WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulatory issues raised

  1. Recent regulatory issues in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.; Tiipana, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents general regulatory issues from Finland since the last WWER Regulators Forum meeting in Odessa 11-13 October 2000. More specific issues concerning Loviisa NPP are described in the Annex of this paper. (author)

  2. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  3. Regulatory issues in merchant transmission investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunekreeft, G.

    2005-01-01

    Merchant investment in electricity transmission networks (MTI) is now legally allowed. Predominantly driven by the fear of underinvestment, regulators examine this possibility and given that MTI is a possibility, the regulators face a new set of questions. This paper raises and examines regulatory questions especially from a European institutional framework. The regulatory issues concern the competition effect, the ownership, access regime and the must-offer provision. The paper argues to leave light-handed unregulated MTI light handed and refrain from additional measures. In most cases, it is justified to refrain from sector-specific arrangements because competition,law, if necessary at all, will suffice. However, details matter. (author)

  4. Transmission access raises unresolved economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happ, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    The electric utility industry is in the process of gradual change from a fully regulated industry to one of partial deregulation. Instead of relying on regulation to achieve a fair and equitable price to the consumer for electric energy, the reliance is placed more and more on market forces, through competition, to provide wholesale energy at the best market price. Clearly, open transmission access is required to create a viable competitive wholesale market for new generation resources. This article describes four unresolved, or at least partially unresolved, issues associated with transmission access for wholesale wheeling. Wheeling has been defined as the use of a utility's transmission facilities to transmit power for other buyers and sellers. At least three parties are involved in a wheeling transaction: a seller, a buyer, and one or more wheeling utilities that transmit the power from the seller to the buyer. This article considers wholesale or bulk wheeling only, and does not consider retail wheeling. The four unresolved economic issues described in this article pertain to transmission access: Actual cost of providing transmission services, Methodology or methodologies used in evaluating the cost of wheeling, Contract path versus the actual power flows of the wheel, Issues associated with the formation of transmission regions

  5. Legal, privacy, security, access and regulatory issues in cloud computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available a gap on reporting are on are legal , privacy, security, access and regulatory issues. This paper raises an awareness of legal, privacy, security, access and regulatory issues that are associated with the advent of cloud computing. An in...

  6. Federal Tax Issues Raised by International Study Abroad Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Bertrand M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and describes tax issues raised by study abroad programs and suggests steps that a college or university can take to minimize or eliminate adverse U.S. and foreign tax exposure to both itself and its employees. (EV)

  7. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections

  8. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  9. Babbitt's Brothers & Sisters: Raising Ethical Issues in Business Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeanne W.

    A college-level course in business literature is an ideal place to raise and discuss ethical issues. To be successful, a teacher of this course must engage student interest, help the students articulate and understand their own ethical attitudes, clarify the stance and artistry of the author, and refine student responses to ethical questions. When…

  10. Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

  11. Radiation protection issues raised in Korea since Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byeongsoo

    2014-01-01

    For the past 3 years since Fukushima accident, various issues related to nuclear safety and radiation safety were raised in Korea. This presentation focuses radiation protection (RP) issues among the various issues and has the purpose to share experiences and lessons-learned related to the RP issues. Special safety inspections on NPPs in Korea were performed immediately after Fukushima accident and 50 follow-up measures were established in May, 2011 to improve the nuclear safety. Some of them were related to radiation protection and emergency responses. Recently, in March, 2014, additional follow-up measures were decided to be taken in additionally strengthening safety-related equipment and emergency response organization. The 50 Fukushima-accident-follow-up measures include radiation protection for members of the public in emergency responses. Based on the follow-up measures, expansion of emergency planning zone (EPZ) is to be made according to the approval of legislation by National Assembly on May 2, 2014. For the past 3 years, the degree of the public concerns on radiation risk has been the highest. Spontaneous activities for radiation monitoring happened in the public. Some members of the public found some contaminated paved roads in November, 2011 and a contaminated kitchen ware in January, 2012. These findings suggest the importance of the management of recycled metal scraps imported from other countries. Fukushima accident gave much impact on Korean society all. The public gets very sensitive to issues about nuclear safety and radiation safety. Most parts of RP issues raised are related to the public. The lessons-learned are that as an issue is raised, it has a chance to be solved. However, RP issues related to radiation workers in accident conditions in NPPs are difficult to be raised enough to confirm and improve the robustness of radiation protection programs in accident conditions. It is necessary to share RP issues raised in each country as well as

  12. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: experiences of eight organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Demand for stakeholder involvement has become imperative in the field of radioactive waste management. Providing for fair and competent stakeholder involvement, however, raises several questions of practice, for example: How to address issues raised by stakeholders? How to take stakeholders' views into consideration if they are divergent or conflicting? This paper reviews eight case studies prepared for the Topical Session on Addressing Issues Raised by Stakeholders, aimed at analysing the impacts of stakeholder involvement on decisions in RWM organisations. The studies outline the experiences of the following organisations: Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC); Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO); Nuclear Waste Management Organisation of Japan (NUMO); Posiva, Finland; Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, Czech Republic (RAWRA); Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI); United Kingdom Environment Agency; United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Case study reports are included in the Annex of this volume. The paper outlines the main trends and lessons learned from the above case studies. The first section focuses on impacts of stakeholder involvement on specific RWM decisions regarding policy and process. Examples presented in the second section illustrate how stakeholders' concerns may influence general decision-making practices and organisational behaviour. In the third section various approaches to handling divergent stakeholder views are introduced. The paper concludes with recommendations extracted and derived from the eight reports. (author)

  13. Regulatory changes raise troubling questions for genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara J; Dorschner, Michael O; Burke, Wylie; Jarvik, Gail P

    2014-11-01

    By 6 October 2014, many laboratories in the United States must begin honoring new individual data access rights created by recent changes to federal privacy and laboratory regulations. These access rights are more expansive than has been widely understood and pose complex challenges for genomic testing laboratories. This article analyzes regulatory texts and guidances to explore which laboratories are affected. It offers the first published analysis of which parts of the vast trove of data generated during next-generation sequencing will be accessible to patients and research subjects. Persons tested at affected laboratories seemingly will have access, upon request, to uninterpreted gene variant information contained in their stored variant call format, binary alignment/map, and FASTQ files. A defect in the regulations will subject some non-CLIA-regulated research laboratories to these new access requirements unless the Department of Health and Human Services takes swift action to avert this apparently unintended consequence. More broadly, all affected laboratories face a long list of daunting operational, business, compliance, and bioethical issues as they adapt to this change and to the Food and Drug Administration's recently announced plan to publish draft guidance outlining a new oversight framework for lab-developed tests.

  14. Regulatory, administrative and financial problems raised by radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1980-03-01

    This paper analyses the salient aspects of the non-technical problems involved in radioactive waste disposal: the division of operational, regulatory and administrative responsibilities, the usefulness of providing a form of institutional control of the waste disposed of, and the question of the length of time for such mechanisms, both of which are closely linked to the preceding point. A description follows of the R and D financing mechanisms in the field and of the surveillance systems to be set up. Finally, mention is made of the legal and practical difficulties encountered in the application of the third party liability and insurance regime to long-term waste management and the international dimension of all these questions. (NEA) [fr

  15. State regulatory issues in acid rain compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, B.D.; Brick, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a US EPA workshop for state regulators and commission staff on acid rain compliance concerns. The topics of the article include the results of market-based emissions control, how emissions trading is expected to reduce emissions, public utility commissions approval of compliance plans, the purposes of the workshop, market information, accounting issues, regulatory process and utility planning, multi-state compliance planning, and relationship to other compliance issues

  16. Environmental radioactivity studies and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalkina, I.L.; Sarkisov, A.A.; Linge, I.I.; Kazakov, S.V.; Panchenko, S.V.; Savelieva, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Russia has developed regulations applying to the territories affected by radioactive contamination. Some regulatory approaches appear to be quite ineffective and contradictory. This paper shows by means of examples the problems and issues associated with some existing situations. A better way for the future is indicated

  17. Regulatory issues in accreditation of toxicology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Clinical toxicology laboratories and forensic toxicology laboratories operate in a highly regulated environment. This article outlines major US legal/regulatory issues and requirements relevant to accreditation of toxicology laboratories (state and local regulations are not covered in any depth). The most fundamental regulatory distinction involves the purposes for which the laboratory operates: clinical versus nonclinical. The applicable regulations and the requirements and options for operations depend most basically on this consideration, with clinical toxicology laboratories being directly subject to federal law including mandated options for accreditation and forensic toxicology laboratories being subject to degrees of voluntary or state government–required accreditation.

  18. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission

  19. Response to Key Issues Raised in the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghes, David; Hindle, Mike

    2004-01-01

    This article is a detailed response to the issues raised by the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry in the UK. It aims to debate some of the central issues in mathematics teaching in the UK, including recruitment and retention of mathematics teachers, the curriculum content, national assessment, teaching resources (including ICT) and national strategies…

  20. Security issues of new innovative payments and their regulatory challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari; Gabriella, Gimigliano

    2016-01-01

    Kasiyanto discusses how the security issues of M-payments and Bitcoin as new forms of innovative payments challenge the existing EU regulatory frameworks, and whether the proposed regulatory frameworks suffice to address such challenges. The regulatory frameworks Kasiyanto discusses mainly focus on

  1. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: evolving practices at the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavelle, Peter

    2004-01-01

    the CNSC are well coordinated, effectively managed and responsive to the needs of the public, stakeholders and employees. A corporate outreach program is continually evolving to coordinate and improve the effectiveness of CNSC staff interactions with various stakeholder groups. Stakeholder consultation is also undertaken for regulatory amendments, the development of regulatory documents and proposed changes in regulatory programs. A consequence of enhanced accessibility, transparency and openness is the broaching of issues that are of concern to specific stakeholders or are in connection with a specific licensing decision. Frequently, issues that are presented in stakeholder interventions at hearings result in direction to CNSC staff by the Commission tribunal to pursue specific questions or to undertake specific actions. For example, at a recent hearing the issue of communication by a licensee was raised in an intervention by a non-government organization, resulting in the Commission recommending a follow up meeting between the local community stakeholders, CNSC staff and the licensee, leading to changes in the licensee's public information program. Improved openness has also lead to increased stakeholder requests for information on nuclear substance licenses, on the nuclear industry and on regulating the nuclear industry. These requests are received through the CNSC information e-mail account, a toll-free telephone number, and the regular mail. In addition, the CNSC also receives requests for information under Canada's Access to Information Act. The CNSC responds to these requests as efficiently as possible. Stakeholder requests for information are passed to an appropriate CNSC staff member for an electronic or oral response. Interaction with an identifiable staff member contributes to developing confidence in the CNSC as a competent, open and transparent regulator. There are several further examples of CNSC/AECB response to stakeholder issues. At the

  2. U.S. nuclear fuel cycle regulatory issues on exclusion, exemption, and clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meck, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is considering the use of exclusion and clearance in connection with the nuclear fuel cycle regulations. Clearance of licensed lands, buildings, structures, materials, and equipment could expose members of the public to radiation in addition to background. Establishing and implementing dose criteria for allowed concentrations of radioactivity in the various media raise challenging issues for the regulator. Clearance also raises significant regulatory issues, and these issues reflect trade-offs between concerns for protecting public health and safety, as well as other socioeconomic values and concerns. At the heart of the issues are the adequacy of risk analyses, acceptability of risks, underlying rationales, feasibility and cost of implementation, and exposures of the public to man-made radiation in relation to natural sources of radiation. (author)

  3. FORUM ISSUES IN THE ENFORCEMENT OF REGULATORY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in his role as father of the country. In modern times, the ... of self-regulatory organisations in most financial markets who thus far have ..... companies and their officers under the Act? There are as yet no clear an- swers to ..... 578 (High Court of Singapore) where Chief Justice Yong Pung How held that to establish a breach of ...

  4. THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF KENTISH RAISING: ISSUES IN OLD ENGLISH SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Trousdale

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988. It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the social, political and cultural situation in ninth-century Kent is provided, which examines Mercian influence in the period, and suggests that a Mercian-driven change from above (Second Fronting cannot be the source of Kentish Raising. Finally, it is proposed that recent work in genetic anthropology, which seeks to discover more about the nature and extent of the continental migrations, may be useful in understanding the social context in which the varieties of Old English existed and developed.

  5. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  6. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  7. Some issues raised by the National Academy of Sciences study for MC and A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    Six of several issues raised by the recent DOE commissioned National Academy of Science Study for MC and A are briefly discussed in part along with resulting recommendations for DOE consideration. The activities discussed are: 1. Evaluating System Performance; 2. Management of Inventory Differences; 3. Management of Shipper-Receiver Differences; 4. Managing the MC and A Data Base; 5. Management of Threat and Vulnerability; and 6. MSSA Content and Preparation

  8. Regulatory issues associated with the Multi-Purpose (MPC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Morgan, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing a Multi-Purpose Canister system to promote compatibility between the waste program elements of storage, transportation, and disposal. The development of a Multi-Purpose Canister system requires meeting various regulatory requirements. These regulatory requirements are set forth in environmental and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. This paper discusses the more significant regulatory issues that must be addressed in the development of a Multi-Purpose Canister system by the Department of Energy

  9. Air toxics regulatory issues facing urban settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olden, K.; Guthrie, J. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Biomarker research does not exist in isolation. Its usefulness can only be realized when it is translated into prevention strategies to protect public health. In the context of air toxics, these prevention strategies begin with the development of regulatory standards derived from risk assessment schemes. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 list 189 air toxics, including many volatile organics, metals, and pesticides. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), through its affiliation with the National Toxicology Program, has generated toxicity and carcinogenicity data on more than 100 of these air toxics. The NIEHS extramural and intramural research portfolios support a variety of projects that develop and validate biomarkers for use in environmental health science and risk assessment. Biomarkers have a tremendous potential in the areas of regulating air toxics and protecting public health. Risk assessors need data provided by biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of close/pharmacokinetics, biomarkers of susceptibility or individual variability, and biomarkers of effects. The greatest benefit would be realized if biomarkers could be employed in four areas of primary and secondary prevention. The first is the use of biomarkers to enhance extrapolation of animal data to human exposure situations in establishing risk standards. The second is the use of biomarkers that assess noncancer, as well as cancer, end points. Important health end points include pulmonary dysfunction, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Third, biomarkers that serve as early warning signs to detect intermediate effects would enhance our ability to design timely and cost-effective intervention strategies. Finally, biomarkers used to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies both in clinical and regulatory settings, would enable us to ensure that programs designed to protect public health do, in fact, achieve the desired outcome. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Regulatory issues for nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, J.

    2000-01-01

    The workshop of 26-27 june 2000, on nuclear power Plant LIfe Management (PLIM), also included working groups in which major issues facing PLIM activities for nuclear power plants were identified and discussed. The second group was on Regulation. The Regulatory Working Group will attempt to identify some of the more pertinent issues affecting nuclear plant regulation in a changing PLIM environment, to identify some possible actions to be taken to address these issues, and to identify some of the parties responsible for taking these actions. Some preliminary regulatory issues are noted below. This is not intended to be a comprehensive list of such issues but rather is intended to stimulate discussion among the experts attending this Workshop. One of the concerns in the regulatory arena is how the structural integrity of the plants can be assured for an extended lifetime. Technological advances directed toward the following are likely to be important factors in the regulatory process of life extension. - Preventive and corrective maintenance (e.g., water chemistry control, pressure vessel annealing, and replacement of core internals). - Ageing and degradation mechanisms and evaluation (e.g., embrittlement, wear, corrosion/erosion, fatigue, and stress corrosion). - Monitoring, surveillance, and inspection (e.g., fatigue monitoring and non-destructive testing). - Optimisation of maintenance (e.g., using risk-based analysis). On the business side, there is concern about technical support by manufacturers, fuel companies, and construction companies. Maintaining a strong technical base and skilled workers in a potentially declining environment is another concern in the regulatory community. Waste management and decommissioning remain significant issue regarding PLIM. These issues affect all three areas of concern - technology, business, and regulation. It is against this background, that the issues put forth in this paper are presented. The objective of presenting these

  11. Regulatory controls for NORM contamination: Emerging issues and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennerberg, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material (NORM) faces the increasing likelihood of federal or state regulatory control. Public concern and limited preliminary survey data fuel the debate over the necessity, approach, and jurisdiction of a NORM regulatory strategy. This debate requires the resolution of technical controversies and potentially competing state and federal agency interests. An additional facet of the debate is the impact of regulation upon traditionally non-nuclear industries, such as oil and gas production. Regulatory response has been initiated in several states, such as Louisiana's controls on equipment used in oil and gas production, to control specific industrial activities which generate NORM. A more comprehensive, generic federal strategy to control NORM contamination is also under review by the Environmental Protection Agency. This paper will detail the emerging technical issues, federal and state regulatory strategies under consideration, and evaluate the efficacy of selected regulatory approaches. (author)

  12. Strategic and policy issues raised by the transition from thermal to fast nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply, which could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation, enhances the attractiveness of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD-D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, aiming at providing guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios. The topics covered in this book will be of interest to government and nuclear industry policy makers as well as to specialists working on nuclear energy system analyses and advanced fuel cycle issues. (author)

  13. Ethical and Logistical Issues Raised by the Advanced Donation Program "Pay It Forward" Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Rodrigue, James R; Veatch, Robert M

    2017-10-01

    The advanced donation program was proposed in 2014 to allow an individual to donate a kidney in order to provide a voucher for a kidney in the future for a particular loved one. In this article, we explore the logistical and ethical issues that such a program raises. We argue that such a program is ethical in principle but there are many logistical issues that need to be addressed to ensure that the actual program is fair to both those who do and do not participate in this program. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. 76 FR 10072 - Proposed Generic Communications; Draft NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX, Adequacy of Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0013] Proposed Generic Communications; Draft NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX, Adequacy of Station Electric Distribution System Voltages; Reopening of... (NRC's) Draft Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX, Adequacy of Station Electric Distribution System...

  15. Regulatory issues in the maintenance of Argentine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.; Caruso, G.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of maintenance activities upon nuclear safety and their relevance as means to detect and prevent aging make them play an outstanding role among the fields of interest of the Argentine nuclear regulatory body (ENREN). Such interest is reinforced by the fact that the data obtained during maintenance are used - among other - as inputs in the Probabilistic Safety Analyses required for those nuclear power plants. This paper provides a brief description of the original requirements by the regulatory body concerning maintenance, of the factors that led to review the criteria involved in such requirements and of the key items identified during the reviewing process. The latter shall be taken into account in the maintenance regulatory policy, for the consequent issue of new requirements from the utilities and for the eventual publication of a specific regulatory standard. (author)

  16. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Yamanaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses

  17. Addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by voting by persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason H; Bonnie, Richard J; Appelbaum, Paul S; Lyketsos, Constantine; James, Bryan; Knopman, David; Patusky, Christopher; Kane, Rosalie A; Karlan, Pamela S

    2004-09-15

    This article addresses an emerging policy problem in the United States participation in the electoral process by citizens with dementia. At present, health care professionals, family caregivers, and long-term care staff lack adequate guidance to decide whether individuals with dementia should be precluded from or assisted in casting a ballot. Voting by persons with dementia raises a series of important questions about the autonomy of individuals with dementia, the integrity of the electoral process, and the prevention of fraud. Three subsidiary issues warrant special attention: development of a method to assess capacity to vote; identification of appropriate kinds of assistance to enable persons with cognitive impairment to vote; and formulation of uniform and workable policies for voting in long-term care settings. In some instances, extrapolation from existing policies and research permits reasonable recommendations to guide policy and practice. However, in other instances, additional research is necessary.

  18. Issues on raising a bilingual child in Costa Rica: a myth or a reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Quesada Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with main issues concerning bilingualism and bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA. A review of the literature is presented on how children learn languages. In addition, this paper summarizes what bilingualism is and addresses how the One-parent One-language (OPOL and the Minority Language at Home (ML@H methods work. The paper includes sample testimonies of Itzel, a three-year-old child, raised with these methods. It also illustrates samples of her code-switching and code-mixing as part of her evolution in bilingual first language acquisition. Based on this evolution, there is some evidence that a child can become bilingual under foreign language conditions. Finally, the article reflects on the decisive role that dedication, consistency and effort have as crucial components to accomplish BFLA.

  19. Policy issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance in NRC proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the report presented is to focus and develop the myriad issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance for the NRC's proposed rulemaking proceeding. The report analyzes and assesses the various alternatives open to the Commission, and collects relevant data and material which may be informative to those participating in and conducting the rulemaking. Three major questions are examined: (1) should the Commission, as a matter of policy choice, provide financial assistance to intervenors in NRC proceedings; (2) are there preferable alternatives to direct intervenor financial aid, such as the establishment of an office of public counsel or provision of other forms of Commission assistance; and (3) what are the legal, administrative and policy considerations involved in implementing a determination to award financial assistance to intervenors, should the Commission so decide

  20. Relationship between regulatory issues and probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilberg, D.; Papazoglou, I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain some perspective on the characteristics and the relative number of regulatory issues that are PRA related, i.e., can be effectively addressed by plant specific PRA studies. It was also aimed at developing approaches to resolution of regulatory issues as part of plant specific PRAs. Several ongoing NRC programs include a number of safety-related issues which are applicable to operating plants. A number of these issues include aspects that strongly interact with items addressed in PRA studies. The resolution of several generic issues using PRA studies has already started. A review of over 335 issues included in three NRC programs was conducted: Generic Issue Program (GI); Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP); and TMI Action Plan (TMI). The review identifid 240 items related to PRA, 120 of which were judged to have significant effect on core damage frequency. It is believed that these items can be effectively treated in a PRA study that includes internal and external events

  1. A study on the regulatory approach of major technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Choi, J. T.; Kim, I. J. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Yang, S. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 4 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are as follows : reliability of risk significant SSCs established during design stage must be maintained through the operating life of the plant, currently used classification method of plant conditions and safety requirement were reviewed, and a quantitative classification method is needed to be developed further, the basic regulatory directions are proposed for multiple failures such as SBO, TLOFW, multiple SGTR and ATWS, safety requirements are proposed for survivability/availability of severe accident mitigation design features by 5 items if basic requirements, selection of initial event, identification of available equipment and instruments, identification of environmental conditions and verification methods.

  2. Regulatory analyses for severe accident issues: an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.P.; Strip, D.R.; Aldrich, D.C.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents the results of an effort to develop a regulatory analysis methodology and presentation format to provide information for regulatory decision-making related to severe accident issues. Insights and conclusions gained from an example analysis are presented. The example analysis draws upon information generated in several previous and current NRC research programs (the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP), Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP), Value-Impact Handbook, Economic Risk Analyses, and studies of Vented Containment Systems and Alternative Decay Heat Removal Systems) to perform preliminary value-impact analyses on the installation of either a vented containment system or an alternative decay heat removal system at the Peach Bottom No. 2 plant. The results presented in this report are first-cut estimates, and are presented only for illustrative purposes in the context of this document. This study should serve to focus discussion on issues relating to the type of information, the appropriate level of detail, and the presentation format which would make a regulatory analysis most useful in the decisionmaking process

  3. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  4. Legal briefs in dental bias case raise issues pivotal to epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-20

    The U.S. Supreme Court will hear oral arguments in March that could profoundly alter the way courts, employers, and the medical community deal with HIV. [Name removed] v. [Name removed] raises the issues of whom the law covers, whether health care providers have a choice in treating HIV and AIDS patients or refusing to treat them, and whether the stigma of HIV impedes an infected person's ability to participate in mainstream American life. This is the first time that the Supreme Court will interpret the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and how the case is decided could affect the legal rights of people with other impairments. The case grew out of a dentist's refusal to treat an HIV-positive patient in his office because of the increased risk of contracting the disease. [Name removed] offered to treat [name removed] in a hospital, where infection control procedures are better. [Name removed] sued, relying on the ADA, and prevailed in both Federal district court and the 1st U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. The Supreme Court asked both sides to discuss the following questions: does the ADA protect all people with HIV, including those with no symptoms, from discrimination; is reproduction a major life activity under the ADA; and should the court defer to the health-care provider's professional judgement for evaluating whether a patient poses a direct threat. [Name removed] argues that an asymptomatic person cannot be disabled under the meaning of the law and cites two celebrities as examples, Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Greg Louganis. [Name removed] argues that the definition of disability under the ADA is intentionally broad to achieve the remedial purpose of enabling Americans with disabilities to live full, independent and economically sufficient lives. The elements of the case, the key players, and the legislative history are reviewed.

  5. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  6. Major nuclear safety and regulatory issues in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Soon Heung

    2004-01-01

    Recently the value of nuclear energy is being re-considered due to the increase of oil price, the lack of energy supply, and the competition with renewable energy source. In Unites States, Europe, and East Asia, the prospects for continuous nuclear energy development or the policy for retaining nuclear energy have been announced. According to the nuclear energy promotion plan in Korea, there are 19 operating nuclear plants currently and more 7 plants will be constructed in the future. Until now, qualitative as well as quantitative growth is remarkable. Korean nuclear power plants achieved world-best level of capacity factor. However, because of the various nuclear industrial activities, we have a lot of regulatory issues for operating plants, building new plants, and other nuclear related facilities such as research reactors or radioactive waste storage facility. In this article, important regulatory issues which are emerging in Korea will be reviewed and the approaches to solve the issues including public acceptance will be presented. Especially, I will go into detail of two special case studies: The one is the thermal sleeve separation incident in Younggwang nuclear units 5 and 6 whose outage lasts about 80 days and 90 days respectively, which is not common in worldwide nuclear history. The other is about consensus meeting of Korea nuclear energy policy which was managed by a non-governmental organization. (author)

  7. Development of regulatory technologies of key issues of radiation sources in the medical and industrial fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Byung Soo; Ku, Bon Chul

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this research is to provide with rational bases to address the key issues raising up during the expansion of RI/RG usage in the medical and industrial fields, thus eventually contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of national regulatory systems. Related key issues that are introduced in the medical and industrial fields are analyzed and some outcomes are produced. The following results are attained. - Estimation Methodology Development of Regulatory Effects for the Use of Radioactive Substances, - Survey on Domestic Status of Nuclear Materials and Review on Domestic/Foreign Regulatory System for Nuclear Materials Regulation, - Comparative Analysis of KSTAR and Fusion Facilities of Advanced Countries, - Radiological Characteristics of Proton Therapy and Analysis of Foreign Cases and Systems, - Detection and Safety Analysis of Leak Radiation of High Energy Medical Generators, - Survey and Analysis on Usage and Requirements of Sealed Sources, - Incidents/Accidents Reporting System for RI-related Facilities, - Development of Audio-Visual Education Materials for Radiation Workers, - Development of Major Safety Procedures for Portable RIs, - Expansion of Existing DB for Radiation Devices including New Domestic Ones, - Survey of Foreign Status of Quality Maintenance System for Radiation equipment

  8. A study on the regulatory approach of major technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Oh, S. H.; Kang, H. J.; Kim, G. S. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Yang, S. H.; Jeong, Y. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 4 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are are as follows : related to the classification and acceptance criteria of plant conditions, currently used classification and safety requirement were reviewed and regulatory direction was proposed. Among multiple failures, it is identified that SBO, TLOFW, multiple SGTR and ATWS are basically to be considered for additional requirements for advanced reactors. This study reviewed risk aspects, design consideration, and trends of safety requirements, and proposed fundamental safety requirements to be applied for KNGR. Multiple steam generator tube failure is a significant safety concern because of the possibility of release of radionuclides to the environment through containment bypass. Proposed safety requirement for this event can be categorized mainly as analysis requirement, design evaluation requirement and PSA requirement; For protection of containment failure, a reasonable safety position is necessary through and integrated review of possibility of severe accident occurrence, effects of sever accident mitigation features and cost effects of these design features. With this consideration safety requirements developed are the analysis requirement, provision of protective measures and survivability/availability of protective measures.

  9. Ethical and regulatory issues arising from proteomic research and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Marc A; Steinert, Ralf; Eder, Frank; Lippert, Hans

    2003-08-01

    Over the last two decades, medical research has begun to make extensive use of products of human origin in therapeutics, oncology, and most recently, in genetic diseases. This has raised many ethical issues involving patient rights, including issues of consent. Besides informed consent, researchers should address several topics when designing studies using human tissues. Reward for the patient should be kept minimal. Sample transfer should be organized along non-profit lines, at least in Europe. Sampling procedures should be at no risk for human volunteers, and at minimal risk for patients. Biosafety aspects should be addressed, in particular when international collaborations are intended or when collaboration is existing between academia and industry. Regulations on importation and exportation of human tissues should be observed. Data acquisition and storage should be addressed in accordance with national data protection regulations, in particular when using computerized databases. If follow-up information is to be taken, the authorization for such information should be requested. The right for patient's information (or for no information) on the research results should also be addressed. The issues of validation and patenting should be also solved, usually by informing the patient that he/she will have no commercial rights on potential research results. The patient should be told if the samples are transferred to another research laboratory or private company. Samples and related data should be destroyed on request at any time point during the course of the study. If possible, traceability of the donor should be ensured.

  10. Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise challenging issues. Case studies: The transmed and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khene, D.

    1997-01-01

    Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise complex and interdependent issues whose successful resolution require not only technical and management strengths but also a close cooperation between the key players involved in the game. In this paper we shall attempt to explain some of the major issues encountered during the appraisal and construction of long distance gas pipeline schemes. The information used derive essentially from the experience gained during the development of the Trans-mediterranean and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines. Running through the various issues we shall also identify and then discuss a number of factors which contributed to the successful implementation of these two projects. (au)

  11. [Neuroscience in the Courtroom: From responsibility to dangerousness, ethical issues raised by the new French law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, G-M; Moulin, V; Gasser, J

    2015-10-01

    In the past few years, spectacular progress in neuroscience has led to the emergence of a new interdisciplinary field, the so-called "neurolaw" whose goal is to explore the effects of neuroscientific discoveries on legal proceedings and legal rules and standards. In the United States, a number of neuroscientific researches are designed specifically to explore legally relevant topics and a case-law has already been developed. In Europe, neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal courtrooms, as part of psychiatric testimony, nourishing the debate about the legal implications of brain research in psychiatric-legal settings. Though largely debated, up to now the use of neuroscience in legal contexts had not specifically been regulated by any legislation. In 2011, with the new bioethics law, France has become the first country to admit by law the use of brain imaging in judicial expertise. According to the new law, brain imaging techniques can be used only for medical purposes, or scientific research, or in the context of judicial expertise. This study aims to give an overview of the current state of the neurolaw in the US and Europe, and to investigate the ethical issues raised by this new law and its potential impact on the rights and civil liberties of the offenders. An overview of the emergence and development of "neurolaw" in the United States and Europe is given. Then, the new French law is examined in the light of the relevant debates in the French parliament. Consequently, we outline the current tendencies in Neurolaw literature to focus on assessments of responsibility, rather than dangerousness. This tendency is analysed notably in relation to the legal context relevant to criminal policies in France, where recent changes in the legislation and practice of forensic psychiatry show that dangerousness assessments have become paramount in the process of judicial decision. Finally, the potential interpretations of neuroscientific data

  12. Using Drones to Study Human Beings: Ethical and Regulatory Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2018-02-27

    Researchers have used drones to track wildlife populations, monitor forest fires, map glaciers, and measure air pollution but have only begun to consider how to use these unmanned aerial vehicles to study human beings. The potential use of drones to study public gatherings or other human activities raises novel issues of privacy, confidentiality, and consent, which this article explores in depth. It argues that drone research could fall into several different categories: non-human subjects research (HSR), exempt HSR, or non-exempt HSR. In the case of non-exempt HSR, it will be difficult for institutional review boards to approve studies unless they are designed so that informed consent can be waived. Whether drone research is non-HSR, exempt HSR, or non-exempt HSR, it is important for investigators to consult communities which could be affected by the research.

  13. Suggested technical scheme to help resolve regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, T.

    1978-07-01

    A management-planning model envisioned as a useful tool for planning and guiding the development of a nuclear waste repository data base is described. It incorporates the technical assessment goals and objectives of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and it provides a strategy for reaching them. The model strategy includes provisions for the breadth, timeliness, and defensibility of its predictions. Consideration is given to observational data, its structure, and future refinements. The structure of the data is consistent with the needs of a systems model whose structure is proposed to resolve questions about repository safety. Uncertainties are categorized as an aid in defining and resolving technical issues. The model provides a framework for ultimately exposing all the sensitive and controversial factors. Some quantitative aspects of data acquisition are presented. 12 figures.

  14. Suggested technical scheme to help resolve regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.

    1978-07-01

    A management-planning model envisioned as a useful tool for planning and guiding the development of a nuclear waste repository data base is described. It incorporates the technical assessment goals and objectives of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and it provides a strategy for reaching them. The model strategy includes provisions for the breadth, timeliness, and defensibility of its predictions. Consideration is given to observational data, its structure, and future refinements. The structure of the data is consistent with the needs of a systems model whose structure is proposed to resolve questions about repository safety. Uncertainties are categorized as an aid in defining and resolving technical issues. The model provides a framework for ultimately exposing all the sensitive and controversial factors. Some quantitative aspects of data acquisition are presented. 12 figures

  15. 77 FR 12089 - Proposed Generic Communication; Regulatory Issue Summary 2012-XX: Developing Inservice Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0048] Proposed Generic Communication; Regulatory Issue... CFR) Part 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,'' to satisfy the... inservice testing programs during the initial 120-month program interval following nuclear power plant...

  16. Healthier? More Efficient? Fairer? An Overview of the Main Ethical Issues Raised by the Use of Ubicomp in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Ehrwein NIHAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs. It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to clarify the methodology (2 as well as the object (3 of the research. We then point out some of the main ethical issues raised by IWEs and their capacity to collect and handle medical data. The final section attempts to offer some elements of reflection regarding the ethical principles that should guide the development of IWEs in the future.

  17. Healthier? More Efficient? Fairer? An Overview of the Main Ethical Issues Raised by the Use of Ubicomp in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Céline Ehrwein NIHAN

    2013-01-01

    The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs). It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to clarify the m...

