in late winter 2010. A thick coat of ground ice covered 98% of the lowland ranges, almost completely blocking access to terrestrial forage. Accordingly, a population census revealed that 13% of the total population (n=26 of 206 individuals and 21% of one sub-population were feeding on washed-up kelp and seaweed on the sea-ice foot. Calves were overrepresented among the individuals that applied this foraging strategy, which probably represents a last attempt to avoid starvation under particularly severe foraging conditions. The study adds to the impression that extreme weather events such as heavy ROS and associated icing can trigger large changes in the realized foraging niche of Arctic herbivores.

  14. Metagenomics of the Svalbard reindeer rumen microbiome reveals abundance of polysaccharide utilization loci.

    Phillip B Pope

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass remains a largely untapped source of renewable energy predominantly due to its recalcitrance and an incomplete understanding of how this is overcome in nature. We present here a compositional and comparative analysis of metagenomic data pertaining to a natural biomass-converting ecosystem adapted to austere arctic nutritional conditions, namely the rumen microbiome of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Community analysis showed that deeply-branched cellulolytic lineages affiliated to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are dominant, whilst sequence binning methods facilitated the assemblage of metagenomic sequence for a dominant and novel Bacteroidales clade (SRM-1. Analysis of unassembled metagenomic sequence as well as metabolic reconstruction of SRM-1 revealed the presence of multiple polysaccharide utilization loci-like systems (PULs as well as members of more than 20 glycoside hydrolase and other carbohydrate-active enzyme families targeting various polysaccharides including cellulose, xylan and pectin. Functional screening of cloned metagenome fragments revealed high cellulolytic activity and an abundance of PULs that are rich in endoglucanases (GH5 but devoid of other common enzymes thought to be involved in cellulose degradation. Combining these results with known and partly re-evaluated metagenomic data strongly indicates that much like the human distal gut, the digestive system of herbivores harbours high numbers of deeply branched and as-yet uncultured members of the Bacteroidetes that depend on PUL-like systems for plant biomass degradation.

  15. Habitat use by semi-domesticated reindeer, estimated with pellet-group counts

    Anna Skarin


    Full Text Available Habitat selection theory predicts that herbivores should select for or against different factors at different spatial scales. For instance, quantity of forage is expected to be a strong factor influencing habitat choice at large scales, while forage quality may be important at finer scales. However, during summer, herbivores such as reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus can be limited in their grazing time by insect harassment, and do not always have the possibility to select for high quality forage. Human disturbances from hikers, etc., can also have a limiting effect on the possibility for reindeer to graze in high quality foraging habitats. Reindeer habitat selection at the landscape level was investigated through faecal pellet-group counts during the summers of 2002 and 2003 in two reindeer herding districts in Sweden. Resource utilization functions (RUFs were developed using multiple linear regressions, where the pellet densities were related to vegetation types, topographic features, distances to tourist resorts, and distances to hiking trails. Validations of the models were performed through cross-validation correlations. Results show that high altitudes with high quality forage were important habitats. Areas that offer both snow patches and fresh forage plants for the reindeer were used in relation to their availability. The reindeer also seemed able to habituate to human intervention to a certain extent. The predictive capabilities of the RUF models were high and pellet-group counts seemed well suited to study how abiotic factors affect the habitat use at large temporal and spatial scales Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Renens användning av sommarbetesområdet, uppskattat med spillningsinventeringar Hierarkiskt habitatval innebär att djur väljer för och emot olika faktorer beroende på den rumsliga skalan. Mängden bete kan t ex spela stor roll för en växtätares habitatval på en stor skala medan kvalitén på betet kan ha

  16. Rangifer and human interests

    David G. Anderson


    Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.

  17. Ecological role of reindeer summer browsing in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests: effects on plant defense, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient cycling.

    Stark, Sari; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kumpula, Jouko


    Mammalian herbivores commonly alter the concentrations of secondary compounds in plants and, by this mechanism, have indirect effects on litter decomposition and soil carbon and nutrient cycling. In northernmost Fennoscandia, the subarctic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests are important pasture for the semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). In the summer ranges, mountain birches are intensively browsed, whereas in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on ground lichens, and the mountain birches remain intact. We analyzed the effect of summer browsing on the concentrations of secondary substances, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient pools in areas that had been separated as summer or winter ranges for at least 20 years, and we predicted that summer browsing may reduce levels of secondary compounds in the mountain birch and, by this mechanism, have an indirect effect on the decomposition of mountain birch leaf litter and soil nutrient cycling. The effect of browsing on the concentration of secondary substances in the mountain birch leaves varied between different years and management districts, but in some cases, the concentration of condensed tannins was lower in the summer than in the winter ranges. In a reciprocal litter decomposition trial, both litter origin and emplacement significantly affected the litter decomposition rate. Decomposition rates were faster for the litter originating from and placed into the summer range. Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in the summer than in the winter ranges, which indicates that reindeer summer browsing may enhance the soil nutrient cycling. There was a tight inverse relationship between soil N and foliar tannin concentrations in the winter range but not in the summer range. This suggests that in these strongly nutrient-limited ecosystems, soil N availability regulates the patterns of resource allocation to condensed tannins in the absence but not in the presence of browsing.

  18. A PCR-based assay for discriminating Cervus and Rangifer (Cervidae) antlers with mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms.

    Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Eung Soo; Ko, Byong Seob; Oh, Seung-Eun; Ryuk, Jin-Ah; Chae, Seong Wook; Lee, Hye Won; Choi, Go Ya; Seo, Doo Won; Lee, Mi Young


    This study describes a method for discriminating Rangifer antlers from true Cervus antlers using agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, quantitative real-time PCR, and allelic discrimination. Specific primers labeled with fluorescent tags were designed to amplify fragments from the mitochondrial D-loop genes for various Cervus subspecies and Rangifer tarandus differentially. A 466-bp fragment that was observed for both Cervus and Rangifer antlers served as a positive control, while a 270-bp fragment was specifically amplified only from Rangifer antlers. Allelic discrimination was used to differentiate between Cervus and Rangifer antlers, based on the amplification of specific alleles for both types of antlers. These PCR-based assays can be used for forensic and quantitative analyses of Cervus and Rangifer antlers in a single step, without having to obtain any sequence information. In addition, multiple PCR-based assays are more accurate and reproducible than a single assay for species-specific analysis and are especially useful in this study for the identification of original Cervus deer products from fraudulent Rangifer antlers.

  19. Disturbances (fire and grazing by reindeer) and soil methane fluxes -- case studies from the subarctic boreal forest of Finish Lapland.

    Köster, Kajar; Köster, Egle; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka


    In aerobic, well-drained environments such as boreal upland forest soils, methane (CH4) is oxidized by microbes, resulting into the soils acting as a sink of atmospheric CH4. The emission of CH4 is controlled primarily by soil moisture and temperature, but also by the availability of organic carbon. Forest fires are one of the predominant natural disturbances in subarctic boreal forests that strongly influence soil moisture and soil temperature values and carbon dynamics of the soils. At the same time also the effect of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) grazing on soil moisture and temperature regimes in the lichen-dominated Arctic ecosystems has been found to be considerable. By removing the lichen carpet and damaging the secondary vegetation mat, reindeer make patches of bare soil common, and these factors in combination with trampling allow for soil to warm up faster, reach higher temperatures, and reduce the soil moisture content. We studied the effect of reindeer grazing and forest fire on fluxes of CH4 in northern boreal subarctic Scots pine forest stands. The study areas are in eastern Lapland, Värriö Strict Nature Reserve, Finland (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E). The sites are situated north of the Arctic Circle, near to the northern timberline at an average of 300 m altitude. For studing the effect of fire we have established sample areas (with three replicate plots in each) in a chronosequence of 4 age classes (2 to 152 years since the last fire). The fire chronosequence consisted of four types of areas with different time since the last forest fire: i) 5 years, ii) 45 years, iii) 70 years and iv) 155 years after fire. For studing the effect of reindeer grazing (comparison of grazed and non-grazed areas) we have established the study areas (10 sample plots in total established in year 2013) along the borderline between Finland and Russia. The ungrazed area was excluded from the reindeer grazing already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the

  20. The role of harvest, predators, and socio-political environment in the dynamics of the Taimyr wild reindeer herd with some lessons for North America

    Leonid Kolpasсhikov


    Full Text Available The Taimyr wild reindeer herd, i.e., caribou (Rangifer tarandus, is one of the most important wildlife resources in the Russian Far North and may constitute the largest migratory Rangifer herd in the world. Over the last 60 years the herd has undergone a recovery from low numbers in the 1940s, reaching high densities by 1970 that concerned wildlife managers and domestic husbandry herds, with an 11.7% annual growth rate. At that time an aggressive commercial harvest of the herd was implemented, and organized wolf control was initiated with the goal of stabilizing herd numbers and injecting needed economic activity into the region. These actions dampened the rate of increase throughout the 1970s and 1980s to a 3.0% annual growth rate. From 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the loss of financial capability to sustain the commercial harvest and continue wolf control, the population again increased at a 5.6% annual growth rate, until peaking in 2000 at just more than 1 million animals. Since 2000 the herd has been in decline; harvesting, primarily unregulated, has increased; the wolf population has increased; and range conditions have deteriorated. Understanding what has occurred in the Taimyr range can provide North American managers with valuable lessons in understanding the large migratory herds on this continent, especially given that the social and political situation in Russia enabled intensive management, i.e., harvest and wolf control, that may not be able to be duplicated in North America.

  1. Historical resume, reindeer

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This preliminary report discusses the history of reindeer and their population status over time, with emphasis on the relationship between caribou and reindeer.

  2. A hypothesis to explain lichen-Rangifer dynamic relationships

    Eldar Gaare


    Full Text Available A small group of fruticous lichen species, viz. Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia mitis, C. stellaris, and Stereocaulon paschale forms extensive mats in the most winter habitats of Rangifer tarandus populations in Norway. The plant communities accessible for grazing are often found on easily drained, moraine ridges. These lichen species are perennial, lying on the ground while growing slowly at the top. As they decompose they add humus to the top of the soil profile. The lichen mats catch all water from small showers, thus preventing vascular plants from obtaining a more regular water supply. Grazing removs whole plants and gradually makes larger and larger holes in the lichen mats. Wind and water erode the humus, with only coarse gravel remaining. This diminishes the soil water storage capacity. Without grazing, lichens will gradually build a humus layer, which would improve the soil water storage capacity. In time vascular plants then would take the place of the lichens. I propose the hypothesis that by (over-grazing Rangifer improve their winter pastures by making conditions more favourable for lichens than for vascular plants.The fact that lichens are more scarce on habitats with more and regular precipitation, 1 in more oceanic climates, 2 on soils with more silt, and 3 on bird perches with thick peat due to regular fertilising, support this hypothesis.

  3. Wild reindeer calf recruitment variations; biology or methodology?

    Eigil Reimers


    Full Text Available The two field methods, ground counts and aerial photography, currently used for calculating population estimates and calf recruitment for Norwegian wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus produce different results. Using population count data by both methods from the same years in various areas, I systematically compare estimates of sex and age components and decipher reasons for the discrepancies found in previous estimates made by each method. Data for aerial photography counts were found in the literature, while original data is presented for ground counts. Calf recruitment (calves/100 females and the proportion of adult males (males 1+ years/100 animals 1+ years in herds of reindeer in Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell (1993-98, Rondane North (1995-97 and Setesdal-Ryfylke (1995, 1998 were recorded from ground counts of post calving groups in June-July. The estimates for number of calves per 100 females 1+ years were lower and more variable than number of calves per 100 females 2+ years. A variable number of yearling females in the groups and difficulties in correctly sexing yearlings are contributing factors. The estimates for number of calves/100 females 1+ years were higher than calves/100 animals 1+ years due to the inclusion of young males in the latter. Among animals 1+ years in the post-calving groups, males (mostly yearling males composed from 4.7 to 27.9 %. Nevertheless, both calculation methods for calf recruitment were consistently higher for ground count data than when using counts from air photographs, confirming that the two methods do not produce comparable results. Explanations for this discrepancy are (1 that calves may be easier to overlook on air photographs than in ground composition counts and (2 that the yearling male components in the post calving groups are unaccounted for when using air photographs. June recruitment rates (calves/100 females 1+ years in Rondane North were also estimated from composition counts recorded from ground

  4. Reindeer and Wind Power - Study from the installation of two wind farms in Mala sameby; Renar och Vindkraft - Studie fraan anlaeggningen av tvaa vindkraftparker i Malaa sameby

    Skarin, Anna; Nellemann, Christian; Sandstroem, Per; Roennegaard, Lars; Lundqvist, Henrik


    In the track of ever-expanding new infrastructure, such as wind power, roads and power lines, it becomes increasingly important to map and understand how free-ranging animals and wildlife respond. During the past decades, human - rangifer interactions have been assessed in over a hundred studies, with a strong bias on wild reindeer and caribou, although more recently also studies on domesticated reindeer in Norway, Finland, Sweden and Russia have been done with similar results. To clarify further the possible responses of domesticated reindeer to various disturbance sources, a review was made of over 15 existing disturbance studies of domesticated reindeer, we also discuss the effect of domestication on reindeer. The review shows the same pattern of avoidance in domesticated reindeer as for wild reindeer and caribou despite the domestication process. Sami reindeer husbandry today is an extensive form of pastoralism, which has led to a low degree of tameness among the reindeer. Domesticated reindeer can avoid infrastructure and human activity up to 12 km from the disturbance source and the avoided distance may shift between seasons and years and type of disturbance source, as well as diminish during periods of extreme starvation or insect harassment, similar to observation in wild reindeer and caribou. To get an overall picture of how the reindeer use their grazing land, it is therefore important to study large-scale and long-term habitat use of the reindeer whether they are domesticated or not. In this report, we want to share new information on how existing infrastructure such as roads and power lines in the landscape and construction phase of a new infrastructure for a wind farm affects the free roaming of the reindeer in a summer grazing area in a managed forest in northern Sweden.

  5. Impacts of introduced Rangifer on ecosystem processes of maritime tundra on subarctic islands

    Ricca, Mark; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Eviner, Valerie T.


    Introductions of mammalian herbivores to remote islands without predators provide a natural experiment to ask how temporal and spatial variation in herbivory intensity alter feedbacks between plant and soil processes. We investigated ecosystem effects resulting from introductions of Rangifer tarandus (hereafter “Rangifer”) to native mammalian predator- and herbivore-free islands in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska. We hypothesized that the maritime tundra of these islands would experience either: (1) accelerated ecosystem processes mediated by positive feedbacks between increased graminoid production and rapid nitrogen cycling; or (2) decelerated processes mediated by herbivory that stimulated shrub domination and lowered soil fertility. We measured summer plant and soil properties across three islands representing a chronosequence of elapsed time post-Rangifer introduction (Atka: ~100 yr; Adak: ~50; Kagalaska: ~0), with distinct stages of irruptive population dynamics of Rangifer nested within each island (Atka: irruption, K-overshoot, decline, K-re-equilibration; Adak: irruption, K-overshoot; Kagalaska: initial introduction). We also measured Rangifer spatial use within islands (indexed by pellet group counts) to determine how ecosystem processes responded to spatial variation in herbivory. Vegetation community response to herbivory varied with temporal and spatial scale. When comparing temporal effects using the island chronosequence, increased time since herbivore introduction led to more graminoids and fewer dwarf-shrubs, lichens, and mosses. Slow-growingCladonia lichens that are highly preferred winter forage were decimated on both long-termRangifer-occupied islands. In addition, linear relations between more concentrated Rangifer spatial use and reductions in graminoid and forb biomass within islands added spatial heterogeneity to long-term patterns identified by the chronosequence. These results support, in part, the hypothesis that Rangifer

  6. A SEM study of the reindeer sinus worm (Linguatula arctica

    Sven Nikander


    Full Text Available Pentastomids are a group of peculiar parasitic arthropods, often referred to as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a tongue. Linguatula arctica is the sinus worm of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, being the only pentastomid to have a direct life cycle and an ungulate as a definite host. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of adult L. arctica are described as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sinus worms were collected in the winter 1991-92 in Finnish Lapland. Paranasal cavities of about 80 reindeer were examined and 30 sinus worms were found. The sinus worms had typical Linguatula sp. morphology, being paddle-shaped, transparent, pale yellow, dorsoventrally flattened and pseudosegmented with a long tapering end. Present at the anteroventral part of the cephalothorax was an oral opening with a large, conspicuous, head-like papillar structure. Bilaterally, on both sides of this opening, was a pair of strong curved hooks. The cephalothorax and abdomen had a segmented appearance, as they showed distinct annulation. There was a small cup-shaped sensory organ present at the lateral margin on each annula. The posterior edge of each annula was roughened by tiny spines projecting backwards. Throughout the cuticular surface, small, circular depressions that represented the apical portion of chloride cells. The genital opening of the male was located medioventrally between the tips of the posterior pair of hooks, and that of the female posteroventrally and subterminally. In both sexes, the genital opening was bilaterally flanked by papillar (in males or leaf-like (in females structures. One copulating couple was present, with the male attached to the posteroventral part of the female with its anteroventral hooks and papillae. Several structures typical of arthropods and other pentastomids were identified. Because SEM allows only surfaces to be studied, the morphology and especially the sense organs of L. arctica

  7. Radiocesium metabolism in reindeer

    Bernt-E. V. Jones


    Full Text Available Abstract: Early in the era of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, the reindeer was found to be an interesting animal concerning the transfer of environmental radioactive contaminants to man via the production of contaminated reindeer meat. The reason for the high transfer factors for some radionuclides is the feeding habits of the reindeer with a substantial intake of lichens, especially in the wintertime. One effect of the seasonal changes in feeding is also a considerable cyclic, seasonal variation in radiocesium content of soft tissues. The effective half-life of radiocesium was determined to about 30 days in an experiment where a herd of reindeer was moved form a high (>20 kBq/m2137Cs to a low (<3 kBq/m2 137Cs contamination area. The fractional transfer of 137Cs, during natural grazing, was determined to about 0.65 d/kg during wintertime on the low- contamination area and about 0.30 d/kg in summertime grazing in a more contaminated area. The radiation dose received by reindeers in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to <200 mSv/a. The dose rate would be highest during the later part of winter but would not exceed 1 mSv/d.

  8. Protostrongylid nematodes in caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and moose (Alces alces of Newfoundland

    Murray W. Lankester


    Full Text Available Two species of protostrongylid nematodes with dorsal-spined, first-stage larvae, are present in caribou and moose of Newfoundland. Elaphostrongyius rangiferi Mitskevich, 1958, a parasite introduced from Scandinavia, causes periodic epizootics of a severe neurological disease in caribou. Sick animals exhibiting signs of cerebrospinal elaphostrongylosis (CSE were particularly noticeable in central Newfoundland each winter between 1981 and 1985. Those collected for examinarion were mostly male calves. The disease again became prominent in caribou on the Avalon Peninsula in the winters of 1996 and 1997; it may have spread to that isolated part of the province as recently as 1990. E. rangiferi was also found in moose but no cases of neurologic disease have been reported in this host. Parelapbostrongylus andersoni Prestwood, 1972, was found in caribou, both in central Newfoundland and on the Avalon Peninsula. Moose may also be infected. Of 1407 terrestrial gastropod intermediate hosts examined, 9 (0.6% contained infective, third-stage, protostrongylid larvae resembling those of E. rangiferi and P. andersoni which are indistinguishable. The small dark slug, Deroceras laeve, dominated gastropod collections and was the only species infected.

  9. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Dave Hervieux


    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see

  10. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

    Jennifer L. Shuter


    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was very high. There was little to no overlap between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units, but distances between adjacent unit boundaries were relatively low. Additional sampling effort is needed to further delineate demographic structure in Ontario caribou.

  11. Clarification of some api characteristics in relation to caribou (Rangifer tarandus

    William O. Pruitt, Jr.


    Full Text Available A total of 2177 comparisons of api hardness vs. density in northern Saskatchewan, southeastern Manitoba and northeastern Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.70 to -.17. A total of 1395 comparisons of horizontal hardness of the top layer of api to vertical hardness of the same layer of api in southeastern Manitoba, northeastern Finland and far eastern middle Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.99 to -.20. Therefore one cannot substitute density for hardness nor horizontal hardness of the top layer for vertical hardness of the top layer in the terms of the Värriö Snow Index.

  12. On nature and reindeer luck

    Nils Oskal


    Full Text Available This paper describes the reindeer Sami understanding of a worthy life expressed in qualitative distinctions centred around the term 'reindeer luck'. Reindeer luck does not in itself mean a good life but is an ingredient of a good life. Reindeer luck lasts from cradle to grave but it can change along the way. To a certain degree it is possible to influence your own reindeer luck, but you can also spoil it through actions, behaviour, words and thoughts. These are more important than means-to-end rational actions with the aim of intentionally improving reindeer luck. The paths to reindeer luck are discussed with the aim of articulating the moral ideals implied in this type of understanding. This theme is discussed in regard to what we may learn from relations to nature.

  13. Direction of escape in reindeer

    Baskin, Leonid M.; Terje Skogland


    We tested the hypothesis that reindeer prefer to run uphill and upwind when escaping from man. Groups of wild and feral reindeer in Norway, Svalbard and on Wrangel Island were approached and their behaviour and direction of escape were recorded. Two stages of interaction with man were studied: first flight and final withdrawal. First flights proved to be away from man, upwind and uphill. Most final withdrawals were in the direction reindeer were moving when first observed.

  14. Direction of escape in reindeer

    Leonid M. Baskin


    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that reindeer prefer to run uphill and upwind when escaping from man. Groups of wild and feral reindeer in Norway, Svalbard and on Wrangel Island were approached and their behaviour and direction of escape were recorded. Two stages of interaction with man were studied: first flight and final withdrawal. First flights proved to be away from man, upwind and uphill. Most final withdrawals were in the direction reindeer were moving when first observed.

  15. Seasonal changes in reindeer physiology

    A. Reeta Pösö


    The seasonal changes in the photoperiod, temperature and availability of food need to be converted to hormonal signals in order to induce adaptations in the physiology of the reindeer. The most reliable of the seasonal changes in the environment is the photoperiod, which affects the reindeer physiology through pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin. Usually there are large diurnal changes in the concentration of melatonin, but in the reindeer the daily rhythm disappears during the arctic sum...

  16. A serological survey for brucellosis in reindeer in Finnmark county, northern Norway

    Kjetil Åsbakk


    Full Text Available During September-December, 1990 to 1994, serum samples from a total of 5792 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandm tarandm from Finnmark county, northern Norway, were screened for brucellosis on an indirect ELISA. There were no serologically positive animals. Twenty six of the animals had levels of antibodies detectable on the ELISA and were classed as suspicious, but the ELISA optical density readings were low compared to the readings for reindeer that were both culture positive and seropositive for Brucella suis biovar 4. When assayed on the standard tube agglutination test (STAT, all the 26 animals were seronegative. When absorbed with cells of Yersinia enterocolitica 0-9, the antibody detectable on the ELISA could be removed to a great extent from most of the sera, indicating previous or ongoing exposure to bacteria serologically cross-reacting with Brucella in these animals. We concluded that brucellosis was not present among reindeer in Finnmark during this study. This is supported by the absence of any reports of brucellosis among reindeer in Norway.

  17. Economical importance of Finnish reindeer industry

    Mauri Nieminen


    Full Text Available Within 15 years favourable weather conditions, antiparasite medication, supplementary feed, modern technology, calf slaughter and other factors all contributed to a vast increase in reindeer, and hence reindeer meat production, so much so that by the early 1990s the total number of reindeer was approaching 430 000, and reindeer meat production exceeded 4 million kg. Due to excess numbers of reindeer, stocks had to be culled. At the same time problems arose with the processing of reindeer meat. As a result, demand slumped and prices plummeted. In a few years the outlook for reindeer management changed drastically. Since then the profession has been marked by uncertainty and change. The number of reindeer is now below the permitted level. In the 1996/97 season, number of living reindeer in herds totalled over 202 000, slaughtered reindeer 80 000 (Fig. 1 and meat production about 2 million kg. Income from slaughtered animals amounted to FIM 58 million.

  18. Effects of improved nutrition in pregnant reindeer on milk quality, calf birth weight, growth, and mortality

    Arne Rognmo


    Full Text Available A group of 35 pregnant reindeer (Rangifcr tarandus was divided into two groups in mid-February. Until calving in May one of the groups (L received lichen ad lib., while the other group (IN received an improved diet, rich in protein and minerals. After calving both groups received the same improved diet. In both groups it was distinguished between young (<3 years and old (>3 years animals. At the start of the experiment the body weight of L-young animals was 58.5 ± 4.6 kg, IN-young 56.2 ± 2.8 kg, L-old 70.3 ± 6.0 kg and IN-old 68.2 ± 4.8 kg. At calving the weights of the same animals were 55.9 ± 4.5 kg (L-young, 68.1 ± 2.5 (IN-young, 70.0 ± 6.9 kg (L-old and 81.6 ± 6.8 kg (IN-old. Birth weight of IN-young calves was 4.5 ± 0.7 kg and of L-young calves 3.7 ± 0.5 kg. Birth weight of IN-old calves was 5.7 ± 0.8 kg and of L-old calves 4.4 ± 0.6 kg. The birth weight of the calves in all groups was correlated to the weight of the female just prior to calving. Growth rates in all but the IN-old group were not different, the IN-old group showing a significantly higher growth rate than the other groups. In mid-September, however, the average body weight for the calves from the L and IN-groups did not differ significantly. Neither chemical composition nor total energy content of the milk differed significantly between the groups. Total mortality in the L-group was 28% as compared to 7% in the IN-group. Two females in the IN-old group had not given birth at the end of the experimental period.Virkningen av bedret ernæring til drektige reinsimler på melkekvalitet, kalvenes fødselsvekt, vekst og dødelighet.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: En flokk på 35 drektige reinsimler (Rangifer tarandus ble delt i to grupper i midten av februar. Frem til kalving i mai ble den ene gruppen gitt lav ad lib. (L-gruppe, mens den andre gruppen ble tilleggsforet med 2 kg RF - 71/dag (IN-gruppe. Etter kalving ble begge gruppene gitt 2 kg RF - 71/dag. Innen

  19. Observations on the Alaska reindeer situation, 1968

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses various topics regarding the situation of Alaskan reindeer in 1968. The production of reindeer by Alaskan natives is discussed, including their...

  20. Nunivak Island caribou reindeer report 1929

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July 1925 the Biological Survey established a crossbreeding experiment with reindeer and caribou on Nunivak Island by castrating the male reindeer and turning ten...

  1. Population dynamics of reindeer

    L. M. Baskin


    Full Text Available Five types of reindeer populations are distinguished in terms of population dynamics, population density, social structure and migration distance. Differences in the biological rhythms of the populations result in calving occuring 20 days before snow melting in all populations as well as maximal utilization by the deer of young green vegetation in summer. The growth of antlers may serve as a regulatior of biological rhytms. Populations differ in the level of social motivation. Formation of groups of not less than 30-35 animals ensures cooperative protection from insects and management of the group by man. The fidelity to the calving sites, summer ranges and constant migration routes is based on the common orientation reactions of the animals and social attraction. The direction and migration routes are detemined by obligate learning. The dynamics of populations depends on the fertility of 2 and 3 year old females which is determined by feeding conditions in summer and the activity of males during the rut. Migration plays an important role in the population dynamics.

  2. Reindeer husbandry, the Swedish market for reindeer meat, and the Chernobyl effects

    Bostedt, G


    Reindeer husbandry in Sweden is an exclusive right for the Sami, northern Scandinavia`s indigenous people, and a cornerstone in the Sami culture. During the latest decades reindeer husbandry has however been under significant pressure for different reasons, among them low profitability. Part of the explanation for the low profitability lies in the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Due to the prevailing winds at the time of the accident northern Sweden, and consequently the grazing areas for the reindeer husbandry, was relatively heavily affected by radioactive fallout. This meant that reindeer meat suffered from a relatively high level of contamination. This has had effects both on the supply, since large numbers of reindeer had to be discarded, and on the demand, since the problem with contamination induced preference shifts away from reindeer meat. The purpose of this paper is to present an economic model of the Swedish reindeer husbandry and the market for reindeer meat, and to report some econometric results based on a data set from 1973/74 to 1995/96 on prices, quantities and other variables connected to the Swedish reindeer herding industry. The time period covers the main aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. In the theoretical section a model for the reindeer herder`s supply of reindeer meat is presented. The model is based on the fact that most reindeer herders only receive part of their income from reindeer husbandry. In the econometric section the demand and supply curves that are relevant for the reindeer herding industry are identified, using two-stage least squares regression. The most striking feature of the empirical results is a `backward-bending` supply function for the number of slaughtered reindeer, which is consistent with the theoretical model. The results also show a strong negative demand effect on reindeer meat after the Chernobyl accident 8 refs, 10 figs. Arbetsrapport 268

  3. Climate and management interact to explain the decline of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Jasper National Park

    Mark Bradley


    Full Text Available Woodland caribou in the southern portion of Jasper National Park have declined from an estimated 435 in the mid 1970s to a population estimate of 87 in the fall of 2009. We examined the available historical information to determine why caribou have declined. We compared three main hypotheses for caribou decline in JNP: human disturbance, climate change, and wildlife management. We used historical human use statistics, climate data, and animal abundance information to weigh the evidence for these competing hypotheses over two time scales. Caribou decline could not be attributed to changes in climate over the long-term, or an increase in human use (our proxy for disturbance. Caribou decline was attributed to a combination of climate and wildlife management. Recovery of caribou in Jasper National Park will likely be contingent on managing the interaction between the predator/prey dynamic and climate change.

  4. Of reindeer and man, modern and Neanderthal: A creation story founded on a historic perspective on how to conserve wildlife, woodland caribou in particular

    Valerius Geist


    Full Text Available A review of successful systems of wildlife conservation, the North American included, suggests that broad public support and determined effort by volunteers is essential for wildlife conservation. Since North American wildlife conservation is the only large-scale system of sustainable natural resource use, and exemplifies the great economic and cultural benefits of a renewable resource held in common, its lessons may be profitably applied to Rangifer conservation. Animals that have value are surrounded by myths that tell of their relationship to humans. In our Anglo-American culture reindeer and caribou are rather deficient in this respect. However, reindeer feature prominently in the rise of modern humans and the demise of Neanderthal man early in the Upper Paleolithic. The colonization by humans of the periglacial environments during the last glaciation depended on the rich periglacial megafauna, Rangifer included. Archeological sites of the European Upper Paleolithic show that reindeer were the most important food source. The Upper Paleolithic, characterized by exceptional physical development and health of people, as well as by the first flowering of art, extended from Spain to Crimea with surprisingly little cultural change for some 25 000 years. While the cave paintings express an infatuation with dangerous game (woolly mammoth, woolly rhino, steppe wisent, giant deer, cave lions, bears etc, the archeological sites indicate that reindeer was the staple food. Reindeer play a minor role in cave art. Neither this art, nor archeological sites, show any evidence of warfare. It is hypothesized that during a mid-glacial interstadial modern people entered Europe having developed a highly successful system of hunting reindeer using interception based on the discovery of chronologic time. This led to a first flowering of culture based on a rich economy, but also to additional hunting mortality of the periglacial mega-herbivores that Neanderthal

  5. Seasonal changes in reindeer physiology

    A. Reeta Pösö


    Full Text Available The seasonal changes in the photoperiod, temperature and availability of food need to be converted to hormonal signals in order to induce adaptations in the physiology of the reindeer. The most reliable of the seasonal changes in the environment is the photoperiod, which affects the reindeer physiology through pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin. Usually there are large diurnal changes in the concentration of melatonin, but in the reindeer the daily rhythm disappears during the arctic summer to return again in the autumn. Seasonal changes in melatonin secretion are involved in the regulation of reproduction, the growth of pelage, thermogenesis, body mass and immune function. Melatonin may exert its effects through gene activation, but the mechanisms are not completely understood. Other hormones that show seasonality are thyroid hormones, insulin and leptin. Thus the observed physiological changes are a result of actions of several hormones. Appetite, energy production and thermogenesis are all vital for survival. During winter, when energy balance is negative, the reindeer uses mainly body fat for energy production. The use of fat stores is economical as the rate of lipolysis is controlled and the use of fatty acids in tissues such as muscle decreases. Only in severe starvation the rate of lipolysis increases enough to give rise to accumulation of ketone bodies. The protein mass is maintained and only in starved individuals muscle protein is used for energy production. The winter feed of the reindeer, the lichens, is poor in nitrogen and the nitrogen balance during winter is strongly negative. Reindeer responds to limited availability of nitrogen by increasing the recycling of urea into rumen. In general the adaptation of reindeer physiology enables the reindeer to survive the winter and although several aspects are known many others require further studies.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: Valaistus, lämpötila ja ravinnon saatavuus

  6. Taxonomy and origin of reindeer

    Knut H. Røed


    Full Text Available Reindeer and caribou was probably the key species for the human immigration and colonization in the Arctic and sub-Arctic by the retreat of the ice in the last glacial period. The close connection between human and reindeer has contributed to great interest and variation in reindeer taxonomy and origin. Through the history several both species, subspecies and types of reindeer and caribou have been described. The early taxonomy of the species is marked by comparisons of individual specimen using traits as body size, skin colour or antler formations - characteristics known to be highly variable and subjected to environmental and nutritional level. During the mid 1900s the taxonomy was more based on variation of morphological traits among populations by analysing a large series of specimens representative of the various geographic populations and a consensus of classification of several subspecies, all belonging to the same species, evolved. During late 1900 the development of modern molecular techniques procured tools for revealing genetic structure of populations reflecting different origin and isolation rather than environmental influences. The genetic structure revealed a major genetic dichotomy between American woodland caribou on the one hand and all other types of reindeer and caribou on the other which gave evidence that the ancestors of present woodland caribou had survived and evolved in ice free refugium south to the glacier in North America and the ancestors of all other types of reindeer and caribou had evolved separated from these in refugium in Eurasia and Beringia. The ancestors of present reindeer in Scandinavia appear furthermore to have evolved from different populations separated during the last glaciation period and the colonization and origin of present wild and domestic reindeer will be discussed in this perspective.Taksonomi og opprinnelse til reinAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Rein og caribou har hatt stor betydning

  7. Distribution of cesium-137 in reindeer

    Kristina Rissanen


    Full Text Available The influence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 on the Finnish reindeer herding area was much smaller than the effects of the nuclear bomb tests in the 1960s. Only in one small area somewhat more Cs-137 was deposited than in the rest of the reindeer herding area. From that area 20 reindeer were chosen for investigation of the distribution of Cs-137. All tissues, organs, the skeleton, digestive tract, hide, head and hooves were sampled quantitatively. Three reindeer were pregnant and also the foetuses were studied. The Cs-137 amounts were determined by gammaspectrometric measurements. The results showed that the differences in the Cs-137 concentrations between muscle tissue from different parts of an individual reindeer were not more than 10 percent. Thus it is not essential from which part of the reindeer meat samples for surveillance purposes are taken. The concentration of Cs-137 in edible tissues other than muscle was lower except in the kidneys and scapula cartilage.

  8. Traditional ecological knowledge among Sami reindeer herders in northern Sweden about vascular plants grazed by reindeer

    Berit Inga


    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge about how reindeer utilize forage resources was expected to be crucial to reindeer herders. Seventeen Sami reindeer herders in four reindeer herding communities in Sweden (“samebyar” in Swedish were interviewed about plants species considered to be important reindeer food plants in scientific literature. Among 40 plant species, which the informants were asked to identify and indicate whether and when they were grazed by reindeer, they identified a total of 21 plant taxa and five plant groups. They especially recognised species that were used as human food by the Sami themselves, but certain specific forage plants were also identified. Detailed knowledge of vascular plants at the species level was surprisingly general, which may indicate that knowledge of pasture resources in a detailed species level is not of vital importance. This fact is in sharp contradiction to the detailed knowledge that Sami people express for example about reindeer (as an animal or snow (as physical element. The plausible explanation is that observations of individual plant species are unnecessarily detailed information in large-scale reindeer pastoralism, because the animals graze freely under loose herding and border surveillance.

  9. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Lars Rönnegård


    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  10. Reindeer husbandry and local planning

    Lars P. Niia


    Full Text Available A central theme in the reindeer husbandry is the conflicts between this and other economic interests as tourism, community development etc. in connection with the utilization of common territory. A retrospective glance will show that this is an old problem and not a new phenomenon. The Nordic Sami Institute has carried out a research project with the following objectives: give an account of the terms of planning for the reindeer husbandry, find out how the Såmi (Lapp community's and so the reindeer husbandry's interests are taken into account in local planning. 3.find ways for how the reindeer husbandry's use of land can be described. 4.give suggestions as to how the interests of the Sami community can better be taken into account or how it can increase its influence in relation to planning. The suggestions based upon the results from the research project are: —that the Sami community aquire competence by preparing itself for the changes in its environment. —that it builds up its own organization. —that it aquires a more noticeable influence in community planning and decision making. This project and earlier experiencies have shown that the way of influencing e.g. by land-use-planning is weak and unreliable today.Renskötsel och kommunal planering.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Ett centralt tema i renskotselsammanhang ar konflikterna mellan renskotsel och andra ekonomiska intressen som turism, samhållsutbyggnad etc. vid utnyttjande av gemensamma arealer. En historisk tillbakablick visar att denna problematik inte på något sått år någon ny foreteelse utan ett gammalt tema med variationer i tid och rum. I ett forskningsprojekt vid Sami Instituhtta har en studie genomforts med syftet att: 1.soka beskriva planeringsforutsåttningarna for renskotseln. 2. soka forklara hur renskotselns intressen tas tillvara i den kommunala fysiska planeringen. 3. finna former for hur renskotselns markanvåndning kan beskrivas. 4. att l

  11. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo


    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts.

  12. 2nd Nordic NJF Seminar on Reindeer Husbandry Research "Reindeer herding and land use management - Nordic perspectives"

    Päivi Soppela


    Full Text Available The 2nd NJF Seminar on Reindeer Husbandry Research was held at the Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland from 19 to 21 October 2014. The seminar was organised under the framework of Reindeer Husbandry Research Section of NJF (Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists, established in 2012. Over 100 Nordic and international delegates including researchers, managers, educators, students and reindeer herders participated in the seminar.

  13. Selection decisions among reindeer herders in Finland

    Kirsi Muuttoranta


    Full Text Available Selection of breeding animals is a tool to improve the revenues in animal production. Information about selection practices and criteria are essential in assessing the possibilities for systematic selection schemes. Attitudes of reindeer herders towards use of selection in improving production were investigated by means of interviews. We interviewed the managers of reindeer herding cooperatives concerning their selection decisions. Fortyfive out of 56 managers answered to the semi-structured questionnaire. Among herding operations, selection of breeding animals was regarded by managers as critical for calf’s autumn weight and survival. The main selection criteria were calf’s health, vigour, body size and muscularity, dam or dam line, and maternal care. Hair quality and hair length were important as well, while such often quoted traits as antler characteristics, e.g. early shedding of antler velvet and thick antler bases, were unimportant. The results show that reindeer herders i acknowledge the importance and effects of selective breeding, and ii have empirical knowledge to list the most important selection criteria.

  14. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

    Lennart Lundmark


    Full Text Available In the middle of the 16th century we get the first opportunity to a more detailed knowledge of reindeerpastoralism in Sweden. At that time the Sami lived in a hunter-gatherer economy. A family had in average about 10-20 domesticated reindeer, mainly used for transport. They could also be milked and used as decoys when hunting wild reindeer. During late 16th century the Swedish state and merchants bought large amounts of fur from the Sami. The common payment was butter and flour. This created a new prosperity, which lead to a considerable increase in population in Swedish Lapland. The population became too large for a hunter-gatherer economy. A crisis in early 17th century was the starting point for the transition to a large-scale nomadic reindeer pastoralism. Up to the middle of the 18th century intensive reindeer pastoralism was successful. But the pastoralism became gradually too intensive and diseases started to spread when the herds were kept too densely crowded for milking in summertime. During the first decades of the 19th century reindeer pastoralism in Sweden went through a major crisis. The number of reindeer herding mountain-Sami decreased considerably, mainly because they went to live permanently along the Norwegian coastline. Intensive reindeer pastoralism started to give way for extensive herding towards the end of the 19th century. In the north of Sweden influences from the Kautokeino Sami were an important factor, in the south extensive reindeer herding started to expand when the market for meat came closer to the Sami. During the 1920s the milking of reindeer ceased in Sweden, except in a few families. At that time Sami families from the north had been removed southwards. They further demonstrated the superiority of extensive herding to the Sami in mid- and southern Lapland. Reindeer pastoralism is basically a system of interaction between man and animal, but it has been heavily influenced by market forces and state intervention

  15. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae - A Primary Cause of Severe Pneumonia Epizootics in the Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) Population

    Handeland, Kjell; Tengs, Torstein; Kokotovic, Branko


    high load of M. ovipneumoniae antigens within lung lesions, with particularly intensive staining in the neutrophils. Similar IHC finding were observed in archived lung tissue blocks from animals examined during the 2006 epidemic. An M. ovipneumoniae specific ELISA was applied on bio-banked muskox sera...... from stray muskoxen killed in the period 2004–2013 and sick muskoxen culled, as well as sera from wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) on Dovre and muskoxen from Greenland. Serology and mycoplasma culturing was also carried out on sheep that had been on pasture in the muskox area during...

  16. The effect of temporal sampling regime on the characterization of home range for female boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Labrador, Canada

    Alexandre L. Vignault Rasiulis


    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine the influence of temporal sampling regime on the characteristics of individual female caribou home ranges and to explore implications of these findings to the conservation of caribou. The study population was 24 adult female caribou monitored for between 4 and 11 consecutive years between 1986 and 2009 from the Red Wine Mountain (RWM and Lac Joseph (LJ herds of boreal caribou in Labrador. We evaluated the influence of length of the monitoring period on the size of home ranges and fidelity of caribou to their ranges by measuring the percent overlap of multi-annual ranges on the total time period a caribou was collared and by calculating displacement between centroids of annual and multi-annual ranges for a given caribou. We found that the size of the range increased with each additional year of monitoring—initially at a rate greater than 20% per year, and then more slowly until an asymptote was reached after 7 years. The distance ratio declined with an increase in the monitoring interval until after approximately 6 years of monitoring. Finally, we evaluated trade-offs between monitoring interval and sample size by measuring the proportion of the total herd range captured by multi-annual ranges for given monitoring interval and sample size combinations. Caribou with the longest monitoring interval inevitably captured the greatest portion of the range at each given sample size. Only monitoring intervals of 4 years or greater captured more than 65% of the herd range even when sample size was doubled for shorter monitoring intervals. Our results suggest that long term monitoring is important when defining the extent of caribou ranges.


    Collections to explore helminth diversity among free-ranging ungulates in the North American Arctic revealed the occurrence of a third male, or “davtiani,” morphotype for Teladorsagia boreoarcticus. Designated as T. boreoarcticus foma (f.) minor B, these males occurred with T. boreoarcticus f. majo...

  18. Characteristics of the reindeer electrocardiogram

    Jouni Timisjärvi


    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG provides reliable information about heart rate, initiation of heart beat and also, to some degree, indirect evidence on the functional state of the heart muscle. A wide range of such information is readily obtainable from conventional scalar leads, even if the records are limited to a single plane. The present investigation deals with the normal reindeer ECG in the frontal plane. The technique used is the scalar recording technique based on the Einthovenian postulates. The P wave was positive in leads II, III and aVF, negative in lead aVL and variable in leads I and aVR. The direction of the P vector was 60 to 120°. The QRS complex was variable. The most common forms of QRS complex were R and rS in leads I and aVR; R, Rs and rS in lead aVL and Qr or qR in other leads. The most common direction of the QRS vector was 240 to 300°. The T wave was variable. The duration of various intervals and deflection depended on heart rate.Elektrokardiogram på ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Elektrokardiogramet (EKG ger tillförlitliga uppgifter om hjärtfrekvens, retledning och, indirekt, delvis även om hjärtmuskelns funktionell tillstånd. Största delen av denna information fås med normal skalar koppling även om registrering sker i ett plan. I detta arbete har renens normala EKG i frontalplanet undersökts. Kopplingarna har baserats på Einthovs postulat. P-vågen var riktad uppåt i koppling II, III och aVF, nedåt i koppling aVL och den varierade i koppling I och aVR. P-vektorns riktning var 60 - 120°. QRS-komplexet varierade. De vanligaste formerna var R och rS i koppling I och aVR; R, Rs och rS i koppling aVL och Qr eller qR i andra kopplingar. Vanligen var QRS-vektorns riktning 240 - 300°. T-vågen varierade. Awikelserna och intervallernas längd var beroende av hiärtfrekvenssen.Poron sydänsähkökäyrän ominaisuuksia.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Sydänsähkökäyrästä saadaan luotettavaa tietoa syd

  19. Palatability of two artificial feeds for reindeer

    Arne Rognmo


    Full Text Available Two groups of 15 reindeer were used to test the palatability of two artificial diets. None of the animals had experienced the diets before. Trials were carried out from April to mid May. Each group of animals was kept in a separate corral (600 sq. meters. Both groups were fed lichens for three days befort trials began. Then they were offered a concentrate feed (RF-80 or «Mill Waste Product» (MWP ad libitum. Both groups ate little or nothing for the first three days of the trial and so lichens were mixed with the two experimental feeds. The mean voluntary food intake of the RF-80-group increased from 0.8 Kg/day/animal to 1.8 Kg/day/animal after three weeks. A mixed feed, RF-80/lichen, was only used the first day for animals in the RF-80 group. Reindeer refused to eat MWP for twelve days despite mixing it with lichens. They were then offered RF-80 ad lib. without a mixture of lichens. The mean voluntary intake of these animals increased from 1.3 Kg RF-80/day/animal on day 13 to 2.3 Kg/day/animal by day 26. Two calves in the MWP-group got diarrhoea after refeeding with RF-80.


