WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulatory policy market

  1. Problems in the regulatory policy of the drug market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziara, Nathália Molleis; Coutinho, Diogo Rosenthal

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the implementation of drug price regulation policy by the Drug Market Regulation Chamber. METHODS This is an interview-based study, which was undertaken in 2012, using semi-structured questionnaires with social actors from the pharmaceutical market, the pharmaceuticals industry, consumers and the regulatory agency. In addition, drug prices were compiled based on surveys conducted in the state of Sao Paulo, at the point of sale, between February 2009 and May 2012. RESULTS The mean drug prices charged at the point of sale (pharmacies) were well below the maximum price to the consumer, compared with many drugs sold in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2012, 44 of the 129 prices, corresponding to 99 drugs listed in the database of compiled prices, showed a variation of more than 20.0% in the mean prices at the point of sale and the maximum price to the consumer. In addition, many laboratories have refused to apply the price adequacy coefficient in their sales to government agencies. CONCLUSIONS The regulation implemented by the pharmaceutical market regulator was unable to significantly control prices of marketed drugs, without succeeding to push them to levels lower than those determined by the pharmaceutical industry and failing, therefore, in its objective to promote pharmaceutical support for the public. It is necessary reconstruct the regulatory law to allow market prices to be reduced by the regulator as well as institutional strengthen this government body. PMID:26083945

  2. Analysing success of regulatory policy transfers: Evidence from Turkish energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastan, Seyit Ali

    2011-01-01

    Economic regulation of public utilities has become a worldwide phenomenon with the preceding privatisation stream. It is questionable to transfer regulatory models hastily without customising the policy options or introducing necessary institutional reforms enabling the achievement of expected results of regulatory reform. Institutional configuration of a country affects credibility of regulatory commitments, quality of regulatory design, and way of policy transfer. Turkey’s energy market regulation experience confirms the decisive role of institutions in shaping the regulatory framework. - Highlights: ► The last quarter of the 20th century witnessed public sector reforms all over the world. ► The British model of utility regulation swept globally. ► In Turkey’s adoption of the utility regulation model, different factors affected in various ways. ► Higher political stability and regulatory experience provide faith in the regulatory framework.

  3. Timing Is everything: quantifying regulatory and market readiness levels for technology transition policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David James [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you’ll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. This notion of steady installation growth over acute installations of technology to meet policy goals is the core topic of discussion for this research. This research operationalizes this notion by developing the theoretical underpinnings of regulatory and market acceptance delays by building upon the common Technology Readiness Level (TRL) framework and offers two new additions to the research community. The new and novel Regulatory Readiness Level (RRL) and Market Readiness Level (MRL) frameworks were developed. These components, collectively called the Technology, Regulatory and Market (TRM) readiness level framework allow one to build new constraints into existing Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) to address research questions such as, ‘To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?’

  4. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, F.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Distributed resources can provide cost-effective reliability and energy services - in many cases, obviating the need for more expensive investments in wires and central station electricity generating facilities. Given the unique features of distributed resources, the challenge facing policymakers today is how to restructure wholesale markets for electricity and related services so as to reveal the full value that distributed resources can provide to the electric power system (utility grid). This report looks at the functions that distributed resources can perform and examines the barriers to them. It then identifies a series of policy and operational approaches to promoting DR in wholesale markets. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Distributed Resource Distribution Credit Pilot Programs - Revealing the Value to Consumers and Vendors, NREL/SR-560-32499; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501

  5. The climate impacts of bioenergy systems depend on market and regulatory policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Derek M; Plevin, Richard J; Cohn, Avery S; Jones, Andrew D; Brandt, Adam R; Vergara, Sintana E; Kammen, Daniel M

    2010-10-01

    Biomass can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by displacing petroleum in the transportation sector, by displacing fossil-based electricity, and by sequestering atmospheric carbon. Which use mitigates the most emissions depends on market and regulatory contexts outside the scope of attributional life cycle assessments. We show that bioelectricity's advantage over liquid biofuels depends on the GHG intensity of the electricity displaced. Bioelectricity that displaces coal-fired electricity could reduce GHG emissions, but bioelectricity that displaces wind electricity could increase GHG emissions. The electricity displaced depends upon existing infrastructure and policies affecting the electric grid. These findings demonstrate how model assumptions about whether the vehicle fleet and bioenergy use are fixed or free parameters constrain the policy questions an analysis can inform. Our bioenergy life cycle assessment can inform questions about a bioenergy mandate's optimal allocation between liquid fuels and electricity generation, but questions about the optimal level of bioenergy use require analyses with different assumptions about fixed and free parameters.

  6. Study on market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    In April 2007 the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs promised the Lower House a study of the development of the public interests of quality, accessibility and efficiency after the introduction of market liberalization. In the debate on market liberalization in May 2007 the Minister complied with the Lower House?s request to include the consequences of the market liberalization operations on sectoral employment and labor conditions. This study addresses two questions: (1) Which developments occurred in the field of public interests quality, accessibility and efficiency and labor conditions since the introduction of market liberalization? and (2) What general findings and conclusions can be drawn from the implemented market liberalization policy in various sectors? What lessons can be learned for the future? Several sectors have been examined, including large energy users; renewable energy; energy market for medium users; energy (gas and electricity) [nl

  7. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  8. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2007-01-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority - DTe - has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise - Gas Transport Services, or GTS - to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. This policy, in general, is in line with European legislation on the liberalization of the gas market. We model and simulate the (domestic) welfare effects of a 5 percent transport price reduction. From this, we conclude that at least three observations complicate matters substantially. First, GTS is government-owned, and the dominant shipper - Gasunie Trade and Supply (or GasTerra, as it was recoined recently) - is partly so (50%). Second, shippers enter into the competitive game to make profits. Third, not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but also foreign owners have a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other. Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the end-consumers. Third, it is unavoidable that a substantial part of the rents are transferred abroad. A general conclusion for policy-makers is that market liberalization might not bring ex post what they expected ex ante. (author)

  9. Regulatory change and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2015-01-01

    Report submitted by a Working Group established by the Committee on the Global Financial System and the Markets Committee. The Group was chaired by Ulrich Bindseil (European Central Bank) and William R Nelson (Federal Reserve Board). Financial regulation is evolving, as policymakers seek to strengthen the financial system in order to make it more robust and resilient. Changes in the regulatory environment are likely to have an impact on financial system structure and on the behaviour of finan...

  10. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  11. Regulation of Telecommunications: The Choice Between Market and Regulatory Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii Trubnikov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper examines the main regulatory frameworks of the telecommunications industry through the concept of market failure and analyses how and why the policy often leads to undesirable outcomes that might be considered as regulatory failure. Methodology/approach/design – The research uses the EU regulatory framework for electronic communications as a base for the analysis of the main policy objectives through the prism of the market failure theory with an eye to the interests of the main market players in the telecommunications markets. Findings – About any aspect of regulation allows to find ways to create opportunities for some groups of the industry and stifle activity of others. Despite the theory of market failure provides reasonable justifications for regulation of telecommunications markets, it is possible to argue that many of these problems are mainly the consequence of the policy and could be better solved by market mechanisms. Originality/value – The results of the research allow to look at the problems of telecommunications development and issues of the high level of concentration of the telecommunications markets as regulatory formed problems rather than consequences of the inherited industry’s characteristics.

  12. Danish Labour Market Activation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Pedersen, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Under the heading of flexicurity, Danish labour market activation policies are receiving international attention because of their perceived ability both to curb unemployment and to boost employment. Indeed, the objectives, target groups and design of activation policy have undergone a remarkable...... not only active labour market policies but also social and integration policies. Despite widespread popularity and belief in the positive effects of activation, little is actually known about its overall impact on the Danish economy....

  13. Renewable energy investment: Policy and market impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Wolf Heinrich; Szolgayová, Jana; Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Feedback of decisions to the market: large companies can have an impact on prices in the market. ► Multiple uncertainties: analysis of uncertainties emanating from both markets and environment. ► Policy analysis: impact of uncertainty about the durability of feed-in tariffs. -- Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets in recent years has enhanced competition among power-generating firms facing uncertain decisions of competitors and thus uncertain prices. At the same time, promoting renewable energy has been a key ingredient in energy policy seeking to de-carbonize the energy mix. Public incentives for companies to invest in renewable technologies range from feed-in tariffs, to investment subsidies, tax credits, portfolio requirements and certificate systems. We use a real options model in discrete time with lumpy multiple investments to analyze the decisions of an electricity producer to invest into new power generating capacity, to select the type of technology and to optimize its operation under price uncertainty and with market effects. We account for both the specific characteristics of renewables and the market effects of investment decisions. The prices are determined endogenously by the supply of electricity in the market and by exogenous electricity price uncertainty. The framework is used to analyze energy policy, as well as the reaction of producers to uncertainty in the political and regulatory framework. In this way, we are able to compare different policies to foster investment into renewables and analyze their impacts on the market.

  14. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Witteloostuijn, van (Arjen); S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAs part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority—DTe—has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise—Gas Transport Services, or GTS—to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the

  15. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteloostuijn , van Arjen; Brakman, S.; van Marrewijk, C.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority-DTe-has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise-Gas Transport Services, or GTS-to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed,

  16. Constituting Market Citizenship: Regulatory State, Market Making and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Kanishka

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes three claims: first that regulatory state making and market making in higher education is intertwined through a project of market citizenship that shapes the "publicness" of higher education. Second, we argue that these projects of market citizenship are variegated and in Australia has taken the form of accommodation--via…

  17. 76 FR 76712 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operations Policy Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    .... Markets and Operations Policy Committee. Their attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operations Policy Committee Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  18. Independent regulatory authorities in European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Holm; Sorensen, Eva Moll; Olsen, Ole Jess

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has taken place in most European countries within the last decade. It is considered a precondition of successful liberalisation to establish so-called independent regulatory authorities. In this article, we compare the status and practice of them in 16 European countries, and discuss the relationship between the organisation of the regulation and the market outcome

  19. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    competition are a reality in today’s global financial market, and the financial sector is different from their traditional fields of application: the ease of arbitrage, the fragility of banking and the risks involved are exceptional. Most importantly, regulatory arbitrage does not or only rarely occurs......The decades-long discussion on the merits of regulatory competition appears in a new light on the global financial market. There are a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities...

  20. Rent distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market. A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Witteloostuijn, A.; Brakman, S.; Van Marrewijk, C.

    2005-09-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise (Gas Transport Services GTS) to lower its prices. In this report, we simulate the welfare effects of a five per cent transport price reduction. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. However, at least three observations complicate matters substantially: Observation 1: government ownership. GTS is government -owned, and the dominant shipper (Gasunie Trade and Supply) is partly so (50 %). Hence, lost revenues from the gas transport business will all emerge at the debit side of the government's budget, and part of the shippers' rent returns in the government's pockets. Observation 2: imperfect competition. Firms enter into the competitive game to make profits. Shippers are not different. So, apart from in the extreme case of perfect competition (or, more generally, perfect contestability), part of the rents will end up in the pockets of the shippers, rather than the endconsumers. Observation 3: rent export. The Netherlands are not an isolated island in the European gas ocean. Not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but apart from that have foreign owners a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, given the fact that the Dutch industry is not autarktic, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will always 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other (Observation 1). Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the endconsumers (Observation 2). Third, it is unavoidable

  1. 7 CFR 989.54 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 989.54 Section 989.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 989.54 Marketing policy. (a) Trade demand. On or...

  2. 7 CFR 983.47 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 983.47 Section 983.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Marketing Policy § 983.47 Marketing policy. Prior to August 1st each year, the...

  3. 7 CFR 993.41 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 993.41 Section 993.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 993.41 Marketing policy. (a) On or before the first Tuesday...

  4. LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITAN SHORAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  5. IPTV Market Development and Regulatory Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the development of IPTV technology / market and to discuss major regulatory parameters. A general overview of architectures and the technologies deployed for establishing IPTV services is given and the main stake holder identified, along with, the current service...... architecture, the available content in IPTV platforms, and the current business models. Furthermore the regulatory framework of the TV broadcast and IPTV in Europe is analysed....

  6. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory arbitrage in financial markets refers to a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of moving trading abroad or relocating activities or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this happens...... institutions' excessive risk-taking. If such risk-taking would be judged by market discipline instead of posing a risk to global financial stability, the main downside of regulatory competition could be restrained. Within the boundaries of such a system, competition could then operate and contribute...... their standards solely to attract business and thereby impose externalities on the worldwide financial market by undermining financial stability as a global public good. Policymakers worldwide are experimenting with remedies to respond to the phenomenon. I introduce the importance of an effective special...

  7. The role of regulatory uncertainty in certificate markets: A case study of the Swedish/Norwegian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagiani, Riccardo; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Price volatility in green certificate markets reflects uncertainty over future prices, representing a major source of risk for renewable energy generators. Price risk is considered the principal deficiency of this market-based policy since it causes investors to require higher returns. Moreover, investors are exposed to regulatory risk; namely, the risk that a change in the regulation will materially impact the certificate price. Regulatory uncertainty is reflected in market volatility exacerbating certificate price risk. Using an econometric approach, we investigate the role of regulatory changes on price volatility in the Swedish certificate market. The results of our analysis indicate that regulatory changes strongly affect certificate markets, resulting in periods of higher volatility. Moreover, we analyze whether certificate price volatility has changed after creating a joint Swedish/Norwegian market. Results indicate that the ambivalence surrounding the creation of this bigger market led to a period of increased price volatility between 2010 and 2011. Overall, this article brings a better understanding of the role of regulatory uncertainty on certificate markets, and gives evidence for its negative impact in terms of increased price volatility. - Highlights: • Paper analyzes the impact of regulatory changes on certificate price volatility. • Regulatory changes affect market volatility and price risk. • Regulatory uncertainty harms certificate markets. • The bigger Swedish/Norwegian market has not resulted in lower volatility yet

  8. Independent regulatory authorities in European electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Larsen, Anders; Sørensen, Eva Moll

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has taken place in most European countries within the last decade. It is considered a precondition of successful liberalisation to establish so-called independent regulatory authorities. In this article, we compare the status and practice of them in 16...

  9. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, I.; Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf

  10. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, Ilir; Žigić, K.

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf

  11. European electricity markets - policy deficiencies, design deficiencies, and opportunities for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettzuge, Marc Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Paraphrasing a well-known dictum, one can say that 'design follows policies'. Therefore, before discussing questions of market design, one has to clarify the policies which the desired market design is supposed to implement. Hence, this paper starts by briefly reviewing the status of current policies for the electricity sector. Specifically, it will discuss political objectives, the choice of the basic regulatory paradigm, and the issue of subsidiarity between the EU and the member states

  12. 7 CFR 946.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 946.50 Section 946.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 946.50 Marketing policy. (a) Prior to each marketing season, the...

  13. 7 CFR 947.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 947.50 Section 947.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulation § 947.50 Marketing policy. (a) Preparation. Prior to each marketing season the committee shall...

  14. 78 FR 44165 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0159] Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Enforcement policy; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S... Policy. In SRM-SECY-12-0047, ``Revisions to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy,'' dated...

  15. 76 FR 19355 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets Operations Policy Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ...) Markets Operations Policy Committee (MOPC), as noted below. Their attendance is part of the Commission's... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets Operations Policy Committee Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby...

  16. The role of public policy in emerging green power markets: an analysis of marketer preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Green power marketing has been heralded by some as a means to create a private market for renewable energy that is driven by customer demand for green products. This article challenges the premise - sometimes proffered in debates over green markets - that profitable, sizable, credible markets for green products will evolve naturally without supportive public policies. Relying primarily on surveys and interviews of US green power marketers, the article examines the role of specific regulatory and legislative policies in 'enabling' the green market, and searches for those policies that are believed by marketers to be the most conducive or detrimental to the expansion of the green market. We find that marketers: (1) believe that profitable green power markets will only develop if a solid foundation of supportive policies exists; (2) believe that establishing overall price competition and encouraging customer switching are the top priorities; (3) are somewhat leery of government-sponsored or mandated public information programs; and (4) oppose three specific renewable energy policies that are frequently advocated by renewable energy enthusiasts, but that may have negative impacts on the green marketers' profitability. The stated preferences of green marketers shed light on ways to foster renewables by means of the green market. Because the interests of marketers do not coincide perfectly with those of society, however, this study also recognizes other normative perspectives and highlights policy tensions at the heart of current debates related to green markets. By examining these conflicts, we identify three key policy questions that should direct future research: To what extent should price competition and customer switching be encouraged at the expense of cost shifting? What requirements should be imposed to ensure credibility in green products and marketing? How should the green power market and broader renewable energy policies interact? (author)

  17. 7 CFR 923.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 923.50 Section 923.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 923.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season...

  18. 7 CFR 948.20 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 948.20 Section 948.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 948.20 Marketing policy. (a) General cull regulation. (1) It...

  19. 7 CFR 905.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 905.50 Section 905.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 905.50 Marketing policy. (a) Before...

  20. 7 CFR 945.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 945.50 Section 945.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Marketing policy. (a) Preparation. Prior to or at the same time as recommendations are made pursuant to...

  1. 7 CFR 920.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 920.50 Section 920.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations § 920.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior to making any recommendations pursuant to § 920...

  2. 7 CFR 927.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 927.50 Section 927.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Regulation of Shipments § 927.50 Marketing policy. (a) It shall be the duty of...

  3. 7 CFR 953.40 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 953.40 Section 953.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 953.40 Marketing policy. Prior to or at the same time...

  4. 7 CFR 915.49 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 915.49 Section 915.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 915.49 Marketing policy. Each season prior to making any...

  5. 7 CFR 966.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 966.50 Section 966.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.50 Marketing policy. Prior to or at the same time as initial...

  6. 7 CFR 922.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 922.50 Section 922.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 922.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior...

  7. 7 CFR 924.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 924.50 Section 924.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior to making any recommendations pursuant to § 924.51, the committee...

  8. 7 CFR 930.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 930.50 Section 930.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations § 930.50 Marketing policy. (a) Optimum supply. On or about July 1 of each crop year, the Board...

  9. 7 CFR 956.60 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 956.60 Section 956.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Regulation § 956.60 Marketing policy. (a) Preparation...

  10. 7 CFR 906.38 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 906.38 Section 906.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.38 Marketing policy. Prior to or...

  11. 7 CFR 929.46 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 929.46 Section 929.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.46 Marketing policy...

  12. 7 CFR 916.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 916.50 Section 916.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulations § 916.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior to making any...

  13. 7 CFR 925.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 925.50 Section 925.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Regulations § 925.50 Marketing policy. Each season prior to making any recommendation...

  14. 7 CFR 959.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 959.50 Section 959.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulations § 959.50 Marketing policy. (a) At the beginning of each season, and as the...

  15. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and ...

  16. Towards a single European electricity market. A structured approach to regulatory mode decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the processes through which the rules and regulations that govern European electricity markets - and inherently, their integration process - are established. So far, European policy makers have largely followed a 'trial-and-error' approach to finding an appropriate regulatory mode (process) for dealing effectively with market integration issues. This unstructured approach to regulatory mode selection leads to several problems: - Today's trial-and-error strategy of shifting from one regulatory mode to another is time-consuming. - In the regulatory mode selection process, certain key principles of good governance are insufficiently considered. - European regulatory processes are experienced as vague, intransparent, and illegitimate by 'outside' stakeholders. This study develops a 'structured approach to regulatory mode decision-making' (STARMODE) based on the theory of decision modelling in policy management and a case study exploring three key market integration issues in the field of electricity markets: interconnector investment, congestion management and market transparency. The main objective is to present a systematic and comprehensive framework for analysing and improving regulatory mode decision-making in the context of the European Union, focusing on electricity market integration. The STARMODE approach is generally applicable to (and relevant for) European market integration issues in industries characterized by a natural monopoly and/or an essential service. The approach may also contribute to national regulatory mode decision-making and multi-state decision-making in other continents.

  17. Tax Policy and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market

  18. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...

  20. 7 CFR 958.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 958.50 Section 958.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 958.50 Marketing...

  1. 7 CFR 985.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 985.50 Section 985.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE...

  2. Environmental policies in competitive electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langestraat, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we model and analyze several environmental policies in an existing mathematical representation of a perfectly competitive electricity market. We contribute to the literature by theoretically and numerically establishing a number of effects of environmental policies on investment

  3. Tax policy and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other

  4. Regulatory policy and structural change in the natural gas industry: A transaction cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has recently promoted policy initiatives designed to substitute market responsive industry practices for the micro-management regulatory practices previously employed. These new policies are expected to generate a flexible gas pricing policy that more accurately reflects market supply and demand conditions. Historically, much of the regulation of this industry was enacted to ensure that pipeline companies would be able to recover the very large up-front investments in immobile equipment that characterize the production, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas. The institutional detail available from historical accounts of the development of the industry are used to describe structural change over time. Regulatory policy, the level of asset specificity, and the extent of secondary environmental uncertainty are all shown to exert significant effects on the level of integration into production, storage and marketing

  5. On China's Education Marketization Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Ning

    2005-01-01

    The education market emerged in China since 1990s, which triggered heated debate among education circle. This paper explores the development forms which education market took on, analyses its pros and cons and investigates the measures should be adopted to revamp the holes of the unripe education market. (Contains 6 footnotes.)

  6. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  7. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drennen, T.E.; Glicken, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints

  8. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennen, T.E.; Glicken, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints.

  9. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  10. Disability pensions and active labour market policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Kleif, Helle Bendix

    2013-01-01

    Danish active labor market policy, under the headline of flexicurity, has received international attention due to its claimed ability to curb unemployment while boosting employment. A strong belief in the positive effects of activation, in policy as well as practice, has had consequences for all ...

  11. MONETARY POLICY AND PARALLEL FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monetary policy is one of the economic policy "tools" through which it acts on the currency demand and supply in the economy. The importance of monetary policy results from its primary objective - price stability, plus limiting inflation and maintaining internal and external value of the currency. Responsibility for achieving these objectives rests with the Central Bank, which has a monopoly in the formulation and the implementation of monetary policy targets. Price stability is the primary objective of monetary policy and also the central objective of economic policy, alongside with: sustainable economic growth, full employment of labor force, balance of external payments equilibrium. To achieve these overall objectives of economic policy, monetary policy acts through currency as an instrument of action and it represents the overall action exercised by the monetary authority to influence economic development and to ensure price stability. In economic processes numerous factors emerge to the sale or purchase of capital available for a shorter or longer period and to achieving their aspirations of maximize capital gains, they are negotiating, they are confronting and agreeing within specific market relationships. The entirety of relations between various economic issues, enterprises and individuals, between them and the banking intermediaries, as well as the relationship between banks and other credit institutions on the transfer of cash money as specific form of debt and fructification of capital, form capital markets or credit markets. These markets are carved up according to the nature and purposes of the participants.

  12. Towards a single European electricity market : A structured approach to regulatory mode decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the processes through which the rules and regulations that govern European electricity markets - and inherently, their integration process - are established. So far, European policy makers have largely followed a 'trial-and-error' approach to finding an appropriate regulatory

  13. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    2006-01-01

    We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....

  14. Market failures and government policies in gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M; Zwart, G.

    2006-02-01

    This memorandum analyses the fundamental characteristics of the natural gas market and its consequences for government policies. In the past, the European gas market was dominated by state-owned monopolists but since the start of the liberalisation, privatisation and re-regulation in the early 1990s, the market has fundamentally changed. Nevertheless, governments are still involved in the gas industry, not only in gas exporting countries such as Russia, but also in a country like the Netherlands where the government has imposed a cap on production from the main gas field (Groningen) as well as owns shares in the main wholesale trader (Gasunie Trade and Supply) which has the obligation to accept all gas offered by producers on the small fields. In the main report of this project we present a cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch gas-depletion policy. In this memorandum we explore the natural-gas market more broadly, looking for factors why government intervention may be needed using the welfare-economic approach according to which government intervention should be based on the presence of market failures. After a brief description of the main characteristics of the gas industry, we systematically analyse sources of market failures, such as geopolitical factors, economies of scale and externalities, and finally go into the question which policy options may be chosen to address those market failures

  15. European Regulatory Framework for Money Market Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Portuese, Aurelien; MacNeil, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Money market funds are widely used by all types of investors, including households, corporate treasurers, pension funds, or insurance companies, who regard money market funds as a ‘safe’ short-term liquid asset class for investing cash. In this case they are proxies to cash deposits. Money market funds are themselves key lenders to issuers of short dated high quality money market instruments. They provide an important source of funding for a variety of institutions such as sovereigns, banks, ...

  16. Impact of State and Federal regulatory policy on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents information which demonstrates the decline in the use and subsequent demand of natural gas as the result of regulatory constraints. These regulations have allowed for a 10 percent decline in the use of natural gas in the last 20 years. The author believes that the major reason for this decline is the existence of State and Federal regulatory requirements which prevent the natural gas industry from effectively responding to new market opportunities. The paper goes on to discuss historical regulations such as the Fuel Use Act and the Natural Gas Policy Act which caused severe impacts to development in the gas industry by placing incremental price controls on natural gas. The author then discusses the effect of deregulation and how it has boosted the gas industry. He specifically discusses the US Canada Free-Trade Agreement and the new negotiations which would greatly enhance the gas sales to Mexico. Finally the author goes on to discuss deregulatory stances proposed as part of the National Energy Strategy regarding natural gas. These include the removal of obstacles to building new pipeline capacities; reformation of rates policies; assurances of nondiscriminatory access to natural gas pipeline services and facilities; and removal of impediments to free and open international trade in natural gas

  17. Competition policies on the electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, U.

    2008-01-01

    This article puts forward a critical analysis of European competition instruments and practices in terms of market power on the electricity wholesale markets. Due to the speck nature of electrical activities, competition policies come up against difficulties of market power identification at first, since there is no model for detecting perfectly the potential or real exertion of market power in this sector. What is more, since competition authorities rely on specific intervention methods, their ability to limit the exertion of market power is relatively low. For a large number of their interventions involves controlling concentrations. In the light of this double phenomenon, this article discusses some recent developments of European competition policies on the electricity wholesale markets. The sector inquiry of 2007 seems to mark the start of a new competition policy practice in the electricity sector. The initiative and decision-making power now seem to be nesting mainly at a European level where action is not only to be found in terms of controlling mergers and acquisitions, but also stretches to involve an in-depth evaluation of the way the different markets work. This action is manifested in decisions to investigate some companies as well as legislative proposals in the framework of the third package. Thus we are moving towards a greater monitoring of electricity markets using more formal supervision instruments and on a more continuous basis. (author)

  18. Mapping out the regulatory environment and its interaction with land and property markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how the regulatory environment created by planning and building regulations interacts with land and property markets. Since this regulatory environment operates as a form of intervention within property markets in general and the development process in particular, it is essential first to understand the nature, structure and operation of land and property markets. These are covered in the first section. The second section identifies the aims and components of the planning system and building regulations. From this basis, four broad types of policy intervention are reviewed in the third section. These cover policies that seek to shape, regulate or stimulate market activity, and those that aim to build state or market capacity to produce desired outcomes. The final section uses the private residential development process as a case study to explore the extent to which state intervention can influence producer-consumer relationships in one important market sector. The paper argues that effective intervention in land and property markets requires the creation of a broad range of policy tools and their appropriate deployment to suit particular market circumstances. (author)

  19. Regulatory barriers for activating flexibility in the Nordic-Baltic electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergaentzlé, Claire; Skytte, Klaus; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    to flexibility. We find that the most restrictive barriers against flexibility are emitted by public authorities as part of broader policy strategies. Overall, we find that current regulatory and market framework conditions do not hinder flexibility. However, despite that, flexibility remains limited due......, load adjustment or to a greater coupling to other energy sectors. In this paper, we identify the framework conditions that influence the provision of VRE-friendly flexibility in the Nordic and Baltic electricity sector, i.e., the market and regulatory settings that act as drivers or barriers...... to a lack of coherent instruments intended to both the demand and supply-side to effectively act flexibly....

  20. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir; Maci, Ilir

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2011), s. 1042-1049 ISSN 0264-9993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : competition policy * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2011

  1. Energy policy and the market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.; Miegel, M.

    1980-01-01

    The consistent supply of the people with cheap energy is one of the biggest challenges of our time. There is hardly any other sphere where the opinions on the correct means and ways are as different as in energy policy. While some people see only the market as a suitable instrument to solve the energy problems, others are of the opinion that the problems can only be solved by planning by the government, quantitative restrictions, and other directive measures. The answer to this question involves long-term results, not only for our future energy policy. Planned economy in the energy section and marketing in all other sections cannot be continued for ever. The clarification of this question is the goal of these lectures and discussions held on the experts' meeting 'energy policy in marketing'. (orig.) [de

  2. Forestry policy and woodfuel markets in Malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewees, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Forestry and energy policies in Malawi place the blame for the country's high rate of deforestation on the demand for woodfuel. The government has been involved in a range of questionable supply-side initiatives, as well as in a number of interventions in woodfuel markets, with the objective of slowing rates of deforestation. It seeks to encourage farmers to grow woodfuel to meet market demands, and has provided subsidies to do so. The Forest Department has kept prices for firewood from its plantations low, both in order to discourage the market for wood from free resources and because of concerns about the impact of high producer prices on the urban poor. In doing so, the government is less able to rely on the market to provide producers with the incentive to plant trees to meet market demands. In any event, the market accounts for a relatively small proportion of total woodfuel demand. Policies do not distinguish between rural household demands and the specific market demands which are having the greatest impact on deforestation: woodfuel for urban markets, for tobacco curring, and for small industries. These, coupled with the expansion of the estate sector, have had a far greater impact on woodland clearance than rural, subsistence woodfuel demands. Rural household energy demands need to be addressed from a much broader perspective which considers the household's larger needs for tree based products or outputs: income, food, fibre, fodder, soil fertility, as well as for fuel. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  4. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  5. Environmental policy - a diaspora for market economists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, A.

    1987-03-01

    The environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany still leaves more than enough room for the implementation of marketing elements. With the help of evaluation processes borrowed from the market mechanism all those in search of appropriate environmental policies are able to better analyse the very priorities they have made their aim. Democratic decision making should make it a point to see to the integration of information gained on the preferences of the citizen. Market-analogous evaluation processes currently seem about to be given a better chance. The vehicles of environmental policy are obviously suffering even more from a suppressed demand for market impulses. In the Federal Republic of Germany environmental vehicles generally tend to be lead and determined by regulations. For the benefit of economy and the environment data and certificates (or compensatory regulations) could be combined much more than before with the traditional regulation-oriented policy. For the time being chances seem to be poor for completions to come in from the market. The revised Clean Air Technical Guide (TA Luft) has wasted a promising chance. (orig./HSCH).