  18. Ethical Issues Raised by Private Practice Physiotherapy Are More Diverse than First Meets the Eye: Recommendations from a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Physiotherapy in private practice differs from physiotherapy practised in a public setting in several ways, the most evident of which is the for-profit nature of private physiotherapy clinics; these differences can generate distinct and challenging ethical issues. The objectives of this article are to identify ethical issues encountered by physiotherapists in private practice settings and to identify potential solutions and recommendations to address these issues. Method: After a literature search of eight databases, 39 studies addressing ethical issues in a private practice context were analyzed. Results: A total of 25 ethical issues emerging from the included studies were classified into three main categories: (1) business and economic issues (e.g., conflicts of interests, inequity in a managed care context, lack of time affecting quality of care); (2) professional issues (e.g., professional autonomy, clinical judgment, treatment effectiveness, professional conduct); and (3) patients' rights and welfare issues (e.g., confidentiality, power asymmetries, paternalism vs. patient autonomy, informed consent). Recommendations as to how physiotherapists could better manage these issues were then identified and categorized. Conclusions: The physiotherapy community should reflect on the challenges raised by private practice so that professionals can be supported—through education, research, and good governance—in providing the best possible care for their patients. PMID:25931663

  19. Ethical issues raised by private practice physiotherapy are more diverse than first meets the eye: recommendations from a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Anne; Drolet, Marie-Josée; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapy in private practice differs from physiotherapy practised in a public setting in several ways, the most evident of which is the for-profit nature of private physiotherapy clinics; these differences can generate distinct and challenging ethical issues. The objectives of this article are to identify ethical issues encountered by physiotherapists in private practice settings and to identify potential solutions and recommendations to address these issues. After a literature search of eight databases, 39 studies addressing ethical issues in a private practice context were analyzed. A total of 25 ethical issues emerging from the included studies were classified into three main categories: (1) business and economic issues (e.g., conflicts of interests, inequity in a managed care context, lack of time affecting quality of care); (2) professional issues (e.g., professional autonomy, clinical judgment, treatment effectiveness, professional conduct); and (3) patients' rights and welfare issues (e.g., confidentiality, power asymmetries, paternalism vs. patient autonomy, informed consent). Recommendations as to how physiotherapists could better manage these issues were then identified and categorized. The physiotherapy community should reflect on the challenges raised by private practice so that professionals can be supported-through education, research, and good governance-in providing the best possible care for their patients.

  20. Issues of Meaning and Interpretation Raised by Diagetic versus Non-diagetic Use of Music in Television and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Issues of Meaning and Interpretation Rasied by Diagetic versus Non-diagetic Use of Music in Television and Film. When music occurs in the soundtrack of a film or television show, it can either be attributed to a source within the narrative, so that the characters can hear it, or it can...... be "background" music, available to the viewer, but not to the characters. In this presentation, we will explore the complex of issues related to meaning and interpretaiton raised by diagetic v non-diagetic use of music in television and film. Matters to be addressed include: How is it of significance...

  1. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. Foreign and Foreign-Born Engineers in the United States: Infusing Talent, Raising Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    Immigrants have provided a transfusion of new talent throughout U.S. history to support the nation's economic and cultural growth and development. The absorption of these successive groups of immigrants has often been accompanied by issues associated with their integration into the work force and society. In recent years, there has been a marked…

  3. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  4. Education Issues Raised by S.744: The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the requirements for undocumented immigrants set forth by the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S.744). Assuming that S.744 will move forward in Congress, the report also examines issues having to do with certain language, civics and government, and education/training provisions…

  5. Debatable Issues of Regulatory Policy of Russian Nanoindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Daniil Petrovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the debatable issues of regulatory policy in the sphere of nanoindustry. The nanotech industry has interindustry character that is caused by interdisciplinarity of a nanoscience therefore it is necessary to recognize objectively impossible exact definition of its branch structure. As a result of terminological uncertainty, the state support and regulation of nanotech industry is a difficult process. The substantial expansionism of the term “nanotechnology” and metaphorism of the concept “nanoindustry” is reasoned. The need of creating more detailed classification (by 1-2 orders of nanotechnologies and allocation of at least three subindustries of nanotech industry is proved. The deficiency of convergent orientation of policy of regulation of the Russian hi-tech industries is revealed. The conceptual discrepancy of nanoindustrial policy of the Russian Federation combining elements of traditional policy of import substitution and new industrial policy is shown. The expediency of transition from universal policy of nanoindustry regulation to the development of a package of the segment-focused strategies of development of different types of nanotechnologies and the nanotechnological activities is proved. The special attention is paid to a safety control problem (combination of obligatory certification and voluntary marking of nanoproduction, strengthening the role of nanotech industry self-regulation and active integration of stakeholders into the system of strategic planning.

  6. Print Me an Organ? Ethical and Regulatory Issues Emerging from 3D Bioprinting in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frederic; O'Connell, Cathal D; Mladenovska, Tajanka; Dodds, Susan

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments of three-dimensional printing of biomaterials (3D bioprinting) in medicine have been portrayed as demonstrating the potential to transform some medical treatments, including providing new responses to organ damage or organ failure. However, beyond the hype and before 3D bioprinted organs are ready to be transplanted into humans, several important ethical concerns and regulatory questions need to be addressed. This article starts by raising general ethical concerns associated with the use of bioprinting in medicine, then it focuses on more particular ethical issues related to experimental testing on humans, and the lack of current international regulatory directives to guide these experiments. Accordingly, this article (1) considers whether there is a limit as to what should be bioprinted in medicine; (2) examines key risks of significant harm associated with testing 3D bioprinting for humans; (3) investigates the clinical trial paradigm used to test 3D bioprinting; (4) analyses ethical questions of irreversibility, loss of treatment opportunity and replicability; (5) explores the current lack of a specific framework for the regulation and testing of 3D bioprinting treatments.

  7. Regulatory issues resolved through design certification on the System 80+trademark standard plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.; Brinkman, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed its review of the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design, approving advanced design features and closing severe accident licensing issues. Final Design Approval was granted in July 1994. The NRC review was extensive, requiring written responses to over 4,950 questions and formal printing of over 50,000 Safety Analysis Report pages. New safety issues never before addressed in a regulatory atmosphere had to be resolved with detailed analysis and evaluation of design features. the System 80+ review demonstrated that regulatory issues can be firmly resolved only through presentation of a detailed design and completion of a comprehensive regulatory review

  8. Public health at the vicinity of nuclear installations: how to address the raised issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchery, Jean-Claude; Leuregans, Vincent; Catelinois, Olivier; Chambon, Paul; Chenal, Christian; Demet, Michel; Demet, Valerie; Gazal, Suzanne; Laurier, Dominique; Morichaud, Jean-Pierre; Petitfrere, Michael; Rollinger, Francois; Sene, Monique

    2012-01-01

    This document is proposed by a work-group which gathered the IRSN, public local information commissions and the French Health Survey Institute (InVS). It is designed to be a methodological document on the benefits and limits of health analysis tools with respect to real situations. The first part discusses the implementation of a public health survey, its approach, its modalities and how its results are published. The second part deals with methodological issues for the definition of the specifications of a public health survey, and its protocol. Thus, it discusses how releases in the environment are to be addressed (releases from nuclear installations and from other activities involving radioactivity), the different pathologies to be studied, the existing health data and survey tools (mortality and cancer incidence data, medical-administrative data), and the possible survey types (descriptive or analytical epidemiological surveys) and their limitations

  9. The concept of milk kinship in Islam: issues raised when offering preterm infants of Muslim families donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Unger, Sharon

    2012-05-01

    Research has documented health benefits associated with donor human milk (DHM). Offering DHM to people of the Muslim faith raises important religious concerns for these families. Knowledge of these beliefs and an understanding of the rationale for these beliefs enable the health care team to establish rapport and build a foundation of trust with patients and their families, thereby paving the way to developing a treatment plan that is in the best interest of the patients without compromising care. This article describes the issues and a rationale for them and provides physicians caring for preterm infants of Muslim families with information to facilitate advocating DHM to those families.

  10. Safety Committees for Argentinean Research Reactor - Regulatory Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of radiological and nuclear safety, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina controls three research reactors and three critical assemblies, by means of evaluations, audits and inspections, in order to ensure the fulfillment of the requirements established in the Licenses, in the Regulatory Standards and in the Mandatory Documentation in general. From the Nuclear Regulatory Authority's point of view, within the general process of research reactors safety management, the Operational Organization self verification of radiological and nuclear safety plays an outstanding role. In this aspect the ARN has established specific requirements in the Regulatory Standards, in the Operation Licenses and in the Operational Limits and Conditions. These requirements include the figure of different safety committees, which act as reviewers or advisers in diverse situations. This paper describes the main characteristics of the committees, their function, scope and the regulatory documents where the requirements are included. (author)

  11. 75 FR 27028 - Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... regulatory issues and their potential impact on investors and the securities markets. The Committee will lend... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 33-9123; File No. 265-26] COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues AGENCY: Securities and...

  12. Ethical issues raised in addressing the needs of people with serious mental disorders in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissow, Lawrence S; Rutkow, Lainie; Kass, Nancy E; Rabins, Peter V; Vernick, Jon S; Hodge, James G

    2012-03-01

    Recent manmade and natural disasters highlight weaknesses in the public health systems designed to protect populations from harm and minimize disruption of the social and built environments. Emergency planning and response efforts have, as a result, focused largely on ensuring populations' physical well-being during and after a disaster. Many public health authorities, including the World Health Organization, have recognized the importance of addressing both mental and physical health concerns in emergency plans. Individuals with mental disorders represent a notable proportion of the overall population, and anticipating their needs is critical to comprehensive emergency planning and response efforts. Because people with serious mental disorders historically have been stigmatized, and many individuals with mental disorders may be unable to care for themselves, ethical guidance may be of assistance to those engaged in emergency planning and response. This article considers several broad categories of ethical issues that arise during emergencies for people with serious mental disorders and offers recommendations for ways in which emergency planners and other stakeholders can begin to address these ethical challenges.

  13. Managing pediatric dental patients: issues raised by the law and changing views of proper child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Donald C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine legal issues regarding the management of pediatric dental patients and changing views of proper child care. Standards of care in pediatric dentistry are not static. They change in response to research, patterns of reimbursement, patient and parental expectations of reasonable care, and consensus among practitioners. The law pertaining to accountability for pediatric dental patient treatment largely reflects standards of care established by the pediatric dentistry profession. However, the law can also reflect changes in public expectations of reasonable care that can effectively outrun the discipline's efforts to reflect new knowledge or changing public concerns. A major impetus for considering the care of children in all settings has been the increasing recognition of suboptimal children's care, as well as concerns that children have either been abused or neglected in a number of settings. Too often, practices towards children have been untested and based only on the assumption that what is done is "for the child's own good." Pediatric dentists can respond to changing standards of reasonable care for pediatric dental patients, as expressed in legal decisions. They can also usefully consider how attention to child maltreatment has sensitized parents to be better consumers of services on their children's behalf. Rather than reacting only to public pressures for better means of behavior management, the challenge is to exceed expectations via new research and thoughtful anticipation of improvements that can be made.

  14. Applying "Climate" system to teaching basic climatology and raising public awareness of climate change issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    theory and practice. Along with its usage in graduate and postgraduate education, "Climate" is used as a framework for a developed basic information course on climate change for common public. In this course basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are described for non-specialists. The course will also include links to relevant information resources on topical issues of Earth Sciences and a number of case studies, which are carried out for a selected region to consolidate the received knowledge.

  15. The Preliminary Review for the Cross-Cutting Issues in the US Nuclear Regulatory Inspection Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Jung, Dae Wook [Future and Challenges Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The research for the development of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory inspection is ongoing in KINS. In the USNRC, the cross-cutting issue is one of the main components the risk-informed and performance-based regulatory inspection process as shown in figure 1, which is named as ROP (Reactor Oversight Process). The following three cross-cutting areas implicitly affect all of the safety cornerstones in ROP. In this study, the preliminary review for the inspection practices of cross-cutting issues in the US and Korean safety regulatory system were performed. The elements of the cross-cutting issues were recently modified to emphasize the importance of safety culture, and the graded approach was applied for the inspection of cross-cutting issues in USNRC. The graded approach for the inspection of cross-cutting issues will be also needed to Korean safety regulatory system in the future.

  16. The Preliminary Review for the Cross-Cutting Issues in the US Nuclear Regulatory Inspection Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Jung, Dae Wook; Cho, Nam Chul

    2008-01-01

    The research for the development of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory inspection is ongoing in KINS. In the USNRC, the cross-cutting issue is one of the main components the risk-informed and performance-based regulatory inspection process as shown in figure 1, which is named as ROP (Reactor Oversight Process). The following three cross-cutting areas implicitly affect all of the safety cornerstones in ROP. In this study, the preliminary review for the inspection practices of cross-cutting issues in the US and Korean safety regulatory system were performed. The elements of the cross-cutting issues were recently modified to emphasize the importance of safety culture, and the graded approach was applied for the inspection of cross-cutting issues in USNRC. The graded approach for the inspection of cross-cutting issues will be also needed to Korean safety regulatory system in the future

  17. Using the Emanuel et al. framework to assess ethical issues raised by a biomedical research ethics committee in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Wassenaar, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    The Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady framework was designed as a universal tool for use in many settings including developing countries. However, it is not known whether the work of African health research ethics committees (RECs) is compatible with this framework. The absence of any normative or empirical weighting of the eight principles within this framework suggests that different health RECs may raise some ethical issues more frequently than others when reviewing protocols. We used the Emanuel et al. framework to assess, code, and rank the most frequent ethical issues considered by a biomedical REC during review of research protocols for the years 2008 to 2012. We extracted data from the recorded minutes of a South African biomedical REC for the years 2008 to 2012, designed the data collection sheet according to the Emanuel et al. framework, and removed all identifiers during data processing and analysis. From the 98 protocols that we assessed, the most frequent issues that emerged were the informed consent, scientific validity, fair participant selection, and ongoing respect for participants. This study represents the first known attempt to analyze REC responses/minutes using the Emanuel et al. framework, and suggests that this framework may be useful in describing and categorizing the core activities of an REC. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Enhancing regulatory effectiveness by improving the process for identifying and resolving generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Molen, Harold J.

    2001-01-01

    The Generic Issues Program first began formally in response to a Commission directive in October of 1976. In 1983, it became one of the first programs to make successful use of probabilistic risk information to aid in regulatory decision-making. In the 16 years since the program became quantitative, 836 issues have been processed. Of these, 106 reactor safety issues were prioritized as requiring further evaluation to determine the final resolution. Approximately a dozen generic issues remain unresolved. Although there is far less reactor licensing activity than in the 1970s, new issues continue to be identified from research and operational experience. These issues often involve complex and controversial questions of safety and regulation, and an efficient and effective means of addressing these issues is essential for regulatory effectiveness. Issues that involve a significant safety question require swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective regulatory actions. Issues that are of little safety significance must be quickly shown to be so and dismissed in an expeditious manner so as to avoid unnecessary expenditure of limited resources and to reduce regulatory uncertainty. Additionally, in the time since the generic issue program began, probabilistic risk assessment techniques have advanced significantly while agency resources have continued to diminish. Accordingly, the paper discusses the steps that have been taken to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the generic issue resolution process. Additionally, four resolved issues are discussed, along with key elements of a proposed new procedure for resolving potential generic issues

  19. Steam generators regulatory practices and issues in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, C.; Castelao, C.; Ruiz-Colino, J.; Figueras, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the actual status of Spanish Steam Generator tubes, actions developed by PWR plant owners and submitted to CSN, and regulatory activities related to tube degradation mechanisms analysis; NDT tube inspection techniques; tube, tubesheet and TSPs integrity studies; tube plugging/repair criteria; preventive and corrective measures including whole SGs replacement; tube leak measurement methods and other operational aspects

  20. Regulatory issues with multiplicity in drug approval: Principles and controversies in a changing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Norbert; Brandt, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Recently, new draft guidelines on multiplicity issues in clinical trials have been issued by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Multiplicity is an issue in clinical trials, if the probability of a false-positive decision is increased by insufficiently accounting for testing multiple hypotheses. We outline the regulatory principles related to multiplicity issues in confirmatory clinical trials intended to support a marketing authorization application in the EU, describe the reasons for an increasing complexity regarding multiple hypotheses testing and discuss the specific multiplicity issues emerging within the regulatory context and being relevant for drug approval.

  1. Regulatory challenges of robotics : Some guidelines for addressing legal and ethical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, Ronald; Palmerini, Erica; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Bertolini, Andrea; Salvini, Pericle; Lucivero, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Robots are slowly, but certainly, entering people’s professional and private lives. They require the attention of regulators due to the challenges they present to existing legal frameworks and the new legal and ethical questions they raise. This paper discusses four major regulatory dilemmas in the

  2. 77 FR 40817 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Regulatory Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-2011-0012] RIN-3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Regulatory Management Issues AGENCY: Nuclear... regulatory time of compliance for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, allowing licensees the... system, and revising the NRC's licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. DATES: The...

  3. 76 FR 57006 - Proposed Generic Communications; Draft NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX; NRC Regulation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 30 and 150 [NRC-2011-0146] Proposed Generic Communications; Draft NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX; NRC Regulation of Military Operational Radium-226... published for public comment the proposed draft RIS 2011-XX; NRC Regulation of Military Operational Radium...

  4. Telemental Health for Children and Adolescents: An Overview of Legal, Regulatory, and Risk Management Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gregory M; Luxton, David D

    2016-04-01

    The use of technology to provide telemental healthcare continues to increase; however, little has been written about the legal and regulatory issues involved in providing this form of care to children and adolescents. This article reviews existing laws and regulations to summarize the risk management issues relevant to providing telemental healthcare to children and adolescents. There are several legal and regulatory areas in which telemental health clinicians need to have awareness. These areas include: 1) Licensure, 2) malpractice liability, 3) credentialing and privileging, 4) informed consent, 5) security and privacy, and 6) emergency management. Although legal and regulatory challenges remain in providing telemental healthcare to children and adolescents, it is possible to overcome these challenges with knowledge of the issues and appropriate risk management strategies. We provide general knowledge of these key legal and regulatory issues, along with some risk management recommendations.

  5. Legal, regulatory & institutional issues facing distributed resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes legal, regulatory, and institutional considerations likely to shape the development and deployment of distributed resources. It is based on research co-sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and four investor-owned utilities (Central & South West Services, Cinergy Corp., Florida Power Corporation, and San Diego Gas & Electric Company). The research was performed between August 1995 and March 1996 by a team of four consulting firms experienced in energy and utility law, regulation, and economics. It is the survey phase of a project known as the Distributed Resources Institutional Analysis Project.

  6. A study on the implement of regulatory issue problems about service business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Hwan; Shim, H. S.; Yoon, K. H.; Jun, I. Y.; Kang, W. S.; Chang, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    This study is intended to derive a proposal for revision of the Atomic Energy Law, with understanding of differences between regulatory requirements and current issues based on findings during safety review and regular inspection. The contents and scope of this study is as follows: - Deep review for service business in 'the rationalization of the radiation protection system related with use of radionuclide', studied by Korea Isotope Association and presentation in the Korea Association for radiation protection, - Efficient regulatory activity through pre-finding of current regulatory issues to be derived during safety review and regular inspection

  7. Tritium : health risks, regulatory issues and the nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D. B.; Garva, A.

    2010-10-01

    The refurbishment of existing reactors and proposed new build reactors in Canada has resulted in increased public opposition to nuclear power. This opposition has been fuelled by information provided to local groups by highly motivated national and international anti-nuclear groups who foster overstated and often incorrect views on the risks of low doses of radiation. Over the past several years, there has been increased scientific and public interest in the risks of low exposures to tritium. Scientific aspects which have received considerable attention include amongst others, behaviour in the environment, the possibility of increasing the relative biological effectiveness for tritium, the importance of organically bound tritium, and tritium dosimetry. In Canada at least, the perception of harm from exposures to low levels of tritium has been enhanced in the public mind by a proposal in one Province to lower the drinking water standard for tritium from 7,000 Bq/L to 20 Bq/L, which certain non-governmental organizations use to suggest the risks have been greatly underestimated in the past. Actually regulatory environment, the approval of local public of often a requirement for licensing a nuclear facility and thus it is important to ensure that correct information is not only available but available in a technically correct but easily understood form. This paper reviews the currently available scientific information on the risks from exposure to tritium and provides a context of the implications for regulatory actions and communications with the public. (Author)

  8. Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Cox, S.

    2014-05-01

    This CERI report aims to provide an introductory overview of key regulatory issues associated with the deployment of renewable energy -- particularly variable renewable energy (VRE) sources such wind and solar power. The report draws upon the research and experiences from various international contexts, and identifies key ideas that have emerged from the growing body of VRE deployment experience and regulatory knowledge. The report assumes basic familiarity with regulatory concepts, and although it is not written for a technical audience, directs the reader to further reading when available. VRE deployment generates various regulatory issues: substantive, procedural, and public interest issues, and the report aims to provide an empirical and technical grounding for all three types of questions as appropriate.

  9. Issues and regulatory requirements for the connection of wind generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez Alvarez, J.M. [National University of San Juan (Argentina)], E-mail: jgimenez@unsj.edu.ar; Gomez Targarona, J.C. [National University of Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina). Electric Power Systems Protection Institute (IPSEP)], E-mail: jcgomez@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Pollution problems such as greenhouse effect as well as the high value and volatility of fuel prices have forced and accelerated the development and use of renewable energy sources. In this work a complete revision of wind generation is presented. In the first part a brief history of the wind energy developments is detailed. Next, some commentaries related to the present and future state are made. Then, a revision of the modern structures of wind generation is realized. In fourth place it is included a brief comparison between small and big size turbines. Then, different types of energy storage are mentioned. Finally regulatory aspects are discussed, respect to the treatment of the technical problems. (author)

  10. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders in the development of a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) is to ensure the safe disposal of all existing and future radioactive waste. In order to fulfil this task RAWRA, in addition to the operation of radioactive waste repositories in the Czech Republic, coordinates all those activities relating to the construction of a deep geological repository. This long-term goal implies first creating and then building upon the public's confidence in the decision making process and the project as a whole as well as in RAWRA as a competent and efficient implementer since clearly public acceptance is an essential condition for a successful final outcome. Since its establishment in 1997 RAWRA has been looking for ways in which to inform the public about its activities and how to involve the various stakeholders in the development process. The communication tools employed to achieve this goal have, to date, depended on the specific stage of the process but RAWRA has aimed at a continuous improvement in its activities; consequently a large number of changes have been made to RAWRA's policy and approach in recent years. This paper, which aims to describe RAWRA's dialogue with stakeholders (mainly local communities), provides examples of the way in which issues raised by stakeholders concerning a repository are reflected in RAWRA's approach. (author)

  11. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discus...

  12. Experimental investigations relevant for hydrogen and fission product issues raised by the Fukushima accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Gupta

    2015-02-01

    with the operation of passive safety systems in phenomena oriented and coupled effects experiments. In the present paper, potential hydrogen and fission product issues raised by the Fukushima accident are discussed. The discussion focuses on hydrogen and fission product behavior inside nuclear power plant containments under severe accident conditions. The relevant experimental investigations conducted in the technical scale containment THAI (thermal hydraulics, hydrogen, aerosols, and iodine test facility (9.2 m high, 3.2 m in diameter, and 60 m3 volume are discussed in the light of the Fukushima accident.

  13. Analytical difficulties facing today's regulatory laboratories: issues in method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, James D

    2012-08-01

    The challenges facing analytical laboratories today are not unlike those faced in the past, although both the degree of complexity and the rate of change have increased. Challenges such as development and maintenance of expertise, maintenance and up-dating of equipment, and the introduction of new test methods have always been familiar themes for analytical laboratories, but international guidelines for laboratories involved in the import and export testing of food require management of such changes in a context which includes quality assurance, accreditation, and method validation considerations. Decisions as to when a change in a method requires re-validation of the method or on the design of a validation scheme for a complex multi-residue method require a well-considered strategy, based on a current knowledge of international guidance documents and regulatory requirements, as well the laboratory's quality system requirements. Validation demonstrates that a method is 'fit for purpose', so the requirement for validation should be assessed in terms of the intended use of a method and, in the case of change or modification of a method, whether that change or modification may affect a previously validated performance characteristic. In general, method validation involves method scope, calibration-related parameters, method precision, and recovery. Any method change which may affect method scope or any performance parameters will require re-validation. Some typical situations involving change in methods are discussed and a decision process proposed for selection of appropriate validation measures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Low level waste disposal regulatory issues in the US - 59311

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, David; Kalinowski, Thomas; Edwards, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The United States led the international efforts to define disposal requirements for low level radioactive wastes with the publication of US Regulations governing the disposal of such wastes. The requirements were based on a system of waste classification based on the concentrations of certain radionuclides considered problematic for the protection of future generations from radiation exposure. The regulation, itself, was based on a process for the development of new disposal sites defined by the US congress to provide an equitable distribution of burden to various regions of the US. This process has met with little success in the almost 30 years since its initiation leaving only an incomplete patchwork of disposal options which are primarily dependant on the same options that existed before the act and regulations were initiated. There is currently a new focus on the basis for some of the regulatory requirements derived from advances in the understanding of dose impacts from certain radionuclides, improvements in performance assessment methodologies, the increased use of engineered barriers, the reality of current disposal economies, along with the failure of the act to conform to expectations. This paper will provide an update on the discussion taking place with a focus on the technical considerations. (authors)

  15. Safety and Regulatory Issues of the Thorium Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, Brian [ORNL; Worrall, Andrew [ORNL; Powers, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bowman, Steve [ORNL; Flanagan, George [ORNL; Gehin, Jess [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    Thorium has been widely considered an alternative to uranium fuel because of its relatively large natural abundance and its ability to breed fissile fuel (233U) from natural thorium (232Th). Possible scenarios for using thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle include use in different nuclear reactor types (light water, high temperature gas cooled, fast spectrum sodium, molten salt, etc.), advanced accelerator-driven systems, or even fission-fusion hybrid systems. The most likely near-term application of thorium in the United States is in currently operating light water reactors (LWRs). This use is primarily based on concepts that mix thorium with uranium (UO2 + ThO2), add fertile thorium (ThO2) fuel pins to LWR fuel assemblies, or use mixed plutonium and thorium (PuO2 + ThO2) fuel assemblies. The addition of thorium to currently operating LWRs would result in a number of different phenomenological impacts on the nuclear fuel. Thorium and its irradiation products have nuclear characteristics that are different from those of uranium. In addition, ThO2, alone or mixed with UO2 fuel, leads to different chemical and physical properties of the fuel. These aspects are key to reactor safety-related issues. The primary objectives of this report are to summarize historical, current, and proposed uses of thorium in nuclear reactors; provide some important properties of thorium fuel; perform qualitative and quantitative evaluations of both in-reactor and out-of-reactor safety issues and requirements specific to a thorium-based fuel cycle for current LWR reactor designs; and identify key knowledge gaps and technical issues that need to be addressed for the licensing of thorium LWR fuel in the United States.

  16. Assessing the role of regulatory bodies in managing health professional issues and errors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; Legido-Quigley, H; Panteli, D; Mckee, M

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores how medical regulatory bodies in nine European countries manage professional issues involving quality and patient safety, to build on limited existing information on procedures for regulating medical professionals in Europe. Twelve vignettes describing scenarios of concerns about standards of physicians were developed, covering clinical, criminal and administrative matters. Medical regulatory bodies in nine European countries were asked what action they would normally take in each situation. Their responses were related to their regulatory mandate. Responses varied greatly across participating countries. Regulators are always involved where patients are at risk or where a criminal offence is committed within the clinical setting. Non-criminal medical issues were generally handled by the employer, if any, at their discretion. Countries varied in the use of punitive measures, the extent to which they took an interest in issues arising outside professional activities, and whether they dealt with issues themselves or referred cases to another regulatory authority or took no action at all. There is little consistency across Europe on the regulation of medical professionals. There is considerable diversity in the range of topics that regulatory bodies oversee, with almost all covering health care quality and safety and others encompassing issues related to reputation, respect and trust. These inconsistencies have significant implications for professional mobility, patient safety and quality of care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  17. Selected review of regulatory standards and licensing issues for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.; Thomas, F.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents a compilation and description of current foreign regulatory standards and licensing issues in the areas of interest associated with Siting, Structural Engineering, Metallurgy and Materials, and Mechanical Engineering. In addition, summary comparisons of the requirements of both the US and foreign nuclear power plant regulatory standards are provided. The selected foreign countries surveyed include Canada, France, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Federal Republic of Germany

  18. Comprehensive studies on regulatory issues of spent fuel pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    An existence of safety issues in the spent fuel pool (SFP) was recognized by the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, and many reports on the accident describe needs of countermeasures for SFP under sever accidents. For research planning, thermal hydraulic behaviors of SFP and possibility of occurrence of re-criticality conditions in SFP were studied by computational approaches. In the studies on thermal hydraulic behaviors, possibilities of adiabatic conditions in a spent fuel bundle were identified because natural circulation cooling of air could be terminated due to flow path blockage by pool water and steam cooling could be terminated due to reduction of pool water evaporation originated from cold water injection by emergency water supply. In the re-criticality study, in the case of the un-borated lack, it was shown that the neutron multiplication factor became larger than unity when the difference of water levels inside and outside the channel box larger than some values. (author)

  19. Environmental Guidance Regulatory Bulletin - revised rule issued, October 17, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On September 15, 1994, at 59 FR 47384-47495, the Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a Final Rule revising 40 CFR Part 300; the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). One of the primary purposes of the revised NCP is to provide for efficient, coordinated, and effective action to minimize adverse impact from oil discharges and hazardous substance releases. The NCP is required by Section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act and Section 311 (c) (2) of the Clean Water Act. The NCP establishes an organizational structure and procedures for preparing for and responding to discharges of oil and releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants under these two Acts. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA) amends the existing provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and creates major new authorities addressing oil, and to a lesser extent, hazardous substance spill response. These amendments to the CWA, in turn, require revision of the NCP. The OPA specifies a number of revisions to the NCP that enhance and expand upon the current framework, standards, and procedures for response. A Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on changes to the NCP was issued on October 22, 1993 (58 FR 54702). DOE solicited comments on the proposed rule from DOE program and field offices, and submitted those comments to EPA on December 20, 1993

  20. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomĂŠdecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  1. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  2. On-farm welfare assessment for regulatory purposes: Issues and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Fraser, David

    2010-01-01

    On-farm welfare assessment has been used mainly for non-regulatory purposes such as producer education or to qualify for voluntary welfare-assurance programs. The application of on-farm assessments in regulatory programs would require four issues to be addressed: (1) selecting criteria...... solution. Issues 3 and 4 (fairness and efficiency) require scientific data on the precision, repeatability, independence, and cost-of-scoring for the various candidate criteria. A process is also needed to bring the scientific information into the deliberative process, either as formal recommendations and...

  3. The Child Abuse Matter and the Major Role Played by the Teacher: Issues Raised by a Pilot Focus Group Sample of Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalaki, Elena

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of attention is now being paid to issues raised by child abuse. Recent reports, enquiries and relevant agencies have all recognized the important role played by teachers in aiding the detection and prevention of child abuse, due to their close everyday contact with children. The result of the ideas presented in the present work was…

  4. Regulatory issues of digital instrumentation and control system in Lungmen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, C.F.; Chou, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Lungmen Nuclear Power Station (LNPS) is currently under construction in Taiwan, which consists of 2 advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) units. The instrumentation and control (IC) systems of the LNPS are based on the state-of-the-art modernized fully integrated digital design. These IC systems possess many advantages and distinguished features comparing to traditional analog IC systems, they enjoy set-point stability, self-diagnostic and automatic testing ability, fault tolerance and avoidance, low power requirements, data handling and storage capability, as well as enhanced human-machine interfaces. This paper presents regulatory overviews, regulatory requirements, current major regulatory issues, as well as the areas of regulatory concerns and the lessons learned on the digital IC systems in the Lungmen Project

  5. Workshop on Regulatory Review and Safety Assessment Issues in Repository Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, Roger D.

    2011-02-01

    The workshop described here was organised to address more general issues regarding regulatory review of SKB's safety assessment and overall review strategy. The objectives of the workshop were: - to learn from other programmes' experiences on planning and review of a license application for a nuclear waste repository, - to offer newly employed SSM staff an opportunity to learn more about selected safety assessment issues, and - to identify and document recommendations and ideas for SSM's further planning of the licensing review

  6. Reactivation of nuclear power plant construction projects. Plant status, policy issues and regulatory options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1986-07-01

    Prior to the TMI-2 accident on March 28, 1979, four nuclear power plant units that had previously been issued a construction permit were cancelled, principally because of reduced projections of regional power demand. Since that time, an additional 31 units with CPs have been cancelled and eight units deferred. On December 23, 1985 one of the deferred units (Limerick-2) was reactivated and construction resumed. The primary objective of this policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issued a construction permit whose construction has been cancelled, and (2) LWR units whose construction has been deferred. The study scope is limited to identifying regulatory issues or questions deserving analysis rather than providing, at this time, answers or recommended actions. Five tasks are addressed: a tabulation and discussion of the status of all cancelled and deferred LWR units; and identification of potential safety and environmental issues; an identification of regulatory or policy issues and needed information to determine the desirability of revising certain rules and policies; and identification of regulatory options and decision criteria; and an identification of decision considerations in determining staff requirements and organizational coordination of LWR reactivation policy and implementation efforts. 41 refs

  7. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, T. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses.

  8. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with barriers in the vadose zone surrounding buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Heiser, J.

    1993-02-01

    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. The barrier material should be compatible with soil and waste conditions specific to the site and have as low an effective diffusivity as is reasonably achievable to minimize or inhibit transport of moisture and contaminants. This report addresses the regulatory issues associated with the use of non-traditional organic polymer barriers as well as the use of soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers, considering barriers constructed from these latter materials to be a regulatory baseline. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of such barriers to the EPA as a method for achieving site or performanceimprovement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used

  9. Key Regulatory Issues for Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, Kofi; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To help reduce the uncertainty associated with application of digital instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology in nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued six Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) documents that address the current regulatory positions on what are considered the significant digital I and C issues. These six documents address the following topics: Cyber Security, Diversity and Defense-in-Depth, Risk Informed Digital I and C Regulation, Communication issues, Human Factors and the Digital I and C Licensing Process (currently issued as Draft). After allowing for further refinement based on additional technical insight gathered by NRC staff through near-term research and detailed review of relevant experience, it is expected that updated positions ultimately will be incorporated into regulatory guides and staff review procedures. This paper presents an overview of the guidance provided by the NRC-issued ISGs on key technology considerations (i.e., the first five documents above) for safety-related digital I and C systems.