    Glotko A. V.


    Full Text Available In this article the questions of vertical integration which is necessary to bring the company of antler reindeer breeding out of crisis are considered. We have presented a scheme of participant of "supplier – consumer” integral interaction

  1. Reindeer breeding along the Finno-Ugric tribes

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the reindeer breeding practices among the Finno-Urgic tribes located in the northern territories of the Soviet Union and frontier districts...

  2. Improvement of meat production capacity in reindeer farming

    C. J. Petersson


    Full Text Available The poster describes the main activities in a joint Swedish-Norwegian research project. The ultimate purpose is to develope tools for individual production control and flock management in domestic reindeer production.

  3. An assessment of the reindeer grazing issue in Alaska

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reindeer, a domestic relative of the caribou, were brought to Alaska in1892 from Siberia. The objective of this introduction was to provide an alternative food...

  4. Reindeer and seabird survey of Hagemeister Island, Alaska

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the survey effort on Hagemeister Island in the Alaska Maritime NWR. Hagemeister Island is the second largest Bering Sea Island. Reindeer, red...

  5. Analysis of the economic adaptation of Sami reindeer management. Reindeer; source of income or cultural linkage?

    Niklas Labba; Jan Åge Riseth


    The aim of this partial study is to analyse how the economies of different Sami reindeer management households are structured, and how the adaptation is structured if profit maximation is a goal. Earlier research demonstrates that different regions provides various terms. Consequently there exists a different economic structure among different households. Based on a selection of households from districts /villages from a range of geographical locations, management patterns, and region size, d...

  6. Long-term decline of radiocaesium in Fennoscandian reindeer

    Skuterud, L. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration (Norway)); AAhman, B. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)); Solatie, D. (STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Gaare, E. (Norwegian Institute for Nature Researc (Norway))


    The NKS-B project REIN was established to synthesize the available information on contamination levels and effective half-times for 137Cs in reindeer in Finland, Sweden and Norway. Several studies of radiocaesium contamination in reindeer have been carried out in the Nordic countries over the last 50 years. However, the current slow decline in concentrations, which will maintain the consequences of the Chernobyl deposition for Swedish and Norwegian reindeer husbandry for at least another 10-20 years, have not previously been observed nor predicted. In the Chernobyl affected areas 137Cs concentrations in reindeer initially declined by effective half-times of 3-4 years, whereas the current decline appears to be mainly governed by the nuclide's physical half-life (30 years). The review of effective half-times of 137Cs in reindeer across Fennoscandia suggests that concentrations declined more rapidly in the northernmost areas. The reason(-s) remains unclear, and demonstrates the need for more long-term sampling of the various components of reindeer's diet. Such sampling should aim at covering climatically different areas, as climate may influence transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer via lichen growth and weathering rates, composition of plant communities and lichen availability, as well as soil-to-plant radiocaesium uptake. The lack of long-term data on radiocaesium in natural vegetation in the Nordic countries is one of the main limitations for the development of mechanistic models for radiocaesium in reindeer, and for further elucidation of the observed long-term trends in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer. Currently our understanding of the long-term trends observed in various areas is not good enough to predict how future radiocaesium deposition will behave. The high transfer of nuclides to reindeer, the geographical extension of reindeer herding and the special position of the Sami population in Finland, Sweden and Norway, demonstrates the need for

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Gustaf Åhman


    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  8. Herding of reindeer in relation to birds and mammals on the northern Seward Peninsula

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Impacts of herding reindeer on foot, air, ATV. Also discusses impacts of egg gathering, bird hunting, and predator management completed by subsistent and reindeer...

  9. Blood composition of the reindeer. I. Haematology

    Mauri Nieminen


    Full Text Available The semi-domestic reindeer is a ruminant which exhibits a highly advanced adaptation to the marked seasonality of the northern environment. Since the reindeer has an economic importance and previous information about its blood composition is scanty in respect to age, season, calving and nutrition, the haematology of 578 reindeer were studied. The blood samples were taken from the jugular vein mainly in connection with the marking of calves during summer and at reindeer round-ups in autumn and winter at 10 reindeer rearing subunits in Northern Finland in various seasons in 1973-79. The red blood cell count (8xl012/l, haemoglobin (108 g/1, packed cell volume (35%, white blood cell count (6x109/l and serum iron (26 micromol/1 were low in newborn calves and reached their adult levels in autumn at the age of 5 months (average 11 x 1012/1, 182 g/1, 51%, 9x109/l, 44 micromol/1, respectively. The total serum bilirubin was relatively stable and vitamin B12 high in the first days after birth. The stable serum bilirubin indicates a relatively small breakdown of foetal erythrocytes. E-MCV of adult females was about 49 fl and the diameter of round erythrocytes about 5.5 microm and their thickness about 1.5 microm. No sickling was observed. The red cell osmotic fragility had a initial and final haemolysis points of 0.71 and 0.37% NaCl solution. The relative proportions of neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil granulocytes and agranular lymphocytes and monocytes were 52, 5, 2, 42 and 2 %, respectively. The calving of the reindeer occurs without visible haemorrhage. The body weight, red blood cell count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and serum iron of pregnant hinds dropped, however, during the early lactation period, and a relative anaemia developed is partly due to iron deficiency and, perhaps, also breakdown of foetal erythrocytes. The means of body weight (range 50-70 kg, red blood cell count (8-11 x 1012/l, haemoglobin (118-185 g/1, packed cell volume (42

  10. 6th Nordic Workshop on Reindeer Research, 8-10 October 1990, Tromsø, Norway.

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.


    Full Text Available The Sixth Nordic Reindeer Scientist's Meeting, organised by the Nordic Council for Reindeer Research, was held at Tromsø, Norway, 8-10 October, 1990. The principal themes of the meeting were ' Reindeer husbandry. Basis for resources and the man' and ' Meat quality'.

  11. Analysis of the economic adaptation of Sami reindeer management. Reindeer; source of income or cultural linkage?

    Niklas Labba


    Full Text Available The aim of this partial study is to analyse how the economies of different Sami reindeer management households are structured, and how the adaptation is structured if profit maximation is a goal. Earlier research demonstrates that different regions provides various terms. Consequently there exists a different economic structure among different households. Based on a selection of households from districts /villages from a range of geographical locations, management patterns, and region size, different economic structures are searched for. Households with similar economic structures are grouped in categories. The standard deviation confirms whether the grouping in categories. Sami Reindeer Management in Norway and Sweden has during the period from 1992/93 to 2002/03 provided recognized slaughterhouses with an even quantum of meat supply. That indicates that it probably is the same set of factors that influence the slaughter quantities of both countries. The relationship between the stock value of reindeer and the commercial value of reindeer meat, with in each household, suggests whether there is an accumulation in herd size and its magnitude. The herd increment depends on the competitive situation between the households in the district/village. As a single household cannot influence wholesale price of reindeer meat, the sales quantum is the single factor that can influence total sales. The efforts to increase herd size, due to the competitive situation, prevent the household from a maximum slaughter quantum, which thereby reduce the returns from reindeer management. Common factors for the different structures are sought for. The indication is that nether sale price of reindeer meat or line of politics influence sales quantum. The Sami reindeer herding seams to be a way of life were the size of the reindeer herd is in focus.Analys av den samiska renskötselns ekonomiska tillpassning. Renen, intäktskälla eller kulturfäste?Abstract in Swedish

  12. Success and failure of reindeer herding in Greenland

    Christine Cuyler


    Full Text Available Animal husbandry is a recent innovation in Greenland, specifically reindeer husbandry is less than 50 years old. Reindeer husbandry was first established in mid-west Greenland and later in southern Greenland. The Greenland hunter tradition and culture is, however, still dominant in many communities. During the 1980s and 1990s, the incompatibility of these two traditions resulted in the failure of reindeer husbandry in mid-west Greenland. There were neither herding nor seasonal herd movements. Animals remained year round on the winter range, which was destroyed as lichens were trampled every summer. Without seasonal herd movements both sustainable range use and control of the herd were lost. Today, there are just two semi-domestic reindeer herds left, and both are in southern Greenland. One herd is commercially successful, and the other is under development. In mid-west Greenland, semi-domestic reindeer husbandry officially ended in 1998, and a hunt was initiated to remove the remaining population. Possibly, by the year 2000 any animals left in this region will be considered wild caribou.

  13. Wild reindeer in Norway – population ecology, management and harvest

    Eigil Reimers


    Full Text Available Wild reindeer in Norway, presently (winter 2005-06 numbering some 25 000 animals, are found in 23 more or less separated areas in the mountainous southern part of the country (see map in appendix. All herds are hunted and management is organized in close cooperation between owner organizations and state agencies. I will provide a historical review of the wild reindeer management and research in Norway and conclude with the present situation. We identify 3 types of wild reindeer on basis of their origin: (1 the original wild reindeer with minor influence from previous domestic reindeer herding activities (Snøhetta, Rondane and Sølenkletten, (2 wild reindeer with some influx of animals from past domestic reindeer herding in the area (Nordfjella, Hardangervidda, Setesdal-Ryfylke and (3 feral reindeer with a domesticated origin (reindeer released or escaped from past reindeer husbandry units; Forolhogna, Ottadalen North and Ottadalen South, Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell and several smaller areas. In Norway, genetic origin (wild or domesticated, body size and reproductive performance of reindeer differ among areas. Feral reindeer have higher body weights and enjoy higher reproductive rates than their originally wild counterparts. These differences may partially be explained by differences in food quality and availability among the populations. However, there is a growing suspicion that other explanatory factors are also involved. Wild reindeer are more vigilant and show longer fright and flight distances than feral reindeer. Number of animals harvested was 4817, or ca. 20% of the total population in 2005, but varies between 40% in feral reindeer areas to below 20% in some of the "wild" reindeer areas. Causal factors behind this variation include differences in age at maturation, postnatal calf mortality and herd structure. The Norwegian Institute for nature research (NINA in cooperation with the Directorate for nature management (DN allocate considerable

  14. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.


    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  15. Multivariate clustering of reindeer herding districts in Sweden according to range prerequisites for reindeer husbandry

    Henrik Lundqvist


    Full Text Available The 51 reindeer herding districts in Sweden vary in productivity and prerequisites for reindeer herding. In this study we characterize and group reindeer herding districts based on relevant factors affecting reindeer productivity, i.e. topography, vegetation, forage value, habitat fragmentation and reachability, as well as season lengths, snow fall, ice-crust probability, and insect harassment, totally quantified in 15 variables. The herding districts were grouped into seven main groups and three single outliers through cluster analyses. The largest group, consisting of 14 herding districts, was further divided into four subgroups. The range properties of herding districts and groups of districts were characterized through principal component analyses. By comparisons of the suggested grouping of herding districts with existing administrative divisions, these appeared not to coincide. A new division of herding districts into six administrative sets of districts was suggested in order to improve administrative planning and management of the reindeer herding industry. The results also give possibilities for projections of alterations caused by an upcoming global climate change. Large scale investigations using geographical information systems (GIS and meteorological data would be helpful for administrative purposes, both nationally and internationally, as science-based decision tools in legislative, economical, ecological and structural assessments. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Multivariat gruppering av svenska samebyar baserat på renbetesmarkernas grundförutsettningar Svenska renskötselområdet består av 51 samebyar som varierar i produktivitet och förutsättningar för renskötsel. Vi analyserade variationen mellan samebyar med avseende på 15 variabler som beskriver topografi, vegetation, betesvärde, fragmentering av betesmarker, klimat, skareförekomst och aktivitet av parasiterande insekter och vi föreslår en indelning av

  16. Wild and semi-domesticated reindeer in Russia: status, population dynamics and trends under the present social and economic conditions

    Eugene E. Syroechkovski


    Full Text Available At present (in 1999 there are approximately 1.5 million semi-domesticated and 1.3 million wild reindeer in Russia. The co-existence of these two forms remains a major problem. Reindeer herding has declined while the number of wild reindeer has increased during the last 10 years. The main causes of these changes are social and economic. The 1960s and 1970s were characterised by a deliberate attempt to eradicate the nomadic way of life of reindeer herders. It was relatively easy to introduce public (kolkhoz or sovkhoz reindeer herding in the Nenets, Chukchi and Komi-Izhem areas where large-scale reindeer herding was typical and, as a result, there were almost 1 million reindeer in collectives in the extreme north-eastern part of the USSR. At the same time reindeer herding deteriorated among the Khanty, Mansi, Evenk, Even, Selkup peoples. Perestroika in the 1990s resulted in the formation of a market economy. Collective reindeer herding declined and the number of semi-domesticated reindeer decreased during a period of gradual return to private ownership of reindeer. The largest region of reindeer herding is now the Nenets tegion in the north-west of Russia. Successful sympatric existence of wild and semi-domesticated reindeer is not possible. The Taimyr wild reindeer population numbers about 500-600 000 reindeer. From 1971 to 1981 not less than 700 000 reindeer in this population were shot. Ecological and economic control over them has now been lost. There are approximately 200 000 animals in Yakutia. The number of wild reindeer here has grown following the decline of reindeer husbandry. Yakut and Even reindeer herders believe that the decline has been due to wild reindeer drawing semi-domesticated teindeer away. At present 13 aboriginal peoples in northern Russia engage in reindeer herding. Five former reindeer herding peoples have given up herding but thete are signs of improvement in the situation among those peoples which have retained reindeer

  17. Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer

    A. C. Nilssen


    Full Text Available Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from moose {Alces alces in northern Norway.

  18. Women perspective in the future of Sami reindeer husbandry (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Solveig Joks


    Full Text Available Women's traditional tasks are invisible in the official image of reindeer husbandry. The reindeer husbandry nowadays is represented as a meat producer, and the official documents are focused on the work with the reindeer herd. Traditionally, work with the herd and slaughtering belonged to men. In focusing only on certain tasks in the total industry, a lot of other important and necessary work will remain invisibly. A myth that reindeer husbandry is only for men arises easily, too. Bureaucrats, researchers and others who participate in the official debates on reindeer husbandry strengthen this myth. Since women and their tasks are not much visible in the official view of reindeer husbandry, they are indirectly defined outside the reindeer keeping and its activities. However, reindeer husbandry is more manifold than the official documents are presenting. Women's invisibility in the official image of reindeer husbandry strengthens further since only 17% of the production units are registered on women. Though the Reindeer-Management Act of 1996 was changed in the way that spouses together can be owners of a production unit, most men are still registered as leaders of the units. As a main rule, unmarried women and women who are married with men without production units have their herd under their father's or brother's unit. Thus, most women are formally under the leadership of men. Women's legal position is therefore weak since the rights of reindeer husbandry today are connected closely to the production unit. In leaving out important tasks and to describe reindeer husbandry as a work for only men can give a wrong image of reindeer husbandry and this false impression is strengthened when often repeated.

  19. Developing an ecologically and economically more stable semi-domestic reindeer management - a Finnish point of view

    Jouko Kumpula


    Full Text Available In arctic and sub-arctic regions semi-domestic reindeer management forms an important livelihood which should be able to provide enough income for herders. Reindeer management has natural limits of growth. Consequently it should be managed to optimise both the use of reindeer pastures and herder income. Reindeer pastures should be grazed at the economic carrying capabity level. This gives the maximum sustained harvest from reindeer stock and also the maximum sustained foraging from pastures. How is this to be accomplished? First, reliable knowledge about reindeer pastures in time and place is necessary: to estimate the quantity and quality of specific reindeer pastures within each management district, as well as the productive capacity and the changes in condition and productivity of those pastures. Secondly, data is needed on the accurate productivity of reindeer stock and the production costs for each management district. Thirdly, study the relationships between pasture resources and productivity of reindeer stock together with the effects of long-term reindeer densities on pasture condition and productivity. Finally, knowledge is needed about the effects of herd structure on reindeer stock productivity as well as the factors which restrict the use of reindeer pastures. Models based on adequate data could provide a useful tool for optimising the use of reindeer pastures and herder income. First the economic carrying capacity of reindeer pastures should be studied. Subsequently the economy of reindeer husbandry could be modelled with respect to reindeer stock density. Also the economy of reindeer husbandry based on different levels of feeding, and the effects of this husbandry practice on pastures, should be modelled. Models should be accurate and flexible enough to use when looking for solutions to practical questions and challenges in reindeer management.

  20. Hay as the feed for reindeer

    Liisa Syrjälä-Qvist


    Full Text Available The palatibility, digestibility and nitrogen balance of the diets containing different amounts of hay and concentrates were investigated by four adult male reindeer after 3x3 Latin square design. Three reindeer were kept inside in metabolic cages and one outside in a fence. Hay was dried timothy hay and concentrates were barley and commercial complete feed. The proportion of hay in the diet dry matter in the different diets was intended to be 80, 65 and 50%. The reindeer did not, however, consume their total hay rations and so those proportions were 75, 62 and 49%. The concentrate rations were, instead, consumed completely. The average total dry matter amounts eaten daily increased, when the proportions of concentrate increased in the diet, being in the different diets 14, 15 and 16 g/liveweight kg, where the amount of hay was 10, 9 and 8 g, respectively. The digestibility of the different components was good in all the diets, (66 — 78%, and there were no significant differences between the diets and animals. The nitrogen balance was negative in all the diets.Hö som foder åt renar.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Med ett försök vari ingick fyra fullvuxna renar (3 — 4 åriga hanar och som utfördes enligt 3x3 latinsk fyrkant metoden undersöktes smaklighet och smäkbarhet samt N-balans hos dieter, som innehöll olika mängder hö och kraftfoder. Tre av renarna hölls så länge försöket varade i smältbarhetshäckar inomhus och en var utomhus i inhägnad. Höet var timotej och kraftfodret bestod avkorn och industrielt allfoder. Höets andel beräcknad på fodergivans torrsubstans var pianerad i de olika dieterna till 80, 65 og 50%. Renarna åt dock inte allt det hö, som ingick i fodergivan utan höets andel blev 75, 62 och 49%. Kraftfodergivan åt djuren dåremot helt och hallet. De totala dagligen konsumerade torrsubstansmängderna ökade då kraftfodrets andel ökade och var vid de olika dieterna 14, 15 og 16 g/kg levande vikt. D

  1. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    K. Rissanen


    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  2. Productivity of semi-domesticated reindeer in Finland

    Ilpo Kojola


    Full Text Available In spite of a twofold increase in the density of reindeer in Finland from 1974 to 1987, meat production per reindeer increased during this period. This was possible due to calf harvesting and supplemental feeding. Results from multiple regression models indicated that calf harvesting influenced both per unit area and per capita production more than supplemental feeding. Correlation between meat production and animal density decreased with increased supplemental feeding. Traditionally, southern and central herds of reindeer fed mainly on arboreal lichens in late winter; however, due to large-scale logging, woodlands rich of arboreal lichens had been greatly reduced. Economic carrying capacity of the winter range apparently has been exceeded in the south; a heavy crash in the number of reindeer is likely if supplemental feeding ceases. In northern herds, intensive calf harvesting enabled satisfactory yield without supplemental feeding. In northern herds, yield increased mainly per unit area (i.e. by increases in herd size; in the south yield per reindeer increased.Lithantuotantoon vaikuttavat tekijat Suomen poron-hoidossa.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmd: Huolimatta Suomessa vuosien 1974 ja 1987 valilla tapahtuneesta porotiheyden kaksinkertaistumisesta, lihantuotto poroa kohti kasvoi jakson aikana. Tama johtui oletettavasti vasateurastuksesta ja lisaruokinnasta. Monimu-uttujaregressiomallien tulosten perusteella vasateurastuksella nayttaisi olevan lisaruokintaa suurempi vaikutus seka poroa etta pinta-alaa kohti laskettuun tuottoon. Ruokinnan tehostuessa pienentyi lihantuoton ja porotiheyden valinen riippuvuus. Etelaosan ja keskiosan porot syovat perinteisesti puussa kasvavia jakalia kevattalvella. Hakkuista johtuen luppometsien osuus on suuresti vahentynyt. Talvilaidunten ekonomien kantokyky on ilmeisesti ylitetty etela- ja keski-osassa; syva romahdus poromaarissa on todennakoista, jos ruokinta lopetettaisiin. Pohjoisosassa voima-perainen vasate

  3. Zeolite and bentonite as caesium binders in reindeer feed

    Birgitta Åhman


    Full Text Available The effects of zeolite and bentonite on the accumulation and excretion of radiocaesium (Cs-137 in reindeer were studied in two feeding experiments. Six animals in each experiment were given lichens contaminated with radiocaesium from fallout after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In addition, they were fed pellets containing bentonite (Experiment I or zeolite (Experiment II. Two animals, controls, in each experiment received no caesium-binder. The activity concentration of radiocaesium in blood was used to evalute the radiocaesium level in the body. Faeces and urine were collected to measue the excration of radiocaesium. The animals in Experiment I were depleted of radiocaesium before the start of the experiment. After three weeks, with an intake of 17 - 18 kBq Cs-137/day, the controls had reached activity concentrations of radiocaesium in blood corresponding to 4 - 4.5 kBq Cs-137/kg in muscle. Reindeer fed 23 or 46 g of bentonite per day stabilized at values below 0.8 kfiq/kg in muscle. In Experiment II, the reindeer started with radiocaesium activity concentrations in blood corresponding to 2 - 4.5 kBq Cs-137/kg in muscle. After four weeks of feeding, with an intake at about 8.5 kBq Cs-137/day, controls had increased their radiocaesium values by an average of 40%. Reindeer receiving 25 or 50 g zeolite per day decreased with 18 and 45%, respectively. Net absorption of radiocaesium from the gastro-intestinal tract was calculated at 50 -70% in animals receiving no caesium-binder. Reindeer fed bentonite had an absorption below 10% while those fed zeolite absorbed around 35%.

  4. What's counted as a reindeer herder? Gender and the adaptive capacity of Sami reindeer herding communities in Sweden.

    Buchanan, Astri; Reed, Maureen G; Lidestav, Gun


    Researchers of adaptive capacity and sustainable livelihoods have frequently used social, cultural, human, economic and institutional capitals to better understand how rural and resource-dependent communities address environmental, social and economic stresses. Yet few studies have considered how men and women contribute differently to these capitals to support community resilience overall. Our research sought to understand the differential contributions of Sami men and women to the adaptive capacity of reindeer husbandry and reindeer herding communities in northern Sweden. Our focus revealed a gendered division of labour in reindeer herding as an economic enterprise as well as gendered contributions to a broader conceptualization of reindeer husbandry as a family and community-based practice, and as a livelihood and cultural tradition. Based on our results, we recommend that community resilience be enhanced by generating more opportunities for men to achieve higher levels of human and economic capital (particularly outside of herding activities) and encouraging women to contribute more directly to institutional capital by participating in the formation and implementation of legislation, policies and plans.

  5. Regional differences in density-dependent mortality and reproduction in Finnish reindeer

    Ilpo Kojola


    Full Text Available Reindeer in the southern and central regions of reindeer husbandry in Finland feed on arboreal lichens or are given supplementary rations from midwinter whereas in the northern region reindeer use snow-covered forage throughout winter. Rates of mortality and reproduction were examined using data from population crashes of semi-domesticated reindeer that occurred in Northern Finland during 1960-1987. The mortality and reproductive rate were density-dependent in the southern region and the mortality was density-dependent in the central region. The density-dependence was most probably due to food competition in forest cutting areas where reindeer gather to feed on arboreal lichens from felled trees. In the northern region mortality was not density-dependent indicating that where reindeer feed on over-utilized winter range the effects of increased feeding competition are masked by very large changes in the availability of forage.

  6. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

    Morten Tryland


    Full Text Available A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time being, but reindeer herding is sometimes challenged by disease outbreaks, and diseases play an important role for survival and fitness of reindeer. Reindeer herding is also facing changes and challenges, which also may impact reindeer health and the disease status. Introduction of infectious agents not commonly present in the reindeer population may take place through import of animals, as well as by contact between reindeer, livestock and wildlife. Further, changes in the herding, such as increased feeding, transport, size of herds, animal density and stress load on the animals, may affect the animals ability to cope with infectious diseases. Also changes in weather conditions and climate, such as increased precipitation and mean temperature, may over time lead to restricted availability of pastures, changes in vegetation and changed conditions for parasites and insect vectors. These changes might be especially important for the reproductive success, including fitness of the calves during their first winter. To be able to cope with these changes and their potential impact on reindeer health, increased efforts should be made to gather reference data on health and disease parameters from the different reindeer herding districts, along with epidemiological risk factor analysis. This would increase the ability for the reindeer herding to cope with changes and to continue to produce quality meat products for the market.

  7. Mycotic skin lesions in an adult reindeer caused by Debaryomyces bansenii. A case report

    Claes Rehbinder


    Full Text Available This report apparently is the first to describe candidosis in reindeer. It is imperative that reindeer kept in corrals during winter and spring for supplementary feeding, are provided clean, dry conditions and that strict hygenic measures are followed. If reindeer on the other hand are kept in dirty, wet and muddy corrals, among other things, skin lesions due to fungal infections may possibly appear rather frequently.

  8. Can a snow structure model estimate snow characteristics relevant to reindeer husbandry?

    Sirpa Rasmus


    Full Text Available Snow affects foraging conditions of reindeer e.g. by increasing the energy expenditures for moving and digging work or, in contrast, by making access of arboreal lichen easier. Still the studies concentrating on the role of the snow pack structure on reindeer population dynamics and reindeer management are few. We aim to find out which of the snow characteristics are relevant for reindeer in the northern boreal zone according to the experiences of reindeer herders and is this relevance seen also in reproduction rate of reindeer in this area. We also aim to validate the ability of the snow model SNOWPACK to reliably estimate the relevant snow structure characteristics. We combined meteorological observations, snow structure simulations by the model SNOWPACK and annual reports by reindeer herders during winters 1972-2010 in the Muonio reindeer herding district, northern Finland. Deep snow cover and late snow melt were the most common unfavorable conditions reported. Problematic conditions related to snow structure were icy snow and ground ice or unfrozen ground below the snow, leading to mold growth on ground vegetation. Calf production percentage was negatively correlated to the measured annual snow depth and length of the snow cover time and to the simulated snow density. Winters with icy snow could be distinguished in three out of four reported cases by SNOWPACK simulations and we could detect reliably winters with conditions favorable for mold growth. Both snow amount and also quality affects the reindeer herding and reindeer reproduction rate in northern Finland. Model SNOWPACK can relatively reliably estimate the relevant structural properties of snow. Use of snow structure models could give valuable information about grazing conditions, especially when estimating the possible effects of warming winters on reindeer populations and reindeer husbandry. Similar effects will be experienced also by other arctic and boreal species.

  9. Traffic deaths of reindeer in Finland during 1974 — 83

    Mauri Nieminen


    Full Text Available During 1974 — 83 a total of 23.298 reindeer died in traffic accidents in Finland. Vehicles killed 19.962 reindeer (85,7% of traffic deaths and trains 3.336 reindeer (14,3%. During 1978 — 82 the majority of reindeer killed by vehicles were hinds (52,2% and calves (24,6%. Reindeer road deaths were concentrated in the southern and central, heavily trafficked herding areas. Most reindeer were killed by vehicles in the marked herding areas of Pudasjårvi, Kuusamo, Raudanjoki and Sodankyiå. The most destructive section of road was highway number 20 between Pudasjårvi and Taivalkoski where 559 reindeer died during 1978 — 82 on a 36 km stretch. The worst railway stretch was between Ii and Kemi where an average of 115 reindeer/10 km died during 1976 — 82. Most reindeer died in traffic in November, December and January during the soft snow period when the movement of reindeer is most difficult. In summer, most reindeer died in traffic in July — August. The number of reindeer deaths on the roads in May — September depended slightly on the temperature in the different months (r=0,398. Throughout the whole reindeer herding area the amount of reindeer deaths also depended on the average 24-hour traffic (r=0,445.Porojen liikennekuolemat Suomessa 1974 — 83.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vuosina 1974—83 kuoli liikenteesså Suomessa yhteenså 23.298 poroa. Auton alle jåi 19.962 poroa (85,7% liikennekuolemista ja junan alle 3.336 poroa (14,3%. Vuosina 1978—82 oli autojen alle jååneistå poroista suurin osa vaatimia (52,2% ja vasoja (24,6%. Porojen maantiekuolemat keskittyivåt etelå- ja keskiosan pieniin ja runsaasti liikennoityihin paliskuntiin. Eniten poroja jåi auton alle Pudasjårven, Kuusamon, Raudanjoen ja Sodankylån merkkipiirien paliskunnissa. Tuhoisin tieosuus oli valtatie n:o 20 vålillå Pudasjårvi—Taivalkoski, jossa kuoli vuosina 1978—82 yhteenså 559 poroa 36 km:n matkalla. Pahin rataosuus olivålillå li

  10. Effects of Power Lines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures

    K. Flydal


    Full Text Available We conducted large-scale, replicated experiments to test the effects of two parallel power lines on area use, behaviour, and activity of semidomestic reindeer in enclosures. Yearling female reindeer were released into four 50×400 m enclosures; two treatment enclosures with power lines and two control enclosures. Reindeer from two herds, one from Kautokeino (domestic tame and one from Vågå, (domestic wild were tested separately and compared. Individual location within the enclosures was not affected by the power lines. Effects on restless behaviour were ambiguous, with slightly more restless behaviour in the treatment enclosures for the domestic tame reindeer, while the domestic wild reindeer maintained a stable level in the treatment enclosures, increasing with time in the control enclosures. Activity changes were slightly more common among animals within treatment enclosures for both herds, with no indication of habituation during the experiment. The domestic wild reindeer had more than three times the amount of restless behaviour than the domestic tame reindeer. Our study indicates that for reindeer in enclosures, the disturbance from a power line construction is negligible. This suggests that power lines are a minor disturbing factor compared to human handling when using fenced in areas like grazing gardens in reindeer husbandry.

  11. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.


    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  12. Trials with different feeds to reindeer

    Ulla-Britt Bøe


    Full Text Available When changing over from natural pasture to artificial feeding it is often neccessary to supplement with the natural fodder lichen in order to avoid digestibility disturbances. The high contant of water makes it difficult to store and transport lichen. We have therefore observed whether dried lichen in form of pellets can subsitute natural lichen as a fodder for reindeer. In a feeding experiment with 6 calves which were brought in from natural pasture just before the experiment started, 3 calved were fed natural lichen and the other 3 pelleted lichen for a period of 5 weeks. The calves on pelleted lichen had a higher feed intake and a correspondingly higher weight gain compared with a 38 g weight loss pr. day (Fig. 1 in the other group. Another experiment was conducted to test the effect on digestibility disturbances when changing over from natural pasture to artificial feeding. Two new fodders were composed, RF-80 and RFL (The chemical an biological compositions are given in Table 1 and 2. The feed intake during the first days of the experiments is used as a measure of the digestibility disturbances. The calves were in poor condition and starved one day before the experiment started. Compared to RF-71, the commercial reindeer fodder in Norway, both turned out to be usable. The animals did not seem to have digestibility disturbances when feeding on the new fodders.Porojen ruokintakokeita erilaisilla rehuilla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Kun porojen ruokinnassa siirrytåån våkirehun kåyttoon, on usein vålttåmåtontå ruuansulatushåirioiden vålttåmiseksi antaa elåimille ensimmåisinå påivinå lisarehuna jåkålåa. Jåkålån suuri vesipitoisuus vaikeuttaa sen varastoimista ja kuljetusta laiduntamispaikalle. Sen vuoksi olemme tutkineet voiko puristeen muodossa oleva kuivattu jåkålå korvata tavallisen jåkålån poron rehuna. Erååsså ruokintakokeessa kåytettiin kuutta poronyasaa, jotka nuodettiin suoraan luonnolliselta

  13. Reindeer & Wolves: Exploring Sensory Deprivation in Multiplayer Digital Bodily Play

    Finnegan, Daniel; Velloso, Eduardo; Mitchell, Robb;


    Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer & W...... & Wolves, a role-playing game where blindfolded players capture other players relying on their hearing alone. Based on our design and play testing, we devised four strategies for designing games that incorporate sensory deprivation as an element of the core mechanic.......Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer...

  14. [The biological aspects of botfly invasions in reindeer].

    Iamov, V Z; Solopov, N V


    Field and laboratory studies established the development time of all the phases of Oedemagena tarandi and Cephenemyia trompe in different climatic zones of their habitat. The phenological and ecological features of O. tarandi and C. trompe in the aforesaid zones were identified which are the basis for scientifically grounded prophylactic measures. Data on potential and actual fecundity make it possible to calculate their reproduction potential and to forecast the invasion intensity of the reindeer in the next season.

  15. Reindeer husbandry and forestry in the reindeer herding district of Poikajärvi during the years 1963 — 1984

    Katarina Kupiainen


    Full Text Available Reindeer husbandry and forestry are practised in Finland in the same areas and practisers of these sources of livelihood not been able to avoid conflicts. Large clear-cutting and ploughed areas especially have diminshed the reindeer's winter ranges. In winter the reindeer digs ground lichens (Cladina spp under the snow and when the snow surface becomes harder it begins to pasture upon arboreal lichens (Alectoria and Bryoria spp.. Fields of lichen are, however, very worn and the best forests with arboreal lichens have been cut. The area of the reindeer herding district of Poikajarvi (66°30' — 67°10'N is 2507 km2 of which state owned land is 1474 km2 (59%. The average reindeer density (counted reindeer of the years 1963 — 1984 has been 1.5 reindeer/km2. During the last 20 years 9.8% of the state owned land of Poikajarvi has been treated with regeneration cutting, mostly with clear-cuttings, and 10.6% with thinning cuttings. With different soil preparation methods 8.7% has been treated, most of it by ploughing. About 24% of the damp sites have been clearcut and ploughed. The estimated cutting quantity of state owned forests has continually increased since 1976 and in 1984 it was about 140 600 m3. Since 1963 the number of counted reindeer of the reindeer herding district has decreased by 60 reindeer yearly. It has varied between 4939 and 2866 reindeer. In the years 1963 — 1984 on average 1425 reindeer were slaughtered yearly. The calves' share of the slaughtered reindeer has increased and in the last few years it has been almost 80%. The average reindeer meat production has been 36 400 kg a year. In Poikajarvi supplemental feeding of reindeer has been practised since 1969. The amount of hay used for it has increased from about 5.5 kg to nearly 20 kg per counted reindeer. At the same time the number of counted and slaughtered reindeer and. meat production has decreased.Rennäringen och skogsbruket i Poikajärvis Renbeteslag under åren 1963

  16. Elaphostrongylus spp. from Scandinavian cervidae - a scanning electron microscope study (SEM

    Margareta Stéen


    Full Text Available Nematodes of the genus Elaphostrongylus collected from moose (Alces alces L., reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., and red deer (Cervus elaphus L., respectively, were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. Morphological differences in the ribs of the genital bursa were demonstrated. The Elaphostrongylus species from reindeer and red deer differed from each other in four ribs of the genital bursa. These results agree with the morphological characters of E. cervi and E. rangiferi described by Cameron (1931 and Mitskevitch (1960. The genital bursa of Elaphostrongylus sp. from moose, in accordance with the description of E. alces by Steen et al. (1989 showed characteristics differing from those found in Elaphostrongylus spp. from reindeer and red deer respectively. These results support the hypothesis that there are three separate species of Elaphostrongylus present in Scandinavian Cervidae. Svep-elektroniska studier på Elaphostrongylus spp. hos skandinaviska hjortdjur.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Rundmaskar inom slaktet Elaphostrongylus funna hos alg (Alces alces L., ren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. och kronhjort(Cervus elaphus L. studerades med hjalp av svepelelektronmikroskop. De hanliga bursorna med sin a stodjeribbor uppvisade variationer i utseende, langd och placering mellan dessa rundmaskar. De arter av Elaphostrongylus funna hos ren och kronhjort skilde sig åt avseende fyra stodjeribbor på de hanliga bursorna. Dessa resultat stammer val overens med de karaktarer som tidigare ar beskrivna av Cameron(1931 och av Mitskevich (1960. Den hanliga bursan hos arten Elaphostrongylus funnen hos alg, vilken tidigare ar beskriven av Steen et al. (1989, visade upp ett utseende som skilde sig från bursorna hos de Elaphostrongylus-arter funna hos ren och kronhjort. Dessa resultat stoder hypotesen om tre skilda arter av Elaphostrongylus hos skandinaviska hjortdjur.

  17. A new Eimeria species (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) from caribou in Ameralik, West Greenland.

    Skirnisson, K; Cuyler, C


    Fecal samples of 11 calves shot in the Ameralik area, West Greenland, in August-September 2014 were examined for coccidian parasites. The calves belonged to a population of interbreeding indigenous caribou Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and feral semi-domestic Norwegian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Two coccidian species were found: Eimeria rangiferis and a coccidium that was identified and described as a new species. The latter's sporulated oocyst is spherical or slightly subspherical. Average size is 25.6 × 24.8 μm. The oocyst has two distinct walls. Wall thickness is ∼1.4 μm. The unicolored outer wall is brown, the inner wall is dark gray. The oocysts contain a small polar granule but are devoid of a microphyle. The oocysts enclose four ovoid-shaped sporocysts with a rounded end opposite to the Stieda body. The average size of sporocysts is 15.2 × 7.8 μm. Sporocysts contain a granular sporocyst residuum that forms a spherical cluster between the sporocysts, one large refractile body is present in each sporozoite. The spherical form easily distinguishes oocysts of the new species from the seven previously described eimerid species in R. tarandus. This is the first eimerid described as a new species to the sciences from caribou in the Nearctic.

  18. Feeding of reindeer calves for slaughtering in the autumn

    Endre Jacobsen


    Full Text Available Experiments have been carried out for testing the profit of feeding reindeer calves to slaughter maturity in the autumn. The calves were fed a special reindeer calf feed KF-71 (see Table 1 & 2. 16 male calves were fed from September 9th to November 7th. The feed consumption per kg gain in dressed weight was 14,2 kg (estimated to 12,8 fattening feed units. The gain in dressed weight in the period was 5,8 kg per animal. Using the today price of reindeer feed and reindeer meat the feeding in this trial has not been profitable. Some other circumstances which are of importance in estimating the economy by feeding of reindeer calves for slaughter are discussed.Teurastettavien poronvasojen ruokinta syksylla.Abstract in Finnish / Ybteenveto: Poronvasojen ruokinnan kannattavuutta teurastusta silmallapitaen om selvitetty kokeellisesti erityisella tahan tarkoitukseen valmistetulla vakirehulla (taulukot 1 ja 2. Kokeissa ruokittiin 16 vasaa syyskuun 9. ja marraskuun 7. paivan valisena aikana. Rehun kulutus teuraspainon lisayksena saavutettua kiloa kohti oli 14,2 kg. Ruokintajakson aikana teuraspaino lisaantyi elainta kohti 5,8 kg. Kun huomioidaan ruokinnassa kaytetyn rehun hinta ja toisaalta vasanlihan hinta ei ruokinta ollut kannattavaa. Kirjoituksessa pohditaan myos muita suhteita, joilla on merkitysta arvioitaessa teurastettavien poronvasojen ruokinnan taloudellisuutta.Oppforing av reinkalver for slakting om høsten.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er gjort forsøk for å belyse lønnsomheten ved oppforing av reinkalver til slakt om høsten med et kraftfor laget til dette formål (se Tabell 1og 2. 16 oksekalver ble foret i tidsrommet 9/9 til 7/11. Forforbruket pr. kg tilvekst i slaktevekt var 14,2 kg(beregnet til 12,8 f.f.e.. Tilveksten i slaktevekt i perioden er beregnet til 5,8 kg pr. dyr. Med de priser vi idag har på reinkalvfor og på kalvekjøtt har denne foringen ikke vært regningssvarende. Det er diskutert andre forhold som har betydning

  19. Survival, persistence, and regeneration of the reindeer lichens, Cladina stellaris, C. rangiferina, and C. mitis following clearcut logging and forest fire in northwestern Ontario

    Webb, Elizabeth T.


    The responses of the reindeer lichens (Cladina stellaris, C. rangiferina, and C. mitis) to logging and fire were compared in lichen-rich forest stands in northwestern Ontario. In the summer of 1992, reindeer lichen cover, in total and by species, was visually estimated and detailed notes were taken on reindeer lichen conditions, modes of reproduction, and substrate use on 34 undisturbed, burned, or logged sites. While virtually no reindeer lichens survived forest fire, much of the reindeer li...

  20. Reindeer meat – is it always tender, tasty and healthy?

    Eva Wiklund


    Full Text Available Meat with high pH values, so called DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry meat, is a persistent quality defect foundmin all meat species. DFD shortens shelf life, especially for vacuum-packed meat and affects meat colour, tenderness and water-holding properties. High pH values in reindeer meat have been related to pre-slaughter handling stress and poor nutritional status of the animals. There are numerous reports that variation in muscle pH and glycogen content give rise to considerable variations in meat tenderness in species such as beef and lamb. In contrast, reindeer meat has been found to be extremely tender regardless of ultimate pH. This phenomenon has been related to the speed of post mortem protein degradation and the small muscle fibre size in reindeer. Previous research has demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of meat changes in response to diets. Generally, a higher proportion of long, unsaturated fatty acids were found in meat from grazing animals compared with animals fed a grain-based diet. Reindeer meat has been found to contain moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially so-called n-3 (or omega-3 PUFAs. The PUFAs are known to be susceptible to oxidation and may therefore be easily oxidized during processing by techniques like smoking and drying. A trained sensory panel concluded that meat from reindeer fed commercial feed scored higher for liverish and sweet flavours and lower for off-flavou (i.e. ‘grass’, ‘wild’ and ‘game’ compared with meat from grazing animals. Consumer preference tests on reindeer meat showed that 50 per cent of the consumers preferred meat from grazing reindeer and 50 per cent meat from pellet-fed animals. Recent reindeer meat research has included new feed mixtures using ingredients like linseed and fishmeal. Crushed linseed in the feed gave meat with a fat composition similar to that of natural pasture, which meant more PUFA than in meat from reindeer fed the normal grain

  1. Causes of variation in growth rate of reindeer calves

    C. J. Petersson


    Full Text Available Weights of individual reindeer calves were registered on 3 or 4 occasions from the July roundup to the last slaughter roundup in January during each of four consecutive years (1986 to 1989. The observations were made in a tagged herd located in the southern part of the reindeer area in Sweden (63°N, 12°E. A total of 10 400 live-weight measurements were made, and the relationship between pre-slaughter weight and carcass weight was estimated using data from 109 individuals. Variation in weight and weight gain between weighing occasions was related to sex, number of days in the corral, scale and year. Non-linear growth curves were fit to the adjusted weights. For each sex, smoothed average weights and dispersions, both within and between year, as well as the coefficient of variation were calculated from data generated from the estimated functions. Individual calf weights were shown to be influenced by sex, weighing day within occasion, and by year. Reindeer calves gained between 20 and 25 kg in live body weight from two to 6-8 months of age. Male calves were heavier than female calves over the whole period and they gained in live weight on average 10 g/day more than female calves. Between year coefficient of variation was between 1.5 and 7% with the largest variation between years for July and January weights and the lowest variation for September weights. The growth curves showed that the major increase in weight was between July and September. From September to December/January the additional increase was only 5%. Dressing-percentage was influenced by live weight prior to slaughter. A positive relationship between live weight and dressing percentage was shown.

  2. Archaeology and the debate on the transition from reindeer hunting to pastoralism

    Ingrid Sommerseth


    Full Text Available The distinctive Sami historical land use concerning reindeer management and settlement of inner Troms, North Norway, is reflected in places with archaeological remains. The insight and knowledge connected with these places can be accessed through oral traditions and place-names where reindeer management is embedded in reindeer knowledge developed over long time spans. Previous distinctions between wild reindeer hunting and pastoral herding can be redefined, since much of the traditional knowledge concerning the wild reindeer (goddi may have been transferred to the domesticated animals (boazu. The transition from reindeer hunting to pastoralism is a current research focus and archaeological results from inner Troms indicate that several Sami dwellings with árran (hearths are related to a transitional period from AD 1300 to 1400. This period is marked by a reorganisation of the inland Sami siida (collective communities, and changes in landscape use wherein seasonal cycles and grazing access began to determine the movements of people and their domestic reindeer herds. This reorganisation was a response to both external political relations and the inner dynamic of the Sami communities. The first use of tamed reindeer was as decoys and draft animals in the hunting economy, only later becoming the mainstay of household food supply in reindeer pastoralism, providing insurance for future uncertainties. The formation of the national border between Norway-Denmark and Sweden in 1751 led to extensive changes in the previously trans-national mobility pattern, leading to fragmentation of the old siidas and to a new stage of nomadic pastoral economy.

  3. Eimeria rangiferis (Protozoa: Eimeriidae reported from caribou in Ameralik, West Greenland

    Karl Skírnisson


    Full Text Available In recent decades the native Barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus south of the Godthaabs fjord (Nuup Kangerlua fjord in West Greenland have mixed with semi-domesticated Norwegian reindeer (R. t. tarandus imported in 1952 from Finnmark Norway and released onto the range of the Ameralik caribou population. Fecal samples from three calves of the Ameralik caribou population were examined for the presence of nematode eggs and eimerid oocysts. Two distinct nematode egg types were observed: the first, Nematodirella longissimespiculata, was found in all calves, while the second, a strongylid nematode, was detected in one calf. The coccidian eimerid Eimeria rangiferis was identified in all calves. This host-specific eimerid is found in Icelandic feral reindeer, which were also imported from Finnmark Norway. We suggest that Finnmark reindeer were the source of Eimeria rangiferis observed in Ameralik caribou today. There are three possible origins for the presence of N. longissimespiculata in Ameralik, 1 arrival with colonizing caribou from North America within the past 4000 years, 2 the 1952 introduction of semi-domesticated Norwegian reindeer, or 3 the current immigration of muskoxen.