  6. Market-Driven Management: the Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bellini, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    The first policy implication of the diffusion of a Market-Driven Management approach is the same as the spreading of globalization, i.e. the obsolescence of industrial policies as traditionally designed and managed by Nation-States with the established toolbox of protectionism and subsidies, picking 'national champions', etc. The growing asymmetry between the physical jurisdiction of political bodies and the global operation space of modern corporations feeds the apparent trend toward company...

  7. MARKETING POLICY FORMULATION IN MULTIPLE STRATEGIC CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU N EAMŢU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Strategy, as part adaptation of company’s actions in a particular business area to specific demand and competition or conversely opening new market positions, is the main strategic move that ensures competitiveness in the market and ensuring appreciable profitability of the business. Marketing policies adopted by one firm are fundamental decisions concerning the product and its conditioning elements. Marketing decisions are manifold; the most important for a company is selection of those marketing elements that can support business strategy as defined at the level of a whole company's strategic units. This paper brings to the fore just correlations between marketing actions that are at the reach of the company and strategic business contexts in which it may lie. Thus, according to the four strategic situation of the market, will analyze key sets of strategic action in the field of marketing that companies can use in order to support the business strategy and not undermine the production and marketing efforts with the costs involved.

  8. Development of regulatory policy for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Moo, Philip; Koh, B. J.; Son, M. K.; Han, G. H.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    KAERI promoted the construction of a research reactor, SMART-P, the reduced scale of SMART, with intent to demonstrate the safety and performance of SMART. According to this progress, the development of regulatory process for SMART-P became necessary. The establishment of regulatory policy, based on the current regulatory guidelines as well as technical aspect, became essential matters. Considering the on-going small and medium size reactors in near future, the selection of the appropriate measure in the existing regulatory process to SMART-P is very important. Thus the schematic study for the applicable licensing procedure and regulatory requirements suitable for SMART-P is required.

  9. Development of regulatory policy for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Moon, S. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Son, M. K.; Han, K. H.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    KAERI promoted the construction of a research reactor, SMART-P, the reduced scale of SMART, with intent to demonstrate the safety and performance of SMART. According to this progress, the development of regulatory process for SMART-P became necessary. The establishment of regulatory policy, based on the current regulatory guidelines as well as technical aspect, became essential matters. Considering the on-going small and medium size reactors m near future, the selection of the appropriate measure in the existing regulatory process to SMART-P is very important. Thus the schematic study for the applicable licensing procedure and regulatory requirements suitable for SMART-P is required.

  10. Tax policy, housing and the labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend Erik Hougaard; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Pedersen, Lars Haagen

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing units...

  11. Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A.; Kentish, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately owned industry is discussed together with the market reform measures adopted in the sector. Current renewable energy policy is analysed, and the scope of the 2005 Renewable Energy Promotion Law is investigated. This is conducted within the context of the electricity sector reform that China adopted, and its effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy. This study draws upon primary information collected from interviews with stakeholders on the policy adequacy, and identifies three main types of shortcomings that have interfered with a more successful expansion of renewable energy in China. (author)

  12. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.

  13. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  14. Hormesis in Regulatory risk assessment - Science and Science Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, George

    2011-01-01

    This brief commentary will argue that whether hormesis is considered in regulatory risk assessment is a matter less of science than of science policy. I will first discuss the distinction between science and science policy and their roles in regulatory risk assessment. Then I will focus on factors that influence science policy, especially as it relates to the conduct of risk assessments to inform regulatory decisions, with a focus on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The key questions will then be how does hormesis interact with current concepts of science and science policy for risk assessment? Finally, I look ahead to factors that may increase, or decrease, the likelihood of hormesis being incorporated into regulatory risk assessment.

  15. Nuclear regulatory challenges arising from competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In recent years a world-wide trend has been developing to introduce competition in electricity markets. As market competition unfolds, it produces a wide range of safety challenges for nuclear power plant operators and regulators. Nuclear regulators must be aware of the potential safety challenges produced and consider whether new regulatory response strategies are warranted. This report describes many of these challenges, their implications and possible regulatory response strategies. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, although government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  16. The interplay between money market development and changes in monetary policy operations in small European countries, 1980 - 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Forssbæck, Jens; Oxelheim, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We study the interplay between money market development and changes in monetary policy operating procedures in 11 European countries from c. 1980 up to the launch of EMU. Aspects of money market development such as the size and structure of different market segments, and institutional and regulatory changes, are addressed. We recount and empirically examine the extent of reorientation of monetary policy instruments away from quantitative direct control instruments toward indirect market-based...

  17. 76 FR 2369 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operation Policy Committee and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operation Policy Committee and Strategic Planning Committee Meetings January 5... the meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Markets and Operations Policy Committee (MOPC...

  18. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  19. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  20. Policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This publication pertains to future planning for enhancement of good practices and it describes the experience to date in developing and implementing the policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals for nuclear facilities in 22 Member States. Senior regulators from these 22 Member States participated in four Peer Group discussions in 1993/94 which considered the policy used for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. This publication presents the consensus views reached by the majority of these senior regulators.

  1. Policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This publication pertains to future planning for enhancement of good practices and it describes the experience to date in developing and implementing the policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals for nuclear facilities in 22 Member States. Senior regulators from these 22 Member States participated in four Peer Group discussions in 1993/94 which considered the policy used for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. This publication presents the consensus views reached by the majority of these senior regulators

  2. 29 CFR 1990.111 - General statement of regulatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.111 General statement of regulatory policy. (a) This part establishes the criteria and procedures under which substances will be regulated by OSHA as potential... case-by-case basis in the rulemaking proceedings on individual substances. Any permissible exposure...

  3. Drug lag and key regulatory barriers in the emerging markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Wileman

    2010-01-01

    This work concludes that the overall relative drug lag in the emerging markets has decreased over time and that there are seven key regulatory barriers which need to be targeted in order to make further improvements; ′Western Approval′, local clinical development (LCD, Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product (CPP, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP, pricing approval, document authentication and harmonisation.

  4. A Review on Regulatory Enforcement Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Han; Lee, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Sung

    2017-01-01

    This paper examine the meaning and principle of enforcement through examples from other countries. Regulatory enforcement is the last stage of safety regulation and how it is exercised when one failing to meet regulatory requirements can have significant ripple effect across the industry. Thus, right philosophy and principle should be established. It is not recommended to emphasize neither deterrence approach nor behavior modification approach. This should be also taken into consideration when setting up the principle and system of regulatory enforcement. In the process of Vienna Declaration, Europe and the U.S showed the fundamental differences in their approaches to safety regulation. Considering this, it is required to remain cautious at all times on what to be improved in the aspect of internal consistency within our system and also in the aspect of procedure.

  5. Regulatory design for RES-E support mechanisms: Learning curves, market structure, and burden-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batlle, C.; Pérez-Arriaga, I.J.; Zambrano-Barragán, P.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from relevant experiences in power systems around the world, this paper offers a review of existing policy support mechanisms for RES-E, with a detailed analysis of their regulatory implications. While recent studies provide an account of current RES-E support systems, in this paper we focus on some of the impacts these mechanisms have on the overall energy market structure and its performance. Given the rising importance of RES-E in systems everywhere, these impacts should no longer be overlooked. - Highlights: ► This paper offers a critical review of RES-E support mechanisms and their regulatory implications. ► The discussion focuses on how the different schemes impact the performance of the energy markets. ► We propose to redesign of current RES-E mechanisms to optimize incentives and market performance. ► Our recommendation is also to gradually move from price-based mechanisms to auctions.

  6. Direct-to-consumer stem cell marketing and regulatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipp, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    There is a large, poorly regulated international market of putative stem cell products, including transplants of processed autologous stem cells from various tissues, cell processing devices, cosmetics, and nutritional supplements. Despite the absence of rigorous scientific research in the form of randomized clinical trials to support the routine use of such products, the market appears to be growing and diversifying. Very few stem cell biologics have passed regulatory scrutiny, and authorities in many countries, including the United States, have begun to step up their enforcement activities to protect patients and the integrity of health care markets.

  7. Marketing policy of different forms of small business in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    JAVORSKA T.I.

    2011-01-01

    Essence and features of the agricultural marketing is considered. The conducted description of elements of marketing and instruments of marketing policy is in activity of subjects of small business in agriculture.

  8. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  9. 7 CFR 932.50 - Report of marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of marketing policy. 932.50 Section 932.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.50 Report of marketing policy. At least 14 days prior to the start of...

  10. 48 CFR 810.001 - Market research policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market research policy... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 810.001 Market research policy. When conducting market research, VA contracting teams shall use the VIP database, at http://www.VetBiz.gov, in addition to other...

  11. Family Grant: social policy or political marketing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gabriel Martins de Moura

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay, a political analysis, criticizes the Family Grant Program, implemented by the Lula government of 2003-2005. It is based on the ongoing analysis methodology originated in U.S. political science. It seeks to establish a parallel of these analyses with criticisms of the Family Grant program presented in the media and made by specialists. They focus on the absence of a conceptual reference for the program (or its practical non-application, supported by accumulated knowledge in the field, that would guide the social policies of the Lula government. Based on secondary sources about official data and on statements from specialists, the analysis identifies an apparent 'schizophrenia' in the 'philosophical' references that orient the government's social policies, suggesting that the solution chosen was a situational response to a demand for government marketing and not oriented to a deliberate public policy pre-conceived as such, which, if it exists, is not evident in the government actions.

  12. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, Marina

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: → This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. → There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. → It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. → A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. → Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  13. Regulatory requirements for marketing fixed dose combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B G Jayasheel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio is safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect. Such combinations of drugs are particularly useful in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, there can be real clinical benefits in the form of increased efficacy and/or a reduced incidence of adverse effects. Additional advantages of FDCs are potentially lower costs of manufacturing compared to the costs of producing separate products administered concurrently, simpler logistics of distribution and reduced development of resistance in the case of antimicrobials. Above all, FDC therapy reduces pill burden and improves medication compliance. Although, FDCs seem to be ideal under certain pre-defined circumstances, if a dosing adjustment is warranted, there may not be an FDC available in the most appropriate strength for the patient and if an adverse drug reaction occurs from using an FDC, it may be difficult to identify the active ingredient responsible for causing the reaction. Appendix VI of Schedule Y (Drugs & Cosmetics Rules 1945, India states the requirements for marketing approval of various types of FDCs. The same is further elaborated in this article to provide a detailed guidance including the clinical trial requirements. However, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic field makes it difficult to develop a standard guidance document.

  14. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-18

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements have begun to support rare disease patients and facilitate drug discovery through research. Recently, the Chinese FDA set new regulatory guidelines for drugs being developed in China, including an expedited review process for life-saving treatments. In this review, we discuss the effects of these new policy changes on and suggest potential solutions to innovate orphan drug development in China.

  15. Active Labour Market Policies for Disabled People in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane

    The main objective of this paper is to provide relevant information about existing active labour market policies for the disabled people in Denmark. The paper presents an over-view of active labour market schemes in Denmark. The description suggests that the policy emphasises active labour market...... market policy towards disabled people but no vital reforms. Incentives to strengthen (re-)integration of disabled people at the labour market and increasing responsibilities of non-public actors (e.g. employers) are some of the main characteristics of the Danish employment policy. Available evaluative...... studies on active labour market policy in Denmark, is set out in the final section of this paper. In general these studies suggest that active labour market policies facilitate the employment of disabled people but that some of the policies also have negative side effects such as stigmatisation and dead...

  16. Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Labor Market Outcomes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.

  17. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  18. The Price and Volatility Dynamics in the Swedish-Norwegian Renewable Electricity Certificate MarketA Study of Spillover Effects and Regulatory changes

    OpenAIRE

    Finell, Philip; Hiller, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The market for renewable electricity certificates (REC) is the primary support system for renewable energy in Sweden and Norway. Regulatory uncertainty and equity markets have previously been proven to impact the volatility of the REC spot contract. As policy makers, renewable electricity investors and other stakeholders aim for profitability and efficient regulation, additional insights of the dynamics in the  REC market is needed. This study examines regulatory uncertainty on both REC spot ...

  19. 7 CFR 371.5 - Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services... AUTHORITY § 371.5 Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services. (a) General statement. Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services (MRPBS) plans and provides for the agency's human, financial, and...

  20. Environmental Policy in a Green Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga-Gonzalez, J. Luis; Padron-Fumero, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of some frequently-used environmental policies in a duopolistic market where purchasers are willing to pay more for less polluting goods. When consumers differ in their environmental awareness, a cleaner and a dirtier variant coexist in equilibrium. The higher the average willingness-to-pay for the good, the lower are variants' unit emissions but the higher are industrial aggregate effluents. A maximum unit emission standard reduces unit emissions of both variants, but boosts firms' sales and consequently increases industrial aggregate emissions. As a result, social welfare may be reduced. We also explore the effects of technological subsidies and product charges, including differentiation of charges

  1. Energy sector in transition - technologies and regulatory policies in flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Liberalising the energy sector has been followed by a number of new regulatory measures that are argued to maintain a process towards a sustainable energy sector. The article argues based on empirical material from Denmark and other European countries that the EU regulations and especially...... the simple market oriented models do not lead to or secure sustainability....

  2. Even Giants Need A Club: Domestic Institutions, Market Size, And Regulatory Influence

    OpenAIRE

    DAVID BACH

    2005-01-01

    This paper show that work on international market regulation has paid insufficient attention to the critical role played by domestic political and regulatory institutions. Existing literature emphasizes the role of market power, determined by market size, in analyzing international regulatory influence. While we do not contest the importance of market power, we introduce the notion of domestic regulatory capacity to capture the domestic institutional side of international market regulation th...

  3. Drug-device combination products: regulatory landscape and market growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarri, L

    2015-08-01

    Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic products that combine drugs, devices and/or biological products, leading to safer and more effective treatments thanks to careful and precise drug targeting, local administration and individualized therapy. These technologies can especially benefit patients suffering from serious diseases and conditions such as cancer, heart disease, multiple sclerosis and diabetes, among others. On the other hand, drug-device combination products have also introduced a new dynamic in medical product development, regulatory approval and corporate interaction. Due to the increasing integration of drugs and devices observed in the latest generation of combination products, regulatory agencies have developed specific competences and regulations over the last decade. Manufacturers are required to fully understand the specific requirements in each country in order to ensure timely and accurate market access of new combination products, and the development of combination products involves a very specific pattern of interactions between manufacturers and regulatory agencies. The increased sophistication of the products brought to market over the last couple of decades has accentuated the need to develop drugs and devices collaboratively using resources from both industries, fostering the need of business partnering and technology licensing. This review will provide a global overview of the market trends, as well as (in the last section) an analysis of the drug-device combination products approved by the FDA during the latest 5 years. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  4. Market power versus regulatory power in the Spanish electricity system, 1973-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean

    2010-01-01

    This study not only establishes that the institutional changes (the change of political regime) and economic changes (the energy crisis) that occurred during the 70s and 80s had an important effect on business strategies within the Spanish electricity sector, but, above all, it shows how the resulting regulatory model was not the product of any clearly defined plan on the part of the Spanish authorities (as the majority of authors seem to implicitly or explicitly maintain), but rather it arose from the dialectical interaction between companies which resisted losing the power of the market, and institutions which, in order to define any medium term energy policy in the future European domestic electricity market, required an increase in their regulatory power. (author)

  5. Exposure to tobacco marketing and support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported noticing marketing on campus. There was strong support for smoke-free restrictions on campus, including restaurants and bars (82%), and for prohibitions on campus marketing. The presence of campus policies was associated with reduced exposure to marketing and increased policy support. There is strong support among students to remove tobacco marketing from campus and to introduce comprehensive smoke-free restrictions.

  6. TURKISH TRADE POLICY AND THE EFFICIENCY OF TURKISH COTTON MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Troy G.

    1999-01-01

    Turkish cotton markets are affected by import duties, export taxes, and a range of domestic subsidies. The degree of economic inefficiency arising from these government policies is estimated through the use of two partial equilibrium models, one for the Aegean market and another for the non-Aegean market. The welfare implications of these policies are also explored.

  7. Policy, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Records Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Records Management in the ... of any country and are essential to the administration of law in the justice system. ... as the Kenya Public Archives and Documentation Service Act Cap 19 of 1965; the ...

  8. Do regulatory mechanisms promote competition and mitigate market power? Evidence from Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Victor; Moreira, António C.; Mota, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationships between bidding quantities, marginal cost and market power measures in the Spanish wholesale electricity market for two different regulatory periods: 2002–2005 and 2006–2007. Using panel econometric techniques we find differences in the impacts on bidding strategies for both periods. Hence, the marginal cost and the market power measures affect bid and net quantities. The market power measures also suggest that the coefficient is consistently positive and highly significant for both periods. Moreover, the market power and marginal costs have mixed effects according to the models proposed for both periods. In addition, our results point to the effectiveness of the different effects of mitigating the market power in the Spanish electricity market. For the 2006–2007 period, the proposed causal relationships are partially validated by the cointegration results, which assumes there is a significant causality between the Lerner Index and the marginal cost. - Highlights: • Competition and regulation in the Spanish electricity market. • Net supplier and net demander behavior in the spot market. • Panel cointegration methods used: FMOLS, PMG, MG, DFE and DOLS. • The price cap regulation is effective in mitigating market power. • Market power and marginal cost have positive effects on bidding strategies

  9. JSC “ALFA-BANK” marketing policy. problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, A.; Kuznetcova, E.; Martirosian, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the results of JSC “Alfa-Bank” consumers’ segmentation and the following complex marketing research. The article suggests the ways of the bank’s marketing policy improvement.

  10. Environmental Policy in a Green Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga-Gonzalez, J. Luis [Erasmus University and Tinbergen Institute, Burg. Oudlaan 50, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Padron-Fumero, N. [Dept. de Economia de las Instituciones y Estadistica, Universidad de La Laguna, Facultad de CC.EE, Campus de Guajara, 38071 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This paper studies the impact of some frequently-used environmental policies in a duopolistic market where purchasers are willing to pay more for less polluting goods. When consumers differ in their environmental awareness, a cleaner and a dirtier variant coexist in equilibrium. The higher the average willingness-to-pay for the good, the lower are variants' unit emissions but the higher are industrial aggregate effluents. A maximum unit emission standard reduces unit emissions of both variants, but boosts firms' sales and consequently increases industrial aggregate emissions. As a result, social welfare may be reduced. We also explore the effects of technological subsidies and product charges, including differentiation of charges.

  11. Policy and Regulatory Roadmaps for the Integration of Distributed Generation and the Development of Sustainable Electricity Networks. Final Report of the SUSTELNET project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2004-08-01

    The SUSTELNET project has been created to identify criteria for a regulatory framework for future electricity markets and network structures that create a level playing field between centralised and decentralised generation and facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources (RES). Furthermore, the objective of the project was to develop regulatory roadmaps for the transition to a sustainable electricity market and network structure. This report summarizes the results of the project. These results consist of: criteria, guidelines and rationales for a future electricity policy and regulatory framework, an outline for the development of regulatory roadmaps and nine national regulatory roadmaps (for Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia), recommendations for a European regulatory policy on distributed generation and a benchmark study of current Member States policies towards distributed generation

  12. Bringing nanomedicines to market: regulatory challenges, opportunities, and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhara, Ruchika; Balakrishnan, Krishna

    2006-06-01

    Scientists and entrepreneurs who contemplate developing nanomedicine products face several unique challenges in addition to many of the traditional hurdles of product development. In this review we analyze the major physicochemical, biologic and functional characteristics of several nanomedicine products on the market and explore the question of what made them unique. What made them successful? We also focus on the regulatory challenges faced by nanomedicine product developers. Based on these analyses, we propose the factors that are most likely to contribute to the success of nanomedicine products.

  13. Point-of-Purchase Food Marketing and Policy Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food marketing has been implicated as a driver of obesity. However, few studies have examined point-of-purchase marketing in supermarkets and restaurants, or marketing in lower-income countries. Furthermore, policy solutions to counteract marketing and provide consumers with objective nutritional information require evidence of efficacy. Paper 1. We documented child-oriented marketing practices, product claims, and health-evoking images on 106 cereals sold in Guatemala City, Gu...

  14. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Policy and Regulatory Challenges in the Tourism Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The choice of policy approach and regulatory framework in dealing with the collaborative economy rests on two fundamental factors—that government decisions should be based on good sound knowledge and that this knowledge should be above politics. In the newly emerging and rapidly growing collabora......The choice of policy approach and regulatory framework in dealing with the collaborative economy rests on two fundamental factors—that government decisions should be based on good sound knowledge and that this knowledge should be above politics. In the newly emerging and rapidly growing......-sectors of the collaborative economy. However, these solutions are often based on assumptions about government sovereignty and power relations that do not necessarily apply in the slippery global world of platform capitalism. This chapter seeks to undertake a critical exploration of the factors and values that permeate...

  16. 7 CFR 982.40 - Marketing policy and volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the declared policy of the act, it shall compute and announce an inshell trade demand for that year... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy and volume regulation. 982.40 Section 982.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  17. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Efficient Market Hypothesis proposes that macroeconomic policy actions do not influence stock market development but the Tobin's q theory argues otherwise. This paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) technique to investigate the impact of macroeconomic policy on the development of the Ghana Stock ...

  18. Book Review: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy / by Thierry Foucault, Marco Pagano and Ailsa Röell. Oxford University Press. April 2013.......Review of: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy / by Thierry Foucault, Marco Pagano and Ailsa Röell. Oxford University Press. April 2013....

  19. From Market Uncertainty to Policy Uncertainty for Investment in Power Generation: Real Options for NPP on Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    In the electricity sector, market participants must make decisions about capacity choice in a situation of radical uncertainty about future market conditions. Sector is normally characterised by non-storability and periodic and stochastic demand fluctuations. In these cases capacity determination is a decision for the long term, whereas production is adjusted in the short run. Capacities need to be installed well in advance (decision for investment even earlier because of long construction time and even longer in case of NPP to prepare all needed legal, financial and physical infrastructure), at times when firms face considerable demand and cost uncertainty when choosing their capacity. Paper looks on the main contributions in investment planning under uncertainty, in particular in the electricity market for capital intensive investments like NPP. The relationship between market and non-market factors (recent UK policy example) in determining investment signals in competitive electricity markets was analysed. Paper analyse the ability of competitive electricity markets to deliver the desired quantity and type of generation capacity and also investigates the variety of market imperfections operating in electricity generation and their impact on long-term dynamics for generation capacity, the most capital-intensive of the liberalised functions in the electricity supply industry. Paper analyses how price formation influences investment signals. Today, investment decisions are made by several operators that act independently. Number of factors (including market power, wholesale price volatility, lack of liquidity in the wholesale and financial market, policy and regulatory risks etc.) contribute to polluting the price signal and generating sub-optimal behaviour. Climate change policies can easily distort market signals, insulating renewables generation from market dynamics. This in turn reduces the proportion of the market that is effectively opened to competitive

  20. Essays on Environmental Policy in Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Judson Paul

    Producing and consuming energy involves costly environmental externalities, which are addressed through a wide range of public policy interventions. This dissertation examines three economic questions that are important to environmental regulation in energy. The first chapter measures the effect of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. The second chapter measures additionality in an appliance replacement rebate program. Finally, the third chapter focuses on the environmental impacts of subsidizing electricity production from forest-derived biomass fuels. The first chapter measures the incentive effect of limited liability. When liability is limited by bankruptcy, theory says that firms will take excessive environmental and public health risks. In the long run, this "judgment-proof problem'' may increase the share of small producers, even when there are economies of scale. I use quasi-experimental variation in liability exposure to measure the effects of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. Using firm-level data on the universe of Texas oil and gas producers, I examine the introduction of an insurance mandate that reduced firms' ability to avoid liability through bankruptcy. The policy was introduced via a quasi-randomized rollout, which allows me to cleanly identify its effects on industry structure. The insurance requirement pushed about 6% of producers out of the market immediately. The exiting firms were primarily small and were more likely to have poor environmental records. Among firms that remained in business, the bond requirement reduced oil production among the smallest 80% of firms by about 4% on average, which is consistent with increased internalization of environmental costs. Production by the largest 20% of firms, which account for the majority of total production, was unaffected. Finally, environmental outcomes, including those

  1. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  2. Happiness as a guide to labor market policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Ritzen

    2015-01-01

    Measures of individual happiness, or well-being, can guide labor market policies. Individual unemployment, as well as the rate of unemployment in society, have a negative effect on happiness. In contrast, employment protection and unemployment benefits can contribute to happiness—though when such policies prolong unemployment, the net effect on national happiness is negative. Active labor market policies that create more job opportunities increase happiness, which in turn increases productivi...

  3. Energy efficiency and the liberalized market - new approaches in national climate protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennicke, P.

    2000-01-01

    The paper initially explains the rationale of energy policy-based governmental intervention in the liberalized electricity market ('the need for political governance'). It is shown why there is a 'demand for intelligent regulatory policy' in Germany's energy sector, despite, or rather as a consequence of the deregulation of the energy markets, and refers e.g. to a parliamentary paper of the Bundestag, (BTDrs. 14/2656, p. 9). The author continues with selecting and defining, from the stock of conceivable appropriate action and regulatory instruments, the corner stones of action plans and the range of instruments, specifically designed for the sector and the target groups, that will accelerate market penetration of the energy efficiency policies ('governance functions'). The author also shows that, due to the significance of regulatory and structurizing impacts, as well as resulting consequences to the leading paradigms of policy of this Government (opting out of nuclear power, global climate change), the electricity industry is just the right branch of industry to serve as a ''national demonstration project'' on the way towards sustainable development. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Drug policy and global regulatory capitalism: the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2014-09-01

    The recent emergence of vibrant markets in 'new psychoactive substances' or 'legal highs' has posed significant new challenges for drug policy. These partly concern what to do about them but the speed and complexity of change has also raised difficulties for how policy responses should be developed. Existing drug policy systems appear too slow and cumbersome to keep up with the pace of change, remaining locked in large part within 'old' ways of thinking that centre almost exclusively around the deployment (or not) of the criminal law and its related enforcement apparatus. In this paper, it is argued that we need to rethink the problem through the lens of regulation, in order to learn lessons from other sectors where more agile responses to changing markets and business innovation have often proved possible. By examining examples drawn from these other areas, an alternative policy-making framework can be developed, involving a more flexible mix of state regulation, civil society action and private law mechanisms. This new approach is founded on a recognition of the networked and polycentric character of effective market governance in an era of global regulatory capitalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical trials in "emerging markets": regulatory considerations and other factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Romi; Wang, Ouhong

    2013-11-01

    Clinical studies are being placed in emerging markets as part of global drug development programs to access large pool of eligible patients and to benefit from a cost effective structure. However, over the last few years, the definition of "emerging markets" is being revisited, especially from a regulatory perspective. For purposes of this article, countries outside US, EU and the traditional "western countries" are discussed. Multiple factors are considered for placement of clinical studies such as adherence to Good Clinical Practice (GCP), medical infrastructure & standard of care, number of eligible patients, etc. This article also discusses other quantitative factors such as country's GDP, patent applications, healthcare expenditure, healthcare infrastructure, corruption, innovation, etc. These different factors and indexes are correlated to the number of clinical studies ongoing in the "emerging markets". R&D, healthcare expenditure, technology infrastructure, transparency, and level of innovation, show a significant correlation with the number of clinical trials being conducted in these countries. This is the first analysis of its kind to evaluate and correlate the various other factors to the number of clinical studies in a country. © 2013.

  6. Correct fair market value calculation needed to avoid regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, M O

    1997-09-01

    In valuing a physician practice for acquisition, it is important for buyers and sellers to distinguish between fair market value and strategic value. Although many buyers would willingly pay for the strategic value of a practice, tax-exempt buyers are required by law to consider only the fair market value in setting a bid price. Valuators must adjust group earnings to exclude items that do not apply to any willing seller and include items that do apply to any willing seller to arrive at the fair market value of the practice. In addition, the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), which becomes the discount rate in the valuation model, is critical to the measure of value of the practice. Small medical practices are assumed to have few hard assets and little long-term debt, and the WACC is calculated on the basis of those assumptions. When a small practice has considerable debt, however, this calculated WACC may be inappropriate for valuing the practice. In every case, evidence that shows that a transaction has been negotiated "at arm's length" should stave off any regulatory challenge.

  7. Cosmetic Surgery: Regulatory Challenges in a Global Beauty Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Danielle; Mullock, Alex

    2017-02-28

    The market for cosmetic surgery tourism is growing with an increase in people travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. While the reasons for seeking cosmetic surgery abroad may vary the most common reason is financial, but does cheaper surgery abroad carry greater risks? We explore the risks of poorly regulated cosmetic surgery to society generally before discussing how harm might be magnified in the context of cosmetic tourism, where the demand for cheaper surgery drives the market and makes surgery accessible for increasing numbers of people. This contributes to the normalisation of surgical enhancement, creating unhealthy cultural pressure to undergo invasive and risky procedures in the name of beauty. In addressing the harms of poorly regulated surgery, a number of organisations purport to provide a register of safe and ethical plastic surgeons, yet this arguably achieves little and in the absence of improved regulation the risks are likely to grow as the global market expands to meet demand. While the evidence suggests that global regulation is needed, the paper concludes that since a global regulatory response is unlikely, more robust domestic regulation may be the best approach. While domestic regulation may increase the drive towards foreign providers it may also have a symbolic effect which will reduce this drive by making people more aware of the dangers of surgery, both to society and individual physical wellbeing.

  8. Economic regulation of Canada's natural gas delivery industry : policy and regulatory principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormley, B.