  10. Reversibility of Decisions and Retrievability of Radioactive Waste: An Overview of Regulatory Positions and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Lopez, Carmen; Pescatore, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) of the NEA has been at the forefront worldwide in examining the topic of Reversibility and Retrievability (R and R). As early as 2001, an NEA survey-based report entitled 'Reversibility and Retrievability in Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste' provided an overview of R and R by an ad-hoc group of experts from 11 NEA Member countries. The 2001 report (NEA 2001) observed that national safety regulations dealt mainly with operational safety and design targets for long-term (post-closure) safety and relatively little consideration was given to retrievability/reversibility or its implications. Yet, policy frames saw benefits from retrievability. In 2007, the RWMC launched the NEA R and R project with participation from 15 countries and two international organisations. The project included, amongst its members, representatives of six organisations involved in regulation, five regulatory authorities of five countries and one technical support organisation to the safety authorities. The project aimed to improve awareness amongst the RWMC constituency of the breadth of issues and positions regarding the concepts of R and R with the goal of providing a neutral overview of relevant issues and viewpoints in OECD countries. Hence substantial attention was given to R and R regulatory issues mainly in the context of decision making for repository development. The report (NEA 2011) points out regulatory issues, including safety criteria and licensing considerations. The present document presents an overview of findings, positions, boundary conditions and issues based on the results of the R and R project of 2007-2011 (stepwise decision making and reversibility, regulatory authorisations and R and R, decision making for retrieval) and of the Reims conference of December 2010 (terminology and definitions, legal and policy context, motivations for R and R, practical aspects, stakeholders confidence aspects)

  11. Key regulatory and safety issues emerging NEA activities. Lessons Learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS Accident - Key Regulatory and Safety Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakoski, John

    2013-01-01

    A presentation was provided on the key safety and regulatory issues and an update of activities undertaken by the NEA and its members in response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power stations (NPS) on 11 March 2011. An overview of the accident sequence and the consequences was provided that identified the safety functions that were lost (electrical power, core cooling, and primary containment) that lead to units 1, 2, and 3 being in severe accident conditions with large off-site releases. Key areas identified for which activities of the NEA and member countries are in progress include accident management; defence-in-depth; crisis communication; initiating events; operating experience; deterministic and probabilistic assessments; regulatory infrastructure; radiological protection and public health; and decontamination and recovery. For each of these areas, a brief description of the on-going and planned NEA activities was provided within the three standing technical committees of the NEA with safety and regulatory mandates (the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities - CNRA, the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations - CSNI, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health - CRPPH). On-going activities of CNRA include a review of enhancement being made to the regulatory aspects for the oversight of on-site accident management strategies and processes in light of the lessons learned from the accident; providing guidance to regulators on crisis communication; and supporting the peer review of the safety assessments of risk-significant research reactor facilities in light of the accident. Within the scope of the CSNI mandate, activities are being undertaken to better understand accident progression; characteristics of new fuel designs; and a benchmarking study of fast-running software for estimating source term under severe accident conditions to support protective measure recommendations. CSNI also has ongoing work in human

  12. Indoor radon concentrations and radon doses at three districts of Ankara, Turkey and raising public awareness on the issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmet Kildir; Inci Goekmen; Ali Goekmen

    2016-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations at METU, CIGDEM and DOSTLAR in Ankara were measured using electrets. The statistical analysis of the data indicated a lognormal distribution of radon concentrations, with no significant difference between CIGDEM and DOSTLAR with geometric means of GM = 87.5 and 54.5 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radon concentrations did not change seasonally at CIGDEM which contain modern buildings, but at the slum district DOSTLAR, with poor insulation of houses a seasonal variation was observed. Annual effective radon doses were estimated (0.4-8.4 mSv). Public awareness about indoor radon was raised. (author)

  13. Regulatory issues on using programmable logic device in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G. Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Kim, H. T.; Kwon, Y. I.; Park, H. S.; Jeong, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    For replacing obsolete analog equipment in nuclear power plant, the Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) using Hardware Description Language (HDL) have been widely adopted in digitalized Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems because of its flexibility. For safety reviews on Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs,) qualifying digitalized safety I and C system using PLDs is an important issue. As an effort to provide regulatory position on using PLDs in safety I and C system, there is a research project to provide the regulatory positions against emerging issues involved with digitalisation of I and C system including using PLDs. Therefore, this paper addresses the important considerations for using PLDs in safety I and C systems such as diversity, independence and qualification, etc. In this point, this study focuses on technical reports for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) from EPRI,. U.S. NRC, and relevant technical standards

  14. Regulatory issues on using programmable logic device in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G. Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Kim, H. T.; Kwon, Y. I.; Park, H. S.; Jeong, C. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    For replacing obsolete analog equipment in nuclear power plant, the Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) using Hardware Description Language (HDL) have been widely adopted in digitalized Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems because of its flexibility. For safety reviews on Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs,) qualifying digitalized safety I and C system using PLDs is an important issue. As an effort to provide regulatory position on using PLDs in safety I and C system, there is a research project to provide the regulatory positions against emerging issues involved with digitalisation of I and C system including using PLDs. Therefore, this paper addresses the important considerations for using PLDs in safety I and C systems such as diversity, independence and qualification, etc. In this point, this study focuses on technical reports for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) from EPRI,. U.S. NRC, and relevant technical standards.

  15. Regulatory analysis for Generic Issue 23: Reactor coolant pump seal failure. Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaukat, S K; Jackson, J E; Thatcher, D F

    1991-04-01

    This report presents the regulatory/backfit analysis for Generic Issue 23 (GI-23), 'Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Failure'. A backfit analysis in accordance with 10 CFR 50.109 is presented in Appendix E. The proposed resolution includes quality assurance provisions for reactor coolant pump seals, instrumentation and procedures for monitoring seal performance, and provisions for seal cooling during off-normal plant conditions involving loss of all seal cooling such as station blackout. Research, technical data, and other analyses supporting the resolution of this issue are summarized in the technical findings report (NUREG/CR-4948) and cost/benefit report (NUREG/CR-5167). (author)

  16. Workshop on Regulatory Review and Safety Assessment Issues in Repository Licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, Roger D. (Galson Sciences Limited (United Kingdom))

    2011-02-15

    The workshop described here was organised to address more general issues regarding regulatory review of SKB's safety assessment and overall review strategy. The objectives of the workshop were: - to learn from other programmes' experiences on planning and review of a license application for a nuclear waste repository, - to offer newly employed SSM staff an opportunity to learn more about selected safety assessment issues, and - to identify and document recommendations and ideas for SSM's further planning of the licensing review

  17. Anatomy of a cogeneration deal : natural gas contracts and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The special features of gas contracts for cogeneration projects were discussed. It was recommended that a gas power purchase contract should be entered early in a project development cycle to justify requests for new pipeline facilities. Issues regarding buyer's commitments, market prices, and volumes were also discussed. In the event of failure to deliver, the contract should include provisions which would make it possible to source gas elsewhere, terminate the contract or seek damages. This paper also discussed various pricing provisions in a gas commodity contract, security of supplies, gas transportation arrangements, regulatory considerations, outstanding issues, and IMO (independent market operator) requirements

  18. Bringing a probiotic-containing functional food to the market: microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M E; Huis in't Veld, J

    1999-01-01

    Properly formulated probiotic-containing foods offer consumers a low risk, low cost dietary component that has the potential to promote health in a variety of ways. Several such products are available commercially, although markets in Japan and Europe are more developed than in the USA. Once healthful attributes of a probiotic product have been identified, there remain microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues to be addressed prior to marketing. Microbiological and product issues include safety, effective scale-up for manufacturing, definition of probiotic activity, probiotic stability in the product over the course of product manufacture, shelf-life and consumption, definition of effective dose and target population(s), and development of quality assurance approaches. Examples of probiotic-containing foods are given. Regulatory and labeling issues are complicated because they differ for each country, but are likewise critical because they provide the means for communication of the product benefits to the consumer. The regulatory climate worldwide appears to be one of caution about overstating the benefits of such products but at the same time not preventing corporate commitment to marketing.

  19. Raising the Bar of Teacher Quality: Accountability, Collaboration, and Social Justice. The Claremont Letter. Volume 1, Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, DeLacy Derin; Quintanar, Anita P.; Loop, Lisa S.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, reform efforts to address poor student achievement have focused on a variety of issues other than teacher quality. Movements such as TQM (Total Quality Management), class size reduction (CSR), school leadership, parental involvement, and multicultural curriculum have not directly addressed the power or influence of the individual…

  20. Educators' Beliefs about Raising Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in the Schools: The Experience in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; Dimito, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the experiences of 132 LGBT and heterosexual teachers and school administrators in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a survey that asked about their comfort addressing LGBT issues in the school setting, how safe they felt, how active they were, and their perceptions of barriers. There were few differences between the…

  1. Incorporation of Student-Centered, Practical Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Raise Awareness and Generate Solutions for Local Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsley, N. A.; Love, C. A.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a plethora of applications for numerous fields, from geological sciences to urban planning. Therefore, developing a practical GIS curriculum for students from a diverse selection of majors can be challenging, especially since time constraints presented by the course term limit the number of projects that can cater to each student's academic focus. However, open ended assignments that allow students the freedom to personalize their projects present an opportunity to teach the universal functionality of GIS, as well as stimulate curiosity of students from all backgrounds by allowing them to tailor a project to their personal interests. During an introductory GIS course at the University of California, San Diego, projects prompted students to utilize ArcGIS in ways of their choice that raised awareness of local environmental issues, as well as encouraged students to incorporate environmentally sustainable practices into their lives. In view of the frequently stated interest of students to enter careers where they can use their newly learned GIS skills, the educational platform of choice is ESRI's ArcGIS, but the choice of platform remains flexible. As GIS resources become more accessible with the development of programs such as OpenGIS and OpenStreetMap, the potential for GIS to effectively communicate environmental issues to the public is growing fast. Incorporating these environmental issues into a curriculum not only allows students to personalize their education, but also raises awareness of such problems and provides students with the ability to communicate those issues using GIS.

  2. Instream sand and gravel mining: Environmental issues and regulatory process in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, M.R.; Layher, A.O.

    1998-01-01

    Sand and gravel are widely used throughout the U.S. construction industry, but their extraction can significantly affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of mined streams. Fisheries biologists often find themselves involved in the complex environmental and regulatory issues related to instream sand and gravel mining. This paper provides an overview of information presented in a symposium held at the 1997 midyear meeting of the Southern Division of the American Fisheries Society in San Antonio, Texas, to discuss environmental issues and regulatory procedures related to instream mining. Conclusions from the symposium suggest that complex physicochemical and biotic responses to disturbance such as channel incision and alteration of riparian vegetation ultimately determine the effects of instream mining. An understanding of geomorphic processes can provide insight into the effects of mining operations on stream function, and multidisciplinary empirical studies are needed to determine the relative effects of mining versus other natural and human-induced stream alterations. Mining regulations often result in a confusing regulatory process complicated, for example, by the role of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has undergone numerous changes and remains unclear. Dialogue among scientists, miners, and regulators can provide an important first step toward developing a plan that integrates biology and politics to protect aquatic resources.

  3. Overview of Fukushima accident and regulatory issues for FCFS after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of his presentation Yoshinori Ueda (JNES, Japan) gave an overview of the Fukushima accident and an outline of the emergency safety measures and response at the NPP site. The second part was focused on the regulatory issues for FCFs after the accident. The first issue was the emergency safety measures in case of total loss of AC power (loss capabilities of decay heat removal and hydrogen accumulation prevention) and tsunami in the reprocessing facilities and associated spent fuel storages at Tokai and Rokkasho plants. The second issue was the directions to the licensees of these facilities to secure the work environment in the main control rooms in case of complete loss of AC power, to secure communication within the facility in case of such emergency, and to secure material and equipment for radiation protection, and to deploy heavy tools for rubble removal. No paper has been made available for this presentation

  4. Regulatory and institutional issues for development of remedial action strategies at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of unresolved regulatory and institutional issues of fundamental importance to the development of strategies for cleanup of sites contaminated by the radioactive materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These issues include the development of criteria for limiting radiation exposures of the public from remedial action sites, the time period to be assumed for active institutional controls over contaminated sites and the location at which such controls will be maintained, and the applicability of current standards for radioactivity in drinking water to surface waters and ground waters on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Proposals for resolution of these issues emphasize the need to protect public health, but in a cost-effective manner. 21 refs

  5. Scalable human ES culture for therapeutic use: propagation, differentiation, genetic modification and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells unlike most adult stem cell populations can replicate indefinitely while preserving genetic, epigenetic, mitochondrial and functional profiles. ESCs are therefore an excellent candidate cell type for providing a bank of cells for allogenic therapy and for introducing targeted genetic modifications for therapeutic intervention. This ability of prolonged self-renewal of stem cells and the unique advantages that this offers for gene therapy, discovery efforts, cell replacement, personalized medicine and other more direct applications requires the resolution of several important manufacturing, gene targeting and regulatory issues. In this review, we assess some of the advance made in developing scalable culture systems, improvement in vector design and gene insertion technology and the changing regulatory landscape.

  6. Lessons Learned and Regulatory Countermeasures of Nuclear Safety Issues Last Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Competitiveness of nuclear as the electric resource in terms of the least cost and the carbon abatement has been debated. Some institutions insist that the radioactive wastes management cost, nuclear accident cost and cheap shale gas would make the nuclear energy less competitive, while others still address the ability of nuclear energy as economical and low-carbon electric resource. This situation reminds that ensuring nuclear safety is the most important prerequisite to use of nuclear energy. Therefore, this paper will compare the different views on future nuclear competitiveness discussed right after the Fukushima accident and summarize the lessons learned and regulatory countermeasures from nuclear safety issues last year. Korea has improved the effectiveness of safety regulation up to now and still has been making efforts on further enhancing nuclear safety. The outcomes of these efforts have resulted in a high level of safety in Korean NPPs and contributing largely to the global nuclear safety through sharing and exchanging the information and knowledge of our nuclear experiences. However, now we are faced with the new challenges such as decreasing the public. Additionally, public criticism of the regulatory activities demands more clear regulatory guides and transparent process. Recently, new president announced the 'Priority to Safety and Public Trust' as the precondition to utilize the nuclear energy. We will continue to make much more efforts for the improvement of the quality of regulatory activities and effectiveness of regulatory decision making process than we have done so far. Competence through effective capacity building would be a helpful pathway to build up the public trust and ensure the acceptable level of nuclear safety. We are set to prepare the action items to be taken in the near future for improving the technical competency and transparency as the essential components of the national safety and will make efforts to implement them

  7. Can the EVIDEM Framework Tackle Issues Raised by Evaluating Treatments for Rare Diseases: Analysis of Issues and Policies, and Context-Specific Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monika; Khoury, Hanane; Willet, Jacob; Rindress, Donna; Goetghebeur, Mireille

    2016-03-01

    The multiplicity of issues, including uncertainty and ethical dilemmas, and policies involved in appraising interventions for rare diseases suggests that multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) based on a holistic definition of value is uniquely suited for this purpose. The objective of this study was to analyze and further develop a comprehensive MCDA framework (EVIDEM) to address rare disease issues and policies, while maintaining its applicability across disease areas. Specific issues and policies for rare diseases were identified through literature review. Ethical and methodological foundations of the EVIDEM framework v3.0 were systematically analyzed from the perspective of these issues, and policies and modifications of the framework were performed accordingly to ensure their integration. Analysis showed that the framework integrates ethical dilemmas and issues inherent to appraising interventions for rare diseases but required further integration of specific aspects. Modification thus included the addition of subcriteria to further differentiate disease severity, disease-specific treatment outcomes, and economic consequences of interventions for rare diseases. Scoring scales were further developed to include negative scales for all comparative criteria. A methodology was established to incorporate context-specific population priorities and policies, such as those for rare diseases, into the quantitative part of the framework. This design allows making more explicit trade-offs between competing ethical positions of fairness (prioritization of those who are worst off), the goal of benefiting as many people as possible, the imperative to help, and wise use of knowledge and resources. It also allows addressing variability in institutional policies regarding prioritization of specific disease areas, in addition to existing uncertainty analysis available from EVIDEM. The adapted framework measures value in its widest sense, while being responsive to rare disease

  8. Summary of Key Issues Raised in the Technology for Early Awareness of Addiction and Mental Illness (TEAAM-I) Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Baker, Justin; Birnbaum, Michael L; Christensen, Helen; De Choudhury, Munmun; Mohr, David C; Muench, Fred; Schlosser, Danielle; Titov, Nick; Kane, John M

    2018-05-01

    Technology provides an unparalleled opportunity to remove barriers to earlier identification and engagement in services for mental and addictive disorders by reaching people earlier in the course of illness and providing links to just-in-time, cost-effective interventions. Achieving this opportunity, however, requires stakeholders to challenge underlying assumptions about traditional pathways to mental health care. In this Open Forum, the authors highlight key issues discussed in the Technology for Early Awareness of Addiction and Mental Illness (TEAAM-I) meeting-held October 13-14, 2016, in New York City-that are related to three identified areas in which technology provides important and unique opportunities to advance early identification, increase service engagement, and decrease the duration of untreated mental and addictive disorders.

  9. Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR and GEN IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, William J.; Griffin, Donald S.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code to cover the unresolved safety issues. Subsection NH was originally developed to provide structural design criteria and limits for elevated-temperature design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems and some gas-cooled systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) reviewed the design limits and procedures in the process of reviewing the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) for a construction permit in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and identified issues that needed resolution. In the years since then, the NRC and various contractors have evaluated the applicability of the ASME Code and Code Cases to high-temperature reactor designs such as the VHTGRs, and identified issues that need to be resolved to provide a regulatory basis for licensing. This Report describes: (1) NRC and ACRS safety concerns raised during the licensing process of CRBR , (2) how some of these issues are addressed by the current Subsection NH of the ASME Code; and (3) the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code and Code Cases to cover unresolved regulatory issues for very high temperature service.

  10. Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR & GEN IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William J. O’Donnell; Donald S. Griffin

    2007-05-07

    The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code to cover the unresolved safety issues. Subsection NH was originally developed to provide structural design criteria and limits for elevated-temperature design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems and some gas-cooled systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) reviewed the design limits and procedures in the process of reviewing the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) for a construction permit in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and identified issues that needed resolution. In the years since then, the NRC and various contractors have evaluated the applicability of the ASME Code and Code Cases to high-temperature reactor designs such as the VHTGRs, and identified issues that need to be resolved to provide a regulatory basis for licensing. This Report describes: (1) NRC and ACRS safety concerns raised during the licensing process of CRBR , (2) how some of these issues are addressed by the current Subsection NH of the ASME Code; and (3) the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code and Code Cases to cover unresolved regulatory issues for very high temperature service.

  11. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with polymers for subsurface barriers surrounding buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.; Siskind, B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. Subsurface barriers will improve remediation performance by removing pathways for contaminant transport due to groundwater movement, meteorological water infiltration, vapor- and gas-phase transport, transpiration, etc. Subsurface barriers may be used to open-quotes directclose quotes contaminant movement to collection sumps/lysimeters in cases of unexpected remediation failures or transport mechanisms, to contain leakage from underground storage tanks, and to restrict in-situ soil cleanup operation and chemicals. Brookhaven National Laboratory is currently investigating advanced polymer materials for subsurface barriers. This report addresses the regulatory aspects of using of non-traditional polymer materials as well as soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of subsurface barriers to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a method for achieving waste site performance improvement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used. Since many of EPA's concerns regarding subsurface barriers focus on the chemicals used during installation of these barriers the authors discuss the results of a search of the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations for references in Titles 29 and 40 pertaining to key chemicals likely to be utilized in installing non-traditional barrier materials. The use of polymeric materials in the construction industry has been accomplished with full compliance with the applicable health, safety, and environmental regulations

  12. International regulatory issues and approaches in the transition phase from operation to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P.; Hrehor, M.; ); Murley, T.; Ranieri, R.; Laaksonen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The paper summarizes the work performed by an international group of senior nuclear safety regulators which was convened by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) of the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. The fundamental objective of this work was to identify the safety, environmental, organizational, human factors and public policy issues arising from decommissioning that will produce new challenges for the regulator. The study begins by recognizing that decommissioning is not simply an extension of operation and thus it is important for both the management of the facility and the regulator to understand the fundamental nature of the change taking place. Major regulatory policy issues discussed during this study include assurance of adequate funds, waste storage and disposal sites, material release criteria and site release criteria. Some of the important regulatory challenges relate to organizational and human factors, to safety and security requirements and to waste disposal and license termination. The importance of regular communication with both the corporate and site management and with public is recognized in the study as one of the key factors. When a nuclear facility ceases operation and enters into the decommissioning phase, both the operator and the regulator face a new set of challenges very different from those of an operating facility. The operator should have in place a strategic plan for decommissioning, prepared well in advance and reviewed by the regulatory body, to guide the facility managers and personnel through the changed circumstances. An essential part of the strategic plan should be the operator's plan for securing adequate funds to complete the decommissioning activities. In fact, the regulator should ensure that the operator sets aside funds, perhaps in a trust fund, while the facility is still operating and generating revenues. Both the operator and the regulator should expect a heightened public interest and concern

  13. Regulatory issues associated with exclusion, exemption, and clearance related to the mining and minerals processing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.; Woude, S. van der; Keenan, N.; Guy, S.

    1997-01-01

    The concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance have been established in international recommendations and, standards for radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in recent years. The consistent application of these concepts has given rise to various problems in different spheres of use. This is particularly the case in the mining and minerals processing industries dealing with materials exhibiting elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. This paper takes the South African mining industry as an example and highlights some of the issues that have arisen in applying these concepts within a regulatory control regime. (author)

  14. Raising the bar (6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Le Gallo, Julie; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2017-01-01

    Raising the bar (6). Spatial Economic Analysis. This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 12(4) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper addresses the question of whether 'jobs follow people' or 'people follow

  15. Waste management regulatory compliance issues related to D ampersand D activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitch, J.P.; Arnold, S.E.; Burwinkle, T.; Daugherty, D.

    1994-01-01

    The waste management activities at ORNL related to the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of radioactively contaminated buildings are divided into four categories: Operational facilities, inactive or surplus facilities, future facilities planning, and D ampersand D activities. This paper only discusses regulatory issues related to inactive or surplus facilities. Additionally, rather than attempting to address all resulting waste streams and related regulations, this paper highlights only a few of the ORNL waste streams that present key regulatory issues

  16. Topical Session on 'Addressing Issues Raised by Stakeholders: Impacts on Process, Content and Behaviour in Waste Organisations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    At its 5. meeting in June 2004, the FSC held a topical session aimed at reviewing how organisations are adapting to the new outreach and decision-making context. Eleven organisations from eight countries provided the relevant information, which are collected in these proceedings. Learning and adapting to societal requirements - and organising institutions accordingly - is one of the main aspects of the future programme of work of the FSC. This topical session on 'Addressing Issues Raised by Stakeholders: Impacts on Process, Content and Behaviour in Waste Organisations' provides useful material for future initiatives as well as a source of information to interested stakeholders and practitioners. It focused on how regulators and implementers responded and are restructuring to respond to stakeholders' concerns, issues and needs regarding radioactive waste management

  17. Regulatory analysis for resolution of USI [Unresolved Safety Issue] A-47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1989-07-01

    This report presents a summary of the regulatory analysis conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to evaluate the value/impact of alternatives for the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-47, ''Safety Implications of Control Systems.'' The NRC staff's resolution presented herein is based on these analyses and on the technical findings and conclusions presented in NUREG-1217, the companion document to this report. The staff has concluded that certain actions should be taken to improve safety in light-water reactor plants. The staff recommended that certain plants improve their control systems to preclude reactor vessel/steam generator overfill events and to prevent steam generator dryout, modify their technical specifications to verify operability of such systems, and modify selected emergency procedures to ensure safe shutdown of the plant following a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. This report was issued as a draft for public comment on May 27, 1988. As a result of the public comments received, this report was revised. The NRC staff's responses to and resolution of the public comments are included as Appendix C to the final report, NUREG-1217

  18. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-44, Station Blackout. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    ''Station Blackout'' is the complete loss of alternating current (ac) electric power to the essential and nonessential buses in a nuclear power plant; it results when both offsite power and the onsite emergency ac power systems are unavailable. Because many safety systems required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on ac power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. Because of the concern about the frequency of loss of offsite power, the number of failures of emergency diesel generators, and the potentially severe consequences of a loss of all ac power, ''Station Blackout'' was designated as Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44. This report presents the regulatory analysis for USI A-44. It includes: (1) a summary of the issue, (2) the proposed technical resolution, (3) alternative resolutions considered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff, (4) an assessment of the benefits and costs of the recommended resolution, (5) the decision rationale, and (6) the relationship between USI A-44 and other NRC programs and requirements

  19. Decommissioning: Regulatory activities and identification of key organizational and human factors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, N.E.; Melber, B.D.; Lekberg, A.

    2001-12-01

    In the late 1990's the Swedish government decided to shut down Unit 1 of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant. This report documents some of the efforts made by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to address human factors and organizational issues in nuclear safety during decommissioning of a nuclear facility. This report gives a brief review of the background to the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1 and points out key safety issues that can arise during decommissioning. The main regulatory activities that were undertaken were requirements that the plant provide special safety reports on decommissioning focusing on first, the operation of both units until closure of Unit 1 and second, the operation of Unit 2 when Unit 1 was closed. In addition, SKI identified areas that might be affected by decommissioning and called these areas out for special attention. With regard to these areas of special attention, SKI required that the plant provide monthly reports on changing and emerging issues as well as self-assessments of the areas to be addressed in the special safety reports. Ten key safety issues were identified and evaluated with regard to different stages of decommissioning and with regard to the actions taken by Barsebaeck. Some key conclusions from SKI's experience in regulating a decommissioning nuclear power plant conclude the report

  20. Animal Health Ireland: providing national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Doherty, M L; Downey, L; McKenzie, K; Devitt, C; O'Flaherty, J

    2011-12-01

    Livestock production plays an important role in the Irish economy. Regulatory animal health issues are the responsibility of government, but until recently there has been no national coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues. This gap has recently been filled with the establishment of Animal Health Ireland (AHI), a not-for-profit, partnership-based organisation providing national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues in Ireland. Animal Health Ireland provides benefits to livestock producers and processors by providing the knowledge, education and coordination required to establish effective control strategies, both on-farm and nationally. This paper presents a brief overview of the context for AHI, and of its establishment and initial activities. Non-regulatory animal health issues have been prioritised. A series of work programmes (each focusing on a high-priority issue) have been established. Partnership is critical to success, both for AHI as an organisation and for effective farm-level transfer of knowledge. This model for national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues may be of relevance elsewhere.

  1. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  2. Regulatory compliance issues related to the White Oak Creek Embayment time-critical removal action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, M.; Kimmel, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    In September 1990, Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) discovered high levels of Cesium-137 present in surface sediments at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC) Embayment. WOC receives the majority of surface water drainage from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Following this discovery, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems pursued stabilizing sediment migration under provisions of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Section 300.400 et. seq. as a time-critical removal action. However, significant uncertainty exists concerning the applicability of NCP procedural requirements designed for conducting US EPA-led, Superfund-financed response actions, because NCP Subpart K dealing with response actions at federal facilities has not been promulgated. In addition, relatively new guidance exists from DOE concerning National Environmental Policy Act documentation requirements for categorical exclusions associated with conducting removal actions at DOE facilities. A proactive approach was taken to identify issues and involve appropriate state and federal regulatory agencies. This approach required achieving consensus among all involved parties and identification of all applicable or relevant and appropriate regulatory requirements related to the removal action. As a result, this project forms a framework for conducting future time-critical removal actions at federal facilities

  3. Regulatory issues associated with closure of the Hanford AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Liquid mixed, high-level radioactive waste has been stored in underground single-shell tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. After retrieval of the waste from the single-shell tanks, the DOE will proceed with closure of the tank farm. The 241-AX Tank Farm includes four one-million gallon single-shell tanks in addition to sluice lines, transfer lines, ventilation headers, risers, pits, cribs, catch tanks, buildings, well and associated buried piping. This equipment is classified as ancillary equipment. This document addresses the requirements for regulatory close of the ancillary equipment in the Hanford Site 241-AX Tank Farm. The options identified for physical closure of the ancillary equipment include disposal in place, disposal in place after treatment, excavation and disposal on site in an empty single-shell tank, and excavation and disposal outside the AX Tank Farm. The document addresses the background of the Hanford Site and ancillary equipment in the AX Tank Farm, regulations for decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively contaminated equipment, requirements for the cleanup and disposal of radioactive wastes, cleanup and disposal requirements governing hazardous and mixed waste, and regulatory requirements and issues associated with each of the four physical closure options. This investigation was conducted by the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during Fiscal Year 1998 for the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project

  4. Medical Students Raising Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Hickey, Andrea; Warrens, Anthony N; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2016-09-16

    After a number of high-profile incidents and national reports, it has become clear that all health professionals and all medical students must be able to raise concerns about a colleague's behavior if this behavior puts patients, colleagues, or themselves at risk.Detailed evidence from medical students about their confidence to raise concerns is limited, together with examples of barriers, which impair their ability to do so. We describe a questionnaire survey of medical students in a single-center, examining self-reported confidence about raising concerns in a number of possible scenarios. Thematic analysis was applied to comments about barriers identified.Although 80% of respondents felt confident to report a patient safety issue, students were less confident around issues of probity, attitude, and conduct. This needs to be addressed to create clear mechanisms to raise concerns, as well as support for students during the process.

  5. Vitrification of underground storage tanks: Technology development, regulatory issues, and cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixier, J.S.; Corathers, L.A.; Anderson, L.D.

    1992-03-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV), developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), is a thermal treatment process for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste sites. The process has been broadly patented both domestically and abroad. Since the inception of ISV in 1980, developmental activities have been focused on applications to contaminated soils, and more recently the potential for application to buried wastes and underground structures (tanks). Research performed to date on the more advanced ISV applications (i.e., application to buried wastes and underground tanks) shows that significant technical and economic potential exists for using ISV to treat buried wastes and underground structures containing radionuclides and/or hazardous constituents. Present ISV applications are directed to the treatment of contaminated soils; the likelihood of using ISV to treat underground tanks depends on the resolution of significant technical and institutional issues related to this advanced application. This paper describes the ISV process and summarizes the technical progress of underground tank vitrification (UTV), discusses pertinent regulatory issues facing the use of UTV, and presents the potential cost of UTV relative to other remedial action alternatives

  6. Package leaflets of the most consumed medicines in Portugal: safety and regulatory compliance issues. A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pires

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Package leaflets are necessary for safe use of medicines. The aims of the present study were: 1 to assess the compliance between the content of the package leaflets and the specifications of the pharmaceutical regulations; and 2 to identify potential safety issues for patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative descriptive study, involving all the package leaflets of branded medicines from the three most consumed therapeutic groups in Portugal, analyzed in the Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon. METHODS: A checklist validated through an expert consensus process was used to gather the data. The content of each package leaflet in the sample was classified as compliant or non-compliant with compulsory regulatory issues (i.e. stated dosage and descriptions of adverse reactions and optional regulatory issues (i.e. adverse reaction frequency, symptoms and procedures in cases of overdose. RESULTS: A total of 651 package leaflets were identified. Overall, the package leaflets were found to be compliant with the compulsory regulatory issues. However, the optional regulatory issues were only addressed in around half of the sample of package leaflets, which made it possible to identify some situations of potentially compromised drug safety. CONCLUSION: Ideally, the methodologies for package leaflet approval should be reviewed and optimized as a way of ensuring the inclusion of the minimum essential information for safe use of medicines.

  7. Review report: safety and reliability issues on digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s dispositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio; Suzudo, Tomoaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-09-01

    Recently, digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have been applied to nuclear power plants (NPPs) in various countries. Introduction of digital I and C systems, however, raises special issues on design, implementation, safety and licensing. Since FY 1997, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out a project, Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems, which includes extensive reviews of design approaches, technical standards, regulatory processes, especially, in the United States. This report summarizes the results from the study of National Research Council (NRC) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC`s) responses to the recommendations made by the NRC`s study. That study identified six technical key issues (system aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, human factors and man-machine interface, dedication of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software) and two strategic key issues (case-by-case licensing process, adequacy of technical infrastructure) that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and then, made recommendations to the USNRC for coping with digital I and C applications. The USNRC responded to each recommendation and showed their own dispositions in which the USNRC agreed with most of the recommendations. In Japan, it is expected that introduction of digital I and C technology is inevitable in NPPs because the vendors are gradually discontinuing support and stocking of analog components. To cope with such situations, there is a need to develop and update the standards and guidelines applicable to digital I and C technology. The key issues and the USNRC`s dispositions provided in this report is believed to be useful for developing and updating them. (J.P.N.)

  8. Review report: safety and reliability issues on digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's dispositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Suzudo, Tomoaki

    1998-09-01

    Recently, digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have been applied to nuclear power plants (NPPs) in various countries. Introduction of digital I and C systems, however, raises special issues on design, implementation, safety and licensing. Since FY 1997, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out a project, Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems, which includes extensive reviews of design approaches, technical standards, regulatory processes, especially, in the United States. This report summarizes the results from the study of National Research Council (NRC) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC's) responses to the recommendations made by the NRC's study. That study identified six technical key issues (system aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, human factors and man-machine interface, dedication of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software) and two strategic key issues (case-by-case licensing process, adequacy of technical infrastructure) that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and then, made recommendations to the USNRC for coping with digital I and C applications. The USNRC responded to each recommendation and showed their own dispositions in which the USNRC agreed with most of the recommendations. In Japan, it is expected that introduction of digital I and C technology is inevitable in NPPs because the vendors are gradually discontinuing support and stocking of analog components. To cope with such situations, there is a need to develop and update the standards and guidelines applicable to digital I and C technology. The key issues and the USNRC's dispositions provided in this report is believed to be useful for developing and updating them. (J.P.N.)