  4. Efficacy of different treatment regimes against setariosis (Setaria tundra, Nematoda: Filarioidea and associated peritonitis in reindeer

    Nieminen Mauri


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When a severe peritonitis outbreak in semi-domesticated reindeer was noticed in 2003 in Finland, the concerned industry urged immediate preventive actions in order to avoid detrimental effects of S. tundra and further economical losses. A research programme was swiftly initiated to study S. tundra and its impact on the health and wellbeing of reindeer. Methods The ultimate aim of this study was to test the efficacy of different treatment regimes against S. tundra and associated peritonitis in reindeer. The timing of the trials was planned to be compatible with the annual rhythm of the reindeer management; (1 the treatment of calves in midsummer, during routine calf ear marking, with ivermectin injection prophylaxis and deltamethrin pour-on solution as a repellent against insect vectors, (2 the treatment of infected calves in early autumn with ivermectin injection, and (3 ivermectin treatment of breeding reindeer in winter. The results were assessed using the post mortem inspection data and S. tundra detection. Finally, to evaluate on the population level the influence of the annual (late autumn-winter ivermectin treatment of breeding reindeer on the transmission dynamics of S. tundra, a questionnaire survey was conducted. Results In autumn, ivermectin treatment was efficient against peritonitis and in midsummer had a slight negative impact on the degree of peritonitis and positive on the fat layer, but deltamethrin had none. Ivermectin was efficient against adult S. tundra and its smf. All the reindeer herding cooperatives answered the questionnaire and it appeared that antiparasitic treatment of reindeer population was intense during the study period, when 64–90% of the animals were treated. In the southern part of the Finnish reindeer husbandry area, oral administration of ivermectin was commonly used. Conclusion Autumn, and to a lesser degree summer, treatment of reindeer calves with injectable ivermectin resulted in

  5. Serosurvey of three virus infections in reindeer in northern Norway and Svalbard

    S. Stuen


    Full Text Available Sera from 326 Norwegian reindeer (NR and from 40 Svalbard reindeer (SR were examined for antibodies to reindeer herpesvirus (RHV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV and parainfulenza type 3 virus (PIV-3. No antibodies to any of these three viruses were detected in sera from SR. Sixty-three percent of sera from 101 adult NR (> 12 months old and 15% of 225 NR calves (6 months old had antibodies to RHV; corresponding values for BVDV were 41% and 6%, respectively. Twenty-seven percent of adult NR and 1% of NR calves had antibodies to both viruses. No antibodies to PIV-3 were detected in any NR sera.

  6. Reindeer Herders in Finland: Pulled to Community-based Entrepreneurship & Pushed to Individualistic Firms'

    Dana, Leo; Riseth, Jan Age


    Content analysis of interviews conducted with reindeer herders ‒ referred to as reindeer husbandry entrepreneurs, by the Reindeer Herders’ Association ‒ from two ethnic communities in Finland reveals that participants who identified themselves as ethnic Finns viewed their self-employment as an individualistic form of entrepreneurship and they focused their discussion on matters related to financial capital and profit. In contrast, Sámi respondents claimed that the causal varia...

  7. Progress of reindeer-caribou cross breeding experiments on Nunivak Island, Alaska [Draft

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the course of investigations of reindeer raising in Alaska, begun by the Biological Survey in 1920, a need for better breeding up of the herds was found. Two...

  8. Facing the limit of resilience: perceptions of climate change among reindeer herding Sami in Sweden

    Maria Furberg


    Full Text Available The Arctic area is a part of the globe where the increase in global temperature has had the earliest noticeable effect and indigenous peoples, including the Swedish reindeer herding Sami, are amongst the first to be affected by these changes.To explore the experiences and perceptions of climate change among Swedish reindeer herding Sami.In-depth interviews with 14 Swedish reindeer herding Sami were performed, with purposive sampling. The interviews focused on the herders experiences of climate change, observed consequences and thoughts about this. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. One core theme emerged from the interviews: facing the limit of resilience. Swedish reindeer-herding Sami perceive climate change as yet another stressor in their daily struggle. They have experienced severe and more rapidly shifting, unstable weather with associated changes in vegetation and alterations in the freeze–thaw cycle, all of which affect reindeer herding. The forecasts about climate change from authorities and scientists have contributed to stress and anxiety. Other societal developments have lead to decreased flexibility that obstructs adaptation. Some adaptive strategies are discordant with the traditional life of reindeer herding, and there is a fear among the Sami of being the last generation practising traditional reindeer herding.The study illustrates the vulnerable situation of the reindeer herders and that climate change impact may have serious consequences for the trade and their overall way of life. Decision makers on all levels, both in Sweden and internationally, need improved insights into these complex issues to be able to make adequate decisions about adaptive climate change strategies.

  9. Impacts of a Changing Climate and Land Use on Reindeer Pastoralism: Indigenous Knowledge and Remote Sensing

    Maynard, N. G.; Oskal, A.; Turi, A.; Mathiesen, J. M.; Eira, S. D.; Yurchak, I. M. G.; Etylin, B.; Gebelein, J.


    The Arctic is home to many indigenous peoples, including those who depend on reindeer herding for their livelihood, in one of the harshest environments in the world. For the largely nomadic peoples, reindeer not only form a substantial part of the Arctic food base and economy, but they are also culturally important, shaping their way of life, mythologies, festivals and ceremonies. Reindeer pastoralism or husbandry has been practiced by numerous peoples all across Eurasia for thousands of years and involves moving herds of reindeer, which are very docile animals, from pasture to pasture depending on the season. Thus, herders must adapt on a daily basis to find optimal conditions for their herds according to the constantly changing conditions. Climate change and variability plus rapid development are increasingly creating major changes in the physical environment, ecology, and cultures of these indigenous reindeer herder communities in the North, and climate changes are occurring significantly faster in the Arctic than the rest of the globe, with correspondingly dramatic impacts (Oskal, 2008). In response to these changes, Eurasian reindeer herders have created the EALAT project, a comprehensive new initiative to study these impacts and to develop local adaptation strategies based upon their traditional knowledge of the land and its uses - in targeted partnership with the science and remote sensing community - involving extensive collaborations and coproduction of knowledge to minimize the impacts of the various changes. This chapter provides background on climate and development challenges to reindeer husbandry across the Arctic and an overview of the EALAT initiative, with an emphasis on indigenous knowledge, remote sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and other scientific data to 'co-produce' datasets for use by herders for improved decision-making and herd management. It also provides a description of the EALAT monitoring data integration and sharing

  10. Caesium 137 in meat from reindeer and grouses from Svaldbard 1980

    Kjos-Hanssen, B.; Rennesund, J.S. (Forsvarets Forskningsinstitutt, Kjeller (Norway))


    Concentration of Caesium 137 in meat from Spitsbergen (Svalbard) and mainland Norway reindeer has been measured. It appears that the concentration values for Spitsbergen are of the order of 1 per cent of corresponding values for the mainland. It is suggested that low precipitation rates and a different reindeer diet contributes to the low Cs 137 concentration values in Svaldbard. The concentration of Cs 137 in Svaldbard grouse did not exceed the detection limit of the measurements (approximately 10 pCi/kg).

  11. (Caesium 137 in meat from reindeer and grouse from Svalbard 1980 (author's transl))

    Kjos-Hanssen, B.; Rennesund, J.S.

    Concentration of Caesium 137 in meat from Spitsbergen (Svalbard) and mainland Norway reindeer has been measured. It appears that the concentration values for Spitsbergen are of the order of 1 per cent of corresponding values for the mainland. It is suggested that low precipitation rates and a different reindeer diet contributes to the low Cs 137 concentration values in Svalbard. The concentration of Cs 137 in Svalbard grouse did not exceed the detection limit of the measurements (infinity 10 pCi/kg).

  12. Mapping long-term spatial trends of the Taimyr wild reindeer population

    Andrey N. Petrov


    Full Text Available This report presents preliminary results of mapping and analyzing wild reindeer spatial dynamics in Taimyr, Russia. We collected, spatially referenced, and systematized comprehensive aerial and land survey information spanning from 1969 to 2003, which is the most complete long-term data available about a wild reindeer herd in Eurasia. The report introduces some of the mapping products and presents a summary of our observations on spatiotemporal changes in reindeer distribution and migration. Using these data and new digital products in the GIS (Geographic Information Systems environment, we were able to observe the long-term shift of the Taimyr Reindeer Herd's summer, winter, and calving areas to the east and south with a simultaneous expansion of the habitat. We identified and confirmed locations of large reindeer concentrations (herds seasonally formed throughout the study period. Using the most recent summer survey data (2009 we also were able to confirm the existence of two major migration flows in the fall: eastern (most reindeer and western.

  13. Hexacyanoferrates and bentonite as binders of radiocaesium for reindeer

    Knut Hove


    Full Text Available The effects of varying doses of caesium binders (Bentonite and several forms of iron-hexacyanoferrates on radiocaesium accumulation in red blood cells and on radiocaesium transfer to urine and faeces were studied in feeding experiments with reindeer calves. The caesium binders were added to a ration of lichen (containing 9.5 kBq of 134Cs+137Cs originating from the Chernobyl accident and fed together with a pelleted reindeer feed (RF-71 for 42 days. A 50% reduction in red blood cell radiocaesium concentration was obtained with a daily dose of 1 mg/kg body weigth of ammoniumironhexacyanoferrate (AFCF and with 500 mg/kg of bentonite. Three mg/kg of AFCF or 2 g/kg of bentonite reduced both urinary excretion and RBC concentrations with more than 80%. It is concluded that iron-hexacyanoferrates, as a result of their high caesium binding capacity, are particularly useful as caesium binders for free ranging ruminants like the reindeer.Hexacynoferrater og bentonitt som bindere av radiocesium i reinAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Effekten av bentonitt og ulike typer jernhexacyanoferrater (Berlinerblått på akkumulering av radioaktivt cesium i røde blodlegemer og på utskilling av radioaktivt cesium i urin ble undersøkt i foringsforsøk med reinkalver. Cesiumbinderne ble gitt daglig sammen med lav som inneholdt 9.5 kBq 134Cs+137Cs fra Tsjernobyl ulykken, og 1 kg reinfor (RF-71 i en periode på 42 dager. En daglig dose på 1 mg/kg kroppsvekt av ammoniumjernhexacyano-ferrat (AFCF reduserte radiocesiuminnholdet i blodlegemer med 50%, mens en dose pa 500 mg/kg bentonitt var nødvendig for å oppnå samme effekt. Tre mg/kg AFCF eller 2 g/kg/bentonitt var nødvendig for å oppnå mer enn 80% reduksjon i radiocesium konsentrasjonen i blodlegemer og i radiocesium utskilling med urinen. På grunn av de små daglige mengder som kreves er jern-hexacyanoferratene spesielt velegnete som cesiumbindere for beitedyr.

  14. Survival, persistence, and regeneration of the reindeer lichens, Cladina stellaris, C. rangiferina, and C. mitis following clearcut logging and forest fire in northwestern Ontario

    Elizabeth T. Webb


    Full Text Available The responses of the reindeer lichens (Cladina stellaris, C. rangiferina, and C. mitis to logging and fire were compared in lichen-rich forest stands in northwestern Ontario. In the summer of 1992, reindeer lichen cover, in total and by species, was visually estimated and detailed notes were taken on reindeer lichen conditions, modes of reproduction, and substrate use on 34 undisturbed, burned, or logged sites. While virtually no reindeer lichens survived forest fire, much of the reindeer lichen cover remained after logging. Reindeer lichen cover increased with time since fire. Total reindeer lichen cover was not correlated with time since logging. Fragment growth was found to be an important mode of reproduction on logged sites, and occurred with greater frequency on logged sites than on burned sites. Colonization of organic substrates by reindeer lichens was observed on both logged and burned sites.

  15. Transferrin variation and genetic structure of reindeer populations in Scandinavia

    Knut H. Røed


    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyse transferrin variation in herds of semi-domestic reindeer from Scandinavia. The results are compared with previously reported values for other populations of both semi-domestic and wild reindeer using the same techniques as in the present study. In all populations the number of alleles was high, ranging from seven to eleven, and the heterozygosity was correspondingly high, with a mean of 0.749. This high genetic variation in all populations suggests that inbreeding is not widespread among Scandinavian reindeer. The pattern of allele frequency distribution indicates a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in the transferrin locus, both between the different semi-domestic herds and between the different wild populations. The mean value of genetic distance was 0.069 between semi-domestic herds and 0.091 between wild populations. Between semi-domestic and wild populations the genetic distance was particularly high, with a mean of 0.188. This high value was mainly due to a different pattern in the distribution of the two most common transferrin alleles: Tfu was most common among semi-domestic herds, while TfEI was most common among wild populations. These differences in transferrin allele distribution are discussed in relation to possible different origins of semi-domestic and wild reindeer in Scandinavia, or alternatively, to different selection forces acting on transferrin genotypes in semi-domestic and wild populations.Transferrin-variasjon og genetisk struktur hos rein i Skandinavia.Abstact in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Transferrin-variasjon i tamreinflokker ble analysert ved hjelp av polyacrylamid gel elektroforese. Resultatene er sammenlignet med verdier som tidligere er beskrevet for både tamrein og villrein hvor det ble benyttet samme metode som i denne undersøkelsen. I alle populasjonene ble det registrert et høyt antall alleler (7-11 og heterozygositeten var tilsvarende høy med en

  16. [Ecological characteristics of preferred habitat of reindeer of Daxing'an Mountain forest area Northeast China in summer].

    Wang, Peng; Meng, Fan-Lu; Zeng, Zhi; Wang, Wei-Ping; Sheng, Yan; Feng, Jin-Chao; Zhou, Yi-Jun; Xue, Da-Yuan; Meng, Xiu-Xiang


    In July and August of 2012 and 2013, habitat selection and use patterns of reindeer were studied using both line and strip-transect surveys. Twenty-three habitat factors were measured and compared in known reindeer range areas in northwestern China. A total of 72 sampling sites were designated as being used by reindeer, and 162 sites were designated as unused control plots. The results indicated that, compared to the non-used habitat plots, reindeer selected summer habitats with higher values in altitude (26.9 ± 0.8 m), arbor canopy (17.9% ± 2.4%), arbor DBH (35.5 ± 2.1 cm), arbor height (8.2 ± 0.5 m), arbor density (6.9 ± 0.5 ind · 400 m(-2)) and stump quan- tity (1.3 ± 0.2 ind · 400 m(-2)), and with a lower shrub height (54.2 ± 2.0 cm). Moreover, reindeer also selected habitats at intermediate positions of intermediate slope gradient, which provided good water accessibility, more distance from human disturbance and herder influence, but bad concealment and lee condition. Results of the principal component analysis showed that the disturbance intensity (i. e. residential dispersion, anthropogenic-disturbance dispersion), arbor characteristics (arbor height and arbor density, arbor DBH and arbor canopy), geography characteristics (i. e. slope position, slope aspect and soil moisture), food abundance (ground-plant cover and shrub cover), openness (concealment and lee condition) and slope gradient were the most important factors influencing the habitat selection of reindeer in summer. In summary, the summer habitat selection of reindeer is a multidimensional process, through which reindeer adapt according to their ecological needs of food resources, safety and anti-predation. Furthermore, the pattern of habitat selection of reindeer showed that reindeer in China has not yet been domesticated, and reindeer populations and their core habitats should be conserved from intensive disturbance.

  17. The Nasal Geometry of the Reindeer Gives Energy-Efficient Respiration

    Magnanelli, Elisa; Wilhelmsen, Øivind; Acquarone, Mario; Folkow, Lars P.; Kjelstrup, Signe


    Reindeer in the arctic region live under very harsh conditions and may face temperatures below 233 K. Therefore, efficient conservation of body heat and water is important for their survival. Alongside their insulating fur, the reindeer nasal mechanism for heat and mass exchange during respiration plays a fundamental role. We present a dynamic model to describe the heat and mass transport that takes place inside the reindeer nose, where we account for the complicated geometrical structure of the subsystems that are part of the nose. The model correctly captures the trend in experimental data for the temperature, heat and water recovery in the reindeer nose during respiration. As a reference case, we model a nose with a simple cylindrical-like geometry, where the total volume and contact area are the same as those determined in the reindeer nose. A comparison of the reindeer nose with the reference case shows that the nose geometry has a large influence on the velocity, temperature and water content of the air inside the nose. For all investigated cases, we find that the total entropy production during a breathing cycle is lower for the reindeer nose than for the reference case. The same trend is observed for the total energy consumption. The reduction in the total entropy production caused by the complicated geometry is higher (up to -20 %) at more extreme ambient conditions, when energy efficiency is presumably more important for the maintenance of energy balance in the animal. In the literature, a hypothesis has been proposed, which states that the most energy-efficient design of a system is characterized by equipartition of the entropy production. In agreement with this hypothesis, we find that the local entropy production during a breathing cycle is significantly more uniform for the reindeer nose than for the reference case. This suggests that natural selection has favored designs that give uniform entropy production when energy efficiency is an issue. Animals

  18. Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Östlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan


    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  19. Seasonal variation of cesium 134 and cesium 137 in semidomestic reindeer in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    I.M. H. Eikelmann


    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident had a great impact on the semidomestic reindeer husbandry in central Norway. Seasonal differences in habitat and diet resulted in large variations in observed radiocesium concentrations in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. In three areas with high values of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in lichens, the main feed for reindeer in winter, reindeer were sampled every second month to monitor the seasonal variation and the decrease rate of the radioactivity. The results are based on measurements of cesium-134 and cesium-137 content in meat and blood and by whole-body monitoring of live animals. In 1987 the increase of radiocesium content in reindeer in Vågå were 4x from August to January. The mean reductions in radiocesium content from the winter 1986/87 to the winter 1987/88 were 32%, 50% and 43% in the areas of Vågå, Østre-Namdal and Lom respectively.

  20. Superb winter fur insulation in the small Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus

    Arnoldus Schytte Blix


    Full Text Available We compared the morphology and thermal characteristics of winter pelage from two Siberian musk deer Moschus moschiferus (aged 5 and 41 mo.; 5.7 and 9.5 kg and two Eurasian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus (aged >48 mo.; 73 and 79 kg.  The depth of the fur over the back of musk deer was less (approximately 30 mm than in reindeer (approximately 40 mm.  Guard hairs of musk deer were longer (mean = 50.0 mm and had greater diameter at half-length (mean = 314.4 μm than those of reindeer (mean = 38.6mm and = 243.9 μm, respectively.  The thermal characteristics (thermal conductivity and resistance of the winter pelage of the two species were nevertheless similar (0.057 W·m-1·K-1 and 0.79 K·m2·W-1; and 0.037 W·m-1 ·K-1 and 1.00 K·m2·W-1, respectively despite a tenfold difference in their body mass.

  1. Permafrost and indigenous land use in the northern Urals: Komi and Nenets reindeer husbandry

    Istomin, Kirill V.; Habeck, Joachim Otto


    Permafrost is an integral part of the environmental conditions that frame indigenous peoples' livelihoods in many parts of the circumpolar region. On the basis of their long-term ethnographic field researches, the authors describe the various ways in which permafrost dynamics influence the lives and economic activities of two groups of reindeer-herding nomads in North-Eastern Europe and Western Siberia: Komi and Nenets. Permafrost affects the herders directly, for the herders have to take into account the probability of thermokarst while choosing the campsite and performing certain herding procedures. It also affects the herders indirectly, through its influence on landscape and vegetation and thus on reindeer behavior. More rapid permafrost degradation will have a range of adverse effects on reindeer herding.

  2. [Properties of blood serum from reindeer and results of using it in virology and biotechnology].

    Gunenkov, V V; Sukharev, O I; Sirota, V F


    The blood serum of the reindeer does not virtually contain any antibodies to respiratory and intestinal viruses widely spread among the cattle. The reindeer blood serum is comparable with the bovine serum by the contents of chlorides, hemoglobin, total protein and protein fractions; however, it is different from the latter by a 2.5-fold higher content of glucose and by a higher osmotic pressure. The serum stimulates the mitotic cell activity and cell monolayer production; it also contributes to accumulating the cytopathogenic viruses in cell culture. 5- and 10%-serum, when added to a nutrient medium, ensures the reproduction of bovine leucosis virus and the accumulation of the antigen of this virus in a continuous cell culture that is chronically infected with the virus. Finally, the reindeer serum stabilizes the viability of ovocytes and stimulates the bovine embryo development at transplantation.

  3. Warming Climate and Changing Societies - a Challenge or an Opportunity for Reindeer Herding?

    Käyhkö, J.; Horstkotte, T.; Kivinen, S.; Vehmas, J.; Oksanen, L.; Forbes, B. C.; Johansen, B.; Jepsen, J. U.; Markkola, A.; Pulliainen, J.; Olofsson, J.; Oksanen, T.; Utsi, T. A.; Korpimäki, E.; Menard, C.; Ericson, L.


    The Arctic region will warm more rapidly than the global mean, influencing dramatically the northern ecosystems. Simultaneously, our societies transform towards urbanized, highly educated, service-based culture, where a decreasing population will gain its livelihood from primary production. We study various ecosystem interactions in a changing climate and integrate these with reindeer husbandry and the indigenous Sámi culture dependent on it1. Potential climate impacts include the transformation of arctic-alpine tundra to dense scrubland with conceivable consequences to reindeer husbandry, but also global warming due to decreasing albedo. The social-ecological system (SES) of reindeer husbandry includes administrative and ecological processes that do not always correspond (Figure 1). Consequently, management priorities and administration may conflict with local social and ecological processes, bringing about risks of environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity and defeat of traditional livelihoods. We hypothesize the plausibility to support the indigenous reindeer herding livelihood against rapid external changes by utilizing the migratory reindeer grazing system of the Sámi as a management tool for sustaining the high-albedo tundra and mitigating global warming. Our first-of-a-kind satellite-based high resolution vegetation map covering Northern Fennoscandia allows detailed management plans. Our ecological research demonstrates the important role of herbivory on arctic vegetation communities. Interactive workshops with reindeer herders offer indigenous knowledge of state and changes of the ecosystems, and reflect the threats and expectations of the herders. We are currently building models of the complex social-ecological system of Northern Fennoscandia and will report the first findings of the exercise. 1 Figure 1. The scales of administrative and ecological processes do not always coincide. This may bring about challenges in managing

  4. Comparison between grass-silages of different dry matter content fed to reindeer during winter

    Anna Nilsson


    Full Text Available A study was made of whether the dry matter content of silage influenced performance when 17-month-old male reindeer were fed solely silage outdoor during winter. Two kinds of round-baled silages with different wilting times were offered to the animals; low dry matter (LDM silage with a mean of 39% DM, or high dry matter (HDM silage with a mean of 53% DM. The 115 reindeer were allotted to slaughter at the start of the experiment in October or to be fed until slaughter in January or March. During the first three weeks of the experiment small amounts of lichens were mixed with the silages and the reindeer adapted to the feeding without problems. The daily intake of DM did not differ significantly between reindeer fed the LDM or the HDM silage despite a highly significant difference in daily silage intake. This resulted in small but significantly higher gains in live weight for animals fed the LDM silage, caused by increased weight of the rumen content. All groups of reindeer either retained or lost carcass weight during the experiment, and no improvements or differences were obtained between the kinds of silages in carcass assessment or gains in fat in the abdominal cavity. Animals slaughtered in January had a lower carcass weight and dressing percentage than reindeer slaughtered in October and March. Environmental conditions during the experiment were good but nonetheless mobbing and illness still occurred. The present results concur with those of earlier studies suggesting that it seems to be the bulk of the ration rather than the dry matter content of the silage that limits the intake.

  5. Coming Back to the Same Places: The Ethnography of Human-Reindeer Relations in the Northern Baikal Region

    Vladimir Davydov


    Full Text Available This article is based on the results of recent fieldwork among the Evenk reindeer herders in the northern Baikal region. It argues that reindeer domestication should be approached as a never-ending process that happens in the context of animal and human movement and can be described as domestication-in-practice and domestication-on-the-move. An important signal of the fact that animals became closer to people is their constant return to a camp. This article presents the ethnography of how people try to facilitate these returns by feeding reindeer with salt, producing smoke and binding calves to stakes and poles. On the one hand, animals periodically come back to a camp. On the other hand, reindeer herders know the places to which the animals return outside the camp and this helps them to find reindeer in certain places. Reindeer herding in the northern Baikal region is based on constant relocation of the herd from place to place, implying daily short-term movement in order to bring animals to the camp and meaning a continuous monitoring of reindeer and predator movements.

  6. Radiocesium concentrations in wild reindeer at Dovrefjell, Norway

    Terje Skogland


    Full Text Available Seasonal radiocesium concentrations varied about 6 times in wild reindeer following the Chernobyl accident, from 8 KBq/kg in August to 46 KBq/kg in March. These results agree with the predictions of earlier models. The within-season coefficient of variation was 52-62%. Between one half and 3/4 of this variation was explained by altitudinal and geographical factors, i.e. a 5-fold increase in concentrations from the westernmost to the easternmost locations across the watershed at Dovrefjell, and a 6-fold increase in concentrations from feeding locations in the subalpine to the high alpine zone in autumn. The positive correlation with altitude was reversed in winter for animals foraging in the subalpine coniferous zone on arboreal lichens.Radiocesium-konsentrasjoner hos villrein på Dovrefjell, Norge.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Konsentrasjonene»av radiocesium hos villrein gjennom sesongene som fulgte Tsjernobyl-ulykken varierte meget, fra 8 KBq/kg i august til 46 KBq/kg i mars. Disse resultater samsvarer med hva som kunne forutsies i tidlige modeller. Variasjonskoeffisienten innen sesong var 52-62%. Mellom halvdelen og tre fjerdedeler av variasjonen kunne forklares fra høydemessige og geografiske faktorer, d.v.s. en 5-foldig økning i konsentrasjonen fra den vestligste til de østligste lokaliseringer over vannskillet på Dovrefjell og en 6-foldig økning i konsentrasjonene fra beitelokaliseringer fra den subalpine til den høyalpine sone om høsten. Den positive korrelasjon med høyden ble snudd om vinteren for dyr som beitet på skjegglav i den subalpine bar-skogsone.

  7. Individually Coded Telemetry: a Tool for Studying Heart Rate and Behaviour in Reindeer Calves

    Pudas T


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the performance of a silver wire modified version of the coded telemetric heart rate monitor Polar Vantage NV™ (PVNV and to measure heart rate (HR in a group of captive reindeer calves during different behaviour. The technical performance of PVNV HR monitors was tested in cold conditions (-30°C using a pulse generator and the correlation between generated pulse and PVNV values was high (r = 0.9957. The accuracy was tested by comparing the HR obtained with the PVNV monitor with the standard ECG, and the correlation was significant (r = 0.9965. Both circadian HR and HR related to behavioural pattern were recorded. A circadian rhythm was observed in the HR in reindeer with a minimum during night and early morning hours and maximum at noon and during the afternoon, the average HR of the reindeer calves studied being 42.5 beats/min in February. The behaviour was recorded by focal individual observations and the data was synchronized with the output of the HR monitors. Running differed from all other behavioural categories in HR. Inter-individual differences were seen expressing individual responses to external and internal stimuli. The silver wire modified Polar Vantage NV™ provides a suitable and reliable tool for measuring heart rate in reindeer, also in natural conditions.

  8. Seasonal Hypomagnesemia in reindeer on Kautokeino winter pasture in Finnmark County, Norway

    Bernt Hoff


    Full Text Available Hypomagnesemia was diagnosed in reindeer on Kautokeino winter pasture in Finnmark County, Norway. The affected animals were paretic or ataxic. Mean serum magnesium levels were 0.19 +/- 0.20 mm/L (n = 6, compared to a serum Mg level of 0.82 +/- 0.17 mm/L for the reference group.

  9. Disease transmission in an extreme environment: nematode parasites infect reindeer during the Arctic winter.

    Carlsson, Anja M; Justin Irvine, R; Wilson, Kenneth; Piertney, Stuart B; Halvorsen, Odd; Coulson, Stephen J; Stien, Audun; Albon, Steve D


    Parasitic nematodes are found in almost all wild vertebrate populations but few studies have investigated these host-parasite relationships in the wild. For parasites with free-living stages, the external environment has a major influence on life-history traits, and development and survival is generally low at sub-zero temperatures. For reindeer that inhabit the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, parasite transmission is expected to occur in the summer, due to the extreme environmental conditions and the reduced food intake by the host in winter. Here we show experimentally that, contrary to most parasitic nematodes, Marshallagia marshalli of Svalbard reindeer is transmitted during the Arctic winter. Winter transmission was demonstrated by removing parasites in the autumn, using a novel delayed-release anthelmintic bolus, and estimating re-infection rates in reindeer sampled in October, February and April. Larval stages of nematodes were identified using molecular tools, whereas adult stages were identified using microscopy. The abundance of M. marshalli adult worms and L4s increased significantly from October to April, indicating that reindeer were being infected with L3s from the pasture throughout the winter. To our knowledge, this study is the first to experimentally demonstrate over-winter transmission of a gastro-intestinal nematode parasite in a wild animal. Potential mechanisms associated with this unusual transmission strategy are discussed in light of our knowledge of the life-history traits of this parasite.

  10. Radioecological modelling of Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lichen-reindeer-man and top predators.

    Persson, Bertil R R; Gjelsvik, Runhild; Holm, Elis


    This work deals with analysis and modelling of the radionuclides (210)Pb and(210)Po in the food-chain lichen-reindeer-man in addition to (210)Po and (137)Cs in top predators. By using the methods of Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) the atmospheric deposition of (210)Pb and (210)Po is predicted at the sample locations. Dynamic modelling of the activity concentration with differential equations is fitted to the sample data. Reindeer lichen consumption, gastrointestinal absorption, organ distribution and elimination is derived from information in the literature. Dynamic modelling of transfer of (210)Pb and (210)Po to reindeer meat, liver and bone from lichen consumption, fitted well with data from Sweden and Finland from 1966 to 1971. The activity concentration of (210)Pb in the skeleton in man is modelled by using the results of studying the kinetics of lead in skeleton and blood in lead-workers after end of occupational exposure. The result of modelling (210)Pb and (210)Po activity in skeleton matched well with concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in teeth from reindeer-breeders and autopsy bone samples in Finland. The results of (210)Po and (137)Cs in different tissues of wolf, wolverine and lynx previously published, are analysed with multivariate data processing methods such as Principal Component Analysis PCA, and modelled with the method of Projection to Latent Structures, PLS, or Partial Least Square Regression PLSR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Tveraa, Torkild


    Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated the effect of received predation compensation on individual husbandry units’ future herd size. The main findin...

  12. Effects of wind turbines on area use and behaviour of semi-domestic reindeer in enclosures

    Kjetil Flydal


    Full Text Available In recent decades, industrial developments have expanded into reindeer ranges in the arctic and adjacent higher latitudes in search for energy, minerals, timber and other resources. Several wind turbine parks are under planning in reindeer ranges in Norway, and there is concern about possible negative effects on behaviour and area use of wild and semi-domestic reindeer. We tested whether a wind turbine and its rotor movement had any effect on area use, activity changes, vigilance bouts, and restless behaviour like running, walking, and standing for enclosed semi-domestic reindeer. Five different groups of reindeer in a 450 m long, 8 hectare, enclosure close to a wind turbine were manipulated by turning the wind turbine rotor on and off, and compared with reindeer in a control enclosure without wind turbine exposure. When exposed to rotor movement, two groups used locations farther from the wind turbine, two groups showed no shift, while one group moved closer to the wind turbine. The reindeer showed no systematic differences in the measured behaviour patterns between the two enclosures that could indicate fright or stress as a consequence of the wind turbine or rotor movement. We conclude that semi-domestic reindeer in an enclosure showed no negative behavioural response and little or no aversion towards a wind turbine. The possibility of rapid habituation in a small enclosure with continuous wind turbine exposure suggests that effects on area use should be studied at a larger scale or with free-ranging reindeer.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:I løpet av de senere tiår har industriell utbygging til utnytting av energi, mineraler, tømmer og andre ressurser ekspandert inn i reinens beiteområder i nordområdene. Flere vindmølleparker er under planlegging i norske reinbeiteområder, og det spekuleres i mulige konsekvenser av disse på atferd og arealbruk hos villrein og tamrein. Vi testet om en vindmølle og dens rotorbevegelse hadde noen

  13. Predation in the reindeer husbandry area in Finland during 1976-86

    Mauri Nieminen


    Full Text Available During the years 1976-86 predators killed a total of 11 295 reindeer in the Finnish reindeer husbandry area. Predators killed mostly calves and hinds. With the exception of the Kåsivarsi and Muotkatun-turi reindeer herding cooperatives, kills of predators were concentrated in the reindeer herding areas on the eastern border. During 1976-86 predators killed most reindeer in April - June, and the majority of preys were calves. Most reindeer were killed by wolves (26.9%, bears (24.7%, wolverines (22.6% and eagles (15.9%. Wolves, bears, wolverines and lynxes killed mainly adult reindeer, eagles killed mainly calves. Wolves killed reindeer mainly during October - January, lynxes during January - April, wolverines during February - April, eagles during May - July and bears during May - October. During the last years the number of reindeer killed by lynxes has increased in Finland.Petovahingot Suomen poronhoitoalueella vuosina 1976-86.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Viimeisen kymmenen vuoden aikana porojen måårå on lisååntynyt suuresti Suomessa. Vuosina 1976-86 pedot tappoivat Suomen poronhoitoalueella yhteenså 11 295 poroa. Pedot tappoivat pååasiassa vasoja ja vaatimia. Käsivarren ja Muotkatunturin paliskuntia lukuunottamatta petovahingot kohdistuivat lhinn poronhoitoalueen itrajalla oleviin paliskuntiin. Vuosina 1976-86 pedot tappoivat poroja eniten huhti-kesåkuun aikana. Eniten pedot tappoivat tuolloin vasoja. Eniten poroja tappoivat sudet (26.9%, karhut (24.7%, ahmat (22.6% ja kotkat (15.9%. Sudet, karhut, ahmat ja ilvekset tappoivat pååasiassa aikuisia poroja, kotkat vasoja. Sudet tappoivat poroja låhinnå loka-tammikuussa, ilvekset tammi-huhtikuussa, ahmat helmi-heinåkuussa ja karhut touko-lokakuussa. Viime vuosina ilvesten tappamien porojen måårå on kas vanut Suomessa.Rovdjursskador inom det finska renskotselsområdet under åren 1976-86.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Under de senaste tio åren har antalet tamrenar

  14. A deworming field trial with ivermectin (MSD in reindeer

    M. Nordkvist


    Full Text Available This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983 as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females, as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly corresponding to 200 meg ivermectin per kg body weight, subcutaneous injection. Remaining 25 calves (14 males + 11 females served as untreated controls. The entire group of calves was then returned to the herd for free grazing during winter. During the winter 3 treated calves were found dead, all three of them had been suffering from keratoconjunctivitis. If any of the control animals had succumbed during the same time is not known. On April 21st, 1983 (approx. 150 days post treatment 44 calves (24 treated + 20 controls were weighed. 5 treated and 5 controls were randomly selected for slaughter. Carcasses and organs were thoroughly examined from a parasitological and, as far as lungs were concerned, pathological point of view. The efficacy of the treatment was 100(M> or nearly 100% against Oedemagena tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe, Dictyocaulus viviparus, Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and nematode eggs in faeces. The efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes was, probably due to date of treatment, somewhat difficult to judge (Tab 1. A statistical analysis of the weight changes, relative to initial weights, (Tab. 2 supports the statements — that all animals had lost weight — that treated males had lost significantly less of their body weights than control males — That weight change of treated females did not differ significantly from that of control females — that the average weight loss of the entire treated group was significantly less than that of the

  15. Sea Ice, Hydrocarbon Extraction, Rain-on-Snow and Tundra Reindeer Nomadism in Arctic Russia

    Forbes, B. C.; Kumpula, T.; Meschtyb, N.; Laptander, R.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Verdonen, M.


    It is assumed that retreating sea ice in the Eurasian Arctic will accelerate hydrocarbon development and associated tanker traffic along Russia's Northern Sea Route. However, oil and gas extraction along the Kara and Barents Sea coasts will likely keep developing rapidly regardless of whether the Northwest Eurasian climate continues to warm. Less certain are the real and potential linkages to regional biota and social-ecological systems. Reindeer nomadism continues to be a vitally important livelihood for indigenous tundra Nenets and their large herds of semi-domestic reindeer. Warming summer air temperatures over the NW Russian Arctic have been linked to increases in tundra productivity, longer growing seasons, and accelerated growth of tall deciduous shrubs. These temperature increases have, in turn, been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, winters have been warming and rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense, leading to record-breaking winter and spring mortality of reindeer. What is driving this increase in ROS frequency and intensity is not clear. Recent modelling and simulation have found statistically significant near-surface atmospheric warming and precipitation increases during autumn and winter over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to regions of sea-ice loss. During the winter of 2013-14 an extensive and lasting ROS event led to the starvation of 61,000 reindeer out of a population of ca. 300,000 animals on Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia. Historically, this is the region's largest recorded mortality episode. More than a year later, participatory fieldwork with nomadic herders during spring-summer 2015 revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from this extreme event will unfold for years to come. There is an urgent need to understand whether and how ongoing Barents and Kara Sea ice retreat may affect the region's ancient

  16. A model for analyzing influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing

    Olof Eriksson


    Full Text Available A model for long-term analysis of the influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing (Cladina, Alectoria, Bryoria spp and others in Sweden is presented. The annual production of and demand for lichens are estimated and compared. Production of these lichens is presumed to set the upper limit for the reindeer population. Reindeer graze on both ground and tree lichens, which both must be accessible in sufficient amounts and at the right times of the year if reindeer husbandry is to succeed without supplementary feeding. The model is based mainly on existing data, and uses are estimations from the National Forest Survey and the Hugin system for calculation of longterm potential cut (Bengtsson, 1981. Geographically the study is limited to Vasterbotten and Norrbotten, the northernmost counties in Sweden, where most reindeer husbandry in Sweden is located, and where reindeer grazing takes place over almost the whole area. The calculations cover a period of one hundred years from 1980, and are based on a timber production programme which relies more on «multiple use» than the current Swedish forest policy (Bengtsson, 1986. The annual production of ground lichens is calculated by multiplying the area covered with ground lichens by their increment as estimated from their rate of biomass increase, which in turn depends on site factors and age of the stand. The estimation of the area is based on data from the National Forest Survey. Sample plots with ground lichens are assumed to maintain lichens during the whole hundred year period. Areas with stands that have been thinned within ten years and stands younger than 20 years are excluded due to logging residues from thinnings and packed snow. Some of the remaining area cannot practically be utilized for reindeer grazing. Representatives of three communities of reindeer herders classified 212 plots from the National Forest Survey with ground lichens and assessed that 3/4 of the plots can be

  17. Analysis of the economic adaptation of Sami reindeer management - A co-operation project between Nordic Sami Institute (NSI) and Umeå University (UU), Centre for Sami Research (CESAM) (In Norwegian with Summary in English)

    Jan Åge Riseth; Niklas Labba; Johan Klemet H. Kalstad


    In spite of low economic return in Sami reindeer management in most regions, there has been an increasing human population in the reindeer industry during the latest decades. This deviates from the expectations given by modern purpose rationality. There are indications that the reindeer managing Sami practices in Weberian sense a substantial rationality. Analysis at hand indicate close connections between landscape, management type, and type of rationality in reindeer management. The project ...

  18. Herd composition and slaughtering strategy in reindeer husbandry – revisited

    Øystein Holand


    Full Text Available I will review the drastic change seen in herd composition and slaughtering strategy the last decades inthe reindeer husbandry of Fennoscandia (i. e. Finland, Norway and Sweden. Herd composition was traditionally a function of the multipurpose herd, where reproduction of draught power played a major role. Hence, the slaughter scheme was based on adult males, in particular castrates. The herd represented the owner's capital and was viewed as the best insurance for staying in business. Indeed, a big and well composed herd announced social status as well as authority. Historically this has resulted in rises and falls in reindeer numbers. Control of the herd was being emphasized through age and sex composition and selection of behavioural traits and easily recognisable animals which favour handling. A high proportion of adults alleviated control of the herd as it eased the herding and reduced the mortality risk as they were able to withstand the highly stochastic environment. The introduction of the snowmobiles in the 1960s revolutionized the herding and transportation and hence reduced the importance of the male segment of the herd and amplified the ongoing transformation of the modern society into a market based economy. Now, the challenge was to efficiently convert the limited primary plant production into animal product, mainly meat. This is primarily achieved by balancing the animal numbers in accordance to the forage resources. However, also herd composition and slaughtering strategy are essential for maximizing the meat output per area unit. A highest possible proportion of reproductive females combined with a slaughtering scheme based on calves was tested and partly implemented in Soviet-Union already in the 1930s and introduced in the 1960s in Finland. Also in parts of Norway and Sweden this scheme was modified and tested. However, the formal work of refining and testing this new strategy based on modern population theory blended with

  19. Blood composition of the reindeer . II. Blood chemistry

    Mauri Nieminen


    Full Text Available The blood chemical composition of 578 semi-domestic reindeer were investigated in respect to age, season, calving and nutrition in Northern Finland during 1973-79. The weight gain was maximally 400 g/day at an age of 4-8 weeks as also reflected by high serum thyroxine (T4, alkaline phosphatase (SAP, creatine phosphokinase (CPK and blood glucose values. Low SAP activity in winter indicated a cessation of growth. The pH of the venous blood was 7.35 and the clotting activity very high (21 sec, 100 % in summer and autumn. 15 protein bands and 15 fatty acids were discernible in reindeer serum. The total serum protein was 58 g/1 in the 20-day-old calf and 87 g/1 in adult hind in the autumn, the difference being caused by changes in globulins. The neonatal fluctuation of immunoglobulins suggests that the calf acquires its passive immunity soon after birth by the intestinal absorption of proteins and that its endogenous synthesis of gamma globulins begins in the 4th week of life. The serum total lipids (2.9 g/1, triglycerides (0.29 mmol/1 and cholesterol (1.6 mmol/1 were low in newborn calves and reached their adult levels at the age of 5 months (average 5.1 g/1, 0.4 mmol/1, 2.7 mmol/1, respectively. The young calves had higher serum cholesterol, total and free fatty acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid, but lower stearic and oleic acid values than adult hinds. The reindeer calf liberates considerable amounts of catecholamines during the first days after birth, but the postpartum dopamine-B-hydroxylase activity was rather low. The means of blood glucose (3.4-4.6 mmol/1, total serum proteins (63 - 87 g/1, albumin (39 - 43 g/1, total globulins (23 - 44 g/1, urea (5.7-9 mmol/1, total lipids (2.7 - 5.2 g/1, triglycerides (0.17 - 0.33 mmol/1, total fatty acids (0.89 - 1.54 g/1, calcium (2.2 - 2.6 mmol/1, inorganic phosphorus (1.6 - 2.2 mmol/1, magnesium (0.8 - 1.2 mmol/1 and copper (6.7 - 18 |Jmol/l of free-grazing adult hinds were highest in summer and

  20. Genetic polymorphism of adult reindeer coat colour in a herding cooperative in Finnish Lapland

    Jean J. Lauvergne


    Full Text Available In a random sample of 188 adult reindeer belonging to a reindeer herding cooperative in Finnish Lapland, the following coat colour mutants were identified: Abf at the locus Agouti (A, kalppinokka (WNk at the locus White Nose (WN and white at the locus W (White. Coefficients of coat colour phenotypic polymorphism K were estimated, in order to quantify this genetic polymorphism. Estimations of K were 12.8% for the locus A (Agouti, 5.1% for the locus WN (White Nose, and 7.5% for the locus W (White. This polymorphism results probably from a change in fitness coefficient of genotypes carrying colour mutants following domestication in a random mating context which has not yet been proved.

  1. The bacteriology of the small intestinal mucosa of free-living reindeer

    Wenche Sørmo


    Full Text Available Bacteria in close associaton with the intestinal mucosa are thought to protect the mucosa from pathogenic microorganisms. The pH of the small intestinal mucosa and the viable populations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria associated with the proximal and distal jejunal mucosa, were measured in four free-living reindeer in winter. The anaerobic bacterial populations were characterized. The median pH of the mucosa of the duodenum was 6.6 (n=4 at point 0.2 m from the pyloric sphincter. The mucosal pH increased along the length of the intestine to 8.3 at 14 m and then decreased to 7.9 at 19.8 m from the pyloric sphincter. Examination by transmission electron microscopy and cultivation techniques failed to reveal any bacteria on the mucosa of the proximal jejunum in two of the animals. In two other reindeer the median anaerobic bacterial densities in the proximal jejunum ranged from 25-2500 cells/g mucosa. The median anaerobic bacterial populations in the distal jejunum ranged from 80 to 20000 bacteria/g mucosa (n=4. The anaerobic population of bacteria in the proximal jejunum was dominated by streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods. Bacteroidaceae, streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods were common in the distal jejunum. The low density and the species diversity of bacteria in the small intestine suggests that these microorganisms are inhibited by components in the natural winter diet of reindeer. Bacteria evidently play a minor role in protection of the mucosa of reindeer in winter.

  2. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions


    One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of ‘‘extreme’’ weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS) is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rang...