    2006-03-01

    This policy paper demonstrated how restoring balance and clarity to Canada's regulatory environment will ensure the continued strength of the economy, environment, and communities. It was noted that regulatory outcomes that reflect the broad public interest can be achieved if 4 basic principles for economic regulation are pursued. These principles include strength, balance, efficiency, and clarity. In particular, this paper addressed the challenge facing Canada's natural gas delivery industry in terms of increased energy demand, tight supply, ageing infrastructure and increasing cost pressures on the energy system. It emphasized that transparent, efficient energy policy developed through informed debate can provide the foundation for a reliable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable energy future. It was suggested that immediate attention be given to rebalancing the regulatory processes that have placed short term considerations above the longer term strength of the natural gas system; improving the support for new natural gas supply development; reconsidering pricing in some energy markets where information has been distorted; and revisiting the regulatory processes that have become inefficient

  9. Debatable Issues of Regulatory Policy of Russian Nanoindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Daniil Petrovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the debatable issues of regulatory policy in the sphere of nanoindustry. The nanotech industry has interindustry character that is caused by interdisciplinarity of a nanoscience therefore it is necessary to recognize objectively impossible exact definition of its branch structure. As a result of terminological uncertainty, the state support and regulation of nanotech industry is a difficult process. The substantial expansionism of the term “nanotechnology” and metaphorism of the concept “nanoindustry” is reasoned. The need of creating more detailed classification (by 1-2 orders of nanotechnologies and allocation of at least three subindustries of nanotech industry is proved. The deficiency of convergent orientation of policy of regulation of the Russian hi-tech industries is revealed. The conceptual discrepancy of nanoindustrial policy of the Russian Federation combining elements of traditional policy of import substitution and new industrial policy is shown. The expediency of transition from universal policy of nanoindustry regulation to the development of a package of the segment-focused strategies of development of different types of nanotechnologies and the nanotechnological activities is proved. The special attention is paid to a safety control problem (combination of obligatory certification and voluntary marking of nanoproduction, strengthening the role of nanotech industry self-regulation and active integration of stakeholders into the system of strategic planning.

  10. The Greek Electricity Market Reforms: Political and Regulatory Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danias, Nikolaos; Kim Swales, John; McGregor, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The paper tracks the evolution of the Greek electricity market since the beginning of the liberalization process. Its progress is benchmarked against the criteria suggested by Littlechild (2006b). The Littlechild framework highlights key remaining deficiencies in the stances and policies adopted which need to be resolved in order for liberalization to proceed successfully. The focus is on the agendas of the Greek government, other domestic political forces and the European Union. A central requirement is the clear commitment to liberalization by the Greek government. In particular the government needs to give up political control over the previous vertically integrated, state-controlled electricity firm, Public Power Company (PPC), and allow more decision making powers and genuine independence to the market regulator. Liberalization is rendered more difficult by the present financial and economic crisis in Greece. - Highlights: • Greek electricity market liberalization is benchmarked against the Littlechild standard electricity market reform model. • Although the majority of the model requirements are met, liberalization in Greece is only partially successful. • Some elements of liberalization are qualitatively more significant than others. • More fundamental political economy issues need to be addressed in order for the liberalization to progress. • Financial crisis in Greece adds extra challenges

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  12. 77 FR 52373 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Membership in The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC August 23, 2012. Pursuant to Section... is hereby given that on August [[Page 52374

  13. Switzerland; Financial Sector Assessment Program: Factual Update: Insurance Sector Market and Regulatory Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a factual update of the Insurance Core Principles including insurance sector market and regulatory developments for Switzerland. Regulatory reforms since 2003 have updated Switzerland’s regulatory and supervisory regime for the insurance industry to bring it in line with international best practices. The Insurance Supervision Law (ISL) has reoriented the regulatory focus and expanded the regulatory scope to include group/conglomerate supervision, corporate governance, risk...

  14. AREAS OF MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND ESPECIALLY OF COMMUNICATION POLICY ON THE MARKET FLOWER PRODUC-TION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyulnara M. Gasymova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies basic aspects of marketing applying on the Russian flower market. The author has identified the main trends of marketing activities of companies and selected features of marketing mix of the flowers. In addition, the features of the communication policy of flower companies are identified. The author conducted a competitive analysis of companies at the wholesale and retail sectors of the Russian flower market.

  15. The politics of surveillance policy: UK regulatory dynamics after Snowden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hintz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The revelations by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden have illustrated the scale and extent of digital surveillance carried out by different security and intelligence agencies. The publications have led to a variety of concerns, public debate, and some diplomatic fallout regarding the legality of the surveillance, the extent of state interference in civic life, and the protection of civil rights in the context of security. Debates about the policy environment of surveillance emerged quickly after the leaks began, but actual policy change is only starting. In the UK, a draft law (Investigatory Powers Bill has been proposed and is currently discussed. In this paper, we will trace the forces and dynamics that have shaped this particular policy response. Addressing surveillance policy as a site of struggle between different social forces and drawing on different fields across communication policy research, we suggest eight dynamics that, often in conflicting ways, have shaped the regulatory framework of surveillance policy in the UK since the Snowden leaks. These include the governmental context; national and international norms; court rulings; civil society advocacy; technical standards; private sector interventions; media coverage; and public opinion. We investigate how state surveillance has been met with criticism by parts of the technology industry and civil society, and that policy change was required as a result of legal challenges, review commissions and normative interventions. However a combination of specific government compositions, the strong role of security agendas and discourses, media justification and a muted reaction by the public have hindered a more fundamental review of surveillance practices so far and have moved policy debate towards the expansion, rather than the restriction, of surveillance in the aftermath of Snowden.

  16. A FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN LABOUR MARKET POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graţiela Georgiana Carica

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse European labour market policies and their integrated guidelines, by highlighting various measures that need to be adopted in order to increase labour productivity, with positive effects on long-term economic development. The paper methodizes the main conditions complied by structural reforms in order to encourage labour employment and the policies that frame a more efficient unemployment insurance system crucial to increase security while encouraging the unemployed to look for a job and to accept a job offer, respectively on flexicurity policies. We found that employment rates are generally associated with large expenses on labour market policies and with an increased number of participants to programs developed within these types of policies. The degree of influence and strong dependence between outcome and labour market policies are illustrated in various ways and discussed within the paper.

  17. Interdependencies Between the Capital Market and the Monetary Policy Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Guni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The declared scope of this work is to highlight the main correlations between the monetary and the capital market, including identifying the adequate objective of monetary policy which might positively influence over the offer on the capital market. The main target of the monetary market consists in the stability of the prices. The link between monetary policy and stock market is extremely important. The stock prices are sensible to economical conditions. Moreover, these prices rapidly change, thus there is a chance for a deviation from the fundamental value, with side-effects for economy.

  18. Basic policy of JMTR refurbishment and regulatory procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Kenji

    2012-04-01

    The JMTR refurbishment started from FY2007 had been completed on the end of the FY2010. The refurbishment works carried out on about 60 items nuclear reactor systems, (about 40 of facilities and about 20 constructions) with no trouble. This report review the basic policy of JMTR refurbishment, such as a selection of facilities/equipments for the refurbishment and the determination method of specifications for repairs. The deliberation and discussion by the safety review committee of Oarai Research and Development Center in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and nuclear regulatory procedure are included in this report. (author)

  19. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  20. Principles Involving Marketing Policies: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Randall L. Schultz

    2005-01-01

    We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical...

  1. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described

  2. Virtual Currencies – monetary policy dilemmas and regulatory challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daj Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the topic of virtual currencies is not completely new, the current technological developments and the extent of the globalisation process appear to have changed the scope of the research efforts needed to cover not only the advantages and opportunities, but also the disadvantages and threats that the expansion of virtual currencies can pose for monetary policy and the safety of the financial system. This paper comprises a brief presentation of the different types of virtual currencies and identifies some of the most significant implications of large-scale virtual currency adoption for monetary authorities and regulators, while providing an overview of the main trends in the evolution of virtual currencies. In the end, one conclusion is evident: whatever monetary policy or regulatory issues arise from the use of virtual currencies, their consequences are far from virtual.

  3. FEATURES OF MARKETING POLICY OF THE COMPANIES IN THE MARKET OF CONSULTING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Tultaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of the market of consulting services against progressing competitive fight promoted strengthening of a role of marketing in the activity of the consultant companies. The given article is devoted to the analysis of marketing policy and features of its application in consulting business.

  4. 78 FR 70354 - Conceptual Example of a Proposed Risk Management Regulatory Framework Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0254] Conceptual Example of a Proposed Risk Management Regulatory Framework Policy Statement AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Conceptual example of a... ``openness,'' a white paper on a Conceptual Example of a Proposed Risk Management Regulatory Framework (RMRF...

  5. Did capital market convergence lower the effectiveness of monetary policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    International capital market convergence reduces the ability for monetary authorities to set domestic monetary conditions. Traditionally, monetary policy transmission is channelled through the short-term interest rate. Savings and investment decisions are effected through the response of the bond

  6. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  7. Bank liquidity, interbank markets, and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freixas, X.; Martin, A.; Skeie, D.

    2011-01-01

    A lesson of the recent financial crisis is that the interbank market is crucial for banks facing uncertainty regarding their liquidity needs. This article studies the efficiency of the interbank market in allocating funds. We show that the central bank should lower the interbank rate when confronted

  8. Bank Liquidity, Interbank Markets, and Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freixas, X.; Martin, A.; Skeie, D.

    2010-01-01

    A major lesson of the recent financial crisis is that the interbank lending market is crucial for banks facing large uncertainty regarding their liquidity needs. This paper studies the efficiency of the interbank lending market in allocating funds. We consider two different types of liquidity shocks

  9. The ECB monetary policy strategy and the money market

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Vítor; Pérez Quirós, Gabriel; Sicilia, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the understanding of how the ECB conducts monetary policy as seen from a money market perspective. More specifically it covers two different issues. First, it looks at the 'learning period' for banks since the Eurosystem started implementing the single monetary policy. It shows that during the first three weeks of 1999 the narrow corridor in place during this period was effective in limiting daily volatility of the money market overnight rates. In addition, ...

  10. [Marketing approval and market surveillance of medical devices in Germany: Where does policy integration take place?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011 new regulatory measures regarding medical devices have been set up with the aim to eliminate obstacles to innovations and to find more coordinated ways to marketing authorisation and market surveillance. This essay investigates whether these new and existing coordination mechanisms build up to a Joined-up Government approach. The analysis shows that the regulatory process should be adjusted along several dimensions. First, many organisations lack awareness regarding their stakeholders and focus solely on their immediate organisational activities. Second, the regulatory process (marketing authorisation and market surveillance) is too fragmented for an effective communication to take place. Finally, the underlying strategy process is an ad-hoc approach lacking continuity and continued involvement of, in particular, the responsible federal ministries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives

  12. Restricting marketing to children: consensus on policy interventions to address obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Lobstein, Tim; Landon, Jane; Kent, Monique Potvin; Pellerin, Suzie; Caulfield, Timothy; Finegood, Diane; Mongeau, Lyne; Neary, Neil; Spence, John C

    2013-05-01

    Obesity presents major challenges for public health and the evidence is strong. Lessons from tobacco control indicate a need for changing the policy and environments to make healthy choices easier and to create more opportunities for children to achieve healthy weights. In April 2011, the Alberta Policy Coalition for Chronic Disease Prevention convened a consensus conference on environmental determinants of obesity such as marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children. We examine the political environment, evidence, issues, and challenges of placing restrictions on marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages within Canada. We recommend a national regulatory system prohibiting commercial marketing of foods and beverages to children and suggest that effective regulations must set minimum standards, monitor compliance, and enact penalties for non-compliance.

  13. The Interdependence of Competition Policy, Consumer Policy and Regulation in Introducing and Safeguarding Effective Competition in the EU Telecommunications Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bartels

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the European Union finds itself in troubled waters. It has to prove that its benefits outweigh the costs of its endeavour. In this respect, an EU competition policy that focuses on consumer welfare is one way to gain support by the citizens of its member states. The Roaming Regulation that has reduced the mobile communications costs while travelling abroad serves as a good example for this approach. The EU Commission views consumer policy as another important factor to protect and benefit customers. In markets with natural monopolies, the two policies require the support of an effective regulatory policy. The research demonstrates that these three policies – if harmonised – are able to lead to an increase in consumer welfare (primarily by reducing prices and that they protect the rights and interests of consumers. In the case of telecommunications, several initiatives of the European Commission and of national regulatory authorities to falls in prices and forced operators to implement customer friendly rules and to protect customer data and privacy. The authors consider that the European Commission has tried to establish and harmonise rules across all member states in order to protect the interests and rights of consumers on the telecommunication market. The enforcement of competition and consumer policy within institutions from the telecom field certainly could promote the focus on consumers and the possibility to use a large “toolbox”. Harmonising and adjusting the policies across different countries and institutions and minimising any possible side effects is nevertheless a challenging task for the EU Commission in the future.

  14. Stock Market Reactions to Fiscal Policy Shocks: Empirical Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sets out to investigate the effect of fiscal policy on stock market performance in Nigeria. Specifically, the study examines if shocks in government expenditure and government debt affects stock market performance. The period of the study is from 1981-2012. Following the VAR estimates, the variance ...

  15. Private Forests: Management and Policy in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; Anthony G. Snider; Karen Lee Abt; Robert L. Moulton

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses privately owned forests and timber management in a market economy, including private property rights and tenure, landowner objectives and characteristics, markets, and government policies. Private forest land ownership and management-whether it be industrial or nonindustrial-is often assumed to represent the classic model of atomistic competition...

  16. Stock Market Reactions To Fiscal Policy Shocks: Empirical Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sets out to investigate the effect of fiscal policy on stock market performance in Nigeria. Specifically, the study examines if shocks in government expenditure and government debt affects stock market performance. The period of the study is from 1981-2012. Following the VAR estimates, the variance ...

  17. The regulatory reform in the European Union environmental policy: A first appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    1996-01-01

    This paper is aimed to outline the expected outcome of the regulatory reform which is occurring in the European Union environmental policy: it intends to point out the new institutional procedures for rulemaking introduced by the Maastricht Treaty and the fifth Programme of Action, which would result in the use of market-based instruments and voluntary approaches oppositely to traditional command and control mechanisms. The paper consists of three sections: while the first one is plainly introductory, the following two sections represent a survey on eight recent pieces of European Union legislation, chiefly directives, showing the systematic decrease in the environmental objectives due to the presence of industrial interest groups, and the new problems affecting public intervention caused by the development of the above mentioned voluntary approaches. Moreover, the former provides an analytical model of a firm's involvement in the policy process, the latter an analytical apparatus on the very nature and failures of self-and co-regulation

  18. Urban Transport Policies: The Dutch Struggle with Market Failures and Policy Failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet

    2004-01-01

    Transport is characterised by market failures that are of particular importance in urban settings. This paper reviews market failures and policy failures in The Netherlands for various transport markets, including road transport, public transport and biking. Special attention is paid to parking

  19. Public gambling policy : the need for gambling market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Grebliauskas, Artūras

    2011-01-01

    Gambling services market is characterized by their complexity: they contain private and public goods characteristics, external effects and are politically sensitive. Therefore, understanding the contents of these services is necessary for the effective delivery of public gambling policy. Lithuanian gambling market can be distinguished according the following types of market structure: 1) Monopolistic competition – a category B slot parlors and 2) Oligopoly – betting, casinos, and 3) A natural...

  20. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....

  1. European Market Making and Policy Duplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that private regulation has been essential to the making of the common European market. The distinction between negative and positive integration, usually used to understand the making of the common European market, only gives us part of the picture, as it focuses on public...... authorities and the regulation issued by them, and tends to ignore private authorities. A focus on private regulation is suggested to enlarge the focus on positive and negative integration, and this is used in an analysis of EU's removal of barriers to trade from 1958 to 2000. The paper shows that private...... regulation in the form of technical standardisation has become essential to European market making....

  2. Economic and institutional dynamics of electricity markets deregulation: the interaction between sectoral regulation and antitrust policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanel, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define regulatory intervention as a part of a global monitoring procedure allowing the definition and adaptation of market structures and rules, given the observed behavior of market participants. Nevertheless, the possible inefficiency in its (decisional) coordination with competition authorities implies further analysis. We thus adopt a comparative methodology based on the studying PJM and NETA wholesale markets. This analysis enables us to stress two possible 'models' in the distribution and coordination of monitoring powers. The first one privileges a strong 'informational coordination' between the sectoral regulator and the Transmission System Operator. By contrast, the second model is characterized by a constrained informational coordination, leading to a greater 'decisional convergence' between regulatory intervention and antitrust policy. Lastly, we put these conclusions into perspective with the specific issue of the achievement of an efficient and integrated European market for electricity. In particular, we stress the need for a single regulatory agency, which should be given autonomous decisional powers in the adoption of regional markets reform initiatives (author)

  3. Trade Liberalization and Optimal Environmental Policies in Vertical Related Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Shu Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a symmetric two-country model with vertically related markets. In the downstream market, there is one firm in each country selling a homogeneous good, whose production generates pollution, to its home and the foreign markets a la Brander (1981. In the intermediate good market, there is also one upstream firm in each country, supplying the intermediate good only to its own country’s downstream market. The upstream firms can choose either price or quantity to maximize their profits. With this setting, the paper examines the optimal environmental policy and how it is affected by the tariff on the final good. It is found that, under free trade, the optimal final-good output with imperfect intermediate-good market will have the same output level as that with perfect intermediate-good market after imposing the optimal emission tax. The optimal environmental tax is smaller and the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the market structure in the intermediate good market is imperfect than perfect competition. On the other hand, the optimal environmental tax is necessarily higher if the upstream firm chooses price than quantity. Moreover, the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the upstream firms choose quantity than price to maximize their profits.

  4. The Disparate Labor Market Impacts of Monetary Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Seth B.; Rodgers, William M., III

    2004-01-01

    Employing two widely used approaches to identify the effects of monetary policy, this paper explores the differential impact of policy on the labor market outcomes of teenagers, minorities, out-of-school youth, and less-skilled individuals. Evidence from recursive vector autoregressions and autoregressive distributed lag models that use…

  5. Policy conflicts : Market-oriented reform in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.; Mcmaster, R.

    From an institutionalist perspective, we identify five sources of policy conflict. Each may explain why policies intended to obtain particular goals for an institutionalized practice may have unintended consequences. We illustrate by analyzing attempts at introducing market-oriented reform in health

  6. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  7. Housing markets and housing policies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Piyush; Rao, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Issues of housing in India are synonymous with ignorance of housing in active government involvement at the policy and program formulation levels. They are also due to the problems that unplanned urbanization, income disparity, poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment brought. These issues extenuated the housing problem, causing a housing shortage of 51 million in 2011. Though India has a long history of establishing policies, programs, and institutions to cater to housing, without allocating ad...

  8. Recommendations for institutional policy and network regulatory frameworks towards distributed generation in EU Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Donkelaar, M.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations regarding the development of regulatory frameworks and institutional policies towards an optimal integration of distributed generation (DG) into electricity networks are presented. These recommendations are based on findings from a benchmarking study conducted in the framework of the ENIRDG-net project. The aim of the benchmarking exercise was to identify examples of well-defined pro-DG policies, with clear targets and adequate implementation mechanisms. In this study an adequate pro-DG policy is defined on the basis of a level playing field, a situation where distributed and centralised generation receive equal incentives and have equal access to the liberalised markets for electricity. The benchmark study includes the results of a similar study conducted in the framework of the SUSTELNET project. When comparing the results a certain discrepancy can be noticed between the actual regulation and policy in a number of countries, the medium to long-term targets and the ideal situation described by the level playing field objective. To overcome this discrepancy, a number of recommendations have been drafted for future policy and regulation towards distributed generation

  9. Market Structure and Innovation Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2017-01-01

    The Danish media system is a hybrid one where strong public service broadcasters and private print and broadcast media co-exist. This chapter, first, analyzes the market structure, measuring the degree of market concentration in newspapers, television, and radio and mapping state intervention....... The analysis shows that all these media markets are highly concentrated: the four dominant television and radio broadcasters account for 80–90 % of total viewing/listening, the four dominant newspaper publishers for around 75 % of total circulation. The extent of state intervention also is high in Denmark...... for digital publishers and an earmarked pool to stimulate media innovation. However, the fact that not the entire innovation pool has actually been allotted to media innovation questions how appropriate the criteria for eligibility are. Third, the chapter makes recommendations for future revision of the media...

  10. 76 FR 3188 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Routing Fees for the NASDAQ Options Market January 12, 2011. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on January 6, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange...

  11. 76 FR 78325 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed... November 30, 2011. The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and... Change The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC proposes to amend Rule 7056 entitled ``NASDAQ Options Fee Disputes...

  12. Market Share, R&D Cooperation, and EU Competition Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Rubble; Bruno Versaevel

    2009-01-01

    Working Paper GATE 2009-10; Current EU policy exempts horizontal R&D agreements from antitrust con- cerns when the combined market shares of participants are low enough. This paper argues that existing theory does not support limiting the exemption to low market shares. This is done by introducing a set of non-innovating outside firms to the standard framework to assess what link might exist between the market share of innovating firms and the product market benefits of cooperation. With R&D out...

  13. Domestic micro-generation: Economic, regulatory and policy issues for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim; Sauter, Raphael; Bahaj, Bakr; James, Patrick; Myers, Luke; Wing, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Micro-generation in individual homes has been the subject of increasing policy and industry attention in recent years. Whilst it has been estimated that micro-generation could meet 30-40% of UK electricity demand by 2050, deployment to date has been slow. In its Micro-generation Strategy the UK government has started to outline how deployment could be increased. Various technical, economic, behavioural and institutional changes are needed to establish a UK market for micro-generation. This article discusses how different deployment models for domestic micro-generation might attract investments in these technologies. It considers not only investments by individual households but also by energy companies. Starting from an economic analysis of payback times for three different technologies (micro-CHP, micro-wind and solar PV) it identifies policy and regulatory recommendations. It argues for technology-specific support policies in the short term. It also suggests that a 'level playing field' for micro-generation technologies as a result of fiscal and market reforms could considerably increase the attractiveness of micro-generation technologies

  14. Policy interactions, risk and price formation in carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; Bunn, Derek; Kettunen, Janne; Wilson, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pricing is an important mechanism for providing companies with incentives to invest in carbon abatement. Price formation in carbon markets involves a complex interplay between policy targets, dynamic technology costs, and market rules. Carbon pricing may under-deliver investment due to R and D externalities, requiring additional policies which themselves affect market prices. Also, abatement costs depend on the extent of technology deployment due to learning-by-doing. This paper introduces an analytical framework based on marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves with the aim of providing an intuitive understanding of the key dynamics and risk factors in carbon markets. The framework extends the usual static MAC representation of the market to incorporate policy interactions and some technology cost dynamics. The analysis indicates that supporting large-scale deployment of mature abatement technologies suppresses the marginal cost of abatement, sometimes to zero, whilst increasing total abatement costs. However, support for early stage R and D may reduce both total abatement cost and carbon price risk. An important aspect of the analysis is in elevating risk management considerations into energy policy formation, as the results of the stochastic modelling indicate wide distributions for the emergence of carbon prices and public costs around the policy expectations. (author)

  15. Magnetic fluorescent ballasts: Market data, market imperfections, and policy success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Sanstad, A.H.; Shown, L.J.

    1995-12-01

    Many economists have strongly questioned engineering-economic studies aimed at demonstrating anomalously slow diffusion of energy-efficient technology and the benefits of regulations to promote such technology. One argument against such studies is that standard techniques of engineering-economics are either inappropriate for or are routinely misapplied in assessing the performance of the market for energy efficiency. This paper presents engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements that takes account of such critiques. The authors examine the engineering and economic characteristics of standard and energy-efficient magnetic ballasts for fluorescent lighting. Efficient magnetic ballasts represented an excellent investment for 99% of the commercial building floor stock, and a moderately good investment for 0.7% of the commercial floor stock. Still, these ballasts were only being adopted in the 1980s at a rate commensurate with the enactment of appliance efficiency standards in various states. In this case, there is solid empirical evidence for skepticism about the effectiveness of the market mechanism in promoting cost-effective energy efficiency improvements as well as evidence of the benefits of regulation to counteract this shortcoming.

  16. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Robert F.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Searcy, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO 2 -limiting policy is enacted.

  17. State distributed PV policies: Can low cost (to government) policies have a market impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasko, Vitaliy A.; Doris, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of distributed generation photovoltaic (PV) markets. The focus is on low-cost market opening policies instead of various forms of government subsidies aimed at reducing installation costs. The ideas tested in this work are: (1) low-cost market opening policies can be effective in facilitating PV market growth without subsidizing projects, and (2) policies can be made more effective if states and localities stage their enactment in a particular order. The policies selected for evaluation emerge from a policy stacking theory outlined in Doris (2012), NREL/CP-7A30-54801, Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A cross-section econometric analysis that takes into account the quality of interconnection standards, net metering standards, Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), RPS set-asides, and a non-policy determinant (population) explains about 70% of the variation in newly installed PV capacity across states and indicates that all of the selected policies are significant. Nonparametric statistical tests confirm the regression results. Qualitative evidence is also presented indicating that effective policy ordering starts with improving interconnection standards, closely followed by improvements in net metering standards, and eventually strengthened by the enactment of an RPS and set-asides. - Highlights: • Impacts of low cost market opening policies on PV capacity are evaluated. • Impact of a strategic policy enactment sequence is evaluated. • Effective interconnection, net metering, RPS, and set-asides increase PV capacity. • Effective ordering is market preparation, then creation, then expansion policies

  18. Green electricity in the market place: the policy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the implications of the liberalization of electricity markets in Europe and North America for policy means and mechanisms to enhance the market penetration of renewables. Applying a (co-) evolutionary approach, the argument highlights the need for policy intervention to help producers and consumers move out of technological trajectories favoring non-renewable electricity. On the production side, energy generation is locked into the central power station system deriving from more than a hundred years of technological developments along a specific system trajectory. On the consumption side, the locked-in effect results from a similarly long experience with electricity provision by monopoly suppliers and the associated lack of consumer choice and responsibility for product differentiation. As the analysis shows, policy strategies targeting both the production and consumption sides of the electricity market are needed for effective intervention. Furthermore, policy strategies should draw on a clear analysis of the inertia and dynamism underlying the production and consumption of electricity. In the light of such evolutionary dynamics, the analysis demonstrates the insufficiency of the policy approaches currently employed to foster the market share of renewables based electricity. Instead, the authors suggest a reflexive policy approach to initiate and support a reorientation towards green electricity, emphasizing the need for learning and communication between and among societal sectors. (author)

  19. Green electricity in the market place: the policy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, D.A. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany). Faculty of International Relations; Arentsen, M.J. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2002-05-01

    The paper explores the implications of the liberalization of electricity markets in Europe and North America for policy means and mechanisms to enhance the market penetration of renewables. Applying a (co-) evolutionary approach, the argument highlights the need for policy intervention to help producers and consumers move out of technological trajectories favoring non-renewable electricity. On the production side, energy generation is locked into the central power station system deriving from more than a hundred years of technological developments along a specific system trajectory. On the consumption side, the locked-in effect results from a similarly long experience with electricity provision by monopoly suppliers and the associated lack of consumer choice and responsibility for product differentiation. As the analysis shows, policy strategies targeting both the production and consumption sides of the electricity market are needed for effective intervention. Furthermore, policy strategies should draw on a clear analysis of the inertia and dynamism underlying the production and consumption of electricity. In the light of such evolutionary dynamics, the analysis demonstrates the insufficiency of the policy approaches currently employed to foster the market share of renewables based electricity. Instead, the authors suggest a reflexive policy approach to initiate and support a reorientation towards green electricity, emphasizing the need for learning and communication between and among societal sectors. (author)

  20. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben

    2006-01-01

    from advantaged to disadvantaged workers. A worker can be disadvantaged in the sense that they may have less ability to aquire and utilize skills in the workplace. The model explains why passive benefits tend to fall and active benefits tend to increase during the course of unemployment spell....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....

  1. Stock Market Performance and Pension Fund Investment Policy: Rebalancing, Free Float, or Market Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Broeders, D.W.G.A; de Dreu, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first that examines the impact of stock market performance on the investment policy of pension funds. We find that stock market prices influence the asset allocation of Dutch pension funds in two ways. In the short term, outperformance of equities over bonds and other investment

  2. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowart, R.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Weston, F.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  3. Globalisation and Governance: Educational Policy Instruments and Regulatory Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka-Ho

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade, the economic, social, political and cultural effects of globalisation have been central topics of debate. Those who see globalisation as a combination of economic transactions and worldwide telecommunications tend to believe that its impact is profound, inasmuch as it is fundamentally altering the way in which we live and creating hybrid cultural styles. No country is immune from the effects of globalisation, and controversy continues to reign about its positive and negative consequences. The present study identifies and examines numerous challenges posed by globalisation and their implications for educational restructuring, with special attention being given to new forms of governance; the relation between the state, the market and civil society; and governmental policy instruments for education.

  4. The market and environmental effects of alternative biofuel policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dusan

    This dissertation analyzes market and environmental effects of alternative U.S. and Brazilian biofuel policies. Although we focus on corn- and sugarcane-ethanol, the advanced analytical framework can easily be extended to other biofuels and biofuel feedstocks, such as biodiesel and soybean. The dissertation consists of three chapters. The first chapter develops an analytical framework to assess the market effects of a set of biofuel policies (including subsidies to feedstocks). U.S. corn-ethanol policies are used as an example to study the effects of biofuel policies on corn prices. We determine the 'no policy' ethanol price, analyze the implications for the 'no policy' corn price and resulting 'water' in the ethanol price premium due to the policy, and generalize the surprising interaction effects between mandates and tax credits to include ethanol and corn production subsidies. The effect of an ethanol price premium depends on the value of the ethanol co-product, the value of production subsidies, and how the world ethanol price is determined. U.S. corn-ethanol policies are shown to be a major reason for recent rises in corn prices. The ethanol policy-induced increase in corn prices is estimated to be 33 -- 46.5 percent in the period 2008 -- 2011. The second chapter seeks to answer the question of what caused the significant increase in ethanol, sugar, and sugarcane prices in Brazil in the period 2010/11 to 2011/12. We develop a general economic model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique in that each policy, in this setting, theoretically has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. Our empirical analysis shows that there are two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry but do otherwise in reality: a low gasoline tax and a high anhydrous tax exemption result in lower ethanol

  5. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  6. Hybrid renewable energy support policy in the power sector: The contracts for difference and capacity market case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onifade, Temitope Tunbi

    2016-01-01

    The article employs qualitative methods in contextualizing and conceptualizing the hybrid renewable energy support policy. It claims that hybrid policies may combine distinct mechanisms to drive desirable objectives better than traditional policies. A policy cycle helps to frame the United Kingdom's Contracts for Difference and Capacity Market (CFD & CM) scheme as a case study. The CFD & CM policy emerged to address environmental and energy challenges through the deployment of renewable energy (RE) in a low-carbon economy, employing liberalization: Environmental protection is foremost in this scheme. The policy combines and improves on the elements of feed-in tariff (FIT) and quota obligation (QO), and strives to solve the problems of these traditional policies. It addresses regulatory uncertainty under FIT by employing private law mechanics to guarantee above-loss reward for low carbon generation, and addresses market uncertainty under QO by incentivizing the capacity to supply future low carbon energy based on projected demand, hence creating a predictable and stable market. It also accommodates other important commitments. Overall, the CFD & CM scheme is a hybrid policy that engages the energy market mainly for advancing the end goal of environmental protection. To thrive however, it needs to meet private sector interests substantially. - Highlights: •The hybrid support policy combines traditional support systems. •Hybrid policies may drive objectives better than traditional policies. •The UK's contract for difference and capacity market system is a hybrid policy. •Environmental protection is foremost in the UK's hybrid policy. •To thrive, the UK's hybrid policy should address private sector interests.