  9. Strengthening national coal transitions to raise climate ambition. Issue Brief. Part of the 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal' Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    The issue of coal transitions is coming into focus in both national and international climate policy discussions. There are several drivers of this. At one level, the Paris Agreement marked a significant shift in the pace, scope and ambition of global climate change mitigation action. Consequently, it is now clear that coal will need to play a more and more diminished role in the global energy mix in the coming decades, despite carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. It is also increasingly clear that non-climate policy-related factors, such as rapid declines in the cost of renewable energy and battery storage, will continue to challenge the previously strong role of steam coal in the global energy mix (Randall, 2015). The business-as-usual scenario is therefore evolving quickly and the downside risks to coal demand appear to be increasing. The accumulation of these factors has in turn led to a call for an assurance of 'just transition', especially from stakeholders-notably coal sector workers and their communities-whose economic livelihoods depend on the future of an industry that will be in decline. In this context, parties to the UNFCCC will be called upon via the Facilitative Dialogue of 2018 to re-evaluate the adequacy progress and subsequently to revise their levels of ambition in their nationally determined contributions (NDCs). This moment presents an important opportunity for governments to raise the overall ambition of their policies on coal transition. But how should they do this? (author)

  10. Obligations, precautions and pending issues in regulatory development for radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamboa, Maryelle Moreira Lima; Roesch, Heveline Rayane Moura; Lemos, Vanessa Pinheiro Amaral, E-mail: maryellelg@hotmail.com [PPG BioSaude, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rocha, Bruna Oliveira [Faculty of Biology, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Santos-Oliveira, Ralph [Institute of Radiopharmacy Research, Universidade Estadual da Zona Oeste, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals are compounds that have a radionuclide and may be gamma-radiation emitter (γ) or positrons emitter (β+), linked to a molecule with specific diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The progress in the use of radiopharmaceuticals has culminated to a sector in common with other types of drugs: regulation and surveillance. >From 2006 on, production, marketing and use of these drugs were open to the Brazilian market granting much more freedom due to the Constitutional Amendment 49, resulting from the previous Constitutional Amendment 199/03 which removes the Union monopoly for this kind of manipulation and granted this production to other nuclear medicine. From this date on, the amount of this type of sold product have been greatly increased, and the nucleus of surveillance and regulation in Brazil have also advanced in the legislative processes, creating documents that are now more focused on radiopharmaceuticals in the national territory (Resolutions No. 63 and No. 64). In international overview, there is too much to be done in regulatory terms in Brazil, such as adding mainly issues of drugs surveillance to pharmacovigilance practice in radiopharmaceuticals drugs. (author)

  11. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  12. Obligations, precautions and pending issues in regulatory development for radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, Maryelle Moreira Lima; Roesch, Heveline Rayane Moura; Lemos, Vanessa Pinheiro Amaral; Rocha, Bruna Oliveira; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are compounds that have a radionuclide and may be gamma-radiation emitter (γ) or positrons emitter (β+), linked to a molecule with specific diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The progress in the use of radiopharmaceuticals has culminated to a sector in common with other types of drugs: regulation and surveillance. >From 2006 on, production, marketing and use of these drugs were open to the Brazilian market granting much more freedom due to the Constitutional Amendment 49, resulting from the previous Constitutional Amendment 199/03 which removes the Union monopoly for this kind of manipulation and granted this production to other nuclear medicine. From this date on, the amount of this type of sold product have been greatly increased, and the nucleus of surveillance and regulation in Brazil have also advanced in the legislative processes, creating documents that are now more focused on radiopharmaceuticals in the national territory (Resolutions No. 63 and No. 64). In international overview, there is too much to be done in regulatory terms in Brazil, such as adding mainly issues of drugs surveillance to pharmacovigilance practice in radiopharmaceuticals drugs. (author)

  13. Obligations, precautions and pending issues in regulatory development for radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryelle Moreira Lima Gamboa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Radiopharmaceuticals are compounds that have a radionuclide and may be gamma-radiation emitter (γ or positrons emitter (β+, linked to a molecule with specific diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The progress in the use of radiopharmaceuticals has culminated to a sector in common with other types of drugs: regulation and surveillance. From 2006 on, production, marketing and use of these drugs were open to the Brazilian market granting much more freedom due to the Constitutional Amendment 49, resulting from the previous Constitutional Amendment 199/03 which removes the Union monopoly for this kind of manipulation and granted this production to other nuclear medicine. From this date on, the amount of this type of sold product have been greatly increased, and the nucleus of surveillance and regulation in Brazil have also advanced in the legislative processes, creating documents that are now more focused on radiopharmaceuticals in the national territory (Resolutions No. 63 and No. 64. In international overview, there is too much to be done in regulatory terms in Brazil, such as adding mainly issues of drugs surveillance to pharmacovigilance practice in radiopharmaceuticals drugs.

  14. Macroeconomic Conditions and Capital Raising

    OpenAIRE

    Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach

    2011-01-01

    Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...

  15. Raising the bar (7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Gallo, Julie Le; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2018-01-01

    This editorial summarises the papers published in issue 13.1 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper adopts a scale neutral approach to investigate the spatial mechanisms that cause regional innovation and growth. The second paper claims

  16. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  17. The Choice between Rights-Preserving Issue Methods: Regulatory and Financial Aspects of Issuing Seasoned Equity in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Korteweg, A.G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the choice between two rights-preserving issue methods of seasoned equity offers in the UK as well as the factors determining the offer price and stock market announcement reactions.Firstly, equity issues in the UK are underwritten for different reasons than in other countries.Only severely financially distressed companies choose not to underwrite their share offer. Second, the average announcement reaction to non-underwritten issues is much more negative than to underwrit...

  18. Development of safety-related regulatory requirements for nuclear power in developing countries. Key issue paper no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    2000-01-01

    In implementing a national nuclear power program, balanced regulatory requirements are necessary to ensure nuclear safety and cost competitive nuclear power, and to help gain public acceptance. However, this is difficult due to the technology-intensive nature of the nuclear regulatory requirements, the need to reflect evolving technology and the need for cooperation among multidisciplinary technical groups. This paper suggests approaches to development of balanced nuclear regulatory requirements in developing countries related to nuclear power plant safety, radiation protection and radioactive waste management along with key technical regulatory issues. It does not deal with economic or market regulation of electric utilities using nuclear power. It suggests that national regulatory requirements be developed using IAEA safety recommendations as guidelines and safety requirements of the supplier country as a main reference after careful planning, manpower buildup and thorough study of international and supplier country's regulations. Regulation making is not recommended before experienced manpower has been accumulated. With an option that the supplier country's regulations may be used in the interim, the lack of complete national regulatory requirements should not deter introduction of nuclear power in developing countries. (author)

  19. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 115, enhancement of the reliability of the Westinghouse Solid State Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdekas, D.L.

    1989-05-01

    Generic Issue 115 addresses a concern related to the reliability of the Westinghouse reactor protection system for plants using the Westinghouse Solid State Protection System (SSPS). Several options for improving the reliability of the Westinghouse reactor trip function for these plants and their effect on core damage frequency (CDF) and overall risk were evaluated. This regulatory analysis includes a quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits associated with the various options for enhancing the reliability of the Westinghouse SSPS and provides insights for consideration and industry initiatives. No new regulatory requirements are proposed. 25 refs., 11 tabs

  20. The Choice between Rights-Preserving Issue Methods : Regulatory and Financial Aspects of Issuing Seasoned Equity in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, A.G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the choice between two rights-preserving issue methods of seasoned equity offers in the UK as well as the factors determining the offer price and stock market announcement reactions.Firstly, equity issues in the UK are underwritten for different reasons than in other

  1. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    river, in the atmosphere and into boreholes in the permafrost, at different locations and various distances from the river and the upstream lake. Hydrological information was collected as well (e.g. water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and isotopic profiles; river flow rates). Soil properties were studied in pits (e.g. thermal conductivity, soil humidity and temperature measurements). More recently GPR studies were conducted along river profiles complementing the dataset. This new study site is introduced and the major results are presented as well as the main issues raised and future perspectives.

  2. Electronic cigarettes: patterns of use, health effects, use in smoking cessation and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that vaporize a liquid solution to deliver a dose of inhaled nicotine to the user. There is ongoing debate regarding their regulation. This comprehensive narrative review aimed to discuss key issues including usage patterns, health effects, efficacy in smoking cessation and regulatory concerns with a view to informing future regulation and research agendas. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched using the terms (electronic cigarettes OR e-cigarettes) for articles in English, relevant to humans and published during January 2009-January 2014. The literature search revealed 37 relevant articles. Findings suggest that e-cigarettes are mostly used by middle-aged current smokers, particularly males, to help them for quitting or for recreation. E-cigarettes contain very low levels of multiple toxic substances such as formaldehyde and acrolein, but these levels are many times lower than those found in cigarettes. They were found to have effectiveness in aiding smoking cessation to a limited degree. Debate continues regarding regulating their use for cessation versus heavy restrictions to control recreational use on the basis that it perpetuates nicotine addiction. The cytotoxicity and long term health effects of e-cigarettes are unknown. Nevertheless the e-cigarette market continues to expand, largely driven by middle-aged smokers who claim to be using e-cigarettes in an attempt to reduce or quit smoking. E-cigarettes may have some potential as smoking cessation aids and, in the researchers' view, should therefore be subject to further research and regulation similar to other nicotine replacement therapies.

  3. Current issues and regulatory infrastructure aspects on radioactive waste management in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear facilities that exist throughout Romania perform a broad range of missions from research to nuclear materials production to radioactive waste management, and to deactivation and decommissioning. As a consequence, there is a broad array of external regulations and internal requirements that potentially applies to a facility or activity. Therefore, the management of radioactive waste occurs within a larger context of managing hazards, both radiological and industrial, at these facilities. At the same time, concern for upgrading existing facilities used for radioactive waste management, as called for in Article 12, fits into a larger framework of safety management. The primary objective of the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body-CNCAN on legislation and regulatory infrastructure for the safety of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and the environment now and in the future. It is unanimously recognized that a well developed regulated system for the management and disposal of radioactive waste is a prerequisite for both public and market acceptance of nuclear energy. It is to underline that the continuing internationalization of the nuclear industry following terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 stresses the need for national legislation and regulatory infrastructure to be based on internationally endorsed principles and safety standards. The paper presents some aspects of the Romanian experience on the national legislative and regulatory system related to the followings aspects of the safety aspects of radioactive waste management: definition of responsibilities; nuclear and radiation safety requirements; siting and licensing procedures; regulatory functions; international co-operation and coherence on strategies and criteria in the area of safety of radioactive waste management. Finally, prescriptive and goal oriented national as well international regimes in the field of the safety of radioactive waste management are briefly commented

  4. A Review of International Telecommunications Industry Issues, Structure, and Regulatory Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jack E.; And Others

    Industry structure studies prior to 1968 are briefly reviewed, and an overview of industrial and technological developments up to the present is provided through synopses of more recent studies. Areas covered include overseas telephone and record carriers; the creation of the Communications Satellite Corporation; the current regulatory and…

  5. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 125.II.7 ''Reevaluate Provision to Automatically Isolate Feedwater from Steam Generator During a Line Break''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdekas, D.L.

    1988-09-01

    Generic Issue 125.II.7 addresses the concern related to the automatic isolation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) to a steam generator with a broken steam or feedwater line. This regulatory analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits associated with the removal of the AFW automatic isolation and concludes that no new regulatory requirements are warranted. 21 refs., 7 tabs

  6. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives

  7. Legal and regulatory issues regarding classification and disposal of wastes from actinide partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of actinide radioelements in spent nuclear fuel from civilian power reactors is potentially attractive because the resulting wastes might be acceptable for disposal using systems which are considerably less costly than a deep geologic repository. At present, there are no legal or regulatory prohibitions to seeking alternatives to a geologic repository for disposal of such wastes. However, additional laws and regulations would be needed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been reluctant to alter the current framework for radioactive waste management, in which geologic repositories or near-surface facilities are the only disposal options established in law and regulations unless a compelling need for alternatives with intermediate waste-isolation capabilities is demonstrated. There are also important technical considerations which are not encouraging with regard to the development of intermediate disposal systems for wastes from partitioning and transmutation of actinides in civilian spent fuel. First, the wastes may contain sufficient concentrations of fission products. Second, defense reprocessing wastes may contain sufficient concentrations of fission products and long-lived actinides. Thus, in developing the legal and regulatory framework for alternative disposal systems, there is a need to establish maximum concentrations of fission products and long-lived actinides that would be acceptable for intermediate disposal. 19 refs

  8. Regulatory issues of natural gas distribution; Aspectos regulatorios acerca da distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Fabio Augusto C.C.M.; Costa, Hirdan Katarina de M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    In these past few years, natural gas in Brazil has arised as one of the alternatives for the energetic crisis suffered by the country. Such situation was one of the motives for its expansion, rising, after that, the importance of the regulation of its distribution. The regulation of canalized natural gas distribution can be found in the Federal Constitution, after Constitutional Amendment n. 05/95, in the article n. 25, para. 2nd, which say that belongs to the Federal States the concession or direct exercise of canalized natural gas services, now clearly classified as a public service. In order of these events, its imperative the analysis of natural gas distribution's public service, because it belongs to the Federal States. According to this situation, the study of the new regulatory function of the Administration and the tracing of action for the regulatory state agencies are the main goals of this work. As so, the present research aims to focus the reflexes from the actual dimension of natural gas distribution, specially referring to its regulatory statements, the limitations of state agencies, the National Petroleum Agency and the market where distribution belongs, and particularly the open access of new agents. (author)

  9. Multiple system responses program: Identification of concerns related to a number of specific regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.A.; Casada, M.L.; Palko, L.E.; Roberts, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the activities and results of the Multiple System Responses (MSR) program conducted by the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center (NOAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the MSR program was to gather and review documentation for several unresolved safety issues and related programs of interest, and from that documentation, describe any additional potential safety concerns. The MSR program provides information that will aid the NRC staff in making an assessment of the relative safety significance of the concerns through the established prioritization process. Judgments were not made regarding the validity of the concerns expressed by others. Rather, the concerns were documented and potential safety issues were developed and defined as specifically as possible. Twenty-one potential safety issues were developed from the documented concerns. Additional information was gathered to support the NRC efforts in reviewing these issues for prioritization. 73 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Collaborative international research: ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to human biological materials at a South African institutional research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Aslam; Dhai, Amaboo; van der Linde, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Human Biological Materials (HBMs) are an invaluable resource in biomedical research. To determine if researchers and a Research Ethics Committee (REC) at a South African institution addressed ethical issues pertaining to HBMs in collaborative research with developed countries. Ethically approved retrospective cross-sectional descriptive audit. Of the 1305 protocols audited, 151 (11.57%) fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria. Compared to other developed countries, a majority of sponsors (90) were from the USA (p = 0.0001). The principle investigators (PIs) in all 151 protocols informed the REC of their intent to store HBMs. Only 132 protocols informed research participants (P ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to HBMs. There was a lack of congruence between the ethical guidelines of developed countries and their actions which are central to the access to HBMs in collaborative research. HBMs may be leaving South Africa without EPs and MTAs during the process of international collaborative research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Technical findings and regulatory analysis for Generic Safety Issue II.E.4.3, ''Containment Integrity Check''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1988-04-01

    This report contains the technical findings and regulatory analysis for Generic Safety Issue II.E.4.3, ''Containment Integrity Check.'' An evaluation of the containment isolation history from 1965 to 1983 reveals that (except for a small number of events) containment integrity has been maintained and that the majority of reported events have been events related to exceeding Technical Specification limits (or 0.6 of the allowable leakage level). In addition, more recent risk analyses have shown that allowable leakage rates even if increased by a factor of 10 would not significantly increase risk. Potential methods of continuous monitoring are identified and evaluated. Therefore, these technical findings and risk evaluations support closure of Generic Safety Issue II.E.4.3

  12. Resolution of regulatory issues facing the DOE in situ vitrification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corathers, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being developed by researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as a technology for remediating soils, underground storage tank residuals, and buried materials that have been contaminated with hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes (i.e., wastes containing both radioactive and hazardous wastes) at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal of the DOE ISV technology development program (i.e., the ISV Integrated Program) is to ensure that ISV is a workable technology for environmental restoration applications for DOE and other agencies. A DOE complex-wide plan was prepared during Fiscal Year 1991 to coordinate all levels of activities associated with the deployment of ISV. As part of this plan, a programmatic regulatory strategy was developed which focused on the federal environmental, health, safety, and nuclear regulations, including the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE regulations, believed to have the most significant near-term impact on the use of ISV as a remediation technology. The portion of the programmatic regulatory strategy addressing compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, as amended, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, is presented in this paper

  13. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 99: Loss of RHR [residual heat removal] capability in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spano, A.H.

    1989-02-01

    Generic Issue 99 is concerned with the loss of residual heat removal (RHR) capability in pressurized water reactors during cold-plant outage operations. The issue focuses on two risk-significant common-cause failure modes of the RHR system: (1) air binding of the RHR pumps during reduced-inventory operations and (2) spurious closure of the RHR suction valves due to misapplication of the autoclosure interlocks. Resolution of this issue involves consideration of the adequacy of plant capabilities for (1) preventing losses of RHR, (2) responding promptly and effectively to such challenges in order to prevent core damage, and (3) ensuring timely containment protection against the release of radioactivity to the environment in the unlikely event of core damage due to loss of shutdown cooling. This entails examination of (1) relevant operational and accident response procedures, (2) the instrumentation available to the operator for accident diagnosis and mitigation, and (3) the administrative controls available for ensuring control room cognizance of ongoing maintenance activities that could potentially affect the stability of the reactor coolant system. This regulatory analysis provides quantitative assessments of the costs and benefits associated with several alternatives considered for the resolution of Generic Issue 99. 24 refs

  14. Relative efficacy of drugs: an emerging issue between regulatory agencies and third-party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Abadie, Eric; Barnett, David; König, Franz; Pearson, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Drug regulatory agencies have traditionally assessed the quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, and the current paradigm dictates that a new drug should be licensed when the benefits outweigh the risks. By contrast, third-party payers base their reimbursement decisions predominantly on the health benefits of the drug relative to existing treatment options (termed relative efficacy; RE). Over the past decade, the role of payers has become more prominent, and time-to-market no longer means time-to-licensing but time-to-reimbursement. Companies now have to satisfy the sometimes divergent needs of both regulators and payers, and to address RE during the pre-marketing stages. This article describes the current political background to the RE debate and presents the scientific and methodological challenges as they relate to RE assessment. In addition, we explain the impact of RE on drug development, and speculate on future developments and actions that are likely to be required from key players.

  15. Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

  16. Regulatory issues related to long-term storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.; Romanenko, O.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Zhunussova, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Reported material is a result of activity accomplished in the framework of cooperation program between Kazakhstan and Norway within 2009-2012. This work was divided into three distinctive parts, as follows: 1. Analysis of existing threats associated with radioactive wastes in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The objective of this part of the work was to reveal the most important threats in the sphere of radioactive waste management in the Republic of Kazakhstan, which require an increased regulatory attention. Threat assessment needed to identify: main radiological threats both for people who work with radioactive wastes and for population living near the radioactive waste storage places now and in the long term which require an increased regulatory attention; problems that need urgent and detailed analysis; and main problems in the realization of regulatory process in Kazakhstan including weakness in the regulatory and legal framework. Threat assessment analysis showed that in order to reduce the level of threats it was necessary to begin developing a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management which need to be approved by the Government, to develop proposals for Radioactive Wastes new classification, including identification of relevant categories of Radioactive Wastes, as well as criteria for their disposal in accordance with IAEA recommendations and experience from other countries. 2. Development of new classification system for radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan. Following the results of threat assessment performed within the first stage, the objective of the second part of work was to develop a proposal to adopt a new Radioactive Wastes classification in Kazakhstan in accordance with the IAEA recommendations, including implementation of new categories, taking into account international experience and current situation in Kazakhstan. The result of this stage of work was a proposal for a new Radioactive Wastes classification and

  17. 75 FR 28667 - Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... members, (iii) discussion of Committee agenda and organization; (iv) discussion of the Joint CFTC-SEC... make recommendations related to market structure issues that may have contributed to the volatility, as... ``Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee'' to facilitate the organization and distribution of comments between...

  18. 75 FR 34704 - Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... the Committee. The agenda for the meeting includes: (i) Committee organizational matters; (ii... make recommendations related to market structure issues that may have contributed to the volatility, as...'s Public Reference Room, 100 F St., NE., Washington, DC 20549, on official business days between the...

  19. Compliance issues raised by the United States' ratification and implementation of the education articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher; Rubel, Jordana

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluates compliance issues the United States could face in ratifying the education provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The authors compare states parties' obligations under the education provisions of the CRC--as construed by the CRC committee--with federal and state education protections and programs in the United States. The authors conclude that the United States currently complies with most of the provisions and faces minimal risk in ratifying the remaining provisions.

  20. Domestic micro-generation: Economic, regulatory and policy issues for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim; Sauter, Raphael; Bahaj, Bakr; James, Patrick; Myers, Luke; Wing, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Micro-generation in individual homes has been the subject of increasing policy and industry attention in recent years. Whilst it has been estimated that micro-generation could meet 30-40% of UK electricity demand by 2050, deployment to date has been slow. In its Micro-generation Strategy the UK government has started to outline how deployment could be increased. Various technical, economic, behavioural and institutional changes are needed to establish a UK market for micro-generation. This article discusses how different deployment models for domestic micro-generation might attract investments in these technologies. It considers not only investments by individual households but also by energy companies. Starting from an economic analysis of payback times for three different technologies (micro-CHP, micro-wind and solar PV) it identifies policy and regulatory recommendations. It argues for technology-specific support policies in the short term. It also suggests that a 'level playing field' for micro-generation technologies as a result of fiscal and market reforms could considerably increase the attractiveness of micro-generation technologies

  1. Regulatory compliance issues related to the White Oak Creek Embayment time-critical removal action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, M.; Kimmel, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    In September 1990, Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) discovered high levels of Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) in surface sedimenus near the mouth of White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE). White Oak Creek (WOC) receives surface water drainage from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since this discovery, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems have pursued actions designed to stabilize the contaminated WOCE sediments under provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the implementing regulations in the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR Part 300), as a time-critical removal action. By definition, a time-critical removal is an action where onsite activities are initiated within six months of the determination that a removal action is appropriate. Time-critical removal actions allow comparatively rapid mobilization to protect human health and the environment without going through the lengthy and extensive CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study/Record of Decision process. Many aspects of the project, in terms of compliance with the substantive requirements of the NCP and ARARs, have exceeded the regulatory requirements, despite the fact that there is no apparent authority on conducting removal actions at Federal facilities. Much of the interpretation of the NCP was groundbreaking in nature for both EPA and DOE. 4 refs., 2 figs

  2. Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Bosetti, Cristina; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30 years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses' Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordaunt, Catriona J.; Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T

    2005-01-01

    Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, 'soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the 'harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. {sup 14}C-labelled volatilised and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the {sup 14}C-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the {sup 14}C-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the {sup 14}C-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues.

  4. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordaunt, Catriona J.; Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T.

    2005-01-01

    Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, 'soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the 'harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. 14 C-labelled volatilised and 14 CO 2 fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the 14 C-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the 14 C-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the 14 C-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues

  5. Regulatory Issues and Challenges in Preparing for the Regulation of New Reactor Siting: Malaysia's Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jais, Azlina Mohammad; Hassan, Halimah; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Roslan, Ridha

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at giving an overview about the issues and challenges facing regulatory authority, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) in ensuring nuclear safety, security and safeguards (3S's) and other relevant authorities to meet an impending nuclear power programme post-2020, in particular at the beginning stage of preparation for the regulation of nuclear power reactor siting. A comparison with an international framework and guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other countries' practice was made to get an overview of the present adequacy of Malaysia's nuclear regulatory framework in preparation for Malaysia to consider and perhaps decide for a safe, secure and peaceful nuclear power project in Malaysia, in utilising nuclear power in a quest for energy diversity and security. The important stage in the development of a nuclear power project is the evaluation of a suitable site to establish the site-related design inputs for the NPP. The evaluation of suitable site is the result of a process to ensure adequate protection of workers, public and the environment from the undue risk of ionizing radiation arising from NPP taking into account impact to the social communities and public acceptance, thus it will depend on the regulators to ensure a high level safety standards and security are met, in addition to its peaceful uses. Development of regulatory criteria for the site evaluation is a pre-initiatives licensing work for a possible nuclear power plant to performing effective nuclear safety and security reviews in an efficient and timely manner regardless whether Malaysia embarks on a nuclear power programme with anticipating challenges, learning from others' experiences in preparing for the demands for new licensing processes by collaborating internationally, in an expanding global environment

  6. Progress and Updates of Regulatory Challenges and Safety Issues in Korea during Three Years after Fukushima Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Eal; Kim, Kyun Tae

    2014-01-01

    Before the public fear on radiation risk caused by neighboring country's severe accident disappeared, a series of nuclear safety issues last 3 years made a few reactors shut down and the public trust much lower than before. Because of these scandals such as cover-ups, forged certificated items, corruption of manager of licensee and so on, many efforts made during three year after Fukushima accident on improving the nuclear safety were invalidated and even regulators as well as operators have been sharply criticized for its responsibility and transparency. This paper shares information on the progress and uprates achieved in Korea so far in connection with the safety issues caused during last 3 years and actions taken by the regulatory body. Before the public fear on radiation risk caused by neighboring country's severe accident disappeared, a series of nuclear safety issues last 3 years made a few reactors shut down and the public trust much lower than before. Because of these scandals such as cover-ups, forged certificated items, corruption of manager of licensee and so on, many efforts made during three year after Fukushima accident on improving the nuclear safety were invalidated and even regulators as well as operators have been sharply criticized for its responsibility and transparency

  7. Progress and Updates of Regulatory Challenges and Safety Issues in Korea during Three Years after Fukushima Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Eal; Kim, Kyun Tae [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Before the public fear on radiation risk caused by neighboring country's severe accident disappeared, a series of nuclear safety issues last 3 years made a few reactors shut down and the public trust much lower than before. Because of these scandals such as cover-ups, forged certificated items, corruption of manager of licensee and so on, many efforts made during three year after Fukushima accident on improving the nuclear safety were invalidated and even regulators as well as operators have been sharply criticized for its responsibility and transparency. This paper shares information on the progress and uprates achieved in Korea so far in connection with the safety issues caused during last 3 years and actions taken by the regulatory body. Before the public fear on radiation risk caused by neighboring country's severe accident disappeared, a series of nuclear safety issues last 3 years made a few reactors shut down and the public trust much lower than before. Because of these scandals such as cover-ups, forged certificated items, corruption of manager of licensee and so on, many efforts made during three year after Fukushima accident on improving the nuclear safety were invalidated and even regulators as well as operators have been sharply criticized for its responsibility and transparency.

  8. An overview of the formulation, existence and uniqueness issues for the initial value problem raised by the dynamics of discrete systems with unilateral contact and dry friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Patrick; Charles, Alexandre

    2018-03-01

    In the end of the seventies, Schatzman and Moreau undertook to revisit the venerable dynamics of rigid bodies with contact and dry friction in the light of more recent mathematics. One claimed objective was to reach, for the first time, a mathematically consistent formulation of an initial value problem associated with the dynamics. The purpose of this article is to make a review of the today state-of-art concerning not only the formulation, but also the issues of existence and uniqueness of solution. xml:lang="fr"

  9. Regulatory Experience on Structural Integrity Issues of The Oldest Reactor Pressure Vessel in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Min; Cho, Doo-Ho; Kim, Jin-Su; Kim, Yong-Beum; Chung, Hae-Dong; Kim, Se-Chang; Choi, Jae-Boong

    2015-01-01

    A reactor pressure vessel plays a crucial role of retaining reactor coolant and core assemblies. The RPV integrity should be evaluated in consideration with the design transient condition and the material deterioration of RPV belt-line region. Especially, the pressurized thermal shock has been considered as one of the most important issues regarding the RPV integrity since Rancho Seco nuclear power plant accident in 1978. In this paper, the structural integrity evaluation of the oldest RPV in Korea was performed by using finite element analysis. PTS conditions like small break loss of coolant accident and Turkey Point steam line break were applied as loading conditions. Neutron fluence data equivalent to 40 years was used to determine the fracture toughness of RPV material. The 3-dimensional finite element model including a circumferential surface flaw was considered for fracture mechanics analysis. The RPV integrity was evaluated according to Japan Electric Association Code. (authors)

  10. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  11. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of generic issue C---8, main steam isolation valve leakage and LCS [leakage control system] failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, C.C.

    1990-06-01

    Generic Issue C-8 deals with staff concerns about public risk because of the incidence of leak test failures reported for main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) at boiling water reactors and the limitations of the leakage control systems (LCSs) for mitigating the consequences of leakage from these valves. If the MSIV leakage is greatly in excess of the allowable value in the technical specifications, the LCS would be unavailable because of design limitations. The issue was initiated in 1983 to assess (1) the causes of MSIV leakage failures, (2) the effectiveness of the LCS and alternative mitigation paths, and (3) the need for additional regulatory action to reduce public risk. This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue C-8 and concludes that no new regulatory requirements are warranted

  12. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: impacts on process, content, and behaviour in waste organisations: the Swedish radiation protection authority's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bjoern

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, there is a strong involvement for contributing to and for developing the work in the process aimed at building the Swedish repository sites of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear wastes. The discussions in the focus groups showed that: - the participants had substantial comments on the content and the shaping of the guidelines which will be of use to SSI (one of the Swedish authorities) in the current work; - involved participants' needs for knowledge, as well as their comments, reach far beyond the outline of the guidelines. One can find questions on basic concepts and technical details of measurements as well as on issues of legal, health related, organisational and social aspects and consequences, ranging from today and far into the distant future. This will be of use for building an information database that can place radiation protection criteria concerning final disposal into a broader context. SSI plans to put forward a draft of the guidelines to be discussed further in the municipalities, followed by discussions with other actors. The guidelines are planned to be ready at the end of 2004

  13. The elusive ideal of inclusiveness: lessons from a worldwide survey of neurologists on the ethical issues raised by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Jaitovich Groisman, Iris; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-04-11

    The anticipation of ethical issues that may arise with the clinical use of genomic technologies is crucial to envision their future implementation in a manner sensitive to local contexts. Yet, populations in low- and middle-income countries are underrepresented in studies that aim to explore stakeholders' perspectives on the use of such technologies. Within the framework of a research project entitled "Personalized medicine in the treatment of epilepsy", we sought to increase inclusiveness by widening the reach of our survey, inviting neurologists from around the world to share their views and practices regarding the use of whole-genome sequencing in clinical neurology and its associated ethics. We discuss herein the compelling scientific and ethical reasons that led us to attempt to recruit neurologists worldwide, despite the lack, in many low- or middle-income countries, of access to genomic technologies. Recruitment procedures and their results are presented and discussed, as well as the barriers we faced. We conclude that inclusive recruitment remains a challenging, albeit necessary and legitimate, endeavour.

  14. Ethical and regulatory issues with conducting sexuality research with LGBT adolescents: a call to action for a scientifically informed approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian

    2011-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents experience disparities in mental and sexual health. There is also a lack of research on this population relative to other adolescents, which limits our ability to effectively address these health disparities. Researchers may unfortunately avoid conducting research with this population because of anticipated or actual experiences with difficulties in obtaining IRB approval. A case example is provided to illustrate the ethical and regulatory issues related to research with LGBT adolescents. Relevant U.S. federal and local regulations related to research on sexual and mental health with adolescents is then reviewed. Data are presented demonstrating that requiring parental consent for LGBT youth under age 18 would likely alter study result. Data are also presented on participants' appraisals of the risks and discomforts associated with research participation. The provision of such empirical data on the risks of research participation is consistent with the goal of moving the IRB process of risk/benefit assessment from being entirely subjective to being evidence-based. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to approach these issues in IRB applications and investigators are called to help to build a corpus of scholarship that can advance empirical knowledge in this area.

  15. Recycling of radioactively contaminated materials: Public policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, E.K.

    1994-01-01

    Recycling radioactively contaminated materials requires varying degrees of interaction among Federal regulatory agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State governments and regulators, the public, and the Department of Energy. The actions of any of these parties can elicit reactions from the other parties and will raise issues that must be addressed in order to achieve a coherent policy on recycling. The paper discusses potential actions and reactions of Federal regulatory agencies (defined as NRC and EPA), the States, and the Department and the policy issues they raise

  16. Biomonitoring in occupational health: Scientific, socio-ethical, and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viau, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Biomonitoring is one of the best available tools for the prevention of deleterious effects resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals. The availability of analytical techniques having low detection limits allows for the measurement of numerous biomarkers. Complemented with quality control programs, our ability to collect validated information on exposure to toxicants improves. This is important as exposure doses tend to decrease in workplaces. Concurrently, there is an increasing preoccupation towards skin exposure, which cannot currently be reliably assessed through external measurements. Furthermore, as lower exposure doses are encountered, background concentrations of some biomarkers become a serious limitation to their use. This prompts researchers to seek for minor, more specific metabolites, that may however be produced through metabolic pathways that are prone to larger inter-individual variations. Assessment of exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals is another major challenge. There is a growing interest towards ethical issues in biomonitoring. The understanding of the advantages and of the limits of this preventive approach may be very different among occupational health professionals, but more importantly, between health professionals and those they are seeking to protect, i.e., the workers themselves. Many organizations have proposed guideline values for biomarker concentrations, but these seldom find their way in the various countries' bylaws. One underlying reason might be the greater complexity of the scientific aspects of biomarkers, whose understanding is required to set limit values, compared to the process of setting airborne limit concentrations. But the fact that the latter does not consider all aspects of biological complexity does not make it more reliable

  17. A Process Perspective on Regulation: A Grounded Theory Study into Regulatory Practice in Newly Liberalized Network-Based Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubacht, J.

    The transition from a former monopolistic towards a more competitive market in
    newly liberalized network-based markets raises regulatory issues. National Regulatory Authorities (NRA) face the challenge to deal with these issues in order to guide the transition process. Although this transition

  18. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: impacts on process, content and behaviour in the case of the Canadian nuclear waste management organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight how stakeholder input has shaped the work of the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in both process and content. In 2002, NWMO was mandated by the Government of Canada to undertake a study of different approaches for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel, and to recommend an approach to the Government by November 15, 2005. Public consultations are an important part of this legislated mandate. In inviting broad dialogue and feedback from the public at large, experts, and other communities of interest, NWMO intends that its processes, the study and its recommendations will reflect the values and perspectives of Canadian society. The organization has adopted a reflective study approach, through which it deliberately seeks public input at each stage of study. A continuum of engagement activities provides for dynamic interaction between the engagement processes and the research and analysis. The insights gained from engagement are integrated into the NWMO's study, to continuously enrich the iterative learning process. NWMO has received a wide range of comments, insights and questions from face-to-face discussions, workshops, round-tables, written submissions and public opinion research. The sections that follow illustrate how this stakeholder input has helped to shape the organisation's public engagement plans, work-plan and the focus of the assessment that is now in progress. Going forward, issues and comments provided by different communities of interest will assist the assessment of the management approaches and help design NWMO's recommendation to the Government of Canada. (author)

  19. Regulatory aspects of oncology drug safety evaluation: Past practice, current issues, and the challenge of new drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeldt, Hans; Kropp, Timothy; Benson, Kimberly; Ricci, M. Stacey; McGuinn, W. David; Verbois, S. Leigh

    2010-01-01

    The drug development of new anti-cancer agents is streamlined in response to the urgency of bringing effective drugs to market for patients with limited life expectancy. FDA's regulation of oncology drugs has evolved from the practices set forth in Arnold Lehman's seminal work published in the 1950s through the current drafting of a new International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) safety guidance for anti-cancer drug nonclinical evaluations. The ICH combines the efforts of the regulatory authorities of Europe, Japan, and the United States and the pharmaceutical industry from these three regions to streamline the scientific and technical aspects of drug development. The recent development of new oncology drug classes with novel mechanisms of action has improved survival rates for some cancers but also brings new challenges for safety evaluation. Here we present the legacy of Lehman and colleagues in the context of past and present oncology drug development practices and focus on some of the current issues at the center of an evolving harmonization process that will generate a new safety guidance for oncology drugs, ICH S9. The purpose of this new guidance will be to facilitate oncology drug development on a global scale by standardizing regional safety requirements.

  20. Regulatory analysis for resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-46, seismic qualification of equipment in operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.Y.; Anderson, N.R.

    1987-02-01

    The margin of safety provided in existing nuclear power plant equipment to resist seismically induced loads and perform required safety functions may vary considerably, because of significant changes in design criteria and methods for the seismic qualification of equipment over the years. Therefore, the seismic qualification of equipment in operating plants must be reassessed to determine whether requalification is necessary. The objective of technical studies performed under Task Action Plan A-46 was to establish an explicit set of guidelines and acceptance criteria to judge the adequacy of equipment under seismic loading at all operating plants, in lieu of requiring these plants to meet the criteria that are applied to new plants. This report presents the regulatory analysis for Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46. It includes: Statement of the Problem; the Objective of USI A-46; a Summary of A-46 Tasks; a Proposed Implementation Procedure; a Value-Impact Analysis; Application of the Backfit Rule; 10 CFR 50.109; Implementation; and Operating Plants To Be Reviewed to USI A-46 Requirements

  1. "Sweatshop" Protests Raise Ethical and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Student activists have put pressure on colleges and universities to toughen licensing codes aimed at eliminating sweatshop labor for college apparel made in other countries, and have had some success. However, oversight of the codes among contractors in developing countries is logistically and economically problematic. (MSE)

  2. LNG ventures raise economic, technical, partnership issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acord, H.K.