  3. Microbiological shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat (M. longissimus dorsi

    Eva Wiklund


    Full Text Available In this pilot study loin muscles (M. longissimus dorsi from six reindeer calves (aged 4 months were used to determine shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat stored at +4 °C, measured as microbiological quality (aerobic microorganisms and Escherichia coli. The loins were collected at boning 3 days post slaughter and divided in five pieces that were randomly assigned to five different storage times; sampling directly after packaging and after chilled storage for 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks at +4 °C. Samples were vacuum packaged and transported chilled to Hjortens Laboratory in Östersund, Sweden (accredited by SWEDAC according to SS-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 for food analysis where the storage, microbiological sampling and analysis took place according to the protocols of Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL. The total amount of aerobic microorganisms at the first sampling directly after packaging (three days post slaughter was 3.4 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. After two and three weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage at +4°C the microbiological quality of the samples was on the border-line to poor (6.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. At four and five weeks of chilled storage the levels of aerobic microorganisms were significantly highest (P≤0.05 and the limit for acceptable quality of 7 log10 CFU/g aerobic bacteria had been passed (7.3 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g and 7.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g, respectively. Very few of the reindeer meat samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli bacteria. The results from the present pilot study suggest that storage time for vacuum packaged fresh, chilled reindeer meat should not exceed 3 weeks at a temperature of +4 °C.

  4. High protein pastures in spring - effects on body composition in reindeer

    Svein M. Eilertsen


    Full Text Available In 1996 and 1997 three groups of reindeer from different nutritional origin and condition, (poor condition groups n=15 in 1996, n=7 in 1997, good condition group n=10 in 1997, were used to investigate effects of high protein pastures on body condition for 3.5 weeks in spring. Mean body mass (BM of reindeer in the poor condition groups increased by 10% both in 1996 (P<0.05 and in 1997 (P<0.05, while there were no significant (NS changes in BM of reindeer in the good condition group in 1997. The mean carcass weight as % of BM increased from 48 to 51% in both the poor condition group in 1996 (NS, and in the good condition group in 1997 (P<0.05. The reticulo-rumen wet weight in the poor condition group in 1996, tended to decrease from 15.1 to 11.9% of BM, while the reticulo-rumen wet weight decreased from 14.2 to 13.0% of BM (P<0.05 in the good condition group in 1997. Mean kidney fat decreased by 51% in the poor condition group in 1996 and by 40% in the good condition group in 1997 (P<0.05. Likewise, marrow fat decreased by 50% (P<0.05 in the good condition group in 1997. In both animal groups muscle mass and carcass mass increased in the reindeer, while fat deposits decreased when eating as much as 131 g dry matter/kg0.75 on a high protein spring pasture containing as much as 30% crude protein of dry matter (DM. Much of the energy available from forage plants eaten and the body fat deposits therefore seem to support body protein growth in spring.

  5. Crowding and winter emergency feeding as predisposing factors for kerato-conjunctivitis in semi-domesticated reindeer in Norway.

    Aschfalk, A; Josefsen, T D; Steingass, H; Müller, W; Goethe, R


    Due to the hard environmental and climatic situation in late winter 1999, a herd of about 200 free-ranging, semi-domesticated reindeer was gathered in a paddock in northern Norway for emergency feeding. About the same number of reindeer was not corralled but supplementary fed on their winter pastures. The fodder was of relatively good quality but very dusty and fed in a very dry environment. Six weeks later, an outbreak of eye-infection was diagnosed in one third of the corralled reindeer; mild symptoms were observed in most of them, but 11 animals showed severe signs of disease. No signs of disease were found in the non-corralled animals. Ten reindeer died through emaciation, the eleventh was sacrificed. Histopathological diagnosis of two severely affected eyes revealed a severe purulent kerato-conjunctivitis with bacteria and plant particles embedded in purulent exudates on the cornea and conjunctiva. In one eye from the two most affected animals Actinomyces pyogenes, coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Escherichia coli and in the other one Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were found. The bacteria encountered in this study are not considered the primary cause of disease. They seem rather to be opportunistic infectious agents of eyes that have been irritated mechanically through exposure to dusty fodder in a dry environment. The stress through unfamiliar corralling of the reindeer, that followed an insufficient fodder supply, could be considered as an additional infection supporting factor. This case-report emphasises on the importance of different factors involved in favouring outbreaks of disease in reindeer, under intensified husbandry conditions. Even though crowding and emergency feeding may be, at certain circumstances, the only means of survival for reindeer, a negative impact of implied crowding diseases on their productivity, must be considered, as well.

  6. Sea ice, rain-on-snow and tundra reindeer nomadism in Arctic Russia.

    Forbes, Bruce C; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Laptander, Roza; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Zetterberg, Pentti; Verdonen, Mariana; Skarin, Anna; Kim, Kwang-Yul; Boisvert, Linette N; Stroeve, Julienne C; Bartsch, Annett


    Sea ice loss is accelerating in the Barents and Kara Seas (BKS). Assessing potential linkages between sea ice retreat/thinning and the region's ancient and unique social-ecological systems is a pressing task. Tundra nomadism remains a vitally important livelihood for indigenous Nenets and their large reindeer herds. Warming summer air temperatures have been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, Russia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, autumn/winter rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense. Here, we review evidence for autumn atmospheric warming and precipitation increases over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to BKS ice loss. Two major ROS events during November 2006 and 2013 led to massive winter reindeer mortality episodes on the Yamal Peninsula. Fieldwork with migratory herders has revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from the catastrophic 2013 event will unfold for years to come. The suggested link between sea ice loss, more frequent and intense ROS events and high reindeer mortality has serious implications for the future of tundra Nenets nomadism.

  7. Research as the basis for decision-making in reindeer husbandry

    Erling Norvik


    Full Text Available The principal challenge for Norwegian reindeer husbandry in Finnmark today - seen from the viewpoint of both the central political authorities and the industry itself - is disequilibrium between the number of reindeer and their forage resources. Productivity is low, the economy is worse and a large number of reindeer owners have an unsatisfactory number of animals and an unsatisfactory income. The animals are becoming smaller and smaller. Social and economic problems are increasing. There is an obvious danger of long term damage to the pasture areas. How long term, nobody knows. There are no clear research results to guide us but, I am glad to say, research is under way and satellite imagery represents a good, new tool. Research must have a free hand - but it cannot be fully independent. Researchers must try to direct their activities towards providing both the industry and the politicians with a solid basis on which to base their decisions. It is therefore my hope that «productive» research receives as high priority as possible. With limited funding available for research and the relatively small size of the indus-try, it is important that its requirements and its own demands for help from researchers be attended to.

  8. Local and regional variability in snow conditions in northern Finland: A reindeer herding perspective.

    Rasmus, Sirpa; Kivinen, Sonja; Bavay, Mathias; Heiskanen, Janne


    Weather station measurements were used to force the SNOWPACK snow model and combined with reindeer herders' experiences to study the local and regional variations in snow conditions in a Finnish reindeer herding area for the 1981-2010 period. Winter conditions varied significantly between the four selected herding districts and between open and forest environments within the districts. The highest snow depths and densities, the thicknesses of ground ice, and the lengths of snow cover period were generally found in the northernmost districts. The snow depths showed the strongest regional coherence, whereas the thicknesses of ground ice were weakly correlated among the districts. The local variation in snow depths was higher than the regional variation and limits for rare or exceptional events varied notably between different districts and environments. The results highlight that forests diversify snow and foraging conditions, e.g., ground ice rarely forms simultaneously in different environments. Sufficient and diverse forest pastures are important during the critical winter season if reindeer herding is pursued on natural grazing grounds also in the future.

  9. Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow

    Michael den Herder


    Full Text Available The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the number of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia were recorded in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 1999. Reindeer significantly reduced the height and the number of saplings (plants > 10 cm high of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia but the number of seedlings (plants < 10 cm high did not differ between browsed and unbrowsed plots. Furthermore the heightclass distribution of saplings was different inside the exlosures compared to control areas. Over time browsed plots continued to have high densities of small saplings while in protected plots an increasing number of larger saplings appeared. In our study site, regeneration from seeds seemed possible although the height of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia was limited by reindeer

  10. Some estimated effects of the planned harnessing of the Ounasjoki river on reindeer husbandry

    Pirkko Nieminen


    Full Text Available The harnessing of waterways for electrical power has caused permanent pasture losses and prevented the free movement of the reindeer herds in Finland. Many great changes occurred after construction of the two large artificial lakes of Lokka and Porttipahta (total 630 km2 in the Lappi reindeer herders association in the 1960s. The planned harnessing of the Ounasjoki river consists of 10 power plants and 2 big and 12 smaller artificial lakes (total 270 km2. The plan will have effects on the income of 1070 owners in 7 reindeer herders associations. The losses in reindeer husbandry estimated by three different methods were maximally 476, 2824 and 9900 reindeer (value of meat production 0.12 to 2.5 million FIM/year, 64 jobs and various herding buildings (value 3.9 million FIM. Two new reindeer farmes would become unusuable (0.5 million FIM and in addition hay production from seasonally flooded fields (approx. 25 000 - 30 000 FIM/year would be lost. The building of new forces in the reindeer herders association areas of Ounasjoki river would require 6.2 million FIM.Ounasjoen rakentamissuunnitelman mahdolliset vaikutukset porotalouteen.Abstract in Finnsish / Yhteenveto: Vesistojen valjastaminen såhkontuottoon on tuhonnut porolaitumia ja vaikcuttanut porojen vapaata liikkumista Suomessa. Tasta on hyvånå esimerkkinå Lokan ja Portipahdan tekoaltaiden (yhteenså 630 km2 rakentaminen Lapin paliskunnassa 1960-luvulta alkacn. Ounasjoen rakentamissuunnitelma kåsittåå 10 voimalaitosta ja 2 isoa ja 12 picnempåå tekoallasta (yhteenså 270 km2. Rakennussuunnitelma vaikuttaa 1070 poronomistajan talouteen 7 cri paliskunnassa. Kolmella eri mcnetelmallå laskien jouduttaisiin enimmillåån våhentåmåån 476, 2824 ja 9900 lukuporoa (lihantuotto 0,12-2,5 milj. mk/vuosi sekå menetettåisim 64 ympårivuotista tyopaikkaa ja kocttaisiin useita eri rakennevahinkoja (arvoltaan noin 3,9 milj. mk. Kaksi uutta porotilaa jåisi kåyttokclvottomiksi (0,5 milj. mk ja

  11. Congruent responses to weather variability in high arctic herbivores.

    Stien, Audun; Ims, Rolf A; Albon, Steve D; Fuglei, Eva; Irvine, R Justin; Ropstad, Erik; Halvorsen, Odd; Langvatn, Rolf; Loe, Leif Egil; Veiberg, Vebjørn; Yoccoz, Nigel G


    Assessing the role of weather in the dynamics of wildlife populations is a pressing task in the face of rapid environmental change. Rodents and ruminants are abundant herbivore species in most Arctic ecosystems, many of which are experiencing particularly rapid climate change. Their different life-history characteristics, with the exception of their trophic position, suggest that they should show different responses to environmental variation. Here we show that the only mammalian herbivores on the Arctic islands of Svalbard, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and sibling voles (Microtus levis), exhibit strong synchrony in population parameters. This synchrony is due to rain-on-snow events that cause ground ice and demonstrates that climate impacts can be similarly integrated and expressed in species with highly contrasting life histories. The finding suggests that responses of wildlife populations to climate variability and change might be more consistent in Polar regions than elsewhere owing to the strength of the climate impact and the simplicity of the ecosystem.

  12. Electron microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer

    Timo Rahko


    Full Text Available In a previous publication the authors have described some ultrastructural characteristics of granulated cells in the common bile duct of the reindeer. On the basis of the same material, electron microscopic observations on other tissue elements of bile duct wall are now reported. The surface and glandular epithelium were composed of tall columnar epithelial cells with villous structures on the luminal surfaces. The parietal cytoplasmic membranes of epithelial cells were equipped with intercellular desmosomes while intraepithelial globule leucocytes did not form any junctional complex with other cells. Apical cytoplasmic areas of superficial epithelial cells showed electron-dense small bodies possibly consisting of mucinous substances. The goblet and deep glandular cells, on the other hand, contained numerous large mucin granules with less electron-dense matrices. It appears that their secretions are more abundant than those in superficial epithelial cells which obviously are absorptive as their main function. The nuclei and other cytoplasmic organelles showed profiles similar to those in epithelial cells generally. The lumen of the bile ducts was usually empty or contained fine-granular or amorphous material. An unusual feature was the presence of parts of globule leucocytes or even almost whole cells occurring freely in ductal secretions.Elektronimikroskooppinen tutkimus yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteesta porolla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Aikaisemmassa julkaisussa tekijät kuvasivat poron yhteisen sappikäytävän (ductus hepaticus communis seinämän jyväsellisten solujen hienorakennetta. Tässä artikkelissa selostetaan saman aineiston perusteella (6 tervettä teurasporoa elektronimikroskooppisia havaintoja sappikäytäväseinämän muista kudosrakenteista. Sappikäytäväseinämän pinta- ja rauhasepiteeli koostuu korkeista epiteelisoluista. Pinnallisia epiteelisoluja kattavat säännölliset mikrovillukset, ja niillä on vain v

  13. Use of total {sup 137}Cs deposition to predict contamination in feed vegetation and reindeer 25 years after Chernobyl

    Skuterud, Lavrans [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration, P.O. Box 1104, N-9504 Alta (Norway); Thoerring, Haavard; Ytre-Eide, Martin A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)


    The Chernobyl fallout has so far caused contamination challenges for animal production in various areas of Norway for nearly 30 years, particularly for sheep, goats and reindeer. The persistent uptake and long-term trends of radiocaesium in forest and mountain areas still justifies maintaining the elevated permissible level for radiocaesium of 3,000 Bq/kg in reindeer meat. In comparison, Japanese authorities chose 100 Bq/kg as the permissible level for radiocaesium in Japanese foodstuffs. The slow decline in contamination levels in reindeer during the last 10-15 years have necessitated an evaluation of the remediation strategy for reindeer herding. The former seasonal differences in contamination levels in reindeer meat made 'early slaughtering' (in autumn instead of winter) an effective measure. However, such seasonal differences are no longer systematic, and differences in contamination levels in reindeer at slaughter now appear to be more strongly related to the differences in deposition levels in the areas grazed prior to slaughter. In 2011 Norwegian authorities (i.e. the Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, and the Geological Survey of Norway) therefore carried out an aerial survey covering 2,500 km{sup 2} of the most contaminated grazing areas to obtain more detailed information on geographical variability in deposition levels. The area included major parts of the grazing areas of three reindeer herding companies. The usefulness of deposition maps as bases for directing animal grazing to less contaminated areas depends on how well the total deposition correlate with the contamination levels in grazed vegetation. In the case of reindeer this covers both green plants and lichens. In 2012 the aerial survey was therefore supplemented by geo-referenced deposition measurements and sampling of various plant and lichen species at totally 17 sites ranging in deposition levels from 2.6 to 190 kBq/m{sup 2

  14. On the decline of ground lichen forests in the Swedish boreal landscape: Implications for reindeer husbandry and sustainable forest management.

    Sandström, Per; Cory, Neil; Svensson, Johan; Hedenås, Henrik; Jougda, Leif; Borchert, Nanna


    Lichens are a bottleneck resource for circumpolar populations of reindeer, and as such, for reindeer husbandry as an indigenous Sami land-use tradition in northern Sweden. This study uses ground lichen data and forest information collected within the Swedish National Forest Inventory since 1953, on the scale of northern Sweden. We found a 71 % decline in the area of lichen-abundant forests over the last 60 years. A decline was observed in all regions and age classes and especially coincided with a decrease of >60 year old, open pine forests, which was the primary explanatory factor in our model. The effects of reindeer numbers were inconclusive in explaining the decrease in lichen-abundant forest. The role that forestry has played in causing this decline can be debated, but forestry can have a significant role in reversing the trend and improving ground lichen conditions.

  15. The use of bentonite and zeolite as caesium-binders in feed to reindeer - experiences from Sweden

    Birgitta Åhman


    Full Text Available Feeding is used in Sweden to lower radiocaesium levels in reindeer before slaughter. In feeds used for this purpose, bentonite is added as a caesium-binder to prevent absorption of radiocaesium, since the animals usually have som access to contaminated pasture in their corrals. Bentonite is efficient as a caesium-binder but increases water consumption and excretion of urine. Zeolite has been used as a caesium-binder to reindeer in a few experiments. The effect, however, has been inferior to that of bentonite. It seems that zeolite, mixed in feeds, loose some of its effect as the feed is stored. The need of a caesium-binder is demonstrated by results from practical feeding of reindeer where radiocaesium levels have not decreased as expected when feed without bentonite has been used.

  16. From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Sverre Fjellheim


    Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer

  17. Social-ecological feedbacks between climate, reindeer and people - contributions to climate change adaptation?

    Käyhkö, Jukka; Horstkotte, Tim; Kivinen, Sonja; Johansen, Bernt


    The circumpolar tundra is experiencing significant transformations as a consequence of climate change. The anticipated changes include greening of the tundra due to a latitudinal and altitudinal progression of the tree line and range expansion of shrubs. In Northern Fennoscandia, reindeer husbandry by the indigenous Sámi people depends on large, seasonally variable grazing grounds, including the tundra. We demonstrate relationships between different vegetation types and climate conditions in Northern Fennoscandia. A generalized, seamless vegetation type map with 100 m grid, based on Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images and various ancillary data, allows examination of vegetation types in relation to current climate conditions (1950-2000). Downscaled GCMs with different RCPs for 2050 and 2070 allow estimating future vegetation changes. Recently, the potential of herbivores has been recognized in slowing down this regime shift of vegetation composition with its feedbacks e.g. on the atmospheric energy balance, biodiversity and local livelihoods that depend on the tundra ecosystem. However, ecology alone is not the answer. We need comprehensive scenarios for adaptive ecosystem management for this social-ecological system to slow down the unfavourable impacts of climate change and excessive grazing pressure by reindeer in space and time, as well as across country borders. Possible adaptations could encourage the design of new institutional structures, and thus contest the legal background governing reindeer husbandry in the Nordic countries today. Designing such policy options for socially desirable and ecologically reasonable decision making, as well as navigating trade-offs inherent in flexible grazing patterns, require careful scenario analysis and acceptance by a variety of land users. A clear understanding of which values should be prioritized in relation to what ecosystem dynamics over what time scales is essential.

  18. Climate change, land use conflicts, predation and ecological degradation as challenges for reindeer husbandry in northern Europe: what do we really know after half a century of research?

    Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg


    Reindeer grazing has been entitled as ecological keystone in arctic-alpine landscapes. In addition, reindeer husbandry is tightly connected to the identity of the indigenous Sámi people in northern Europe. Nowadays, reindeer husbandry is challenged in several ways, of which pasture degradation, climate change, conflicting land uses and predation are the most important. Research on reindeer-related topics has been conducted for more than half a century and this review illuminates whether or not research is capable to match these challenges. Despite its high quality, traditional reindeer-related research is functionally isolated within the various disciplines. The meshwork of ecology, socio-economy, culture and politics, however, in which reindeer husbandry is embedded by various interactions, will remain unclear and difficult to manage, if actors and relationships are kept separate. We propose some targets for new integrative research approaches that incorporate traditional knowledge and focus on the entire human-ecological system 'reindeer husbandry' to develop solutions for its challenges.

  19. A study of a possible early reindeer domestication site on the Iamal peninsula (Russia) using geoarchaeological methods and lipid biomarkers.

    Harrault, Loic; Milek, Karen; Dawson, Lorna; Anderson, David


    In past centuries, indigenous hunters in Northern Eurasia shifted from being hunters to being herders of reindeer. Even at low human population densities, large reindeer herds can alter the landscape and leave long-term biochemical signatures in the soil. Although indigenous social-ecological systems have been thought to be resilient in space and time, most are considered to be at risk due to climate and socio-economic changes related to anthropogenic activities. This situation calls for a long-term perspective to place human-animal relations in their respective contexts. As an ancient livelihood still practiced across vast areas of Northern Eurasia, reindeer herding is a nexus for feedbacks between humans, animals and environment. The Iarte site, on the Iuribei River in the central part of the Iamal peninsula is thought to be an important site of reindeer domestication dating back to the 12th century due to the enormous quantities of butchered reindeer bones found in recent excavations. The large amount of buried reindeer bones found at the settlement suggests that herds should have stood near the site despite the lack of any architectural remains of corrals or pens. The history of a possible early relation to domesticate reindeer can be described with geoarchaeological methods, including lipid biomarkers, which can indicate the presence of past human and animal activities. Among lipid biomarkers, faecal markers such as stanols and bile acids have already been used in archaeological contexts to identify and distinguish between different species because they are persistent over time and can have a species specific profile. Near the Iarte settlement, we conducted a soil survey and sampling programme and combined geoarchaeological measurements (including electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and elemental analysis) with lipid analysis of soil samples, to identify the potential presence of standing reindeer herds. The different soil layers have been

  20. [The calf mortality of the Angeså reindeer herd (author's transl)].

    Rehbinder, C


    The heavy losses of reindeer calves in the Angeså forest herd and their seasonal occurrence are discussed on basis of the results obtained from the tables. The management, productivity and breeding conditions of this herd are estimated to be, for the most part the same as in other forest herds. The calf losses in the Angeså herd are high, during some years very high, while the reproductivity rate is comparable to that of the caribou. The extensive form of management makes it impossible to clarify most of the causes for the losses and their interrelationships. Preobrazhenskii (1961) emphasizes the importance of an intensive form of management and of counting the herd at least four times annually in order to control and prevent different kinds of losses. Skjenneberg & Slagsvold (1968) point out that the extensive form of management hinders progress in reindeer breeding, especially in the areas of selection and disease control. These statements seem to be highly relevant to Swedish reindeer breeding as well. The results from the tables clearly indicate the high total losses, the high losses during certain summers and the importance of accessible winter fodder for calf production and post-natal survival. It is important to investigate whether supplementary feeding with commercially available fodder, hay, and minerals would result in better economy in reindeer breeding. It is also desirable to investigate improved methods for supplementary feeding. During certain years calf losses are very high during the summer, but the relationships between different causes (such as stress, bloodsucking diphtera, parasites, keratitis etc.) are not clear. Surveillance of the animals during the calving season, marking of the calves before the fly season and summer heat, and developing a higher degree of domestication will probably result in smaller losses during spring and summer. If the practice of marking the calves in summer is to be continued, steps must be taken to protect the

  1. Excretion of radiocesium in reindeer - effect of supplements of potassium and bentonite

    Birgitta Åhman


    Full Text Available Six reindeer calves were fed feed containing supplements of potassium and/or bentonite. The purpose was to see in what respect these supplements could affect the excretion of radiocesium. The reindeer started with high levels of radiocesium in their bodies. They were fed feed with no supplement, supplement of 15 g K/day or supplements of 15 g K + 80 g bentonite/day. There were big differences between reindeer within the groups. The half times for radiocesium were shorter for reindeer that had received K and K + bentonite (11-13 days than for those without supplements (15 - 18 days. During the next part of the experiment the reindeer were fed lichens, and had an intake of 20 kBq Cs-137/day. The increase of radiocesium in blood was highly affected by supplements of bentonite. Two reindeer that had not received any bentonite had, after three weeks of feeding, nearly 10 times the radiocesium in blood as did those who had got supplements (23 or 46 g/day of bentonite. Excretion of radiocesium was significantly higher in those reindeer receiving bentonite. The absorption of cesium from the food was calculated to 15 -25% for reindeer receiving bentonite and to ca 70% for reindeer that got no supplements. The experiment was completed with a period of feeding with no intake of radiocesium. The animals were given supplements of bentonite at two levels (23 g and 46 g/day. The excretion of radiocesium in faeces was higher for the group receiving the higher supplement of bentonite. Half times for radiocesium in blood was 13-14 days for the group that was given less bentonite and 10- 11 days for those receiving the higher amount.Utsondringen av Cs-137 hos renar vid utfodring med foder innehållande varierande mångd bentonit respektive kalium.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Sex renkalvar utfodrades med foder innehållande tillsats av kalium och/eller bentonit i syfte att undersoka dessa tillsatsers effekt på utsondringen av radioaktivt cesium. Renarna

  2. Effects of reindeer density on vascular plant diversity on North Scandinavian mountains

    Johan Olofsson


    Full Text Available We studied the effects of reindeer grazing on species richness and diversity of vascular plants on dolomite influenced low alpine sites in the species rich northern part of the Scandes using 8 sites with different reindeer densities. Two sites were situated inside Malla Strict Nature Reserve, where reindeer grazing have been totally prohibited since 1981, and strongly restricted since 1950s. The six other sites were located in other species rich hotspot sites standardized to be as similar to the dolomite-influenced sites in Malla Strict Reserve as possible but varying in reindeer densities commonly found in the Fennoscandian mountain chain. Each site with a habitat complex especially rich in rare vascular plants (the Dryas heath – low herb meadow complex was systematically sampled in four plots of 2 m x 10 m. The plots were divided to 20 squares of 1 m x 1 m, and complete species lists of vascular plants were compiled for each of the squares. The first DCA (detrended correspondence analysis axis was strongly related to an index of reindeer grazing, indicating that grazing has a strong impact on the composition of the vegetation. None of the characteristics indices of biodiversity (species richness, evenness or Shannon-Wiener H’ was correlated with reindeer density. The local abundances of categories consisting of relatively rare plants (Ca favored plants and red listed plants of Finland showed significant, positive correlation with the intensity of reindeer grazing. We conclude that even though the density of reindeer has no influence on the total species richness or diversity of vascular plants, reindeer may still be important for regional biodiversity as it seems to favour rare and threatened plants. Moreover, our results imply that standard diversity indices may have limited value in the context of conservation biology, as these indices are equally influenced by rarities and by trivial species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Vi

  3. Behaviour of reindeer as an indicator of an adaptation to feeding

    Anna Nilsson


    Full Text Available Abstract: We assessed behaviour of reindeer affected by nutritional deprivation and how they adapted to various feeding strategies. The activity pattern of 61 penned eight month old female reindeer calves was observed during 20 of a total of 42 experimental days in winter 1997. The dominant activities were lying, ruminating, intake of feed and water, and standing. Few recordings of agonistic behaviour or snow intake occured. Restricted feed intake, half the ad lib. ration of a lichen-based diet, affected the eating behaviour of the reindeer, and more animals were standing and fewer lying compared to reindeer fed ad lib. Lack of energy in the diet correlated with animals lying curled up (lying with the muzzle close to the hind legs. This behaviour could be a useful complement to other measurements and registrations when studying adaptations to various feeding regimens.Abstract in Swedish/Sammanfattning:Syftet med studien var att undersöka om, och i så fall hur renars beteende påverkades av otillräckligt näringsintag och vid anpassning till olika utfodringsstrategier. Aktivitetsmönstret hos 61 inhägnade åtta månader gamla honrenkalvar studerades under 20 av totalt 42 försöksdagar. De vanligaste beteendekategorierna genom hela försöket var ligga, idissla, intag av foder och vatten samt stå passivt. Endast ett fåtal observationer av aggressivt beteende och snöätande registrerades. En begränsad giva dvs. halva mängden av fodergivan vid fri tillgång av en lavbaserad diet påverkade djuren ätbeteende. Dessutom observerades fler djur stå passivt medan färre låg jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Under första fasen av utfodring efter restriktionsperioden låg fler djur låg ihoprullade (med mulen tätt intill bakbenet jämfört med kontrollgruppen, vilket tolkades som ett tecken på energibrist. Beteendestudierna visade sig vara ett värdefullt komplement till övriga mätningar och provtagningar vid studier av renars anpassning till

  4. Vectors and transmission dynamics for Setaria tundra (Filarioidea; Onchocercidae, a parasite of reindeer in Finland

    Kuusela Jussi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed expansion by an array of Filarioid nematodes' into the northern boreal region of Finland. The vector-borne nematode, Setaria tundra, caused a serious disease outbreak in the Finnish reindeer population in 2003–05. The main aim of this study was to understand the outbreak dynamics and the rapid expansion of S. tundra in the sub arctic. We describe the vectors of S. tundra, and its development in vectors, for the first time. Finally we discuss the results in the context of the host-parasite ecology of S. tundra in Finland Results Development of S. tundra to the infective stage occurs in mosquitoes, (genera Aedes and Anopheles. We consider Aedes spp. the most important vectors. The prevalence of S. tundra naturally infected mosquitoes from Finland varied from 0.5 to 2.5%. The rate of development in mosquitoes was temperature-dependent. Infective larvae were present approximately 14 days after a blood meal in mosquitoes maintained at room temperature (mean 21 C, but did not develop in mosquitoes maintained outside for 22 days at a mean temperature of 14.1 C. The third-stage (infective larvae were elongated (mean length 1411 μm (SD 207, and width 28 μm (SD 2. The anterior end was blunt, and bore two liplike structures, the posterior end slight tapering with a prominent terminal papilla. Infective larvae were distributed anteriorly in the insect's body, the highest abundance being 70 larvae in one mosquito. A questionnaire survey revealed that the peak activity of Culicidae in the reindeer herding areas of Finland was from the middle of June to the end of July and that warm summer weather was associated with reindeer flocking behaviour on mosquito-rich wetlands. Conclusion In the present work, S. tundra vectors and larval development were identified and described for the first time. Aedes spp. mosquitoes likely serve as the most important and competent vectors for S. tundra in Finland. Warm summers

  5. On the tragedy of the commons: When predation and livestock loss may improve the economic lot of herders.

    Skonhoft, Anders; Johannesen, Anne Borge; Olaussen, Jon Olaf


    This paper studies the practice of semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus) herding in Finnmark county in northern Norway. In this area, the Saami reindeer herders compete for space and grazing areas and keep large herds, while at the same time, the reindeer population is heavily exposed to carnivore predation by the lynx (Lynx lynx), the wolverine (Gulo gulo), and the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). It is demonstrated that predation actually may improve the economic lot of livestock holders in this unmanaged local common setting. There are ecological as well as economic reasons as to why this happens. The ecological reason is that predation compensates for natural mortality; that is, increased predation reduces natural mortality, indicating that the net loss due to predation actually may be quite small. When predation reduces livestock density, the feeding conditions of the animals will improve, resulting in increased livestock weight and higher per animal slaughter value. At the same time, a smaller stock reduces the operating costs of the herders.

  6. [Serological diagnosis of an infestation caused by the early developmental stages of botfly larvae (Oedemagena tarandi) in reindeer].

    Solopov, N V; Kalinina, N G


    Undertaken investigations have shown that the antigen prepared from larvae of O. tarandi is diagnostically effective and stricktly specific only to this infection in the reaction of indirect hemagglutination (RIHA). The experiments have proved the possibility of practical use of RIHA as a principal method of early diagnosis of infection of reindeer caused by O. tarandi.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships between Sarcocystis species from reindeer and other Sarcocystidae deduced from ssu rRNA gene sequences

    Dahlgren, S.S.; Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Gjerde, B.


    were constructed using Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood estimations. All six Sarcocystis species from reindeer were placed together with other Sarcocystis species using an even-toed ungulate as their intermediate host. The three canine transmitted species, S. grueneri, S. rangi, S...

  8. Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry.

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Tveraa, Torkild


    Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated the effect of received predation compensation on individual husbandry units' future herd size. The main finding in this study is that predation compensation had a positive effect on husbandry units' future herd size. The effect of predation compensation, however, was nonlinear in some years, indicating that predation compensation had a positive effect on future herd size only up to a certain threshold whereby adding additional predation compensation had little effect on future herd size. More importantly, the effect of predation compensation was positive after controlling for reindeer density, indicating that for a given reindeer density husbandry units receiving more predation compensation performed better (measured as the size of future herds) compared to husbandry units receiving less compensation.

  9. Decrease of lichens in Arctic ecosystems: the role of wildfire, caribou, reindeer, competition and climate in north-western Alaska

    Kyle Joly; Randi R. Jandt; David R. Klein


    We review and present a synthesis of the existing research dealing with changing Arctic tundra ecosystems, in relation to caribou and reindeer winter ranges. Whereas pan-Arctic studies have documented the effects on tundra vegetation from simulated climate change, we draw upon recent long-term regional studies in Alaska that have documented the actual, on-the-ground...

  10. Ultimate pH values and bacteriological condition of meat and stress metabolites in blood of transported reindeer bulls

    E. Wiklund


    Full Text Available Twenty-three reindeer bulls, aged 2-3 years, fed during two winter months at the Vuolda reindeer research station in Arjeplog, Sweden, were used in the study. The first group of eight reindeer was moved from their feeding corral to a selection corral, captured by lasso and stunned with a captive bolt outside the selection corral. The second group of seven reindeer was moved to the selection corral, captured by lasso and restrained, after which they were loaded onto a lorry- and transported for 1 hour and then slaughtered. The third group of eight reindeer was moved to the selection corral and herded directly onto the lorry, without any manual handling. They were transported for 5 h and then slaughtered. In both transport groups, four reindeer were fitted with pre-programmed automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE. ABSE sampled blood at predetermined times via a jugular vein catheter. Ultimate pH-values in three muscles (Mm. longissimus, triceps brachii and biceps femoris were significantly lower in the group carefully handled and transported for 5 h compared with the other two groups. The physiological mechanisms behind these results are discussed. Samples from M. semimembranosus were collected at slaughter and after 2, 6 and 10 days of refrigerated storage (+4 °C. The samples were analysed for total counts of aerobic bacteria (pour-plated in Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar, Difco, incubated at 20 °C and 30 °C, respectively for 72 h, coliform bacteria 37 °C (pour-plated in Violet Red Bile Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 37 °C for 24 h, Enterococci (surface-plated onto Slantez and Bartley Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 44 °C for 48 h and Bacillus cereus (surface-plated onto Blood Agar Plates (Blood Agar Base, Difco, supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood 30 °C for 24 h. All samples fell in the range 'fit for consumption'. At slaughter, there was no difference in ASAT activity, urea and Cortisol concentrations between the two transported groups

  11. Problems and challenges for user participation: The system of representation in reindeer husbandry in Norway

    Birgitte Ulvevadet


    Full Text Available This article is based on a case study of reindeer husbandry management in Norway. I argue that the inclusion of resource users in a co-management process may at times increase social tension and weaken the system of governance. The co-management experience indicates that the system works well in most areas. However, because of the differences in contextual circumstances, the system suffers from a legitimacy deficit with respect to how representatives are appointed and how interests are distributed among the various boards. The study argues that even if policies and institutions are adapted to local contexts, there may be a need for a stronger connection between the co-management boards and other institutions, such as the Sami Parliament and the Reindeer Husbandry Administration. Specifically, I argue that instead of increasing legitimacy through equal user-group representation in management decision making, the very structures of the system—in particular, nominations and appointments—may lead to unequal user-group representation and thus threaten the success of the management system.

  12. Influence of timing of endectocidic antiparasitic treatment on its efficacy in overwintering reindeer

    A. Oksanen


    Full Text Available To find out if timing of endectocidic antiparasitic treatment is critical for its efficacy in overwintering reindeer, 72 hinds of the Kaamanen Experimental Reindeer Herd were randomly allocated to four groups. Three groups received ivermecrin mixture orally once at a dose of 200 pg/kg, either in September, December, or February, and one group was left untreated. Antiparasitic efficacy was evaluated by counting Hypoderma tarandi and Cephenemyia trompe larvae in April, and by faecal examinanon for trichostrongylid nematode eggs in March and April. Production efficacy consequences were assessed by comparing animal weight development from November to April, and calf birth weights. No difference could be seen in the antiparasitic efficacy of the treatments; all were 100 % efficient against H. tarandi larvae (warbles and C. trompe larvae (throat bors, and reduced the trichostrongylid egg output by 62 to 74%. Weight gains of the groups were not significantly different, however the calf birrh weights differed nearly significantly (P = 0.057. On average, smallest calves were produced by the untreated group.

  13. Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract

    Pekka Jalovaara


    Full Text Available Various bone proteins and growth factors in specific concentrations are required for bone formation. If the body cannot produce sufficient quantities of these factors, bone trauma can be healed with an implant that includes the required factors in a carrier. This study was designed to evaluate various calcium salt candidates that can be used as carrier with reindeer bone protein extract to induce ectopic bone formation in the muscle pouch model of mouse. The bone protein extract was either impregnated into the disc form of carrier or mixed with carrier powder before implantation. The radiographic analysis indicated increased bone formation in all of the active groups containing the bone protein extract compared to the controls within 21 days follow-up. The highest bone formation was seen in the group with calcium sulfate with stearic acid where new bone and calcified cartilage were clearly visible. The greatest bone formation occurred in the groups that had bone protein extract readily available. This indicates that the bone forming factors in sufficient concentrations are required at the early stage of bone formation. The calcium sulfate with stearic acid was the most suitable and effective carrier for reindeer bone protein extract.

  14. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    Birgitta Åhman


    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accidenr of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer {Rangifer tarandus are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their wintet diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating ftom natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic.

  15. Partial county development plans as a means for preserving wild reindeer habitats in Norway

    Hans Olav Bråtå


    Full Text Available Norwegian wild reindeer habitats are threatened by human intervention. Wild reindeer habitats are joint region wide common pool resources (CPR. Municipalities may be free-riders to that resource if they prefer investments boosting municipal economy despite negative consequences for wild reindeer as a regional resource. Partial county development plans, following the rules of the Planning and Building Act (PBA, are a means that may combine preservation of habitats and development. In order to analyze such plans, theory on CPR management is applied to spatial development planning in the Rondane and Hardangervidda wild reindeer areas. It is shown that the nested system is in accordance with most of Ostrom’s principles. Still, a joint Planning Board ought to be established at Hardangervidda and a partial county plan for the whole wild reindeer area there ought to be established. It is recommended that regular monitoring of interventions and planning is established. Finally, a system or mechanism for low cost conflict resolution is needed; but is not easily included into a system based on official actors at different levels, the planning and building act and public anticipation on equal management. The last point is important for mutual acceptance of restrictions on own activity. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Kunnskap om forvaltning av fellesressurer øker forståelsen av regionale planer for villreinområderNorske villreinområder er truet av menneskelige inngrep. Villreinområdene er en regional fellesressurs, men kommunene kan bli gratispassasjerer i forhold til utnytting av denne ressursen ettersom de kan bli fristet til å vektlegge utbygging som gir lokaløkonomiske effekter, på tross av negative konsekvenser for villreinen som en regional ressurs. Fylkesdelplaner, som er basert på plan- og bygningsloven, er et virkemiddel som kan kombinere bevaring og utvikling. For å forstå slike planers muligheter og begrensninger analyses her

  16. Characteristics of venison. The research of vitamin and fatty acid composition of the meat of domesticated reindeer

    Bogdan E. G.


    Full Text Available Vitamin and fatty acid composition of meat of the domesticated reindeer shoulder in order to experimentally prove its rational use as a component of healthy diet not only population of the Kola Peninsula, but also in other regions of the world has been researched. Reindeer herd population figures have been given. The value of reindeer herding for life of the indigenous peoples of the Far North has been proved. There are the results of studying vitamin content of domesticated reindeer meat on the main important parameters by the fluorimetric method using the fluid analyzer based on the acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis test, which results in release of bound forms of vitamins, as well as by alkaline hydrolysis of the sample followed by separation and determination of the mass fraction of vitamins. The study of fatty acids contained in venison has been labeled and graphically reflected. The composition of saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids using the gas chromatography method based on the solvent extraction of animal lipids organic solvents, and triglyceride lipid methylation by hydrolysis has been determined. The results of these studies have shown extraordinary characteristics of reindeer meat, its well-balanced ratio of fatty acids and high mass fractions of vitamins. High percentage of these fatty acids as saturated – palmitic (26.79 %, stearic (19.15 %, margarine (1.22 % and unsaturated – oleic acid (36.23 %, linoleic (5.12 %, and palmitoleic (2.68 % and their importance for the human body have been noted. Comparative characteristics of the vitamin content of venison with other kinds of meat (beef, pork, and lamb which clearly reflects the high vitamin C content (2.63 mg per 100 g product and vitamin B2 (0.27 mg per 100 g product has been presented.

  17. Radioactive contamination in reindeer herders and other people in Kautokeino 1965-2010; Radioaktiv forurensning i befolkningen. Reindriftsutoevere og andre personer i Kautokeino 1965-2010

    Thoerring, H.; Skuterud, L.


    NRPA's measurements of radioactive caesium in reindeer herders and other people from Kautokeino in northern Norway were finalised in December 2010. This report summarises the monitoring program which was started in 1965.(Author)

  18. Forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden – the development of a land use conflict

    Camilla Widmark


    Full Text Available Both the forestry sector and reindeer herders in northern Sweden use the forest resources in northern Sweden, albeit for different purposes, and have adverse effects on each other. To reduce conflicts between them negotiations take place in so-called “consultations”, but the institutional arrangement does not seem to be working well; the conflicts have not been resolved, and the reindeer herders are generally more dissatisfied with the outcome than the forest companies. This paper provides an overview of the parallel development of forestry and reindeer herding in the region. In addition several issues that complicate the consultations and need to be resolved in order to secure the continued co-existence of the two activities are identified, based on an analysis of physical, societal and judicial aspects of the relationship between them.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Skogsbruk och rennäringen i norra Sverige – utveckling av en markanvändningskonflikt Skogsresursen i norra Sverige nyttjas för bland annat timmerproduktion och renbete och skogsbruket respektive rennäring påverkar varandra negativt. För att minska konflikterna har samråd instiftats men processen fungerar inte tillfredsställande eftersom det finns ett missnöje bland renskötarna. Denna studie ger en översikt av den parallella utvecklingen av de två näringarna och deras inbördes relationer och därmed identifieras flera nyckelområden som komplicerar relationen mellan de båda näringarna och därmed även samråden. Genom att analysera de fysiska, sociala och juridiska aspekterna av relationen mellan rennäring och skogsbruk pekar studien på ett antal problem som måste lösas för att kunna säkerställa en fortsatt parallell existens.

  19. Histochemical and enzymatic differences in skeletal muscle from Svalbard reindeer during the summer and winter

    K.-H. Kiessling


    Full Text Available Enzyme activities and fibre properties in four muscles from Svalbard reindeer, collected during the summer, have been compared with corresponding muscles during the winter. In two muscles, gluteobiceps and semimembranosus, oxidative capacity is higher in winter than in summer; in the other two muscles, semitendinosus and longissimus dorsi, there is no difference with time of the year. The capacity to oxidize fatty acids is low in winter compared with summer, especially in semitendinosus and longissimus. These changes are similar in both sexes. Histochemical studies of the three main fibre types, I (BetaR, HA (°cR and IIB (aW, from the four muscles show that in male reindeers the muscle fibres are narrower at the end of the winter season than during the summer. The decrease of muscle tissue amounts to about one third of the total volume (33%, of which I accounts for 5%, IIA for 2% and IIB for 26%. The results indicate that the Svalbard reindeer use lean tissue in general, and IIB fibres in particular, in order to survive the hostile arctic winter period at Svalbard.Histokemiska och enzymatiska skillnader i skelettmuskel från Svalbardren mellan sommar och vinter.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Enzymaktiviteter och fiberegenskaper i fyra av Svalbardrenens muskler, insamlade under sommaren, har jåmforts med motsvarande muskler insamlade under vintern. I två muskler, gluteobiceps och semimembranosus, år oxidativa kapaciteten hogre under vintern an under sommaren; i de andra två musklerna, semitendinosus och longissimus dorsi, foreligger ingen skillnad i detta avseende. Kapaciteten att oxidera fettsyror år låg under vintern jåmfort med sommaren, speciellt i semitendinosus och longissimus. Inga konsskillnader foreligger i dessa avseenden. Histokemiska studier av de tre huvudtyperna av muskelfibrer, fiR (I, ocR (IIA och (IIB, från de fyra musklerna visar att hos handjuren år fibrerna tunnare vid slutet av vintersåsongen jåmfort med

  20. Digestive studies with a feed developed for realimentation of starving reindeer

    Harald Sletten


    Full Text Available The properties of three different feeds were compared when offered to reindeer calves as single feeds after a starvation period of the 48 h. The feeds were lichen and two pelleted commercial reindeer feeds, RF-71 and RF-80. The two latter differed in concentration of readily digestible carbohydrates (high in RF-71 and in the inclusion of seaweed meal in RF-80. Seven calves were offered the three diets in a latin square design. Measurements involved feed intake and rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids, ammonia and pH during a five day period after the end of the starvation period. Feeding RF-80 gave rise to higher feed intakes and more rapid normalisation of rumen VFA and ammonia concentration than the other pelleted feed. Rumen pH reached a minimum of 5.4 in animals fed RF-71, while the average minimum pH during the observation period was 6.1-6.2 when RF-80 was given. Inappetance for 1-2 days after refeeding occurred only with RF-71. RF-80 has now replaced RF-71 as the commercial reindeer feed in Norway.Fordøyelsesforsøk med et for utviklet til overgangsforing av sveltende rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: En har sammenlignet egenskapene til tre forskjellige fortyper gitt til reinkalver som eneste for etter en sveltperiode på 48 timer. Fortypene var reinlav og to pelletterte, kommersielle reinfor: RF-71 og RF-80. De siste to adskilte seg fra hverandre i konsentrasjonen av lettfordøyelige karbohydrater (høyest i RF-71 og i innblanding av tangmel i RF-80. Syv reinkalver ble gitt de tre dietter i «latin square» forsøksmønster. Målingene omfattet: forinntak, konsentrasjon i vominnhold av flyktige fettsyrer (VFA og ammonium samt verdier av pfi gjennom en fem-dagers periode etter avsluttet sveltperiode. Foring med RF-80 økte forinntaket og forårsaket en raskere normalisering av VFA- og ammoniumkonsentrasjonene enn foring med RF-71. pfi nådde et minimum på 5,4 hos dyr som fikk RF-71, mens gjennomsnittlig verdi av pH gjennom

  1. Modelling of radiocesium transfer in the lichen-reindeer/caribou-wolf food chain

    D. F. Holleman


    Full Text Available The environmental contaminate radiocesium (cesium-137 has been shown to be of value as a marker in food selection and intake studies. Its greatest potential value as a food marker is in the subarctic/arctic regions, particularly in the lichen to reindeer/caribou to wolf food chain. A kinetic model describing the movement of radiocesium through the food chain has been developed using the SAAM computer program and is presented here. The program has been written so that the various paramenters affecting the transfer of radiocesium in the food chain can be altered more realistically to describe the system being modeled. The values of the parameters as given in this example are realistic for interior Alaska, however caution should be exercised in the application of the present results to regions that may be vastly different from the Alaskan interior without first evaluating the parameters and assumptions of the model.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel Viruses in Ocular Infections in Reindeer

    Smits, Saskia L.; Schapendonk, Claudia M. E.; van Leeuwen, Marije; Kuiken, Thijs; Bodewes, Rogier; Stalin Raj, V.; Haagmans, Bart L.; das Neves, Carlos G.; Tryland, Morten; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.