  7. Serbian oil sector: A new energy policy regulatory framework and development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karovic Maricic, Vesna; Danilovic, Dusan; Lekovic, Branko

    2012-01-01

    Serbia has established a great part of new legislative and institutional framework as a basis for all energy sub-sectors' development in compliance with EU energy acquis. Main objectives of Serbian energy policy outlined in the new Energy Law are focused to increasing the energy supply security, energy efficiency, competitiveness of the energy market, use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection. Further steps of Serbia toward full EU membership concerning the new energy policy regulatory framework involve implementing and enforcing legislation. Besides considering the issue of Serbian energy policy and degree of its framework's alignment with the EU acquis, this paper provides an overview of new development strategies in the oil sector. The aim of Gazprom neft, a majority owner of the Petroleum industry of Serbia, is to increase crude oil production to 3 million tonnes, refining and sales volume of petroleum products to 5 million tonnes by 2020. Strategic development projects in crude oil and petroleum products transportation are: petroleum product pipeline construction in Serbia and Pan-European oil pipeline. The basic prerequisites for oil supply security, regarding the future high dependency of Serbian economy on imported oil, are establishment of the emergency oil stocks and diversification of supply sources. - Highlight: ► New energy policy regulatory framework significantly complied with EU acquis. ► Full EU membership requires implementing and enforcing new energy legislation. ► NIS-Gazpromneft has defined ambitious oil sector's development programmes to 2020. ► Supply security requires mandatory oil stocks and supply source diversification.

  8. Energy Choices. The energy markets and the energy policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Lars; Lindh, Hampus

    2009-03-01

    Well-functioning energy markets are in society's interests whatever the circumstances. Furthermore, supply, demand and the competitive situation in the various energy markets influence the effect of energy and climate change policy measures. There are therefore good reasons to examine and evaluate how the energy markets operate. In this report we specifically focus on the energy markets. The analysis has been carried out against the background of the overall objectives for energy and climate change policy in Sweden and the EU. However, for these goals to be attainable a number of concrete energy and climate change policy decisions will have to be taken in the coming years. Some of these are key issues that will prove decisive for the formulation of energy and climate change policy, and we therefore also discuss these. The first of these concerns which policy instruments should be chosen to influence the energy markets. The second key issue concerns the power companies' prospects for using nuclear power even in the future. We will also focus on the extent to which energy and climate change policy chooses to prioritise measures which mean that climate change policy objectives can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. We can briefly summarize our results in the following conclusions: The cost of achieving the climate change policy objectives set by Sweden and the EU will probably be very high. It is therefore important that the choices made ensure that climate change policy objectives are achieved at the lowest possible cost. Focusing on keeping costs to a minimum may in actual fact be the very thing that makes it at all possible to achieve these goals. The best solution then is as far as possible to base energy and climate change policy on so-called market-based instruments, such as emission charges and tradable emission permits. Emissions of carbon dioxide are easy to measure and the siting of emission sources is irrelevant in terms of the effect of the emissions

  9. Some Implications of New Regulatory Measures for Euro Area Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, David; Kirrane, Caroline; Masterson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A number of banking and financial market regulations have been proposed in response to the financial crisis; in particular the Basel III solvency and liquidity rules. These enhanced regulatory standards intend to ensure that banks and banking systems are significantly more resilient in the future than was the case in the run-up to the financial crisis. However, there have been concerns that the extent and range of the new regulatory measures may lead to unintended shifts in market behaviour. ...

  10. Learning by the Market: Regulatory Regionalism, Bologna, and Accountability Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Kanishka

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades institutions of higher education have been subject to new modes of regulatory governance. This essay applies a "regulatory lens" to higher education governance with a view to understanding the sometimes contradictory relationship between the globalisation and regionalisation of higher education and the…

  11. The energy supply of China. Markets and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.; Meidan, M.

    2005-07-01

    China is a great part of the energy world economy. In 2003 and 2004, the chinese economic growth had a direct impact on the world energy markets: it is a main factor of the great world economic demand growth and the energy prices increase. In the other hand this growth generates new investment of energy offer in the world. The author details the China energy policy and its efficiency quest, the insertion in the gas markets and the petroleum market facing the chinese energy security. (A.L.B.)

  12. Determinants of Renewable Energy Innovation: Environmental Policies vs. Market Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nesta, Lionel; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    This paper carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion- mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base. For OECD countries and years 1970-2005, we build a unique dataset containing time-varying information on quality-adjusted patent production in renewable energy, the latter being a function of environmental policies, green R and D, entry barriers, knowledge stock, knowledge diversity and income inequality. We develop count data models using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity of policy support. Our synthetic policy index positively affects innovations especially in countries with deregulated energy markets and low entry barriers. The effect of entry barriers and inequality is negative and of similar magnitude as that of policy. Product market liberalization positively affects green patent generation, especially so when ambitious policies are adopted, when the initial level of public R and D expenditures and when the initial share of distributed energy generation is high. Our results are robust to alternative specifications, to the inclusion of technology-specific effects and to the use of quality-adjusted patents as dependent variables. In the latter case, the estimated effect of lowering entry barriers and of knowledge diversity almost double on citation count relatively to patent count. (authors)

  13. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ''market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate

  14. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  15. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  16. BDI position on energy policy and energy market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreklau, C.

    2003-01-01

    Secure energy supplies are indispensable for our modern way of life and our economy. Energy policy is a part of economic policy and must be shaped within the magic triangle of objectives, i.e. security, competitiveness, environmental compatibility. As a result of their outstanding role, electricity and natural gas, with respective shares of 70% in industrial energy use and 85% in energy costs, are in the focus of energy policy interest of the Federation of German Industries (BDI). One important development over the past few years has been the deregulation of the markets for electricity and gas. However, the markedly lower electricity rates to be paid by industry, commercial tariff consumers, and private customers are being offset by new burdens arising from government intervention and taxes. Other dirigistic interventions into the energy market by the red-green federal government since 1998, referred to as 'turning point of energy policy', are invalidating what market opening had been achieved. With a view to a sustainable energy policy for the future, BDI pleads in favor of a broad energy mix. In a mix neutral with respect to competition, this includes the classical energy sources, the renewables, and low-cost, environmentally friendly nuclear power. In principle, it is the forces of the market, coupled with responsible action, which are to steer further developments. On a European level, speedy implementation of the opening of the electricity and gas markets, as decided, should be urged. It is important that the leeway won as a result of deregulation not be constrained again by new regulations. More market, less regulation, and more direct responsibility must provide room for a powerful energy supply system under the premises of the triangle of objectives referred to above. (orig.) [de

  17. Policy and Statutory Responses to Advertising and Marketing in Schools. Legislation Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Koski, William S.; Boninger, Faith

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief describes the growth of schoolhouse advertising and marketing activities in the last few decades, assesses the harms associated with commercial activities in schools, and provides advocates, policymakers, and educators with a policy framework and model legislative language designed to protect children and the integrity of…

  18. Dentist education and labour market in Mexico: elements for policy definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robledo, Luz María; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Nigenda, Gustavo

    2012-09-13

    Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a place in the labour market. A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008. Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirds were women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%); unemployment was more than 20% and labour wastage was nearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding with female dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population's health needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodies in order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policies are required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective.

  19. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability: Does Labour Market Policy Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of unemployment insurance generosity and active labour market policy on reemployment stability in Europe. Using EU‐SILC and OECD data, we conduct discrete time survival analyses with shared frailty specification to identify policy effects at the micro and macro level....... These results point to a policy trade‐off between the well‐confirmed disincentive and locking‐in effect of unemployment benefits and ALMP programmes on the one hand, and their positive effect on reemployment stability on the other hand....

  20. U.S. energy policy and next regulatory steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation examined energy policies taken in the past to develop to oil and gas activities in Alaska and examined regulatory steps that may be taken in the future. North Slope Alaska gas resources were also reviewed. The Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Act was passed in 1976, but the pipeline was not developed due to its high cost. The Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline Act was signed into law in 2004 along with a loan guarantee program and an alternate construction study. Tax bill provisions included accelerated depreciation for the pipeline as well as an enhanced oil recovery tax credit for a gas processing plant. A federal coordinator was selected to expedite reviews and actions, as well as to monitor responsibility in areas where the pipeline crosses Federal or private lands. Details of federal permitting agencies were also included. A summary of federal agency permits and approvals was provided along with details of a federal interdepartmental memorandum of understanding (MOU) and the responsibilities of the United States Department of Energy. The presentation also included outlines of technical risk management programs, support infrastructure needs, and an infrastructure upgrade study. Highway route options were discussed, as well as sites for facilities. tabs., figs

  1. Regulatory theory: commercially sustainable markets rely upon satisfying the public interest in obtaining credible goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jones, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory theory is premised on the failure of markets, prompting a focus on regulators and industry from economic perspectives. This article argues that overlooking the public interest in the sustainability of commercial markets risks markets failing completely. This point is exemplified through health care markets - meeting an essential need - and focuses upon innovative medicines as the most desired products in that market. If this seemingly invulnerable market risks failure, there is a pressing need to consider the public interest in sustainable markets within regulatory literature and practice. Innovative medicines are credence goods, meaning that the sustainability of the market fundamentally relies upon the public trusting regulators to vouch for product quality. Yet, quality is being eroded by patent bodies focused on economic benefits from market growth, rather than ensuring innovatory value. Remunerative bodies are not funding medicines relative to market value, and market authorisation bodies are not vouching for robust safety standards or confining market entry to products for 'unmet medical need'. Arguably, this failure to assure quality heightens the risk of the market failing where it cannot be substituted by the reputation or credibility of providers of goods and/or information such as health care professionals/institutions, patient groups or industry.

  2. Interactions between Monetary and Fiscal Policy via Open Market Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabert, A.

    2004-01-01

    We examine interactions of monetary and fiscal policy in a sticky price model where public debt is non-neutral, as it provides transaction services. This property is brought about by a legal restriction on open market operations by which only government bonds are eligible. Debt creation eases access

  3. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...

  4. The Performing School: The Effects of Market & Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Market and accountability educational reforms have proliferated around the globe, along with high expectations of solving countries' school quality deficits and inequities. In this paper I develop an analytical framework from a critical sociology angle for analyzing the effects of these policies within schools. First I discuss conceptually the…

  5. Market failure, policy failure and other distortions in chronic disease markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segal Leonie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of chronic disease represents a significant burden on most health systems. This paper explores the market failures and policy failures that exist in the management of chronic diseases. Discussion There are many sources of market failure in health care that undermine the efficiency of chronic disease management. These include incomplete information as well as information asymmetry between providers and consumers, the effect of externalities on consumer behaviour, and the divergence between social and private time preference rates. This has seen government and policy interventions to address both market failures and distributional issues resulting from the inability of private markets to reach an efficient and equitable distribution of resources. However, these have introduced a series of policy failures such as distorted re-imbursement arrangements across modalities and delivery settings. Summary The paper concludes that market failure resulting from a preference of individuals for 'immediate gratification' in the form of health care and disease management, rather than preventative services, where the benefits are delayed, has a major impact on achieving an efficient allocation of resources in markets for the management of chronic diseases. This distortion is compounded by government health policy that tends to favour medical and pharmaceutical interventions further contributing to distortions in the allocation of resources and inefficiencies in the management of chronic disease.

  6. Labour market transitions in policy and in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie; Cort, Pia

    the 1990s focus in the employment policy has shifted gradually and introduced the ideas of activation and the duty of the unemployed to pursue employment. Unemployment has been individualized as a problem and focus has moved from upskilling to rapid re-integration into the labour market, hereby......In a time where transitions between jobs and in and out of the labour market are likely to become more frequent the way we conceptualise and experience ‘ transitions’ becomes equally important. In EU policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of the flexicurity model and its...... aim of securing unemployed people through financial support and access to training and competence development during redundancies i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. Hereby the flexicurity model ensures both a flexible labour market and a flexible and adaptable workforce. However, since...

  7. 77 FR 50191 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Instituting Proceedings To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Instituting Proceedings To Determine Whether To Approve or Disapprove Proposed Rule Change To Establish ``Benchmark Orders'' Under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f) August 14, 2012. I. Introduction On May 1, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange...

  8. 78 FR 3928 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Disapproving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Disapproving Proposed Rule Change To Establish ``Benchmark Orders'' Under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f) January 11, 2013. I. Introduction On May 1, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  9. International Market Leakage from China’s Forestry Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon leakage can be a problem when seeking to reduce carbon emissions through forest policy. International market leakage is mainly caused by supply and demand imbalances in the timber market. This paper selects China, which is implementing forestry policy changes, as the research object. We begin by offering a brief analysis of China’s forestry policy changes, such as the logging quota and Six Key Forestry Programs to determine whether those policies affect timber supply. Second, through the use of three shock variables, carbon leakage is simulated under different scenarios by the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model. The results reveal that the magnitude of leakage caused by implementing China’s forestry policies is between 79.7% and 88.8% with carbon leakage mainly displaced to Russia, Southeast Asia, and the EU. Two effective scenarios for reducing market leakage are presented: forest tenure reform and fast growing forest projects to improve domestic timber production, and raising tariffs on timber imports to reduce imports.

  10. GENERIC DRUG IN GLOBAL MARKET AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Kumar*, Bharti Mangla2, Satbir Singh, Arapna Rana

    2017-01-01

    Different regulatory authorities regulate the drug development in various countries of the world. Various Regulatory authority for generic drug application Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), Health Product and Food Branch (HPFB) Central Drug Standard of Organization (CDSO). Generic manufacturers may file an abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) that incorporates the safety/effectiveness data submitted by ori...

  11. Canadian solar export market study. Export policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This report outlines policies and recommendations on the export of Canadian solar equipment and technology, with a view toward stimulating the domestic solar industry. The current picture is of an industry which is relatively small, operates in a competitive domestic market with low profit margins, and needs assistance in order to break into the world market. A number of recommendations are therefore made on the main thrust of industry and government solar export development activities. An export development program is described which includes a strategy of concentrating on a limited number of product lines, namely: low-temperature solar heating systems for recreational applications, integrated residential water heating systems, prepackaged commercial water heating systems, and industrial pre-heat systems. It is also recommended that this strategy be directed only at a limited number of target countries where the market justifies such activity. Market research, international cooperation agreements, promotional services, and proper export organization are also needed.

  12. German Energiewende and the heating market – Impact and limits of policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauermann, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    The German Energiewende envisages achieving a climate-neutral building stock in 2050 by means of two major pillars of regulation. First, residential buildings should consume 80% less primary energy and second; the remaining energy demand should be covered primarily with renewables. This paper simulates the future German heating market under different policy scenarios in order to evaluate the impact and limits of recent and conceivable policies. The investigation is based upon a dual model approach, linking a residential heating model to a discrete choice model. The major finding is that current regulations are not suitable for the achievement of governmental targets. Scenario calculations show that additional carbon emission reductions, triggered by the current regulatory regime, are falling short of expectations. In terms of economic efficiency, all calculated policy alternatives outperform the regulation currently in place. This allows to draw the conclusion that carbon emission reductions can be achieved without a major increase in cost. The model results highlight two policy implications. First, a rising mandatory share of renewables in the heating market is needed for target achievement and can be cost effectively. Second, renewable obligations for heating systems must include the existing building stock to achieve the postulated political targets. - Highlights: •The residential heating market accounts for major share of carbon emissions. •The disregard of the building stock weakens the impact of recent regulation. •Current regulation preserves a heating market dominated by fossil fuels. •A significant renewable share can be achieved through direct regulation. •Alternative policy leads to emission reductions without major increases in costs.

  13. State policy change: Revenue decoupling in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kytson L.

    The study seeks to answer the question, why are states adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market, by investigating the relationship between policy adoption and attributes of the electricity market, the structure of the state utility commissions, and the political climate of the state. The study examines the period 1978-2008. Two econometric models, the marginal risk set model and the conditional risk set model, are estimated to predict the influence of covariates on the probability of the state adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market. The models are both variants of the Cox proportional hazard model and use different underlying assumptions about the nature of adoption of revenue decoupling and when the states are considered to be at risk of adoption. Results suggest that market attributes, such as the source of electricity generation in the state, state energy intensity, and the distribution of non-public and public utilities, significantly influence the adoption of the policy. Also, the method of selecting commissioners and the party affiliation of elected officials in the state are important factors. The study concludes by suggestions to improve the implementation and evaluation of revenue decoupling in the electricity markets.

  14. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  15. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  16. Monetary Policy Shocks and Risk Premia in the Interbank Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingender, Asger Moll

    2011-01-01

    Unexpected changes in the federal funds rate are shown to have significant effects on risk premia in the money market. The spread between interbank lending rates and U.S. Treasury bills tends to narrow when the FOMC decides to cut interest rates by more than the expectation implied by federal funds...... futures. However, rate cuts taking place at unscheduled FOMC meetings can increase risk premia during periods of financial distress, consistent with the view that central bank actions under such circumstances are perceived as signals that policy makers have private information of further unfavorable...... developments in financial markets....

  17. Keynesian Substantiation of the Marketing Policies in Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica MATEI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The local development means the existence of several goods and services and their performance, expressed through adequate marketing policies, thus determining the overall development performance.The paper approaches the economic fundamental issues of local development and in this context it determines the basic components of public service marketing, relevant for local development: price, multiplier of revenues/expenditures, respectively the export multiplier.Those elements will express the ratios between resources and outcomes and their balance is based on a Keynesian model in an open economy.

  18. A regulatory adjustment process for the determination of the optimal percentage requirement in an electricity market with Tradable Green Certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currier, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    A system of Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) is a market-based subsidy scheme designed to promote electricity generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power. Under a TGC system, the principal policy instrument is the “percentage requirement,” which stipulates the percentage of total electricity production (“green” plus “black”) that must be obtained from renewable sources. In this paper, we propose a regulatory adjustment process that a regulator can employ to determine the socially optimal percentage requirement, explicitly accounting for environmental damages resulting from black electricity generation. - Highlights: • A Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system promotes energy production from renewable sources. • We consider an electricity oligopoly operated under a TGC system. • Welfare analysis must account for damages from “black” electricity production. • We characterize the welfare maximizing (optimal) “percentage requirement.” • We present a regulatory adjustment process that computes the optimal percentage requirement iteratively

  19. Internet marketing directed at children on food and restaurant websites in two policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M Potvin; Dubois, L; Kent, E A; Wanless, A J

    2013-04-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been associated with childhood obesity yet little research has examined the influence of advertising policy on children's exposure to food/beverage marketing on the Internet. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of Quebec's Consumer Protection Act and the self-regulatory Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) on food manufacturer and restaurant websites in Canada. A content analysis of 147 French and English language food and restaurant websites was undertaken. The presence of child-directed content was assessed and an analysis of marketing features, games and activities, child protection features, and the promotion of healthy lifestyle messages was then examined on those sites with child-directed content. There were statistically no fewer French language websites (n = 22) with child-directed content compared to English language websites (n = 27). There were no statistically significant differences in the number of the various marketing features, or in the average number of marketing features between the English and French websites. There were no fewer CAI websites (n = 14) with child-directed content compared to non-CAI websites (n = 13). The CAI sites had more healthy lifestyle messages and child protection features compared to the non-CAI sites. Systematic surveillance of the Consumer Protection Act in Quebec is recommended. In the rest of Canada, the CAI needs to be significantly expanded or replaced by regulatory measures to adequately protect children from the marketing of foods/beverages high in fat, sugar, and sodium on the Internet. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  20. The Philippine Regulatory Frameworks, Support Policies, And Initiatives Encouraging Women Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    EDRALIN, Divina M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the Philippine regulatory frameworks, support policies, initiatives, and barriers to encouraging women entrepreneurship. Currently, women entrepreneurship seems to be nurtured with the right environment, including regulatory frameworks, financial resources and support programs for, as well as business practices and social attitudes in the country towards women entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in general. However, though many SME-friendly laws and policies exist, their im...

  1. Effects of Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy on the Stock Market in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hsing

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to examine potential impacts of fiscal and monetary policies on stock market performance in Poland. Applying the GARCH model and based on a sample during 1999.Q2 to 2012.Q4, this paper finds that Poland’s stock market index is not affected by the ratio of government deficits or debt to GDP and is negatively influenced by the money market rate. The stock index and the ratio of M3 to GDP show a quadratic relationship with a critical value of 46.03%, suggesting that th...

  2. Impact of Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy on Indonesian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossanto Dwi HANDOYO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the effect of fiscal and monetary policy on Indonesian Stock price as well as main sectors stock price such as agricultural, mining, manufacture, and financial sector indexes. We consider the world oil price as a foreign variable that will influence domestic economy as in regular small open economy model. In this paper, we employ the Monte Carlo algorithm to Near-SVAR models (If some of the VAR equations have regressors not included in the others. We find that there is a positive stock price response to monetary policy shock both aggregated and sectoral stock price. In term of interaction between fiscal policy shock and stock market, we find that all sectors respond negative relationship. From this empirical finding, fiscal policy crowd out private sector activity in market, thus, its effect will be impotent in economy. We also provide the evidence that not only both policies are able to influence the stock price individually, but also the interaction between monetary and fiscal policy is important in explaining stock market performance.

  3. The European internal market and Nordic energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.; Hoier Nielsen, H.; Soerensen, H.

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to attempt to clarify the immediate consequences, and potentials for energy policy, for the authorities and supply companies in the Nordic countries in relation to the establishment of the Single Market. Potentials for the development of coordinated electricity supply and natural gas markets, and for cooperative Nordic research and initiatives are examined. Descriptions of conditions in other lands are given. It is stated that decisions on investments must now be taken within an open capital market with other traditions. There is a need for faster technology transfer. It is concluded that it will be difficult to develope trade related to natural gas between all the Nordic countries, but it should increase (also with regard to electricity) between the Nordic countries and their neighbour countries. Regarding electricity supply, lifting of existing rights of monopoly will result in weaker connections between producer and consumer and supply reliability will decrease. Natural gas supply reliability will be strengthened but producers will shoulder more market risks. Fusions will increase but a greater variation of company types and organization forms will develope. Competition will be sharper and prices for electric power could rise. Nordic energy policy will have a more international character, especially with regard to environmental protection. Long-term investment will be encouraged. The Nordic Council of Ministers will need to concentrate on information dissemination related to energy system analyses as a basis for decision-making. Export of Scandinavian hydroelectric power will contribute to international goals for environmental protection. (AB) (45 refs.)

  4. The policy analysis of the film and video market in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    菅谷, 実

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionThe Economic Structure of Film and Video MarketVideo Market in the Broadband AgeThe Japanese Video and Film MarketThe Government Policy on the Production and Distribution MarketThe Present Policies on Film in JapanStarting Film Commission: Non-Government OrganizationSummary and Conclusion

  5. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Till; Frenzel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  6. Comparison of Fiscal and Regulatory Policies to Prevent Non ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India is facing a rising burden of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related diabetes ... As a result, fiscal and regulatory strategies such as food taxes have been ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  7. Regulatory reform in the Indonesian Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutagalung, Aldi; Arentsen, Maarten; Lovett, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the problems and dilemmas Indonesia is facing in the upstream and downstream segments of the gas market and the remedies suggested and practiced in Indonesia to mitigate the problems. Indonesia is a country gifted with natural resources, including natural gas and oil. The

  8. Transboundary effects of environmental policy. Markets and emission leakages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Faehn, Taran [Research Department, Statistics Norway, Pb. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2006-10-15

    One of many explanations for Environmental Kuznets Curves for rich countries can be that dirty production is relocated to economies with laxer abatement regimes. If this is caused by national abatement policies, environmental stresses are transferred to other countries. Further, the economic costs of national abatement policies can be shared with foreigners to some extent, both through a lower demand for imports and losses of market shares for foreign competitors that produce cleaner products. We quantify effects internally and abroad of a growth-induced unilateral carbon tax policy in a rich open economy. We find that the environmental benefits fall, and the economic costs rise, when a global rather than a national perspective is employed. (author)

  9. Municipal energy and climate policy in a liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, H.

    2001-05-01

    Due to the ongoing process of liberalisation, Dutch municipal energy policy is undergoing significant changes. The probable privatisation of energy companies, the change from what used to be 'their' local energy company to what will become an energy company, results in a need for local administrations to build up energy knowledge, end-use information and financial resources that 'their' energy companies used to share but, because of operating in a competitive market, are now more reluctant to do so. On the other hand offers privatisation and the selling of shares the possibility for some local governments to collect a significant sum of money which can be addressed to energy policy. This process of growing responsibility of local administrations for their own energy policy coincides with the structural change of the nature of the energy supply in the Netherlands. The change towards a more decentralised energy supply results in more energy systems (e.g. PV and wind) coming under the influence of local regulations. Municipal governments will have to act more like actors in a complex policy network, playing different roles at different times in different situations, often stimulating and regulating at the same time. The growing popularity of platforms like energy agencies, bringing together parties like the local government, energy companies and commercial- and housing associations are examples hereof. In this report, another new role for local governments resulting from the liberalisation process is highlighted: the role of energy consumer. It is estimated that the aggregated electricity demand resulting from activities under direct municipal responsibility (e.g. municipal dwellings, traffic lights, public lighting) amounts to a fairly large share of the market. Due to the public interests vested in the local administrations, it is expected that an important part of this demand is demand for green electricity. Also, local governments can use the energy markets to act

  10. A decision support tool for the analysis of pricing, investment and regulatory processes in a decentralized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaoglu Kilanc, Guzay; Or, Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    After the liberalization of the electricity generation industry, capacity expansion decisions are made by multiple self-oriented power companies. Unlike the centralized environment, decision-making of market participants is now guided by price signal feedbacks and by an imperfect foresight of the future market conditions (and competitor actions) that they will face. In such an environment, decision makers need to better understand long-term dynamics of the supply and demand sides of the power market. In this study, a system dynamics model is developed, to better understand and analyze the decentralized and competitive electricity market dynamics in the long run. The developed simulation model oversees a 20-year planning horizon; it includes a demand module, a capacity expansion module, a power generation module, an accounting and finance module, various competitors, a regulatory body and a bidding mechanism. Many features, singularities and tools of decentralized markets, such as; capacity withholding, enforced divestment, long-term contracts, price-elastic demands, incentives/disincentives, are also incorporated into the model. Public regulators and power companies are potential users of the model, for learning and decision support in policy design and strategic planning. Results of scenario analysis are presented to illustrate potential use of the model

  11. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: the regulatory taking doctrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the third of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 3 introduces one of the most controversial legal doctrines of investment law – 'regulatory taking' – and sets out its implications for sustainable development.

  12. Greenhouse policy without regrets. A free market approach to the uncertain risks of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.H.

    2000-07-01

    nothing to fear from climate change. A 'no regrets' approach to climate change would incorporate the following policy measures, among others: (1) Remove Regulatory Barriers to Innovation; (2) Eliminate Energy Subsidies; (3) Deregulate Electricity Markets; and (4) Deregulate Transportation Markets

  13. Redistribution effects of energy and climate policy: The electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion; Ueckerdt, Falko

    2013-01-01

    Energy and climate policies are usually seen as measures to internalize externalities. However, as a side effect, the introduction of these policies redistributes wealth between consumers and producers, and within these groups. While redistribution is seldom the focus of the academic literature in energy economics, it plays a central role in public debates and policy decisions. This paper compares the distributional effects of two major electricity policies: support schemes for renewable energy sources, and CO 2 pricing. We find that the redistribution effects of both policies are large, and they work in opposed directions. While renewables support transfers wealth from producers to consumers, carbon pricing does the opposite. More specifically, we show that moderate amounts of wind subsidies can increase consumer surplus, even if consumers bear the subsidy costs. CO 2 pricing, in contrast, increases aggregated producer surplus, even without free allocation of emission allowances; however, not all types of producers benefit. These findings are derived from an analytical model of electricity markets, and a calibrated numerical model of Northwestern Europe. Our findings imply that if policy makers want to avoid large redistribution they might prefer a mix of policies, even if CO 2 pricing alone is the first-best climate policy in terms of allocative efficiency. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •CO 2 pricing and renewables support have strikingly different impacts on rents. •Carbon pricing increases producer surplus and decreases consumer surplus. •Renewable support schemes (portfolio standards, feed-in tariffs) do the opposite. •We model these impacts theoretically and quantify them for Europe. •Redistribution of wealth is found to be significant in size

  14. Regulatory Sanctions and Reputational Damage in Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, John; Mayer, Colin; Polo, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of the announcement of enforcement of financial and securities regulation by the UK’s Financial Services Authority and London Stock Exchange on the market price of penalized firms. Since these agencies do not announce enforcement until a penalty is levied, their actions provide a uniquely clean dataset on which to examine reputational effects. We find that reputational sanctions are very real: their stock price impact is on average ten times larger than the financial penal...

  15. Branding technologies in the foreign policy of Ukraine: regulatory and organizational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Maryna Ihorivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regulatory and organizational components of the application of branding technology as a tool of foreign policy of Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine in this sphere, as well as to the problems impeding the full implementation of the branding policy.

  16. 76 FR 55988 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on August 31, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or... perfect the mechanism of a free and open market and a national market system, and, in general to protect...

  17. 77 FR 4610 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... hereby given that on January 11, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'') filed with the Securities... impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market and a national market system, and, in...

  18. 75 FR 78789 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... is hereby given that on December 9, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange... market and a national market system, and, in general, to protect investors and the public interest. The...

  19. 75 FR 10541 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... hereby given that on February 24, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'') filed with the... impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market and a national market system, and, in...

  20. 75 FR 43591 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... given that on June 30, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the... mechanism of a free and open market and a national market system, and, in general, to protect investors and...

  1. 76 FR 48186 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... is hereby given that, on July 27, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ... NASDAQ Stock Market and the NASDAQ Options Market. Currently, a member that provides shares of liquidity...