    1995-01-01

    The author feels that natural gas will remain a competitive energy alternative and the preferred fuel for many residential and industrial customers around the globe. The article attempts to explain where liquefied natural gas will fit into the global picture. The paper discusses the growth in the Asia-Pacific region; the complex interactions in a LNG project involving buyers, sellers, governments, financial institutions, and shipping companies; the cost of development of such projects; and the elements of a LNG venture

  3. Some issues regarding regulatory policy, political participation, and social implications of geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.S.; Steinberger, M.F.

    1976-02-01

    The early stages of geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley have been characterized by an emphasis on the technological expertise of private developers and government officials. Government officials have created a complex array of Federal, state and county regulations to monitor the development. Local control is under the jurisdiction of the Imperial County government. The County has as its responsibility the protection of the general welfare of its residents, including any potentially adverse social, economic, or environmental impacts caused by geothermal resource development. Private developers and government officials are interested in the resources as a source of water desalination and electric power generation. An assessment of the interests and concerns of the public was made early in the development stage. In view of all these interests, it is essential in a democratic society that the various interests be identified so government can be representative of, and responsive to, those interests. Therefore, the four issues discussed in the paper are: (1) regulatory problems faced by local government officials in determining the course of development; (2) the social and political context in which the development is taking place; (3) the potential of geothermal development as perceived by community leaders and local government officials; and (4) the desirability of expanding citizen participation in geothermal decision-makingduring a period in which, as public opinion polls indicated, many citizens feel separated from government actions which may significantly affect their lives. Recommendations for regulations of geothermal resources and recommendations for improving public input into geothermal regulation are summarized in depth. (MCW)

  4. 2014 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: a full immersion in bioanalysis (Part 2 - hybrid LBA/LCMS, ELN & regulatory agencies' input).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufield, Dawn; Neubert, Hendrik; Garofolo, Fabio; Kirkovsky, Leo; Stevenson, Lauren; Dumont, Isabelle; Kaur, Surinder; Xu, Keyang; Alley, Stephen C; Szapacs, Matthew; Arnold, Mark; Bansal, Surendra; Haidar, Sam; Welink, Jan; Le Blaye, Olivier; Wakelin-Smith, Jason; Whale, Emma; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Bustard, Mark; Katori, Noriko; Amaravadi, Lakshmi; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Beaver, Chris; Bergeron, Annik; Cai, Xiao-Yan; Cojocaru, Laura; DeSilva, Binodh; Duggan, Jeff; Fluhler, Eric; Gorovits, Boris; Gupta, Swati; Hayes, Roger; Ho, Stacy; Ingelse, Benno; King, Lindsay; Lévesque, Ann; Lowes, Steve; Ma, Mark; Musuku, Adrien; Myler, Heather; Olah, Timothy; Patel, Shefali; Rose, Mark; Schultz, Gary; Smeraglia, John; Swanson, Steven; Torri, Albert; Vazvaei, Faye; Wilson, Amanda; Woolf, Eric; Xue, Li; Yang, Tong-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 8th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (8th WRIB), a 5-day full immersion in the evolving field of bioanalysis, took place in Universal City, California, USA. Close to 500 professionals from pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide convened to share, review, discuss and agree on approaches to address current issues of interest in bioanalysis. The topics covered included both small and large molecules, and involved LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, LBA approaches and immunogenicity. From the prolific discussions held during the workshop, specific recommendations are presented in this 2014 White Paper. As with the previous years' editions, this paper acts as a practical tool to help the bioanalytical community continue advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2014 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 2) covers the recommendations for Hybrid LBA/LCMS, Electronic Laboratory Notebook and Regulatory Agencies' Input. Part 1 (Small molecules bioanalysis using LCMS) was published in the Bioanalysis issue 6(22) and Part 3 (Large molecules bioanalysis using LBA and Immunogenicity) will be published in the Bioanalysis issue 6(24).

  5. Resolution of digital instrumentation and control and human factors technical and regulatory issues for new plants and for modernization of operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.; Torok, R.C.; Canavan, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    There are several technical and regulatory issues in the areas of digital I and C, human factors, and control rooms needing generic resolution. If they are not generically resolved, they can contribute to protracted regulatory reviews for operating plant license amendments and substantial delays and increased costs for new plant COL approvals. Therefore; a coordinated, proactive program has been established to resolve key issues. Both Industry and NRC have roles in resolving these key issues and addressing them in future design efforts and regulatory reviews. The Industry initiative is led by the NEI Digital I and C and Human Factors Working Group. NRC has established Task Working Groups under the NRC Digital I and C Steering Committee to address the issues and interact with Industry. EPRI is providing technical input and resolution leadership for some of the issues being addressed in three of the task working groups. For the Highly Integrated Control Room - Human Factors Task area, EPRI has taken the lead in developing draft industry position technical reports for the following three issues: 1) Minimum inventory of human system interfaces, 2) Computerized procedures and associated topics of automation and soft controls, and 3) Methodology to determine the acceptability of manual operator actions response times for a BTP 7-19 software common cause failure. For the Diversity and Defense-in-Depth area, EPRI has taken the lead in developing two draft industry position technical papers on the following topics: 1) Integrating defensive measures and diversity attributes to protect against digital common cause failures and 2) Susceptibility of digital devices and components to common cause failures. For the Risk Informing area, EPRI has taken the lead in developing two draft industry position technical papers on the following topics: 1) Clarifying how to use current methods to model digital systems in a PRA and 2) Application of PRA to specific digital I and C issues

  6. Raised intracranial pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is article presents an approach to raised intracranial pressure (ICP) constructed in a question-answer fashion. ..... Given that raised ICP is a serious and potentially life-threatening emergency, fast and reliable referral and transfer mechanisms should be established to ensure patients with this condition are effectively treated.

  7. Raising Confident Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Raising Confident Kids KidsHealth / For Parents / Raising Confident Kids What's in ...

  8. Scientific Issues Relevant to Setting Regulatory Criteria to Identify Endocrine-Disrupting Substances in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Demeneix, Barbara; Ivell, Richard; Panzica, Giancarlo; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as exogenous compounds or mixtures that alter function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations. European regulations on pesticides, biocides, cosmetics, and industrial chemicals require the European Commission to establish scientific criteria to define EDs. We address the scientific relevance of four options for the identification of EDs proposed by the European Commission. Option 1, which does not define EDs and leads to using interim criteria unrelated to the WHO definition of EDs, is not relevant. Options 2 and 3 rely on the WHO definition of EDs, which is widely accepted by the scientific community, with option 3 introducing additional categories based on the strength of evidence (suspected EDs and endocrine-active substances). Option 4 adds potency to the WHO definition, as a decision criterion. We argue that potency is dependent on the adverse effect considered and is scientifically ambiguous, and note that potency is not used as a criterion to define other particularly hazardous substances such as carcinogens and reproductive toxicants. The use of potency requires a context that goes beyond hazard identification and corresponds to risk characterization, in which potency (or, more relevantly, the dose-response function) is combined with exposure levels. There is scientific agreement regarding the adequacy of the WHO definition of EDs. The potency concept is not relevant to the identification of particularly serious hazards such as EDs. As is common practice for carcinogens, mutagens, and reproductive toxicants, a multi-level classification of ED based on the WHO definition, and not considering potency, would be relevant (corresponding to option 3 proposed by the European Commission). Slama R, Bourguignon JP, Demeneix B, Ivell R, Panzica G, Kortenkamp A, Zoeller RT. 2016. Scientific issues relevant

  9. Raising the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  10. The Campus Green: Fund Raising in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

    This digest summarizes issues raised in a research report on fund raising in higher education. The following questions are addressed: What are the changes and trends since the early days of educational fund raising? What are the implications? What is known about spending? What is known about donor behavior? What are the major ethical issues? What…

  11. Regulatory and Technical Issues Concerning the Detection and Treatment of NDMA-Contaminated Groundwater at NASA WSTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, D. T.; Zigmond, M. J.; Tufts, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was established in 1963 primarily to provide rocket engine testing services for several NASA programs. The groundwater underlying the site has been contaminated as a result of historical operations. Groundwater contaminants include several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and two semi-volatile compounds: N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrodimethylamine (DMN). This paper discusses some of the technical, analytical, regulatory, and health risk issues associated with the contaminant plume. The plume has moved approximately 2.5 miles downgradient of the facility industrial boundary, with evidence of continued migration. As a result, NASA has proposed a pump and treat system using air strippers and ultraviolet (UV) oxidation to stabilize future movement of the contaminant plume. The system has been designed to treat 1,076 gallons (4,073 liters) per minute, with provisions for future expansion. The UV oxidation process was selected to treat NDMA-contaminated groundwater based on successes at other NDMA-contaminated sites. Bench- and pilot-scale testing of WSTF groundwater confirmed the ability of UV oxidation to destroy NDMA and generated sufficient data to design the proposed full-scale treatment system. NDMA is acutely toxic and is a probable human carcinogen. EPA-recommended health risk criteria for the residential consumption of NDMA/DMN-contaminated groundwater was used to determine that a 1.0 x 10(exp -6) excess cancer risk corresponds to 1.7 parts per trillion (ppt). EPA analytical methods are unable to detect NDMA and DMN in the low ppt range. EPA's current Appendix IX analytical method used to screen for NDMA, Method 8270, can detect NDMA only at levels that are orders of magnitude greater than the recommended health risk level. Additionally, EPA Method 607, the most sensitive EPA approved method, has a detection limit of 150 ppt. This corresponds to an excess cancer

  12. Viimsi water treatment plant for Ra removal: NORM residue/waste generation, radiation safety issues, and regulatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Realo, E.; Jantsikene, A.; Lumiste, L.; Vaeaer, K.; Isakar, K.; Koch, R. [University of Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    values established for these radionuclides. The design and construction of the plant have underestimated the importance of aspects related to NORM accumulation and their management. Therefore, the level of Ra accumulation, ingrowth of daughter radionuclides (Th-228, Pb-210) and generation of Rn-220 and Rn-222 may pose great difficulties for the operation of the plant, especially in the case when/if the filter material is classified as NORM residue/waste with elevated radiation hazard for plant workers, public and the environment. As the first large-scale water treatment plant of the kind, there are no routine legal experience or administrative practice established in Estonia. This paper presents an overview of the operation of Viimsi Vesi Ltd. water treatment plant. The legal aspects and issues associated with management of NORM waste/residues, including classification (residue vs. waste), potential management options, optimisation of the management and radiation safety of the workers are discussed. Views of both the operator and the regulatory authority will be considered. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 1: Institutional and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste regulation. Topics include: EPA environmental standards; international exemption principles; the concept of below regulatory concern; envirocare activities in Utah; mixed waste; FUSRAP and the Superfund; and a review of various incentive programs. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  14. TuBaFrost 3: regulatory and ethical issues on the exchange of residual tissue for research across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, E.-B.; Riegman, P. H. J.; Dinjens, W. N. M.; Lam, K. H.; Oomen, M. H. A.; Spatz, A.; Mager, R.; Ratcliffe, C.; Knox, K.; Kerr, D.; van Damme, B.; van de Vijver, M.; van Boven, H.; Morente, M. M.; Alonso, S.; Kerjaschki, D.; Pammer, J.; Lopez-Guerrero, J. A.; Llombart Bosch, A.; Carbone, A.; Gloghini, A.; Teodorovic, I.; Isabelle, M.; Passioukov, A.; Lejeune, S.; Therasse, P.; Oosterhuis, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory regimes for research with residual tissue and accompanying data differ widely between countries in the European Union (EU): from specific consent to opt-out or even no consent at all. This could greatly hamper research where the exchange of tissue and accompanying data has become the

  15. Corporate Political Strategies related to Decisions of European Competition Commission on Regulatory Issues in the European Telecommunications Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, H.L. van; Ross, T.

    2014-01-01

    The European regulatory institution has the tasks to protect fair competition and equal opportunities for all companies in the European telecommunications industry and to protect the welfare of the consumers. This regulator is responsible for the adherence of telecommunications companies to

  16. The radon issue: Considerations on regulatory approaches and exposure evaluations on the basis of recent epidemiological results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiological results have shown consistent statistically significant increases of lung cancer risk due to exposure to radon in dwellings at moderate levels of exposure, and a strong synergism with cigarette smoking. These results are summarized and discussed in relation to their possible implications for the regulatory control of radon and for future policies for the control of radon risk

  17. The Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale: Issues of Reliability and Validity Within a Turkish Sample Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarık Totan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Turkish version of the Regulatory Emotional Self-efficacy Scale (RESE. The RESE, the Emotional Self-efficacy Scale, the Self-liking/Self-competence Scale, and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were applied to 303 university students in total, 180 were women (59.4% and 123 were men (40.6%. According to results of confirmatory factor analysis applied in the study are founded enough conformity between the priori hypothesis model and the data. In addition, the metric invariance model shows that there were no gender differences on this confirmatory model. Internal consistency coefficients were all above the acceptable for the RESE’s sub-scale and total. Moreover, positive correlations were found between regulatory emotional self-efficacy dimensions and emotional self-efficacy, self-esteem, and happiness. According to these research findings, the RESE is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring regulatory self-efficacy in Turkish.

  18. Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.; Kahn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from

  19. Use Of Renewable Energy In The Electric Power Generation Sector In Mexico: Political, Regulatory, Economic And Technical Issues From 1965 To 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde-Baltierra, Alberto; Sasse, Diana; Zeferino-Abundis, Yolanda; Quiroz-Juarez, Carolina; Lopez-Satow, Edgar; Beltran-Mora, Hector; Crisostomo-Ramirez, David

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the political, regulatory, economic and technical issues that have determined the use of primary energies for power generation in Mexico from 1965 to 2008, and its perspectives for the next 10 years, in particular the prospects of using renewable energies. In the 60's, hydro was the preferred source of energy to produce electricity for economical and technical reasons. Under the 'oil boom' in the 70s, transition to hydrocarbons resources (fuel oil) was progressive. As a result of implementing environmental policies, electricity has mainly been generated with natural gas since the early 2000.

  20. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3, structural and seismic engineering, primary systems integrity, equipment operability and aging, ECCS strainer blockage research and regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 3, presents topics in Structural & Seismic Engineering, Primary Systems Integrity, Equipment Operability and Aging, and ECCS Strainer Blockage Research & Regulatory Issues. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  1. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3, structural and seismic engineering, primary systems integrity, equipment operability and aging, ECCS strainer blockage research and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 3, presents topics in Structural ampersand Seismic Engineering, Primary Systems Integrity, Equipment Operability and Aging, and ECCS Strainer Blockage Research ampersand Regulatory Issues. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  2. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, May/June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Lewis, E.B.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-07-01

    This report contains a bi-monthly update of environmental regulatory activity that is of interest to the Department of Energy. It is provided to DOE operations and contractor staff to assist and support environmental management programs by tracking regulatory developments. Any proposed regulation that raises significant issues for any DOE operation should be reported to the Office of Environmental Guidance (EH-23) as soon as possible so that the Department can make its concerns known to the appropriate regulatory agency. Items of particular interest to EH-23 are indicated by a shading of the RU{number sign}.

  3. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, May/June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Lewis, E.B.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-07-01

    This report contains a bi-monthly update of environmental regulatory activity that is of interest to the Department of Energy. It is provided to DOE operations and contractor staff to assist and support environmental management programs by tracking regulatory developments. Any proposed regulation that raises significant issues for any DOE operation should be reported to the Office of Environmental Guidance (EH-23) as soon as possible so that the Department can make its concerns known to the appropriate regulatory agency. Items of particular interest to EH-23 are indicated by a shading of the RU{number_sign}.

  4. Current and new developments in transport and regulatory issues concerning radioisotopes: managing change for minimum business impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Neil; Coppell, David; Rogers, David; Schrader, John

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the regulatory framework governing the Radiation Processing Industry have the potential to make a real business impact on day-to-day profitability. Many areas of the Radiation Processing Industry are affected by changes in the regulatory framework within which these areas are managed. When planning for such changes the transportation element in the shipment of sealed cobalt radiation sources is an area that is often neglected by some parts of the distribution chain. A balance must be struck between the cobalt supplier and the facility operator/customer that rests upon how much the customer needs to know about the intricacies of cobalt shipment. The objective of this paper is to highlight areas of possible business impact and reassure the users of sealed radiation sources that the global suppliers of these products are used to negotiating local variations in regulations governing the physical transportation of radiation sources, changes in regulations governing the design, manufacture and use of transportation containers and changes in the availability of commercial shippers and shipping routes. The major suppliers of industrial quantities of cobalt-60 are well placed to lead their customers through this complex process as a matter of routine

  5. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: the regulatory taking doctrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the third of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 3 introduces one of the most controversial legal doctrines of investment law – 'regulatory taking' – and sets out its implications for sustainable development.

  6. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 130: Essential service water system failures at multi-unit sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, V.; Basdekas, D.; Mazetis, G.

    1991-06-01

    The essential service water system (ESWS) is required to provide cooling in nuclear power plants during normal operation and accident conditions. The ESWS typically supports component cooling water heat exchangers, containment spray heat exchangers, high-pressure injection pump oil coolers, emergency diesel generators, and auxiliary building ventilation coolers. Failure of the ESWS function could lead to severe consequences. This report presents the regulatory analysis for GI-130, ''Essential Service Water System Failures at Multi-Unit Sites.'' The risk reduction estimates, cost/benefit analyses, and other insights gained during this effort have shown that implementation of the recommendations will significantly reduce risk and that these improvements are warranted in accordance with the backfit rule, 10 CFR 50.109(a)(3). 19 refs., 16 tabs

  7. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  8. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  9. Selected legal and institutional issues related to Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, V. P.

    1979-06-01

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), an attractive alternative to traditional energy sources, is still in the early stages of development. To facilitate OTEC commercialization, it is essential that a legal and institutional framework be designed now so as to resolve uncertainties related to OTEC development, primarily involving jurisdictional, regulatory, and environmental issues. The jurisdictional issues raised by OTEC use are dependent upon the site of an OTEC facility and its configuration; i.e., whether the plant is a semipermanent fixture located offshore or a migrating plant ship that provides a source of energy for industry at sea. These issues primarily involve the division of authority between the Federal Government and the individual coastal states. The regulatory issues raised are largely speculative: they involve the adaptation of existing mechanisms to OTEC operation. Finally, the environmental issues raised center around compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as well as international agreements. 288 references.

  10. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of generic issue 57: Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, H.W.

    1993-10-01

    Actuation of Fire Protection Systems (FPS) in Nuclear Power Plants have resulted in adverse interactions with equipment important to safety. Precursor operational experience has shown that 37% of all FPS actuations damaged some equipment, and 20% of all FPS actuations have resulted in a plant transient and reactor trip. On an average 0.17 FPS actuations per reactor year have been experienced in nuclear power plants in this country. This report presents the regulatory analysis for GI-57, ''Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment''. The risk reduction estimates, cost/benefit analyses, and other insights gained during this effort have shown that implementation of the recommendations contained in this report can significantly reduce risk, and that these improvements can be warranted in accordance with the backfit rule, 10 CFR 50.109(a)(3). However, plant specific analyses are required in order to identify such improvements. Generic analyses can not serve to identify improvements that could be warranted for individual, specific plants. Plant specific analyses of the type needed for this purpose are underway as part of the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program

  11. Regulatory and institutional issues impending cleanup at US Department of Energy sites: Perspectives gained from an office of environmental restoration workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallon, W E; Gephart, J M; Gephart, R E; Quinn, R D; Stevenson, L A

    1991-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapons and energy operations are conducted across a nation-wide industrial complex engaged in a variety of manufacturing, processing, testing, and research and development activities. The overall mission of DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is to protect workers, the public, and the environment from waste materials generated by past, current, and future DOE activities and to bring the DOE complex into compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and agreements related to health, safety, and the environment. EM addresses this broad mandate through related and interdependent programs that include corrective actions, waste operations, environmental restoration, and technology development. The EM Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) recognizes the importance of implementing a complex-wide process to identify and resolve those issues that may impede progress towards site cleanup. As a first step in this process, FM-40 sponsored an exercise to identify and characterize major regulatory and institutional issues and to formulate integrated action steps towards their resolution. This report is the first product of that exercise. It is intended that the exercise described here will mark the beginning of an ongoing process of issue identification, tracking, and resolution that will benefit cleanup activities across the DOE complex.

  12. Value-impact analysis of regulatory options for resolution of Generic Issue C-8: MSIV [Main Steam Isolation Valve] leakage and LCS [Leakage Control System] failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, J.D.; Vo, T.V.; Tabatabai, A.S.

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the analysis conducted to establish the basis for answering two remaining regulatory questions facing the NRC staff regarding the resolution of Generic Issue C-8, specifically:(1) What action should the NRC take concerning plants that currently have a leakage control system (LCS)? and, (2) What action should the NRC take concerning plants that do not have an LCS? Using individual MSIV leak test data, the performance of a system of eight such valves in a standard BWR con-figuration was modeled. The performance model was used along with estimates of core damage accident frequency and calculated dose consequences to determine the public risk associated with each of the alternatives. The occupational exposure implications of each alternative were calculated using estimates of labor hours in radiation zones that would be incurred or avoided. The costs to industry of implementing each alternative were estimated using standard cost formulae and NRC staff estimates. The cost to the NRC were estimated based on the effort incurred or avoided for reviews or other staff actions engendered by the selection of or avoided for reviews or other staff actions engendered by the selection of a particular alternative. The cost and risks thus calculated suggest that no regulatory action can be justified on the basis of risk reduction or cost savings. 12 refs., 1 tab

  13. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  14. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  15. Emerging regulatory challenges facing the Indian rural electrification programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Srivastava, Leena

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations

  16. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Safety Issue 106: Piping and the use of highly combustible gases in vital areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, C.C.

    1993-06-01

    Highly combustible gases such as hydrogen, propane, and acetylene are used at all nuclear power plants. Hydrogen is of particular importance because it is stored in large quantities and is distributed and used continuously in buildings containing safety-related equipment. Large hydrogen releases at the hydrogen storage facilities or in these buildings could lead to fires or explosions that might result in loss of safety-related equipment. This report gives the regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Safety Issue 106, open-quotes Piping and the Use of Highly Combustible Gases in Vital Areas.close quotes Scoping analyses showed that the risk associated with the storage and distribution of hydrogen for cooling electric generators at boiling-water reactors (BWRs), the off-gas system at BWRs, the waste gas system at pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and station battery rooms and portable bottles of combustible gas used for maintenance at PWRs and BWRs is small. On the basis of generic evaluations, the NRC staff has concluded that several possible methods to reduce risk could provide cost-effective safety benefits at some plants. However, in view of the observed large differences in plant-specific characteristics affecting the risk associated with the use of hydrogen, and the marginal generic safety benefit that can be achieved in a cost-effective manner, it is recommended that this generic issue be resolved simply by making these results available in a generic letter. This information may help licensees in their plant evaluations recommended by Generic Letter 88-20, Supplement 4, open-quotes Individual Plant Examination of External Events for Severe Accident Vulnerabilities,close quotes June 28, 1991

  17. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  18. 78 FR 26826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...\\ Accordingly, the affiliate relationship between Phlx and NOS, its member, raises the issue of an exchange's... unfair competitive advantage and potential conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory... potential for conflicts of interest in instances where a member firm is affiliated with an exchange of which...

  19. 78 FR 29795 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc ; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...\\ Accordingly, the affiliate relationship between BX and NOS, its member, raises the issue of an exchange's... unfair competitive advantage and potential conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory... potential for conflicts of interest in instances where a member firm is affiliated with an exchange of which...

  20. 78 FR 26820 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... affiliate relationship between NASDAQ and NOS, its member, raises the issue of an exchange's affiliation... unfair competitive advantage and potential conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory... regarding the potential for conflicts of interest in instances where a member firm is affiliated with an...

  1. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  2. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  3. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  4. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  5. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  6. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  7. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect ...

  8. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  9. Status report on roadmap headquarters issue resolution activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Roadmap Project Office (RPO), under the Office of Planning (EM-14), continues to review headquarters (HQ) issues raised by the field in their roadmap documents. Currently, twenty-nine HQ issues are in the ''resolution'' process or are being defined for resolution. The resolution process involves an Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program (EM) HQ person, the Action Officer (AO), as the leader in the resolution process. The RPO is responsible to EM-14 for reporting on the progress of issue resolution activities and also to provide contractor support to each Action Officer: the contractor support person is identifies as the Issue Resolution Facilitator (IF). Field contacts also are identified for each issue. This document provides current information on HQ issues actively in the ''resolution'' process or being defined for resolution. The issues are primarily institutional rather than technical and mainly involve regulatory, coordination, prioritization, policy and management concerns

  10. Raising the Bar for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jal; Doctor, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The past year has seen the emergence of a broad consensus on raising the standards for entering the teaching profession. The NEA, AFT, and Council of Chief State School Officers all have said they want higher entry standards. Such an exam would be modeled after other professions and is a potential game changer. If sufficiently rigorous, the exam…

  11. Fund Raising: An International Feast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Valorie; Marshall, Gene

    The procedure for planning an international dinner to raise funds and publicize foreign language study is described. The project, which netted several hundred dollars for a high school in North Dakota, involves careful planning over a period of months. Publicity and facilities are discussed, and the various culinary and other jobs to be…

  12. Raising the Awareness of Children on Global Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczynska, Audrey

    2016-08-01

    Space Awareness uses the excitement and challenges of space to interest young people into science and technology and develop their sense of European and global citizenship. Latest news and key advancements of the European space initiatives greatly contribute to it, showing the applications that space sciences have in the everyday life and how understanding the Universe can help understanding our own planet.

  13. Issues and problems raised by a world energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantzke, U

    1983-07-14

    The author begins by welcoming the participants to the occupational group of conference and then proceeds to examine the current situation affecting the oil market. He presents the oil consumption figures for OECD countries and explains the industrial causes behind the decline in oil consumption. The effects are investigated of the dramatic oil price increase of 1973/74, i.e. the balance of payments, economic growth, inflation and unemployment. The author then discusses future energy prospects and examines the technical and economic assumptions on which these forecasts are based. The paper deals with those measures aimed at safeguarding energy supplies (oil, gas, coal and uranium) and examines the situation in western Europe with regard to energy self-sufficiency. The creation of the IEA and the resolve of the industrial nations to develop the 3 other energy sources - coal, nuclear power and gas is described. The paper concludes with a brief assessment of the way ahead.

  14. Raising the Issue of Domestic Abuse in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen; Macdonald, Elspeth; Paton, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that around 30 per cent of children may witness domestic abuse, by which we mean physical or mental violence perpetrated by men on women. This paper reports the views of older children--a group from which there is little direct evidence available. Ninety-eight percent of pupils in a Scottish Secondary School consented to…

  15. Safety culture issues raised in the SAR of the INPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, B

    1997-09-01

    The following aspects of safety culture promotion at Ignalina NPP are discussed: performance objectives and expectations; current applicable Lithuanian standards; current plant practice; validation of plant function; assessment of plant function and non-compliances.

  16. Safety culture issues raised in the SAR of the INPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, B.

    1997-01-01

    The following aspects of safety culture promotion at Ignalina NPP are discussed: performance objectives and expectations; current applicable Lithuanian standards; current plant practice; validation of plant function; assessment of plant function and non-compliances

  17. Issues of public policy in the USA raised by amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzioni, A

    1976-03-01

    Amniocentesis, a procedure which can detect during pregnancy whether or not the fetus will develop into a mongol or one affected by other serious chromosomal defects, if given to all pregnant women aged 40 and over, would save both human suffering and economic loss to the community. The procedure is not at present widely used for various reasons, not all of them medical, and, if the test result is positive abortion is the remedy. The author describes an important clinical trial being conducted in the USA at the present time but suggests that an educational programme should be undertaken to inform the public of the existence of this procedure and its applications even before the results of the American large-scale trial can be known and evaluated. Amniocentesis and its use, Professor Etzioni concludes, is not the only genetic tool which should be reviewed in a manner which would give an overall picture. He compares those who are concerned with these matters to the citizens of Britain when they saw the first steam engine. They did not perceive the social changes--the industrial revolution--that would follow. In our time a 'genetic revolution' may not be long delayed.

  18. South Korea's low fertility raises European-style issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1991-10-01

    A demographic revolution has taken place in South Korea as evidenced by the marked decline in total fertility rate (TFR) from 6 in 1960 to the 1987 level of 1.6. South Korea holds the record for low fertility among developing countries, with women in South Korea averaging fewer children in their lifetimes than do women in Europe. The 1987 TFR for South Korea was even less than that of Sweden, Norway, and France. Emphasizing high initial rates of contraceptive use, family planning (FP) has been a strong component of South Korea's 5-year plans since 1962. Strong governmental support backed the efforts of a large group of FP workers who provided free contraceptives from private physicians. High discontinuation rates resulted, however, and the abortion rate has soared to equal the number of live births. Albeit a developing nation, South Korea now faces the challenges of below replacement fertility more typical of more developed countries. Current fertility levels indicate population increase to approximately 50 million by 2020, followed by a slow decline. While reducing pressure on limited resources, population decline and demographic aging will also demand allocation of a higher proportion of government funds to medical care, and potentially threaten South Korea's competitiveness in the world labor market. Having effected decreases in population growth and fertility, the government reduced the annual sterilization target in 1986 from 300,000 to 60,000 by 1991, and will increasingly turn to the private sector and national health insurance for service provision to all but the poor. A 2-child family norm may be promoted, FP programs expanded to the unmarried and legislation developed to eliminate the preference for sons. Delivery systems may also be reorganized to encourage continued use of contraceptive methods.

  19. Managing Nuclear Reactor Accidents: Issues Raised by Three Mile Island

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive account of significant events in the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in March, 1979. It is based upon documents collected as background materials for the IIASA workshop: Procedural and Organizational Measures for Accident Management: Nuclear Reactors. In addition to the references listed, information was supplied by John Lathrop, who conducted interviews with government and industry officials involved in the crisis. There have been ...

  20. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  1. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  2. Regulatory Compliance in Multi-Tier Supplier Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, Emray R.; Buster, Duke A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, avionics systems have increased in complexity to the point where 1st tier suppliers to an aircraft OEM find it financially beneficial to outsource designs of subsystems to 2nd tier and at times to 3rd tier suppliers. Combined with challenging schedule and budgetary pressures, the environment in which safety-critical systems are being developed introduces new hurdles for regulatory agencies and industry. This new environment of both complex systems and tiered development has raised concerns in the ability of the designers to ensure safety considerations are fully addressed throughout the tier levels. This has also raised questions about the sufficiency of current regulatory guidance to ensure: proper flow down of safety awareness, avionics application understanding at the lower tiers, OEM and 1st tier oversight practices, and capabilities of lower tier suppliers. Therefore, NASA established a research project to address Regulatory Compliance in a Multi-tier Supplier Network. This research was divided into three major study efforts: 1. Describe Modern Multi-tier Avionics Development 2. Identify Current Issues in Achieving Safety and Regulatory Compliance 3. Short-term/Long-term Recommendations Toward Higher Assurance Confidence This report presents our findings of the risks, weaknesses, and our recommendations. It also includes a collection of industry-identified risks, an assessment of guideline weaknesses related to multi-tier development of complex avionics systems, and a postulation of potential modifications to guidelines to close the identified risks and weaknesses.

  3. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  4. Current issues and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed

  5. Williston Reservoir raising - environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This preliminary environmental overview report was prepared by B.C. Hydro in June 1987 and revised in July 1988 as an initial assessment of a possible 1.5 m (5 ft.) raise in the Williston Reservoir maximum normal level. The enviromental overview study and the associated engineering and property studies were undertaken to provide information for a decision on whether to initiate more detailed studies. Overview studies are based mainly on available reports, mapping and field data, supplemented by limited site reconnaissance and, in this case, input from key agencies and groups. The lack of adequate mapping of areas which could be affected by reservoir raising did not permit definitive conclusion to be reached. This mapping will be done over the next year to complete the overview assessment. This document covers the impact assessment of socio-economic factors, forestry, reservoir clearing, heritage, recreation, aquatic resources, and wilflife. Further studies in each of these areas are also included. 54 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Regulation and the nuclear option: Summary of a workshop on long-range nuclear power regulatory issues, August 20-21, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear reactor regulation is discussed in the light of institutional and technological changes and analytical tools for failure and risk analysis. It is suggested that distinctions be drawn between higher risk and lower risk reactor operations and that lower-risk operations be afforded more autonomy. Discussion of public acceptability emphasized political accommodation entailing development of a future generation of inherently safe reactors and a commitment to fix existing reactors and increase solar energy research. Several statements on regulatory reform are appended as well as the NRC's advanced reactor policy

  7. Regulatory Audit Activities on Nuclear Design of Reactor Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chae-Yong; Lee, Gil Soo; Lee, Jaejun; Kim, Gwan-Young; Bae, Moo-Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Regulatory audit analyses are initiated on the purpose of deep knowledge, solving safety issues, being applied in the review of licensee's results. The current most important safety issue on nuclear design is to verify bias and uncertainty on reactor physics codes to examine the behaviors of high burnup fuel during rod ejection accident (REA) and LOCA, and now regulatory audits are concentrated on solving this issue. KINS develops regulatory audit tools on its own, and accepts ones verified from foreign countries. The independent audit tools are sometimes standardized through participating the international programs. New safety issues on nuclear design, reactor physics tests, advanced reactor core design are steadily raised, which are mainly drawn from the independent examination tools. It is some facing subjects for the regulators to find out the unidentified uncertainties in high burnup fuels and to systematically solve them. The safety margin on nuclear design might be clarified by precisely having independent tools and doing audit calculations by using them. SCALE-PARCS/COREDAX and the coupling with T-H code or fuel performance code would be certainly necessary for achieving these purposes.