    A thorough understanding of virus diversity in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about pathogens. In this study, eye swab samples were obtained from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifertarandustarandus) in Norway during an outbreak of infectious eye disease, possibly a very early stage of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC). Large scale molecular virus screening, based on host nucleic acid depletion, sequence-independent amplification and next-generation sequencing of partially purified viral nucleic acid, revealed the presence of a new papillomavirus in 2 out of 8 eye swab samples and a new betaherpesvirus in 3 out of 8 eye swab samples collected from animals with clinical signs and not in similar samples in 9 animals without clinical signs. Whether either virus was responsible for causing the clinical signs or in any respect was associated to the disease condition remains to be determined. PMID:23874987

  3. Transport and recycling of radiocesium in the alimentary tract of reindeer

    Hans Staaland


    Full Text Available Transport of radiocesium between the body pools and the alimentary tract was studied in 7 reindeer calves. Comparisons were made between reindeer receiving the Cs- binder Prussian blue (Ammon-ium-ironhexacyanoferrate and untreated animals. The calves were fed lichens contaminated with 134Cs + 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident (about 10 kBq/day for 4 weeks. Absorption and secretion of radiocesium, Na and K in the alimentary tract were calculated using 51Cr-EDTA as a reference substance. Thirteen sections of the alimentary tract were sampled and analysed for radionuclides and chemical composition. In 4 animals, feeding with contaminated lichens continued until they were slaughtered, whereas in the 3 others the lichen feeding terminated 4 days before slaughter. The activity concentration of Cs nuclides increased 5-17 - fold from duodenum to the distal colon, whereas the concentration of Na decreased and K remained almost constant. Radiocesium, Na and K were secreted into the rumen, the omasum and the abomasum, whereas Na and K also were secreted into the proximal small intestine. Prussian blue had no effect on Na and K recycling, but the flow of radiocesium from the abomasum to the anus and the fecal excretion increased markedly. In the 3 animals where feeding with contaminated lichens was disconutinued 4 days before slaughter, endogenous Cs was continuously recycled between the body pools and the alimentary tract. The net exchange of radiocesium between body pools and the alimentary tract was more than 4 times the amount ingested when lichens were fed. It is concluded that radiocesium is rapidly recycled between the alimentary tract and the other body pools. Cs-binders like ammonium-ironhexacyanoferrate may bind both endogenous Cs and Cs from feed.

  4. Challenges for establishing a modern reindeer dairy industry (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Hallvard Gjøstein


    Full Text Available To achieve efficient milk ejection has been a recurrent problem in machine milking of reindeer does. The field season 2004 was a breakthrough for an efficient and complete milk let down in reindeer. The proportion of residual milk was reduced as lactation progressed; from around 40-50% at start of the milking in mid June to around 10-15% in late August, suggesting that habituation and training are important factors for triggering the ejection. We performed an experiment including 3 treatments; 1 Calves equipped with a "kjevle" (a wooden stick placed in the mouth of the calves making them unable to suckle but keeping their grazing ability intact for 8 - 14 hrs dependent of lactation stage, followed by milking of the does, 2 Physically separation of the mothers and their calves for 8 - 14 hrs dependent of lactation stage, followed by milking of the does and 3 Permanent separation of females and calves at start of the milking period and females milked twice per day. The females and calves in group 1 and 2 were rejoined after the "kjevle" and separation period. The females in these two groups were milked every second day. The "kjevle" treatment apparently works better than physical separ¬ation according to welfare parameters and proportion milk ejected in the first part of the milking period. Permanent separation did also work well and permits that the whole production after separation can be utilized. However, in order to keep up the milk production frequent milkings are required during the first days of separation. The growth of the calves was high and did not differ between treatments. This suggests that the calves are able to compensate the reduced milk intake by increasing their intake of forages.

  5. Notable seasonal variation observed in the morphology of the reindeer rumen fluke (Paramphistomum leydeni in Finland

    Sven Nikander


    Full Text Available Although numerous Paramphistomum species have been described from the rumen and reticulum of domestic and wild ruminants, information about rumen flukes in reindeer is sparse and their nomenclature is somewhat conflicting. Rumen fluke of reindeer is usually referred to as P. cervi, but P. leydeni and Cotylophoron skriabini are also mentioned in the literature. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of rumen flukes from reindeer, as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and in histological sections under light microscopy, are presented. The aim of the study was to find morphological information to enable identification of rumen flukes in reindeer to species level. In addition, the morphology of rumen flukes collected in winter (winter flukes was compared with that of flukes collected in summer (summer flukes. Key morphological findings were as follows: the acetabulum of the rumen flukes was of paramphistomum type, the pharynx of liorchis type, and the genital atrium of leydeni type. Both winter and summer flukes shared these morphological features. Based on these findings, it was concluded that rumen flukes of reindeer in Finland belonged to the species P. leydeni. Significant morphological variation was observed when winter and summer flukes were compared. The winter fluke was smaller in size, possessed immature gonads (testes, ovary, uterus, and immature accessory genital glands (Mehlis’ gland, vitelline follicles, and had barely discernible tegumental papillae. These data indicate that winter rumen flukes represent an immature stage of P. leydeni and summer flukes the mature stage of the same species. Further, these findings suggest that the rumen flukes of reindeer during wintertime in Finland have a slowed or inhibited lifecycle.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Poron pötsimadon (Paramphistomum leydeni morfologiassa esiintyy selvää vuodenaikaisvaihtelua Pötsimatoja (Paramphistomum spp. löytyy monien villien ja kotiel

  6. Central planning, market and subsistence from a tundra perspective: Field experience with reindeer herders in the Kola Peninsula

    Dessislav Sabev


    Full Text Available This paper is based on field experience in the tundra camp of a reindeer-herding brigade with mixed ethnic background (Komi, Sami, Nenets, Russians belonging to the ex-Sovkhoz of Krasnoschelie. Its purpose is to situate the new critical issues facing the reindeer-herding collectives after the economic collapse in Russia in 1998. My main argument is that the increasing economic isolation of the tundra periphery forces the herders to redefine their relationship with both the centre(s and the other tundra actors. Reindeer herding on the Kola Peninsula is analysed in relation to its heterogeneous economic system defined by the old Sovkhoz-like management and the new Western buyer of reindeer meat. Furthermore, the social environment in the herding territories has changed since the deterioration of the central planning economy, implying new renewable resources' users. After massive loss of jobs, militaries, miners and geologists came into the tundra for substantial hunting and fishing and so became actors in the local informal economy. Finally, tundra-located herders and hunters seem to be somewhere unified by a discourse against the town-based administrative power and economic actors such as mining industry. Therefore herders have to deal with both an old administrative system in the agrocentre and new realities in the tundra. Based on a case study of herding/hunting activities in a tundra camp, the paper analyses the social relationships between the different actors in the post-Soviet Kola tundra and express their quest for solutions.

  7. Habitat use by domestic reindeer in relation to food quality and disturbance - need for research? (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Christina Skarpe


    Full Text Available Competition for land in the mountains can be foreseen to increase in the near future. This development will result in trade offs and prioritization between the different demands for land. For reindeer husbandry it is essential to motivate the need for control over good grazing land for different seasons and situations, not only by preventing direct exploitation of such land, but also to minimize disturbance by traffic and people in the vicinity. It will therefore be important to demonstrate in quantitative terms 1 what habitat types and areas that are essential for the reindeer in different seasons and situations and for different activities (grazing, resting, protection for insects etc, and 2 how different forms and intensities of disturbance affect the reindeer. We plan a project with these aims and will primarily work with the summer grazing situation. For many years we have run a similar project related to sheep grazing in the vicinity of Hessdalen, and we have developed methods and techniques that to a large extent are applicable to reindeer. We will discuss methods and results from the sheep study, how they can apply to reindeer, and provide the quantitative information needed. We use modern, high resolution GPS telemetry with very high spatial resolution (95% within ca 6.4 m, and frequent recording, e.g., every five minutes during some periods. This provides knowledge not only of the movements by the animals in the landscape, but also on their activities and will be related to vegetation maps with the same accuracy as the telemetry data (from aerial photographs, offering higher resolution than available satellite data. Results show that sheep use only a very small portion of the available rangeland, and that selectivity varies with season and weather conditions. Almost certainly the situation is similar with reindeer, although the two species have rather different grazing pattern, with reindeer being much more mobile than sheep. We plan

  8. The robustness of reindeer husbandry – need for a new approach to elucidate opportunities and sustainability of the reindeer industry in its socio-ecological context (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Öje Danell


    Full Text Available A series of transformations and adaptations in the Sami use of land for their subsistence over a long period of time has led to the reindeer husbandry of today. In Sweden the Sami rights to land and water are today legally connected to the practising of reindeer husbandry as a livelihood. Together with a few associated commodities, it has become considered is the only lasting Sami land-use. In the Sami culture, a central element is the association of the people with the land and the subsistence on what is provided in nature. Consequently, this association between people and land is today kept alive by the reindeer husbandry practiced as a livelihood, which thereby also produces and manages an essential base for the culture. The developments in the surrounding society are currently reducing the latitude for the reindeer industry at an accelerated rate and thereby also its capacity to handle new situations. In the complicated ecological, economic, social and institutional contexts, where reindeer husbandry is practiced, there is a large risks for sudden and unpredicted disintegrations and collapses at different system levels. The consequences thereof for the long term continuation and adaptability of Sami land use are largely unpredictable. If it leads to a collapse of reindeer industry as mode of land-use, the risks of additional deterioration of the Sami indigenous rights is also apparent and thereby the scope for new solutions as well. This will likely have serious negative consequences for the viability of the Sami culture concurrently with declining live dependences of the land. The situation of reindeer husbandry has similarities with management crises in many other integrated socio-ecological systems, which have led to sustainability failures and unpredicted consequences. These insights seem to be deficient in the treatment of the problems, which reindeer industry is facing. Scientists could probably make a very important contribution by

  9. Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass-endophyte mutualism.

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R


    Fungal endophytes modify plant-herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichloë festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' distribution, ergovaline was constitutively expressed, as predicted where growth is environmentally limited. Our results now present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ungulate saliva can combat plant defences produced by a grass-endophyte mutualism.

  10. From carcass to cave: large mammal exploitation during the Aurignacian at Vogelherd, Germany.

    Niven, Laura


    Recent results from the zooarchaeological analysis of faunal remains from Vogelherd Cave, southwestern Germany, provide new insight into the subsistence behavior of early modern human groups during the Aurignacian. The results presented here represent the first comprehensive study of the archaeofauna from this site. Several episodes of occupation are inferred at this site, taking place primarily between 31 and 32 ka. Although a wide spectrum of Pleistocene mammals is represented in the Aurignacian at Vogelherd, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and horse (Equus ferus) were the primary prey taxa, and they are the most appropriate data sets with which to understand human subsistence on an intrasite level. Hunting of both taxa took place during the late summer and fall, coinciding with reindeer migrations and local abundance of horses. Complete or nearly complete prey carcasses were then transported from the kill locations to the cave for processing. This study shows that Vogelherd was a preferred locale of Aurignacian groups for a broad range of activities, including the time- and labor-intensive exploitation of ungulate prey for meat, marrow, and fat resources, as well as the production and maintenance of artifacts such as figurative artwork, personal ornaments, bone and ivory armatures, and lithic tools. With its rich faunal and artifact assemblages, the Aurignacian deposit at Vogelherd provides a wealth of information on this critical period of the early Upper Paleolithic, when cultural innovations were flourishing.

  11. Continuous and discrete extreme climatic events affecting the dynamics of a high-arctic reindeer population.

    Chan, Kung-Sik; Mysterud, Atle; Øritsland, Nils Are; Severinsen, Torbjørn; Stenseth, Nils Chr


    Climate at northern latitudes are currently changing both with regard to the mean and the temporal variability at any given site, increasing the frequency of extreme events such as cold and warm spells. Here we use a conceptually new modelling approach with two different dynamic terms of the climatic effects on a Svalbard reindeer population (the Brøggerhalvøya population) which underwent an extreme icing event ("locked pastures") with 80% reduction in population size during one winter (1993/94). One term captures the continuous and linear effect depending upon the Arctic Oscillation and another the discrete (rare) "event" process. The introduction of an "event" parameter describing the discrete extreme winter resulted in a more parsimonious model. Such an approach may be useful in strongly age-structured ungulate populations, with young and very old individuals being particularly prone to mortality factors during adverse conditions (resulting in a population structure that differs before and after extreme climatic events). A simulation study demonstrates that our approach is able to properly detect the ecological effects of such extreme climate events.

  12. Relationships between biotic and abiotic range characteristics and productivity of reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Henrik Lundqvist


    Full Text Available Reindeer husbandry is a form of pastoralism where vast areas are used as forage ranges throughout the year. The productivity of the reindeer industry in Sweden is affected by a multitude of factors on different geographical and temporal scales. Our aim was to find combinations of factors characterizing the environmental conditions for reindeer husbandry in the 51 herding districts in Sweden, which correlate strongly with variations in productivity both between herding districts in general and between years within districts. Productivities were described by estimated herd growth rates and carcass condition of slaughtered females and calves. These dependent variables were related to the environmental independent variables using linear regression models and structural equation modelling. The independent variables were either considered as stable (e.g. topography, vegetation and infrastructure or temporally changing (e.g. season lengths, weather events, disturbances and animal slaughter strategies. The most relevant independent variables were included in a cluster analysis to suggest a grouping of herding districts based on similarities in environmental conditions. Considerably larger variation in productivity was found between herding districts than between years. Different variables were found to be important for between-district and within-district variations, respectively. Season lengths and animal densities were found significant at both levels of variation. Other variables found to be relevant were ruggedness, snow condition, harassing insect activity, supplementary feeding, calf slaughter ratio and previousyear animal condition. Snow precipitation, ice-crust formation and forage quality were presumed to be relevant for reindeer productivity, but were not found to have a large impact on productivity. These factors, however, may have been counteracted by husbandry measures, statistically incorporated in animal density variables, or by being

  13. A reindeer footprint in a drilling core from the Allerød-Bølling age succession of Lille Slotseng basin, south-eastern Jylland, Denmark

    Noe-Nygaard, Nanna; Milàn, Jesper; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt


    A Subfossil reindeer track was localised in a drilled core from the Late Glacial Slotseng lacustrine basin, located in the south eastern part of Jylland near the town of Jels. It was dated to 11,795 ±80 14C yr BP or around 13,780 cal yr BP. During an earlier excavation of the site four skeletons...... shore woody peat from the Boreal and onset of the Atlantic Time, cover the basin. Hitherto, no convincing tracks have been recognized and described from drill cores. The reindeer track from the Slotseng Basin is the first convincing track recognized from a drill core section. 89...

  14. Movements of tagged and radio-instrumented wild reindeer in relation to habitat alteration in the Snøhetta region, Norway

    Terje Skogland


    Full Text Available In winter, 1981, 103 reindeer, out of a population of 3600, were herded into a fence by snowmobiles and marked. During the next 4 1/2 years reindeer were followed from the ground, or by radiolocations from an airplane. On the average one animal was tagged per 42 animals in any group. A total sample of 175 locations in all seasons indicated that snow conditions, traffic on a road lying parallel to a railroad, and the damming of a lake significantly affected annual distribution as compared with expected modern as well as prehistoric distribution.

  15. Effects of forest fertilization on nitrate and crude protein content in some important reindeer forage species

    Gustaf Åhman


    Full Text Available When forests are fertilized with ammonia nitrate it is possible that grazing reindeer ingest ammonia nitrate by eating grains of fertilizer from the ground or by drinking contaminated water. They can also get nitrate through plants that have absorbed and disposed nitrate. This latter factor is studied in this report. In addition the effect of fertilization on crude protein content in forage plants is investigated. Fertilizing trials were done within two different areas. One was a dry scotch pine forest and the other a humid scotch pine forest. Both were situated 10 to 15 km north west of Lycksele (northern Sweden. Three different rations (75, 150 and 250 kg N/ha of ammonianitrate and one (150 kg N/ha of urea was used. Fertilization was done at two occations, in June and in July. To investigate the effect of fertilization on nitrate and crude protein content in reindeer forage plants, samples were taken of reindeer lichens (Cladina spp., heather {Calluna vulgaris, crowberry (Empetrum spp., cowberry (Vaccinium vitis ideae, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus and hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa at different times after fertilization. In this trial we could not find any higher degree of contamination of nitrate in lichens. The highest value was 0.013% nitrate-N in dry matter (table 1. Nitrate accumulation was low in shrubs and grass (table 2. The highest value (0.05% was found in heather. The concentrations were definitly below the level that could be considered as injurious to the reindeer. The effect of fertilization on crude protein content in reindeer forage plants was obvious. It was most evident in hair-grass. Four weeks after fertilization with 150 kg N/ha, crude protein content was more than doubled and reached 20% in dry matter (figure 1 and 2. In withered hair-grass in the autumn the effect was very small. One year after fertilization a small rise in crude protein was registered in both grass and shrubs (table 3. Some effect still remained

  16. Human-animal agency in reindeer management: Sami herders' perspectives on Fennoscandian tundra vegetation dynamics under climate change

    Forbes, B. C.; Horstkotte, T.; Utsi, T. A.; Larsson-Blind, Å.; Burgess, P.; Käyhkö, J.; Oksanen, L.; Johansen, B.


    Many primary livelihoods in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions are increasingly faced with accelerating effects of climate change and resource exploitation. The often close connection between indigenous populations and the dynamics of their respective territories allows them to make detailed observations of how these changes transform the landscapes where they practice their daily activities. Here, we report Sami reindeer herders' observations based on their long-term occupancy and use of contrasting pastoral landscapes in northern Fennoscandia. In particular, we focus on the capacity for various herd management regimes to prevent a potential transformation of open tundra vegetation to shrubland or woodland. Fennoscandian Sami herders did not confirm a substantial, rapid or large-scale transformation of treeless arctic-alpine areas into shrub- and/or woodlands as a consequence of climate change. However, where encroachment of open tundra landscapes has been observed, a range of drivers were deemed responsible. These included abiotic conditions, anthropogenic influences and the direct and indirect effects of reindeer. Mountain birch tree line advances were in some cases associated with reduced or discontinued grazing, depending on the seasonal significance of these particular areas. In the many places where tree line has risen, herding practices have by necessity adapted to these changes. Exploiting the capacity of reindeer grazing/browsing as a conservation tool offers new adaptive strategies of ecosystem management to counteract a potential encroachment of the tundra by woody plants. However, such novel solutions in environmental governance are confronted with difficult trade-offs involved in ecosystem management for ecologically reasonable, economically viable and socially desirable management strategies.

  17. Coping with difficult weather and snow conditions: Reindeer herders’ views on climate change impacts and coping strategies

    Minna T. Turunen


    Full Text Available Winter is a critical season for reindeer herding, with the amount and quality of snow being among the most important factors determining the condition of reindeer and the annual success of the livelihood. Our first aim was to model the future (2035–2064 snow conditions in northern Finland, especially the quantities related to ground ice and/or ice layers within the snow pack, exceptionally deep snow and late snow melt. Secondly, we studied the strategies by which herders cope with the impacts of difficult weather and snow conditions on herding by interviewing 21 herders. SNOWPACK simulations indicate that snow cover formation will be delayed by an average of 19 days and snow will melt 16 days earlier during the period 2035–2064 when compared to 1980–2009. There will be more frequent occurrence of ground ice that persists through the winter and the ice layers in open environments will be thicker in the future. The snow cover will be 26–40% thinner and snow in open environments will be denser. Variability between winters will grow. In interviews, herders indicated that a longer snowless season and thin snow cover would be advantageous for herding due to increased availability of forage, but more frequent icing conditions would cause problems. The most immediate reaction of reindeer to the decreased availability of forage caused by difficult snow conditions is to disperse. This effect is intensified when the lichen biomass on the pastures is low. To cope with the impacts of adverse climatic conditions, herders increase control over their herds, intensify the use of pasture diversity, take reindeer into enclosures and/or start or intensify supplementary feeding. The research also reveals that predators, competing land uses and the high prices of supplementary feed and fuel were the major threats to the herders’ coping capacity. Coping capacity was facilitated by, among other factors, the herders’ experience-based traditional knowledge

  18. Development, control and counter-measures regarding radioactive caesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident; Utveckling, oevervakning och aatgaerder naer det gaeller radioaktivt cesium i renar efter Tjernobylolyckan

    Aahman, Birgitta [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Reindeer Husbandry Unit


    Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, monitoring of {sup 137}Cs in reindeer has been made at slaughter, by measuring muscle samples or by direct monitoring of gamma radiation on reindeer carcasses. Carcasses above the accepted limit have been discarded. Many carcasses were discarded during the first years, but now the number is only some per cent of the total slaughter. The radiocaesium intake in reindeer varies with season, which is reflected in the levels in reindeer, which are low in summer and high in winter. The levels of {sup 137}Cs have declined from 1986 to 2004 with an average effective half-life of 5.3 years. The decline was faster during the first years than during later years. Presently, 16 out of totally 51 reindeer herding districts in Sweden are included in the control of {sup 137}Cs in reindeer. Control is often necessary only in defined areas or at certain periods of the year. Monitoring of {sup 137}Cs in live reindeer is made in addition to the monitoring at slaughter. Counter-measures have been applied in areas where many reindeer are above the accepted limit for {sup 137}Cs. Change of slaughter time and feeding are the most used counter-measures. The reindeer owners are compensated economically from the state for costs related to these counter-measures. The need for measures, and thereby the costs, have decreased with time. In the southern parts of the county of Vaesterbotten and in the northernmost part of Jaemtland, where the Chernobyl fallout was the highest, it will probably still take at least ten to twenty years until measures and control are no longer needed.

  19. Artificial feeding and nutritional status of semi-domesticated reindeer during winter

    Mauri Nieminen


    Full Text Available Three feeding experiments were done during 1980-82 with semi-domesticated reindeer in captivity out of doors in Northern Finland. Calves and adult hinds were fed with lichens (Cladina spp., hay, dry molasses pulp and other feeds containing different amounts of proteins and other nutrients. The body weight, blood and faecal N were lowest in lichen fed groups. Slightly higher values were measured in groups fed with dry or ground hay, dry molasses pulp, oat bran and commercial feeds.Poron kunto talvella keimoruokinnalla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vuosina 1980-82 tehtiin poroilla tarhaoloissa Pohjois-Suomessa kolme ruokintakoetta. Vasoja ja vaatimia ruokittiin jåkålållå (Cladina spp., heinållå, melassileikkeellå ja muilla rehuilla, joissa oli eri mååriå valkuaista ja muita ravintoaineita. Porojen elopaino, veriarvot ja ulosteen typpipitoisuus olivat alhaisimmat jåkålållå ruokitulla poroilla. Hieman karkeampia arvoja mitattiin muissa ryhmisså, joita ruokittiin, kuivalla tai jauhetulla heinållå, melassileikkeellå, kaurajauholla ja kaupallisilla rehuilla.Foring og næringsstatus hos finsk rein gjennom vinteren.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tre forsøk med foring av rein ble utført i årene 1980-82. Dyrene ble holdt utendørs i innhegning i Nord-Finland. Kalver og voksne simler ble gitt lav (Cladina spp., høy, tørket melasse-pulp og andre forsor-ter med forskjellig innhold av protein og andre næringsstoffer. Kroppsvekt, blod verdier og total-N-innhold i fæces var lavest i de lav-forede grupper. Litt høyere verdier ble målt i andre grupper som ble gitt vanlig eller malt høy, tørket melasse-pulp, havrekli og kommersielle forsorter.

  20. Mating patterns amongst Siberian reindeer herders: inferences from mtDNA and Y-chromosomal analyses.

    Pakendorf, Brigitte; Novgorodov, Innokentij N; Osakovskij, Vladimir L; Stoneking, Mark


    The Evenks and Evens, who speak closely related languages belonging to the Northern Tungusic branch of the Tungusic family, are nomadic reindeer herders and hunters. They are spread over an immense territory in northeastern Siberia, and consequently different subgroups are in contact with diverse peoples speaking Samoyedic, Turkic, Mongolic, Chukotka-Kamchatkan, and Yukaghir languages. Nevertheless, the languages and culture of the Evenks and Evens are similar enough for them to have been classified as a single ethnic group in the past. This linguistic and cultural similarity indicates that they may have spread over their current area of habitation relatively recently, and thus may be closely related genetically. On the other hand, the great distances that separate individual groups of Evens and Evenks from each other might have led to preferential mating with geographic neighbors rather than with linguistically related peoples. In this study, we assess the correlation between linguistic and genetic relationship in three different subgroups of Evenks and Evens, respectively, via mtDNA and Y-chromosomal analyses. The results show that there is some evidence of a common origin based on shared mtDNA lineages and relatively similar Y-haplogroup frequencies amongst most of the Evenk and Even subgroups. However, there is little sharing of Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes, indicating that males within Evenk and Even subgroups have remained relatively isolated. There is further evidence of some female admixture in different Even subgroups with their respective geographic neighbors. However, the Tungusic groups, and especially the Evenks, show signs of genetic drift, making inferences about their prehistory difficult.

  1. Extreme winter cyclones and the extinction of a reindeer population (Invited)

    Walsh, J. E.; Klein, D. R.; Shulski, M.


    While strong cyclones are not unusual are not unusual in the subpolar North Pacific storm track, an exceptional series of storm events in early 1964 decimated the reindeer population of St. Matthew Island in the central Bering Sea. This case illustrates how severe winter storms can lead to species extinction when overpopulated species are restricted to islands or fractured habitats where dispersal is not an option. The strongest storm occurred in early February when a surface low pressure system that originated over the warm waters offshore of Japan tracked eastward from the warm waters offshore of Japan. The intensification of the low then accelerated as the storm approached the Aleutians, where the central pressure decreased to 957 hPa, a pressure typical of Category 3 hurricanes. The track and intensity of the low were such that St. Matthew Island was in the storm’s northwest quadrant during the peak-intensity phase. The pressure difference between the intense cyclone and the Siberian high exceeded 100 hPa -- a pressure difference between these two locations that was the largest in the entire 60-year period of the NCEP reanalysis. This record pressure difference led to extremely strong northerly winds that brought bitterly cold arctic air over St. Matthew Island, which was in the storm’s northwest quadrant. The wind chill temperature dropped to -50°C and remained colder than -40°C almost continuously for a full week. In this presentation, we examine the storm’s evolution and place the winter of early 1964 into the context of the historical cyclone climatological of the North Pacific.

  2. Anatomy of a reindeer dissected in Copenhagen in 1672 by Niels Stensen as reported by Thomas Bartholin. I. Introduction by Troels Kardel. II. Translation by Paul Maquet

    Troels Kardel


    Full Text Available A report by Professor Thomas Bartholin on the dissection of a reindeer performed in 1672 by his former student Niels Stensen as Royal Anatomist in Copenhagen is presented in English translation with biographical introduction and bibliographical notes. The report is most likely the first of its kind being an early contribution to comparative anatomy.

  3. Of reindeer and man, modern and Neanderthal: A creation story founded on a historic perspective on how to conserve wildlife, woodland caribou in particular

    Valerius Geist


    A review of successful systems of wildlife conservation, the North American included, suggests that broad public support and determined effort by volunteers is essential for wildlife conservation. Since North American wildlife conservation is the only large-scale system of sustainable natural resource use, and exemplifies the great economic and cultural benefits of a renewable resource held in common, its lessons may be profitably applied to Rangifer conservation. Animals that have value are ...

  4. Detection of snow surface thawing and refreezing in the Eurasian Arctic with QuikSCAT: implications for reindeer herding.

    Bartsch, Annett; Kumpula, Timo; Forbes, Bruce C; Stammler, Florian


    Snow conditions play an important role for reindeer herding. In particular, the formation of ice crusts after rain-on-snow (ROS) events or general surface thawing with subsequent refreezing impedes foraging. Such events can be monitored using satellite data. A monitoring scheme has been developed for observation at the circumpolar scale based on data from the active microwave sensor SeaWinds on QuikSCAT (Ku-band), which is sensitive to changes on the snow surface. Ground observations on Yamal Peninsula were used for algorithm development. Snow refreezing patterns are presented for northern Eurasia above 60 degrees N from autumn 2001 to spring 2008. Western Siberia is more affected than Central and Eastern Siberia in accordance with climate data, and most events occur in November and April. Ice layers in late winter have an especially negative effect on reindeer as they are already weakened. Yamal Peninsula is located within a transition zone between high and low frequency of events. Refreezing was observed more than once a winter across the entire peninsula during recent years. The southern part experienced refreezing events on average four times each winter. Currently, herders can migrate laterally or north-south, depending on where and when a given event occurs. However, formation of ice crusts in the northern part of the peninsula may become as common as they are now in the southern part. Such a development would further constrain the possibility to migrate on the peninsula.

  5. Radiostrontium, radiocesium and stable mineral composition of bones of domestic reindeer from Vågå, Norway

    Hans Staaland


    Full Text Available Radiostrontium, radiocesium and macromineral concentrations were measured in metatarsal or metacarpal bones from 78 reindeer (59 calves and 19 adults in the Vågå reindeer herding district in Southern Norway. Samples were collected in the period August 1988 to May 1989. Radiocesium concentrations increased from August through the winter. Radiostrontium varied slightly around an average value 1810 Bq/kg DM. Mg concentrations decreased through the winter, the concentrations of other minerals and bone density showed only small variations. No signs of mineral deficiencies were observed. It is concluded that radiostrontium mainly originated from the Chernobyl nuclear accident.Radiostrontium, radiocesium og stabile mineraler in reinknokler fra Vågå, NorgeAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Innhold av radiostrontium, radiocesium og makromineraler ble målt i reinsdyrknokler (metatarsus og metacarpus innsamlet fra 78 dyr (59 kalver og 19 voksne tilhørende Vågå tamreinlag. Prøvene ble samlet i perioden august 1988 til mai 1989. Innholdet av radiocesium økte fra august og gjennom vinteren, mens innholdet av radiostrontium var temmelig konstant (1810 Bq/ kg tørrstoff. Magnesium innholdet avtok gjennom vinteren, mens innholdet av andre mineraler samt knoklenes tetthet varierte lite. Det ble ikke observert noen tegn på mineralmangel. Mesteparten av det radioaktive strontium kom fra atomkraftulykken i Tsjernobyl.

  6. 驯鹿及其生物学特性研究%Reindeer and Its Biological Characteristics

    常悦; 张玉; 陈巴特尔; 孙亚红


    驯鹿分布于北极圈及其周边地区,耐寒怕燥,处于野生或半驯化状态.本文通过对驯鹿的生态分布,形态特征(包括个体大小、被毛、茸角、鼻、蹄、视力),进食习性,繁殖习性,迁徙活动以及天敌等几方面对驯鹿的生物学特性做出较为全面的介绍,以便为今后的驯鹿保护工作奠定基础,从而制定出针对性更强的保护措施.%The reindeer inhabits in the Arctic Circle and its surrounding areas, which is cold resistant and afraid of dryness and in the wild or semi-domesticated state. The paper comprehensively introduced the biological characteristics of the reindeer through such aspects as its ecological distribution, morphological character (including body size, fur, antler, nose, feet and eyesight), eating habit, breeding habit, migrating activities as well as its natural enemies, so as to lay a foundation for the protection work and therefore developing more effective protective measures.

  7. Faeces is a reliable source of body water for measuring tritium in reindeer in summer and in winter

    Geir Gotaas


    Full Text Available Rates of equilibration and subsequent wash-out of tritium were measured in parallel samples of blood, rumen fluid and faeces collected from two adult female Norwegian reindeer in summer and in winter. The tritium-concentration was the same in all three body water compartments after no more than 9 h following both intravenous and intra-ruminal injection of isotope in summer and following intravenous injection of isotope in winter. The biological half-life of the tritium increased from approximately 3 days in summer to approximately 10 days in winter, probably as a consequence of a decrease in water intake. There were no significant differences in disappearance rates of tritium from blood, rumen fluid and faeces within any of the six experiments. Fresh faeces is therefore a reliable source of body water that can be used in place of blood in studies of body water kinetics in reindeer, thus making it potentially possible to conduct such studies on truly free-living and undisturbed animals.

  8. Comparing results of high-resolution palaeoecological analyses with oral histories of land-use of a Sami reindeer herding pen in northern Sweden

    Kamerling, Ilse M.; Edwards, Kevin J.; Schofield, James E.; Aronsson, Kjell-Åke


    Reindeer herding is a key component of Sami culture, but much is still unknown about its development both in the recent and more distant past due to the limited availability of historical and archaeological evidence. Pollen analysis provides a potential tool to supplement this lack of evidence through the detection and evaluation of landscape responses to the impact of reindeer pastoralism. In the boreal forests of northern Fennoscandia, localised forest clearance to create space for dwellings and livestock is presented in the palynological record as a decline in arboreal taxa and an increase in herbaceous taxa favoured by the increased light levels, resistance to soil trampling, and/or the increased soil nutrient levels provided by reindeer dung, domestic waste and ash from smudge fires. Oral histories of 20th century forest Sami reindeer herding at an abandoned reindeer herding pen (renvall) at Akkajävi, northern Sweden (66.9° N, 21.1° E), are integrated here with high-resolution palaeoecological reconstructions of the local vegetation to: (i) assess the sensitivity and value of various palynomorphs to the impacts of reindeer pastoralism; (ii) investigate whether the patterns seen in the palaeoecological record match the timing of activity at and abandonment of the site as understood from these oral histories. A peat monolith collected from within an annexe of the renvall was pollen analysed at a high resolution, supplemented with coprophilous fungal spore (livestock grazing/gathering), microscopic charcoal ([anthropogenic] burning) and sedimentological (loss-on-ignition; soil erosion) records. For the first time, this has allowed for the identification of multi-decadal cycles of use and abandonment of a renvall in the pollen record, but more obviously so in its coprophilous fungal spore archive, with the pattern and timing of changes at the site confirming events previously known only from oral histories. A second, paired profile was collected from the fen

  9. Dynamics and life histories of northern ungulates in changing environments

    Hendrichsen, D. K.


    Regional climate and local weather conditions can profoundly influence life history parameters (growth, survival, fecundity) and population dynamics in northern ungulates (Post and Stenseth 1999, Coulson et al. 2001). The influence is both direct, for example through reduced growth or survival (Aanes et al. 2000, Tyler et al. 2008), and indirect, for example through changes in resource distribution, phenology and quality, changes which subsequently influence consumer dynamics (Post et al. 2008). By comparing and contrasting data from three spatially independent populations of ungulates, I discuss how variation in local weather parameters and vegetation growth influence spatial and temporal dynamics through changes in life history parameters and/or behavioural dynamics. The data originate from long term (11-15 years) monitoring data from three populations of ungulates in one subarctic and two high Arctic sites; semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in northern Norway, Svalbard reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) on Spitsbergen and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in Northeast Greenland. The results show that juvenile animals can be particularly vulnerable to changes in their environment, and that this is mirrored to different degrees in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the three populations. Adverse weather conditions, acting either directly or mediated through access to and quality of vegetation, experienced by young early in life, or even by their dams during pregnancy, can lead to reduced growth, lower survival and reduced reproductive performance later in life. The influence of current climatic variation, and the predictions of how local weather conditions may change over time, differs between the three sites, resulting in potentially different responses in the three populations. Aanes R, Saether BE and Øritsland NA. 2000. Fluctuations of an introduced population of Svalbard reindeer: the effects of density dependence and climatic variation. Ecography

  10. Water-holding capacity, colour stability and sensory characteristics in meat (M. longissimus dorsi from reindeer fed two different commercial feeds

    Eva Wiklund


    Full Text Available Twenty reindeer calves (age 10 months were included in the study. They were all fed one of two different pelleted feed mixtures ad libitum for two months before slaughter. Ten calves were fed a control diet of conventional pellets (CPD (Renfor Bas, Lantmännen, Holmsund, Sweden and ten calves received pellets enriched with linseed cake (LPD. The reindeer were slaughtered according to standard procedure at Arvidsjaur Renslakt AB, a reindeer slaughter plant in Arvidsjaur, Sweden. At 1 day post mortem, both longissimus dorsi (LD muscles from each carcass were excised. The left LD was used for sensory evaluation and the right LD for colour and water-holding capacity measurements. The right LD was cut in 4 pieces that were randomly allocated to storage times of 1 day, 1, 2, or 3 weeks at + 4 °C. Samples allocated for storage were vacuum packaged. Evaluation of meat colour was carried out after each of the four storage times while drip loss/purge was registered after 1, 2, and 3 weeks storage at + 4 °C. The left LD muscles were vacuum packaged, frozen at -20 °C and kept frozen until preparation for sensory evaluation. No significant differences were found in carcass quality (carcass weight, EUROP carcass conformation and fat scores, meat colour stability and water-holding capacity of LD samples when comparing the two treatment groups LPD and CPD. However, sensory panellists judged samples from LPD fed reindeer to have a tendency (not significant to be more tender (P= 0.06 and juicy (P=0.07 than the meat samples from CPD fed reindeer. No flavour differences were found when comparing meat samples from the two treatment groups.

  11. Analysis of the economic adaptation of Sami reindeer management - A co-operation project between Nordic Sami Institute (NSI and Umeå University (UU, Centre for Sami Research (CESAM (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Jan Åge Riseth


    Full Text Available In spite of low economic return in Sami reindeer management in most regions, there has been an increasing human population in the reindeer industry during the latest decades. This deviates from the expectations given by modern purpose rationality. There are indications that the reindeer managing Sami practices in Weberian sense a substantial rationality. Analysis at hand indicate close connections between landscape, management type, and type of rationality in reindeer management. The project is based on two major hypotheses: 1 The life form hypothesis: reindeer management has an particular value for the performers being the condition for an active choice of remaining within the industry, 2 The capital hypothesis: lacking re¬cognition of the resources of the reindeer managing Sami is/ has been limiting their establishment in capital requiring undertakings. The project will analyse the economy of reindeer management based on investigations in several types of reindeer management as well in Norway as in Sweden, in North Sami and South Sami areas. In chosen regions both quantitative and qualitative studies will be undertaken, focusing household level, to map the economy of the reindeer managing Sami. For the quantitative analyses creation and extent of value streams in the households of reindeer management and near surroundings are focused. In the qualitative analyses the point of departure is decision situations and strategic choices with reindeer managing Sami. Based on the regional analyses comparative analyses are conducted to find representativity of the regional studies. The project was started 1st July 2004 and is financed for 2!/!> years from The Research Council of Norway (Program for Sami Research, Interreg (Interreg IIIA Såpmi & Åarjelsaemie dajve, The Sami Parliament of Sweden and self-financing from NSI and UU. The project has near after start 2 full time researchers and project leader in a 20% position. Another researcher will join

  12. Ancient wild reindeer pitfall trapping systems as indicators for former migration patterns and habitat use in the Dovre region, southern Norway

    Per Jordhøy


    Full Text Available The distribution of ancient reindeer pitfall trap systems suggests an extensive regional migration of reindeer between seasonal pastures in parts of southern Norway. The migration routes were funnelled by natural barriers across a high, rolling mountain plateau. In the Dovre area, two pitfall trapping systems, totalling at least 1547 individual pitfalls, were identified and measured using a standard procedure and GPS to record location. Migrating reindeer typically cross over valleys between areas of higher ground and reindeer pitfall trap lines are therefore aligned along the valley, individually placed so that their long axis is perpendicular to the direction of the valleys. Pitfall trap systems for moose are also evident in the landscape. In contrast to reindeer, migrating moose mainly follow the line of the valley. Pitfall rows built for moose trapping are therefore placed mainly across the main direction of the valleys, and the individual pitfalls are also larger than those intended for reindeer. Migration and lichen utilization are important factors in reindeer adaption to limited food resources and existence in marginal mountain habitats. The trap systems and their ecological context support the hypothesis of ancient large-scale reindeer migration over the west-east Dovre axis between summer pastures and winter grazing land. This migration has ceased entirely because of increasing traffic on the north-south railway and highway and probably also because of reduced reindeer populations. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Gamle fangstgropsystemer for rein som indikatorer for tidligere trekkmønster og habitatbruk i Dovreregionen, Sør-NorgeUtbredelse av fangstgropsystemer for rein tyder på at det har vært et regionalt trekkmønster mellom ulike sesongbeiter innen deler av Sør-Norge. Trekket har vært styrt av naturlige barrierer over et variert, bølgende fjellandskap. I dovreområdet er to store fangstgropsystemer på totalt minst 1547

  13. In situ analysis of the bacterial community associated with the reindeer lichen Cladonia arbuscula reveals predominance of Alphaproteobacteria.

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Vieira de Castro, João; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin


    The diversity and spatial pattern of the bacterial community hosted by the shrub-like reindeer lichen Cladonia arbuscula were investigated by general DNA staining and FISH, coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Using an optimized protocol for FISH using cryosections of small lichen fragments, we found about 6 x 10(7) bacteria g(-1) of C. arbuscula. Approximately 86% of acridine orange-stained cells were also stained by the universal FISH probe EUB338. Using group-specific FISH probes, we detected a dominance of Alphaproteobacteria (more than 60% of all bacteria), while the abundance of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria was much lower (lichen showed a lower bacterial colonization. alpha-proteobacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified using total DNA extracts from C. arbuscula and separated by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Sequencing of excised bands revealed the dominance of Acetobacteraceae.

  14. Whose landscape? - An anthropological perspective on landscape perception in reindeer tending (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Anna Järpe


    Full Text Available When we talk publicly about landscape and land use, both in legal and in popular contexts, the evaluation of our natural environment is usually based on an industrial concept of land and landscape. "Nature" is seen as a resource to be used or managed in different ways. My research originates in a questioning of this assumption: can we take for granted that the same perceptions and evaluations are shared by all concerned parties? In this article, I will use an ecologic anthropological perspective to consider the livelihood of reindeer tending and suggest an alternative to what can be called a scientific understanding of the world. I maintain that the relations that people have with their environment, and the values that they ascribe to it, are perceptions that are shaped and affected in our interactions with the surrounding world, and that these perceptions vary between different groups of people. Land use, land rights, access to fishing waters, and who gets to hunt what; these are not only questions about how we should manage the landscape, but also about whose landscape we are managing. Arguing that the reindeer tenders' landscape is a shifting mosaic of varying conditions that they must relate to rather than an object to be used and controlled by human interests, I want to show how anthropological research can provide an insight into the different perspectives and modes of understanding that we need to consider in the formulation of future policies and laws. At least if we want to resolve land use conflicts in contested areas fairly and on a sustainable long-term basis.

  15. Greening of the Arctic: Partitioning Warming Versus Reindeer Herbivory for Willow Populations on Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.


    Arctic warming has been linked to observed increases in tundra shrub cover and growth in recent decades on the basis of significant relationships between deciduous shrub growth/biomass and temperature. These vegetation trends have been linked to Arctic sea-ice decline and thus to the sea-ice/albedo feedback known as Arctic amplification. However, the interactions between climate, sea ice, tundra vegetation and herbivores remain poorly understood. Recently we revealed a 50-year growth response over a >100,000 km2 area to a rise in summer temperature for willow (Salix lanata), one the most abundant shrub genera at and north of the continental treeline and an important source of reindeer forage in spring, summer and autumn. We demonstrated that whereas plant productivity is related to sea ice in late spring, the growing season peak responds to persistent synoptic-scale air masses over West Siberia associated with Fennoscandian weather systems through the Rossby wave train. Substrate was important for biomass accumulation, yet a strong correlation between growth and temperature encompasses all observed soil types. Vegetation was especially responsive to temperature in early summer. However, the role of herbivory was not addressed. The present data set explores the relationship between long-term herbivory and growth trends of shrubs experiencing warming in recent decades. Semi-domestic reindeer managed by indigenous Nenets nomads occur at high densities in summer on exposed ridge tops and graze heavily on prostrate and low erect willows. A few meters away in moderately sloped landslides tall willows remain virtually ungrazed as their canopies have grown above the browse line of ca. 180 cm. Here we detail the responses of neighboring shrub populations with and without intensive herbivory yet subject to the same decadal warming trend.