  2. Getting out of the perfect storm: towards coherence between electricity market policies and EU climate and energy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas; Spencer, Thomas; Sartor, Oliver; Mathieu, Mathilde; Colombier, Michel; Ribera, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the EU power market has been hit by a 'perfect storm', combining multiple interacting factors: revision of demand expectations, growth of both conventional and renewable capacities, a drastic shift from gas to coal power plants and a lack of visibility on future evolutions. Some of these factors are related to the climate agenda, but mostly, they show the inherent and structural difficulties of the current design of the EU power market itself. Within the debate on EU's 2030 framework for climate and energy policies, this situation raises the question: how can the EU's policies address current difficulties of the power market while simultaneously achieving the structural targets of security, affordability and sustainability of supply in the context of decarbonization? Hitherto, the two agendas of internal electricity market policy and climate policy have been largely considered in isolation or even as conflicting agendas. However, a secure low-carbon transition will require significant policy intervention in the electricity sector, including in electricity market design. And, vice versa, an ambitious and coherent package on climate and energy policy can help restore an efficient and competitive electricity market, by strengthening investment signals, improving coordination among member states and providing a sound market framework to improve the technical and economic integration of new low-carbon technologies. Against this background, future challenges for the European policy framework should be considered along two lines: the balance between market forces and regulatory intervention, and the interplay between national and regional approaches. A reinforced EU ETS will have an important role to play, but will not be sufficient on its own to guide both dispatching and investment decisions. Complementary policies will be needed, to provide visibility on the retirement of old carbon intensive plants as well as enhanced coordination

  3. Assuring Competency in Nuclear Power Plants: Regulatory Policy and Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, Nancy E.; Melber, Barbara

    2004-06-01

    This report provides descriptive and comparative information on competency regulation and oversight in selected countries and identifies issues concerning competency. Interviews with competency experts in five countries: Sweden, Finland, Spain, Canada, and the United Kingdom were conducted and analyzed. The report provides a summary and comparison of the regulations used in these five countries. Regulations and policies in four areas are discussed: Licensing, certification and approvals; Educational qualifications; Training; Experience. Methods and tools used by regulators in the five countries are discussed with regard to how regulators: Assure that licensees determine the competencies needed for the safe operation of nuclear facilities and fill positions with competent staff; Oversee training and examinations in the areas of operations, engineering and maintenance; Assure competence of contractors; Oversee work group performance; Assure competency of managers; Assure competency of other personnel; Assure competency when modifications and other changes occur. Competency experts identified the following as the biggest challenges in regulating competency: The continued availability of qualified personnel; Determining appropriate criteria for competency and assuring those criteria are met. Determining whether licensees have adequately identified and met training needs, especially evaluating systematic approaches to training (SAT); Overseeing contractors. The following issues related to competency are discussed in the report: The sufficiency of qualified personnel; The evaluation of personnel requirements (determining appropriate criteria for competency and assuring those criteria are met); The effects of major organizational changes, including downsizing; Assurance of competency of contractors; International competency issues; The historical and current focus on technical and hardware issues over human factors issues; Selected examples illustrate regulatory

  4. What about coal? Interactions between climate policies and the global steam coal market until 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftendorn, C.; Kemfert, C.; Holz, F.

    2012-01-01

    Because of economic growth and a strong increase in global energy demand the demand for fossil fuels and therefore also greenhouse gas emissions are increasing, although climate policy should lead to the opposite effect. The coal market is of special relevance as coal is available in many countries and often the first choice to meet energy demand. In this paper we assess possible interactions between climate policies and the global steam coal market. Possible market adjustments between demand regions through market effects are investigated with a numerical model of the global steam coal market: the “COALMOD-World” model. This equilibrium model computes future trade flows, infrastructure investments and prices until 2030. We investigate three specific designs of climate policy: a unilateral European climate policy, an Indonesian export-limiting policy and a fast-roll out of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the broader context of climate policy and market constraints. We find that market adjustment effects in the coal market can have significant positive and negative impacts on the effectiveness of climate policies. - Highlights: ► Interactions between climate policy and the global coal market until 2030 modeled. ► Analysis with the numerical model: “COALMOD-World”. ► Unilateral European climate policy partly compensated by market adjustment effects. ► A fast roll-out of CCS can lead to positive market adjustment effects. ► An export restricting supply-side policy generates virtuous market adjustments.

  5. Information security policy: contributions from internal marketing for its effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ellwanger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting sources of information has become a great challenge to the organizations, due to the advance of the information technologies, the integration between them and the constant stream of information that flows through the communication networks. The establishment of an Information Security Policy – PSI may resolve a part of the problems related to security, but it cannot totally solve them, since the human resources present in the internal environment of the organizations may spoil the effectiveness of the PSI. Given the importance of the human aspects in the context of the information security, the present work discusses the use of internal marketing as a management strategy in order to obtain or reestablish the commitment of the users to the principles defined in the PSI, and demonstrates, through an experimental research, the impact of using internal marketing techniques to the effectiveness of that policy. The results of this experiment make quantitatively evident how relevant the use of these techniques may be in order to have the procedures described in the PSI actually carried out by the users, and demonstrates a 402,4% increase in the support to the information security policy, considering the procedures indicated in the PSI that were totally executed.

  6. Dentist education and labour market in Mexico: elements for policy definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Robledo Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a place in the labour market. Methods A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008. Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. Results The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirds were women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%; unemployment was more than 20% and labour wastage was nearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding with female dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population’s health needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. Conclusions The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodies in order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policies are required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective.

  7. The New Electricity Market of Singapore : regulatory framework, market power and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines whether the New Electricity Market of Singapore (NEMS) is functioning at a workable level of competition. The generation market of the NEMS appears highly concentrated by a four-firm concentration ratio or the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. However, other measures of market power present that the NEMS is working at close to a competitive market. First, there seems to be a number of effective competitors in the market. Second, Supply Margin Assessment and Residual Supply Index support that the market is competitive though there are some possibilities in which the largest generator or a few large generators jointly could still have market power. Third, the Lerner Index of the NEMS shows that the generation market is fairly competitive and the Lerner Index adjusted with an industry level price elasticity of demand implies that there has not been much exercise of market power. Finally, vesting contracts - a contractual obligation of a specified quantity of electricity supply to the market - have appeared to be a strong and effective tool to mitigate market power in the NEMS. The vesting contracts are considered the force behind the lowering in the average Uniform Singapore Electricity Price and the Lerner Index in 2004. [Author

  8. The New Electricity Market of Singapore: Regulatory framework, market power and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Youngho

    2007-01-01

    This study examines whether the New Electricity Market of Singapore (NEMS) is functioning at a workable level of competition. The generation market of the NEMS appears highly concentrated by a four-firm concentration ratio or the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. However, other measures of market power present that the NEMS is working at close to a competitive market. First, there seems to be a number of effective competitors in the market. Second, Supply Margin Assessment and Residual Supply Index support that the market is competitive though there are some possibilities in which the largest generator or a few large generators jointly could still have market power. Third, the Lerner Index of the NEMS shows that the generation market is fairly competitive and the Lerner Index adjusted with an industry level price elasticity of demand implies that there has not been much exercise of market power. Finally, vesting contracts-a contractual obligation of a specified quantity of electricity supply to the market-have appeared to be a strong and effective tool to mitigate market power in the NEMS. The vesting contracts are considered the force behind the lowering in the average Uniform Singapore Electricity Price and the Lerner Index in 2004

  9. Market redesign and regulatory change : how companies doing business in Alberta's power markets will be affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Power Pool of Alberta (PPA) began its operations in 1996 based on a model with a single price set based on day ahead offers/bids and real time dispatch. The Electric Utilities Act was amended in 1998 and direct sales were permitted in 1999. The Power Purchase Arrangement Auction was implemented in 2000. Significant events took place in 2001, including: (1) retail competition, (2) PPAs began operations, (3) restrictions on direct sales were removed, (4) forward exchange operation, and (5) ancillary services market. In 2002, the Market Achievement Plan II was implemented and government industry structure was reviewed. There are several considerations regarding market redesign, such as day ahead market, capacity market, congestion management, and Northwest Regional Transmission Organization (RTO West). The role of the International Standard Organization (ISO) was discussed, with reference to the Independent System Operator, Independent Market Operator, and Transmission and Market Planner. Redesign must involve all participants and include informed, phased in changes

  10. Labour Market Policies for Encouraging Economic Activity and Labour Productivity in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to present the recent labour market policies for encouraging economic activity of working age population, labour market inclusion and increasing labour productivity. It points out that a number of different programs and labour market measures have been implemented in Bulgaria in the last twenty years. The results of the analysis show up both positive and negative features of the implemented policies. These policies contribute to increasing labour market inclusion in the shor...

  11. Utilizing national and international registries to enhance pre-market medical device regulatory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lilly Q; Campbell, Gregory; Lu, Nelson; Xu, Yunling; Zuckerman, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory decisions are made based on the assessment of risk and benefit of medical devices at the time of pre-market approval and subsequently, when post-market risk-benefit balance needs reevaluation. Such assessments depend on scientific evidence obtained from pre-market studies, post-approval studies, post-market surveillance studies, patient perspective information, as well as other real world data such as national and international registries. Such registries provide real world evidence and are playing a more and more important role in enhancing the safety and effectiveness evaluation of medical devices. While these registries provide large quantities of data reflecting real world practice and can potentially reduce the cost of clinical trials, challenges arise concerning (1) data quality adequate for regulatory decision-making, (2) bias introduced at every stage and aspect of study, (3) scientific validity of study designs, and (4) reliability and interpretability of study results. This article will discuss related statistical and regulatory challenges and opportunities with examples encountered in medical device regulatory reviews.

  12. 76 FR 76472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the... facility or system which NASDAQ operates or controls. \\7\\ 15 U.S.C. 78f. \\8\\ 15 U.S.C. 78f(b)(4). NASDAQ... Release No. 61358 (January 14, 2010), 75 FR 3594 (January 21, 2010) (Concept Release on Equity Market...

  13. The Dutch drug policy from a regulatory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spapens, A.C.M.; Müller, T.; Van de Bunt, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Starting in the 1970s, the Netherlands developed a regulatory regime for narcotic drugs by distinguishing between hashish and marihuana (“soft drugs”) and other drugs (“hard drugs”). The authorities decided to cease prosecuting the possession of consumer quantities of the former type and to allow

  14. Comparison of Fiscal and Regulatory Policies to Prevent Non ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India is facing a rising burden of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related diabetes due to ... As a result, fiscal and regulatory strategies such as food taxes have been ... L'Association internationale de ressources en eau (IWRA), en étroite ...

  15. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts.

  16. Employers and the Implementation of Active Labor Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bredgaard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Active labor market policies (ALMPs are an important instrument for governments in dealing with the new challenges of globalization, flexibilization, and individualization of labor markets. Politics and research has focused on the supply-side of the labor market, that is, regulating the rights and obligations of the target groups of ALMPs (mainly unemployed and inactive persons. The role and behavior of employers is under-researched and under-theorized in the vast literature on ALMPs and industrial relations. In this article, we analyze ALMPs from the employers’ perspective by examining the determinants of firms’ participation in providing wage subsidy jobs for the unemployed. First, we examine the historical background to the introduction and development of wage subsidy schemes as an important ALMP instrument in Denmark. Second, we derive theoretical arguments and hypotheses about employers’ participation in ALMPs from selected theories. Third, we use data from a survey of Danish firms conducted in 2013 to characterize the firms that are engaged in implementing wage subsidy jobs and hypotheses are tested using a binary logistical regression to establish why firms voluntarily engage in reintegrating unemployed back into the labor market. We find that the firms which are most likely to participate in the wage subsidy scheme are characterized by many unskilled workers, a higher coverage of collective agreements, a deteriorating economic situation, a Danish ownership structure, and are especially found in the public sector. This shows that the preference formation of firms is more complex than scholars often assume.

  17. A Process Perspective on Regulation: A Grounded Theory Study into Regulatory Practice in Newly Liberalized Network-Based Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubacht, J.

    The transition from a former monopolistic towards a more competitive market in
    newly liberalized network-based markets raises regulatory issues. National Regulatory Authorities (NRA) face the challenge to deal with these issues in order to guide the transition process. Although this transition

  18. Energy investments facing market risk and public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobtcheff, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual meeting of the Energy Economist Association, held on June 15, 2005, was about the issue of investments in the energy sector. How can companies decide to invest in a project when there are increasing uncertainties, including as to future public policies and to energy market trends? The various speakers at the meeting stressed the significance of describing and gauging the risks specific to each industry as well as the assumptions that decision-making tools available to companies rely on (net value theory updated and actual option theory, inter alia). (author)

  19. THE WORLDS OF FLEXICURITY-LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionete Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, European integration has concentrated first of all on profound economic integration, creating the Single Market with common rules and regulations throughout the European Union. European integration has been more limited in the labour market and social field, where the national state remains the dominant level of regulation. Although linguistically somewhat strange, “flexicurity”, the combination of labour market flexibility and security for employees, has become recently a much praised cornerstone of European labour market policies. Obviously, in an environment with rapid technical progress and frequently changing market conditions, employers need to manage their labour force flexibly. In order to achieve this flexibility without creating an unbearable situation for employees, security is the second pillar of the concept. As such, the concept looks like an innovative European way of consolidating economic and social interests, although some argue that much flexibility is gained while the security aspect is being neglected. Flexicurity forms a part of efforts to experiment with new forms of governance in the social and employment law of the European Union. It is compatible with attempts to introduce policies at supranational level that can influence self-transformation processes at the level of Member States in order to reach overarching economic goals defined by the Lisbon agenda. It is central in the debate over the reform of labour law systems since it is a key, if not the key concept in the 2006 Green Paper on modernising labour law in the European Union. The concept has been successfully adopted in some European countries, notably Denmark and the Netherlands. The experience in these two countries will thus be described in some detail, followed by a review of flexicurity-type policies in other European countries. The current paper is realized in the doctoral programme entitled “PhD in economics at the standards

  20. Will EU Biofuel Policies affect Global Agricultural Markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banse, M.; Vvan Meijl, H.; Tabeau, A.; Woltjer, G.

    2008-04-01

    This paper assesses the global and sectoral implications of the European Union Biofuels Directive (BFD) in a multi-region computable general equilibrium framework with endogenous determination of land supply. The results show that, without mandatory blending policies or subsidies to stimulate the use of biofuel crops in the petroleum sector, the targets of the BFD will not be met in 2010 and 2020. With a mandatory blending policy, the enhanced demand for biofuel crops has a strong impact on agriculture at the global and European levels. The additional demand from the energy sector leads to an increase in global land use and, ultimately, a decrease in biodiversity. The development, on the other hand, might slow or reverse the long-term process of declining real agricultural prices. Moreover, assuming a further liberalization of the European agricultural market imports of biofuels are expected to increase to more than 50% of the total biofuel demand in Europe

  1. Geothermal prospects in British Columbia: Resource, market and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Brown, T.L.S.; MacRae, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia is host to about 15 young volcanic centres and 60 hot springs, all evidence of presence of geothermal resources. Most high-grade geothermal prospects in British Columbia are located along 3 volcanic belts in the south-western region of the province. It is estimated that a minimum of 800 MWe can be generated from the known prospects in this region. Significant low-grade geothermal resources exist in several provincial regions. Market applications consistent with the geothermal resources known and expected to occur in British Columbia include electrical generation, process and other direct heat uses and recreation. Leasing, exploration and development operations for high-grade geothermal resources are addressed by the British Columbia open-quotes Geothermal Resources Actclose quotes which defines geothermal resources and reserves all rights to the Crown in the right of the Province

  2. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  3. Renewable energy. Market and policy trends in IEA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Renewable energy has received high levels of attention in recent years as an alternative to traditional hydrocarbons. Governments, industry and consumers have adopted and promoted renewable technologies in response to concerns about energy security and the environment, and as a solution to electricity access problems in developing countries. To what degree has renewable energy gained a share in the energy mix? What lessons can be learned from efforts made thus far? Renewable Energy - Market and Policy Trends in IEA Countries reviews the experience of IEA countries after the oil crisis in the 1970's initiated a surge of investments in renewables research and development. While use of renewables has grown rapidly, they still account for only a small portion of the IEA energy mix. Hydropower, bio-energy and geothermal energy are mature technologies that contribute about 5 - 6% to primary energy supply. Solar, wind, and other new renewables have experienced rapid technology development, but as yet they represent only a small share. This work examines policies and measures that have been introduced in IEA countries to increase the cost effective deployment of renewables, reviews the objectives behind these policies, and evaluates the results. The aim is to identify best practices in order to assist governments in making future policy decisions

  4. Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary

    2018-01-23

    The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement

  5. An assessment of market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Goldman, Charles; Ma, Ookie

    2013-01-01

    An impact of increased variable renewable generation is the need for balancing authorities to procure more ancillary services. While demand response resources are technically capable of providing these services, current experience across the U.S. illustrates they are relatively minor players in most regions. Accessing demand response resources for ancillary services may require a number of changes to policies and common practices at multiple levels. Regional reliability councils must first define ancillary services such that demand response resources may provide them. Once the opportunity exists, balancing authorities define and promulgate rules that set the infrastructure investments and performance attributes of a resource wishing to provide such services. These rules also dictate expected revenue streams which reveal the cost effectiveness of these resources. The regulatory compact between utility and state regulators, along with other statutes and decisions by state policymakers, may impact the interest of demand response program providers to pursue these resources as ancillary service providers. This paper identifies within these broad categories specific market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in different wholesale and retail environments, with emphasis on smaller customers who must be aggregated through a program provider to meet minimum size requirements for wholesale transactions. - Highlights: • We identify barriers keeping demand response from providing ancillary services. • Institutional, financial and program provider business model barriers exist. • Product definitions and rules do not always accommodate demand response well. • Expected revenues are uncertain and may not exceed required investments costs. • Regulatory compact and state statutes limit opportunities for program providers

  6. Food policy in the Canadian North: Is there a role for country food markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James D; Macdonald, Joanna Petrasek; Huet, Catherine; Statham, Sara; MacRury, Allison

    2016-03-01

    Food insecurity is widely reported to be at a crisis level in the Inuit territory of Nunavut, Canada. Various policies, programs, and initiatives have been proposed to tackle the problem, with increasing interest in developing a system of country food markets (CFMs) similar to Greenland. We examine if CFMs offer a feasible, sustainable, and effective model for strengthening food systems in Nunavut, examining the model of Greenland and drawing on semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 45). The Greenland experience indicates that CFMs can provide access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food on a regular basis, and can diversify locally available foods. These benefits are transferable to Nunavut, although knowledge gaps, regulatory and institutional conditions, and concerns over how CFMs might affect the cultural basis of food systems, underlies apprehension over their development in the territory. We conclude that Nunavut is not currently in the position to develop CFMs, but the role of such markets in potentially strengthening food systems should not be discounted. Future development would need to solicit community input on CFMs, resolve regulatory issues around wildlife management and harvesting, and study how future risks would affect sustainability and effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 54466 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of July 30-31, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as necessary to maintain such... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of July 30-31... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  8. 78 FR 70945 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of October 29-30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...\\ percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as necessary to maintain such... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of October 29-30... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  9. 78 FR 13673 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 29-30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as necessary to maintain such... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 29-30... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  10. 78 FR 22880 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 19-20, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ...\\ percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as necessary to maintain such... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 19-20... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  11. 78 FR 43883 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 18-19, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...\\ percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as necessary to maintain such... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 18-19... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  12. 78 FR 33841 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 30-May 1, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... from 0 to \\1/4\\ percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 30-May 1... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  13. Analyzing interaction of electricity markets and environmental policies using equilibrium models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihsu

    windfall profits earned by generators under the current EU allowances allocation method. The results show that the generators in EU could earn substantial windfall profits from two sources: free emissions allowances and increased gross margin among inframarginal generating units. The fourth essay examines effect of climate change on future pollution emissions from regional electricity markets, accounting for how climate influences demand profiles and generation efficiencies. This research illustrates that even when seasonal/annual pollution emissions are limited by regulatory caps, significant increases in emissions during high-demand hours could potentially lead to an increase in the occurrences of acute ozone episodes, which worsen public health during summer months. The major contributions of this dissertation are two fold. First, the methodological and computational framework developed in the research provides a basis for understanding complex interactions among several oligopolistic markets and climate policies. Second, the outcomes of the research reinforce the need for careful monitoring of market interactions and a thorough examination of the design of allowances and power markets.

  14. Toward the Target Model 2.0. Policy Recommendations for a Sustainable EU Power Market Design. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien; Perekhodtsev, Dmitri; Verhaeghe, Charles

    2015-06-01

    One of the 10 key priorities of the new European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker consists of 'reform(ing) and reorganis(ing) Europe's energy policy into a new European Energy Union'. The Energy Union work programme released on 25 February 2015 suggests that a new electricity market design is needed in order to tackle Europe's chosen policy objectives of de-carbonisation whilst maintaining security of supply. The current regulatory and market framework does not provide a sound basis for the investments needed to maintain security of supply and de-carbonise the power sector at an affordable cost. As policy priorities in favour of de-carbonisation and maintaining security of supply have taken centre stage on the policy agenda in the past decade, the design of liberalised electricity markets has failed to evolve and be reconciled with these new priorities. In addition, the issues of competitiveness and affordability of electricity in Europe remain central in the discussions about the market framework. The objective of this study is to assess the deficiencies and gaps in the current European Target Model and the wider regulatory framework for power generation and to propose a number of policy recommendations for improvement. Recognising the need for 'fresh thinking' on the issue, this study looks outside Europe to learn the lessons from experiences with a range of alternative market designs that exist around the globe. The study provides a comprehensive assessment of the issues with current European electricity markets. The study investigates the lessons from market reforms in North America and in Latin America in the past decade to identify 'out of the box' thinking to fill the gaps in the current European Target model. This report presents some of the research findings and concludes with a set of alternative potential directions for reform of European power markets models in the long term, as well as a number of

  15. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  16. When renewable portfolio standards meet cap-and-trade regulations in the electricity sector: Market interactions, profits implications, and policy redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J.E.; Chen, Yihsu

    2011-01-01

    Emission trading programs (C and T) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are two common tools used by policymakers to control GHG emissions in the energy and other energy-intensive sectors. Little is known, however, as to the policy implications resulting from these concurrent regulations, especially given that their underlying policy goals and regulatory schemes are distinct. This paper applies both an analytical model and a computational model to examine the short-run implications of market interactions and policy redundancy. The analytical model is used to generate contestable hypotheses, while the numerical model is applied to consider more realistic market conditions. We have two central findings. First, lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. Second, making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. - Highlights: → Lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. → Making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. → The market-wise average emissions could increase when increasing RPS requirement.

  17. Global regulatory framework for production and marketing of crops biofortified with vitamins and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Luis A; Dary, Omar; Boukerdenna, Hala

    2017-02-01

    Biofortification of crops is being introduced in several countries as a strategy to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortified products, with increased contents of micronutrients, are currently produced by conventional plant breeding, genetic modification, or nutrient-enhanced fertilization. Corn, rice, wheat, beans, pearl millet, sweet potato, and cassava have been biofortified with increased contents of provitamin A carotenoids, iron, or zinc. However, regulatory considerations are rare or nonexistent. The objective of this paper is to review the regulatory framework for production and marketing of biofortified crops in countries that have adopted this strategy. The information was identified using Internet search engines and websites of health and nutrition organizations and nongovernmental organizations and by consulting scientists and government authorities. Thus far, biofortified products introduced in Latin America, Africa, and Asia have been produced only by conventional breeding. Cultivars using other techniques are still under testing. The production and marketing of these products have been conducted without regulatory framework and under limited government control or regulatory guidance. Nevertheless, some countries have integrated biofortified crops into their nutrition agendas. Although improvements by conventional breeding have not been subject to regulations, when biofortification becomes expanded by including other techniques, an appropriate regulatory framework will be necessary. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Regulatory laws and policies. [State by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is a legal study prepared to provide a review of the substantive and procedural laws of each regulatory jurisdiction that may affect implementation of the PURPA standards, and to summarize the current state of consideration and implementation of policies and rate designs similar or identical to the PURPA standards by state regulatory agencies and nonregulated utilities. This report is divided into three sections. The first section, the Introduction, summarizes the standards promulgated by PURPA and the results of the legal study. The second section, State Regulatory Law and Procedure, summarizes for each state or other ratemaking jurisdiction: (1) general constitutional and statutory provisions affecting utility rates and conditions of service; (2) specific laws or decisions affecting policy or rate design issues covered by PURPA standards; and (3) statutes and decisions governing administrative procedures, including judicial review. A chart showing actions taken on the policy and rate design issues addressed by PURPA is also included for each jurisdiction, and citations to relevant authorities are presented for each standard. State statutes or decisions that specifically define a state standard similar or identical to a PURPA standard, or that refer to one of the three PURPA objectives, are noted. The third section, Nonregulated Electric Utilities, summarizes information available on nonregulated utilities, i.e., publicly or cooperatively owned utilities which are specifically exempted from state regulation by state law.

  19. ICT Infrastructure in Emerging Asia: Policy and Regulatory Roadblocks

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-06

    Feb 6, 2008 ... This book brings together scholars, practitioners, former regulators, and policymakers to address the problem of expanding information and communication technology (ICT) connectivity in emerging Asia. It centrally engages the widespread claim that technology by itself — independent of policy and ...

  20. A problem solving model for regulatory policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for

  1. Climate Policy in Terms of Open Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and approach to the climate policy impact analysis on the development of energy sector. The analysis included the goals for CO2 emission reduction until 2050, by sectors and in total, with reference to last 5-10 years. The analysis of energy market development in terms of CO2 emission reduction is given, and also the analysis of the final consumption for Croatia in period until 2050. The analysis of measures, of the manner in which the measures are carried out and of the potential of measures for CO2 emission reduction is presented. Estimations of economic and financial indicators for measurement implementation are given. Technological, energy, economic, organizational and institutional limitations are specifically analysed as part of objectives realisation of CO2 emission reduction, as is the risk of measurement implementation. The important parts of CO2 emission reduction policy are: technological development, expectations and possible risks of not achieving the set objectives. The important assumption of CO2 emission reduction objective realisation is institutional organisation of creation of energy policy and measurement implementation, in which the important measure is the forming of Ministry of energy, environment protection and climate change. At the end, recommendations are given, based on the performed analysis. (author).

  2. [Regulatory policies and public opinion: the case of smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltó, Esteve; Joan R, Villalbí; Valverde, Araceli; Baranda, Lucía; Plasencia, Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Collecting and disseminating information about the public opinion on a regulatory process gives visibility to the silent social support and facilitates the process, which often confronts resistance from interest groups. This paper presents a survey about a proposed legislation on tobacco in its final stages and its results, and some considerations on the use of this sort of information in change processes. Cross sectional descriptive study. In December 2005 a brief telephone survey was made to a population sample of 18 and more years of age (N=830) in Catalonia (Spain). The questionnaire explored opinions on the proposed regulations under discussion. We present the degree of support and the rating of nine regulatory measures, stratified by the respondents use of tobacco. Daily smokers are 26.3% of the surveyed population. Awareness and general support for tobacco regulation are very high. Aspects with wider support include bans on sales to minors (97.3%), smoking in enclosed public places (92.8%) and workplaces (89%), and publicity (90.8%). The aspect with less social support is banning smoking in bars and cafes (80.2%). The population supports widely tobacco regulation. This reinforces the process and weakens the arguments of those against it. Although smokers are less supportive, most of them accept the regulations, except for limitations in bars and cafes.

  3. 75 FR 12318 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Pricing for Option Orders Routed to Away Markets March 5, 2010. Pursuant...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on March 2, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or...

  4. 76 FR 40971 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... June 27, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ'') filed with the Securities... NASDAQ Options Market (``NOM'') to amend Chapter VI, Trading Systems, Section 11, Order Routing, to...

  5. 75 FR 21069 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center April 16, 2010. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on April 13, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed with the...

  6. 76 FR 27699 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... given that on April 28, 2011 The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ'') filed with the... inside market and the midpoint for stocks at this price level is likely to be extremely small, and...

  7. 75 FR 9632 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Pricing for the NASDAQ Options Market (``NOM'') February 24, 2010. Pursuant... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on January 27, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ...

  8. 76 FR 12178 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Offer Market Data to the Public at No Charge February 25, 2011. Pursuant to Section... hereby given that, on February 24, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ...

  9. 76 FR 46869 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... that, on July 22, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ'') filed with the...'') a proposal for the NASDAQ Options Market (``NOM'') to amend Chapter VI, Trading Systems, Section 1...

  10. 77 FR 10794 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... February 13, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and... Change The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC proposes to modify Chapter XV, Section 2, governing pricing for NASDAQ...

  11. 75 FR 18932 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center April 6, 2010. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on March 30, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed with the...

  12. 75 FR 29596 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center May 19, 2010. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on May 14, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed with the...

  13. 76 FR 34783 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 26, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or... telecommunication, inter-cabinet connectivity, connectivity to NASDAQ and market data connectivity related to an...

  14. 77 FR 19044 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of..., 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... halt, there is a 15-minute Display-Only Period during which market participants may enter quotes and...

  15. 78 FR 68122 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... hereby given that on October 28, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed... Section 2 governing pricing for NASDAQ members using the NASDAQ Options Market (``NOM''), NASDAQ's...

  16. 78 FR 71018 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... hereby given that on November 8, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange''), filed... service. This new low latency service decreases the time individual orders are processed and market data...

  17. 76 FR 71088 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... November 1, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and... Change The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC proposes to create a new Rule 7056 entitled ``NASDAQ Options Fee...

  18. 76 FR 44076 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend NASDAQ Stock Market Equities Trading Rules 4757 and 4758 and NASDAQ Options... NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  19. 75 FR 6077 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... given that on January 29, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with... markets. Such assessments consider factors such as a destination's latency, fill rates, reliability, and...

  20. 75 FR 77022 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... is hereby given that on November 24, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange..., assesses fees for its real time market data. In general, a customer that receives a data feed directly from...

  1. 78 FR 31616 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of..., 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and... shall include: (1)-(14) No change. (15) ``Market Maker Peg Order'' is a limit order that, upon entry...

  2. 77 FR 1542 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center January 4, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on December 28, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed with the...

  3. 75 FR 57091 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center September 10, 2010. Pursuant...\\ notice is hereby given that on September 7, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed with the...

  4. 75 FR 77034 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of..., notice is hereby given that on December 3, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'' or ``Exchange...) Pricing Obligations. For NMS stocks (as defined in Rule 600 under Regulation NMS) a Market Maker shall...