  8. Regulatory Audit Activities on Nuclear Design of Reactor Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chae-Yong; Lee, Gil Soo; Lee, Jaejun; Kim, Gwan-Young; Bae, Moo-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory audit analyses are initiated on the purpose of deep knowledge, solving safety issues, being applied in the review of licensee's results. The current most important safety issue on nuclear design is to verify bias and uncertainty on reactor physics codes to examine the behaviors of high burnup fuel during rod ejection accident (REA) and LOCA, and now regulatory audits are concentrated on solving this issue. KINS develops regulatory audit tools on its own, and accepts ones verified from foreign countries. The independent audit tools are sometimes standardized through participating the international programs. New safety issues on nuclear design, reactor physics tests, advanced reactor core design are steadily raised, which are mainly drawn from the independent examination tools. It is some facing subjects for the regulators to find out the unidentified uncertainties in high burnup fuels and to systematically solve them. The safety margin on nuclear design might be clarified by precisely having independent tools and doing audit calculations by using them. SCALE-PARCS/COREDAX and the coupling with T-H code or fuel performance code would be certainly necessary for achieving these purposes

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Authorization and Related Regulatory Issues. Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First session on H.R. 5186 and S. 266, April 29 and May 2, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The hearing on April 29, 1977, focused on NRC licensing activities in connection with the development of nuclear power. This subcommittee on Energy and Power is also concerned about the nuclear safeguards program. On both of these issues, the General Accounting Office has issued several very comprehensive reports that the committee wanted to consider as part of the budget. ERDA, which provided data-processing support for the NRC, gave notice that it will no longer do so, effective September 1978. This would cause NRC to use commercial sources, increasing the cost for ADP support from $1.6 million in FY 1977 to over $5.9 million in FY 1978. The hearing inquired into the reasons for this and the justifications. Statements by the administration on the issues of accelerated construction schedules and safeguards provided emphasis to these areas of inquiry. Statements by many experts in the field are presented. The texts of H.R. 5186 and S. 266 are given. At the hearing on May 2, 1977, the focus was on the question, ''can the NRC assure the American public that they are protected against nuclear incidents involving sabotage or theft of special nuclear material''. The subcommittee received testimony from the GAO relating to an unclassified version of their report, ''Commercial Nuclear Fuel Facilities Need Better Security,'' which compares NRC to ERDA in their effectiveness in safeguarding special nuclear material

  10. Scientific Reporting: Raising the Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Garney, Whitney; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Grant, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a presentation that was made at the 2014 annual meeting of the editorial board of "Health Education & Behavior." The article addresses critical issues related to standards of scientific reporting in journals, including concerns about external and internal validity and reporting bias. It reviews current…

  11. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  12. Liability for oil spill damages: issues, methods, and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigalunas, T.A.; Opaluch, J.J.; Diamantides, J.; Mazzotta, M.

    1998-01-01

    Liability is an important incentive-based instrument for preventing oil spills and provides a sustainable approach for restoring coastal resources injured by spills. However, the use of liability for environmental damages raises many challenges, including quantification of money measures of damages. In this article, case studies are used to illustrate the issues, methods, and challenges associated with assessing a range of damages, from those that can be measured relatively easily using market information to more 'esoteric', and much more difficult, cases involving non-market-valued losses. Also discussed are issues raised by the new national and international regulatory focus on restoration and by the simplified, compensatory formula used by some states. (author)

  13. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  14. Addressing communications between Regulatory Body and TSO: perceptions and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati de Almeida, I.P.

    2007-01-01

    The use of TSO assistance by the Regulatory Bodies is a way of facing the complexity of the technology and issues to be dealt with in the licensing and controlling process in the nuclear area. Although both TSO and Regulatory Body are well prepared and adjusted, the nature and environment of TSO work is rather different from the regulators. Some of the TSO members act as a consultant, giving expert advice to the regulators in a specific subject, some are in charge of inspections and audits, others do the job together with the regulators. The way that a TSO member perceives the work to be done, however, often creates different perspectives for questions related to the licensing and controlling process. These perceptions are usually a source of problems between the two partners, regulators and TSO members. In this paper some of this kind of problems are raised and suggestions of how to deal with them are proposed for discussion. (author)

  15. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board, and Licensing Board decisions issued from July 1, 1972 through March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    A digest is given of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to March 31, 1986, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice. Parts of earlier editions and supplements are replaced, and amendments to the Rules of Practice effective through March 31, 1986 are reflected. The material included deals with applications, prehearing matters, hearings, post-hearing matters, appeals, and decisions related to general matters. Decisions are indexed by facility, citation, CFR, statutes, case law, and other legal citations

  16. ICP-MS based methods to characterize nanoparticles of TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens with focus on regulatory and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Caimi, Stefano; Senofonte, Oreste; Alimonti, Alessandro; Petrucci, Francesco

    2018-07-15

    This study sought to develop analytical methods to characterize titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), including the particle size distribution and concentration, in cream and spray sunscreens with different sun protection factor (SPF). The Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (SP ICP-MS) was used as screening and fast method to determine particles size and number. The Asymmetric Flow-Field Flow Fractionation (AF4-FFF) as a pre-separation technique was on-line coupled to the Multi-Angle Light Scattering (MALS) and ICP-MS to determine particle size distributions and size dependent multi-elemental concentration. Both methods were optimized in sunscreens in terms of recovery, repeatability, limit of detection and linear dynamic range. Results showed that sunscreens contained TiO 2 particles with an average size of ≤107 nm and also a minor number of ZnO particles sized ≤98 nm. The higher fraction of particles <100 nm was observed in sunscreens with SPF 50+ (ca. 80%); the lower percentage (12-35%) in sunscreens with lower SPF values. Also the higher TiO 2 (up to 24% weight) and ZnO (ca. 0.25% weight) concentrations were found in formulations of SPF 50+. Creamy sunscreens could be considered safe containing TiO 2 and ZnO NPs less than the maximum allowable concentration of 25% weight as set by the European legislation. On the contrary, spray products required additional considerations with regard to the potential inhalation of NPs. The developed methods can contribute to the actual demand for regulatory control and safety assessment of metallic NPs in consumers' products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rule making which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  18. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considered action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  19. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  20. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This document provides a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  1. Accounting Profession: Oversight, Auditor Independence, and Financial Reporting Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarbanes, Paul

    2002-01-01

    ...) and other large corporations financial reporting restatements have raised questions about the soundness of the current self-regulatory and financial reporting systems and resulted in substantial...

  2. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance: Coping with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value disagreements, or to make apparent the regulatory complexity, clouds the issue of how to move forward with governance of bioenergy. We suggest that governance should be shaped with greater focus on the role of value disagreements and regulatory complexity. There is a need for more openness and transparency about such factors, and about the inherent trade-offs in bioenergy governance. - Highlights: • Ethical and legal challenges in governance of liquid biofuels and wood pellets. • EU sustainability criteria legal and ethical analysis—EU bioenergy policy options. • Analysis of interplay between carbon and non-carbon concerns and regulatory options. • Governance must cope with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

  3. Deliberations on nuclear safety regulatory system in a changing industrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear safety concern, which may accompany such external environmental factors as privatization and restructuring of the electric power industry, is emerging as an international issue. In order to cope with the concern about nuclear safety, it is important to feedback valuable experiences of advanced countries that restructured their electric power industries earlier and further to reflect the current safety issues, which are raised internationally, fully into the nuclear safety regulatory system. This paper is to review the safety issues that might take place in the process of increasing competition in the nuclear power industry, and further to present a basic direction and effective measures for ensuring nuclear safety in response thereto from the viewpoint of safety regulation. It includes a political direction for a regulatory body's efforts to rationalize and enforce efficiently its regulation. It proposes to ensure that regulatory specialty and regulatory cost are stably secured. Also, this paper proposes maintaining a sound nuclear safety regulatory system to monitor thoroughly the safety management activities of the industry, which might be neglected as a result of focusing on reduction of the cost for producing electric power. (author)

  4. 78 FR 54502 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule... Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC'' or ``Commission... or manipulative motivation for the trading activity at issue.\\4\\ Specifically, proposed Supplementary...

  5. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Safety Issue 105: Interfacing system loss-of-coolant accident in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    An interfacing systems loss of coolant accident (ISLOCA) involves failure or improper operation of pressure isolation valves (PIVs) that compose the boundary between the reactor coolant system and low-pressure rated systems. Some ISLOCAs can bypass containment and result in direct release of fission products to the environment. A cost/benefit evaluation, using three PWR analyses, calculated the benefit of two potential modifications to the plants. Alternative 1 is improved plant operations to optimize the operator's performance and reduce human error probabilities. Alternative 2 adds pressure sensing devices, cabling, and instrumentation between two PIVs to provide operators with continuous monitoring of the first PIV. These two alternatives were evaluated for the base case plants (Case 1) and for each plant, assuming the plants had a particular auxiliary building design in which severe flooding would be a problem if an ISLOCA occurred. The auxiliary building design (Case 2) was selected from a survey that revealed a number of designs with features that provided less than optimal resistance to ECCS equipment loss caused by a ISLOCA-induced environment. The results were judged not to provide sufficient basis for generic requirements. It was concluded that the most viable course of action to resolve Generic Issue 105 is licensee participation in individual plant examinations (IPEs)

  6. Topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 7 of the document contains topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting. The chapter covers status and position of the regulatory body, collective doses, effluents release trends, adoption of the ICRP 60 and basic safety standards, regulatory strategy, quality assurance, monitoring safety management, international cooperation, probabilistic safety assessment and safety improvement programmes

  7. Regulatory and licensee surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the workshop two CSNI/WGHOF surveys were distributed. One survey was directed at regulatory bodies and the other was directed at plant licensees. The surveys were: 1 - Regulatory Expectations of Licensees' Arrangements to Ensure Suitable Organisational Structure, Resources and Competencies to Manage Safety (sent to WGHOF regulatory members). The survey requested that the respondents provide a brief overview of the situation related to plant organisations in their country, their regulatory expectations and their formal requirements. The survey addressed three subjects: the demonstration and documentation of organisational structures, resources and competencies, organisational changes, issues for improvement (for both current and new plants). Responses were received from eleven regulatory bodies. 2 - Approaches to Justify Organisational Suitability (sent to selected licensees). The purpose of the survey to was to gain an understanding of how licensees ensure organisational suitability, resources and competencies. This information was used to assist in the development of the issues and subjects that were addressed at the group discussion sessions. Responses were received from over fifteen licensees from nine countries. The survey requested that the licensees provide information on how they ensure effective organisational structures at their plants. The survey grouped the questions into the following four categories: organisational safety functions, resource and competence, decision-making and communication, good examples and improvement needs. The findings from these surveys were used in conjunction with other factors to identify the key issues for the workshop discussion sessions. The responses from these two surveys are discussed briefly in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. More extensive reviews of the regulatory and licensee responses are provided in Appendix 1

  8. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish...

  9. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  10. Leaseback: An alternative source to raise company working capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laušević Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a description, regulatory framework and the manner of implementation of the leaseback as an alternative manner of raising working capital for companies with a large number and type of users. Leaseback has experienced an explosive growth in Europe, in the first decade of this century, especially during the years of economic prosperity. The value of leaseback in Europe has grown from 6.9 billion EUR in 2004, up to 46 billion EUR in 2007, i.e. during the four years the value was increased for 567%. Leaseback has shown itself to be, according to the analyses made, an 'ideal' manner of financing based on sale-and-leaseback of real estate. Capital that is 'immobilised' on long-term basis, through the leaseback regains its quality of capital ready to be engaged in current activities, i.e. projects and programmes of companies that are making high earnings. The objective of this work is to draw the attention, on the basis of a comprehensive theoretical presentation, empirical analyses and positive world practices, to this, in our business circumstances, a completely novel manner of financing, in the context of raising additional working capital through the inflow of both the domestic and of the foreign capital in Serbia. In order to achieve full implementation of this type of financing, it is necessary to overcome a number of constraints and provide regulatory framework, developed investment funds for investment in real estate, and a properly set in place cadastre register.

  11. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  12. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  13. The College President's Role in Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.

    The role of the college president as one of the chief actors in academic fund raising is examined against the background of today's period of financial caution and increased competition for philanthropic support. The paper first provides an overview of the state of the art of fund raising and some ways in which college and universities have…

  14. Use of importance measures in risk-informed regulatory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheok, Michael C.; Parry, Gareth W.; Sherry, Richard R.

    1998-01-01

    The use of importance measures to analyze PRA results is discussed. Commonly used importance measures are defined. Some issues that have been identified as potentially limiting their usefulness are addressed, namely: there is no simple relationship between importance measures evaluated at the single component level and those evaluated at the level of a group of components, and, as a result, some of the commonly used importance measures are not realistic measures of the sensitivity of the overall risk to parameter value changes; and, importance measures do not typically take into account parameter uncertainties which raises the question of the robustness of conclusions drawn from importance analyses. The issues are explored in the context of both ranking and categorization of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) with respect to risk-significance and safety-significance for use in risk-informed regulatory analyses

  15. NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] staff evaluation of the General Electric Company Nuclear Reactor Study (''Reed Report'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    In 1975, the General Electric Company (GE) published a Nuclear Reactor Study, also referred to as ''the Reed Report,'' an internal product-improvement study. GE considered the document ''proprietary'' and thus, under the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), exempt from mandatory public disclosure. Nonetheless, members of the NRC staff reviewed the document in 1976 and determined that it did not raise any significant new safety issues. The staff also reached the same conclusion in subsequent reviews. However, in response to recent inquiries about the report, the staff reevaluated the Reed Report from a 1987 perspective. This re-evaluation, documented in this staff report, concluded that: (1) there are no issues raised in the Reed Report that support a need to curtail the operation of any GE boiling water reactor (BWR); (2) there are no new safety issues raised in the Reed Report of which the staff was unaware; and (3) although certain issues addressed by the Reed Report are still being studied by the NRC and the industry, there is no basis for suspending licensing and operation of GE BWR plants while these issues are being resolved

  16. Nanoparticulate materials and regulatory policy in Europe: An analysis of stakeholder perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helland, Aasgeir; Kastenholz, Hans; Thidell, Aake; Arnfalk, Peter; Deppert, Knut

    2006-01-01

    The novel properties of nanoparticulate materials (NPM) and the rapid development of NPM based products have raised many unanswered questions and concerns by different stakeholders over its consequences for the environment and human health. These concerns have led to an increasing discussion in both the US and Europe about possible regulatory policies for NPM. In this article a comparative study of stakeholders' perceptions on regulatory policy issues with NPM in Europe is presented. It was found that industry wants to regulate this area if the scientific evidence demonstrates that NPM are harmful, but also that the regulatory bodies do not find it necessary at this point of time to regulate until scientific evidence demonstrates that NPM are harmful. This research therefore shows that there will most likely not be any regulatory interventions until there is an established and convincing scientific knowledge base demonstrating that NPM can be hazardous. It is furthermore discussed in this article the different roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders in financing the research required to establish the necessary level of fundamental scientific evidence. It was also found that the activity of the regulatory bodies on this issue differ between the European countries

  17. The core to regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges

  18. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2011-01-01

    The scientific considerations upon which the nuclear regulations are based provide objective criteria for decisions on nuclear safety matters. However, the decisions that a regulatory agency takes go far beyond granting or not an operating license based on assessment of compliance. It may involve decisions about hiring experts or research, appeals, responses to other government agencies, international agreements, etc.. In all cases, top management of the regulatory agency should hear and decide the best balance between the benefits of regulatory action and undue risks and other associated impacts that may arise, including issues of credibility and reputation. The establishment of a decision framework based on well established principles and criteria ensures performance stability and consistency, preventing individual subjectivity. This article analyzes the challenges to the decision-making by regulatory agencies to ensure coherence and consistency in decisions, even in situations where there is uncertainty, lack of reliable information and even divergence of opinions among experts. The article explores the basic elements for a framework for regulatory decision-making. (author)

  19. Spent fuel transportation regulatory and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippek, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    The problems that could result from state and local governments and other groups with relation to regulations concerning the transportation of spent nuclear fuels are discussed. The powers of the individual states as spelled out in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 are set forth in some detail. The possibility of transportation employees gaining a position to demand and receive more stringent protections from hazards of radiation is pointed out

  20. Regulatory perspective on accident management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Effective response to reactor accidents requires a combination of emergency operations, technical support and emergency response. The NRC and industry have actively pursued programs to assure the adequacy of emergency operations and emergency response. These programs will continue to receive high priority. By contrast, the technical support function has received relatively little attention from NRC and the industry. The results from numerous PRA studies and the severe accident programs of NRC and the industry have yielded a wealth of insights on prevention and mitigation of severe accidents. The NRC intends to work with the industry to make these insights available to the technical support staffs through a combination of guidance, training and periodic drills

  1. Trade, development, and regulatory issues in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sunder; Viswanathan, Brinda

    2007-03-01

    Trade in food and animal products has increased several-fold in the past decade, and simultaneously regulations governing the movement of such products across national boundaries have also increased. The present study reviews harmonization in food trade regulation by focusing on nutritional aspects to understand its role in enhancing world trade on the one hand and consumer interest and welfare on the other. Harmonization to a large extent brings in more regulation from the developed world acting through their governments, consumer organizations, and multinational companies; it does not seem to address, in general, the concerns of the large segments of the poor population for whom agriculture and food trade are the main sources of livelihood. There is a lack of quantifiable estimates of the loss in well-being of the disadvantaged. However, there is substantial research focused on the potential harm to developed nations as a result of nonadherence to the rules. Clearly, lack of adequate infrastructure, resource constraints, and weak institutions not only result in poor food safety regulation within developing countries but also remain barriers to realizing the greater potential benefits from increased trade. Harmonization of standards would have some losers and some winners, but to make it more inclusive, scientific knowledge alone may not be adequate; social and cultural aspects also need to be considered, since food systems differ among regions, with varying preferences, local resource availability, and levels of economic development. Improvement in governance in many countries not only would ensure better participation in international rule-making and the negotiation process for fairer trade but also would result in effective domestic legislation to ensure safer health for citizens, resulting in higher overall well-being.

  2. Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...

  3. Ethical and regulatory aspects of embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kewal K

    2002-12-01

    Ethical and regulatory issues concerning embryonic stem (ES) cell research are reviewed here a year after the controversy became a public and political issue in the US. The background of various issues are examined and the current regulations in various countries are reviewed. In the US, the debate is linked with abortion, as well as the status of a fetus as a human being, and is politically driven. Obtaining stem cells from embryonic tissues involves destruction of the embryo, to which objections are raised. Religious beliefs are examined and no serious impediments to ES cell research could be identified. Regulations vary from one country to another and it is unlikely that there will ever be any universally uniform ethical and regulatory standards for ES cell research. Currently, the most liberal and favourable environments for ES cell research are in the UK, Singapore, Sweden, India, Israel and China. Unless the US liberalises ES cell research, it may lose its lead in ES cell research and investments in this area may drift to countries with better environments for research. Suggestions are offered in this review to improve the ethical environment for ES cell research.

  4. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  5. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  6. Regulatory frameworks for mobile medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Federica; Mattei, Eugenio; Triventi, Michele; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    A mobile application (app) is a software program that runs on mobile communication devices such as a smartphone. The concept of a mobile medical app has gained popularity and diffusion but its reference regulatory context has raised discussion and concerns. Theoretically, a mobile app can be developed and uploaded easily by any person or entity. Thus, if an app can have some effects on the health of the users, it is mandatory to identify its reference regulatory context and the applicable prescriptions.

  7. Developing regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Lars Axelsson presented SSM progress on oversight of LMfS/SC since the Chester 1 Workshop in 2007. Current SSM approaches for safety culture oversight include targeted safety management and safety culture inspections, compliance inspections which cover aspects of safety management/safety culture and multi-disciplinary team inspections. Examples of themes for targeted inspections include management of ambiguous operational situations or other weak signals, understanding of and attitudes to Human Performance tools, the Safety Department's role and authority and Leadership for safety. All regulatory activities provide inputs for the SSM yearly safety evaluation of each licensee. A form has been developed to capture safety culture observations from inspections and other interactions with licensees. Analysis will be performed to identify patterns and provide information to support planning of specific Safety Culture activities. Training has been developed for regulatory staff to enhance the quality of regulatory interventions on safety culture. This includes a half-day seminar to provide an overview of safety culture, and a workshop which provides more in-depth discussion on cultural issues and how to capture those during regulatory activities. Future plans include guidance for inspectors, and informal seminars on safety culture with licensees

  8. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  9. Ethical issues for librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Rasche

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It approaches the librarian ethics comprehending the Librarianship constitution from a systemic view. In this way, with the objective to raise issues to discuss professional ethics, it places the librarian in the work world and points approaches between exertion and relation context of the professionals themselves with the human rights and alteration ethics.

  10. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  11. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement

  12. Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerleider, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

  13. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter. The rules on which final action has been taken since March 31, 1993 are: Repeal of NRC standards of conduct; Fitness-for-duty requirements for licensees who possess, use, or transport Category I material; Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel; Monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants; Licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive wastes; and Licensees' announcements of safeguards inspections

  14. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  15. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  16. School Perceptions of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children raised by grandparents are students in schools. Their substitute family structure and precursors to the emergence of this family structure have implications for the children's school performance. Research suggests teachers view these children as at risk for difficult school functioning. The aforementioned judgment is…

  17. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  18. International regulatory landscape and integration of corrective genome editing into in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2014-11-24

    Genome editing technology, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas, has enabled far more efficient genetic engineering even in non-human primates. This biotechnology is more likely to develop into medicine for preventing a genetic disease if corrective genome editing is integrated into assisted reproductive technology, represented by in vitro fertilization. Although rapid advances in genome editing are expected to make germline gene correction feasible in a clinical setting, there are many issues that still need to be addressed before this could occur. We herein examine current status of genome editing in mammalian embryonic stem cells and zygotes and discuss potential issues in the international regulatory landscape regarding human germline gene modification. Moreover, we address some ethical and social issues that would be raised when each country considers whether genome editing-mediated germline gene correction for preventive medicine should be permitted.

  19. Issues and Dilemmas in Sexual Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Carol L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper raises issues and questions which repeatedly confront the sex therapist rather than the patient. Issues raised are: conflict in values; the impotent male; masturbation; nonorgasmic females; and the philosophical approach to therapy of women therapists influenced by the women's movement. (NG)

  20. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery: has the use of cobalt replaced nickel following regulatory intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten S; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure.......Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure....

  1. Grand Gulf-prioritization of regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    As cost pressures mount, Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) is relying increasingly on various prioritization approaches to implement, modify, eliminate, or defer regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements can be prioritized through the use of three measures: (1) safety (or risk) significance; (2) cost; and (3) public policy (or political) significance. This paper summarizes GGNS' efforts to implement solutions to regulatory issues using these three prioritization schemes to preserve a balance between cost and safety benefit

  2. Quality assurance within regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The IAEA directed extensive efforts during the years 1991 to 1995 to the integral revision of all NUSS quality assurance publications, which were approved and issued as Safety Series No.50-C/SG-Q, Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Installations (1996). When these quality assurance publications were developed, their prime focus was on requirements against which work performed by the licensees could be measured and assessed by the regulatory bodies. In this way, they only helped to facilitate the functions of regulators. No requirements or recommendations were provided on how the regulators should ensure the effective implementation of their own activities. The present publication is a first attempt to collect, integrate and offer available experience to directly support performance of regulatory activities. It presents a comprehensive compilation on the application of quality assurance principles and methods by regulatory bodies to their activities. The aim is consistent good performance of regulatory activities through a systematic approach

  3. Recent environment, energy and resources cases and issues in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruhlak, R.; Naffin, D.K. [McLennan Ross LLP, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Significant environmental issues and regulatory proceedings in Alberta were discussed. The Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Project was reviewed in relation to the Deh Cho First Nation's advanced actions in the federal court to enjoin the review panel from proceeding with the review process. The Deh Cho First Nation is seeking a declaration that the plan violates their rights under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Constitution Act. Various regulatory and government agencies have now developed a plan to coordinate their different regulatory processes and approvals in the Cooperation Plan for the Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulatory Review of the Northern Gas Pipeline project. The Deh Cho allege that they were not afforded the opportunity to participate in the development and implementation of the plan. A review panel plans to proceed once the environmental and social impacts are determined, and the consortiums plan to minimize harm has been submitted. Issues concerning contaminated sites were discussed with reference to Lynnview Ridge, where Imperial Oil and Devon Estates Ltd. built a residential subdivision built on the site of a decommissioned oil storage tank site. Periodic monitoring detected some general concerns, including high lead levels in soil and hydrocarbon vapors. Environmental Protection Orders (EPO) and appeals were discussed, including Imperial and Devon's appeal that the pollution problem should have been addressed through the contaminated sites provision and not the substance release EPO. Several recommendations were made, including better definition processes for liability allocation; a clarification of persons excluded from responsibility; voluntary remediation agreements that limit liability; and environmental site information systems to support due diligence. It was expected that the final set of recommendations will be of use to all jurisdictions in Canada. Regulatory issues concerning public safety were

  4. Carbon Capture and Storage: legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, M.J.

    2006-10-15

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) describes the process of capturing CO2 emissions from industrial and energy-related processes, compressing the gas to a liquid form, transporting it to a storage site (by pipeline, ship, truck or rail), and injecting it into a geological cavity – to isolate it from the atmosphere. CCS has been described as one option in the 'portfolio' of mitigation options - useful as a bridging technology to address the most prevalent greenhouse gases by volume in the short term, while economies make the shift from fossil fuels to low-carbon energy sources, including renewables. The IPCC has estimated that CCS has the potential to contribute 15-55% of the cumulative mitigation effort worldwide until 2100. However, for this to occur, the IPCC estimates that several hundreds or thousands of CO2 capture systems would need to be installed over the next century. Such a prospect raises a host of legal and regulatory issues and concerns. CCS activities will have to be undertaken in a manner consistent with the range of existing regulatory frameworks developed at the national level to address environmental and health and safety risks. But consistency with international law will also be essential where transboundary impacts are possible, transboundary transportation is involved, or offshore storage activities are contemplated.

  5. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  6. Do Firms Go Public to Raise Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Woojin Kim; Michael Weisbach

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the question of whether raising capital is an important reason why firms go public. Using a sample of 16,958 initial public offerings from 38 countries between 1990 and 2003, we consider differences between firms that sell new, primary shares to the public, and existing secondary shares that previously belonged to insiders. Our results suggest that the sale of primary shares is correlated with a number of factors associated with the firm's demand for capital. In particula...

  7. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC's intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually

  8. The spectrum of ethical issues in a Learning Health Care System: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Kahrass, Hannes; Wieschowski, Susanne; Strech, Daniel; Langhof, Holger

    2018-04-01

    To determine systematically the spectrum of ethical issues that is raised for stakeholders in a 'Learning Health Care System' (LHCS). The systematic review was conducted in PubMed and Google Books between the years 2007 and 2015. The literature search retrieved 1258 publications. Each publication was independently screened by two reviewers for eligibility for inclusion. Ethical issues were defined as arising when a relevant normative principle is not adequately considered or two principles come into conflict. A total of 65 publications were included in the final analysis and were analysed using an adapted version of qualitative content analysis. A coding frame was developed inductively from the data, only the highest-level categories were generated deductively for a life-cycle perspective. A total of 67 distinct ethical issues could be categorized under different phases of the LHCS life-cycle. An overarching theme that was repeatedly raised was the conflict between the current regulatory system and learning health care. The implementation of a LHCS can help realize the ethical imperative to continuously improve the quality of health care. However, the implementation of a LHCS can also raise a number of important ethical issues itself. This review highlights the importance for health care leaders and policy makers to balance the need to protect and respect individual participants involved in learning health care activities with the social value of improving health care.

  9. Research Issues in Information Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molholt, Pat

    1989-01-01

    Discusses traditional library approaches to access to information and the possible impact of information technologies, library automation, and artificial intelligence. Access issues raised by these technologies are identified and a research agenda to explore these issues is outlined. (31 references) (CLB)

  10. Ethical Issues in Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bill; Simpson, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Teaching at a distance raises ethical issues particular to the distance context. When distance teaching is also online teaching, the situation is even more complex. Online teaching environments amplify the ethical issues faced by instructors and students. Online sites support complex discourses and multiple relationships; they cross physical,…

  11. The changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, G.

    1999-01-01

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  12. ATMPs for Cancer Immunotherapy: A Regulatory Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses European regulatory requirements for development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) for cancer immunotherapy approaches, describing the framework for clinical trials and for marketing authorization.Regulatory critical issues and challenges for developing ATMP are also discussed, with focus on potency determination, long-term follow-up, comparability, and insertional mutagenesis issues. Some of the most critical features of GMP application to ATMP are also described.

  13. 20 CFR 410.646 - Consolidated issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated issues. 410.646 Section 410.646..., Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.646 Consolidated issues. When one or more additional issues are raised by the Administrative Law Judge pursuant to § 410.637, such issues may, in the...

  14. Live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Önk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems. One hundred and twenty native ducks (60 males, 60 females were used in the study. The ducks were raised in deep litter floor and cage systems. Live weight and body values were measured every two weeks, until they were 56 days old. Three-parameter logistic regression and Gompertz model were used to determine growth model of male and female ducks. Interactions of time-raising system and time-sex were statistically significant in terms of live weight. At the end of eight weeks, live weights of ducks raised in deep litter floor were higher than ducks raised in cage system. In addition, live weights of male ducks were higher than female ducks. Consequently, deep litter floor is more appropriate for live weight in native ducks. Accuracy rate of Three-parameter Logistic and Gompertz models for estimation of growth in ducks was between 0.91-0.95 and similar results were obtained from both models. The Gompertz model is appropriate for the data structure of this study because it contains fewer iterations than the Three-Parameter Logistic model.

  15. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  16. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  17. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  18. Legal and Regulatory Frameworks for Decommissioning and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Safe and efficient decommissioning and waste management requires clear structures for allocating responsibility and funding. Organisation of decommissioning and waste management activities and the regulatory environment within which those activities are undertaken should also allow the supply chain to prosper and, wherever possible, reduce barriers to international availability of resources and waste facilities. Radioactive waste treatment and disposal in particular raises both legal and political challenges to effective international co-operation, yet options for decommissioning and waste management are maximised where international barriers can be minimised. Added to this, international nuclear liabilities issues must be managed so as to avoid unnecessary deterrents to international mobility of capability within the decommissioning market. Contractual terms and insurance arrangements for international shipments of nuclear waste and materials will also need to take into account imminent changes to liabilities conventions, ensuring compliance and management of compliance costs (of both insurance and management time). This paper explores legal and commercial structures intended to support effective decommissioning and waste management and examines regulatory and commercial factors affecting the ability of facility operators to utilise internationally available capability. It focusses on: - strategic approaches developed in the UK to address decommissioning and waste management liabilities associated with the UK's first and second generation civil nuclear sites and comparison of those approaches with other jurisdictions with significant decommissioning liabilities; - liability and compliance risks associated with navigating international nuclear liabilities regimes in context of both mobility of decommissioning capability and international waste shipment; and - regulatory issues affecting international availability of waste treatment facilities, including

  19. Linear quantum optical bare raising operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jennifer C. J.; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Jeffers, John

    2017-11-01

    We propose a simple implementation of the bare raising operator on coherent states via conditional measurement, which succeeds with high probability and fidelity. This operation works well not only on states with a Poissonian photon number distribution but also for a much wider class of states. As a part of this scheme, we highlight an experimentally testable effect in which a single photon is induced through a highly reflecting beamsplitter by a large amplitude coherent state, with probability 1/e(≈ 37 % ) in the limit of large coherent state amplitude.

  20. PATHOGENESIS OF OPTIC DISC EDEMA IN RAISED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with

  1. ENSI’s regulatory framework strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    This short brochure issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI defines the organisation’s regulatory framework strategy. Six guiding principles are declared and discussed: Comprehensive harmonisation with relevant international requirements, basing the regulatory framework on existing, tried-and-tested regulations, issuing of its own guidelines only when it is necessary to do so, guidelines to be drawn up transparently and with the involvement of all stakeholders and basing the level of detail of its regulatory framework on hazard potential and risk

  2. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with the...

  3. Raising environmental awareness through applied biochemistry laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that guides students to learn about the applicability of peroxidase enzymes to degrade organic dyes (as model pollutants) in simulated waste water. In addition to showing how enzymes can potentially be used for waste water remediation, various factors than can affect enzyme-based reactions such as pH, temperature, concentration of substrates/enzymes, and denaturants can also be tested. This "applied biotechnology" experiment was successfully implemented in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course to enhance students' learning of environmental issues as well important biochemistry concepts. Student survey confirmed that this laboratory experiment was successful in achieving the objectives of raising environmental awareness in students and illustrating the usefulness of chemistry in solving real-life problems. This experiment can be easily adopted in an introductory biochemistry laboratory course and taught as an inquiry-guided exercise. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  5. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians.

  6. Development of regulatory technology for thermal-hydraulic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Lee, S. H.; Ryu, Y. H.

    2001-02-01

    The present study aims to develop the regulation capability in thermal-hydraulic safety analysis which was required for the reasonable safety regulation in the current NPP, the next generation reactors, and the future-type reactors. The fourth fiscal year of the first phase of the research was focused on the following research topics: Investigation on the current status of the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis technology outside and inside of the country; Review on the improved features of the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis regulatory audit code, RELAP5/MOD3; Assessments of code with LOFT L9-3 ATWS experiment and LSTF SB-SG-10 multiple SGTR experiment; Application of the RELAP5/CANDU code to analyses of SLB and LBLOCA and evaluation of its effect on safety; Application of the code to IAEA PHWR ISP analysis; Assessments of RELAP5 and TRAC with UPTF downcomer injection test and Analysis of LBLOCA with RELAP5 for the performance evaluation of KNGR DVI; Setup of a coupled 3-D kinetics and thermal-hydraulics and application it to a reactivity accident analysis; and Extension of database and improvement of plant input decks. For supporting the resolution of safety issues, loss of RHR event during midloop operation was analyzed for Kori Unit 3, issues on high burnup fuel were reviewed and performance of FRAPCON-3 assessed. Also MSLB was analyzed to figure out the sensitivity of downcomer temperature supporting the PTS risk evaluation of Kori Unit 1. Thermal stratification in pipe was analyzed using the method proposed. And a method predicting the thermal-hydraulic performance of IRWST of KNGR was explored. The PWR ECCS performance criteria was issued as a MOST Article 200-19.and a regulatory guide on evaluation methodology was improved to cover concerns raised from the related licensing review process

  7. 农村金融服务可获得性:监管问题与制度创新%Accessibility of Financial Service: Regulatory Issues and Institutional Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟飞

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural development and new socialism rural construction can't go well without financial support.So access to finance plays important role in the eradication of poverty.Finandal regulatory institutional envilonments enhance accessibility to finance.Financial institutional innovation includes regulatory objecta,approach,principles,and others.As to regulatory objects,regulator must adopt access to finance to enhance accountability and regulatory qualiry.Moreover,we must use incentive - regulation principle, tiered regulation and risk - based regulation approaches to boost financial supply ability.And financial regulator adopts new strategies on market entrance and prudential regulation, with the economic policies and financial technical safeguards.%发展现代农业,建设社会主义新农村,离不开金融服务的有效支持.金融服务可获得性的实质在于保障农民的金融发展权.而金融监管制度环境在保障金融服务可获得性方面发挥着基础性的作用.我国金融监管制度在监管目标、监管原则、监管方法和监管内容方面给予变革和创新.在监管目标中,应当纳入金融服务的可获得性.为提高金融机构提高金融供给能力,我国应当实施激励监管、分类监管和风险监管的方法.金融监管还需要在市场准入、审慎监管上给予创新,同时离不开经济政策的支持和金融技术法律的保障.