  16. The effects of food and maternal conditions in fetal growth and size in wild reindeer

    Terje Skogland


    Full Text Available Fetal growth rates and birth weights were studied in four wild reindeer areas in Southern Norway (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø, Forelhogna, representing high and low density populations, with a 5-fold difference in mean lichen winter-food availability. Fetal growth was depressed by 42% in the high-densitv Hardangervidda population, and mean birth weights were 3.7 vs. 6.2 kg, with a 10 days difference in mean birth dates. Fetal size was better correlated with maternal weight, than age. Maternal weights increased until 5 yrs. of age and then decreased in the high-density Hardangervidda population (but not so in the low density Knutshø-Forclhogna populations. 55% of the offspring died before weaning in the Hardangervidda herd, but no significant calf losses were found amont the large-sized does in the food-abundant areas.Effekter av ernæring og simlas kondisjon på vekst og størrelse av foster hos villrein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fostervekst og fødselsvekter ble undersøkt i fire villreinområder i Sør-Norge (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø og Forelhogna som representerer høg- og lågtetthetsstammer, med en 5-foldig forskjell i gjennomsnittlig lavbeite-tilgang om vinteren. Fosterveksten ble nedsatt med 42% i høgtetthetsstammen på Hardangervidda og fødselsvektene var i gjennomsnitt 3,7 kg, mot 6,2 kg i det beste området, og med en 10 dagers forsinkelse i midlere fødselsdato. Fosterets størrelse var korrelert med morens vekt, som igjen var avhengig av hennes alder. Hos de minste simlene i det dårligste området økte vektene til 5-års alder, for deretter å avta for hvert gjenlevende år. Hos simlene i det beste området økte vektene til 10-års alder, og var da dobbelt så tunge som fra det dårligste området. 55% av avkommet døde før de var avvent med diing hos Hardangervidda-simlene, mens det ikke var noen statistisk målbar dødelighet hos kalvene i Knutshø-Forelhogna.Ravinnon vaikutus ja

  17. A comparative study on the efficacy of four anthelmintics on some important reindeer parasites

    Magnus Nordkvist


    Full Text Available Four anthelmintic preparations were tested against some of the most important parasites of reindeer, i.e. warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi, nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe, brainworm (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Their efficacy against intestinal nematodes was also registered. Test drugs were Fenthion (Bayer, Fenbendazole (Hoechst, Mebendazole (Janssen, and Ivermectin (Merk Sharp & Dohme. Against O. tarandi and C. trompe Ivermectin was 100% effective and Fenthion 86 and 100% respectively. The efficacy of Fen- and Mebendazole against these parasites was not significant. Against E. rangiferi the benzimidazole compounds were highly effective, with Mebendazole a bit ahead. Ivermectin had a moderate effect and Fenthion had no effect on this parasite. Against D. viviparus Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and Ivermectin were of equal, moderate-high effectiveness. No drug had a complete effect on the «arrested» larvae of D. viviparus. Fenthion had no effect at all. Fenbendazole and Ivermectin were both 100% effective against intestinal nematodes. Mebendazole was less effective and Fenthion had no effects. Ivermectin is considered to be the overall most effective anthelmintic in this test.En jamforande studie av effekten av fyra anthelmintika mot några betydelsesfulla parasiter hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Fyra antiparasitmedel har prôvats mot några av renens viktigaste parasiter, nàmligen hudkorm (Oedemagena tarandi, svalgkorm (Cephenemyia trompe, hjårnmask (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi och lungmask (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Vidare har medlens effekt på mag- tarmnematoder (Trichostongylider också noterats. De prôvade medicinerna var Fenthion (Bayer, Mebendazole (Leo/Janssen, Fenbendazole (Hoechst och Ivermectin (Merck Sharp & Dohme. Mot hud- och svalgkorm var Ivermectin 100% effektivt medan for Fenthion effekten var 86 resp 100%. Effekten av Fen- och Mebendazole mot de båda parasiterna var inte

  18. The effects of human disturbance on the activity of wild reindeer in different physical condition

    Terje Skogland


    Full Text Available We compared two Norwegian wild reindeer herds, Knutsho in excellent physical condition and Hardangervidda in poor physical condition, before and during disturbance by human hunters in order to test whether physical condition effected foraging strategy under stress. Both herds were being regularly hunted (man had been a natural predator on reindeer since prehistoric time. The well-fed Knutsho animals were ca. 30% larger at the start of the hunting season in late August. Before exposure they foraged less and walked more, i.e. were more selective than the Hardangervidda animals which were in energetically lower condition and foraged significantly more and spent less time moving between habitat patches and less time standing. After exposure to hunters disturbed Knutsho animals aggregated into significantly larger groups than before hunting and stood alert more, while Hardangervidda animals spent the same minimum amount of time foraging but moved significantly more and spent almost no time standing. The frequency of disturbance was not significantly different between the two herds and their speeds of movement after disturbances were similar. The hunter kill success rate was also similar in the two areas. The energetic costs, measured as relative body weight loss during the hunting season, was higher for the initially less well-fed Hardangervidda animals, and higher for both herds compared to that from a less disturbed herd (Forelhogna. We hypothezise that while standing still and alert in aggregated groups is risky, it is still more risky to move, but potentially more rewarding if a better habitat could be found. More well-fed Knutsho animals, which aggregated and stood still, conserved allready stored energy, compatible with a time minimizer risk aversive strategy. The Hardangervidda animals which were in poorer condition increased travelling time to an extent that suggested a risky nutrient miximizer strategy in the phase of stress.Effekter av

  19. 25 years of Chernobyl: Still need for countermeasures in reindeer herding; 25 aar med Tsjernobyl: Stadig behov for mottiltak i reindrifta


    Even 25 years after Chernobyl, both in Jotunheimen and in North-Troendelag and Nordland reindeer are containing radioactive cesium over the action limit. A review of the pollution level in many areas indicate that cesium concentrations are reduced very little over the years, and that year with a lot of mushrooms can still give high concentrations in many areas. We must therefore prepare ourselves to use Countermeasures for several decades yet. (AG)

  20. Case study of the effects of hypothetical nuclear power plant accident to the northern food chain of lichen-reindeer-man

    Leppaenen, A.P.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland)


    There are plans to open a new nuclear power plant in Northern Finland at Pyhaejoki. The currently planned reactor type is AES 2006 built by Rosenergoatom. The power output of the AES 2006 is 1200 MWe. In a hypothetical reactor accident at Pyhaejoki large amounts of radioactivity would be released to the environment in Northern Europe. With suitable wind conditions the contaminants would contaminate large areas in the Euro-Arctic region in Northern Scandinavia and in Kola Peninsula. Northern parts of Scandinavia belongs to the sub-arctic region where reindeer herding is an important livelihood for the local and for the indigenous Sami people. As a results of the CEEPRA-project ('Collaboration Network on Environmental Radiation Protection and Research') funded by the EU's Kolarctic ENPI CBC program estimated a possible fallout to Finnish Lapland from a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident occurring at the planned site. Lichen-reindeer-man food chain is an important food chain to the people living in Lapland from traditional and from economical point of views. The food chain is known to enrich radioactive contaminants efficiently. In case of nuclear fallout this food chain would be one of the primary sources of {sup 137}Cs into the inhabitants in Northern regions. The food chain has been well-studied where studies began in the 1960's and was intensified after the Chernobyl accident. This study concentrates on the effects caused by the hypothetical accident, occurring at the planned Pyhaejoki power plant, to the lichen-reindeer-man food chain. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs to the reindeer meat and possible doses to the man will be estimated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. Failure of two consecutive annual treatments with ivermectin to eradicate the reindeer parasites (Hypoderma tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe and Linguatula arctica from an island in northern Norway

    Arne C. Nilssen


    Full Text Available The highly efficient endectocide ivermectin is used to reduce the burden of parasites in many semidomestic reindeer herds in northern Fennoscandia. In the autumn of 1995 and 1996 all reindeer on the island of Silda (42 km2 were treated with ivermectin in an attempt to eradicate the warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi (L., the nose bot fly (Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer (Diptera: Oestridae and the sinus worm (Linguatula arctica Riley, Haugerud and Nilssen (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae. Silda is situated 2-3 km off the mainland of Finnmark, northern Norway, and supports about 475 reindeer in summer. A year after the first treatment, the mean abundance of H. tarandi was reduced from 3.5 to 0.6, but a year after the second treatment the mean abundance unexpectedly had increased to 4.5. After one year without treatment, the mean abundance and prevalence of the three target parasites were at the same level, or higher, than pre-treatment levels. The main hypothesis for the failure to eliminate the parasites is that gravid H. tarandi and C. trompe females originating from untreated reindeer in adjacent mainland areas dispersed to the island during the warm summer of 1997 (possibly also in 1998. As these oestrids are strong flyers, it may not be too difficult for them to cross >2-3 km of oceanic waters. There are no good explanations for the failure to eradicate L. arctica, but the results indicate that there may be elements in its life cycle that are unknown. The conclusion of the study is that it may be difficult or impossible to eradicate these parasites permanently, even locally such as on islands unless adjacent areas on the mainland are also cleared.

  2. Optimization and comparison of different methods for RNA isolation for cDNA library construction from the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina

    Lim Kean-Jin; Junttila Sini; Rudd Stephen


    Abstract Background The reindeer lichen is the product of a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae. Lichen demonstrate a remarkable capacity to tolerate dehydration. This tolerance is driven by a variety of biochemical processes and the accumulation of specific secondary metabolites that may be of relevance to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and agriculture industries. These protective metabolites hinder in vitro enzymatic reactions required in cDNA synthesis. Along with the...

  3. Optimization and comparison of different methods for RNA isolation for cDNA library construction from the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina

    Lim Kean-Jin; Junttila Sini; Rudd Stephen


    Abstract Background The reindeer lichen is the product of a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae. Lichen demonstrate a remarkable capacity to tolerate dehydration. This tolerance is driven by a variety of biochemical processes and the accumulation of specific secondary metabolites that may be of relevance to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and agriculture industries. These protective metabolites hinder in vitro enzymatic reactions required in cDNA synthesis. Along with the...

  4. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Terje S. Larsen


    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  5. Domestication of ruminant livestock and the impact of nematode parasites:possible implications for the reindeer industry

    Peter J. Waller


    Full Text Available In a balanced ecological system, both host and nematode parasite populations are firmly controlled by a complex array of interacting factors. However domestication of livestock has tipped the balance in favour of the parasites. This is due to increasing the proportion of susceptible animals in the herd or flock (lactating females and weaned young animals, increasing stocking rate, increasing productivity demands and decreasing the movement of the animals. In contrast with microbial infections, where multiplication takes place entirely within the host, metazoan parasites have both a parasitic phase and a free-living phase. Every worm present has been separately acquired by the ingestion of free-living stages on pasture. Immunity to nematodes develops slowly, it is labile, and its maintenance is dependent upon a good nutritional state of the animal. Consequently, worm parasites are ubiquitous wherever livestock are kept and they impose a constant and often a high infectious pressure on grazing animals. Nematode infections in grazing livestock are almost always a mixture of species. All have deleterious effects and collectively lead to chronic ill thrift. Economic evaluations repeatedly show that the major losses due to parasites are on animal production, rather than on mortality. This paper focuses on the problems of nematode parasites; problems associated with drug use (anthelmintic resistance, environmental impact and costs of nematode infections for the common ruminant livestock industries (cattle, sheep, goats, with possible analogies for the semi-domesticated reindeer industry.

  6. Chernobyl fallout in the middle of Norway: Investigations among reindeer herders in 1992, 1993 and 1996; Tsjernobylnedfall i Midt-Norge: Undersoekelser blant reindriftsutoevere i 1992, 1993 og 1996

    Mehli, Hanne; Skuterud, Lavrans; Mosdoel, Annhild


    This report presents results from whole body measurements of 137Cs in reindeer herders in the middle of Norway in 1992, 1993 and 1996 and results from the dietary survey in 1996. Average concentrations of 137Cs in persons in the group is decreasing, but both in 1992, 1993 and 1996 there might have been individuals receiving doses from the Chernobyl fallout of more than 1 mSv. Natural products like game, freshwater fish, mushrooms and berries are in addition to reindeer important in the diet of this population group. 11 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Parasitism of the deer ked, Lipoptena cervi, on the moose, Alces alces, in eastern Finland.

    Paakkonen, T; Mustonen, A-M; Roininen, H; Niemelä, P; Ruusila, V; Nieminen, P


    The deer ked, Lipoptena cervi L. (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), is an ectoparasitic fly that spread to Finland in the early 1960s from the southeast across the Soviet border. It is currently a common parasite of the moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), in the southern part of the country and its area of distribution is gradually spreading to Finnish Lapland, where it will come into contact with another potential cervid host, the semi-domesticated reindeer, Rangifer tarandus tarandus. The aim of this study was to determine the intensity of deer ked parasitism on the moose in eastern Finland. Whole skins of 23 moose were examined for the presence of deer keds, which were extracted and their total numbers estimated. The intensity of deer ked parasitism was correlated to the age, sex, skin area and anatomical region of the host. Bulls had the highest total number of keds (10616 ± 1375) and the highest deer ked density (35.7 ± 4.4 keds/dm(2) of skin). Cows had a higher total number of keds than calves (3549 ± 587 vs. 1730 ± 191), but ked densities on cows and calves were roughly equal (11.8 ± 1.7 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1 keds/dm(2) of skin). The density of keds was highest on the anterior back, followed by the posterior back, front limbs, abdomen, head and hind limbs. The sex ratio of deer keds was close to equal (male : female, 1.0 : 1.1). After they had consumed blood, male keds were heavier than females. As the total numbers and densities of deer keds were higher than reported previously on moose or for any other louse fly species, the effects of parasitism on the health of the host species should be determined.

  8. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--a primary cause of severe pneumonia epizootics in the Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) population.

    Handeland, Kjell; Tengs, Torstein; Kokotovic, Branko; Vikøren, Turid; Ayling, Roger D; Bergsjø, Bjarne; Sigurðardóttir, Olöf G; Bretten, Tord


    The Norwegian muskox (Ovibos moschatus) population lives on the high mountain plateau of Dovre and originates from animals introduced from Greenland. In the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. During the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. High throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing) of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in all six animals examined by this method and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida in four animals, whereas no virus sequences could be identified. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and P. multocida multocida were also isolated by culture. Using real time PCR on lung swabs, M. ovipneumoniae was detected in all of the 19 pneumonic lungs examined. Gross pathological examination revealed heavy consolidations primarily in the cranial parts of the lungs and it also identified one case of otitis media. Histologically, lung lesions were characterized as acute to subacute mixed exudative and moderately proliferative bronchoalveolar pneumonia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination revealed high load of M. ovipneumoniae antigens within lung lesions, with particularly intensive staining in the neutrophils. Similar IHC finding were observed in archived lung tissue blocks from animals examined during the 2006 epidemic. An M. ovipneumoniae specific ELISA was applied on bio-banked muskox sera from stray muskoxen killed in the period 2004-2013 and sick muskoxen culled, as well as sera from wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) on Dovre and muskoxen from Greenland. Serology and mycoplasma culturing was also carried out on sheep that had been on pasture in the muskox area during the outbreak in 2012. Our findings indicated separate introductions of M. ovipneumoniae infection in 2006 and 2012 from infected co-grazing sheep. Salt licks shared by the two species were a

  9. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--a primary cause of severe pneumonia epizootics in the Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos moschatus population.

    Kjell Handeland

    Full Text Available The Norwegian muskox (Ovibos moschatus population lives on the high mountain plateau of Dovre and originates from animals introduced from Greenland. In the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. During the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. High throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in all six animals examined by this method and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida in four animals, whereas no virus sequences could be identified. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and P. multocida multocida were also isolated by culture. Using real time PCR on lung swabs, M. ovipneumoniae was detected in all of the 19 pneumonic lungs examined. Gross pathological examination revealed heavy consolidations primarily in the cranial parts of the lungs and it also identified one case of otitis media. Histologically, lung lesions were characterized as acute to subacute mixed exudative and moderately proliferative bronchoalveolar pneumonia. Immunohistochemical (IHC examination revealed high load of M. ovipneumoniae antigens within lung lesions, with particularly intensive staining in the neutrophils. Similar IHC finding were observed in archived lung tissue blocks from animals examined during the 2006 epidemic. An M. ovipneumoniae specific ELISA was applied on bio-banked muskox sera from stray muskoxen killed in the period 2004-2013 and sick muskoxen culled, as well as sera from wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus on Dovre and muskoxen from Greenland. Serology and mycoplasma culturing was also carried out on sheep that had been on pasture in the muskox area during the outbreak in 2012. Our findings indicated separate introductions of M. ovipneumoniae infection in 2006 and 2012 from infected co-grazing sheep. Salt licks shared by the two

  10. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae - A Primary Cause of Severe Pneumonia Epizootics in the Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) Population

    Handeland, Kjell; Tengs, Torstein; Kokotovic, Branko; Vikøren, Turid; Ayling, Roger D.; Bergsjø, Bjarne; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G.; Bretten, Tord


    The Norwegian muskox (Ovibos moschatus) population lives on the high mountain plateau of Dovre and originates from animals introduced from Greenland. In the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. During the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. High throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing) of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in all six animals examined by this method and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida in four animals, whereas no virus sequences could be identified. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and P. multocida multocida were also isolated by culture. Using real time PCR on lung swabs, M. ovipneumoniae was detected in all of the 19 pneumonic lungs examined. Gross pathological examination revealed heavy consolidations primarily in the cranial parts of the lungs and it also identified one case of otitis media. Histologically, lung lesions were characterized as acute to subacute mixed exudative and moderately proliferative bronchoalveolar pneumonia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination revealed high load of M. ovipneumoniae antigens within lung lesions, with particularly intensive staining in the neutrophils. Similar IHC finding were observed in archived lung tissue blocks from animals examined during the 2006 epidemic. An M. ovipneumoniae specific ELISA was applied on bio-banked muskox sera from stray muskoxen killed in the period 2004–2013 and sick muskoxen culled, as well as sera from wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) on Dovre and muskoxen from Greenland. Serology and mycoplasma culturing was also carried out on sheep that had been on pasture in the muskox area during the outbreak in 2012. Our findings indicated separate introductions of M. ovipneumoniae infection in 2006 and 2012 from infected co-grazing sheep. Salt licks shared by the two species were a

  11. Comparison of virokine from camel pseudocowpoxvirus (PCPV) with interleukin 10 of the Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Nagarajan, G; Swami, Shelesh Kumar; Dahiya, Shyam Singh; Sivakumar, G; Narnaware, S D; Tuteja, F C; Patil, N V


    Cellular interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the healthy Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and viral IL-10 (vIL-10) from the skin scabs of the Dromedary camels infected with contagious ecthyma (a parapoxviral infection in the camels) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame (ORF) of dromedarian camel IL-10 is 537 bp in length, encoding 178 amino acid polypeptide while open reading frame of vIL-10 from camel is 561 bp, encoding 187 amino acid polypeptide. The Dromedary camel IL-10 exhibited 62.6% and 68.5% sequence identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, with vIL-10 from camel. Sequence analysis also revealed that the Dromedary camel IL-10 shared 99.4% and 98.3% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, with the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). But vIL-10 from camel shared 84.7% and 83.4% sequence identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, with vIL-10 from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), which is a ruminant species belonging to the order Artiodactyla. The present study was conducted to evaluate the evolutionary origin of the camel parapoxvirus with parapoxviruses of cattle and sheep and the resultant sequence analysis revealed that camel parapoxvirus is closely related to cattle parapoxvirus than sheep parapoxvirus (Orf virus).

  12. Summer movements, predation and habitat use of wolves in human modified boreal forests.

    Gurarie, Eliezer; Suutarinen, Johanna; Kojola, Ilpo; Ovaskainen, Otso


    Grey wolves (Canis lupus), formerly extirpated in Finland, have recolonized a boreal forest environment that has been significantly altered by humans, becoming a patchwork of managed forests and clearcuts crisscrossed by roads, power lines, and railways. Little is known about how the wolves utilize this impacted ecosystem, especially during the pup-rearing summer months. We tracked two wolves instrumented with GPS collars transmitting at 30-min intervals during two summers in eastern Finland, visiting all locations in the field, identifying prey items and classifying movement behaviors. We analyzed preference and avoidance of habitat types, linear elements and habitat edges, and tested the generality of our results against lower resolution summer movements of 23 other collared wolves. Wolves tended to show a strong preference for transitional woodlands (mostly harvested clearcuts) and mixed forests over coniferous forests and to use forest roads and low use linear elements to facilitate movement. The high density of primary roads in one wolf's territory led to more constrained use of the home territory compared to the wolf with fewer roads, suggesting avoidance of humans; however, there did not appear to be large differences on the hunting success or the success of pup rearing for the two packs. In total, 90 kills were identified, almost entirely moose (Alces alces) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus sspp.) calves of which a large proportion were killed in transitional woodlands. Generally, wolves displayed a high level of adaptability, successfully exploiting direct and indirect human-derived modifications to the boreal forest environment.

  13. Evidence for chronic omega-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid deficiency in Palaeolithic hominins in Europe at the emergence of cannibalism

    Guil-Guerrero, J. L.


    At the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic (M/UP) transition in Western Europe, hominins depended mostly on terrestrial mammals for subsistence, being pointed out that reliance on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) would have promoted declines in human population densities during that period. Food-composition tables have been compiled for hominins at the M/UP transition, listing protein, fat, energy, different omega-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid concentrations. These data were used to compute the regular relations between fatty and lean tissues of the main hunted food-animals to meet hominin energy needs. Then, with daily protein intake considered critical, the optimal contribution of the different omega-3 fatty acids from different hunted species to hominin diets were computed. Several faunal assemblages from different human sites at different M/UP periods were used to assess the overall daily intake of the various omega-3 fatty acid classes. The results of the calculations made in this work are quite clear; hominins at the M/UP transition had a deficit of both omega-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid. Data on human organs summarized here are also conclusive: these contain such nutrients in amounts much higher than reached in the corresponding mammal organs consumed, and thus could have been alternative sources of those nutrients for Palaeolithic hominins. Therefore, nutritional cannibalism detected at such times could have had the function of alleviating these deficits. The evolutionary advantages gained by the consumption of the various omega-3 fatty acids of human origin are also discussed.

  14. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic.

    Sirmarová, Jana; Tichá, Lucie; Golovchenko, Marina; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia; Nowotny, Norbert; Růžek, Daniel


    This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia bugdorferi (Bb) s.l. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in zoo animals in the Czech Republic. We collected 133 serum samples from 69 animal species from 5 zoos located in different parts of the country. The samples were obtained from even-toed ungulates (n=78; 42 species), odd-toed ungulates (n=32; 11 species), carnivores (n=13; 9 species), primates (n=2, 2 species), birds (n=3; 2 species), and reptiles (n=5; 3 species). A high antibody prevalence (60%) was observed for Bb s.l. On the other hand, only two animals had TBEV-specific antibodies: a markhor (Capra falconeri) and a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), both from the same zoo, located in an area endemic for TBEV. Both of these animals were also positive for Bb s.l. antibodies. Our results indicate that a high number of animal species in the Czech zoos were exposed to Bb s.l. and that TBEV infection occurred at least in one of the investigated zoos. Considering the pathogenic potential of these two tick-borne pathogens, clinical and serological monitoring should be continued, and therapeutic and preventive measures should be taken when necessary.

  15. Increases in body weight and nutritional status of transplanted Alaskan caribou

    Patrick Valkenburg


    Full Text Available Body weight and natality rate in ungulates can be useful indices to nutririon, bur they may also be influenced by genetic and climatic factors. Because caribou {Rangifer tarandus granti are distributed as discrete populations of metapopulations (i.e., herds that are usually reproductively isolated from each other for unknown periods, it is difficult to separate the influence of genetics and nutrition on body weight, especially where historical data are lacking. To help elucidate the influence of nutrition on potential variation in body weight and natality of caribou in Alaska, we reviewed data for body weight and natality in 5 populations which resulted from Transplants to previously ungrazed ranges, or to areas where reindeer and caribou had been absent for many decades. In 2 of 5 populations body weight increased significantly, and likely increased in the other 3 populations, but data were insufficient. Natality rate increased in all 5 populations, proportion of fecund yearlings was high and 3 of the 5 newly established herds increased at about the maximum biological potential for the species (lambda=1.35. In the Adak transplant, a lactating yearling was documented. These 5 transplanted populations provide additional evidence that body weight and natality rate in Alaskan caribou are sensitive to changes in population density and relatively short-term (i.e., 10 years increases in grazing pressure independenr of climate and genetics.

  16. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. II. Feeding of silage and concentrate from January to March

    Anna Nilsson


    Full Text Available An experiment involving 56 male reindeer calves, with a mean initial live weight of 39 kg (SD=4.6, was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the concentrate:silage ratio on the performance during feeding to slaughter. Forty four of the calves were divided in four groups, two groups each being allotted to diets with low, 60% (LC, or high, 80% (HC proportions of a commercial pelleted feed. The remaining twelve calves were slaughtered at the start of the experiment. The experimenral period lasted from January to March. The proportions of concentrate to silage were based on the dry matter (DM content. The silage, 44% DM, was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Animal health was good throughour the experimenr. Small amounts of lichens were mixed into the diets during the first rwo weeks of feeding and may have contributed to the lack of adapta-tionai problems. The mean daily intakes of DM and metabolisable energy were higher (P<0.01 for calves offered the HC-diet. Despite the higher feed intakes, the increased proportion of concentrate in the diet did not significantly alter live weight gains or carcass weight gains. However, the greater fat deposition (P<0.05 and better carcass gradings indicated a better condition of the animals at slaughtet when less silage was fed. This experiment was the the final part of a three year study of silage based diets for reindeer intended for slaughter and the general conclusion is that the best role of grass silage of this quality is as a limited part of the ration. The silage may, however, play an important role during the adaptation period and further detailed studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of silage as a part of the diet to reindeer.

  17. Сomposition and ratio of the chemical elements on the surfaces different by height of reindeer lichen podetia Cladonia rangiferina

    Byazrov Lev; Pel Lyubov


    In the paper the composition of 21 elements – Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ba, Pb – was compared in the upper, central, and lower parts of podetia surfaces of the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina, sampled on the slope of Barguzinsky chain. For the measurement of the elements content (%), a sample-nondestructive μ-XRF spectrometer was used. It was stated that the share (%) of the most elements, except for Cu and Zn, was highly variable. The ...

  18. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=


    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  19. Cultural Resilience of Nenets Social-Ecological Systems in Arctic Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Forbes, B. C.


    Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs) are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighbouring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g. geese), to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio-economic, climate and

  20. The complementarity of luminescence dating methods illustrated on the Mousterian sequence of the Roc de Marsal: A series of reindeer-dominated, Quina Mousterian layers dated to MIS 3

    Guerin, Guillaume; Frouin, Marine; Tuquoi, Joséphine


    that place mixed faunal assemblages in the initial MIS 4; however, while the Quina ages overlap with several other Quina assemblages from the region, they place the reindeer dominated fauna well after the peak cold of MIS 4 and suggest a more extended and complex period of contemporaneous lithic techno...

  1. A note on the manipulation of sodium and potassium concentrations in the rumen of reindeer and the possible effect on digestibility

    Hans Staaland


    Full Text Available Rumen Na+ and K+ concentrations in reindeer were manipulated by introducing 4 M KC1 or 4 M NaCl into the reindeer rumen. A positive correlation was found between salivary and ruminal concentrations of Na+ and K+. Decreased ruminal Na+ concentrations seemed to decrease dry matter digestibility in nylon bags incubated in the rumen.Om manipulering av natrium og kalium konsentrasjoner i vomma hos rein og om de mulige effekter på fordøyeligheten.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Na+ og K+ konsentrasjoner i vomma hos rein ble regulert ved å gi reinen 4 M KC1 eller 4 M NaCl direkte i vomma. Det ble funnet en positiv korrelasjon mellom spytt og vomkonsentrasjoner av Na+ og K+. Redusert Na+ konsentrasjon i vomma synes å redusere tørrstoff-fordøyelighet i nylonposer plassert i vomma.Poron pötsin natrium- ja kaliumkonsentraation kokeellisesta mu-uttamisesta ja tämän mahdollisesta vaikutuksesta sulavuuteen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Poron potsin natrium- ja kaliumkonsentraatioita muutettiin antamalla 4 M KC1 tai 4 M NaCl suo-raan potsiin. Syljen ja potsin Na ja K -konsentraatioiden vålillå todettiin positiivinen korrelaatio. Alentunut Na -konsentraatio potsisså nåyttåå våhentåvån kuiva-aineen sulavuutta potsiin sijoitetuissa nailonpusseissa.

  2. Integrating Indigenous Traditional, Local and Scientific Knowledge for Improved Management, Policy and Decision-Making in Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Aissi-Wespi, Rita L.


    As scientists and policy-makers from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities begin to build closer partnerships to address common sustainability issues such as the health impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities, it becomes increasingly important to create shared information management systems which integrate all relevant factors for optimal information sharing and decision-making. This paper describes a new GIs-based system being designed to bring local and indigenous traditional knowledge together with scientific data and information, remote sensing, and information technologies to address health-related environment, weather, climate, pollution and land use change issues for improved decision/policy-making for reindeer husbandry. The system is building an easily-accessible archive of relevant current and historical, traditional, local and remotely-sensed and other data and observations for shared analysis, measuring, and monitoring parameters of interest. Protection of indigenous culturally sensitive information will be respected through appropriate data protocols. A mechanism which enables easy information sharing among all participants, which is real time and geo-referenced and which allows interconnectivity with remote sites is also being designed into the system for maximum communication among partners. A preliminary version of our system will be described for a Russian reindeer test site, which will include a combination of indigenous knowledge about local conditions and issues, remote sensing and ground-based data on such parameters as the vegetation state and distribution, snow cover, temperature, ice condition, and infrastructure.

  3. Integrating Indigenous Traditional, Local and Scientific Knowledge for Improved Management, Policy and Decision-Making in Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Aissi-Wespi, Rita L.


    As scientists and policy-makers from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities begin to build closer partnerships to address common sustainability issues such as the health impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities, it becomes increasingly important to create shared information management systems which integrate all relevant factors for optimal information sharing and decision-making. This paper describes a new GIs-based system being designed to bring local and indigenous traditional knowledge together with scientific data and information, remote sensing, and information technologies to address health-related environment, weather, climate, pollution and land use change issues for improved decision/policy-making for reindeer husbandry. The system is building an easily-accessible archive of relevant current and historical, traditional, local and remotely-sensed and other data and observations for shared analysis, measuring, and monitoring parameters of interest. Protection of indigenous culturally sensitive information will be respected through appropriate data protocols. A mechanism which enables easy information sharing among all participants, which is real time and geo-referenced and which allows interconnectivity with remote sites is also being designed into the system for maximum communication among partners. A preliminary version of our system will be described for a Russian reindeer test site, which will include a combination of indigenous knowledge about local conditions and issues, remote sensing and ground-based data on such parameters as the vegetation state and distribution, snow cover, temperature, ice condition, and infrastructure.

  4. 'The Finn line' - a historical curiosity or a juridicial rality? The Sami reindeer herders' land rights in southern Sami areas evaluated from land consolidation practice (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Øyvind Ravna


    Full Text Available Attitudes towards the land rights of Sami reindeer herders have changed considerably during the last 100 years. So, too, has consideration of how such rights should be treated by Land Consolidation Courts. This paper reviews changes in attitudes to the Sami land rights with respect to how these are considered in Land Con¬solidation Courts in southern Sami areas in Norway. The review also considers changing attitudes regarding the competence of Land Consolidation Courts to deal with such matters. There were several cases in the 20th Century in which Land Consolidation Courts treated Sami land rights in a restricted and unfortunate manner. Legal practice, however, was not always like that, evidenced by the so-called 'Finn line' (Norwegian: 'finnelinja' -'Finn' is an archaic name for Sami. This boundary was established during a land consolidation case in 1873 and was confirmed in 1883. At that time, Sami land rights were evidently accepted as appurtenant right in privately owned mountain pasture and the Sami were treated in the same way as others who enjoyed rights of usufruct on it. The regulation of 1883 included rules governing compensation for grazing damage on farming land. In particular, responsibility for grazing damage was divided between owners and the reindeer herders, providing these looked after their animals properly, 'The Finn line' subsequently achieved wider importance. The case of 1873¬1883 has been referred to several times as a valuable and valid precedent for a way in which to organize grazing conflicts in other Sami areas. It was used in 1964 as evidence of the special rights of Sami reindeer people in the Brekken common land case. The Sami won this case in 1968 and, in its judgement, the Norwegian Supreme Court of Justice emphasised the importance of the line (Rt. 1968, p. 394. Although, owing to changes in land use practices, the 'Finn line' no longer has any practical significance, its juridical significance remains

  5. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. I. Feeding of silage and barley from September to March

    Anna Nilsson


    Full Text Available An experiment involving 75 male reindeer calves (mean initial live weight 39.6 kg, SD=3.7 intended for slaughter was undertaken to study the effect of proporrion of barley to silage in the diets on animal performance. The calves were alloted to five groups including one group slaughtered at the start of the experiment in September. The remaining groups were offered diets containing either, 30% (LB, or 60% (HB rolled barley, based on the dry matter (DM content, until slaughter in November (LB and HB or in March (HB. The silage (43% DM was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Small amounts of lichens were mixed with the rations during rhe first two weeks of the experiment and the calves adapted well to the experimental diets. However, health problems and deaths occurred on borh rarions after five weeks of feeding. Since the animals fed the LB diet lost live weight and condition the experimental feeding of these calves were interrupted at the slaughter in November. Calves fed the LB diet had significantly lower daily DM intake (P<0.01. They also had lower live weighr gain (not significant, greater losses of carcass weight and fat in the abdominal cavity relative to those offered the HB diet. During the second period of the study the remaining animals offered the HB diet showed no signs of ill-health and increased live weight, carcass weighr, and fat in the abdominal cavity. The results of the presenr experiment indicate that when silage of the investigated quality is fed to reindeer calves rhe proportion of silage should not exceed 40% of the DM.

  6. Farming or seasonal migration? - Potential futures of reindeer husbandry in Fennoscandia studied with Social-Ecological System (SES) approach, co-production of knowledge, and scenarios

    Käyhkö, Jukka; Horstkotte, Tim; Vehmas, Jarmo; Forbes, Bruce


    The area allocated for reindeer husbandry in Finland, Sweden and Norway covers approximately 40 % of each country. As the livelihood requires large, relatively unfragmented territories while being marginal in terms of direct income, land-use conflicts between various livelihoods and activities, such as forestry, agriculture, mining, energy production, tourism, and nature protection are common phenomena in the region. Simultaneously, rapid societal change, urban exodus and fading traditions as well as climate warming and subsequent ecosystem change may put the livelihood at stake. We have probed potential futures of reindeer husbandry in Northern Fennoscandia using the Social-Ecological System (SES) approach, knowledge co-production in stakeholder-scientist workshops in all three countries, and scenario building based on quantitative data and narratives. Regarding the future of the livelihood, we have identified some crucial components in the SES that are influential in determining the direction of development. We produced four potential pathways of future development and demonstrate that important factors controlling the direction of development include governance and actor relations. Governance is often considered distant and opaque by local stakeholders, fostering conflicts in land allocation, while unclear regulations at local level reinforce emerging conflict situations leading to distrust and restrained communication between the actors. Regionally, these conflicts may lead to decreased resilience and threaten the future of the livelihood altogether. Therefore, research should focus on supporting the reform process of institutional arrangements and governance mechanisms, and fostering co-design and co-production processes that ease distrust and improve resilience of the livelihood in multifunctional landscapes.

  7. A test of usefulness of a commercially available mill "waste product" (AB-84 as feed for starving reindeer

    Svein D. Mathiesen


    Full Text Available Three Norwegian reindeer were first fed lichen ad libitum for 40 days, then they were starved for 3 days, and thereafter offered a commercially available mill «waste product» (AB-84 ad libitum. One animal refused to eat AB-84 and was excluded. When eating lichen average daily dry matter intake was 1.1 ± 0.4 kg, while when eating AB-84 after the starvation period it averaged 1.1 kg at day 1, increasing to 2.5 kg at day 7. After 12 days daily dry matter intake varied between 2 and 4 kg. The rumen dry matter percentage was 16 when eating lichen, 6 after 2 days of starvation, and 17 after eating AB-84 for 5 days. Ruminal pH was 6.4 ± 0.3 when eating lichen, increasing to 7.4 after 3 days of starvation and dropping to an all time low of 6.1, 12 hours after refeeding. The viable bacterial count was 4.7 x 1010 ± 2.7, 5.5 x 108 ± 2.0 and 3.1 x 1010 ± 1.7/ml rumen fluid when the animals were eating lichen, had starved for 3 days and had been eating AB-84 for 5 days, respectively. The rumen ciliate protozoa numbered 17.1 x 105 ± 2.7/ml rumen fluid, when eating lichen, dropping to 4.3 x 105 ± 0.6./ml after 3 days of starvation. A further drop to 1.8 x 10s ± 0.5/ml was observed 1 day after refeeding, but the rumen ciliate number was normalized at 15 x 105 ± 1/ml already 8 days after refeeding. These results indicate that the mill «waste product» (AB-84 is very well tolerated even by reindeer suffering from starvation. Since it is moreover commercially available at a favourable price it could be of interest to reindeer herders. In any case, it deserves to be tested under controlled conditions on a larger number of animals.En test på anvendeligheten av kornavrens (AB-84 som for til utsultet rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tre norske rein ble gitt lav ad libitum i 40 dager, sultet i 3 dager og deretter gitt kornavrens (AB-84 ad libitum. Ett av dyrene nektet å spise AB-84 og ble satt ut av forsøket. Daglig foropptak i kg tørrstoff var

  8. Jan Åge Riseth; Sámi reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural and Instututional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths....

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed.


    Full Text Available On June 22, Cand. Agric. Jan Åge Riseth successfully defended his dissertation "Sami reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural And Institutional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths in West Finnmark, North Trøndelag, and South Trøndelag/Hedmark, Norway." for the degree Dr. Scient, at the Agricultural University of Norway (AUN, Dept. of Economics and Social Sciences.

  9. Jan Åge Riseth; Sámi reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural and Instututional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths....

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed. in chief)


    On June 22, Cand. Agric. Jan Åge Riseth successfully defended his dissertation "Sami reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural And Institutional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths in West Finnmark, North Trøndelag, and South Trøndelag/Hedmark, Norway." for the degree Dr. Scient, at the Agricultural University of Norway (AUN), Dept. of Economics and Social Sciences.

  10. Slow recovery of lichen on burned caribou winter range in Alaska tundra: potential influences of climate warming and other disturbance factors

    Randi Jandt; Kyle Joly; C. Randy Meyers; Charles. Racine


    Lichen regeneration timelines are needed to establish sound fire management guidelines for caribou (Rangifer tarandus) winter range. Paired burned and unburned permanent vegetative cover transects were established after 1981, 1977, and 1972 tundra fires in northwestern Alaska to document regrowth of tundra vegetation including caribou forage...

  11. First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland.

    Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen


    A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland.

  12. Between Oil and Reindeer

    Tulaeva, S.; Tysyachnyouk, M.


    This research provides insight into various modes of benefit-sharing agreements between oil and gas companies and indigenous people in the Russian Arctic and Subarctic regions. We indicate three main modes of benefit sharing, as follows: (1) paternalism, (2) corporate social responsibility, and (3)

  13. The localization of the larvae of the nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx of reindeer in an earlier unknown tonsil tissue

    Claes Rehbinder


    Full Text Available The localization of the larvae of the reindeer nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx was investigated in 21 reindeer, 11 months old, during April, and in 5 animals during November. In reindeer, without the presence of larvae, no preformed pharyngeal pouch was found at the predilection site, dorsomedially in the pharynx, but an unpaired tronsil, tentatively named Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis. In 12 of the animals investigated during April, a puch containing larvae of C. trompe was found at the predilection site, i.e. the site of the dorsomedially located tonsil. Histologically remnants of tonsil tissue was present at the opening of the pouch. In 3 animals a pouch, containing larvae, was found in the left lateral wall and in 2 animals in the right lateral wall of the pharynz between the opening of Tuba auditiva and the tonsil. In one animal 2 pouches were found, one in the tonsil tissue and one located in the right lateral wall of pharynx. In serial sections from two animals investigated during November, 1 :st instar larvae of Cephenomyia trompe were found in the crypts of the tonsills. The fact that the tonsil tissue is a predilection site for C. trompe larvae may be due to the mechanical protection the 1st instar larvae can find in the crypts. Larvae may, however, also attach to other parts of the pharyngeal mucosa. During their development the larvae penetrate the mucosa forming a pouch. The wall of this pouch consists of a naked acute granulation tissue heavily infiltrated with eosinophilic leucocytes. In connection with the healing process, starting when the larvae have left, a pouch may remain, characterized by walls of chronic granulation tissue covered by a mucous membrane. This pouch could well be misinterpreted as a preformed pouch.Lokalisationen av svalgkormflugans (Cephenemyia trompe L larver i svalget på ren i en tidigare okänd tonsillvävnad (Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning

  14. Effects of increase in temperature and open water on transmigration and access to health care by the Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia

    Philippe Amstislavski


    Full Text Available Background . The indigenous Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia annually migrate several hundred kilometers between summer and winter pastures. In the warming climate, ice-rich permafrost and glaciers are being significantly reduced and will eventually disappear from parts of the Arctic. The emergent changes in hydrological cycles have already led to substantial increases in open water that stays unfrozen for longer periods of time. This environmental change has been reported to compromise the nomadic Nenets’ traditional way of life because the presence of new water in the tundra reduces the Nenets’ ability to travel by foot, sled, or motor vehicle from the summer transitory tundra campsites in order to access healthcare centers in villages. New water can also impede their access to family and community at other herder camps and in the villages. Although regional and global models predicting hydrologic changes due to climate changes exist, the spatial resolution of these models is too coarse for studying how increases in open water affect health and livelihoods. To anticipate the full health impact of hydrologic changes, the current gap between globally forecasted scenarios and locally forecasted hydrologic scenarios needs to be bridged. Objectives . We studied the effects of the autumn temperature anomalies and increases in open water on health care access and transmigration of reindeer herders on the Kanin Peninsula. Design . Correlational and time series analyses were completed. Methods . The study population consisted of 370 full-time, nomadic reindeer herders. We utilized clinical visit records, studied surface temperature anomalies during autumn migrations, and used remotely sensed imagery to detect water bodies. Spearman correlation was used to measure the relationship between temperature anomalies and the annual arrival of the herders at the Nes clinic for preventive and primary care. Piecewise regression was used to model

  15. Growing season changes in Fennoscandia and Kola peninsula during the period 1982 to 1999 - Implications for reindeer husbandry (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Hans Tømmervik


    the most continental section of northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland as well as the mountainous areas of northern and southern Norway. This also means that the growing season is prolonged for the whole area, except the northern continental section (northern part of Sweden and Finland and parts of Kola peninsula. In contrast, the timing of midsummer shows less change in all the study area. There is no specific or significant trend for the timing of the peak NDVI value. These changes in the onset of spring and autumn as well as the change in the length of the growing season may if they seem to be prolonged in the future lead to another use of the reindeer pastures as well as changes in timing of migration and in migration patterns. For example the migration to the summer pastures can start earlier now than 20 years earlier for most of the reindeer husbandry districts in Fennoscandia. In addition the migration back to winter pastures can start later, and this will reduce the length and the use of the autumn, winter and spring pastures, and these changes may be positive. If these trends will be prolonged, we have to recalculate the estimations of the carrying capacity for the different reindeer pastures in Fennoscandia. We have used the NOAA AVHRR GIMMS NDVI dataset to assess the change in maximum NDVI on regional level. It is observed that the trend is towards a higher peak NDVI-value in midsummer in the most of northern Fennoscandia. For larger parts of Fennoscandia the trends are positive and causes for this could be increased extent of the mountain birch forests and changes in the vegetation cover from lichen dominated cover to more heather vegetation and scrubs but these changes may be negative for the reindeer pasture. Also overgrowing of the cultural landscape as well as general increase of the boreal forests may reduce the carrying capacity for the reindeer. It is also observed in the EU-funded HIBECO-project and the NFR (Norwegian Research Council funded

  16. Weight development and survival rate of reindeer calves treated against Oedemagena tarandi L and Cephenemyia trompe L

    Endre Persen


    Full Text Available Three trials with treatment of reindeer warbles are carried out. All treated groups were injected intramuscularly with Warbex (35%, American Cyanamid, dosage 10 mg active ingredient/10 kg live weight. In total 911 calves and 403 adult females were included in the experiments. All animals were individually marked with plastic eartags. The trials tried to give answers as to the effect of treatment on: a weight development during winter, b weight development to the normal age of slaughter (18 months and c loss rate during winter. One trial deals with the effect of weight loss during winter by different date of treatment. All studies are undertaken within sex. Generelly the trials show that treated animals lost more weight during winter than untreated. There was found significant higher weight loss for treated female calves (0.7 kg, p=0.005 in the period January 13. — April 28. in trial I and for male calves (0.8 kg, p=0.01 in the period February 14. — April 4. in trial II. There is a trend that treatment increases the slaughter weight. A significant higher increase in the slaughter weight (0.8 kg, p=0.05 of treated male calves was found in trial III. No effect was found by treatment in the loss of animals in winter. The calves lossed during winter had a significant lower live weight at the start of the trial compared to those which survived. In the period February 14. — April 4. there was a higher weight loss in the male calves which were treated on February 14. compared to those treated on November 27. (0.5 kg, p=0.01. Forsøk med behandling av reinkalver mot reinbremslarver (Oedemagena tarandi L og Cephenemyia trompe L.Effekt på kalvens kondisjon målt ved levende vekt og overlevingsevne.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er utført tre forsøk med behandling av rein mot reinbremselarver (Oedemagena tarandi L. og Cephenemyia trompe L.. I alle forsøk er brukt intramuskulær injeksjon av Warbex (Am. Cyanamid 35% med dosering 30 mg

  17. Finding the way: a critical discussion of anthropological theories of human spatial orientation with reference to reindeer herders of northeastern Europe and western Siberia.