  5. 78 FR 28912 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... is hereby given that on April 30, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange... ``Options Pricing,'' at Section 2 governing pricing for NASDAQ members using the NASDAQ Options Market...

  6. 75 FR 33878 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change to Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center June 9, 2010. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on June 1, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed with the...

  7. 76 FR 35930 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt a Market Order Spread Protection Feature June 14, 2011. Pursuant to Section... hereby given that on June 8, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ'') filed...

  8. 78 FR 27466 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a..., 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... for which the Exchange is the listing market, the System shall determine whether a transaction in a...

  9. 78 FR 49308 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... hereby given that on July 25, 2013 The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with... market data is transmitted by these new switches. The Exchange's proposal provides the co-located client...

  10. 78 FR 3480 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... is hereby given that on January 4, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange... historical latency of the member firm's order messages sent to and from the NASDAQ Market Center (``System...

  11. 76 FR 34786 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... is hereby given that, on May 25, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ... markets in a large number of stocks and that contribute to price discovery by posting attributable quotes...

  12. 76 FR 48189 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... given that on July 26, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed with the Securities and... Nasdaq for connectivity to systems operated by NASDAQ, including the Nasdaq Market Center, the FINRA...

  13. 76 FR 50521 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Regarding a Clerical Change to NASDAQ Options Market Rules August 9, 2011. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on August 2, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ...

  14. 77 FR 22042 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... provide information regarding, for example, volume metrics, number of MQP Market Makers in target...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1 Thereto, To Establish the Market Quality Program April 6, 2012. Pursuant to...

  15. 77 FR 48570 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Underlying Securities) of the NASDAQ Options Market rules.\\11\\ Additionally, the Target Component's and the...\\ Additionally, the Target Component's and the Benchmark Component's trading volume (in all markets in which the...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to the...

  16. 77 FR 15163 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... troubling trend of reduced participation in the equity markets by individual investors, and that nearly 30... different asset classes within a single strategy. NASDAQ also notes that cash equities and options markets...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

  17. 77 FR 21823 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Commission Chairman on what she viewed as a troubling trend of reduced participation in the equity markets by... investment strategy. NASDAQ also notes that cash equities and options markets are linked, with liquidity and...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

  18. 75 FR 63238 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... availability of the credit to only DLPs providing displayed liquidity through the Nasdaq Market Center. A... market in ETFs and ILSs. As currently written, however, Rule 7018(i) provides a credit for any type of...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

  19. 78 FR 29193 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... actively in the NASDAQ Market Center justifiably earn the higher credit of $0.0005 per share executed. This...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Remove Pilot Restrictions From NASDAQ's Qualified Market Maker and NBBO Setter...

  20. 77 FR 47472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... proposed rule change to make certain amendments that, in part, clarified the operation of the new Market... equitable principles of trade, to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by...

  1. 77 FR 27256 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... \\21\\ routing strategy but that execute in the Nasdaq Market Center. Accordingly, such orders will be...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... given that on April 25, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the...

  2. 78 FR 17272 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... the locking or crossing market center. LIST is a routing strategy that is used by firms that wish for...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a... March 1, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and...

  3. 78 FR 49578 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... market center. LIST is a routing strategy that is used by firms that wish for their orders to participate...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a... hereby given that on August 5, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with...

  4. Patient safety and efficacy as measured by clinical trials and regulatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, B E; Alpert, S

    1997-01-01

    Virtual Reality and other technological innovations in medicine provide new challenges to the regulatory framework of the premarket review process for medical devices. By reinventing the government-academia-industry partnership, clinical trial data necessary for a medical device to enter the market can be more efficiently obtained.

  5. Environmental policy and economic efficiency: tradable permits versus regulatory instrument to control air pollution: a comparative approach USA/France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, Ch.

    1998-12-01

    The key issue of the thesis paradox of the weak implementation of economic instruments whereas 1) they are theoretically and also empirically considered as efficient; 2) the market imposes itself as the central reference to modem economies; and 3) economic efficiency is nowadays a legitimacy measure of public policies. Two different answers can be given: either theoretical analysis does not enable to explain the real economic efficiency of a political instrument, or environmental policies do not have economic efficiency as their main objective. The analysis take place in a context of a limited rationality and an inter-temporal consistency of public policies. The purpose is to understand the role of economic efficiency criteria during the adoption, building, and evolution of an environmental policy with an analytical point of view, and not a normative one. The institutional analysis of the American and the French pollution control policies, representative of the implementation of a trading permit system for the first, and of a regulatory instrument for the second, prove that the theoretical analysis of an instrument can not explain a real coordination, but only one organizational form among others. An institutional trajectory is the interpretation of policy instruments of policy instruments from 5 fundamental elements: the nature of the legitimacy of the policy; the nature of the regulator hypothesis on the information; the nature of the decision-making basis; the nature of the collective action. A coordination changes when the occurrence of an event moves one of the fundamental elements, and disorganizes the satisfying equilibrium of the agents. Then, the economic efficiency becomes a negotiation point. A political instrument is adopted for its own ability to solve a dysfunction without disrupting the coordination. (author)

  6. The Brazilian Policy on Climate Change: Regulatory and Governance Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

    2012-01-01

    Through the Copenhagen Accord and the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) in Cancun, Brazil has confirmed its national voluntary reduction targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with reductions between 36.1 per cent and 38.9 per cent of projected emissions by 2020. These targets were defined in the National Climate Change Policy (PNMC, in Portuguese) approved by the National Congress (Law No. 12.187, dated 29 December 2009). These national targets focus on controlling deforestation, which...

  7. Regulatory taxation of fossil fuels. Theory and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfson, Dirk J.; Koopmans, Carl C.

    1996-01-01

    Research on energy taxation is often based on purely theoretical deductions. This paper stays closer to the real world, using empirical data and interpreting results in a political-economic setting of risk and uncertainty. Economic growth in developing countries will boost energy demand, increasing the risk of shortages of oil and natural gas half-way through the next century, and of coal towards the year 2100. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that emissions of CO 2 trigger harmful climate changes. A timely introduction of regulatory taxes will reduce demand for fossil fuels and accelerate the introduction of sustainable technology. The empirical results presented show, moreover, that such taxes may claim a substantial part of the rent on energy extraction for the energy-importing countries. It is argued that optimal control and the avoidance of displacement effects require a tax affecting marginal use, with exceptions to safeguard competitive positions. Exceptions may be scaled down as the jurisdiction is enlarged

  8. Bioenergy policy and market development in Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Karin; Huttunen, Suvi; Nilsson, L.J.; Svenningsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    The use of biomass in Finland and Sweden has steadily increased over the past 25 years, up to approximately 20% of the primary energy supply in 2001. In both countries most biomass originates from forests. Forest biomass is now an integral part of modern energy systems, although primarily in industry and in the heating sector. For example, biomass accounts for 7.9% and 53% of the fuel mix in district heating in Finland and Sweden, respectively. The general energy policy of both countries has supported biomass for energy over the entire period, although specific policies have changed with time. Research, development and demonstration has been continuously supported, and some subsidy schemes have been applied, in particular, for district heating systems (DHS) and combined heat and power. Heavy taxation of competing fossil fuels seems to have been the most effective policy instrument, although this has been directed mainly at the heat and transportation fuel markets. Electricity taxes are imposed on consumption (industry is largely exempt), and do not discriminate significantly between the sources of electricity. Starting in 2003, Sweden will have a quota-based system, a renewable portfolio standard, which is expected to increase biomass-based electricity production. Both countries possess vast and not fully exploited biomass resources in the form of forests, and have a history of rational and large-scale forestry. Strong actors exist both with regard to forest ownership and the industrial processing of forest products. The user side, in particular, represented by DHS, can also be characterised by strong and professional management. Over time, structures have developed that facilitate an increased use of biomass for energy, for example, the forest industry infrastructure and extensive district heating. Actors within these structures have had the ability to react to policies, resulting in a stable growth in biomass use

  9. Regulatory Barriers for Flexible Coupling of the Nordic Power and District Heating Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Olsen, Ole Jess

    2016-01-01

    that the choice of technologies for heat generation is mainly driven by outdated policies and tax conditions that create barriers for additional flexibility in the overall energy system. However, the balancing markets may be a main driver for introducing more electric boilers into DH and thereby increase its......Large share of variable renewable energy sources (VRE) is being deployed in the Nordic countries, especially wind power. This calls for additional flexibility of the power market. With the right coupling to the underlying national and local district heating (DH) markets, large shares of flexibility...

  10. Efficiency versus fairness: the evaluation of labor market policies by economists and laypeople

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haferkamp, A.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.; Enste, D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the criteria used by economic laypeople (N = 380 German citizens) and economists (N = 80 professors or postgraduates in economics) in judging reform measures as illustrated by policies of governmental labor market intervention policies. Results reveal substantial

  11. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  12. Bringing a probiotic-containing functional food to the market: microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M E; Huis in't Veld, J

    1999-01-01

    Properly formulated probiotic-containing foods offer consumers a low risk, low cost dietary component that has the potential to promote health in a variety of ways. Several such products are available commercially, although markets in Japan and Europe are more developed than in the USA. Once healthful attributes of a probiotic product have been identified, there remain microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues to be addressed prior to marketing. Microbiological and product issues include safety, effective scale-up for manufacturing, definition of probiotic activity, probiotic stability in the product over the course of product manufacture, shelf-life and consumption, definition of effective dose and target population(s), and development of quality assurance approaches. Examples of probiotic-containing foods are given. Regulatory and labeling issues are complicated because they differ for each country, but are likewise critical because they provide the means for communication of the product benefits to the consumer. The regulatory climate worldwide appears to be one of caution about overstating the benefits of such products but at the same time not preventing corporate commitment to marketing.

  13. Labour Market Policy under Conditions of Permanent Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mattias; de la Porte, Caroline; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Social investment (SI) is part of a strategy to modernize the European welfare states by focusing on human resource development throughout the life-course, while ensuring financial sustainability. Recognizing that this strategy was only partially implemented by the EU member states prior to the f...... and marketing of skills - grew in importance. If this trend continues across Europe, there is a risk that SI will become lost in translation and end up as a clearer neo-liberal version of workfarism.......Social investment (SI) is part of a strategy to modernize the European welfare states by focusing on human resource development throughout the life-course, while ensuring financial sustainability. Recognizing that this strategy was only partially implemented by the EU member states prior...... to the financial and Eurozone crises, this article investigates whether reforms and expenditure patterns in labour market policy (LMP) have moved more towards or away from SI following the 2008 financial crisis. We use quantitative and qualitative data to investigate the degree to which there have been shifts...

  14. British energy policy and the market for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Evidence given by representative of Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear to the Trade and Industry Committee is presented verbatim with appendices of facts and figures. Scottish Nuclear presented a Company profile, a commentary on Scottish Nuclear's generation costs together with an outline of the initiatives currently being implemented to reduce these costs including the long-term dry storage of intact spent fuel and an outline of Scottish Nuclear's view of the need for a UK energy policy with a strong nuclear component within a diverse energy strategy. Nuclear Electric's evidence examined the need for nuclear power as a complement to coal to ensure a long term strategic balance of fuel, examined ways of strengthening the market for British coal, suggested a way of stabilising the market for British coal and emphasised the need to keep nuclear power options open until the 1994 Government review of Nuclear Power has been undertaken. Both sets of evidence were backed by details of generation costs, load factors, etc., which are all included. (UK)

  15. Proceedings of the seminar on Leak-Before-Break: Progress in regulatory policies and supporting research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashima, K.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1988-03-01

    The third in a series of international Leak-Before-Break (LBB) Seminars supported in part by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was held at TEPCO Hall in the Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO) Electric Power Museum on May 14 and 15, 1987. The seminar updated the international policies and supporting research on LBB. Attendees included representatives from regulatory agencies, electric utility representatives, fabricators of nuclear power plants, research organizations, and university professors. Regulatory policy was the subject of presentations by Mr. G. Arlotto (US NRC, USA), Dr. H. Schultz (GRS, W. Germany), Dr. P. Milella (ENEA-DISP, Italy), Dr. C. Faidy, P. Jamet, and S. Bhandari (EDF/Septen, CEA/CEN, and Framatome, France), and Mr. T. Fukuzawa (MITI, Japan). Dr. F. Nilsson presented revised nondestructive inspection requirements relative to LBB in Sweden. In addition, several papers on the supporting research programs discussed regulatory policy. Questions following the presentations of the papers focused on the impact of various LBB policies or the impact of research findings. Supporting research programs were reviewed on the first and second day by several participants from the US, Japan, Germany, Canada, Italy, Sweden, England, and France

  16. Regulatory policies for using oil dispersants in the Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Belkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of dispersants requires assessment of which environmental values are at stake. In the Barents Sea this issue is of high concern as large oil spills can cause transboundary pollution, affecting the interests of two neighbouring countries. The Joint Contingency Plan in the Barents Sea does not set any specific requirements for use of dispersants and lets Norway and Russia follow their national procedures. The Plan emphasizes that in case of transboundary pollution the decision to use dispersants shall only be undertaken upon common agreement. The paper presents a comparison of the national regulatory approaches of Norway and Russia to using dispersants. The research is based on the analysis of legislative documents and interviews with oil companies, oil spill responders and relevant national authorities. The research reveals that in both countries use of dispersants requires preliminary authorization of the national agencies. In Norway the pre-approval procedure and the algorithm of dispersants involvement in response to a real accident are clearly documented and are regularly tested. This has made the process of approval for using dispersants more efficient. In Russia the lack of practical experience in using dispersants and well-established approval procedures can result in a long and unclear permitting process for each oil spill case. This could seriously hinder the use of dispersants to combat transboundary pollution in the Barents Sea, even if it is considered to be beneficial. We conclude that the development of a harmonized approach for dispersants use in the Barents Sea should be thoroughly assessed.

  17. Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Raman

    While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of

  18. German nuclear policy reconsidered. Implications for the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Malischek, Raimund; Nagl, Stephan; Panke, Timo; Trueby, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, German nuclear policy has been reconsidered. This paper demonstrates the economic effects of an accelerated nuclear phase-out on the German electricity generation sector. A detailed optimization model for European electricity markets is used to analyze two scenarios with different lifetimes for nuclear plants (phase-out vs. prolongation). Based on political targets, both scenarios assume significant electricity demand reductions and a high share of generation from renewable energy sources in Germany. Our principal findings are: First, nuclear capacities are mainly replaced by longer lifetimes of existing coal-fired plants and the construction of new gas-fired plants. Second, fossil fuel-based generation and power imports increase, while power exports are reduced in response to the lower nuclear generation. Third, despite the increased fossil generation, challenging climate protection goals can still be achieved within the framework of the considered scenarios. Finally, system costs and electricity prices are clearly higher. We conclude that the generation sector can generally cope with an accelerated nuclear phase-out under the given assumptions. Yet, we emphasize that such a policy requires a substantial and costly transformation of the supply and the demand side.

  19. The institutional economics of market-based climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the institutional barriers to implementing market-based climate policy, as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. The approach is that of institutional economics, with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence. Instead of rejecting the neoclassical approach, this book uses it where fruitful and shows when and why it is necessary to employ a new or neo-institutionalist approach. The result is that equity is considered next to efficiency, that the evolution and possible lock-in of both formal and informal climate institutions are studied, and that attention is paid to the politics and law of economic instruments for climate policy, including some new empirical analyses. The research topics of this book include the set-up costs of a permit trading system, the risk that credit trading becomes locked-in, the potential legal problem of grandfathering in terms of actional subsidies under WTO law or state aid under EC law, and the changing attitudes of various European officials towards restricting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms

  20. Effects of Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy on the Stock Market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hsing

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to examine potential impacts of fiscal and monetary policies on stock market performance in Poland. Applying the GARCH model and based on a sample during 1999.Q2 to 2012.Q4, this paper finds that Poland’s stock market index is not affected by the ratio of government deficits or debt to GDP and is negatively influenced by the money market rate. The stock index and the ratio of M3 to GDP show a quadratic relationship with a critical value of 46.03%, suggesting that they have a positive relationship if the M3/GDP ratio is less than 46.03% and a negative relationship if the M3/GDP ratio is greater than 46.03%. Furthermore, Poland’s stock index is positively associated with industrial production and stock market performance in Germany and the U.S. and negatively affected by the nominal effective exchange rate and the inflation rate.

  1. Informal public transport driver behaviour and regulatory policy linkage: An expose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Dumba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature on the negative socio-economic and environmental externalities generated by informal public transport (IPT in developing countries is vast, vibrant and growing fast. These externalities include but are not limited to noise, air and land pollution, accidents and, more importantly, a source of congestion (human and vehicular because of poor driver behaviour. In this article, the research does not seek to reinstate these, but rather, it argues that poor driver behaviour is a dependent variable to some regulatory policy stimuli. Yet, an extensive literature survey has shown that the driver behaviour and urban transport regulation linkage remain little explored. Objective: The purpose of this article was to unpack the relationship between informal public transport driver behaviour and the prevailing regulatory framework. Method: Based on a case study of Harare, Zimbabwe, the researcher adopted a mixed-methods paradigm and interrogated the prevailing urban public transport regulatory regimes and applied professional judgement, oral interviews backed by some quantitative data and relate these to obtaining IPT driver behavioural characteristics. Results: Poor driver behaviour exhibited by IPT were generated, exacerbated and or eased by the prevailing regulatory policy. This is well depicted through an IPT driver behaviour and regulation loop reinforcing diagram. Conclusion: Following this argument, the article cautions policy makers and urban managers alike that direct approaches and interventions when trying to regulate IPT poor driver behaviour and its secondary negative effects will be futile as long as the regulatory policy remains the same. Failure to recognise and connect the dots between IPT driver behaviour and policy partly explains why globally, the IPT sector has proved difficult in prohibiting, restructuring or even formalising it.

  2. Groundwater contamination from waste management sites: The interaction between risk-based engineering design and regulatory policy: 1. Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massmann, Joel; Freeze, R. Allan

    1987-02-01

    This paper puts in place a risk-cost-benefit analysis for waste management facilities that explicitly recognizes the adversarial relationship that exists in a regulated market economy between the owner/operator of a waste management facility and the government regulatory agency under whose terms the facility must be licensed. The risk-cost-benefit analysis is set up from the perspective of the owner/operator. It can be used directly by the owner/operator to assess alternative design strategies. It can also be used by the regulatory agency to assess alternative regulatory policy, but only in an indirect manner, by examining the response of an owner/operator to the stimuli of various policies. The objective function is couched in terms of a discounted stream of benefits, costs, and risks over an engineering time horizon. Benefits are in the form of revenues for services provided; costs are those of construction and operation of the facility. Risk is defined as the cost associated with the probability of failure, with failure defined as the occurrence of a groundwater contamination event that violates the licensing requirements established for the facility. Failure requires a breach of the containment structure and contaminant migration through the hydrogeological environment to a compliance surface. The probability of failure can be estimated on the basis of reliability theory for the breach of containment and with a Monte-Carlo finite-element simulation for the advective contaminant transport. In the hydrogeological environment the hydraulic conductivity values are defined stochastically. The probability of failure is reduced by the presence of a monitoring network operated by the owner/operator and located between the source and the regulatory compliance surface. The level of reduction in the probability of failure depends on the probability of detection of the monitoring network, which can be calculated from the stochastic contaminant transport simulations. While

  3. Impact of monetary policy changes on the Chinese monetary and stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Yong; Xiong, Jie; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    The impact of monetary policy changes on the monetary market and stock market in China is investigated in this study. The changes of two major monetary policies, the interest rate and required reserve ratio, are analyzed in a study period covering seven years on the interbank monetary market and Shanghai stock market. We find that the monetary market is related to the macro economy trend and we also find that the monetary change surprises both of lowering and raising bring significant impacts to the two markets and the two markets respond to the changes differently. The results suggest that the impact of fluctuations is much larger for raising policy changes than lowering changes in the monetary market on policy announcing and effective dates. This is consistent with the “sign effect”, i.e. bad news brings a greater impact than good news. By studying the event window of each policy change, we also find that the “sign effect” still exists before and after each change in the monetary market. A relatively larger fluctuation is observed before the event date, which indicates that the monetary market might have a certain ability to predict a potential monetary change, while it is kept secret by the central bank before official announcement. In the stock market, we investigate how the returns and spreads of the Shanghai stock market index respond to the monetary changes. Evidences suggest the stock market is influenced but in a different way than the monetary market. The climbing of returns after the event dates for the lowering policy agrees with the theory that lowering changes can provide a monetary supply to boost the market and drive the stock returns higher but with a delay of 2 to 3 trading days on average. While in the bear market, the lowering policy brings larger volatility to the market on average than the raising ones. These empirical findings are useful for policymakers to understand how monetary policy changes impact the monetary and stock markets

  4. MARKETING MIX POLICIES IN FMCG CASE-STUDY: THE ADVERTISING STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    ANA MARIA BOBEICA

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between selected marketing mix elements in the area of FMCG. It discusses the nature and sometimes negative consequences of the dominating marketing paradigm of today, marketing mix management, and furthermore discusses how modern research into, for example in the case of FMCG Companies, the marketing policies as well as customer relationship tactics shows that another approach to marketing is required. It proposes a conceptual framework in which marketin...

  5. The Influence of Entry Mode Decisions on International Marketing Policies. A Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Musso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on firms' marketing strategy in foreign markets revealed inconsistent resultsregarding the relationship between entry mode strategies and the adoption of marketing policies. Thisinconsistency was due to the diversity of assumptions used for the conceptualization of the influence of entrymodes on marketing strategies. The purpose of this paper is to offer a conceptual model that can support theanalysis of how the firm’s choice of entry mode may influence the adoption of marketing tools in the selectedmarket.

  6. Regulatory assessment of brand changes in the commercial tobacco product market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, G Ferris; Connolly, G N

    2009-08-01

    Regulatory oversight of tobacco product design has gained momentum in the US and internationally. Appropriate standards for assessing commercial brands and characterising product features must be considered a priority. An area of potential concern is in-market design changes adopted within a single commercial brand over time. Internal tobacco industry documents were identified and used to assess internal discussion of product guidelines and practices regarding in-market brand changes. Commercial tobacco products undergo a constant process of revision in-market, beginning at the most basic level of physical product characteristics and components, and including every aspect of design. These revisions commonly exceed guidelines for acceptable product variance adopted within the industry. While consumer and market testing is conducted to ensure that products remain acceptable to users, explicit marketing often may not accompany brand changes. In the absence of such marketing, it should not be assumed that a brand remains unchanged. For manufacturers, assessment of competitor brands includes identification and analysis of non-routine changes; that is, those changes likely to significantly alter the character of a given brand. Regulators must adopt a similar practice in determining standards for product evaluation in the face of ongoing commercial product revision.

  7. Nanoparticulate materials and regulatory policy in Europe: An analysis of stakeholder perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helland, Aasgeir; Kastenholz, Hans; Thidell, Aake; Arnfalk, Peter; Deppert, Knut

    2006-01-01

    The novel properties of nanoparticulate materials (NPM) and the rapid development of NPM based products have raised many unanswered questions and concerns by different stakeholders over its consequences for the environment and human health. These concerns have led to an increasing discussion in both the US and Europe about possible regulatory policies for NPM. In this article a comparative study of stakeholders' perceptions on regulatory policy issues with NPM in Europe is presented. It was found that industry wants to regulate this area if the scientific evidence demonstrates that NPM are harmful, but also that the regulatory bodies do not find it necessary at this point of time to regulate until scientific evidence demonstrates that NPM are harmful. This research therefore shows that there will most likely not be any regulatory interventions until there is an established and convincing scientific knowledge base demonstrating that NPM can be hazardous. It is furthermore discussed in this article the different roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders in financing the research required to establish the necessary level of fundamental scientific evidence. It was also found that the activity of the regulatory bodies on this issue differ between the European countries

  8. 75 FR 69502 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... structure and assess a flat fee of $300 per test port, per month for all but CTCI and FIX connections to ACT...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of the Substance of the Proposed...

  9. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  10. From Policy to Implementation. The Status of Europe's Smart Metering Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shargal, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the last five years there has been a major policy shift from keeping the electricity price as low as possible in a free and competitive market to reducing carbon emissions. This shift has also resulted in decisions to look at the deployment of smart meters to help customers understand when they use electricity and to help them plan savings. Today, smart metering and smart grid initiatives are forcing another major transformation in the utility industry. Many utilities are rethinking their business models and business processes as a result of the shift in the way energy is generated, delivered and consumed. The state of the regulation and implementation of smart metering varies across Europe on a country by country basis. This results in wide a difference as to which is leading the smart meters rollout - the government or the industry. The variance leads to different players taking the initiative - regulatory pull to utilities push. To a large extent the adoption of smart metering in Europe is driven by regulation. National concerns over the future energy situation and European initiatives such as EU Energy Efficiency have led several countries to define mandatory requirements for the deployment of smart metering within a set timeframe. But the reality is that the compliance-based industry in which utilities operate does not offer enough incentive for consumers, regulators or utilities to take the difficult steps necessary to make electrical energy markets operate efficiently.

  11. Reactivation of nuclear power plant construction projects. Plant status, policy issues and regulatory options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1986-07-01

    Prior to the TMI-2 accident on March 28, 1979, four nuclear power plant units that had previously been issued a construction permit were cancelled, principally because of reduced projections of regional power demand. Since that time, an additional 31 units with CPs have been cancelled and eight units deferred. On December 23, 1985 one of the deferred units (Limerick-2) was reactivated and construction resumed. The primary objective of this policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issued a construction permit whose construction has been cancelled, and (2) LWR units whose construction has been deferred. The study scope is limited to identifying regulatory issues or questions deserving analysis rather than providing, at this time, answers or recommended actions. Five tasks are addressed: a tabulation and discussion of the status of all cancelled and deferred LWR units; and identification of potential safety and environmental issues; an identification of regulatory or policy issues and needed information to determine the desirability of revising certain rules and policies; and identification of regulatory options and decision criteria; and an identification of decision considerations in determining staff requirements and organizational coordination of LWR reactivation policy and implementation efforts. 41 refs

  12. 78 FR 2996 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 11-12, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ...'s Annual Report. The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will... Open Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 11-12...

  13. 76 FR 10364 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 25-26, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Report. The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price... Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 25-26...

  14. 76 FR 21894 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 15, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    .... The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price... Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 15, 2011...

  15. 76 FR 43687 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 21-22, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Report. The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price... Open Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 21-22...

  16. 76 FR 1616 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 14, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Report. The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price... Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 14...

  17. 76 FR 37114 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 26-27, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Report. The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price... Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 26-27...

  18. Assessment of Biotechnology Policies and International Trade in Key Markets for U.S. Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Mary A.; Song, Baohui

    2005-01-01

    The United States leads the world in agricultural biotechnology research, adoption, commercialization, and exports. Our biotech commodities are highly dependent on international markets. Thus, any biotech policy changes by key importing countries may affect U.S. agricultural biotech product exports. This article identifies key markets for U.S. agricultural exports including biotech commodities and discusses current and proposed biotech policies in key markets for U.S. agricultural exports foc...

  19. Financial Policies and the Prevention of Financial Crises in Emerging Market Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a set of financial policies that can help make financial crises less likely in emerging market countries. To justify these policies, the paper first explains what a financial crisis is, the factors that promote a financial crisis and the dynamics of a financial crisis. It then examines twelve basic areas of financial policies to prevent financial crises: 1) prudential supervision, 2) accounting and disclosure requirements, 3) legal and judicial systems, 4) market-based dis...

  20. Impact of monetary policy on the volatility of stock market in pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Qayyum; Saba Anwa

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the linkages between the monetary policy and the stock market in Pakistan. The estimation technique employed includes Engle Granger two step procedure and the bivariate EGARCH method. The results indicate that any change in the monetary policy stance have a significant impact on the volatility of the stock market. Thus contributing to the ongoing debate in the monetary policy rule literature regarding the proactive and reactive approach.

  1. Rules and Discretion in Monetary Policy: Is the Response of the Stock Market Rational?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Iulian MARINESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of the monetary policy conduct on the domestic capital market for a sample of developed countries where the capital market plays a significant role in the economy. We break down the policy rate innovations in rules-based and discretionary components in order to determine the degree of prudentiality in the monetary policy conduct and we study their accounts with respect to capital market rationality. The rules-based component is determined using an interpolated vanilla Taylor-rule policy rate at the event date and the discretionary component is obtained by subtracting the rules-based rate from the target monetary policy rate innovation. Using an event study approach, we analyze the impact of monetary policy components on the returns of the stock market and we determine that the conduct of the monetary policy can cause irrational responses of the capital market. More than that, we show, for the analyzed countries, that if the general level of discretion in the monetary policy is high the response of the stock market becomes increasingly erratic, indicating that forward guidance may help reduce uncertainty on capital markets.

  2. 75 FR 63229 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... hereby given that on October 1, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange'') filed... has received approval to launch NASDAQ OMX PSX (``PSX'') \\3\\ as a new platform for trading NMS stocks...

  3. 76 FR 65306 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... hereby given that on October 6, 2011, the NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed... experience a significant percentage price increase or decline. Once a stock is halted pursuant to the rule, a...

  4. 77 FR 68873 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... ``Benchmark Orders'' Under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f) November 9, 2012. On May 1, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer Period for Commission... proposed rule change to establish various ``Benchmark Orders'' under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f). The proposed rule...

  5. 77 FR 39314 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change To Establish ``Benchmark Orders'' Under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f) June 26, 2012. On May 1, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the...

  6. 78 FR 62814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Assume... Authority and Supervision September 30, 2013. On July 31, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or...) Manipulation patterns that monitor solely NASDAQ activity, including patterns that monitor the Exchange's...

  7. 78 FR 50123 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change to Assume... NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...: Manipulation patterns that monitor solely NASDAQ activity, including patterns that monitor the Exchange's...

  8. 77 FR 24549 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    .... Further, to address concerns about the potential manipulation of lower priced stocks to meet the initial...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 1 and Order Granting..., 2012. I. Introduction On January 3, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Exchange'' or ``Nasdaq...

  9. 75 FR 9985 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the... February 24, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ'') filed with the Securities... of the votes at any election of directors at which a quorum is present is duly elected to the Board...

  10. 76 FR 21085 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. By- Laws April 8, 2011. I. Introduction On February 8, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market... vote cast either ``for'' or ``against'' that director's election. In its filing, NASDAQ noted that...

  11. 75 FR 60844 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Order Granting Accelerated... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on September 14, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market... voting on the election of a member of the board of directors of an issuer (except for a vote with respect...