  8. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some have two parents, while others have a single parent. Sometimes there is no parent and grandparents raise grandchildren. Some children live in foster families, adoptive families, or in stepfamilies. Families are much ...

  9. Removal of regulatory controls for materials and sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Issues with the removal of regulatory controls are very important on the agenda of the regulatory authorities dealing with radioactive waste management (RWM). These issues arise prominently in decommissioning and in site remediation, and decisions can be very wide ranging having potentially important economic impacts and reaching outside the RWM area. The RWMC Regulators Forum started to address these issues by holding a topical discussion at its meeting in March 2003. Ths present document collates the national regulatory positions in the area of removal of regulatory controls. A summary of the national positions is also provided. The document is up to date to April 2004. (authors)

  10. Education for the Creative Cities: Awareness Raising on Urban Challenges and Biocultural Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadova, Aida

    2018-01-01

    Creative Cities are facing the big challenges due to the demographical, environmental and economic issues. In this study we considered to create the educational fieldworks inside the creative city and raise the awareness in youth about the importance of the biocultural preservations to sustain the city's creativity and sustainability. Our…

  11. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  12. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  13. Communication Regulatory Science: Mapping a New Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Cappella, Joseph N; Price, Simani

    2017-12-13

    Communication regulatory science is an emerging field that uses validated techniques, tools, and models to inform regulatory actions that promote optimal communication outcomes and benefit the public. In the opening article to this special issue on communication and tobacco regulatory science, we 1) describe Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products in the US; 2) introduce communication regulatory science and provide examples in the tobacco regulatory science realm; and 3) describe the special issue process and final set of articles. Communication research on tobacco regulatory science is a burgeoning area of inquiry, and this work advances communication science, informs and potentially guides the FDA, and may help to withstand legal challenges brought by the tobacco industry. This research has the potential to have a major impact on the tobacco epidemic and population health by helping implement the most effective communications to prevent tobacco initiation and increase cessation. This special issue provides an example of 10 studies that exemplify tobacco regulatory science and demonstrate how the health communication field can affect regulation and benefit public health.

  14. Visions of regulatory renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth, A.

    1998-01-01

    The economic contribution of the CEPA (Canadian Energy Pipeline Association) member companies to Canada's trade balance was discussed. CEPA member companies transport 95 per cent of the crude oil and natural gas produced in Canada to domestic and export markets. This represents a total of 5.6 Tcf of gas annually. Half of Canada's natural gas and oil production is exported to U.S. markets. All of these exports are transported by pipeline. CEPA member companies operate 90,000 km of pipeline from British Columbia to Quebec. Expansions are needed as a result of a significant increase in demand for natural gas and crude oil since 1990. Several issues exist for regulatory renewal. They include the need to create a level playing field, the overseeing of tolls and contract renewal terms, changing risk/reward trade-offs, the right to confidentiality of information and price discovery mechanism. The drivers for regulatory reform at Westcoast Energy are the need for pricing flexibility, customers desire for toll certainty, decontracting and opposition to rolled-in expansions for gathering and processing. An overview of Westcoast Energy's negotiated toll settlement, its implications, and the components of Westcoast Energy's 'light handed regulation' (LHR) was presented

  15. Categorization and selection of regulatory approaches for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Junko; Harayama, Yuko

    2009-01-01

    Several new regulatory approaches have been introduced to Japanese nuclear safety regulations, in which a prescriptive and deterministic approach had traditionally predominated. However, the options of regulatory approaches that can possibly be applied to nuclear safety regulations as well as the methodology for selecting the options are not systematically defined. In this study, various regulatory approaches for nuclear power plants are categorized as prescriptive or nonprescriptive, outcome-based or process-based, and deterministic or risk-informed. 18 options of regulatory approaches are conceptually developed and the conditions for selecting the appropriate regulatory approaches are identified. Current issues on nuclear regulations regarding responsibilities, transparency, consensus standards and regulatory inspections are examined from the viewpoints of regulatory approaches to verify usefulness of the categorization and selection concept of regulatory approaches. Finally, some of the challenges at the transitional phase of regulatory approaches are discussed. (author)

  16. The Pro-Cyclical Impact of Basel III Regulatory Capital on Bank Capital Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    To raise the quality of regulatory capital, Basel III capital rules recognize unrealized gains and losses on all available-for-sale (AFS) securities in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital (CET1). However, by examining the correlations between U.S. GDP growth rate, interest rates and regulatory capital ratios computed using Basel III regulatory capital definition for six U.S. global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) since 2007, this chapter finds that Basel III regulatory capital will enhance the...

  17. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  18. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung

    2014-01-01

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety

  19. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth volume of issuances (1-396) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, Administrative Law Judges, and Office Directors. It covers the period from July 1, 1992-December 31, 1992. Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards are authorized by Section 191 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. These Boards, comprised of three members conduct adjudicatory hearings on applications to construct and operate nuclear power plants and related facilities and issue initial decisions which, subject to internal review and appellate procedures, become the final Commission action with respect to those applications. Boards are drawn from the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, comprised of lawyers, nuclear physicists and engineers, environmentalists, chemists, and economists. The Atomic Energy Commission first established Licensing Boards in 1962 and the Panel in 1967

  20. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms

  1. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  2. Future nuclear regulatory challenges. A report by the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Future challenges are considered that may arise from technical, socio-economic and political issues; organizational, management and human aspects; and international issues. The perceived challenges have been grouped into four categories, each covered by a chapter. Technical issues are addressed that many present regulatory challenges in the future: ageing nuclear power plants. External changes to industry are considered next that have an effect on regulators, privatization, cost reduction consequences, commercialization etc. It is followed by the impacts of internal changes: organizational, managerial, human-resources, licensing, staff training etc. Finally, international issues are discussed with potential regulatory impact. (R.P.)

  3. Regulatory inspection of nuclear facilities and enforcement by the regulatory body. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for regulatory bodies on the inspection of nuclear facilities, regulatory enforcement and related matters. The objective is to provide the regulatory body with a high level of confidence that operators have the processes in place to ensure compliance and that they do comply with legal requirements, including meeting the safety objectives and requirements of the regulatory body. However, in the event of non-compliance, the regulatory body should take appropriate enforcement action. This Safety Guide covers regulatory inspection and enforcement in relation to nuclear facilities such as: enrichment and fuel manufacturing plants; nuclear power plants; other reactors such as research reactors and critical assemblies; spent fuel reprocessing plants; and facilities for radioactive waste management, such as treatment, storage and disposal facilities. This Safety Guide also covers issues relating to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the closure of waste disposal facilities and site rehabilitation. Section 2 sets out the objectives of regulatory inspection and enforcement. Section 3 covers the management of regulatory inspections. Section 4 covers the performance of regulatory inspections, including internal guidance, planning and preparation, methods of inspection and reports of inspections. Section 5 deals with regulatory enforcement actions. Section 6 covers the assessment of regulatory inspections and enforcement activities. The Appendix provides further details on inspection areas for nuclear facilities

  4. As to achieve regulatory action, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Encinas, D.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of the effectiveness in the performance of a nuclear regulatory body has been a permanent challenge in the recent history of nuclear regulation. In the post-Fukushima era this challenge is even more important. This article addresses the subject from two complementary points of view: the characteristics of an effective regulatory body and the regulatory approaches. This work is based on the most recent studies carried out by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, CNRA (OECD/NEA), as well as on the experience of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, the Spanish regulatory body. Rafael Cid is the representative of CSN in these project: Diego Encinas has participated in the study on regulatory approaches. (Author)

  5. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such...

  6. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  7. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  8. Questions raised on transport of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubinska, A.

    1984-01-01

    Public opinion is demanding safer rules for the shipment of radioactive materials since the recent collision and sinking of a French freighter carrying uranium hexafluoride. At issue is the secrecy of the cargo, the delay in releasing information to the public and salvage crews, and the use of unmarked trucks. The nuclear industry points out that no recent incidents have led to the loss of human life, but there is concern among European Community members that a number of countries have yet to ratify international conventions and agreements on hazardous materials transport, that none of these agreements are mandatory, and that none address the transfrontier movement of waste materials

  9. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  10. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  11. Annual Report 2010. Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The present Annual Report of Activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), prepared regularly from the creation as independent institution, describes across six chapters and seven annexes the activities developed by the organism during 2010. The main topic are: institutional issues; regulatory guides and standards; argentinean nuclear regulatory system; quality assurance of the ARN; the institutional communications; the licensing and inspection of nuclear power plants and critical facilities; the emergency systems; the safeguards and the physical protection; the environmental control; the institutional relations; the training and the public information. Also, this publication have annexes with the following content: the regulatory framework; regulatory documents; inspections to medical, industrial and training installations; measurement and evaluation of the drinking water of Ezeiza; international expert's report on the application of the international standards of radiological protection of the public in the zone of the Ezeiza Atomic Center; ethical code

  12. Annual Report 2011. Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The present Annual Report of Activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), prepared regularly from the creation as independent institution, describes across six chapters and seven annexes the activities developed by the organism during 2011. The main topic are: institutional issues; regulatory guides and standards; argentinean nuclear regulatory system; quality assurance of the ARN; the institutional communications; the licensing and inspection of nuclear power plants and critical facilities; the emergency systems; the safeguards and the physical protection; the environmental control; the institutional relations; the training and the public information. Also, this publication have annexes with the following content: the regulatory framework; regulatory documents; inspections to medical, industrial and training installations; measurement and evaluation of the drinking water of Ezeiza; international expert's report on the application of the international standards of radiological protection of the public in the zone of the Ezeiza Atomic Center; ethical code

  13. Environmental reporting as a strategic issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn

    1997-01-01

    Organisations are facing ever increasing demands or pressures from various stakeholder to raise their environmental standards. Raising the environmental standards includes improving and documenting the environmental performance in relation to production processes, products and logistics.This pape...... adresses environmental reporting as an important issue in strategic management, since many of environmental management are related to the availability of environmental information both inside and outside the company.......Organisations are facing ever increasing demands or pressures from various stakeholder to raise their environmental standards. Raising the environmental standards includes improving and documenting the environmental performance in relation to production processes, products and logistics.This paper...

  14. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai; Hebenton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  15. Cost-benefit and regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is investigating the feasibility of developing methods for factoring cost-benefit considerations into its regulatory decision-making. This initiative results, in part, from the federal government policy requiring cost-benefit considerations to be taken into account in regulatory processes, and from the recommendations of an Advisory Panel on Regulatory Review in 1993, submitted to the Minister of Natural Resources Canada. One of these recommendations stated: 'that mechanisms be developed to examine cost benefit issues and work towards some consensus of opinion among stake holders: a task force on the subject could be an appropriate starting point'. (author)

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Systems in Africa: Improving Safety and Security Culture Through Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazadi Kabuya, F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the important issue of supporting safety and security culture through an educational and training course program designed both for regulatory staff and licensees. Enhancing the safety and security of nuclear facilities may involve assessing the overall effectiveness of the organization's safety culture. Safety Culture implies steps such as identifying and targeting areas requiring attention, putting emphasis on organizational strengths and weaknesses, human attitudes and behaviours that may positively impact an organization's safety culture, resulting in improving workplace safety and developing and maintaining a high level of awareness within these facilities. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, international efforts were made towards achieving such goals. This was realized through meetings, summits and training courses events, with main aim to enhance security at facilities whose activities, if attacked, could impact public health and safety. During regulatory oversight inspections undertaken on some licensee's premises, violations of security requirements were identified. They mostly involved inadequate management oversight of security, lack of a questioning attitude, complacency and mostly inadequate training in both security and safety issues. Using training and education approach as a support to raise awareness on safety and security issues in the framework of improving safety and security culture, a tentative training program in nuclear and radiological safety was started in 2002 with the main aim of vulgarizing the regulatory framework. Real first needs for a training course program were identified among radiographers and radiologists with established working experience but with limited knowledge in radiation safety. In the field of industrial uses of radiation the triggering events for introducing and implementing a training program were: the loss of a radioactive source in a mining

  17. Raising Crop Productivity in Africa through Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tadele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to

  18. Assessing the effectiveness of nuclear regulatory system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhia, Sonal; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima accident brought up the issue of regulatory effectiveness in the fore. One of the causes of the accident has been attributed to the problems in effectiveness of the Japanese regulatory system. Regulatory reform is underway in Japan and in other countries many efforts have also been made to improve the effectiveness and independence of the regulatory bodies. It is important that the regulatory bodies make self-assessment of their weaknesses and strengths, to achieve the ultimate regulatory goal of assuring acceptable level of nuclear safety. In this paper an assessment has been done for the effectiveness of Indian nuclear regulatory system as implemented by the Atomic Energy Regulatory board (AERB). A number of good practices of AERB have been found and some areas have been identified where improvements are necessary

  19. Dynamics of psychological safety in mothers raising children with special needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamanova I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a considerable decrease in psychological well-being among mothers raising children with special needs. Addressing the issues of providing psychological support for them is of particular importance for both researchers and practitioners. The paper presents a study aimed at exploring the dynamics of psychological safety in mothers raising children with special needs. 32 mothers whose children underwent a rehabilitation programme in a rehabilitation centre participated in the study. The key element of the psychological support programme developed for these mothers was a specific psychotherapeutic space combining hippotherapy with environmental, social and personal factors. Compared to the control group, the study participants’ parameters of psychological safety showed statistically significant positive dynamics. The results obtained contribute to studying factors of psychological well-being in mothers raising children with special needs and suggest an effective way of enhancing their sense of psychological safety.

  20. NEW GENERATIONS RAISED IN APARTMENT SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Salih ŞEKER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of private preparatory schools is preparing students for higher education institutions, they dealt a severe blow to the formal educatio nal institutions. Various solutions generated to close down these schools brought many concerns led to deepening of the problem. In this study, the issue of closing private preparatory schools, which function for preparation for the university entrance ex am, down and converting them into private schools in the academic year of 2014/2015 by regulations enforced by the ministry is discussed. Obviously, this period will results in generations with obesity, physical impairment, postural disorders, respiratory system disorders, cardiovascular and circulatory disorders as well as permanent diseases. These schools are established in apartments and commercial building employed by private preparatory schools previously. It is clearly seen that these physical condi tions may cause serious problems in physical activities and sport practices. The aim of this study is discussing the predicted problems either experienced or will be faced by students since they will continue formal education at schools called “Basic High School” converted from private preparatory schools into formal educational institutions with same physical conditions but different educational programs.

  1. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  2. Saudi Arabia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...

  3. Using Social Media as a Research Recruitment Tool: Ethical Issues and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Luke; Pierce, Robin; Winkler, Sabune; Cohen, I Glenn; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Bierer, Barbara E

    2017-03-01

    The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. Despite this, to date there has been no specific regulatory guidance and there has been little in the bioethics literature to guide investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) faced with navigating the ethical issues such use raises. We begin to fill this gap by first defending a nonexceptionalist methodology for assessing social media recruitment; second, examining respect for privacy and investigator transparency as key norms governing social media recruitment; and, finally, analyzing three relatively novel aspects of social media recruitment: (i) the ethical significance of compliance with website "terms of use"; (ii) the ethics of recruiting from the online networks of research participants; and (iii) the ethical implications of online communication from and between participants. Two checklists aimed at guiding investigators and IRBs through the ethical issues are included as appendices.

  4. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.; Barnes, V.; Hauth, J.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas of nuclear power plants are fit for duty. This report supplements information previously published in NUREG/CR-5227, Fitness for Duty in the Nuclear Power Industry: A Review of Technical Issues (Barnes et al., 1988). The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in both of these reports is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other fitness concerns are discussed. This report addresses issues pertaining to workers' use and misuse of alcohol, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs as fitness-for-duty concerns; responds to several questions raised by NRC Commissioners; discusses subversion of the chemical testing process and methods of preventing such subversion; and examines concerns about the urinalysis cutoff levels used when testing for marijuana metabolites, amphetamines, and phencyclidine

  5. Issues raised in the limitation, control and measurement of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past few years a consistent set of quantities for ionising radiation measurements in radiological protection have been defined. The efforts being made by those concerned with radiation dosimetry to ensure the universal adoption and use of these quantities are now threatened by further developments in risk concepts. The most serious threats arise from changed perceptions about the quality factors appropriate for different radiations due to improved biological information about relative biological effectiveness, and the increased importance to be given to the cancer risk estimates derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors following the revised dose estimates. A change in the basis of quality factor specification will require careful consideration if it is not to produce further problems in obtaining agreement on the conceptual basis for radiological protection metrology. The change is primarily for adoption in the calculation of the risk quantity, effective dose equivalent. Some of the possible options for taking account of the change in regard to the measurement quantities are examined. (author)

  6. SEVERE ACCIDENT ISSUES RAISED BY THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND IMPROVEMENTS SUGGESTED

    OpenAIRE

    SONG, JIN HO; KIM, TAE WOON

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits the Fukushima accident to draw lessons in the aspect of nuclear safety considering the fact that the Fukushima accident resulted in core damage for three nuclear power plants simultaneously and that there is a high possibility of a failure of the integrity of reactor vessel and primary containment vessel. A brief review on the accident progression at Fukushima nuclear power plants is discussed to highlight the nature and characteristic of the event. As the severe accide...

  7. Raising end of life care issues for patients with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-11-30

    This qualitative study explored the views of three learning disability nurses, and three district nurses, caring for people with learning disabilities at the end of their lives. Although they saw some good practice, the nurses identified several difficulties associated with end of life care.

  8. Common issues raised during the quality assurance process of WHO guidelines: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porgo, Teegwendé V; Ferri, Mauricio; Norris, Susan L

    2018-02-07

    In 2007, WHO established the Guidelines Review Committee (GRC) to ensure that WHO guidelines adhere to the highest international standards. The GRC reviews guideline proposals and final guidelines. The objectives of this study were to examine the rates of and reasons for conditional approval and non-approval of documents submitted for the first time to the GRC, and calculate the time intervals and numbers of submissions to achieve approval for documents conditionally approved or not approved at first submission. All initial submissions to the GRC between 2014 and 2017 were examined. Data were extracted from the GRC's records of written comments and discussions. Of a total of 85 proposals and 88 final guidelines, 32 (37.6%) proposals and 37 (42.0%) final guidelines were conditionally approved, and 15 (17.6%) proposals and 28 (31.8%) final guidelines were not. For both conditionally approved and not approved proposals, the most frequent reasons were suboptimal composition or inadequate description of the guideline contributor groups (in all proposals), followed by inadequate formulation of key questions (in 90.6% of conditionally approved proposals and all not approved proposals). For both conditionally approved and not approved final guidelines, the most frequent reasons were problems with recommendations (in all final guidelines), followed by inappropriate methods for evidence retrieval or an inadequate description thereof (in all conditionally approved final guidelines and 75.0% of not approved final guidelines). The median time to achieve approval was 2 months for proposals and 1-2 months for final guidelines. The median number of submissions was 2 for proposals and 2-2.5 for final guidelines. The GRC implements a rigorous quality assurance process and identifies problems with a significant percentage of initial submissions. WHO needs to continuously evaluate its guideline development processes to inform effective quality improvement measures and optimise the quality of its guidelines.

  9. Addressing the ethical issues raised by synthetic human entities with embryo-like features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aach, John; Lunshof, Jeantine; Iyer, Eswar; Church, George M.

    2017-01-01

    The "14-day rule" for embryo research stipulates that experiments with intact human embryos must not allow them to develop beyond 14 days or the appearance of the primitive streak. However, recent experiments showing that suitably cultured human pluripotent stem cells can self organize and

  10. Health maintenance organizations: critical issues raised by restructuring delivery for health systems reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M

    1993-10-01

    In sum, the potential that managed care will grow under health systems reform creates an opportunity for the HMO industry but also serves as a challenge and a threat. Faced with greater scrutiny and growing demands, HMOs increasingly are being forced to demonstrate their potential and live up to their expectation. At the same time, the changing nature of the health care system creates a challenge for HMOs. Cost pressures create needs to review the entire delivery system, including the ambulatory component, with a focus on enhancing cost-effectiveness. Greater visibility also creates demands; growing market penetration argues for the creation of a new paradigm to define an appropriate structure for public accountability and management. Finally, the transformation of an HMO industry into a managed care industry is not without its risks as HMO performance becomes evaluated not only against itself but as part of the performance of the broader managed care industry in which HMOs have become embedded.

  11. Issues raised by the reference doses for perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaomin; Bahar, Md Mezbaul; Jit, Joytishna; Kennedy, Bruce; Priestly, Brian; Ng, Jack; Lamb, Dane; Liu, Yanju; Duan, Luchun; Naidu, Ravi

    2017-08-01

    On 25th May 2016, the U.S. EPA released reference doses (RfDs) for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) of 20ng/kg/day, which were much more conservative than previous values. These RfDs rely on the choices of animal point of departure (PoD) and the toxicokinetics (TK) model. At this stage, considering that the human evidence is not strong enough for RfD determination, using animal data may be appropriate but with more uncertainties. In this article, the uncertainties concerning RfDs from the choices of PoD and TK models are addressed. Firstly, the candidate PoDs should include more critical endpoints (such as immunotoxicity), which may lead to lower RfDs. Secondly, the reliability of the adopted three-compartment TK model is compromised: the parameters are not non-biologically plausible; and this TK model was applied to simulate gestation and lactation exposures, while the two exposure scenarios were not actually included in the model structure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Professional, legal, and ethical issues raised by behavioral screening for unescorted access to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, M.W.; Roiter, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Potential professional, legal, and ethical liabilities are addressed concerning the overall process for unescorted access at nuclear power plants. The authors suggest means by which action can be taken to reduce liability on behalf of utilities, contractors, and behavioral evaluators. Three main points are discussed based on the authors' experience in conducting behavioral evaluations and defending those evaluations. The authors hope that the process of evaluation screening can become more professional and will be considered with the same quality controls as the selection of materials and the building of a nuclear power plant

  13. An Analysis of the Fund Raising Issues for Indian Family Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Manish Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Family controlled businesses are a very important organizational type as families control many large businesses around the world. In India, family controlled businesses account for 70 percent of total sales and net profits of the biggest 250 private sector companies. Family businesses play a very important role in the Indian economy. The literature on financial intermediation system has divided the system in two types: 1) Bank Based and 2) Market Based. The literature in Indian fin...

  14. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: example of the underground research laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, Jacques-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) project is the feasibility assessment of a deep underground repository of high activity / long life radioactive wastes, located at about 300 km from Paris near the border of the Lorraine and Champagne-Ardennes regions. It appears that the confidence relating to the URL project needs to be built upon excellent and strong relations and collaboration with the scientific community. The necessary condition for the acceptance of citizens is to be based upon the conviction that the scientific work is carried on seriously, with the best specialists and up-to-date methods, under a rigorous control, and in opened context. However, these considerations today only concern the URL project, and there is no clear indication about the potential acceptance of an eventual repository

  15. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1996, Volume 21, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    This compilation is the annual cumulation of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors.

  16. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1996, Volume 21, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    This compilation is the annual cumulation of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors

  17. Raising with long boreholes in Uranium Mines, Hamr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubista, A.; Svoboda, M.; Mohyla, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The technology is described of raising with long boreholes which was used in uranium mines for breaking 15 raises to the end of 1983. Also described is the method of computing the needed charge. The described technology has the following advantages as compared with usual driving methods: 1. it secures greater work safety, 2. it allows driving atypical profiles, 3. smooth breaking secures good stability and longer life of raises, 4. allows higher productivity, 5. reduces capital costs. (Ha)

  18. Women's Issues Are Economic Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    Faulty laws, unfair practices, and years of tradition in the workplace keep women from economic equality. The Economic Equity Act proposed by Congress will address inequalities in tax and retirement matters, the need for better dependent care, nondiscrimination in insurance, regulatory reform, and child support enforcement. (IS)

  19. U.S. NRC's generic issues program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.V.; Foster, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a Generic Issues Program (GIP) to address Generic Issues (GI). A GI is defined as 'a regulatory matter involving the design, construction, operation, or decommissioning of several, or a class of, NRC licensees or certificate holders that is not sufficiently addressed by existing rules, guidance, or programs'. This rather legalistic definition has several practical corollaries: First, a GI must involve safety. Second, the issue must involve at least two plants, or it would be a plant-specific issue rather than a GI. Third, the potential safety question must not be covered by existing regulations and guidance (compliance). Thus, the effect of a GI is to potentially change the body of regulations and associated guidance (e.g., regulatory guides). The GIP was started in 1976, thus it is a relatively mature program. Approximately 850 issues have been processed by the program to date. More importantly, even after 30 years, new GIs continue to be proposed. The entire set of Generic Issues (GIs) is updated annually in NUREG-0933, 'A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues'. GIs normally involve complex questions of safety and regulation. Efficient and effective means of addressing these issues are very important for regulatory effectiveness. If an issue proves to pose a genuine, significant safety question, then swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective action needs to be taken. Conversely, if an issue is of little safety significance, the issue should be dismissed in an expeditious manner, avoiding unnecessary expenditure of resources and regulatory burden or uncertainty. This paper provides a summary of the 5-stage program, from identification through the regulatory assessment stage. The paper also includes a discussion of the program's seven criteria, sources of proposed GIs, recent improvements, publicly available information, historical performance, and status of current GIs. (authors)

  20. Contrast media. Safety issues and ESUR guidelines. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Henrik S. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Copenhagen Univ., Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Sciences; Webb, Judith A.W. (eds.) [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital London Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology

    2009-07-01

    In 1994 the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) set up a committee to consider the safety of contrast media used for diagnostic imaging. Subsequently the committee questioned members, reviewed the literature, proposed guidelines and discussed these proposals with participants at the annual symposia of the society. The end result of this work was the successful first edition of this book, published in 2006. This second edition not only updates the previous edition, but also contains some completely new chapters, for example on gadolinium-based contrast agents, meta-analyses in contrast media research and various regulatory issues. Comprehensive consideration is given to the many different safety issues relating to iodinated, MR, ultrasound and barium contrast media. The text includes chapters on both acute and delayed non-renal adverse reactions and on renal adverse reactions. All those questions frequently raised in radiological practice are addressed, and the well-known ESUR guidelines on contrast media are included. This book, presented in a handy, easy to use format, provides an invaluable, unique and unparalleled source of information on the safety issues relating to contrast media. (orig.)

  1. Contrast media. Safety issues and ESUR guidelines. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Henrik S.; Copenhagen Univ., Herlev; Webb, Judith A.W.

    2009-01-01

    In 1994 the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) set up a committee to consider the safety of contrast media used for diagnostic imaging. Subsequently the committee questioned members, reviewed the literature, proposed guidelines and discussed these proposals with participants at the annual symposia of the society. The end result of this work was the successful first edition of this book, published in 2006. This second edition not only updates the previous edition, but also contains some completely new chapters, for example on gadolinium-based contrast agents, meta-analyses in contrast media research and various regulatory issues. Comprehensive consideration is given to the many different safety issues relating to iodinated, MR, ultrasound and barium contrast media. The text includes chapters on both acute and delayed non-renal adverse reactions and on renal adverse reactions. All those questions frequently raised in radiological practice are addressed, and the well-known ESUR guidelines on contrast media are included. This book, presented in a handy, easy to use format, provides an invaluable, unique and unparalleled source of information on the safety issues relating to contrast media. (orig.)

  2. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  3. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  4. Neuroscientists' everyday experiences of ethics: the interplay of regulatory, professional, personal and tangible ethical spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Caragh; Cribb, Alan; Wainwright, Steven P; Williams, Clare

    2013-11-01

    The ethical issues neuroscience raises are subject to increasing attention, exemplified in the emergence of the discipline neuroethics. While the moral implications of neurotechnological developments are often discussed, less is known about how ethics intersects with everyday work in neuroscience and how scientists themselves perceive the ethics of their research. Drawing on observation and interviews with members of one UK group conducting neuroscience research at both the laboratory bench and in the clinic, this article examines what ethics meant to these researchers and delineates four specific types of ethics that shaped their day-to-day work: regulatory, professional, personal and tangible. While the first three categories are similar to those identified elsewhere in sociological work on scientific and clinical ethics, the notion of 'tangible ethics' emerged by attending to everyday practice, in which these scientists' discursive distinctions between right and wrong were sometimes challenged. The findings shed light on how ethical positions produce and are, in turn, produced by scientific practice. Informing sociological understandings of neuroscience, they also throw the category of neuroscience and its ethical specificity into question, given that members of this group did not experience their work as raising issues that were distinctly neuro-ethical. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Regulatory control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to support IAEA training courses and workshops in the field of regulatory control of nuclear power plants as well as to support the regulatory bodies of Member States in their own training activities. The target group is the professional staff members of nuclear safety regulatory bodies supervising nuclear power plants and having duties and responsibilities in the following regulatory fields: regulatory framework; regulatory organization; regulatory guidance; licensing and licensing documents; assessment of safety; and regulatory inspection and enforcement. Important topics such as regulatory competence and quality of regulatory work as well as emergency preparedness and public communication are also covered. The book also presents the key issues of nuclear safety such as 'defence-in-depth' and safety culture and explains how these should be taken into account in regulatory work, e.g. during safety assessment and regulatory inspection. The book also reflects how nuclear safety has been developed during the years on the basis of operating experience feedback and results of safety research by giving topical examples. The examples cover development of operating procedures and accident management to cope with complicated incidents and severe accidents to stress the importance of regulatory role in nuclear safety research. The main target group is new staff members of regulatory bodies, but the book also offers good examples for more experienced inspectors to be used as comparison and discussion basis in internal workshops organized by the regulatory bodies for refreshing and continuing training. The book was originally compiled on the basis of presentations provided during the two regulatory control training courses in 1997 and 1998. The textbook was reviewed at the beginning of the years 2000 and 2002 by IAEA staff members and consistency with the latest revisions of safety standards have been ensured. The textbook was completed in the

  6. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuance, July-December 1980. Index of Volume 12, Number 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Issuances of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (ASLB), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Boards (ALAB), the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ), regulatory issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Directors Denial (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking for the period July through December 1980 appear in Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, 12 NRC No. 1, Pages 1-136, through 12 NRC No. 6, Pages 607-742. Digests and indexes for these issuances are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: Case name (owners of facility); Name of facility, docket number; Type of hearing (for construction permit, operating licenses, etc.); Issues raised by appellants; Issuance number; Type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.); Issuance pagination; Legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); and Subject matter of issues and/or rulings. These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case name index; Digests and headers; Legal citation index; Subject index; and Facility index

  7. Regulatory Analysis on the Safety Assessment of NPPs against Aircraft Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yun; Park, Jong Seuk; Chung, Yun Suk; Jung, Rae Young

    2011-01-01

    Following the 9/11 terror, a new regulation (10CFR 50.150) was enacted in June 2009 in the United States mandating the assessment of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) against intentional aircraft crashes, along with a regulation (10CFR 50.54 (h)(h)) in March 2009 that requires the establishment of accident mitigation measures for NPPs in operation. The UAE requested that the Korean NPP (APR 1400) design meet the U.S.'s new requirements related to the intentional aircraft crash. During the UAE NPP contract bidding process, France claimed that the Korean NPP is vulnerable to aircraft crashes comparing with the French NPP (EPR). Under these international and domestic environments, the necessity to establish a domestic regulation concerning the intentional aircraft crash was raised. This paper proposes a draft regulatory position on this issue through a comprehensive analysis of various influencing factors

  8. Public policy and regulatory implications for the implementation of Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services for Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning; Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. This paper discusses how public policy and regulations will impact on OCCS implementation. We rely on documented publicly available government...... and corporate policies on the adoption of cloud computing services and deduce the impact of these policies on their adoption of opportunistic cloud computing services. We conclude that there are regulatory challenges on data protection that raises issues for cloud computing adoption in general; and the lack...... of a single globally accepted data protection standard poses some challenges for very successful implementation of OCCS for companies. However, the direction of current public and corporate policies on cloud computing make a good case for them to try out opportunistic cloud computing services....

  9. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  10. Ethical issues in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    The study gives an overview of ethical questions raised by the progress of neuroscience in identifying and intervening in neural correlates of the mind. Ethical problems resulting from brain research have induced the emergence of a new discipline termed neuroethics. Critical questions concern issues, such as prediction of disease, psychopharmacological enhancement of attention, memory or mood, and technologies such as psychosurgery, deep-brain stimulation or brain implants. Such techniques are capable of affecting the individual's sense of privacy, autonomy and identity. Moreover, reductionist interpretations of neuroscientific results challenge notions of free will, responsibility, personhood and the self which are essential for western culture and society. They may also gradually change psychiatric concepts of mental health and illness. These tendencies call for thorough, philosophically informed analyses of research findings and critical evaluation of their underlying conceptions of humans. Advances in neuroscience raise ethical, social and legal issues in relation to the human person and the brain. Potential benefits of applying neuroimaging, psychopharmacology and neurotechnology to mentally ill and healthy persons have to be carefully weighed against their potential harm. Questions concerning underlying concepts of humans should be actively dealt with by interdisciplinary and public debate.

  11. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The 48. session of the IAEA general conference was held in Vienna from 20 to 24 september 2004 with the participation of delegates from 125 members states and representatives of various international organisations. A number of resolutions were adopted by the conference in the following fields: nuclear safety, radiation, transport and waste safety. The general conference also adopted a resolution on measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. The Director General decided in 2003 to appoint a group of experts to explore and advise on issues related to nuclear liability. This group called the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (I.N.L.E.X.) consists of 20 experts members from nuclear power and non nuclear power countries and from shipping and non shipping states. It serves three major functions: to create a forum of expertise to explore and advise on issues related to nuclear liability; to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non nuclear states to an effective nuclear liability regime, inter alia, on the basis of the convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage and the annex thereto, the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage, the Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, the joint protocol relating to the application of the vienna convention and the paris convention and the amendments thereto; and to assist in the development and strengthening of the national nuclear liability legal frameworks in IAEA members states to protect the public and the environment and to enhance nuclear safety. The second part of international regulatory concerns a directive on public access to environmental information made by the European Parliament. (N.C.)

  12. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  13. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, J.; Sandoz, C.; Dickenson, J.; Lee, J.C.; Smith, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  14. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of livestock. 780.615 Section 780.615 Labor... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.615 Raising of livestock. Livestock auction operations are within the 13(b)(13) exemption only...

  15. Meeting the regulatory information needs of users of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDurmon, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials is one of the most regulated areas of research. Researchers face ever increasing regulatory requirements and issues involving the disposal of radioactive material, while meeting the demands of higher productivity. Radiation safety programs must maximize regulatory compliance, minimize barriers, provide services and solutions, and effectively communicate with users of radioactive materials. This talk will discuss methods by which a radiation safety program can meet the needs of both the research staff and regulatory compliance staff

  16. Meeting the regulatory information needs of users of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDurmon, G.W. [American Cyanamid Company, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The use of radioactive materials is one of the most regulated areas of research. Researchers face ever increasing regulatory requirements and issues involving the disposal of radioactive material, while meeting the demands of higher productivity. Radiation safety programs must maximize regulatory compliance, minimize barriers, provide services and solutions, and effectively communicate with users of radioactive materials. This talk will discuss methods by which a radiation safety program can meet the needs of both the research staff and regulatory compliance staff.