    Istomin, Kirill V; Dwyer, Mark J


    In anthropology, research on human spatial orientation (wayfinding) has centered on two conflicting theories: the "mental map," whereby humans build abstract cognitive representations of the spatial relations between objects, and "practical mastery," which rejects the idea that such abstract representations exist and, in its most developed form, suggests that wayfinding is a process of moving from one recognized visual perspective (vista) to another (transitions between vistas). In this paper we reveal, on the basis of existing psychology and geography research, that both wayfinding theories are in fact complementary: humans rely on mental maps but also memorize vistas while navigating, and an individual's navigation method, ability, and the form of the mental map is likely to depend on a situation as well as on factors such as age, sex, familiarity with the environment, and life history. We demonstrate (using research material obtained during fieldwork carried out among Komi and Nenets reindeer herders) that anthropology can contribute to human spatial cognitive research, which has traditionally been an interdisciplinary endeavor, by identifying differences in spatial representation between different people and peoples. However, future contributions can be achieved only if anthropologists accept that mental maps and route knowledge (as advocated by practical mastery) are part and parcel of spatial cognition.

  18. Optimization and comparison of different methods for RNA isolation for cDNA library construction from the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina

    Lim Kean-Jin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reindeer lichen is the product of a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae. Lichen demonstrate a remarkable capacity to tolerate dehydration. This tolerance is driven by a variety of biochemical processes and the accumulation of specific secondary metabolites that may be of relevance to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and agriculture industries. These protective metabolites hinder in vitro enzymatic reactions required in cDNA synthesis. Along with the low concentrations of RNA present within lichen tissues, the process of creating a cDNA library is technically challenging. Findings An evaluation of existing commercial and published protocols for RNA extraction from plant or fungal tissues has been performed and experimental conditions have been optimised to balance the need for the highest quality total ribonucleotides and the constraints of budget, time and human resources. Conclusion We present a protocol that balances inexpensive RNA extraction methods with commercial RNA clean-up kits to yield sufficient RNA for cDNA library construction. Evaluation of the protocol and the construction of, and sampling from, a cDNA library is used to demonstrate the suitability of the RNA extraction method for expressed sequence tag production.

  19. Сomposition and ratio of the chemical elements on the surfaces different by height of reindeer lichen podetia Cladonia rangiferina

    Byazrov Lev


    Full Text Available In the paper the composition of 21 elements – Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ba, Pb – was compared in the upper, central, and lower parts of podetia surfaces of the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina, sampled on the slope of Barguzinsky chain. For the measurement of the elements content (%, a sample-nondestructive μ-XRF spectrometer was used. It was stated that the share (% of the most elements, except for Cu and Zn, was highly variable. The content of the elements on the surfaces differs significantly between the studied parts of C. rangiferina podetia: mean values of the content of P, S, Cl, and K were statistically higher on the surface of the upper part of podetia, while those of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Co, and the total content – on the surface of the lower part of podetia. On all the parts of podetia very high value of the enrichment factor for As and Pb was established, and It was increased for P, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn.

  20. Optimization and comparison of different methods for RNA isolation for cDNA library construction from the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina.

    Junttila, Sini; Lim, Kean-Jin; Rudd, Stephen


    The reindeer lichen is the product of a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae. Lichen demonstrate a remarkable capacity to tolerate dehydration. This tolerance is driven by a variety of biochemical processes and the accumulation of specific secondary metabolites that may be of relevance to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and agriculture industries. These protective metabolites hinder in vitro enzymatic reactions required in cDNA synthesis. Along with the low concentrations of RNA present within lichen tissues, the process of creating a cDNA library is technically challenging. An evaluation of existing commercial and published protocols for RNA extraction from plant or fungal tissues has been performed and experimental conditions have been optimised to balance the need for the highest quality total ribonucleotides and the constraints of budget, time and human resources. We present a protocol that balances inexpensive RNA extraction methods with commercial RNA clean-up kits to yield sufficient RNA for cDNA library construction. Evaluation of the protocol and the construction of, and sampling from, a cDNA library is used to demonstrate the suitability of the RNA extraction method for expressed sequence tag production.

  1. Biotic turnover rates during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition

    Stivrins, Normunds; Soininen, Janne; Amon, Leeli; Fontana, Sonia L.; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heikkilä, Maija; Heiri, Oliver; Kisielienė, Dalia; Reitalu, Triin; Stančikaitė, Miglė; Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki


    The Northern Hemisphere is currently warming at the rate which is unprecedented during the Holocene. Quantitative palaeoclimatic records show that the most recent time in the geological history with comparable warming rates was during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) about 14,000 to 11,000 years ago. To better understand the biotic response to rapid temperature change, we explore the community turnover rates during the PHT by focusing on the Baltic region in the southeastern sector of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, where an exceptionally dense network on microfossil and macrofossil data that reflect the biotic community history are available. We further use a composite chironomid-based summer temperature reconstruction compiled specifically for our study region to calculate the rate of temperature change during the PHT. The fastest biotic turnover in the terrestrial and aquatic communities occurred during the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift at 11,700 years ago. This general shift in species composition was accompanied by regional extinctions, including disappearance of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and many arctic-alpine plant taxa, such as Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris and Saxifraga aizoides, from the region. This rapid biotic turnover rate occurred when the rate of warming was 0.17 °C/decade, thus slightly lower than the current Northern Hemisphere warming of 0.2 °C/decade. We therefore conclude that the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift with its rapid turnover rates and associated regional extinctions represents an important palaeoanalogue to the current high latitude warming and gives insights about the probable future turnover rates and patterns of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem change.

  2. European bison as a refugee species? Evidence from isotopic data on Early Holocene bison and other large herbivores in northern Europe.

    Hervé Bocherens

    Full Text Available According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus--the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe--into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. Understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time survival. In view of this, we investigated the abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N in radiocarbon dated skeletal remains of European bison and other large herbivores--aurochs (Bos primigenius, moose (Alces alces, and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus--from the Early Holocene of northern Europe to reconstruct their dietary habits and pattern of habitat use in conditions of low human influence. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in collagen of the ungulate species in northern central Europe during the Early Holocene showed significant differences in the habitat use and the diet of these herbivores. The values of the δ13C and δ15N isotopes reflected the use of open habitats by bison, with their diet intermediate between that of aurochs (grazer and of moose (browser. Our results show that, despite the partial overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of some species, Early Holocene large ungulates avoided competition by selection of different habitats or different food sources within similar environments. Although Early Holocene bison and Late Pleistocene steppe bison utilized open habitats, their diets were significantly different, as reflected by their δ15N values. Additional isotopic analyses show that modern populations of European bison utilize much more forested habitats than Early Holocene bison, which supports the refugee status of the species.

  3. High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social-ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia.

    Forbes, Bruce C; Stammler, Florian; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Pajunen, Anu; Kaarlejärvi, Elina


    Tundra ecosystems are vulnerable to hydrocarbon development, in part because small-scale, low-intensity disturbances can affect vegetation, permafrost soils, and wildlife out of proportion to their spatial extent. Scaling up to include human residents, tightly integrated arctic social-ecological systems (SESs) are believed similarly susceptible to industrial impacts and climate change. In contrast to northern Alaska and Canada, most terrestrial and aquatic components of West Siberian oil and gas fields are seasonally exploited by migratory herders, hunters, fishers, and domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). Despite anthropogenic fragmentation and transformation of a large proportion of the environment, recent socioeconomic upheaval, and pronounced climate warming, we find the Yamal-Nenets SES highly resilient according to a few key measures. We detail the remarkable extent to which the system has successfully reorganized in response to recent shocks and evaluate the limits of the system's capacity to respond. Our analytical approach combines quantitative methods with participant observation to understand the overall effects of rapid land use and climate change at the level of the entire Yamal system, detect thresholds crossed using surrogates, and identify potential traps. Institutional constraints and drivers were as important as the documented ecological changes. Particularly crucial to success is the unfettered movement of people and animals in space and time, which allows them to alternately avoid or exploit a wide range of natural and anthropogenic habitats. However, expansion of infrastructure, concomitant terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem degradation, climate change, and a massive influx of workers underway present a looming threat to future resilience.

  4. High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social–ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia

    Forbes, Bruce C.; Stammler, Florian; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Pajunen, Anu; Kaarlejärvi, Elina


    Tundra ecosystems are vulnerable to hydrocarbon development, in part because small-scale, low-intensity disturbances can affect vegetation, permafrost soils, and wildlife out of proportion to their spatial extent. Scaling up to include human residents, tightly integrated arctic social-ecological systems (SESs) are believed similarly susceptible to industrial impacts and climate change. In contrast to northern Alaska and Canada, most terrestrial and aquatic components of West Siberian oil and gas fields are seasonally exploited by migratory herders, hunters, fishers, and domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). Despite anthropogenic fragmentation and transformation of a large proportion of the environment, recent socioeconomic upheaval, and pronounced climate warming, we find the Yamal-Nenets SES highly resilient according to a few key measures. We detail the remarkable extent to which the system has successfully reorganized in response to recent shocks and evaluate the limits of the system's capacity to respond. Our analytical approach combines quantitative methods with participant observation to understand the overall effects of rapid land use and climate change at the level of the entire Yamal system, detect thresholds crossed using surrogates, and identify potential traps. Institutional constraints and drivers were as important as the documented ecological changes. Particularly crucial to success is the unfettered movement of people and animals in space and time, which allows them to alternately avoid or exploit a wide range of natural and anthropogenic habitats. However, expansion of infrastructure, concomitant terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem degradation, climate change, and a massive influx of workers underway present a looming threat to future resilience. PMID:20007776

  5. Cultural Resilience of Social-ecological Systems in the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Bruce C. Forbes


    Full Text Available Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighboring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g., geese, to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio

  6. Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet

    Hans Staaland


    Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

  7. Preservation in 70% ethanol solution does not affect δ13C and δ15N values of reindeer blood samples – relevance for stable isotope studies of diet

    Duncan J. Halley


    Full Text Available We compared duplicate samples of whole blood samples from 18 reindeer that were preserved either by immediate freezing or by immersion in 70 % ethanol. All samples were dried at 60 °C, powdered, treated with 1:1 chloroform: methanol, and dried again before isotope analysis. There were no differences in the values of δ13C and δ15N between the methods of preservation. Isotopic differences were absolutely small (δ13C = 0.1±0.10/00; δ15N=0.2±0.20/00, random in direction, and within the limits of analytical precision for the mass spectrometer. Preservation in ethanol thus appears to be an effective and efficient method for preserving blood samples for stable isotope analysis under field conditions. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Konservering av blodprøver fra rein i 70% etanolløsning påvirker ikke verdiene av δ13C and δ15N–verdiene og er en fullgod metode for analyse av stabile isotoperVi sammenlignet to og to prøver av blodprøver fra 18 reinsdyr. Prøvene var enten konservert ved umiddelbar frysing eller ved bruk av 70% etanol. Alle prøver ble tørket ved 60 °C, pulverisert og behandlet med kloroform:metanol i forholdet 1:1. Til slutt ble de tørket på nytt før gjennomføring av isotopanalysen. Vi fant ingen forskjell i verdiene av δ13C and δ15N mellom de to konserveringsmetodene. I absolutte verdier var isotopforskjellene små (δ13C = 0.1±0.1 0/00; δ15N=0.2±0.2 0/00. Forskjellene var tilfeldige og innenfor grensene for massespektrometerets presisjon. Bruk av etanol framstår som en effektiv og fullgod metode til konservering av blodprøver for analyse av stabile isotoper under feltforhold.

  8. Characterization of a transcriptome from a non-model organism, Cladonia rangiferina, the grey reindeer lichen, using high-throughput next generation sequencing and EST sequence data.

    Junttila, Sini; Rudd, Stephen


    Lichens are symbiotic organisms that have a remarkable ability to survive in some of the most extreme terrestrial climates on earth. Lichens can endure frequent desiccation and wetting cycles and are able to survive in a dehydrated molecular dormant state for decades at a time. Genetic resources have been established in lichen species for the study of molecular systematics and their taxonomic classification. No lichen species have been characterised yet using genomics and the molecular mechanisms underlying the lichen symbiosis and the fundamentals of desiccation tolerance remain undescribed. We report the characterisation of a transcriptome of the grey reindeer lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, using high-throughput next-generation transcriptome sequencing and traditional Sanger EST sequencing data. Altogether 243,729 high quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 16,204 contigs and 49,587 singletons. The genome of origin for the sequences produced was predicted using Eclat with sequences derived from the axenically grown symbiotic partners used as training sequences for the classification model. 62.8% of the sequences were classified as being of fungal origin while the remaining 37.2% were predicted as being of algal origin. The assembled sequences were annotated by BLASTX comparison against a non-redundant protein sequence database with 34.4% of the sequences having a BLAST match. 29.3% of the sequences had a Gene Ontology term match and 27.9% of the sequences had a domain or structural match following an InterPro search. 60 KEGG pathways with more than 10 associated sequences were identified. Our results present a first transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly for a lichen species and describe the ongoing molecular processes and the most active pathways in C. rangiferina. This brings a meaningful contribution to publicly available lichen sequence information. These data provide a first glimpse into the molecular nature of the lichen symbiosis and

  9. Characterization of a transcriptome from a non-model organism, Cladonia rangiferina, the grey reindeer lichen, using high-throughput next generation sequencing and EST sequence data

    Junttila Sini


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lichens are symbiotic organisms that have a remarkable ability to survive in some of the most extreme terrestrial climates on earth. Lichens can endure frequent desiccation and wetting cycles and are able to survive in a dehydrated molecular dormant state for decades at a time. Genetic resources have been established in lichen species for the study of molecular systematics and their taxonomic classification. No lichen species have been characterised yet using genomics and the molecular mechanisms underlying the lichen symbiosis and the fundamentals of desiccation tolerance remain undescribed. We report the characterisation of a transcriptome of the grey reindeer lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, using high-throughput next-generation transcriptome sequencing and traditional Sanger EST sequencing data. Results Altogether 243,729 high quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 16,204 contigs and 49,587 singletons. The genome of origin for the sequences produced was predicted using Eclat with sequences derived from the axenically grown symbiotic partners used as training sequences for the classification model. 62.8% of the sequences were classified as being of fungal origin while the remaining 37.2% were predicted as being of algal origin. The assembled sequences were annotated by BLASTX comparison against a non-redundant protein sequence database with 34.4% of the sequences having a BLAST match. 29.3% of the sequences had a Gene Ontology term match and 27.9% of the sequences had a domain or structural match following an InterPro search. 60 KEGG pathways with more than 10 associated sequences were identified. Conclusions Our results present a first transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly for a lichen species and describe the ongoing molecular processes and the most active pathways in C. rangiferina. This brings a meaningful contribution to publicly available lichen sequence information. These data provide a first

  10. Monitoring of caesium-137 in food plants and muscle from moose, red deer and wild reindeer in 2010.; Overvaaking av cesium-137 i beitevekster og kjoett av elg, hjort og villrein i 2010.

    Veiberg, Vebjoern; Gaare, Eldar; Stokke, Sigbjoern; Solberg, Erling J.; Skuterud, Lavrans


    The monitoring of Cs-137 fall-out from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, started the same year. Several plants and wild reindeer in natural ecosystems in Nord-Rondane have been followed annually ever since. Four more wild reindeer ranges were included in 2001: Setesdal-Ryfylkeheiene, Hardangervidda, Nord-Ottadalen, Snoehetta and Nord-Rondane. From 2007 Forollhogna was also included. On fixed plots in Nord-Rondane and Snoehetta some of the reindeer forage plants, including both higher plants and fruticose lichens, have been sampled and analyzed annually since 1986. This was also done in 2010. In addition plants and lichens were sampled at five locations along an altitudinal gradient at Soendre Knutshoe, and at 7-8 locations along an east-west gradient from Kollaflata to Skarhoe in the Jora valley continuing along the Aursjoe to Torbudalen. All these locations were sampled annually between 1987-1990, but they have not been sampled since. In 2010 samples from red deer and moose was also collected from eight different regions located within the following counties: Oppland, Telemark, Vest-Agder, Rogaland, Sogn and Fjordane, Nord-Troendelag, Nordland and Troms. Red deer were sampled in four regions and moose in six. Both species were sampled in Oppland. In 2010 76, 49 and 61 samples were collected from wild reindeer, red deer and moose respectively. All measures of caesium levels were performed on dried samples. For the 596 samples of plants and lichen the results refer to caesium-levels in dried samples. For the meat samples, results refer to caesium-137 levels in raw meat. Due to large variation in measured levels of caesium within species and sampling area, we give median values instead of mean values.The highest caesium levels in wild reindeer were found in Snoehetta (1010 Bq/kg) and Nord-Rondane (2686 Bq/kg). The levels found in the other areas were considerably lower. The highest caesium levels in both red deer (Sel, 677 Bq/kg) and moose (Vaaga, 365 Bq/kg) were found

  11. Bayesian Networks for Modeling Dredging Decisions


    woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus) winter forage employing active adaptive management techniques . Oceans and estuaries Expert elicitation and...entrained with sediment and removed from the site. Fast-moving, surface-dwelling species tend to re-colonize disturbed habitats more easily than sessile ...PCT_OC has less effect. Therefore, BSAF and LIPIDS are carried forward for further analysis and the other variables are dropped from consideration

  12. Wetland habitat selection by woodland caribou as characterized using the Alberta Wetland Inventory

    W. Kent Brown; W. James Rettie; Bob Wynes; Kim Morton


    We examined habitat selection by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in northwestern Alberta based on a wetland classification system developed for the Alberta Vegetation Inventory. Our two objectives were to describe caribou habitat use, and to assess the utility of the wetland classification system in land-use planning on caribou range. We used a geographical information system to overlay the locations of radio-collared caribou on the habitat map. Using a "moving-window" analysis o...

  13. Primer hallazgo de Mamut (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach en el País Vasco Meridional.

    Jesús Altuna


    Full Text Available Se da a conocer el hallazgo de un astrágalo de Mammuthus primigenius en la cueva de Urtiagako Leizea (Deba, junto con la fauna acompañante, entre la que destacan, por su abundancia, los restos de Rangifer tarandus y Ursus spelaeus. Se describe el resto en cuestión, se dan sus medidas y se enumeran los hallazgos anteriores en el País Vasco y en el resto del Cantábrico.

  14. Demographic characteristics of circumpolar caribou populations: ecotypes, ecological constraints, releases, and population dynamics

    Mallory, F.F.; T.L. Hillis


    Data on the status of caribou {Rangifer tarandus) herds throughout the circumpolar region during the last 20 years were obtained from the literature and personal communication with researchers. Information was analysed in relation to ecotype (insular, montane, barren-ground, and woodland/forest), population status (increasing, stable, decreasing), herd size, human impact, and temporal change in number. The data support the conclusions (1) that each ecotype is exposed to different ecological c...

  15. Inferring parturition and neonate survival from movement patterns of female ungulates: a case study using woodland caribou


    Analyses of animal movement data have primarily focused on understanding patterns of space use and the behavioural processes driving them. Here, we analyzed animal movement data to infer components of individual fitness, specifically parturition and neonate survival. We predicted that parturition and neonate loss events could be identified by sudden and marked changes in female movement patterns. Using GPS radio-telemetry data from female woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), we devel...

  16. Geographic pattern of serum antibody prevalence for Brucella spp. in caribou, grizzly bears, and wolves from Alaska, 1975-1998.

    Zarnke, Randall L; Ver Hoef, Jay M; DeLong, Robert A


    Blood samples were collected from 2,635 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 1,238 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 930 wolves (Canis lupus) from throughout mainland Alaska during 1975-98. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Brucella spp. Serum antibody prevalences were highest in the northwestern region of the state. In any specific area, antibody prevalences for caribou and wolves were of a similar magnitude, whereas antibody prevalence for bears in these same areas were two to three times higher.

  17. Partial migration as a response to ground icing events in a high arctic ungulate


    Partial migration – a phenomenon where only part of a population performs annual migrations, is common in ungulates. Despite partial migration being well documented, little is known about the annual partial migration frequency in ungulates and if individuals perform the same strategy (migratory or stationary) every year. Additionally, few studies have investigated if variations in weather conditions have an impact on the degree of partial migration. The endemic Svalbard reindeer (Rangife...

  18. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    K. Frölich


    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  19. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Richard E. Feldman


    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  20. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland...... in an area. Further, enhanced or lowered hunting pressure, and changed weather conditions can be studied using IBM. Thus, both short and long term changes in the landscape will be studied and provide insights in how the specific spatial changes impact caribou in West Greenland....

  1. Predation and caribou populations

    Dale R. Seip


    Full Text Available Predation, especially wolf (Canis lupus predation, limits many North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations below the density that food resources could sustain. The impact of predation depends on the parameters for the functional and numerical response of the wolves, relative to the potential annual increment of the caribou population. Differences in predator-avoidance strategies largely explain the major differences in caribou densities that occur naturally in North America. Caribou migrations that spatially separate caribou from wolves allow relatively high densities of caribou to survive. Non-migratory caribou that live in areas where wolf populations are sustained by alternate prey can be eliminated by wolf predation.

  2. Groups versus individuals in the determination of caribou distribution

    K. R. Whitten


    Full Text Available Studies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus habitat selection based on group analyses have led to erroneous conclusions. Convenient designations such as «male-» or «female-dominated» group encompass a wide array of possible sizes and compositions which change continuously and erratically. Whenever individuals of at particular sex/age class can occur in more than one group type, and/or whenever groups within a type vary in size, an analysis based on groups alone is fallacious. Data must be based on individual caribou for most, if not all, determinations of distribution.

  3. Purificación y caracterización de la mioglobina de reno

    Ortúñez Sanz, Jennifer


    La mioglobina es una hemoproteína que se encuentra en el músculo esquelético y cardiaco de los vertebrados. Su función principal es la de almacenar y facilitar la difusión del oxígeno. Se ha aislado la mioglobina de reno (Rangifer tarandus L.) mediante cromatografía de exclusión molecular en Sephacryl S-100 y cromatografía de intercambio aniónico en Q-Sepharosa. Su masa molecular (16924) y secuencia coinciden con la de la mioglobina del ciervo europeo (Cervus elaphus L.). Se ha obtenido un mo...

  4. Fire - caribou - winter range relationships in northern Canada

    Thomas, D C; S.J. Barry; G. Alaie


    We needed data on temporal changes in caribou forages after fire and relative use of age-classes of forests by caribou to help devise a fire suppression priority strategy for caribou winter range in north-central Canada. Consequently, from 1983 through 1986, we estimated the abundance of vegetation and relative use by caribou at 197 sites in western and eastern study areas on the winter range of the Beverly herd of caribou {Rangifer tarandus). Species of lichens attained peak biomass at diffe...

  5. Marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth in caribou calves

    Adams, L.


    I evaluated rates of marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calves through 20 days of age at Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. Both were negatively correlated with late winter snowfall, indicating the prolonged effects of maternal undernutrition following severe winters. Using regression analyses, I found that the rates of marrow fat deposition and hindfoot growth during the 20 days following birth declined 46% and 68%, respectively, over the range of winter severity during this study. These measures of development may indicate a broader array of effects of maternal undernutrition, influencing the vulnerability of caribou calves to predation.

  6. Growth rates and morphological measurements of Porcupine caribou calves

    Katherine L. Parker


    Full Text Available Body weights, leg lengths, and surface area were monitored for bottle-raised barren-ground caribou calves (Rangifer tarandus granti from the Porcupine herd up to 1 year of age. Body weights were compared with maternally-raised calves from the same cohort in the wild and from the Delta herd. A successful feeding regime for bottle-raising caribou calves is presented.Veksthastigheter og morfologiske mål hos Porcupine karibu-kalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Kroppsvekter, visse knokkel-lengder og kropps-overflate areal ble målt hos flaske-oppfødde kalver av barren-ground karibu (Rangifer tarandus granti fra Porcupine-stammen opp til 1 års alder. Kroppsvekter ble sammelignet med normalt oppfødde kalver av samme type i det fri og fra Delta-stam-men. Det presenteres et vellykket system for flaske-oppforing av karibu-kalver.Porcupine-lauman karibuvasojen kasvunopeus ja morfologiset mitat.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Porcupine -lauman pulloruokinnalla olleiden tundrakaribuvasojen ruumiinpainot, jalanpituu-det ja ruumiin pinta-alat mitattiin 1 vuoden ikäään saakka. Ruumiinpainoja verrattiin vastaaviin luonnon-oloissa kasvaneisiin saman lauman ja Delta -lauman vasoihin. Tutkimus kuvaa toimivan vasojen pulloruo-kintamenetelmän.

  7. Fruktbarhet hos simler: effekter av ernæring og vekst

    N. J. C. Tyler; Forberedt innlegg v/ Terje Skogland


    Tyler's article is published in English in Rangifer 7 (2), 1987: Fertility in female reindeer: the effect of nutrition and growth.Sammendrag: Drektighetsprosenten i ungrein varierer sterkt fra individ til individ og fra flokk til flokk. En høy fruktbarhet i reinflokken er selve grunnlaget for en vellykket reindrift. Overraskende er det derfor at man vet lite om hvilke faktorer som bestemmer om rein skal bli drektig eller ikke. I denne artikkelen blir effekten av ernæring p&a...

  8. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales



    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the current status of vertebrate invasive species throughout Chile, updating information on terrestrial exotics and reporting for the first time the situation of exotic freshwater fishes. In addition, we document the legislation and programs that the Chilean government has implemented to limit the entry of exotics to the country or minimize their impact on native wild flora and fauna and on natural ecosystems. We document what is known about the introduction of 26 exotic fish species to continental waters of the country, discussing the distribution and putative effects of those 11 species that may be considered invasive. From a previous list of 24 terrestrial vertebrate invaders, we withdraw the Argentine tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and mouflon (Ovis ammon because there are no data on their subsistence in the wild. On the other hand, we add three new species: red-eared freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus, and red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata, thus keeping the total number of terrestrial invaders unchanged at 24 species. The chief agency in charge of existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic freshwater species is the National Fisheries Service (SERNAPESCA, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Economy. The main agency in charge of enforcing existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic terrestrial species to Chile is the Agriculture and Livestock Service (SAG, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Agriculture. Currently, SAG is not only controlling major border passes, seaports and airports, but also is funding studies to monitor and control already existing invaders. In addition, the Chilean Forest Service (CONAF, in Spanish is also concerned about invasive species, but only if they enter national parks and reserves within the National System of Protected Wildlife Areas (SNASPE, in Spanish

  9. Limiting factors in caribou population ecology

    David R. Klein


    Full Text Available Caribou and wild reindeer populations fluctuate over time. On this fact there is general agreement. Factors responsible for population limitation and subsequent declines have been examined within the framework of animal population theory. There is, however, little agreement when factors limiting specific populations are generalized to Rangifer populations over broad geographic regions. Comparative examinations of wild Rangifer populations worldwide discloses that factors that have regulated those populations are highly variable between populations, apparently as a reflection of the differences in environmental variables unique to each population. Examples exist of populations where major regulating factors have been climatic extremes, predation, hunting mortality, food limitation, insects, parasites, disease, interspecific competition, and human developmental impacts or combinations of these factors. This diversity of limiting factors affecting caribou and wild reindeer populations is a reflection of the ecologial complexity of the species, a concept that has often been ignored in past efforts to reach management decisions by extrapolation from the limited localized knowledge available on the species.

  10. Oral narratives: reconceptualising the turbulence between Indigenous perspectives and Eurocentric scientific views

    Bechtel, R.


    Mitigating the borders that exist between scientific cultures can be a difficult task. The purpose of this paper is to look at the differences and similarities that occur in language use when two scientific cultures communicate in the same forum on a topic of mutual concern. The results provide an opportunity to share knowledge of an Indigenous culture that relies on barren ground caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) as a way of life in Northern Canada. Analysis of language use led to the identification of framework categories that can be used to increase awareness in different perspectives of science knowledge. Reconceptualization of the narratives presented can be used to calm the turbulence that exists between Indigenous People and other cultures and provides an opportunity for science educators to incorporate Indigenous ways of knowing into the classroom. It was found that autobiographical approaches in particular could provide an opening for cultural borders to be lessened.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands.

    Lundin, Jessica I; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Wasser, Samuel K


    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS.

  12. Habitat partitioning between woodland caribou and moose in Ontario: the potential role of shared prédation risk

    H.G. Cumming


    Full Text Available This paper explores mechanisms of coexistence for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and moose (Akes alces preyed upon by gray wolves (Canis lupus in northern Ontario. Autocorrelation analysis of winter track locations showed habitat partitioning by caribou and moose. Numbers of Delaunay link edges for moose-wolves did not differ significantly from what would be expected by random process, but those for caribou-wolves were significantly fewer. Thus, habitat partitioning provided implicit refuges that put greater distances between caribou and wolves, presumably decreasing predation on the caribou. Yet, direct competition cannot be ruled out; both apparent and direct competition may be involved in real-life situations. A synthesis including both explanations fits ecological theory, as well as current understanding about caribou ecology.

  13. Wolf predation in the Burwash caribou herd, southwest Yukon

    David A. Gauthier


    Full Text Available The role of wolf predation as a proximate mortality factor influencing caribou herd growth was assessed in the Burwash herd (400 animals in the southwest Yukon between 1980 - 1982. Ten to 14 wolves in two packs preyed primarily on caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and moose (Alces alces with disproportionate consumption of caribou (relative to available biomass in the rut and winter periods. Wolf predation was responsible for 72% of total annual mortality in 1980 - 1981 and 46% in 1981 - 1982. Losses due to human harvest varied between 7 to 13%. Additional limited data on climatic factors and winter forage indicated forage-climate were not major proximate mortality factors in 1980 - 1981, but that early-calving climate may have been a factor in increased calf mortality in 1982.

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals.

    Dubey, J P; Thulliez, P


    Antibodies to Neospora caninum were determined in several species of wild animals in the United States by the Neospora agglutination test (NAT). Antibodies (NAT 1:40 or higher) were found in 5 of 249 bison (Bison bison), 5 of 160 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 4 of 162 moose (Alces alces), 4 of 122 wolves (Canis lupus), and 1 of 224 musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) but not in 197 black bears (Ursus americanus). To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in bison and caribou. The total absence of N. caninum antibodies in black bears indicates that bears are not a host for N. caninum and that there is no cross-reactivity between the NAT and the modified agglutination test (MAT) for Toxoplasma gondii, because more than 80% of black bears in eastern United States have MAT antibodies at a 1:25 serum solution.

  15. A fire suppression model for forested range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq herds of caribou

    Donald C. Thomas


    Full Text Available A fire suppression model was developed for forested winter range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq (formerly Kaminuriak herds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in north-central Canada. The model is a balance between total protection, as voiced by some aboriginal people, and a let-burn policy for natural fires advocated by some ecologists. Elements in the model were caribou ecology, lichen recovery after fire, burn history, community priorities for caribou hunting, and fire cycle lengths. The percent ratio of current productive caribou habitat to the goal for that habitat determines whether fire should be suppressed in a specific area. The goals for productive caribou habitat, defined as forests older than 50 years, were scaled by fire cycle length and community priority ranking. Thus, the model is an example of co-management: traditional knowledge combined with science in a joint forum, the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board.

  16. Perinatal mortality in caribou from the Porcupine herd, Alaska

    Roffe, T.J.


    During the 1989 caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calving season on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (USA), 61 calf carcasses were examined for cause of death and associated pathology. Dead calves were located by low-level aerial searches with two fixed-wing aircraft and a helicopter over high density calving areas between the Hulahula and Aichilik rivers. Primary diagnoses included emaciation (39%), malnutrition (8%), stillbirth (21%), trauma (16%), other primary causes (7%), and undetermined causes (8%). Twenty calves had contributory renal tubular degeneration. The findings indicate that factors contributing to nutritional deprivation in calves were the major cause of neonatal mortality; however, factors affecting stillbirth, abortion, or the urogenital system may have major effects on neonatal caribou and warrant further investigation.

  17. Preliminary analysis of habitat utilization by woodland caribou in northwestern Ontario using satellite telemetry

    T.L. Hillis


    Full Text Available Locational data collected over a one year period from 10 female woodland caribou, Rangifer tarandus caribou, collared with Argos satellite collars in northwestern Ontario, Canada were superimposed on supervised Landsat images using Geographical Information System (GIS technology. Landscape parameters, land cover classifications, and drainage were utilized to create the basemap. Using ARCVIEW software, all digital fixes from collared caribou with information of date, time, and activity status were overlain on the basemap to facilitate a preliminary analysis of habitat use in this species. Results supported the conclusions (1 that woodland caribou in northwestern Ontario select habitats containing high to moderate conifer cover and avoided disturbed areas and shrub-rich habitats, (2 that seasonal changes in habitat utilization occurs in females of this species, and (3 that satellite telemetry technology can be employed in the boreal forest ecosystem to assess habitat utilization by large ungulate species.

  18. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

    Henning Thing


    Full Text Available The frequency of antlerless adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus was studied in four separate populations in west Greenland. Between the herds antlerlessness varied from 21% to 79%. An inverse relationship between winter range quality and percentage of unantlered cows is demonstrated. Relationship between calf percentage and maternal antler status was studied in one population and antlerless cows showed higher reproductive rate than antlered ones. In another population antlerless cows were almost absent outside the calving area. Calves of antlerless mothers were more susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation, and length of period between calving and midsummer is discussed.

  19. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    D.R. Seip


    Full Text Available The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus. Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.

  20. Review of forestry practices in caribou habitat in southeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Susan K. Stevenson


    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern British Columbia feed mainly on arboreal lichens in winter. Some modified forestry practices that have been used or proposed for caribou ranges are reviewed. Partial cutting results in the retention of some forage lichens. Partial cutting and small patch harvesting may improve lichen growth on the remaining trees. Retention of advanced regeneration and some residual trees may improve lichen growth in the remaining stand. Extension of the rotation age increases the amount of harvestable forest useful to caribou at any one time. Progressive cutting minimizes road access to caribou ranges, and may be combined with partial cutting. Most forestry practices intended to maintain lichen production will result in increased human activity in caribou ranges, unless road access is controlled. The management strategy selected depends on site conditions and on the relative importance assigned to the impact of habitat alteration and human activity on caribou.

  1. Scent marking by male caribou: an experimental test of rubbing behavior

    Craig A. Adams


    Full Text Available We studied scent marking by adult male caribou (Rangifer tarandus during rut in September 1998 at the Large Animal Research Station in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. We used an experimental approach involving two captive groups of two males each to test for effects of social status, tree size, texture, and scent on rubbing behavior by caribou. Dominant males did not rub more often or for a longer duration than subordinates. Caribou rubbed trees with smaller diameters more often than large-diameter trees. Males preferred trees with bark for rubbing to those trees with their bark removed prior to the experiment. Caribou exhibited no preference for posts with pine-oil applied compared with posts without that aromatic scent. We hypothesize that rubbing of trees by male caribou is related to synchronization or priming of estrus in females, but more research is needed to test that potential function of scent marking.

  2. Will ecosystem management supply woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario?

    David L. Euler


    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is emerging as an important concept in managing forests. Although the basic conceptual idea is not new, important defining principles are developing that elucidate some of the specific attributes of ecosystem management. These principles include: the maintenance of all ecosystems in the managed forest, rhe emulation of natural disturbance patterns on rhe landscape and the insurance that structure and function of forested ecosystems are conserved. Forest management has an impact on woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, although the presence of wolves (Canis lupus and moose (Alces alces in the same northern ecosystems also affects the caribou-forestry interacrion. Specific management for caribou as a featured species has been proposed, based on managing large landscape blocks. Ecosystem management would also produce habitat in a manner that might accomplish the goal of conserving woodland caribou as well as maintaining other important ecosystem functions.

  3. Capturing migration phenology of terrestrial wildlife using camera traps

    Tape, Ken D.; Gustine, David D.


    Remote photography, using camera traps, can be an effective and noninvasive tool for capturing the migration phenology of terrestrial wildlife. We deployed 14 digital cameras along a 104-kilometer longitudinal transect to record the spring migrations of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and ptarmigan (Lagopus spp.) in the Alaskan Arctic. The cameras recorded images at 15-minute intervals, producing approximately 40,000 images, including 6685 caribou observations and 5329 ptarmigan observations. The northward caribou migration was evident because the median caribou observation (i.e., herd median) occurred later with increasing latitude; average caribou migration speed also increased with latitude (r2 = .91). Except at the northernmost latitude, a northward ptarmigan migration was similarly evident (r2 = .93). Future applications of this method could be used to examine the conditions proximate to animal movement, such as habitat or snow cover, that may influence migration phenology.

  4. Tracking wildlife by satellite: Current systems and performance

    Harris, Richard B.; Fancy, Steven G.; Douglas, David C.; Garner, Gerald W.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Pank, Larry F.


    Since 1984, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has used the Argos Data Collection and Location System (DCLS) and Tiros-N series satellites to monitor movements and activities of 10 species of large mammals in Alaska and the Rocky Mountain region. Reliability of the entire system was generally high. Data were received from instrumented caribou (Rangifer tarandus) during 91% of 318 possible transmitter-months. Transmitters failed prematurely on 5 of 45 caribou, 2 of 6 muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and 1 of 2 gray wolves (Canis lupus). Failure rates were considerably higher for polar (Ursus maritimus) and brown (U. arctos) bears than for caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Efficiency of gathering both locational and sensor data was related to both latitude and topography.Mean error of locations was estimated to be 954 m (median = 543 m) for transmitters on captive animals; 90% of locations were <1,732 m from the true location. Argos's new location class zero processing provided many more locations than normal processing, but mean location error was much higher than locations estimated normally. Locations were biased when animals were at elevations other than those used in Argos's calculations.Long-term and short-term indices of animal activity were developed and evaluated. For several species, the long-term index was correlated with movement patterns and the short-term index was calibrated to specific activity categories (e.g., lying, feeding, walking).Data processing and sampling considerations were evaluated. Algorithms for choosing the most reliable among a series of reported locations were investigated. Applications of satellite telemetry data and problems with lack of independence among locations are discussed.

  5. Reindeer, muskoxen and mt. sheep investigations: Annual report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report discusses the station's highlights in 1932. During the year, the main construction program of the station was completed. At the College station,...

  6. Irruptive dynamics of introduced caribou on Adak Island, Alaska: an evaluation of Riney-Caughley model predictions

    Ricca, Mark A.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Miles, A. Keith


    Large mammalian herbivores introduced to islands without predators are predicted to undergo irruptive population and spatial dynamics, but only a few well-documented case studies support this paradigm. We used the Riney-Caughley model as a framework to test predictions of irruptive population growth and spatial expansion of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) introduced to Adak Island in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska in 1958 and 1959. We utilized a time series of spatially explicit counts conducted on this population intermittently over a 54-year period. Population size increased from 23 released animals to approximately 2900 animals in 2012. Population dynamics were characterized by two distinct periods of irruptive growth separated by a long time period of relative stability, and the catalyst for the initial irruption was more likely related to annual variation in hunting pressure than weather conditions. An unexpected pattern resembling logistic population growth occurred between the peak of the second irruption in 2005 and the next survey conducted seven years later in 2012. Model simulations indicated that an increase in reported harvest alone could not explain the deceleration in population growth, yet high levels of unreported harvest combined with increasing density-dependent feedbacks on fecundity and survival were the most plausible explanation for the observed population trend. No studies of introduced island Rangifer have measured a time series of spatial use to the extent described in this study. Spatial use patterns during the post-calving season strongly supported Riney-Caughley model predictions, whereby high-density core areas expanded outwardly as population size increased. During the calving season, caribou displayed marked site fidelity across the full range of population densities despite availability of other suitable habitats for calving. Finally, dispersal and reproduction on neighboring Kagalaska Island represented a new dispersal front

  7. Vegetation characteristics of forest stands used by woodland caribou and those disturbed by fire or logging in Manitoba

    Juha M. Metsaranta


    Full Text Available This study examined woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in an area known as the Kississing-Naosap caribou range in west central Manitoba. The vegetation characteristics of areas used by caribou and areas disturbed by fire or logging were measured in order to develop a model to estimate habitat quality from parameters collected during stan¬dard resource inventories. There was evidence that habitat index values calculated using a visual score-sheet index could be used as the basis to relate parameters commonly collected during resource inventories to habitat suitability. Use of this model to select long and short-term leave areas during forest management planning could potentially mitigate some of the negative impacts of forest harvesting. Abundance of arboreal lichen and wind-fallen trees were important predictor variables in the suitability model, but their inclusion did not explain more variance in habitat suitability than models that did not include them. Extreme post-fire deadfall abundance may play a role in predator-prey dynamics by creating habitat that is equally unsuitable for all ungulates, and thus keeping both moose and caribou densities low.

  8. Range overlap and individual movements during breeding season influence genetic relationships of caribou herds in south-central Alaska

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Adams, Layne G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Dale, Bruce W.


    North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds commonly exhibit little nuclear genetic differentiation among adjacent herds, although available evidence supports strong demographic separation, even for herds with seasonal range overlap. During 1997–2003, we studied the Mentasta and Nelchina caribou herds in south-central Alaska using radiotelemetry to determine individual movements and range overlap during the breeding season, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers to assess levels of genetic differentiation. Although the herds were considered discrete because females calved in separate regions, individual movements and breeding-range overlap in some years provided opportunity for male-mediated gene flow, even without demographic interchange. Telemetry results revealed strong female philopatry, and little evidence of female emigration despite overlapping seasonal distributions. Analyses of 13 microsatellites indicated the Mentasta and Nelchina herds were not significantly differentiated using both traditional population-based analyses and individual-based Bayesian clustering analyses. However, we observed mtDNA differentiation between the 2 herds (FSTM = 0.041, P

  9. Ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd

    Kenneth R. Whitten


    Full Text Available Researchers have described general patterns of population regulation that fit most caribou (Rangifer tarandus herds. Nevertheless, specific factors operating on particular populations vary greatly, and efforts to categorize herds according to the general patterns often lead to confusion. It is difficult for biologists to attempt to describe population dynamics in terms of density relationships for wide-ranging arctic caribou such as the Porcupine Herd. In these herds density varies as a function of dispersal and erratic movement patterns and is not simply the number of caribou divided by a fixed range area. Density is also a poor surrogate for resource availability per individual caribou because climatic factors affect forage and/or access to forage independendy of caribou numbers. Thus classic signs of nutritional stress such as delayed puberty, reduced productivity, and winter starvation can occur when a population is small as well as large and do not necessarily denote food competition brought on by high density, per se. Nutritional stress and exacerbated predation due to adverse weather conditions occasionally cause the Porcupine Herd to decline, and limiting factors such as poor nutrition, predation, harvest, accidents, and disease act in combination to keep herd growth rates low during periods of good weather. Adverse weather setbacks occur frequently, and the herd remains within a fairly restricted range of densities over long time periods. There is no true density dependent regulation and no equilibrium in this system.

  10. Predation rate by wolves on the Porcupine caribou herd

    Robert D. Hayes


    Full Text Available Large migratory catibou {Rangifer tarandus herds in the Arctic tend to be cyclic, and population trends are mainly driven by changes in forage or weather events, not by predation. We estimated daily kill rate by wolves on adult caribou in winter, then constructed a time and space dependent model to estimate annual wolf (Canis lupus predation rate (P annual on adult Porcupine caribou. Our model adjusts predation seasonally depending on caribou distribution: Pannual = SIGMAdaily* W *Ap(2*Dp. In our model we assumed that wolves killed adult caribou at a constant rate (Kdaily, 0.08 caribou wolf1 day1 based on our studies and elsewhere; that wolf density (W doubled to 6 wolves 1000 km2-1 on all seasonal ranges; and that the average area occupied by the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH in eight seasonal life cycle periods (Dp was two times gteater than the area described by the outer boundaries of telemetry data (Ap /1000 km2. Results from our model projected that wolves kill about 7600 adult caribou each year, regardless of herd size. The model estimated that wolves removed 5.8 to 7.4% of adult caribou as the herd declined in the 1990s. Our predation rate model supports the hypothesis of Bergerud that spacing away by caribou is an effective anti-predatory strategy that greatly reduces wolf predation on adult caribou in the spring and summer.

  11. Towards a Caribou Habitat Management Strategy for Northwestern Ontario: Running the Gauntlet

    Gerald D. Racey


    Full Text Available A management strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou habitat is being developed in northwestern Ontario. This strategy is based upon a set of draft Timber Management Guidelines for the Provision of Woodland Caribou Habitat. These guidelines recommend maintaining a sustainable supply of winter habitat within large tracts of old forest, protecting calving areas and minimizing human disturbance. Due to the large temporal and spatial scale of caribou habitat management, an ecosystem-based approach is recommended. Public response to the strategy shows a strong dichotomy between environmental and utilitarian values among all the major stakeholder groups. The major issues raised by the public include security of industrial wood supply, quality of the knowledge base, level of awareness of caribou, economic impacts on remote communities, concern about environmental impacts and silvicultural know-how. The government is responding to these concerns as the strategy evolves. Current emphasis is placed on increasing awareness of the public, training resource managers in caribou biology, management and habitat planning, implementing interim habitat management prescriptions and studying the potential impact on wood supply. The final direction for a northwestern Ontario strategy to conserve woodland caribou habitat has yet to be decided, although a commitment has been made to strive for the conservation of woodland caribou populations and their habitat.

  12. Managing for Caribou Survival in a Partitioned Habitat

    H.G. Cumming


    Full Text Available Forest management guidelines for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario need to be re-examined in light of the finding that caribou partition habitat with moose (Alces alces, partly to find virtual refuges from predation by gray wolves (Canis lupus. Forest-wide guidelines seem inappropriate for a species that is widely scattered and little known. Management should concentrate on and around currently used virtual refuges to ensure their continued habitability. Cutting these areas may force the caribou into places with higher densities of predators; winter use of roads might bring poachers, increased wolf entry, and accidents. A proposal for 100 km2 clear-cuts scheduled over 60+ years across the forest landscape would probably minimize moose/wolf densities in the long run as intended, but because of habitat partitioning might forfeit any benefits to caribou in the short-term. Sharply reducing moose densities near areas where caribou have sought refuge might incline wolves to switch to caribou. Cutting beyond caribou winter refuge areas should aim at maintaining current moose densities to prevent wolves from switching prey species. Operations level manipulation of the forest around each wintering area should provide winter habitat for the future, while treatment replications with controls across the whole forest would provide reliable knowledge about which approaches work best. The remainder of the forest should be managed to maintain suitable densities of all other species.