  12. 78 FR 75619 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the...\\ notice is hereby given that on November 27, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'' or ``Exchange... to vote generally in the election of directors (the ``Voting Stock''), voting together as a single...

  13. 76 FR 77032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify NASDAQ's Transaction Execution Fee and Credit Schedule in Rule 7018 December... 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on November 30, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC...

  14. 78 FR 36801 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... market quality by allowing it to set or join the NBBO, the NBBO Setter Incentive credit would be paid...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a... Credits June 13, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''),\\1...

  15. 76 FR 2732 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer Period for Commission.... Introduction On June 18, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the... change. The Commission may extend the period for issuing an order approving or disapproving the proposed...

  16. 76 FR 64142 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Regarding... September 28, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... closely tailor their investment and risk management strategies and decisions. Furthermore, the Exchange...

  17. 77 FR 65237 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...Tree Trust October 19, 2012. I. Introduction On August 15, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq... temporary defensive strategies that are inconsistent with its investment strategies, the Fund's ability to...

  18. 77 FR 49034 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... entering new orders at inferior prices. This occurs because the current process directs the order to NASDAQ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Amend Rule... June 14, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange''), filed with the Securities and...

  19. 76 FR 48193 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule To Amend Fees Assessed for Use of NASDAQ Pre-Trade Risk Management August 3, 2011. Pursuant...\\ notice is hereby given that, on July 25, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ...

  20. 76 FR 34281 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt a Risk Monitor Mechanism June 7, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of... NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission...

  1. Market vs. policy failures. How governments affect electricity markets and what they should do

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jus, Darko

    2013-11-06

    This dissertation analyzes four key aspects related to the development of renewable energy. Firstly, in the presence of a climate change externality, a first-best allocation on the electricity market generally cannot be achieved with a renewable energy subsidy, thus highlighting its imperfectness in replacing a correct pricing of carbon dioxide emissions (Chapter 2). Secondly, supposing the existence of an emission trading system, this dissertation investigates the effects of additionally supporting renewable energy. Surprisingly, when considering a one-country model, the market participant who loses rents due to the introduction of a levy-financing subsidy scheme, such as the case of Germany, proves to be the fossil electricity producers rather than the electricity consumers (Chapter 3). Thirdly, considering a more realistic two-country framework, it becomes more likely that domestic electricity consumers have to accept a higher electricity price, while rents are shifted to foreign electricity consumers as a consequence of unilateral renewable energy support (Chapter 4). Fourthly, this dissertation studies reasons for employing technology-specific feed-in tariffs, and in contrast to usual intuition, finds them to be (static) efficiency improving when policy has committed to achieving a strong renewable energy target (Chapter 5).

  2. Market vs. policy failures. How governments affect electricity markets and what they should do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jus, Darko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes four key aspects related to the development of renewable energy. Firstly, in the presence of a climate change externality, a first-best allocation on the electricity market generally cannot be achieved with a renewable energy subsidy, thus highlighting its imperfectness in replacing a correct pricing of carbon dioxide emissions (Chapter 2). Secondly, supposing the existence of an emission trading system, this dissertation investigates the effects of additionally supporting renewable energy. Surprisingly, when considering a one-country model, the market participant who loses rents due to the introduction of a levy-financing subsidy scheme, such as the case of Germany, proves to be the fossil electricity producers rather than the electricity consumers (Chapter 3). Thirdly, considering a more realistic two-country framework, it becomes more likely that domestic electricity consumers have to accept a higher electricity price, while rents are shifted to foreign electricity consumers as a consequence of unilateral renewable energy support (Chapter 4). Fourthly, this dissertation studies reasons for employing technology-specific feed-in tariffs, and in contrast to usual intuition, finds them to be (static) efficiency improving when policy has committed to achieving a strong renewable energy target (Chapter 5).

  3. Public policy and regulatory implications for the implementation of Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services for Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning; Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. This paper discusses how public policy and regulations will impact on OCCS implementation. We rely on documented publicly available government...... and corporate policies on the adoption of cloud computing services and deduce the impact of these policies on their adoption of opportunistic cloud computing services. We conclude that there are regulatory challenges on data protection that raises issues for cloud computing adoption in general; and the lack...... of a single globally accepted data protection standard poses some challenges for very successful implementation of OCCS for companies. However, the direction of current public and corporate policies on cloud computing make a good case for them to try out opportunistic cloud computing services....

  4. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Radioactive lightning rods: radiologic evaluation and regulatory policy related to its use in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Forteza, Yamil; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Diaz Guerra, Pedro I.; Cruz Dumenico, Gonzalez; Fuente Puch, Andres de la

    2001-01-01

    The radioactive lightning rod employment for the protection of facilities against atmospheric discharges reached its maximum splendor in the eighties. It was in fact at the end of this decade when the technical considerations related to the justification of this practice finally conclude that the production of such teams was abolished. For the regulatory authorities, however, it continues having validity the question related to the control of lightning rod still in use as well as the question related to the establishment of a coherent with the international practice national policy. The paper shows the results of the last 10 years of control of the radioactive lightning rod use in Cuba and the radiological evaluation carried out on the base of this experience. Lastly, it exposes the regulatory policy referred to the employment of the radioactive lightning rod in the country. (author)

  6. Survey of Regulatory and Technological Developments Concerning Smart Metering in the European Union Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    VASCONCELOS, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Smart metering is a crucial factor for the efficient functioning of the Internal Electricity Market, as well as for the successful implementation of European Union policies related to energy efficiency, renewable energy and security of supply. The report first outlines the potential benefits of smart meters for consumers, suppliers, metering companies, distribution network operators and public interest. Next the report provides a short overview of the legal framework governing metering activi...

  7. Regulatory aspects of the enforcement policy applied to teletherapy equipment obsolescence (1995-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppa, Walter A.; Rey, Hugo L.; Rojas, Carlos A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the way in which the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has implemented an 'enforcement' policy for the services of radiotherapy that operated obsolete cobalt therapy units. Without doubt one of the greater advances has been the simulation and planning of the treatment, indispensable tools in a system of quality in radiotherapy where the equipment acquires a preponderant paper. In Argentina the distribution of equipment was inhomogeneous, and within it coexisted, as primary and unique units, great amount with a technology today already obsolete. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) took a strong regulatory attitude directed to change or to retire many of the units, as its characteristics of design and antiquity did not fulfill the criteria of radiological security established in the norms (optimization of the dose, distances source to skin, yield in surface, adequate maintenance, etc.). On this matter a policy was applied to impose within suitable terms, the change of the obsolete equipment for this practice, particularly those distances source to skin minor than 80 cm. As result of the applied coercive measures at this moment, 28 equipment of cobalt therapy in advanced degree of obsolescence were retired by regulatory decision. Part of these equipment were replaced by their owners by more modern equipment whose operation adjusts to the requirements of the radiological security norm, whereas the majority was replaced by linear accelerators. At the moment there are 86 of cobalt therapy units and 52 accelerators operating in our country, against 104 and 32 respectively, that operated in 1995. (author)

  8. Leak-Before-Break: Further developments in regulatory policies and supporting research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Chao, K.-S.

    1990-02-01

    The fourth in a series of international Leak-Before-Break (LBB) Seminars supported in part by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was held at the National Central Library in Taipei, Taiwan on May 11 and 12, 1989. The seminar updated the international polices and supporting research on LBB. Attendees included representatives from regulatory agencies, electric utilities, nuclear power plant fabricators, research organizations, and academic institutions. Regulatory policy was the subject of presentations by Mr. G. Arlotto (US NRC, USA) Dr. B. Jarman (AECB, Canada), Dr.P. Milella (ENEA-DISP, Italy), Dr. C. Faidy (EDF/Septen, France ), and Dr. K. Takumi (NUPEC, Japan). A paper by Mr. K. Wichman and Mr. A. Lee of the US NRC Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation is included as background material to these proceedings; it discusses the history and status of LBB applications in US nuclear power plants. In addition, several papers on the supporting research programs described regulatory policy or industry standards for flaw evaluations, e.g., the ASME Section XI code procedures. Supporting research programs were reviewed on the first and second day by several participants from Taiwan, US, Japan, Canada, Italy, and France. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately

  9. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  10. U.S.Stock Market Crashes and Their Aftermath: Implications for Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene White; Frederic Mishkin

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines fifteen historical episodes of stock market crashes and their aftermath in the United States over the last one hundred years. Our basic conclusion from studying these episodes is that financial instability is the key problem facing monetary policy makers and not stock market crashes, even if they reflect the possible bursting of a bubble. With a focus on financial stability rather than the stock market, the response of central banks to stock market fluctuations is more lik...

  11. US stock market crashes and their aftermath: Implications for monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkin, Frederic S.; White, Eugene N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines fifteen historical episodes of stock market crashes and their aftermath in the United States over the last one hundred years. Our basic conclusion from studying these episodes is that financial instability is the key problem facing monetary policy makers and not stock market crashes, even if they reflect the possible bursting of a bubble. With a focus on financial stability rather than the stock market, the response of central banks to stock market fluctuations is more lik...

  12. Economic Policy Uncertainty and Long-Run Stock Market Volatility and Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Hou, Ai Jun

    We use Baker, Bloom, and Davis’s (2016) economic policy uncertainty indices in combination with the mixed data sampling (MIDAS) approach to investigate long-run stock market volatility and correlation, primarily for the US and UK. Long-run US–UK stock market correlation depends positively on US...... economic policy uncertainty shocks. The dependence is asymmetric, with only positive shocks - increasing uncertainty - being of importance. The US long-run stock market volatility depends significantly on US economic policy uncertainty shocks but not on UK shocks, while the UK long-run stock market...... volatility depends significantly on both. Allowing for US economic policy uncertainty shocks improves the out-of-sample forecasting of US–UK stock market correlation and enhances portfolio performance. Similar results apply to the long-run correlation between the US and Canada, China, and Germany....

  13. Increasing electric vehicle policy efficiency and effectiveness by reducing mainstream market bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Erin H.; Skerlos, Steven J.; Winebrake, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an opportunity for reducing energy use and emissions in the transportation sector. Currently, a number of federal policies are in place to incentivize deployment of PEVs to mainstream consumers with demographics and vehicle attribute preferences most common to today's new vehicle purchasers. This article argues that policies intending to give PEVs a foothold in the market should not focus on mainstream consumers and should instead focus on niche markets—specifically carsharing and postal fleets—and early adopters including green consumers. Two arguments can be made in support of eliminating the mainstream market bias of current policies toward a policy of cultivating niche markets. The first is efficiency: so far PEV policies featuring a mainstream market bias have proven to be inefficient and costly. The second is effectiveness: it is becoming increasingly evident that PEV policies would be more effective in achieving potential societal benefits if they focused on early adopters and niche markets using such approaches as strategic niche management, accessible loans and financing, and appropriately targeted incentives. PEV policies focused on early adopters and niche markets would create complementary system effects that will lead to increased PEV market penetration and realization of intended societal benefits. - Highlights: • We argue that U.S. electric vehicle policies are inefficient and ineffective. • We introduce “mainstream consumer bias” as an explanation for policy deficiencies. • We propose an alternative policy agenda to address some of these policy problems. • Proposed policy options include strategic niche management, targeted R and D and incentives, and loans

  14. Integrating rather than juxtaposing environmental policy and the internal market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Koutrakos, Panos; Snell, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to the research handbook on the internal market describes and analyses the case law on environmental measures that impact the internal market and notably the free movement of goods. It argues that an integration may be better for both environmental protection and market

  15. The cocaine and heroin markets in the era of globalisation and drug reduction policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Storti, Cláudia; De Grauwe, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Despite the large volume of public effort devoted to restrain drug supply and the growing attention given to drug demand reduction policies, the use of cocaine and heroin remains steady. Furthermore, retail drug prices have fallen significantly in Europe and the US. This puzzling evidence leads us to develop a model aiming at systematically analysing illicit drug markets. We model the markets of cocaine and heroin from production to the final retail markets. One novelty of the analysis consists in characterising the retail market as a monopolistic competitive one. Then, upper level dealers have some market power in the retail market. This allows them to charge a markup and to earn extra profits. These extra profits attract newcomers so that profits tend to fall over time. Theoretical model was used to analyse the effect of supply containment policies on the retail market, the producer market and the export-import business. This introduces the discussion of the impact of demand reduction policies on the high level traffickers' profit. Finally, globalisation enters in the model. Law enforcement measures increase the risk premia received by the lower and higher level traffickers. Consequently, trafficking intermediation margins tend to increase. However, globalisation has the opposite effect. It lowers intermediation margins and, then, pushes retail prices down, thereby stimulating consumption. In doing so, globalisation offsets the effects of supply containment policies. Finally, we discuss how the effectiveness of supply containment policies can be enhanced by combining them with demand reduction policies.

  16. Interface between marketing, policy and development in emerging economies. An exploratory study and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Oudan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of marketing, policy, and development for emerging economies moving toward a market-driven economic environment. A historical review provides a foundation, then deductive analyses from theoretical reviews and transcripts reveal that such marketing is still in the developmental stages and has become necessary for the future direction of these economies. Following the findings, the paper provides managerial marketing implications and highlights how a market orientation and market-driven approach is necessary for the greater social good in a global economy.

  17. Life Satisfaction Effects of Unemployment in Europe: The Moderating Influence of Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike

    2014-01-01

    Public policy shapes the lives of individuals, and even more so if they depend on state support. In the case of unemployment, the financial situation is largely determined by cash transfers and daily routines depend on the involvement in active labour market policy measures. To what extent, however......, can subjective well-being differences of European unemployed be traced back to the national design and generosity of labour market policy? This article applies multilevel and panel estimation techniques to identify the moderating effect of unemployment benefit generosity and active labour market...... policy on life satisfaction of the unemployed. While unemployment has strong negative life satisfaction effects in all 21 European countries under study, the generosity of passive labour market policy moderates this effect to a surprisingly large extent: the adverse effect of unemployment is almost...

  18. Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Bilharz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of renewable energy in Germany from 1973 to 2003. It investigates the relative importance of energy policy and green power marketing in shaping the renewable energy market. More than a decade of consistent policy support for renewables under the feed-in law (StrEG) and its successor (EEG) has been an important driver for increasing renewable electricity generation to date, putting the country in a better position than most of its peers when it comes to achieving European Union targets for renewable energy. Green power marketing driven by customer demand, on the other hand, is growing, but has had limited measurable impact so far. We discuss potential intangible benefits of green power marketing and scenarios for future market development. The paper concludes with lessons that can be learned from the German case for policy design and market development in other countries

  19. OPEN MARKETING - A SPECIFIC FORM OF MONETARY POLICY IN ORDER TO MONETARY VOLUME ADJUSTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRTOC IRINA- ELENA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available : Applying a uniform monetary policy by all European Union member states also require harmonization of monetary policy instruments and national interbank market integration also. Monetary policy instruments used by NBR (National Bank of Romania have evolved over time as a result of alignment with the instruments used by the European Central Bank. Money market operations in Romania have appeared for the first time in 1997. Starting from the wishing of Central Bank to reduce excess liquidity in 2001 they became the most important monetary policy tool used by the National Bank of Rumania. Open market operations are the instrument of monetary policy, central banking in Eastern Europe to work towards monetary contraction or expansion. Open-market operations in recent years have become the most important monetary policy instrument they play an essential role in promoting monetary policy by the central bank. Through open marketing operations the monetary authorities aim to alter bank reserves and thereby influence the amount of currency in circulation. In Romania, the open marketing operations are initiated by the National Bank of Romania, which determines what type of tools will be used while setting terms and conditions of the implementation. Through the use and control of monetary policy instruments, the central bank as the state bank seeks managing liquidity in the economy.

  20. Determining energy and climate market policy using multiobjective programs with equilibrium constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Sauleh; Christensen, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy and climate market policy is inherently multiobjective and multilevel, in that desired choices often conflict and are made at a higher level than influenced actors. Analyzing tradeoff between reducing emissions and keeping fuel prices low, while seeking compromise among producers, traders, and consumers is the crux of the policy problem. This paper aims to address this issue by combining multiobjective optimization problems, which allow the study of tradeoff between choices, with equilibrium problems that model the networks and players over which these policies are chosen, to produce a formulation called a Multiobjective Program with Equilibrium Constraints. We apply this formulation to the United States renewable fuel market to help understand why it has been so difficult in releasing the 2014 mandate for the RFS (Renewable Fuel Standard). The RFS ensures that a minimum volume of renewable fuel is included in transportation fuel sold in the United States. Determining the RFS volume requirements involves anticipating market reaction as well as balancing policy objectives. We provide policy alternatives to aid in setting these volume obligations that are applicable to a wide variety of climate and energy market settings and explain why the RFS is not an optimal policy for reducing emissions. - Highlights: • First time a MOPEC has been used to model energy markets and climate policy. • Method to endogenously determine energy policy along with associated tradeoff. • Computationally efficient algorithm for MOPECs and compare to methods. • Explain why the RFS is not an optimal policy for emission reduction.

  1. Coupled energy economic model framework for analyzing Swiss electricity markets in changing policy environments

    OpenAIRE

    Maire, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Energy policy needs to rely on the proper understanding of the interactions between policy instruments, consumer preferences, investment behavior, market structure, electricity supply, and the wider policy environment. This asks for appropriate modeling tools, able to represent precisely electricity supply options, model all types of energy and climate policies, as well as the reactions of the rest of the economy. Chapter 2 describes the ELECTRA-CH framework, developed to analyze electrici...

  2. Assessing the Impact of the ECB's Monetary Policy on the Stock Markets: A Sectoral View

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Kholodilin; Alberto Montagnoli; Oreste Napolitano; Boriss Siliverstovs

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the response of the European stock markets to the monetary policy shocks by the European Central Bank using the heteroskedasticity based approach of Rigobon (2003). We find that monetary policy tightening has a heterogeneous impact on the Euro Area sectors on the day the monetary policy is publicly announced. Furthermore, we provide statistical evidence against the use of the popular event study approach when assessing the impact of monetary policy shocks on the stock mark...

  3. California's greenhouse gas law, Assembly Bill 1493: Deficiencies, alternatives, and implications for regulatory climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    California's Air Resources Board has finalized regulations implementing Assembly Bill (AB) 1493, which requires 'maximum feasible and cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles'. By 2030, when California's light-duty vehicle stock has been substantially replaced by regulation-compliant vehicles, total emissions from regulated vehicles are projected to be reduced by 27% relative to 'business-as-usual', but are nevertheless expected to be 8.7% higher than 2004 emissions. If an 8.7% increase truly represents the 'maximum feasible and cost-effective' emissions reduction from transportation vehicles, then global climate stabilization clearly will not be attained within limits of 'feasibility' and 'cost-effectiveness', and climate sustainability will only be achievable through severely draconian measures. On the other hand, if significantly greater emissions reduction would be feasible and cost-effective, then the AB 1493 regulations fail to satisfy the legislative policy mandate and the task is to find a regulatory mechanism that will. The thesis of this paper is that the regulations do not satisfy the mandate for several reasons, the most important being the conflicting policy objectives of the 'cost-constrained' legislative mandate and the 'quantity-constrained', standard-based regulatory instrument. An alternative policy instrument that would better fit legislative policy and environmental objectives would be a feebate-type system (although not necessarily a conventional vehicle feebate)

  4. Nuclear regulatory policy concept on safety, security, safeguards and emergency preparedness (3S+EP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, Zurias

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory Policy is formulated in regulations that stipulate the assurance of workers and public safety and environmental protection. Legislation and regulations on nuclear energy should consider nuclear safety, security and safeguards, as well as nuclear emergency preparedness (3S+EP) and liability for nuclear damage. Specific requirements stipulated in international conventions and agreements should also be taken into account. Regulatory Policy is formulated in regulations that stipulate the assurance of workers and public safety and environmental protection. Legislation and regulations on nuclear energy should consider nuclear safety, security and safeguards, as well as nuclear emergency preparedness (3S+EP) and liability for nuclear damage. Specific requirements stipulated in international conventions and agreements should also be taken into account. By undertaking proper regulatory oversight on Safety, Security and Emergency Preparedness (3S+EP) as an integrated and comprehensive system, safe and secure use of nuclear energy can be assured. Licence requirements and conditions should fulfil regulatory requirements pertaining to 3S+EP for nuclear installation as an integrated system. An effective emergency capacity that can be immediately mobilized is important. The capacity in protecting the personnel before, during and after the disaster should also be planned. Thus, proper emergency preparedness should be supported by adequate resources. The interface between safety, security, safeguards and emergency preparedness has to be set forth in nuclear regulations, such as regulatory requirements; 3S+EP; components, systems and structures of nuclear installations and human resources. Licensing regulations should stipulate, among others, DIQ, installations security system, safety analysis report, emergency preparedness requirements and necessary human resources that meet the 3S+EP requirements.

  5. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices And Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    -side effects limit the size of the policy rate response to inflation that is consistent with determinacy, so that inflation-targeting policies may not be capable of ensuring REE uniqueness. In this case it is advisable to combine policy rate responses to inflation with an appropriate reaction to the output gap...

  6. 75 FR 52046 - Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Policy Statement: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... is working towards increasing the attention that is given to safety culture as part of its efforts to... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture..., Nevada hearing facility to solicit comments on the revision of its draft safety culture policy statement...

  7. Common market but divergent regulatory practices: exploring European regulation and the effect on regulatory uncertainty in the marketing authorization of medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur

    2013-01-01

    The medical product sector is characterised by a regulatory patchwork of European and national laws and guidelines operating concurrently with each other. Each of these sectors are characterised by different levels of regulatory uncertainty that may undermine the effectiveness of the regulatory

  8. Competition policy and regulation in hydro-dominated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Luiz Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the main competition issues that arise in electricity systems dominated by hydro generation, arguing that technological differences between hydro and thermal plants may allow hydropower producers to exert market power in different and subtler ways compared to thermal generators. The key for market power in hydro-based systems is the strategic allocation of a given amount of output across periods, rather than a straightforward reduction of total output. The paper examines the interaction between strategic hydro reservoir operation and transmission capacity constraints, and summarizes the implications of market power for system reliability. A review of recent relevant literature is included. Finally, possible interventions to mitigate market power are analysed

  9. Deregulation of the Nordic power market and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, E.S.; Nesse, A.; Tjoetta, S.

    1999-01-01

    A common Nordic power market will reduce total CO2 emissions in the Nordic countries as compared to a situation of autarky and, thus, reduce the aggregate cost of complying to strict national CO2 emission targets. A common market for CO2 emission permits may reduce the aggregate cost further, but this cost reduction will be smaller the harsher the CO2 emission constraints are. The economic gain of introducing a common Nordic power market will be particularly large in the case of a Swedish nuclear power phase out. In this case, the cost reduction of introducing a common market for CO2 emission permits will not be very large. 10 refs

  10. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Calixto

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control, marketing and regulatory aspects of botanical medicines. Phytotherapeutic agents are standardized herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. A marked growth in the worldwide phytotherapeutic market has occurred over the last 15 years. For the European and USA markets alone, this will reach about $7 billion and $5 billion per annum, respectively, in 1999, and has thus attracted the interest of most large pharmaceutical companies. Insufficient data exist for most plants to guarantee their quality, efficacy and safety. The idea that herbal drugs are safe and free from side effects is false. Plants contain hundreds of constituents and some of them are very toxic, such as the most cytotoxic anti-cancer plant-derived drugs, digitalis and the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, etc. However, the adverse effects of phytotherapeutic agents are less frequent compared with synthetic drugs, but well-controlled clinical trials have now confirmed that such effects really exist. Several regulatory models for herbal medicines are currently available including prescription drugs, over-the-counter substances, traditional medicines and dietary supplements. Harmonization and improvement in the processes of regulation is needed, and the general tendency is to perpetuate the German Commission E experience, which combines scientific studies and traditional knowledge (monographs. Finally, the trend in the domestication, production and biotechnological studies and genetic improvement of medicinal plants, instead of the use of plants harvested in the wild, will offer great advantages, since it will be possible to obtain uniform and high quality raw materials which are fundamental to the efficacy and safety of herbal drugs.

  11. REGULATORY POLICY AND OPTIMIZATION OF INVESTMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN THE MODEL OF FUNCTIONING OF RECREATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Shevchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is the rationale of the theoretical and methodical approach concerning the improvement of regulatory policy as well as the process of distribution of financial investments using the model of the functioning of a recreational sector of the national economy. The methodology of the study includes the use of optimal control theory for the model formation of the functioning of the recreational industry as well as determining the behaviour of regulatory authorities and capabilities to optimize the allocation of investment resources in the recreational sector of the national economy. Results. The issue of equilibration of regulatory policy in the recreational sector of the national economy is actualized, including the question of targeted distribution of state and external financial investments. Also, it is proved that regulatory policy should establish the frameworks that on the one hand, do not allow public authorities to exercise extra influence on the economy of recreation, on the other hand, to keep the behaviour of the recreational business entities within the limits of normal socio-economic activity – on the basis of analysis of the continuum “recreation – work” by means of modified Brennan-Buchanan model. It is revealed that even with the condition of the tax reduction, the situation when the population resting less and works more than in the background of a developed economy is observed. However, according to the optimistic forecast, eventually on condition when the economy is emerging from the shade, we will obtain an official mode of the work in which, while maintaining taxes on proposed more advantageous for the population level, ultimately the ratio leisure and work will be established which is corresponding to the principles of sustainable development. Practical value. On the basis of methodical principles of the theory of optimal control, the model of the functioning of the recreational industry under the

  12. Market policy as an innovative element of marketing in the Romanian healthcare services – an approach focused on the patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, BI; Coculescu, EC; Radu, A; Petrescu, L; Purcărea, VL

    2015-01-01

    The orientation towards one of the marketing policies with a major impact in organizations providing healthcare services, requires a careful analysis of the needs and aspirations of customers, targeting those patients whose needs the service organization can achieve through the existing resources at the respective health facility, finding the most effective way of achieving benefits associated with reduced costs to maximizing profits, placing the offers for medical services required by the patients on the market, as well as promptly reacting and acting to the changes of health services market which is constantly evolving through a flexible organizing and functioning structure, connected to the financial needs of the patients. PMID:26664466

  13. Market policy as an innovative element of marketing in the Romanian healthcare services - an approach focused on the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C; Radu, A; Petrescu, L; Purcărea, V L

    2015-01-01

    The orientation towards one of the marketing policies with a major impact in organizations providing healthcare services, requires a careful analysis of the needs and aspirations of customers, targeting those patients whose needs the service organization can achieve through the existing resources at the respective health facility, finding the most effective way of achieving benefits associated with reduced costs to maximizing profits, placing the offers for medical services required by the patients on the market, as well as promptly reacting and acting to the changes of health services market which is constantly evolving through a flexible organizing and functioning structure, connected to the financial needs of the patients.

  14. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) establish retail regulatory policies for electric and natural gas utilities, respectively, aimed at achieving three purposes: conservation of energy supplied by electric and gas utilities; efficiency in the use of facilities and resources by these utilities; equitable rates to electricity and natural gas consumers. PURPA also continues the pilot utility implementation program, authorized under Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production ACT (ECPA), to encourage adoption of cost-based rates and efficient energy-management practices. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize and analyze the progress that state regulatory authorities and certain nonregulated utilities have made in their consideration of the PURPA standards; and (2) to summarize the Department of Energy (DOE) activities relating to PURPA and ECPA. The report provides a broad overview and assessment of the status of electric and gas regulation nationwide, and thus helps provide the basis for congressional and DOE actions targeted on the utility industry to address pressing national energy problems.

  15. The Vegetable industry in China; Developments in policies, production, marketing and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.M.; Jinsong, C.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Kamphuis, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese vegetable industry over the past three decades. The changes of governmental vegetable policy and the major institutions involved. The major production regions in China, their leading vegetable varieties and cultivation technology. The reform of vegetable marketing structure

  16. Did capital market convergence lower the effectiveness of the interest rate as a monetary policy tool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pieter W.

    2006-01-01

    International capital market convergence reduces the ability for monetary authorities to set domestic monetary conditions. Traditionally, monetary policy transmission is channelled through the short-term interest rate. Savings and investment decisions are effected through the response of the bond

  17. The dynamic correlation between policy uncertainty and stock market returns in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The dynamic correlation is examined between government's policy uncertainty and Chinese stock market returns in the period from January 1995 to December 2014. We find that the stock market is significantly correlated to policy uncertainty based on the results of the Vector Auto Regression (VAR) and Structural Vector Auto Regression (SVAR) models. In contrast, the results of the Dynamic Conditional Correlation Generalized Multivariate Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (DCC-MGARCH) model surprisingly show a low dynamic correlation coefficient between policy uncertainty and market returns, suggesting that the fluctuations of each variable are greatly influenced by their values in the preceding period. Our analysis highlights the understanding of the dynamical relationship between stock market and fiscal and monetary policy.

  18. INTERNAL MARKET GOVERNMENT SECURITIES IN PROMOTING THE EFFICIENCY OF DEBT POLICY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kuryshchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the effectiveness of debt policy of Ukraine, to its shortcomings and implications for the economy. The evaluation of the domestic government securities market and its impact on the efficiency of debt management.

  19. Impact of competitive electricity market on renewable generation technology choice and policies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Market objectives based on private value judgments will conflict with social policy objectives toward environmental quality in an emerging restructured electricity industry. This might affect the choice of renewables in the future generation mix. The US electricity industry's long-term capacity planning and operations is simulated for alternative market paradigms to study this impact. The analysis indicates that the share of renewable energy generation sources would decrease and emissions would increase considerably in a more competitive industry, with greater impact occurring in a monopoly market. Alternative environmental policy options can overcome market failures and help achieve appropriate levels of renewable generation. An evaluation of these policies indicate their varying cost-effectiveness, with higher levels of intervention necessary if market power exists. (Author)

  20. Policies for technical innovations to promote natural gas market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Short-term and long-term perspectives of the natural gas market worldwide are discussed, covering demand and supply trends. Technologies determining the future of the natural gas market, and R and D needs for implementing future technological challenges are considered. (R.P.)

  1. Revisiting Bank Pricing Policies in Brazil: evidence from loan and deposit markets

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo S. Alencar

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the micro and macroeconomic determinants of interest rates in the Brazilian banking market. The results suggest that banks fully adjust their loan interest rates to a change in the monetary policy rate, but we also observe a rigid short-term response for some loan product categories. The study confirms that pricing policies can vary substantially depending on the market. For example, microeconomic factors did not seem to be a major determinant of retail loan rates, but th...