  17. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Azarm, A.; Baum, J.W.

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988

  18. Regulatory analysis technical evaluation handbook. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance to the regulatory analyst to promote preparation of quality regulatory analysis documents and to implement the policies of the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NUREG/BR-0058 Rev. 2). This Handbook expands upon policy concepts included in the NRC Guidelines and translates the six steps in preparing regulatory analyses into implementable methodologies for the analyst. It provides standardized methods of preparation and presentation of regulatory analyses, with the inclusion of input that will satisfy all backfit requirements and requirements of NRC's Committee to Review Generic Requirements. Information on the objectives of the safety goal evaluation process and potential data sources for preparing a safety goal evaluation is also included. Consistent application of the methods provided here will result in more directly comparable analyses, thus aiding decision-makers in evaluating and comparing various regulatory actions. The handbook is being issued in loose-leaf format to facilitate revisions. NRC intends to periodically revise the handbook as new and improved guidance, data, and methods become available

  19. Space reactor fuels performance and development issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wewerka, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three compact reactor concepts are now under consideration by the US Space Nuclear Power Program (the SP-100 Program) as candidates for the first 100-kWe-class space reactor. Each of these reactor designs puts unique constraints and requirements on the fuels system, and raises issues of fuel systems feasibility and performance. This paper presents a brief overview of the fuel requirements for the proposed space reactor designs, a delineation of the technical feasibility issues that each raises, and a description of the fuel systems development and testing program that has been established to address key technical issues

  20. Surrogate mothers: aboriginal grandmothers raising grandchildren in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of grandmothers: using aged bodies to do energetic work: represented the physical effects of raising grandchildren; conflicting emotions: reflected the psychological effects of raising grandchildren; lifelong and privative obligation: described the cultural and societal beliefs of raising grandchildren; and coping strategies for raising grandchildren outlined methods the grandmothers used to cope with parenting their grandchildren. The results of this study offers insights into surrogate parenting within an underresearched group in Taiwan and will enable health care providers to be more aware of the physical, emotional, and social effects of the role of grandparent parenting.

  1. Patient safety issues in office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Schwappach, David; Harder, Yves; Staender, Sven; Elger, Bernice

    2017-08-01

    To identify the spectrum of patient safety issues in office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. Purposive sample of 23 experts in surgery and anaesthesia and quality and regulation in Switzerland. Data were collected via individual qualitative interviews using a researcher-developed semi-structured interview guide between March 2016 and September 2016. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using conventional content analysis. Issues were categorised under the headings "structure", "process", and "outcome". Experts identified two key overarching patient safety and regulatory issues in relation to office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. First, experts repeatedly raised the current lack of data and transparency of the setting. It is unknown how many surgeons are operating in offices, how many and what types of operations are being done, and what the outcomes are. Secondly, experts also noted the limited oversight and regulation of the setting. While some standards exists, most experts felt that more minimal safety standards are needed regarding the requirements that must be met to do office-based surgery and what can and cannot be done in the office-based setting are needed, but they advocated a self-regulatory approach. There is a lack of empirical data regarding the quantity and quality office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. Further research is needed to address these research gaps and inform health policy in relation to patient safety in office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Organization of nuclear regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blidaru, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the structure, missions and organizational aspects of the CNCAN, the National Commission for the control of nuclear activities in Romania. The paper addresses the following main issues: 1.General aspects; 2.Organizational structure of the NRA in Romania; 3.General description of the Division for Nuclear Safety Assessments; 4.Specific activities; 5.Regulatory approaches and practices. Under the title of 'General aspects' the following three basic statements are highlighted: 1.CNCAN is a governmental organization responsible for the development of the regulatory framework, the control of its implementation and the licensing of nuclear facilities; 2.CNCAN is the national authority competent in exercising the regulatory activity, authorization and control in the nuclear field provided by the law No. 111/ 1996 republished in 1998; 3.The Commission exercises its functions independently of the ministries and other authorities of the public control administration being subordinated to the Romanian Government. The organizational structure is as follows: - President, the Managerial Council and the Advisory Council coordinating the four General Divisions that are responsible for: - Nuclear Safety with Division of Nuclear Safety Assessment and Division of Nuclear Objectives Surveillance; - Radiological Safety with Division of Radiological Safety Assessment and Division of Operational Radiation Protection; - Surveillance of Environmental Radioactivity with Division of Assessment and Analysis and Division of National Network; - Development and Resource with the Division of Economy and Division of Human Resources. In addition under direct coordination of the President operate the Division of Radiation Protection, Transport and Radioactive Waste and the Division of International Cooperation and Communication. Specific activities are listed describing among others the issues of: - Safety of nuclear installation; - Evaluation relating to licensing of nuclear

  3. Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon

  4. Deferred Tax Assests and Bank Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallemore, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, I examine three issues: (1) whether the probability of bank failure is increasing in the proportion of regulatory capital composed of deferred tax assets (DTA), (2) whether market participants incorporate the increased failure risk associated with the DTA component of

  5. NRC Regulatory Agenda: Quarterly report, July-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The NRC Regulatory agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the commission. The regulatory agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  6. Reactor aging research. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilaros, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    The reactor ageing research activities in USA described, are focused on the research of reactor vessel integrity, including regulatory issues and technical aspects. Current emphasis are described for fracture analysis, embrittlement research, inspection capabilities, validation od annealing rule, revision of regulatory guide

  7. NRC regulatory agenda: Quarterly report, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  8. NRC regulatory agenda. Seminnual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rule making which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The regulatory Agenda is updated and issued semiannually

  9. 76 FR 411 - Regulatory Guidance Concerning Electronic Signatures and Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... guidance, including memoranda and letters, may no longer be relied upon to the extent they are inconsistent... Concerning Electronic Signatures and Documents AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of regulatory guidance. SUMMARY: FMCSA issues regulatory guidance concerning the...

  10. 76 FR 23845 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... INFORMATION: I. Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment a... provides text and image files of the NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to ADAMS or if there...- 800-397-4209, 301-415-4737, or by e-mail to [email protected] . The Regulatory Analysis is...

  11. 75 FR 33853 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    .... Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment a draft guide in the... provides text and image files of NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to ADAMS or if there are... ADAMS Accession Number ML100760364. The regulatory analysis is available electronically under ADAMS...

  12. 76 FR 2425 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Reissuance and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... INFORMATION: I. Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment a..., the public can gain entry into ADAMS, which provides text and image files of NRC's public [email protected] . The Regulatory Analysis is available electronically under ADAMS Accession Number...

  13. 76 FR 5215 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public... . From this page, the public can gain entry into ADAMS, which provides text and image files of NRC's... [email protected] . The Regulatory Analysis is available electronically under ADAMS Accession...

  14. 75 FR 52996 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    .... Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment a draft guide in the... entry into ADAMS, which provides text and image files of NRC's public documents. If you do not have.../ . The regulatory analysis may be found in ADAMS under Accession No. ML102310331. Federal Rulemaking Web...

  15. Ethical issues in neurogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Wendy R; Roberts, J Scott

    2018-01-01

    Many neurogenetic conditions are inherited and therefore diagnosis of a patient will have implications for the patient's relatives and can raise ethical issues. Predictive genetic testing offers asymptomatic relatives the opportunity to determine their risk status for a neurogenetic condition, and professional guidelines emphasize patients' autonomy and informed, voluntary decision making. Beneficence and nonmaleficence both need to be considered when making decisions about disclosure and nondisclosure of genetic information and test results. There can be disclosure concerns and challenges in determining whose autonomy to prioritize when a patient makes a genetic testing decision that can reveal the genetic status of a relative (e.g., testing an adult child when the at-risk parent has not been tested). Ethical issues are prominent when genetic testing for neurogenetic conditions is requested prenatally, on minors, adoptees, adult children at 25% risk, and for individuals with psychiatric issues or cognitive impairment. Neurogenetic conditions can result in cognitive decline which can affect decisional capacity and lead to ethical challenges with decision making, informed consent, and determining the patient's ability to comprehend test results. The ethical implications of genetic testing and emerging issues, including direct-to-consumer genetic testing, disclosure of secondary findings from genomic sequencing, and use of apolipoprotein E testing in clinical and research settings, are also discussed. Resources for information about genetic testing practice guidelines, insurance laws, and directories of genetics clinics are included. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Research and regulatory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, J.S.; Fryer, D.R.H.

    1979-01-01

    To enable the regulatory review to be effectively undertaken by the regulatory body, there is a need for it to have ready access to information generated by research activities. Certain advantages have been seen to be gained by the regulatory body itself directly allocating and controlling some portion of these activities. The princial reasons for reaching this conclusion are summarised and a brief description of the Inspectorates directly sponsored programme outlined. (author)

  17. Regulatory framework and safety requirements for new (gen III) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourlon, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Sophie Mourlon, ASN Deputy General Director, described the international process to enhance safety between local safety authorities through organizations such as WENRA. Then she explained to the participants the regulatory issues for the next generation of NPPs

  18. Institutional review board and regulatory solutions in the dental PBRN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Qvist, Vibeke; Moore, Sheila D

    2010-01-01

    Effectively addressing regulatory and human participant protection issues with Institutional Review Boards (IRBs, or ethics committees) and grants administration entities is an important component of conducting research in large collaborative networks. A dental practice-based research network...

  19. Regulatory Myeloid Cells in Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosborough, Brian R.; Raïch-Regué, Dàlia; Turnquist, Heth R.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory myeloid cells (RMC) are emerging as novel targets for immunosuppressive (IS) agents and hold considerable promise as cellular therapeutic agents. Herein, we discuss the ability of regulatory macrophages (Mreg), regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) to regulate alloimmunity, their potential as cellular therapeutic agents and the IS agents that target their function. We consider protocols for the generation of RMC and the selection of donor- or recipient-derived cells for adoptive cell therapy. Additionally, the issues of cell trafficking and antigen (Ag) specificity following RMC transfer are discussed. Improved understanding of the immunobiology of these cells has increased the possibility of moving RMC into the clinic to reduce the burden of current IS agents and promote Ag-specific tolerance. In the second half of this review, we discuss the influence of established and experimental IS agents on myeloid cell populations. IS agents believed historically to act primarily on T cell activation and proliferation are emerging as important regulators of RMC function. Better insights into the influence of IS agents on RMC will enhance our ability to develop cell therapy protocols to promote the function of these cells. Moreover, novel IS agents may be designed to target RMC in situ to promote Ag-specific immune regulation in transplantation and usher in a new era of immune modulation exploiting cells of myeloid origin. PMID:24092382

  20. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  1. Regulatory Commission of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Map Help Regulatory Commission of Alaska Login Forgot Password Arrow Image Forgot password? View Cart login Procedures for Requesting Login For Consumers General Information Telephone Electric Natural Gas

  2. The Tumorigenic Roles of the Cellular REDOX Regulatory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Anaís Castaldo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular REDOX regulatory systems play a central role in maintaining REDOX homeostasis that is crucial for cell integrity, survival, and proliferation. To date, a substantial amount of data has demonstrated that cancer cells typically undergo increasing oxidative stress as the tumor develops, upregulating these important antioxidant systems in order to survive, proliferate, and metastasize under these extreme oxidative stress conditions. Since a large number of chemotherapeutic agents currently used in the clinic rely on the induction of ROS overload or change of ROS quality to kill the tumor, the cancer cell REDOX adaptation represents a significant obstacle to conventional chemotherapy. In this review we will first examine the different factors that contribute to the enhanced oxidative stress generally observed within the tumor microenvironment. We will then make a comprehensive assessment of the current literature regarding the main antioxidant proteins and systems that have been shown to be positively associated with tumor progression and chemoresistance. Finally we will make an analysis of commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs that induce ROS. The current knowledge of cancer cell REDOX adaptation raises the issue of developing novel and more effective therapies for these tumors that are usually resistant to conventional ROS inducing chemotherapy.

  3. Investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Jonathan O; Fitzsimons, Edward J; Griffiths, William Jh; Tsochatzis, Emmanouil; Thomas, D Wayne

    2018-05-01

    Serum ferritin level is one of the most commonly requested investigations in both primary and secondary care. Whilst low serum ferritin levels invariably indicate reduced iron stores, raised serum ferritin levels can be due to multiple different aetiologies, including iron overload, inflammation, liver or renal disease, malignancy, and the recently described metabolic syndrome. A key test in the further investigation of an unexpected raised serum ferritin is the serum transferrin saturation. This guideline reviews the investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin level. The investigation and management of genetic haemochromatosis is not dealt with however and is the subject of a separate guideline. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to clay seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2007-01-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to

  5. Message design strategies to raise public awareness of social determinants of health and population health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A

    2008-09-01

    Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.

  6. More Proficient vs. Less Proficient EFL Learners’ Perceptions of Teachers ‘Motivation Raising Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Yousefi

    2022-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivation raising strategies are frequently used in English as a Foreign Language (EFL classes; nevertheless, learners’ perceptions of such strategies used by language teachers have not sufficiently been explored. Also, there are not enough studies on differences and similarities between more and less proficient EFL learners regarding this issue. To scrutinize this topic, a groups of more (No=50 and less proficient EFL learners (No=50 participated in this study by completing to a validated, researcher-made questionnaire with a five-point Likert type format. Non-parametric Mann-Whiteny U test was run in the SPSS ver. 23 to check the differences between the two groups. The results of the study verified that, regardless of each individual scale in the utilized questionnaire, overall, the more proficient ones manifested significantly less perceptions on teachers’ motivation raising strategies based on the total estimated mean ranks compared with the less proficient learners.  However, within the surveyed scales, only in the classroom atmosphere scale, the results showed that the less proficient learners were more mindful of teacher strategies for motivation raising. The findings from this study have implications for motivation raising strategy instructions for a language classroom.

  7. Identity Management issues in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Smita; Mann, Deep

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is providing a low cost on demand services to the users, omnipresent network,large storage capacity due to these features of cloud computing web applications are moving towards the cloud and due to this migration of the web application,cloud computing platform is raised many issues like privacy, security etc. Privacy issue are major concern for the cloud computing. Privacy is to preserve the sensitive information of the cloud consumer and the major issues to the privacy are un...

  8. A study on technical issues of materials and design bases in ASME section III subsection NH code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Yoo, Bong

    2000-12-01

    In this study, an analysis of evaluation report by ORNL on the technical issues of elevated temperatures design guide line, ASME Code Section III Subsection NH was conducted and a brief evaluation procedure of the creep-fatigue damage was presented. ORNL published the report in 1993 and reviewed the issue areas where code rules or regulatory guides may be lacking or inadequate to ensure safe operation over the expected life cycles for liquid metal reactor systems. From historical viewpoint of the ASME NH code development, ASME Code Case 47 was changed much in 1989 edition, which includes the stress relaxation behavior in creep damage evaluation. Afterwards the 1992 version of CC N-47 was upgraded to Subsection NH in 1995 edition, which is the same with that of CC N-47 1992 edition except few material data. This report brings up the technical and regulatory issues that can not guarantee the safe and reliable operation of the ALMR which got the conceptual design certification from NRC. Twenty three technical issues were raised and settlement methodology were proposed. Additionally, the status of items approved by ASME code subgroup of elevated temperature design committee for the revision of the most recent 1998 edition of ASME NH was described

  9. Participatory workplace wellness programs: reward, penalty, and regulatory conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: Workplace wellness programs that provide incentives for completing a health risk assessment are a form of participatory programs. There are legal and ethical concerns when employers assess penalties for not completing a health risk assessment, raising questions about the voluntariness of such a program. The Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services' 2013 regulations for participatory programs and employers' current practices conflict with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's prevailing interpretation of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. In keeping with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Congress revised the law related to workplace wellness programs. In June 2013, the Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services passed the final regulations, updating their 2006 regulatory framework. Participatory programs that reward the completion of a health risk assessment are now the most common type of wellness program in the United States. However, legal and ethical concerns emerge when employers utilize incentives that raise questions about the voluntariness of such programs. At issue is that under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, employers cannot require health-related inquiries and exams. To analyze the current interpretation of the ADA, I conducted research on both LexisNexis and federal agency websites. The resulting article evaluates the differences in the language of Congress's enabling legislation and the federal departments' regulations and how they may conflict with the ADA. It also reviews the federal government's authority to address both the legal conflict and ethical concerns related to nonvoluntary participatory programs. Employers' practices and the federal departments' regulations conflict with the current interpretation of the ADA by permitting employers to penalize employees who do not complete a health risk assessment. The departments' regulations may be

  10. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  11. Environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove-White, Robin

    1985-01-01

    There is still very little official acceptance that environmental factors will impose major constraints on the development of energy supply options in the United Kingdom in the future. This paper argues that such an acceptance is needed urgently and should begin to affect governmental policies immediately. UK energy policy ought to be to intensify energy efficiency and conservation throughout the economy and hence reduce the need to expand new supply sources. The general energy requirements in the UK are first considered. Problems of energy supply expansion, particularly nuclear power and coal are considered. Resolution of the problems identified in the UK political and administrative context is discussed. Then the environmental aspects are considered. A comment on the paper follows and raises two questions about market-based energy policy; does it preclude intervention to promote economic efficiency in the use of energy and, does it lead to economic efficiency. (U.K.)

  12. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? Can some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  13. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  14. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  15. Evaluation of the use of snowplowable raised pavement markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of snowplowable raised pavement markers (RPM) installed on the RPM system in Kentucky. The durability evaluation dealt wit the marker housing. : The data show that continued...

  16. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  17. Government grant control of development of stock-raising

    OpenAIRE

    SAMOYLIK YU.V.

    2012-01-01

    Directions of improvement of mechanism of government grant control of development of stock-raising are offered on the basis of the educed tendencies and conformities to law in the existent system of sponsorship of industry.

  18. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  19. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  20. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  1. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against...... that obtained with the most avid conventional gastrin antibodies. The results may encourage similar approaches for other peptides using homologue-raised antibodies when supersensitivity is required....

  2. Raised Plasma Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Ulrik; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Soeby-Rasmussen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow......-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt...

  3. THE EXCEPTION OF UNCONSTITUTIONALITY RAISED BEFORE AN INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen HURUBÃ; Luminita GABURA

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper work is to determine whether the Constitutional Court of Romania could be notified by international tribunals in relation to cases tried under Romanian law. On 5 March 2013 the Constitutional Court of Romania decided, for the first time, on a case concerning an exception of unconstitutionality raised before an international tribunal of commercial arbitration. The exception of unconstitutionality of a Government Emergency Ordinance was raised in an arbitration case pe...

  4. Regulatory Risk Management of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Glenn R.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory risk reflects both the likelihood of adverse outcomes during regulatory interactions and the severity of those outcomes. In the arena of advanced nuclear power plant licensing and construction, such adverse outcomes may include, for example, required design changes and construction delays. These, in turn, could significantly affect the economics of the plant and the generation portfolio in which it will operate. In this paper, the author addresses these issues through the lens of risk management. The paper considers various tools and techniques of regulatory risk management, including design diversity and hedging strategies. The effectiveness of alternate approaches is weighed and recommendations are made in several regulatory contexts. (author)

  5. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  6. Regulatory guidelines for biosimilars in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Arpah

    2011-09-01

    The biosimilars sector continues to attract huge interest and controversy. Biosimilars are new biopharmaceuticals that are "similar" but not identical to the innovator product. Characteristics of biopharmaceuticals are closely related to the manufacturing process, which implies that the products cannot be exactly duplicated. Minuscule differences in the product's structure and manufacturing process can result in different clinical outcome. This raises concerns over the safety, efficacy and even pharmacovigilance of biosimilars. Thus, biosimilars are unique - they are not a true chemical generic and are regulated via a distinct regulatory framework. This report discusses the features of Malaysian regulatory oversight of biosimilars and experience acquired in the evaluation of some products from various countries. Ensuring regulatory position adequately reflects scientific advancement, expertise/resources is key. The regulatory situation is an evolving process. Various guidance documents are being prepared with the aim of developing a uniform global framework towards assuring the dual goal of lower costs and patient safety while expediting the availability of important biosimilar products. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Regulatory Powers in Public Procurement Law of Peruvian Administrative Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Morón Urbina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peruvian law has explicitly recognized regulatory powers to administrative agencies, which allows them to have a preponderant role in the production of rules in public procurement. Although these delegations of legislative authority are positively defined, distortions in the system of legal sources arise when agencies exceed delegated powers or when measures issued by administrative entities are mistaken for regulations. This paper aims to identify regulatory powers of Peruvian administrative agencies, as well as the regulatory measures they issue, and their relation with other sources of law.

  8. Accounting-related transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, M.; Bjorn, P.; Pate, G.

    1999-01-01

    Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented

  9. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  10. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  11. Regulatory affairs for biomaterials and medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Amato, Stephen F; Amato, B

    2015-01-01

    All biomaterials and medical devices are subject to a long list of regulatory practises and policies which must be adhered to in order to receive clearance. This book provides readers with information on the systems in place in the USA and the rest of the world. Chapters focus on a series of procedures and policies including topics such as commercialization, clinical development, general good practise manufacturing and post market surveillance.Addresses global regulations and regulatory issues surrounding biomaterials and medical devicesEspecially useful for smaller co

  12. Needs of research for regulatory purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.

    2010-01-01

    Hans Wanner, Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), presented a general overview of regulatory research at the international level based on a preliminary input from international colleagues and observed that the question of active involvement of nuclear regulatory and supervisory bodies in R and D projects has become a topic of increasing interest in recent years even if the way in which research is included in regulatory activities varies from country to country. The range spans from countries with no regulatory R and D activities to countries with extensive activities that are often carried out by independent research organisations acting on behalf of the regulatory body. In a few countries, the regulator and implementer have their research carried out by the same research institutes. As an example H. Wanner explained the organisation of R and D work in Switzerland. He presented the potential merits of R and D work carried out by the regulator and introduced a number of questions that would gain from being addressed at an international level. He stressed that the R and D work performed by the implementer must be comprehensive and there should be, in principle, no need for complementary work by the regulatory body. Nevertheless, R and D work of the regulator has still several merits. It improves the regulator's necessary competence to review the safety case allowing it to rely on the scientific community. It provides the regulator's independence, allowing a different view on the safety case from the implementer's view. By bringing to the fore the scientific and technical ability of the regulator, R and D work by the regulator provides additional confidence to the stakeholders in the credibility of the regulator. There may exist further motivations for the regulator to carry out its own R and D projects, among which is the verification of key safety issues or the investigation of topics not addressed by the implementer, i.e., to fill scientific gaps. The

  13. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  14. Regulatory and technical reports compilation for 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliu, W.E.; McKenzi, L.

    1981-04-01

    This compilation lists formal regulatory and technical reports and conference proceedings issued in 1980 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The compilation is divided into four major sections. The first major section consists of a sequential listing of all NRC reports in report-number order. The second major section of this compilation consists of a key-word index to report titles. The third major section contains an alphabetically arranged listing of contractor report numbers cross-referenced to their corresponding NRC report numbers. Finally, the fourth section is an errata supplement

  15. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff and its contractors. There are four types of reports included: staff reports, conference reports, contractor reports, and international agreement reports. In addition to the main citations with abstracts, the following are also included: Secondary report number index; Personal author index; Subject index; NRC originating organization indices for staff reports and international agreement reports; NRC contract sponsor index; Contractor index; International organization index; and Licensed facility index

  16. Nuclear economics: Issues and facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear economics has become on the more prominent topics related to nuclear power. Beyond the subjects of nuclear safety and waste disposal, questions and concerns of nuclear power economics have emerged with growing frequency in utility board rooms, in state and federal regulatory proceedings, and in the media. What has caused nuclear power economics to become such a popular topic? This paper addresses issues and facts related to historical nuclear plant costs, new nuclear plant projections, and warning signals for future plants

  17. 75 FR 51147 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... ``participation in a public offering'' means for purposes of the Rule and suggested an alternative definition... understood and that the alternative definition suggested by the commenter would be an inappropriate narrowing... underwriter'' under the Rule. FINRA recognized the issue raised by the commenter and stated their intention to...

  18. 78 FR 61999 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD13-9-000] Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Supplemental Notice of Workshop As announced in the Notices issued on September 3, 2013 and September 18, 2013, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission...

  19. High-risk medical devices, children and the FDA: regulatory challenges facing pediatric mechanical circulatory support devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Christopher S D; Chen, Eric A; Berman, Michael R; Less, Joanne R; Baldwin, J Timothy; Linde-Feucht, Sarah R; Hoke, Tracey R; Pearson, Gail D; Jenkins, Kathy; Duncan, Brian W; Zuckerman, Bram D

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric mechanical circulatory support is a critical unmet need in the United States. Infant- and child-sized ventricular assist devices are currently being developed largely through federal contracts and grants through the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Human testing and marketing of high-risk devices for children raises epidemiologic and regulatory issues that will need to be addressed. Leaders from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), NHLBI, academic pediatric community, and industry convened in January 2006 for the first FDA Workshop on the Regulatory Process for Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices. The purpose was to provide the pediatric community with an overview of the federal regulatory process for high-risk medical devices and to review the challenges specific to the development and regulation of pediatric mechanical circulatory support devices. Pediatric mechanical circulatory support present significant epidemiologic, logistic, and financial challenges to industry, federal regulators, and the pediatric community. Early interactions with the FDA, shared appreciation of challenges, and careful planning will be critical to avoid unnecessary delays in making potentially life-saving devices available for children. Collaborative efforts to address these challenges are warranted.

  20. Regulatory guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM's evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7

  1. The application of RFIDs in libraries : an assessment of technological, management and professional issues

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, Forbes; Thornley, Clare V.; Ferguson, Stuart; Weckert, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts by outlining the technologies involved in RFIDs and reviews the issues raised by their general application. It then identifies their potential application areas within the library sector based on a generic process view of library activities. Finally it highlights the issues that are raised by their application in libraries and provides an assessment of which of these issues are likely to raise ethical concerns for library professionals. The purpose is to provide an overview ...

  2. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  3. Regulatory aspects of the Leak Before Break application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.; Vojvodic Tuma, J.

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper the Leak Before Break (LBB) methodology is described on the way, as it was evaluated in Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration in the process of the nuclear power plant (NPP) Krsko modernization process. In the recent decade, reviewed regulatory position regarding elimination the dynamic effects of the postulated primary coolant pipe ruptures in some countries was issued. The basis for such new approach are research achievements on different areas of science like metallurgy, fracture mechanics, dynamic analysis and testing of materials. By this new regulatory position the utility has the possibility to adopt LBB concept, but has to fulfill at least general prerequisites, described in standard review plan, where the basic principles and objectives of the evaluation process are described. World wide practice shows that more intensive and detailed evaluation is necessary as it is described in the standard review plan. The concerns and requests raising during evaluation of the consequences of the adopted LBB concept have generally some common points comparing regulatory experience of different countries which have already accepted this methodology or are currently under the process of evaluation. But nevertheless every nuclear power plant is unique, comparing specific material properties, dynamic analysis assumptions, safety analyses performed etc. One of the most important areas in the LBB evaluation process is reliable primary piping material evaluation. Several generic material studies were performed and the applicability of these studies for the justification of LBB has to be carefully performed. Elimination of the double ended guillotine break from the safety analysis has very strong impact to the safety analysis results and finally to the structures, systems and components too. Nuclear safety administration has made a lot of effort to make its position on this methodology clear. The expertise of the authorized institutions is in such process

  4. Year 2000 disclosure issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, N.; Kratz, M.P.J. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The legal dilemma that the year 2000 (Y2K) problem presents with regard to disclosure requirements is examined. In particular, this paper reviews the complexities involved for customers, suppliers and business partners to communicate about Y2K issues. The review prominently features the many levels of statutory, regulatory and legal overlay that must be considered before any communication takes place . One of the major barriers to disclosure is the threat that any statements made by one company or individual to another may give rise to various forms of liability, including limitation, defamation, misrepresentation, detrimental reliance, collateral contracts and warranties or representations. The paper also describes recent Canadian and U.S. Y2K disclosure requirements for public companies. While the legislation is intended to promote the voluntary sharing of Y2K information, it also sets out conditions limiting the extent to which Y2K statements can be used as the basis for liability. Canadian regulatory bodies also have several policies in effect that compel issuers of new securities to emphasize uncertainties which are likely to be factors in Y2K, and public companies to discuss and analyze risks, events and uncertainties within the management discussion and analysis section of their annual reports that would cause reported financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or conditions, should those uncertainties materialize. 8 refs.

  5. Year 2000 disclosure issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; Kratz, M.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The legal dilemma that the year 2000 (Y2K) problem presents with regard to disclosure requirements is examined. In particular, this paper reviews the complexities involved for customers, suppliers and business partners to communicate about Y2K issues. The review prominently features the many levels of statutory, regulatory and legal overlay that must be considered before any communication takes place . One of the major barriers to disclosure is the threat that any statements made by one company or individual to another may give rise to various forms of liability, including limitation, defamation, misrepresentation, detrimental reliance, collateral contracts and warranties or representations. The paper also describes recent Canadian and U.S. Y2K disclosure requirements for public companies. While the legislation is intended to promote the voluntary sharing of Y2K information, it also sets out conditions limiting the extent to which Y2K statements can be used as the basis for liability. Canadian regulatory bodies also have several policies in effect that compel issuers of new securities to emphasize uncertainties which are likely to be factors in Y2K, and public companies to discuss and analyze risks, events and uncertainties within the management discussion and analysis section of their annual reports that would cause reported financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or conditions, should those uncertainties materialize. 8 refs

  6. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal). Compilation for third quarter 1985, July-September. Volume 10, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal Regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. This compilation covers the period from July through September, 1985

  7. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  8. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  9. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  10. Regulatory Review of Early Site Permit Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received and is reviewing three applications for early site permits (ESPs). The ESP process allows early resolution of site-related issues affecting possible construction and operation of a new nuclear power plant. The nuclear industry views a successful and predictable ESP process as an important step in assessing whether to seek authorization to construct and operate a new generation of nuclear power reactors in the United States. Because consideration of ESP applications is a first-of-a-kind activity, a number of issues have emerged prior to and during the reviews of the first three applications. Issues have included the need for design information at the ESP stage, accident analyses, quality assurance, and seismic analyses. The NRC has been working to resolve identified issues to support a Commission decision on whether to issue an ESP approximately 33-37 months after receipt of each ESP application. (authors)

  11. Aggregate analysis of regulatory authority assessors' comments to improve the quality of periodic safety update reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullian, Sandra; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Pfannkuche, Hans-Jürgen; Parker, Jeremy; Lalande-Luesink, Isabelle; Lewis, David J; Close, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Marketing authorization holders (MAHs) are expected to provide high-quality periodic safety update reports (PSURs) on their pharmaceutical products to health authorities (HAs). We present a novel instrument aiming at improving quality of PSURs based on standardized analysis of PSUR assessment reports (ARs) received from the European Union HAs across products and therapeutic areas. All HA comments were classified into one of three categories: "Request for regulatory actions," "Request for medical and scientific information," or "Data deficiencies." The comments were graded according to their impact on patients' safety, the drug's benefit-risk profile, and the MAH's pharmacovigilance system. A total of 476 comments were identified through the analysis of 63 PSUR HA ARs received in 2013 and 2014; 47 (10%) were classified as "Requests for regulatory actions," 309 (65%) as "Requests for medical and scientific information," and 118 (25%) comments were related to "Data deficiencies." The most frequent comments were requests for labeling changes (35 HA comments in 19 ARs). The aggregate analysis revealed commonly raised issues and prompted changes of the MAH's procedures related to the preparation of PSURs. The authors believe that this novel instrument based on the evaluation of PSUR HA ARs serves as a valuable mechanism to enhance the quality of PSURs and decisions about optimization of the use of the products and, therefore, contributes to improve further the MAH's pharmacovigilance system and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Regulatory Activities for Licensee's Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2008-01-01

    Weaknesses in safety culture have contributed to a number of incidents/accidents in the nuclear and other high hazard sectors worldwide in the past. These events have fostered an increasing awareness of the need for licensees to develop a strong safety culture to support successful and sustainable nuclear safety performance. Regulatory bodies are taking a growing interest in this issue, and several are actively working to develop and implement approaches to maintaining regulatory oversight of licensee safety culture. However, these approaches are not yet well-established, and it was considered prudent to share experiences and developing methodologies in order to disseminate good practices and avoid potential pitfalls. This paper presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations of international meetings and other countries' activities on safety culture and gives some suggestions for regulators to consider when planning regulatory oversight for licensee's safety culture

  13. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai [Department of Regional Studies in Humanity and Social Sciences, National Hsin-Chu University of Education, No. 521 Nan-Da Road, Hsin-Chu 300 (China); Hebenton, Bill [School of Law, University of Manchester, M13 9PP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  14. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    - Poland: Organisation and structure; 7 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation, Nuclear security (Entry into force of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; Act No. 91/2016 Coll. on Criminal Responsibility of Legal Persons), Liability and compensation (Newly adopted Civil Procedural Code); 8 - Slovenia: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - including nuclear emergency planning (Decree on the program of the systematic monitoring of working and living environments and raising awareness about measures to reduce public exposure to natural radiation sources; Rules on authorised experts for radiation and nuclear safety); 9 - United States: General legislation, regulations and instruments (Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved a final rule amending licensing, inspection and annual fee regulations to establish a variable annual fee structure for light-water small modular reactors)

  15. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  16. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  17. Through the regulatory hoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    There are many regulatory hoops through which waste generators, brokers, and disposal site operators must jump to dispose of waste safely. As the proposed exclusionary date of January 1, 1986, approaches, these regulatory hoops have the distinct possibility of multiplying or at least changing shape. The state of Washington, in its role as an Agreement State with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, licenses and inspects the commercial operator of the Northwest Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal site on the Hanford Reservation. Washington has received as much as 53%, or 1.4 million cubic feet per year, of the nation's total volume of waste disposed. To control such a large volume of waste, a regulatory program involving six agencies has developed over the years in Washington

  18. Perspectives: Using Historical Documents To Think about NIF Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of using historical documents in the classroom is to generate and enhance discussion by providing a historical perspective for issues. Five documents are included in this packet and are to be used as a supplemental material for the National Issues Forum (NIF) topics. Issues raised include (1) an analysis of the documents and (2)…

  19. Regulatory limits in radiation injury cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoff, G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in the application of the principles of tort, and the impact of governmental regulations on tort law in the U.S.A. are summarised in relation to the following 1979 events raising the issue of liability for radiation injuries: Three Mile Island accident, the Karen Silkwood trial, nuclear weapons testing exposure cases, the use of uranium tailings in residential construction, and radon gas collected in old copper mines. (U.K.)

  20. Regulatory and standard issues on hydrogen in 2009. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigreat, Delphine

    2009-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of the French and European regulations and standards regarding the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. The European and French regulations concern hydrogen production, storage and use on site and in transports of hazardous goods, the homologation of hydrogen powered vehicles, or the transport of hydrogen in ducts. Some standards are presented. A comparison is proposed between France and Germany, other European countries and the USA