  13. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Harold G. Cumming


    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  14. Analysis of forest stands used by wintering woodland caribou in Ontario

    K. Antoniak


    Full Text Available Two summers' field surveys at 9 locations in northwestern Ontario showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou wintering areas supported jack pine and black spruce stands with low tree densities (mean 1552 trees/ ha, 39% of a fully stocked stand, low basal areas (mean 14.14 m2/ha, low volumes (mean 116 mVha, 68% of Normal Yield Tables and short heights (95% of stands 12 m or less. Ecologically, most sights were classed V30. Significantly more lichen (averaging 39% lichen ground cover was found on plots used by caribou. Three measured areas showed few shrubs, possibly enhancing escape possibilities and reducing browse attractive to moose. An HIS model predicted known locations of caribou winter habitat from FRI data with 76% accuracy. Landsat imagery theme 3 (open conifer produced 74% accuracy. Combining these methods permitted prediction of all 50 test sites. The low volumes of timber found in caribou wintering areas suggest that setting aside reserves for caribou winter habitat would not sacrifice as much wood product value as might at first appear.

  15. Developing a woodland caribou habitat mosaic on the Ogoki-Nakina North Forests of northwestern Ontario

    I. Armstrong


    Full Text Available The Ogoki-North Nakina Forests consist of (10 638 km2 unroaded boreal forest approximately 400 km northeast of Thunder Bay, Ontario (lat 50°- 51°31'N, long 86°30'- 89°W. Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou inhabit discrete portions within these forests based on minimal current and past historical data. As part of the Forest Management Planning process, for the period 1997-2097, a woodland caribou habitat mosaic has been developed to coordinate present and future forest management activities with the retention and development of current and future woodland caribou habitat. Several criteria including, past fire history, forest structure, age, species composition, proximity to current road access and location of existing and potential caribou habitat, helped identify and delineate 50 mosaic harvest blocks. Each harvest block will be logged in one of five 20 year periods over a 100 year rotation (1997¬2097. The harvest blocks have been developed to simulate a pattern of past wildfire history in an area that has not been subjected to past forest management activities, while managing for woodland caribou, a locally featured species.

  16. Using social-ecological systems theory to evaluate large-scale comanagement efforts: a case study of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region

    William Tyson


    Full Text Available Comanagement efforts are increasingly tasked with overseeing natural resource governance at a large scale. I examine comanagement of subsistence harvesting in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR of the western Canadian Arctic, using a social-ecological systems framework. In doing so, this study joins a growing list of research that reviews design principles commonly found in successful small-scale commons management and applies them to a large resource area. This research uses the management of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas and barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus as case studies in understanding the management framework of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, as each species is important in Inuvialuit culture and is actively managed and monitored. Comanagement bodies in the study area display many of the institutional design principles that are characteristic of successful social-ecological systems. Particularly mentionable are the presence of well-organized nested enterprises and a strong incorporation of local knowledge and monitoring. This supports the application of institutional design principles in large-scale analyses of resource management. However, due to the network of policy and management outside the ISR that influences each species, this research suggests that in cases of wide-ranging resource bases, these types of analyses may be better suited to evaluating broad management networks rather than discrete governing regions.

  17. Implications of a Bayesian radiocarbon calibration of colonization ages for mammalian megafauna in glaciated New York State after the Last Glacial Maximum

    Feranec, Robert S.; Kozlowski, Andrew L.


    To understand what factors control species colonization and extirpation within specific paleoecosystems, we analyzed radiocarbon dates of megafaunal mammal species from New York State after the Last Glacial Maximum. We hypothesized that the timing of colonization and extirpation were both driven by access to preferred habitat types. Bayesian calibration of a database of 39 radiocarbon dates shows that caribou (Rangifer tarandus) were the first colonizers, then mammoth (Mammuthus sp.), and finally American mastodon (Mammut americanum). The timing of colonization cannot reject the hypothesis that colonizing megafauna tracked preferred habitats, as caribou and mammoth arrived when tundra was present, while mastodon arrived after boreal forest was prominent in the state. The timing of caribou colonization implies that ecosystems were developed in the state prior to 16,000 cal yr BP. The contemporaneous arrival of American mastodon with Sporormiella spore decline suggests the dung fungus spore is not an adequate indicator of American mastodon population size. The pattern in the timing of extirpation is opposite to that of colonization. The lack of environmental changes suspected to be ecologically detrimental to American mastodon and mammoth coupled with the arrival of humans shortly before extirpation suggests an anthropogenic cause in the loss of the analyzed species.

  18. Managing fire for woodland caribou in Jasper and Banff National Parks

    Landon Shepherd


    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou populations in Jasper (JNP and Banff National Parks (BNP have declined since the 1970s, coincident with reduced fire activity in both parks, relative to historic levels. Some researchers have suggested that long periods without fire may cause habitat deterioration for woodland caribou, primarily by reducing available lichen forage. We examined winter habitat selection by woodland caribou at coarse and fine scales based on GPS-derived telemetry data and used models that included stand origin (decade, topography, and several stand structure variables that are related to time since fire, to explore relationships among caribou, lichen, and fire history. Based on the relationships illustrated by the models, we assessed how fire management could be applied to caribou conservation in JNP and BNP. At a coarse scale, caribou selected old forest (> 75 years in landscapes that have likely experienced less frequent wildfire. While the abundance of Cladonia spp. influenced caribou use at fine scales, a preference for areas with older trees within stands was also significant. We conclude that short-term habitat protection for woodland caribou in JNP and BNP likely requires fire exclusion from caribou range.

  19. Structures for caribou management and their status in the circumpolar north

    D.R. Klein


    Full Text Available Large herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus in Canada, Alaska, and Russia that winter in northern coniferous forests and summer in tundra of the Arctic have provided a sustainable source of meat and other products for indigenous peoples for thousands of years. Several different administrative structures for management of large caribou herds have emerged throughout the circumpolar North. In Russia under the previous Soviet government, the herd of the Taimyr Region, numbering around 500 000 caribou, was managed under a harvest quota system for both subsistence use by indigenous people and commercial sale of meat and skins. In North America, as indigenous peoples have gained increasing political empowerment, systems for caribou management have been undergoing change. Establishment of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board in Canada, with majority representation from users of the resource, provides a model and a test of the effectiveness of a comanagement system. The Western Arctic Herd in northwestern Alaska, numbering close to 500 000 caribou, has been managed under the traditional American system of game management, with user advisory groups, but with management decisions resting with a statewide Board of Game, whose major representation is from sport-hunting interests. The Porcupine Caribou Herd, which is shared by the United States and Canada, is the focus of an international agreement, in principle designed to assure its continued productivity and well-being. The diversity of systems for caribou management in the circumpolar North provides an opportunity for comparing their effectiveness.

  20. Evaluation of satellite collar sample size requirements for mitigation of low-level military jet disturbance of the George River caribou herd

    Robert D. Otto


    Full Text Available Wildlife radio-telemetry and tracking projects often determine a priori required sample sizes by statistical means or default to the maximum number that can be maintained within a limited budget. After initiation of such projects, little attention is focussed on effective sample size requirements, resulting in lack of statistical power. The Department of National Defence operates a base in Labrador, Canada for low level jet fighter training activities, and maintain a sample of satellite collars on the George River caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd of the region for spatial avoidance mitiga¬tion purposes. We analysed existing location data, in conjunction with knowledge of life history, to develop estimates of satellite collar sample sizes required to ensure adequate mitigation of GRCH. We chose three levels of probability in each of six annual caribou seasons. Estimated number of collars required ranged from 15 to 52, 23 to 68, and 36 to 184 for 50%, 75%, and 90% probability levels, respectively, depending on season. Estimates can be used to make more informed decisions about mitigation of GRCH, and, generally, our approach provides a means to adaptively assess radio collar sam¬ple sizes for ongoing studies.

  1. Effect of adverse weather on neonatal caribou survival — a review

    Frank L. Miller


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationship between adverse weather and neonatal caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp. survival in North America by examining the available literature and our own findings. The viewpoint that adverse weather on the calving ground can result in major losses of newborn barren-ground caribou (R. t. groenlandicus calves is largely unsupported. Published reports of calf mortality caused by adverse weather are questionable because causes of death were rarely determined by postmortem examinations. Circumstantial evidence associated with the small samples of dead calves does not support published assumptions that the mortality was weather related, or that high losses due to adverse weather are common events. The applicability of results from physiological testing are questionable, because the calves were restrained and the behaviour of unrestrained animals was ignored in the conclusions drawn from the tests. The relationship between adverse weather and calf mortality is more speculation than documentation yet often has been uncritically cited. In our view, healthy newborn barren-ground caribou are well adapted physiologically and behaviourally to cope with all but the most severe adverse weather.

  2. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Harington, C. R.


    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  3. Caribou conservation and recovery in Ontario: development and implementation of the Caribou Conservation Plan

    Ted (E.R. Armstrong


    Full Text Available The range of Ontario’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou (forest-dwelling ecotype has receded northward substantially over many decades, leading to its current Threatened designation. Ontario released its Caribou Conservation Plan (CCP in the fall of 2009. This policy responded to public input and recommendations from the Ontario Woodland Caribou Recovery Team and the Caribou Science Review Panel, and outlines conservation and recovery actions to conserve and recover caribou. Within an adaptive management framework, the CCP builds upon a recent history of managing at large landscape scales in Ontario to implement a range management approach as the basis for recovery actions. These commitments and actions include enhanced research and monitoring, improved caribou habitat planning at the landscape scale, an integrated range analysis approach using advanced assessment tools to evaluate thresholds of habitat amount, arrangement and disturbance, the assessment of probability of persistence, consideration of cumulative effects, meeting forest management silvicultural performance requirements, consideration of caribou recovery implications when managing other wildlife, an initial focus on the southern edge of caribou distribution where threats are most significant, improved outreach and stewardship, and consideration of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge in recovery actions. Implementation of the CCP signifies a long-term provincial commitment to caribou recovery, initially focusing on identified priorities within the CCP.

  4. Recycling of Badger/Fox Burrows in Late Pleistocene Loess by Hyenas at the Den Site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (NW, Germany: Woolly Rhinoceros Killers and Scavengers in a Mammoth Steppe Environment of Europe

    Cajus Diedrich


    Full Text Available The Late Pleistocene (MIS 5c-d Ice Age spotted hyena open air den and bone accumulation site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (Hesse, NW, Germany represents the first open air loess fox/badger den site in Europe, which must have been recycled by Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823 as a birthing den. Badger and fox remains, plus remains of their prey (mainly hare, have been found within the loess. Hyena remains from that site include parts of cub skeletons which represent 10% of the megafauna bones. Also a commuting den area existed, which was well marked by hyena faecal pellets. Most of the hyena prey bones expose crack, bite, and nibbling marks, especially the most common bones, the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis (NISP  =  32%. The large amount of woolly rhinoceros bones indicate hunting/scavenging specializing on this large prey by hyenas. Other important mammoth steppe hyena prey remains are from Mammuthus primigenius, Equus caballus przewalskii, Bison/Bos, Megaloceros giganteus, Cervus elaphus, and Rangifer tarandus. The few damaged bone remains of a scavenged cave bear Ursus spelaeus subsp. are unique for an open air situation. Abundant micromammal, frog, and some fish remains were concentrated in “pellets” that contain mainly mammoth steppe micromammals and also frog and fish remains that seem to originate from the nearby river/lake.

  5. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.


    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  6. 8000 years of caribou and human seasonal migration in the Canadian Barrenlands

    Bryan C. Gordon


    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are the common thread running through thousands of years of cultural evolution in northern mainland Canada. From the earliest Indian traditions, through the Pre-Dorset and Dene cultural evolution, up to historic times, the vast herds of migratory Barrenland caribou provided food, clothing and shelter. They determined the human cycle -- seasonal migrations, seasonal levels of fitness, and season of procreation. Caribou even permeated Dene mythology and supernatural beliefs. Within the Beverly caribou (R. t. groenlandicus range in the Canadian Barrenlands, investigation of 1002 archaeological sites points to long-term stability of human band and caribou herd interaction. Caribou bone and hunting tools occur in multiple levels, the earliest to 8000 years, based on 131 radiocarbon dates. Through time, specific hunting bands aligned with specific migratory barren-ground caribou herds. This relationship helps to explain observed archaeological and ethnological differences within different caribou ranges for these hunting bands. In general, biological evidence concurs with ethnographic and archaeological evidence. But short-term variations in migration routes between northern boreal forest, taiga and tundra may have followed changes in herd size and environment, e.g., unfavorable snow and ice conditions or forest fires. However, such influences were not discernible archaeologically.

  7. Vigilance and foraging behaviour of female caribou in relation to predation risk

    Pernille S. Bøving


    Full Text Available Behaviour of female caribou (Rangifer tarandus was investigated during the calving season on ranges in Alaska and West Greenland with the purpose of determining whether investment in vigilance behaviour differed between areas with and without natural predators of caribou. Female caribou in Alaska foraged in larger groups, displayed a higher rate of vigilance during feeding, spent less time feeding and, when lying, more often adopted a vigilant posture (with head up than did female caribou in West Greenland. Moreover, a predation-vulnerable posture of lying down flat was observed in West Greenland but not in Alaska. Within Alaska, females with calves spent more time searching the environment than did those without calves. Finally, the amount of time individuals spent searching declined more gradually with group size in Alaska than in West Greenland, suggesting that what caribou perceive as a predator-safe threshold differs in the two areas. These results indicate that caribou, like several other species of ungulates, show behavioural adaptations to the risk of prédation which are relaxed when this risk is reduced.

  8. Metagenomic survey for viruses in Western Arctic caribou, Alaska, through iterative assembly of taxonomic units.

    Anita C Schürch

    Full Text Available Pathogen surveillance in animals does not provide a sufficient level of vigilance because it is generally confined to surveillance of pathogens with known economic impact in domestic animals and practically nonexistent in wildlife species. As most (re-emerging viral infections originate from animal sources, it is important to obtain insight into viral pathogens present in the wildlife reservoir from a public health perspective. When monitoring living, free-ranging wildlife for viruses, sample collection can be challenging and availability of nucleic acids isolated from samples is often limited. The development of viral metagenomics platforms allows a more comprehensive inventory of viruses present in wildlife. We report a metagenomic viral survey of the Western Arctic herd of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti in Alaska, USA. The presence of mammalian viruses in eye and nose swabs of 39 free-ranging caribou was investigated by random amplification combined with a metagenomic analysis approach that applied exhaustive iterative assembly of sequencing results to define taxonomic units of each metagenome. Through homology search methods we identified the presence of several mammalian viruses, including different papillomaviruses, a novel parvovirus, polyomavirus, and a virus that potentially represents a member of a novel genus in the family Coronaviridae.

  9. Wetland habitat selection by woodland caribou as characterized using the Alberta Wetland Inventory

    W. Kent Brown


    Full Text Available We examined habitat selection by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in northwestern Alberta based on a wetland classification system developed for the Alberta Vegetation Inventory. Our two objectives were to describe caribou habitat use, and to assess the utility of the wetland classification system in land-use planning on caribou range. We used a geographical information system to overlay the locations of radio-collared caribou on the habitat map. Using a "moving-window" analysis of habitat availability, we examined patterns of habitat selection by 16 individual female caribou during five seasons annually over two years. We did not detect significant differences in habitat selection patterns among seasons. Caribou showed significant preferences for both bogs and fens with low to moderate tree cover relative to marshes, uplands, heavily forested wetlands, water, and areas of human use. The wetland classification system appears to have value for broad-scale planning of industrial activity on caribou range. More-detailed descriptions of vegetation, especially understory species, are required to refine this system for operational-level forest harvest planning.

  10. Surveillance for Echinococcus canadensis genotypes in Canadian ungulates.

    Schurer, Janna; Shury, Todd; Leighton, Frederick; Jenkins, Emily


    The geographic and host distribution, prevalence and genotypes of Echinococcus canadensis in wild ungulates in Canada are described to better understand the significance for wildlife and public health. We observed E. canadensis in 10.5% (11/105) of wild elk (wapiti; Cervus canadensis) in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, examined at necropsy, over two consecutive years (2010-2011). Molecular characterization of hydatid cyst material from these elk, as well as three other intermediate wildlife host species, was based on sequence of a 470 bp region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NAD1) mitochondrial gene. In moose [Alces alces], elk, and caribou [Rangifer tarandus] from northwestern Canada, the G10 genotype was the only one present, and the G8 genotype was detected in a muskox (Ovibos moschatus) from northeastern Canada. On a search of the national wildlife health database (1992-2010), cervids with hydatid cysts were reported in all provinces and territories except the Atlantic provinces, from which wolves [Canis lupis] are historically absent. Of the 93 cervids with records of hydatid cysts, 42% were elk, 37% were moose, 14% were caribou, and 6% were white-tailed and mule deer [Odocoileus virginianus and Odocoileus hemonius]. In these animals, 83% of cysts were detected in lungs alone, 8% in both lungs and liver, 3% in liver alone, and 6% in other organs. These observations can help target surveillance programs and contribute to a better understanding of ecology, genetic diversity, and genotype pathogenicity in the Echinococcus granulosus species complex.

  11. Distribution and relative abundance of caribou in the Hudson Plains Ecozone of Ontario

    Audrey J. Magoun


    Full Text Available To determine past distribution and relative abundance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in the Hudson Plains Ecozone (HPE of Ontario, we reviewed past HPE-wide winter systematic aerial surveys, partial winter systematic surveys, summer photographic surveys, incidental observations of caribou, and other sources of information from the period 1950—2003. We conducted new HPE-wide aerial surveys in February 2003 and 2004 to evaluate current distribution patterns. From this information, we defined 9 core wintering areas in the HPE and differentiated between 3 catego¬ries of relative abundance. Wintering areas for the January—March period have changed relatively little over the past 45 years. Summer distribution of caribou along the Hudson Bay coast apparently shifted or expanded from the area west of the Severn River to the central and eastern portions of the coast since the 1980s, and caribou observations have become much more common in the area east of the Winisk River since 1998. Because major resource development activities in the HPE are proposed and some are imminent, we recommend additional caribou surveys to document current caribou population identity, size, and distribution, and research projects to better define caribou wintering areas, calving areas, and movement patterns in the HPE.

  12. Decision-support model to explore the feasibility of using translocation to restore a woodland caribou population in Pukaskwa National Park, Canada

    Emily K. Gonzales


    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou have declined dramatically in the past century. Without intervention the most southern population of caribou in eastern North America is expected to disappear within 20 years. Although translocations have reintroduced and reinforced some populations, approximately half of caribou translocation efforts fail. Translocations are resource intensive and risky, and multiple interrelated factors must be considered to assess their potential for success. Structured decision-making tools, such as Bayesian belief networks, provide objective methods to assess different wildlife management scenarios by identifying the key components and relationships in an ecosystem. They can also catalyze dialogue with stakeholders and provide a record of the complex thought processes used in reaching a decision. We developed a Bayesian belief network for a proposed translocation of woodland caribou into a national park on the northeastern coast of Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. We tested scenarios with favourable (e.g., good physical condition of adult caribou and unfavourable (e.g., high predator densities conditions with low, medium, and high numbers of translocated caribou. Under the current conditions at Pukaskwa National Park, augmenting the caribou population is unlikely to recover the species unless wolf densities remain low (<5.5/1000 km2 or if more than 300 animals could be translocated.

  13. Annual and monthly range fidelity of female boreal woodland caribou in respons to petroleum development

    Boyan V. Tracz


    Full Text Available Petroleum-sector development in northern Alberta, Canada has been implicated as one factor influencing the decline of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Previous research showed that caribou are farther from petroleum-sector disturbances within their home range than expected. As petroleum development increases, the distance caribou can selectively place themselves relative to industrial disturbance must decrease, because distances between disturbances decrease. Conceptually, the number of local disturbances becomes so large that caribou either abandon their local avoidance behaviour or leave their traditional home range. We evaluated whether an intense petroleum- development event in northern Alberta was sufficient to result in home range abandonment by female woodland caribou. Using well locations as an index of petroleum development, we found that caribou studied from 1992 to 2000 did not change their annual or monthly range fidelity as a function of development intensity. Caribou remained in peatland complexes containing a large number of petroleum-sector disturbances rather than move to new areas, presumably because the risks of dispersing across upland habitat to reach other suitable habitat are high. Such range fidelity may have fitness consequences for woodland caribou if they suffer greater predation in areas where petroleum development is occurring.

  14. Little Smoky Woodland Caribou Calf Survival Enhancement Project

    Kirkby G. Smith


    Full Text Available The Little Smoky woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus herd is a boreal ecotype located in west central Alberta, Canada. This herd has declined steadily over the past decade and is currently thought to number approximately 80 animals. Factors contributing to the herds' decline appear related to elevated predator-caused mortality rates resulting from industrial caused landscape change. At current rates of decline, the herd is at risk of extirpation. A calf survival enhancement project was initiated in the first half of 2006 as a means of enhancing recruitment while other longer-term approaches were implemented. A total of 10 pregnant females were captured in early March and held in captivity until all calves were at least 3 weeks old. Before release, calves were radiocollared with expandable drop-off collars. Following release, survival of mother and offspring were tracked at intervals until the fall rut. Survival of penned calves was compared to "wild-born" calves at heel of non captive radiocollared females. This approach is compared to other techniques designed to increase recruitment in caribou.

  15. Caribou nursery site habitat characteristics in two northern Ontario parks

    Natasha L. Carr


    Full Text Available To prevent further range recession, habitat features essential to the life-history requisites of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou such as calving and nursery sites need to be protected for the persistence of the species. Woodland caribou may minimize predation risk during calving by either spacing out or spacing away from predators in the forest to calve on islands, wetlands, or shorelines. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of shoreline habitats used as calving and nursery sites by female woodland caribou in northern Ontario. Detailed vegetation and other site characteristics were measured at nursery sites used by cow-calf pairs in Wabakimi and Woodland Caribou Provincial Parks for comparison with shoreline sites that were not used by caribou within each park. Differences in habitat variables selected by female caribou in the two study areas reflect broad ecoregional differences in vegetation and topography. In Wabakimi Provincial Park, understorey tree density and ground detection distance played key roles in distinguishing nursery sites from sites that were not used. In Woodland Caribou Provincial Park, groundcover vegetation and shrub density were important in the selection of nursery sites by female caribou. Generally, female caribou in both parks selected nursery sites with greater slope, lower shrub density but thicker groundcover vegetation, including greater lichen abundance, and higher densities of mature trees than shoreline sites that were not used. The identification of these important features for caribou nursery sites provides a basis for improving their protection in future management policies and legislation.

  16. Biochemical indicators of condition, nutrition and nitrogen excretion in caribou

    Ray Case


    Full Text Available Urinary urea nitrogen to creatinine ratios, urinary Nt-methylhistidine to creatinine ratios, serum urea nitrogen concentrations (SUN mg/dl, and serum Nt-methylhistidine concentrations were compared with physical measures of body composition in adult female barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus from the Bathurst and Southampton Island herds during late winter. Body weight and UUC were used to estimate urinary urea nitrogen (urea-N excretion in free ranging caribou. Only mean UUC reflected differences in fat reserves between populations. None of the biochemical indicators were directly related to body composition. However, elevated UUC were only observed in caribou with depleted fat reserves as demonstrated by low kidney fat index (KFK40 and/or reduced femur marrow fat (FMF<80. UUC greater than 0.25 were indicative of undernourished animals with depleted fat reserves. SUN and UN -MHC showed no clear relationship with fat reserves. The mean estimated daily urea-N excretion for adult female caribou in late winter was extremely low (0.11+0.01SE g urea-N/day, n=76, range=0.011-0.510. The results of my study suggest that UUC can be used to detect nutritionally stressed caribou with depleted fat reserves on lichen winter ranges.

  17. Woodland caribou range occupancy in northwestern Ontario: past and present

    G.D. Racey


    Full Text Available A zone of continuous woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou distribution is defined for northwestern Ontario. This zone establishes a benchmark for measuring the success of future management of habitat and conservation of populations. Inventory of key winter, summer and calving habitats reaffirms the concept of a dynamic mosaic of habitat tracts that supports caribou across the landscape. The historical range recession leading to this current distribution has been associated with resource development, fire and hunting activities over the past 150 years, and numerous attempts at conservation over the last 70 years. The decline was apparently phased according to several periods of development activity: i early exploitation in the early to mid-1800s; ii isolation and extirpation of southern populations due to rapid changes in forest use and access between 1890 and 1930; and iii further loss of the southernmost herds due to forest harvesting of previously inaccessible areas since the 1950s. Lessons learned from history support current conservation measures to manage caribou across broad landscapes, protect southern herds, maintain caribou habitat as part of continuous range, maintain large contiguous tracts of older forest and ensure connectivity between habitat components.

  18. Changes in interacting species with disturbance

    Cole, Glen F.


    Human-influenced changes in the diversity and abundance of native wildlife in a southern boreal forest area, which became a national park in 1975, are used to develop working hypotheses for predicting and subsequently measuring the effects of disturbance or restoration programs on groups of interacting species. Changes from presettlement conditions began with early 1900 hunting, which eliminated woodland caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and elk ( Cervus elaphus), and reduced moose ( Alces alces) to the low numbers which still persist. Increases in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), as these other cervid species became less abundant or absent, provided enough alternative food to sustain the system's carnivores until plant succession on previously burned or logged areas also caused deer to decline. With increased competition for reduced food, carnivore species also became less abundant or absent and overexploited some prey populations. The abilities of interacting species to maintain dynamically stable populations or persist varied with their different capacities to compensate for increased exploitation or competition. These relationships suggested a possible solution to the problem of predicting the stability of populations in disturbed systems. For the 1976 1985 period, a hypothesis that the increased protection of wildlife from exploitation in a national park would restore a more diverse, abundant, and productive fauna had to be rejected.

  19. Metagenomic Survey for Viruses in Western Arctic Caribou, Alaska, through Iterative Assembly of Taxonomic Units

    Schürch, Anita C.; Schipper, Debby; Bijl, Maarten A.; Dau, Jim; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Schapendonk, Claudia M. E.; Raj, V. Stalin; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Tryland, Morten; Smits, Saskia L.


    Pathogen surveillance in animals does not provide a sufficient level of vigilance because it is generally confined to surveillance of pathogens with known economic impact in domestic animals and practically nonexistent in wildlife species. As most (re-)emerging viral infections originate from animal sources, it is important to obtain insight into viral pathogens present in the wildlife reservoir from a public health perspective. When monitoring living, free-ranging wildlife for viruses, sample collection can be challenging and availability of nucleic acids isolated from samples is often limited. The development of viral metagenomics platforms allows a more comprehensive inventory of viruses present in wildlife. We report a metagenomic viral survey of the Western Arctic herd of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in Alaska, USA. The presence of mammalian viruses in eye and nose swabs of 39 free-ranging caribou was investigated by random amplification combined with a metagenomic analysis approach that applied exhaustive iterative assembly of sequencing results to define taxonomic units of each metagenome. Through homology search methods we identified the presence of several mammalian viruses, including different papillomaviruses, a novel parvovirus, polyomavirus, and a virus that potentially represents a member of a novel genus in the family Coronaviridae. PMID:25140520

  20. Morphological change in Newfoundland caribou: Effects of abundance and climate

    Shane P. Mahoney


    Full Text Available The demographic and environmental influences on large mammal morphology are central questions in ecology. We investigated the effects of population abundance and climate on body size and number of male antler points for the La Poile and Middle Ridge caribou (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758 herds, Newfoundland, Canada. Across 40 years and 20-fold changes in abundance, adult males and females exhibited diminished stature as indicated by jawbone size (diastema and total mandible length and the number of antler points at the time of harvest. Associations between jawbone size and population abundance at birth were consistently negative for both herds, both sexes, and all age classes. Large-scale climate patterns, as measured by the North Atlantic Oscillation in the winter prior to birth, were also negatively associated with jawbone size. Declines in male antler size, as measured by the number of antler points, were not well predicted by either abundance or climate, suggesting other factors (e.g., current, rather than latent, foraging conditions may be involved. We conclude that these morphological changes indicate competition for food resources.

  1. Using temporary dye marks to estimate ungulate population abundance in southwest Yukon, Canada

    Troy M. Hegel


    Full Text Available We describe the protocols of two mark-resight abundance surveys, using temporary dye-marks, for the Aishihik woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae populations (herds in the southwest Yukon Territory, Canada. We also provide recommendations based on experiences from these surveys for biologists and managers considering this approach. The Aishihik woodland caribou herd was the focus of intensive management in the 1990s aimed at recovering the herd. Following recovery activities, a target size of 2000 animals was determined and the Champagne-Aishihik Traditional Territory Community-Based Wildlife Management Plan recommended an estimate of the herd’s size be completed before the year 2013. We used an aerial mark-resight approach to estimate the herd’s size in March 2009. Caribou (n = 59 were marked from a helicopter with temporary dye, delivered via a CO2-powered rifle. Two independent resighting sessions were subsequently carried out via helicopter. The herd was estimated at 2044 animals (90% CI: 1768 – 2420 with an overall resighting rate of 0.47. The mean annual growth rate (λ of the herd from 1997 – 2009 was 1.05 (SE = 0.01. The Aishihik wood bison herd was estimated at 1151 (90% CI: 998 – 1355. Our study suggests that ungulates temporarily marked with dye can be successfully used to obtain statistically sound population estimates.

  2. Ecosystem management and the conservation of caribou habitat in British Columbia

    Dale R. Seip


    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia inhabit a wide variety of forest ecosystems. Numerous research projects have provided information that has been used to develop caribou habitat management recommendations for different areas. Recently, the province has implemented guidelines to protect biodiversity that are based on an ecosystem management strategy of mimicking natural forest conditions. There is a great deal of similarity between caribou management recommendations and biodiversity recommendations within different forest types. In mountain caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining a landscape dominated by old and mature forests, uneven-aged management, small cutblocks, and maintaining mature forest connectivity. In northern caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining some older stands on the landscape (but less than for mountain caribou, even-aged management, and a mosaic of large harvest units and leave areas. The ecosystem management recommendations provide a useful foundation for caribou habitat conservation. More detailed information on caribou and other management objectives can then be used to fine-tune those recommendations.

  3. Using ultrasound measurements of rump fat to assess nutritional condition of woodland caribou in northern British Columbia, Canada

    David D. Gustine


    Full Text Available Body reserves (fat and protein of cervids are important to the reproductive success of individuals, and therefore may limit productivity of populations. We used a portable ultrasound machine to measure thickness of rump fat for 39 woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou captured in the winters (January–February of 2003 and 2004. We compared thickness of rump fat between pregnant and non-pregnant individuals in the Besa-Prophet drainage of northern British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-eight of the 39 females captured in British Columbia were adults and 34 of the adult caribou were pregnant (89.5 ± 5.1%, x– ± binomial SE. Pregnant individuals had more rump fat (0.60 ± 0.067 cm than nonpregnant animals (0.20 ± 0.029 cm. Recognizing that deposition and mobilization of fat vary with age and possibly across the winter season, ultrasonography can be used as a non-invasive technique in the field to assist in estimating body fat of caribou.

  4. Serologic survey for selected microbial pathogens in Alaskan wildlife.

    Zarnke, R L


    Antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected in sera of seven of 67 (10%) caribou (Rangifer tarandus), one of 39 (3%) moose (Alces alces), and six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). Antibodies to Leptospira spp. were found in sera of one of 61 (2%) caribou, one of 37 (3%) moose, six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears, and one of 28 (4%) black bears (Ursus americanus). Antibodies to contagious ecthyma virus were detected in sera of seven of 17 (41%) Dall sheep (Ovis dalli) and five of 53 (10%) caribou. Antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were found in sera of eight of 17 (47%) Dall sheep and two of 39 (6%) moose. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus antibodies were detected in sera of six of 67 (9%) caribou. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antibodies were found in sera of two of 67 (3%) caribou. Parainfluenza 3 virus antibodies were detected in sera of 14 of 21 (67%) bison (Bison bison). Antibodies to Q fever rickettsia were found in sera of 12 of 15 (80%) Dall sheep. No evidence of prior exposure to bluetongue virus was found in Dall sheep, caribou, moose, or bison sera.

  5. Caribou in British Columbia: A 1996 status report

    Douglas C. Heard


    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus in British Columbia are classified into mountain, northern and boreal ecotypes based on behavioural and ecological characteristics. We recognized 12 mountain caribou herds, 27 northern caribou herds, and an area occupied by low density boreal caribou dispersed in the boreal forests of the northeast portion of the province. Abundance estimates were usually based on attempts at total counts made from the air. Trends were based on repeated population estimates or the difference between recruitment and mortality rates for each herd. In 1996 there were approximately 18 000 caribou in British Columbia; 2300 mountain and 15 600 northern and boreal. These estimates suggest a slight increase in the numbers of both ecotypes over the last 18 years. Fifteen percent of the herds were reportedly increasing, 10% were decreasing, 31% were stable, but for 44% of the herds the trend was unknown. Historically caribou were found throughout 8 of the 14 biogeoclimatic zones in B.C. Caribou are now rarely found in the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, likely due to increased predation from wolves that increased in response to increasing moose numbers. Ranges of several herds in the Engelmann Spruce — Subalpine Fir and Alpine Tundra zones of south-eastern British Columbia are also reduced relative to historic conditions, probably because of habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, predation and hunting. Forest harvesting represents the greatest threat to caribou habitat and current research focuses on the mitigation of forest harvesting impacts.

  6. Modeling influences on winter distribution of caribou in northwestern Alaska through use of satellite telemetry

    Kyle Joly


    Full Text Available I hypothesize that the distribution of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, terrain and snow characteristics as well as predation pressure and habitat. To test this hypothesis, I attributed caribou locations derived from satellite telemetry over a 6 year period with terrain (elevation, slope, aspect, and ruggedness, habitat characteristics, and moose density - potentially an index of wolf predation pressure. These locations were compared to random locations, attributed using the same data layers, using logistic regression techniques to develop resource selection functions (RSFs. I found that caribou moved significantly less during mid-winter than early- or late-winter and that cows moved significantly more in April than bulls due to their earlier departure on their spring migration. Distribution was different between cows and bulls. Terrain variables were important factors but were scale-dependent. Cows avoided forested areas, highlighting the importance of tundra habitats, and selected for dwarf shrub, with relatively high lichen cover, and sedge habitat types. Bulls selected for dryas, coniferous forest and dwarf shrub habitats but against lowland sedge, upland shrub and burned tundra. Cow distribution was negatively correlated with moose density at the scale of the Seward Peninsula. My results support the hypothesis that caribou distribution during winter in northwest Alaska is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These results may be useful for researchers to track and/or model changes in future patterns of range use over winter.

  7. Winter habitat use by female caribou in relation to wildland fires in interior Alaska

    Joly, Kyle; Dale, B.W.; Collins, W.B.; Adams, L.G.


    The role of wildland fire in the winter habitat use of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) has long been debated. Fire has been viewed as detrimental to caribou because it destroys the slow-growing climax forage lichens that caribou utilize in winter. Other researchers argued that caribou were not reliant on lichens and that fire may be beneficial, even in the short term. We evaluated the distribution of caribou relative to recent fires (<50 years old) within the current winter range of the Nelchina caribou herd in east-central Alaska. To address issues concerning independence and spatial and temporal scales, we used both conventional very high frequency and global positioning system telemetry to estimate caribou use relative to recent, known-aged burns. In addition, we used two methods to estimate availability of different habitat classes. Caribou used recently burned areas much less than expected, regardless of methodologies used. Moreover, within burns, caribou were more likely to use habitat within 500 m of the burn perimeter than core areas. Methods for determining use and availability did not have large influences on our measures of habitat selectivity.

  8. Changes in vegetative cover on Western Arctic Herd winter range from 1981 to 2005: potential effects of grazing and climate change

    Kyle Joly


    Full Text Available The population of the Western Arctic Herd, estimated at 490 000 caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti in 2003, is at its highest level in 30 years. Twenty permanent range transects were established in the winter range of the Western Arctic Herd in 1981 to assess the impacts of grazing. These transects were revisited in 1995 and 1996 (1995/96. Only 18 of the transects were re-located, so an additional 7 transects were established in 1996. In 2005, all 25 remaining transects were revisited. Lichen coverage dropped by a relative 45.1% between 1981 and 1995/96 and by an additional relative 25.6% between 1995/96 and 2005. There was a significant decline in primary forage lichens between 1995/96 and 2005. Caribou use was greater in areas with high lichen abundance. Graminoid cover increased by a relative 118.4% from 1981 to 1995/96 and again by a relative 26.1% from 1995/96 to 2005. Shrub cover increased during the study whereas forb cover declined. The decline in lichen abundance on the winter range of the Western Arctic Herd over 24 years is an index of caribou habitat condition. The observed changes in vegetation cover can be attributed to caribou grazing, fire, and possibly global climate change. Continued declines in lichen cover could lead to population declines within the herd, range shifts, or both.

  9. Fire - caribou - winter range relationships in northern Canada

    D.C. Thomas


    Full Text Available We needed data on temporal changes in caribou forages after fire and relative use of age-classes of forests by caribou to help devise a fire suppression priority strategy for caribou winter range in north-central Canada. Consequently, from 1983 through 1986, we estimated the abundance of vegetation and relative use by caribou at 197 sites in western and eastern study areas on the winter range of the Beverly herd of caribou {Rangifer tarandus. Species of lichens attained peak biomass at different periods after fire - as early as 40-60 years for Cladonia spp. to > 150 years for Cladina rangiferina and Cetraria nivalis. Biomass of the primary "caribou lichen", Cladina mitis, increased rapidly from 21-30 years after fire to 41-50 years and attained maximum biomass at 81-90 yeats in the west and 41-60 years in the east. However, total lichen biomass increased with age of forest to 100-150 years because biomass of Stereocaulon spp. did not peak until after 100 years. The biomass of "caribou lichens" {Cladina spp. and Cetraria nivalis stabilized after 61-80 years in the west and 41-60 years in the east. The biomass of terrestrial lichen species can be predicted from their cover. Caribou lichen abundance apparently was only one of several factors that caused caribou to use stands 151-250 years after fire more than othet age classes.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1978 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment Part 2. Ecological Sciences.

    Hanson, W.C.; Eberhardt, L.E.


    The objective of this research is to provide an integrated program of investigation for the definition of the ecological consequences of resource developments in northern Alaska. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained that describe environmental costs incurred by petroleum resource extraction and transportation, including interaction of industrial activities with arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus), small mammals, and tundra-nesting birds in the Prudhoe Bay field and along the Trans-Alaska pipeline and haul road; similar information from the Colville River delta for comparative purposes; baseline information on moose (Alces alces) populations, caribou (Rangifer tarandus) range quality and use, and lichen communities that are or will be impacted by resource developments; field experiments to determine lichen sensitivities to sulfur oxide concentrations likely to be encountered near pipeline pumping stations; food chain transfers of stable and radioactive elements that utilize a data base of some 19 years for comparative purposes; and evaluation of oil field development activities on rabies and other physiological phenomena in foxes. A significant fraction of the research is coordinated through university contracts that utilize academic researchers in specific areas of expertise. During 1978 research continued to emphasize investigations on the ecological consequences of petroleum resource development in northern Alaska. Studies were conducted this year on arctic foxes, tundra-nesting birds, small mammals, caribou, lichens, and fallout radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food web.

  11. Feeding site selection by woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia

    Chris J. Johnson


    Full Text Available We examined the foraging habits of the northern woodland caribou ecotype {Rangifer tarandus caribou at the scale of the individual feeding site. Field data were collected in north-central British Columbia over two winters (Dec 1996-Apr 1998. We trailed caribou and measured vegetation characteristics (species composition and percent cover, snow conditions (depth, density, and hardness, and canopy closure at terrestrial and arboreal feeding sites, and at random sites where feeding had not occurred. Logistic regression was used to determine the attributes of feeding sites that were important to predicting fine scale habitat selection in forested and alpine areas. In the forest, caribou selected feeding sites that had a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis and Cladonia spp, lower snow depths, and a lower percentage of debris and moss. Biomass of Bryoria spp. at the 1-2 m stratum above the snow significantly contributed to predicting what trees caribou chose as arboreal feeding sites. In the alpine, caribou selected feeding sites with a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina, Cetraria cucullata, Cetraria nivalis, Thamnolia spp., and Stereocaulon alpinum as well as lower snow depths.

  12. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

    Richard A. Sellers


    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  13. Peary caribou distribution within the Bathurst Island Complex relative to the boundary proposed for Qausuittuq National Park, Nunavut

    Kim G. Poole


    Full Text Available How caribou (Rangifer tarandus, including Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi, use their annual ranges varies with changes in abundance. While fidelity to some seasonal ranges is persistent, use of other areas changes. Consequently, understanding changes in seasonal distribution is useful for designing boundaries of protected areas for caribou conservation. A case in point is the proposed Qausuittuq (Northern Bathurst Island National Park for Bathurst Island and its satellite islands in the High Arctic of Canada. Since 1961, Peary caribou have been through three periods of high and low abundance. We examined caribou distribution and composition mapped during nine systematic aerial surveys (1961–2013, unsystematic helicopter surveys (1989–98, and limited radio-collaring from 1994–97 and 2003–06. While migration patterns changed and use of southern Bathurst Island decreased during lows in abundance, use of satellite islands, especially Cameron Island for winter range, persisted during both highs and lows in abundance. The northeast coast of Bathurst Island was used to a greater extent during the rut and during summer at low abundance. We suggest that Park boundaries which include Cameron Island and the northeast coast of Bathurst Island will be more effective in contributing to the persistence of Peary caribou on the Bathurst Island Complex.

  14. Wildlife Co-management defined: The Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board

    Donald C. Thomas


    Full Text Available A comparison of indigenous and scientific forms of wildlife data gathering and conservation/management reveals similarities and differences. The two systems are needed to effectively manage wildlife in northern Canada, particularly migratory, trans-boundary species. The Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board brought multi-jurisdictional caribou users and managers together to co-manage two large herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlan-dicus. The advisory Board's principal duties and responsibilities are communication and to maintain the two herds at population levels that will meet user needs. Goals, objectives, and principles are set out in a management plan. Board activities are structured in 15 action plans under major categories of communication, supply of caribou, use of caribou, and habitat. Board successes are attributed to use of the plan to guide actions; to the Chairmen and vice-Chairmen; to the quality of founding members and their continuity; to effective vehicles of communication such as a newspaper, radio, video, and community meetings; to a spirit of cooperation; and to high caribou numbers because of high productivity combined with poor accessibility. Problem areas include technical limitations, members' decreasing powers and increasing turnover, inadequate communication of Board objectives and activities within the communities, and accountability. Future challenges include the management of caribou shortages, obtaining better herd data, and the need for more intensive management as user populations grow.

  15. Urban networks and Arctic outlands: Craft specialists and reindeer antler in Viking towns

    Ashby, Steven P.; Coutu, Ashley N.; Sindbæk, Søren Michael


    This paper presents the results of the use of a minimally destructive biomolecular technique to explore the resource networks behind one of the first specialized urban crafts in early mediaeval northern Europe: the manufacture of composite combs of deer antler. The research incorporates the large...

  16. In Search of the Social: Steamboats, Square Wheels, Reindeer and Other Things

    Dolwick, Jim S.


    This paper examines the concept of the ‘social,’ particularly from an archaeological perspective, and explores how it relates to the ways in which we seek to understand the processes of technological innovation and change. It is demonstrated that the concept ‘social’ is far from well defined and that enquiry is bedevilled by artificial polarization between subject-centred approaches and object-centred particularism. Through the medium of early United States steamboat technology a different approach is forged through the melding of people and things with the idea of viewing artefacts as active social actors along with people. Ultimately, it is argued that maritime archaeologists should be more bullish in their approaches to material things—instead of adopting social theories ‘wholesale,’ we should insist that they include the things we study: boats, material objects, people, artefacts, landscapes and animals.

  17. Report on the examination of some reindeer ranges in the Kotzebue region

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Might want to put a use constraint note in saying that the views expressed within this document do not reflect the values of the FWS. This paper discusses the...

  18. Mobile Phone Revolution in the Tundra? Technological Change among Russian Reindeer Nomads

    Florian M. Stammler


    Full Text Available This contribution looks at the influence of technological change thatnomads in the Russian North have undergone, using as examples two crucial innovations: the snowmobile and the mobile phone. I argue that the snowmobile did not have the same revolutionary impact on the Russian tundra as it did in Fennoscandia, for reasons connected to long distances, infrastructure, spare parts, availability of fuel, priorities of Soviet transport policy as well as the convenience of previously used practices of herd control using ‘sitting transport’. Different from that, I argue that mobile phones have the potential for a greater penetration into nomadic societies. Because they encourage equality rather than stratification, they are low maintenance; they are small enough to be embedded into existing social contexts. Connecting not only neighbours but the whole world, in principle, mobile phones may entail a significant socio-cultural change. The article presents first fieldwork evidence of such change among tundra nomads and relates this to existing theoretical studies on how mobile communication changes societies. Attention is paid to the particularities of a mobile type of communication introduced in mobile communities, that is, among nomads. In doing so, I explore similarities and differences in how technological change influences sedentary and nomadic societies.

  19. Fruktbarhet hos simler: effekter av ernæring og vekst

    N.J.C. Tyler


    Full Text Available Tyler's article is published in English in Rangifer 7 (2, 1987: Fertility in female reindeer: the effect of nutrition and growth.Sammendrag: Drektighetsprosenten i ung