  2. Examining Policies to Reduce Homelessness Using a General Equilibrium Model of the Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur, Erin; Quigley, John M.; Raphael, Steven; Smolensky, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we use a general equilibrium simulation model to assess the potential impacts on homelessness of various housing-market policy interventions. We calibrate the model to the four largest metropolitan areas in California. We explore the welfare con- sequences and the effects on homelessness of three housing-market policy interventions: extending housing vouchers to all low-income households, subsidizing all landlords, and subsidizing those landlords who supply low-income housing. ...

  3. Immigration Restrictions as Active Labor Market Policy: Evidence from the Mexican Bracero Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Michael A.; Lewis, Ethan Gatewood; Postel, Hannah M.

    2017-01-01

    An important class of active labor market policy has received little rigorous impact evaluation: immigration barriers intended to improve the terms of employment for domestic workers by deliberately shrinking the workforce. Recent advances in the theory of endogenous technical change suggest that such policies could have limited or even perverse labor-market effects, but empirical tests are scarce. We study a natural experiment that excluded almost half a million Mexican 'bracero' seasonal ag...

  4. Can we reconcile different capacity adequacy policies with an integrated electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    In the present European Union debate, many consider capacity remuneration mechanisms (CRM) as useless and, if they are eventually considered as useful, there is a necessity of total alignment of capacity adequacy policies in time. We develop an opposite position. The adoption of CRM is a necessity because the market and regulatory failures to invest in peaking units, which are amplified by the large, scale development of intermittent sources by out-of-market policies. Then, provided that some minimal harmonization is sought by regulators and TSOs, each member state should have some freedom in the adoption of his capacity adequacy policies. Our main findings are fivefold: 1 - beyond the need for a clear alignment of principles in matters of criteria of adequacy and reliability, Member States are legitimate to decide their means of action to maintain the long-term reliability insurance of their electricity system. In particular they should be allowed to choose between keeping 'energy only' market architecture or adding a capacity mechanism, and also to choose the type of CRM design, provided that they target a minimal probabilistic criteria of outages and that short term competition on the energy market is not altered. 2 - we propose the adoption of minimal criteria of adequacy and reliability in relation to the nature of hazard events which could alter the system reliability and which are specific to each system (seasonal hydraulic hazardousness, weekly thermo-sensibility of the peak load, daily and hourly variability of intermittent renewable, unplanned thermal plants outages). In a system in which the regulator and the government are totally confident in the ability of the market to reveal the level of protection desired by the consumers in a system, the absence of precautionary approach could in fact alter the supply reliability level targeted by the respective TSOs in the neighboring markets which they are integrated with. 3 - the CRMs which are quantity

  5. THE ROLE OF THE COMPETITION POLICY IN FORGING THE EUROPEAN COMMON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Cristian Muşetescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The forging of the Single Market represents the most important dimension of the first pillar of the European Union, which is the European Community. It can be argued that, as compared to the other two pillars (the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the Police and Judicial Cooperation in the Criminal Matters, it has the most powerful impact on the welfare of European citizens. The European policy makers define however the Internal Market as not only an economic area where there are no more state-imposed barriers in the path of the freedom of movement of goods and services at the borders of the member-states but also a single business environment where there are a single currency, coordinated economic policies as well as homogeneous business practices of private undertakings. In this process, despite a large set of common policies, the competition policy has reached the status of the building block of the Common Market.

  6. Biodiversity and Habitat Markets—Policy, Economic, and Ecological implications of Market-Based Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindilli, Emily J.; Casey, Frank

    2015-10-26

    This report is a primer on market-like and market-based mechanisms designed to conserve biodiversity and habitat. The types of markets and market-based approaches that were implemented or are emerging to benefit biodiversity and habitat in the United States are examined. The central approaches considered in this report include payments for ecosystem services, conservation banks, habitat exchanges, and eco-labels. Based on literature reviews and input from experts and practitioners, the report characterizes each market-based approach including policy context and structure; the theoretical basis for applying market-based approaches; the ecological effectiveness of practices and tools for measuring performance; and the future outlook for biodiversity and habitat markets. This report draws from previous research and serves as a summary of pertinent information associated with biodiversity and habitat markets while providing references to materials that go into greater detail on specific topics.

  7. Land Politics under Market Socialism: The State, Land Policies, and Rural–Urban Land Conversion in China and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Linh Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes a comparative analysis of rural–urban land conversion policies in China and Vietnam, and examines the ideology of the state in land policymaking under a market socialism environment. It argues that land policies in both countries include ambiguous boundaries, which allow the socialist state to legitimize its politico-administrative power in land management and retain strong intervention capacity in the land market. In addition to similarities, land policies in China and Vietnam show significant differences in terms of the ownership of rural land and related legislation on land expropriation and transactions. Together, these distinctions cause divergent impacts on the interests and motivations of multiple stakeholders in rural land conversion. It is further observed that the state in both countries is characterized by dynamic, complex, and self-coordinated institutional systems, in which multiple levels of government have different driving forces and strategies in land development. The internal structure of authority in rural–urban land conversion between the multiple levels of government is readjusted by the regulatory land control of the central government.

  8. The Growth Challenge of Western SMES in Emerging Markets: An Exploratory Framework and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Ruzzier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the main inhibiting factors associated with the process of entry and escalation of SMES in international markets, with a focus on Emerging Markets. We identify and propose seven main categories of Institutional Voids and three main types of resources that may critically determine SMES’ performances on EMS, namely, internationalization knowledge, social capital resources and marketing capabilities. Institutional Voids and resources are brought together within a conceptual framework suggesting that resource-scarce SMES will hold back in their attempts to commit further to Emerging Markets and will be further dissuaded the higher the Institutional Voids in the market. The paper contributes to the policy literature on SME internationalization by focusing on two areas of public policy action that could have a clear and manifest impact on SMES conduct in Emerging Markets, the first related to the resources available to and exploitable by SMES and the latter associated with Institutional Voids.

  9. Establishing Policy Foundations and Regulatory Systems to Enhance Nursing Practice in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, Sharon M; Hunter, Lyndal H; Aqtash, Salah; Day, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) established a Nursing and Midwifery Council with a mandate to develop standards for the registration and regulation of nursing and midwifery and to strengthen the nursing and midwifery workforce. Priorities included workforce Emiratization and the development of regulatory standards to support advanced and speciality nursing practice and new models of care-particularly for the management of noncommunicable diseases. This article provides background, context for, and best practice inputs to the effort to provide one unified framework of nursing regulation and licensure across the whole of the UAE. This article is intended for nurse leaders, policy makers, and regulators who are reviewing or developing nursing regulatory processes and advancing nursing workforce capacity building activities; and nurse educators and nurses wishing to work in the UAE. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Public say food regulatory policies to improve health in Western Australia are important: population survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18-64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using survey module of STATA 12. The majority of adults believe it is important that government regulates food policy options under consideration: nutrition information on food labels (97% versus 2% who think it is not important); health rating on food labels (95% versus 3%); food advertising (83% versus 11%); and the supply of environmentally friendly food (86% versus 9%). Community perception is that government control or regulation of food labelling, food advertising and the supply of environmentally friendly food is important. Curbing excess weight gain and related disease burden is a public health priority. Australian governments are considering food regulatory interventions to assist the public to improve their dietary intake. These findings should provide reassurance to government officials considering these regulatory measures. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  12. Policy design and performance of emissions trading markets: an adaptive agent-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Zhang; Qinqin, Yu; Jun, Bi

    2010-08-01

    Emissions trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the pilot emissions trading programs in China have failed to bring remarkable success in the campaign for pollution control. The policy design of an emissions trading program is found to have a decisive impact on its performance. In this study, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions trading applying the agent-based model was constructed. The performance of the Jiangsu SO2 emissions trading market under different policy design scenario was also examined. Results show that the market efficiency of emissions trading is significantly affected by policy design and existing policies. China's coal-electricity price system is the principal factor influencing the performance of the SO2 emissions trading market. Transaction costs would also reduce market efficiency. In addition, current-level emissions discharge fee/tax and banking mechanisms do not distinctly affect policy performance. Thus, applying emissions trading in emission control in China should consider policy design and interaction with other existing policies.

  13. Developing an immigration policy for Germany on the basis of a nonparametric labor market classification

    OpenAIRE

    Froelich, Markus; Puhani, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Based on a nonparametrically estimated model of labor market classifications, this paper makes suggestions for immigration policy using data from western Germany in the 1990s. It is demonstrated that nonparametric regression is feasible in higher dimensions with only a few thousand observations. In sum, labor markets able to absorb immigrants are characterized by above average age and by professional occupations. On the other hand, labor markets for young workers in service occupations are id...

  14. Sustainable marketing communication strategies of Russian companies under the import substitution policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chernova, Veronika,; Zobov, Alexander,; Starostin, Vasily,; Butkovskaya, Galina,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The sanction standoff between Russia and the West opened up new opportunities for Russian food manufacturers. A new import substitution policy declared by the government restricted the access of the leading foreign countries to the market and unlocked a potential for internal development. Russian producers spotted new niches in the food market. There exist numerous obstacles to assimilating new market prospects: organizational (logistics, infrastructure, etc.), investm...

  15. Central banks' use in East Asia of money market instruments in the conduct of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F. Emery

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the greater use in the past decade of money market instruments in the conduct of monetary policy by the central banks, or their equivalent, in six of the main East Asian developing economies. Some of these economies have been successful in using various money market instruments to control liquidity, while others have been much less successful. A common theme in the case of the successful economies has been one of employing money market instruments that have yields based on ...

  16. Experimental labor markets and policy considerations: Incomplete contracts and macroeconomic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Casoria Fortuna; Riedl Arno

    2012-01-01

    This survey focuses on experimental labor markets investigating two aspects that deem us important for a better understanding of labor market relations and the consequences for labor market policies. The first part of the survey is dedicated to papers that assess the prevalence of reciprocal considerations in incomplete labor contracts. The second part summarizes the relatively small but growing experimental literature exploring labor issues in a macroeconomics and public finance setting and ...

  17. Economic and financial integration in emerging markets: A European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoropoulos Theodore E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends to test if the same short-run increase in cyclical volatility arising from financial integration is observed in this specific sample of "emerging markets". This work finds signs that, contrary to other emerging markets, this does not happen: for the future member states financial integration, similarly to the outcome observed in mature market economies, reduces cyclical volatility both in the short and in the long run. Weak indications are found that this may happen partially due to the anchoring of expectations provided by the EU Accession, and to the more robust institutional framework imposed by this process onto the countries in question.

  18. Observations on Three Endpoint Properties and Their Relationship to Regulatory Outcomes of European Oncology Marketing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Stolk, Pieter; McAuslane, James Neil; Schellens, Jan; Breckenridge, Alasdair M; Leufkens, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Guidance and exploratory evidence indicate that the type of endpoints and the magnitude of their outcome can define a therapy's clinical activity; however, little empirical evidence relates specific endpoint properties with regulatory outcomes. We explored the relationship of 3 endpoint properties to regulatory outcomes by assessing 50 oncology marketing authorization applications (MAAs; reviewed from 2009 to 2013). Overall, 16 (32%) had a negative outcome. The most commonly used hard endpoints were overall survival (OS) and the duration of response or stable disease. OS was a component of 91% approved and 63% failed MAAs. The most commonly used surrogate endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and health-related quality of life assessments. There was no difference (p = .3801) between the approved and failed MAA cohorts in the proportion of hard endpoints used. A mean of slightly more than four surrogate endpoints were used per approved MAA compared with slightly more than two for failed MAAs. Longer OS and PFS duration outcomes were generally associated with approvals, often when not statistically significant. The approved cohort was associated with a preponderance of statistically significant (p < .05) improvements in primary endpoints (p < .0001 difference between the approved and failed groups). Three key endpoint properties (type of endpoint [hard/surrogate], magnitude of an endpoint outcome, and its statistical significance) are consistent with the European Medicines Agency guidance and, notwithstanding the contribution of unique disease-specific circumstances, are associated with a predictable positive outcome for oncology MAAs. Regulatory decisions made by the European Medicines Agency determine which new medicines will be available to European prescribers and for which therapeutic indications. Regulatory success or failure can be influenced by many factors. This study assessed three key properties of endpoints used in

  19. Financing unemployment benefits by goods market competition: fiscal policy and deregulation with market imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Scial…; Riccardo Tilli

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model in which the labor market is characterized by search frictions and there is monopolistic competition in the goods market. We introduce proportional income taxation and unemployment benefits with Government balanced budget constraint. Then, we evaluate the effects of both more competition in the goods market and higher unemployment benefits on labor market equilibrium and equilibrium tax rate. We show that more competition has a positive effect on equilibrium unemployment a...

  20. Bringing plant-based veterinary vaccines to market: Managing regulatory and commercial hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Doshi, Ketan; Dussault, Marike; Hall, J Christopher; Holbrook, Larry; Jones, Ginny; Kaldis, Angelo; Klima, Cassidy L; Macdonald, Phil; McAllister, Tim; McLean, Michael D; Potter, Andrew; Richman, Alex; Shearer, Heather; Yarosh, Oksana; Yoo, Han Sang; Topp, Edward; Menassa, Rima

    2015-12-01

    The production of recombinant vaccines in plants may help to reduce the burden of veterinary diseases, which cause major economic losses and in some cases can affect human health. While there is abundant research in this area, a knowledge gap exists between the ability to create and evaluate plant-based products in the laboratory, and the ability to take these products on a path to commercialization. The current report, arising from a workshop sponsored by an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme, addresses this gap by providing guidance in planning for the commercialization of plant-made vaccines for animal use. It includes relevant information on developing business plans, assessing market opportunities, manufacturing scale-up, financing, protecting and using intellectual property, and regulatory approval with a focus on Canadian regulations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arbitrage Activities between Offshore and Domestic Yen Money Markets since the End of the Quantitative Easing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Teppei Nagano; Eiko Ooka; Naohiko Baba

    2007-01-01

    Transactions in the yen money markets have become active since the end of the quantitative easing policy (QEP) in March 2006. In particular, transactions by foreign financial institutions have been increasing in the offshore markets including the FX swap and euroyen deposit markets, as well as the domestic money markets. This Review surveys the spreads and hence the arbitrage relationship between those offshore markets and the domestic money markets. In the short-term money markets, the sprea...

  2. Immigration and integration policy and labour market attainment among Scandinavian immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Korpi, Tomas; Lorentzen, Thomas

    Comparing immigrant labour market integration, the OECD ranked the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden at the bottom. Integration depends on immigration and integration policy, and the countries’ policies have traditionally here been very similar. However, in the early 2000s Denmark......, employment trends in Norway and Sweden were almost as positive without similar earnings penalties, questioning the aptness of the Danish reforms....

  3. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  4. Marketing Regulatory Oversight of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs) in Europe: The EMA/CAT Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmikangas, Paula; Schuessler-Lenz, Martina; Ruiz, Sol; Celis, Patrick; Reischl, Ilona; Menezes-Ferreira, Margarida; Flory, Egbert; Renner, Matthias; Ferry, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    With the release of Regulation 1394/2007, a new framework for gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue-engineered products was established in the European Union. For all three product classes, called advanced therapy medicinal products, a centralised marketing authorisation became mandatory. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) together with its Committee for Advanced Therapies, Committee for Human Medicinal Products and the network of national agencies is responsible for scientific evaluation of the marketing authorisation applications. For a new application, data and information relating to manufacturing processes and quality control of the active substance and the final product have to be submitted for evaluation together with data from non-clinical and clinical safety and efficacy studies. Technical requirements for ATMPs are defined in the legislation, and guidance for different products is available through several EMA/CAT guidelines. Due to the diversity of ATMPs, a tailored approach for regulating these products is considered necessary. Thus, a risk-based approach has been introduced for ATMPs allowing flexibility for the regulatory requirements. Since the regulatory framework for ATMPs was established, five products have been licenced in the European Union. However, the pipeline of new ATMPs is much bigger, as seen from the significant numbers of different products discussed by the CAT in scientific advice and classification procedures. In 2013, a public consultation on the ATMP Regulation was conducted by the European Commission, and the results were published in 2014. The report proposes several improvements for the current framework and established procedures for the regulation of ATMPs.

  5. Proposed Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina system power marketing policy and subsequent contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an Environmental Assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0935) evaluating the Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts between Southeastern and its customers. The Assessment evaluates two alternatives and the no action alternative. The proposed action is to market the power and energy available in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System during the next ten years, with new power sales contracts of ten-year durations, to the customers set forth in Appendix A of the Assessment. In addition to the proposed alternative, the Assessment evaluates the alternative of extending existing contracts under the current marketing policy

  6. Regulatory requirements for clinical trial and marketing authorisation application for cell-based medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmikangas, P; Flory, E; Reinhardt, J; Hinz, T; Maciulaitis, R

    2010-01-01

    The new era of regenerative medicine has led to rapid development of new innovative therapies especially for diseases and tissue/organ defects for which traditional therapies and medicinal products have not provided satisfactory outcome. Although the clinical use and developments of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) could be witnessed already for a decade, robust scientific and regulatory provisions for these products have only recently been enacted. The new Regulation for Advanced Therapies (EC) 1394/2007 together with the revised Annex I, Part IV of Directive 2001/83/EC provides the new legal framework for CBMPs. The wide variety of cell-based products and the foreseen limitations (small sample sizes, short shelf life) vs. particular risks (microbiological purity, variability, immunogenicity, tumourigenicity) associated with CBMPs have called for a flexible, case-by-case regulatory approach for these products. Consequently, a risk-based approach has been developed to allow definition of the amount of scientific data needed for a Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) of each CBMP. The article provides further insight into the initial risk evaluation, as well as to the quality, non-clinical, and clinical requirements of CBMPs. Special somatic cell therapies designed for active immunotherapy are also addressed.

  7. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  8. Relating R and D and investment policies to CCS market diffusion through two-factor learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohwasser, Richard; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to play a major role in the stabilization of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. To develop the capture technology from its current demonstration phase towards commercial maturity, significant funding is directed to CCS, such as the EU’s €4.5 bn NER300 fund. However, we know little about how this funding relates to market diffusion of CCS. This paper addresses that question. We initially review past learning effects from both capacity installations and R and D efforts for a similar technology using the concept of two-factor learning. We apply the obtained learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching rates to CCS in the electricity market model HECTOR, which simulates 19 European countries hourly until 2040, to understand the impact of learning and associated policies on CCS market diffusion. We evaluate the effectiveness of policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching by relating the policy budget to the realized CCS capacity and find that, at lower policy cost, both methods are about equally effective. At higher spending levels, policies promoting learning-by-doing are more effective. Overall, policy effectiveness increases in low CO 2 price scenarios, but the CO 2 price still remains the key prerequisite for the economic competitiveness, even with major policy support. - Highlights: ► Identified two-factor learning rates for CCS through empirical data from flue gas desulphurization. ► Evaluated effectiveness of CCS stimulation policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-researching. ► Both policy types are about equally effective with small policy budgets. ► Policies addressing learning-by-doing, e.g., subsidies to CCS projects, are more effective with large policy budgets. ► Analysis deployed HECTOR power market model that simulates 19 European countries on hourly granularity until 2040.

  9. Research on the Dividend Policy of Listed Company and Fluctuation Effect of Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the dividend policy and theory, this article takes the events that A stock of all the listed banking companies (16 in total issued dividend in the CSI stock market for 5 years from 2008 to 2012 as the investigation samples to inspect the relevance of dividend policy with the fluctuation of stock price and transaction volume, thus to prove the dividend policy is an efficient mechanism for information transmission.

  10. Policy and regulatory framework conditions for small hydro power in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelling, Fritz [Sustainable Energy and Environment, Karlsruhe (Germany); Gaul, Mirco; Schroeder, Miriam [SiNERGi Consultancy for Renewable Energies, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The vast potential of mini and micro hydro power (MHP) in Sub-Saharan African countries is one promising option to cover increasing energy demand and to enable electricity access for remote rural communities. Based on the analysis of 6 African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa), this study sheds light on some of the main barriers on the level of political and regulatory framework conditions which include gap between the national-level policies and regulations and local MHP project implementation, lack of financing and limited capacities for project planning, building and operation. The paper also identifies some promising practices employed in several SSA countries of how to overcome these barriers and concludes with recommendations of how to create positive feed-backs between ambitious policies and regulations and MHP financing and capacity development needs in order to scale up MHP deployment and MHP sector development. (orig.)

  11. Get a Job! Active Labour Market Policies and Persons with Disabilities in Danish and European Union Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, Lisa; Pedersen, Mads; Ventegodt Liisberg, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the overall level of employment is a goal of the Europe 2020 strategy and Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) have become a key tool used by the European Union and its Member States with a view to increasing employment. This article examines the use of ALMPs, with a special focus on

  12. Coal transport demand in Western Europe and Japan: Impacts of energy market liberalisation and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Maestad, Ottar

    2005-12-01

    Western Europe and Japan are among the main importers of coal. Climate policies following the Kyoto agreement are creating pressure to substitute away from coal and turn to less emission intensive energy sources. At the same time, liberalizations of energy markets in Europe and Japan are likely to cause reduced electricity prices, which will boost the overall demand for electricity. This paper analyses the combined effect of electricity market liberalization and climate policies on the international coal trade. Using the numerical equilibrium model LIBEMOD, we find that while liberalization of electricity markets will imply a large increase in aggregate coal transport demand, the negative impact of climate policies may be even larger, in particular if Russia and Ukraine utilise their market power in the market for emission permits. If this market power is exploited, the total effect of liberalisation and climate policy - when including the impact of general economic growth - is a 20% reduction in aggregate coal transport between 2000 and 2010. Further, impacts differ markedly between Western Europe and Japan. A main difference is that liberalisation has a much more positive - and climate policies have a much stronger negative - impact on steam coal demand in Western Europe than in Japan

  13. MARKETING POLICIES THROUGH THE INTERNET: THE CASE OF SKIING CENTERS IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis LEFAKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lately, Internet constitutes a major tool for transactions in every aspect and supports innovative marketing policies. Broadband Internet has become “the key to success” for businesses, as it offers various advantages and benefits through Internet marketing (e-marketing policies. In Greece, mountainous areas are usually covered with snow during winter months; so, skiing centers have become an important asset for winter tourism. The Internet evolution and the development of network infrastructure enhance marketing policies for winter tourism activities. This paper studies the use of marketing policies in Greek skiing centers through the Internet, such as promotional activities, website interactivity, accommodation & entertainment information, online weather forecast, guest book, etc Therefore, the paper aims to optimize and evaluate skiing centers in Greece, qualitatively and quantitatively according to e-marketing policies used as criteria, based on the multicriteria method of PROMETHEE II and further to classify them in groups. Finally we identify and describe the optimum group of skiing centers to be used as a model with enhanced customer communication services.

  14. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author) [pt

  15. Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides compelling evidence that large-scale market failures and barriers prevent consumers in the United States from obtaining energy services at least cost. Assessments of numerous energy policies and programs suggest that public interventions can overcome many of these market obstacles. By articulating these barriers and reviewing the literature on ways of addressing them, this paper provides a strong justification for the policy portfolios that define the ''Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future'', a study conducted by five National Laboratories. These scenarios are described in other papers published in this special issue of Energy Policy. (author)

  16. Pass-through of Change in Policy Interest Rate to Market Rates

    OpenAIRE

    M. Idrees Khawaja; Sajawal Khan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the pass through of the change in policy interest rate of the central bank of Pakistan to market interest rates. The market rates examined include KIBOR, six month deposit rate and weighted average lending rate. More or less complete pass-through of the change in policy rate to KIBOR is observed within one month. However, the magnitude of change in policy rate to deposit and lending rate is not only low but is slow as well. The pass-through to the weighted average lending ...

  17. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Bargh, John A

    2009-12-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence.

  18. MARKETING MIX POLICIES IN FMCG CASE-STUDY: THE ADVERTISING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA BOBEICA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between selected marketing mix elements in the area of FMCG. It discusses the nature and sometimes negative consequences of the dominating marketing paradigm of today, marketing mix management, and furthermore discusses how modern research into, for example in the case of FMCG Companies, the marketing policies as well as customer relationship tactics shows that another approach to marketing is required. It proposes a conceptual framework in which marketing elements are related to the dimensions of brand equity and brand awareness. It also presents a case study deriving from advertising strategies of FMCG Companies showing that the change in advertising spending is related to changes in market share, changes in product plans and changes in the number of competitors modified by the number of customers, their concentration and the size of the advertising budget.

  19. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroup, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs

  20. Labour Market, Wages and Their Policies in the EU Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Dalina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Interesting and challenging is not exactly that economic thinking is divided between those who admit that labour would be a good negotiated on its specific market segment and those who don’t, but other two-three aspects. The one is that those who do admit it are classic, neoclassic and (interestingly! Marxian schools. The last thinkers certainly see it as pejorative. Interesting is equally that those who ‘reject labour market concept’ work around the Keynesian thinking school. The author of ‘General Theory…’ rejected the idea that employer and employee could ever be economically equal to each other and that labour could keep any real market supply specific behaviour. Thirdly, Keynes was the first one who pointed to unemployment as a real modern problem, but also interestingly his view on the same unemployment wasn’t satisfactory for our present.

  1. Price and distribution policies in healthcare marketing in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C; Purcărea, V L

    2017-01-01

    There is a principle similar to the theory of exchange in the marketing of health services, meaning that what is delivered to the target market (i.e. the beneficiaries) must be equal to or greater than what is to be received (i.e. the price). The price level in the marketing mix is influenced by how the consumer perceives the respective medical service and is quantified in the profit and the turnover of the organization respectively. The cost of the medical act as a whole is the value of all the tangible and intangible variables associated with it, and the planning, distribution and promotion of the product must be taken into account in the price setting.

  2. Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles

    2014-01-01

    State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities.

  3. Policies to support renewable energies in the heat market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, Veit; Klinski, Stefan; Lehr, Ulrike; Leprich, Uwe; Nast, Michael; Ragwitz, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the contribution from renewable energies in the electrical power market is increasing rapidly, similar progress in the heat market is yet to be made. A prerequisite for progress is the development of innovative support instruments that transcend the usual support through public subsidies or tax reductions. We present an overview of the various classes of possible instruments. Some particularly interesting instruments will be selected and evaluated, comparing them qualitatively and quantitatively for the case of Germany. The most favourable model is found to be a new, allocation-financed model known as the Bonus Model. This model will be described in more detail

  4. Exchange rate policy when the labour market exhibits hysteresis

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Frank

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of exchange rate shocks in a small open economy whose labor market exhibits hysteresis. The model is used to highlight deficiencies in the response of the Irish authorities to exchange rate crisis of 1992/93. A secondary purpose of the paper, though, is to induce those who accept that the Irish labour market is characterised by hysteresis but who reject the argument made here that a more aggressive devaluation should have been pursued, to spell out the labour-m...

  5. Analyzing policy support instruments and regulatory risk factors for wind energy deployment-A developers' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, Sonja; Praessler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A transition to a renewable energy system is high on the policy agenda in many countries. A promising energy source for a low-carbon energy future is wind. Policy-makers can attract wind energy development by providing attractive policy frameworks. This paper argues that apart from the level of financial support, both the risks stemming from the regulatory environment (legal security, administrative process and grid access) and the ability to finance projects play a critical role in determining the attractiveness of the development environment. It sheds light on how project developers trade off these different aspects and to what extent the attractiveness of a certain policy framework increases with the introduction of specific measures. Conjoint analysis is employed to provide empirical evidence on the preference of wind energy developers in the EU and the US. The analysis shows that developers' preferences are very similar across the studied regions and for different types of developers. Which policy measures could be most valuable depends on the specific existing environment. In some southeastern European countries, a reduction of administrative process duration may yield the highest utility gains, whereas, in the US, improvements in grid access regulation and an increase in remuneration levels may be more effective. - Highlights: → Paper suggests conjoint analysis as scenario tool for estimating potential effects of specific policy measures. → It provides a quantitative, empirical dataset of 119 onshore wind energy developers' preferences. → Results suggest that the aspects 'Legal security' and 'Remuneration' are important attributes. → Cluster analyses yields slightly different preferences for developers from EU and US.

  6. 76 FR 45308 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change To... change should provide NOM Participants assistance in effectively managing their quotations. \\6\\ 15 U.S.C...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to adopt a new risk monitor mechanism. The proposed rule change was...

  7. 78 FR 52994 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... believes that the change will provide members with an additional tool for managing the book of [[Page 52995... Organization's Statement on Comments on the Proposed Rule Change Received From Members, Participants, or Others...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

  8. 76 FR 64403 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65381; File No. SR-NASDAQ-2011-128] Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Customer Rebates To Add Liquidity September 22, 2011. Correction In notice...

  9. 78 FR 62834 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Fund of First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund VII October 9, 2013. I. Introduction On August 16, 2013, The... for the provision of custody, transfer agency, and accounting agent services with the same or with...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

  10. 76 FR 19819 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... each consolidated last-sale price disseminated by a network processor over a five minute rolling period...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Extend the Pilot Period of the Trading Pause for Individual Stocks Contained in the...

  11. 75 FR 78302 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... last-sale price disseminated by a network processor over a five-minute rolling period measured...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Extend the Pilot Period of the Trading Pause for Individual Stocks Contained in the...

  12. Trade policy, market leaders and endogenous competition intensity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boone, J.; Ionascu, D.; Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 311 (2006), s. 1-25 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : tariff protection * market conduct * consumer welfare Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp311.pdf

  13. The Relative Efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non...

  14. Energy Market Liberalisation and Renewable Energy Policies in OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of energy liberalizations on policies that support renewable energy in a long panel of OECD countries. We estimate this effect accounting for the endogeneity of liberalisation related to joint decisions within a country's energy strategy. Using regulation in other industries as instruments, we find that energy liberalisation increases the public support to renewable energy. The effect of liberalisation is the second largest after the effect of per-capita income and is fully driven by reductions in entry barriers, while the effect of privatisation is negative. Finally, our results are robust to dynamic specifications and various policy indicators. (authors)

  15. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  16. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  17. The power and pain of market-based carbon policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Golub, A.; Pambudi, D.; Hertel, T.; Godde, C.; Herrero, M.; Cacho, O.; Gerber, P.

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of carbon policies applied to the ruminant livestock sector [inclusive of the major ruminant species—cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus)]—with particular emphasis on

  18. Credit markets and the propagation of monetary policy shocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim; Mendizábal, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2007), s. 1429-1455 ISSN 0022-2879 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : credit * monetary policy shock * heterogeneous agents Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2007

  19. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of passthrough of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong

  20. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of pass-through of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong