WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulations requiring environmental

  1. Review of orders and regulations requiring environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.; Cunningham, R.; Michael, D.

    1996-01-01

    With the increased awareness of and interest in potential ecological risks associated with past, current, and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities, DOE's Defense Programs (DP) Office of Technical and Environmental Support sponsored a study to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the current compliance-driven environmental protection and assessment efforts relative to ecological concerns; (2) explore the need for a more focused, integrated approach to address ecological impacts; and (3) identify the requirements for an integrated approach. The study explored four questions. (a) Which federal regulations and DOE orders either explicitly require ecological assessments or implicitly require them through environmental protection language? (b) What currently is being done at selected DOE facilities to implement these regulations and orders? (c) What are private sector industries doing in terms of ecological risk assessments and how do industry approaches and issues compare with those of DOE? (d) What, if anything, in addition to current efforts is needed to ensure the protection of ecological resources associated with DOE facilities, to support defensible decision making, and to improve efficiency? The results of this study are presented in a report titled open-quotes Integrated, Comprehensive Ecological Impact Assessments In Support of Department of Energy Decision Makingclose quotes. This report is a companion document to that report. This report provides a more detailed discussion of the document reviews of the relevant environmental protection regulations and current and pending DOE orders. The main goal of the document reviews was to understand existing requirements for ecological data collection and impact assessments

  2. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  3. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all SST and DST waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm ESD implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  6. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  7. Environmental regulation and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena

  8. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  9. Current environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the Federal environmental statutes and implementation regulations is provided, including the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Endangered Species Act. Recent developments which may have a direct impact on waste repository siting and management activities include: final promulgation of National Emission Standards for hazardous Air Pollutants for radionuclides, the DOE-EPA memorandum of understanding which brings mixed radioactive and chemical waste under the requirements of RCRA, and the proposed designation of additional sole source aquifers

  10. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: A review of requirements for biological information in federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Biological information concerning Yucca Mountain collected since 1980 is evaluated to determine if it is sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the various federal, state, and local laws and regulations that pertain to environmental protection or to development of waste repositories. The pertinent requirements of each law are summarized, missing information is identified, and recommendations are made for studies to fill these gaps. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Environmental regulation of lateral root emergence in Medicago truncatula requires the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Federico; Diet, Anouck; Verdenaud, Marion; Gruber, Véronique; Frugier, Florian; Chan, Raquel; Crespi, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The adaptation of root architecture to environmental constraints is a major agricultural trait, notably in legumes, the third main crop worldwide. This root developmental plasticity depends on the formation of lateral roots (LRs) emerging from primary roots. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1 is expressed in primary and lateral root meristems and induced by salt stress. Constitutive expression of HB1 in M. truncatula roots alters their architecture, whereas hb1 TILLING mutants showed increased lateral root emergence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, promoter mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays revealed that HB1 directly recognizes a CAATAATTG cis-element present in the promoter of a LOB-like (for Lateral Organ Boundaries) gene, LBD1, transcriptionally regulated by auxin. Expression of these genes in response to abscisic acid and auxin and their behavior in hb1 mutants revealed an HB1-mediated repression of LBD1 acting during LR emergence. M. truncatula HB1 regulates an adaptive developmental response to minimize the root surface exposed to adverse environmental stresses.

  12. Environmental regulation and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of ´dirty´ domestic industries, and as a result, ´pollution havens´ emerge in countries where environmental

  13. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  14. Frontiers of environmental regulation: environmental management systems: a regulator`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.J. [South Australian Dept. of Mines and Energy, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Leading edge companies throughout the world have embraced management systems to achieve optimal sustainable performance in the ever changing business environment of the 1990s. Given that the natural environment and environmental performance have become major issues affecting organizations, the need for integrating environmental management with all the other components of an organization`s overall management approach is now widely recognized. This paper is organized in five parts. The first explores recently released environmental standards, the interim environmental management systems (EMS) general guidelines standard AS/NZS ISO 14004 (Int) and identifies how this has dealt with the regulator/community/company interface. The second identifies company requirements for addressing environmental issues. The third, considers regulatory theory to identify current requirements for an effective regulatory system and how this can interface with a company`s EMS. These form the basis in the fourth section for identifying some opportunities which occur at the company/ regulator interface. The fifth and final section draws a number of conclusions about the current frontiers of environmental regulation. The coincidence of the requirements of a regulatory framework with the areas of interface between what is referred to in the draft International Standard for EMS as `Interested Parties`, the regulators and community, are identified. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 20 refs.

  15. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, M.P.; Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B.

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them

  16. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.P. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B. [Spears and Associates, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them.

  17. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  18. Environmental considerations and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Methods used to control the radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle are described. This control is exercised through the application of a series of federal laws and regulations that are used as the basis for licensing nuclear facilities. The control is exercised more directly by the use of radwaste treatment equipment at the nuclear facilities to limit the release of radioactive materials. Federal laws and regulations are summarized and their applications in licensing actions are discussed. Radiological doses from materials released from licensed facilities are compared with doses from natural background. A series of cost/benefit engineering surveys are being made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radwaste systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model fuel cycle facilities and to determine the benefits in terms of reduction in dose commitment to individuals and populations in surrounding areas

  19. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the environmental...

  20. Environmental Regulation and International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulatu, A. [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of 'dirty' domestic industries, and as a result, 'pollution havens' emerge in countries where environmental regulation is 'over-lax.' We examine the impact of pollution abatement and control costs on net exports in order to grasp this phenomenon. Theoretically, our analysis is related to a general equilibrium model of trade and pollution nesting the pollution haven motive for trade with the factor endowment motive. We analyze data on two-digit ISIC manufacturing industries during the period 1977-1992 in Germany, the Netherlands and the US, and show that trade patterns in 'dirty' commodities are jointly determined by relative factor endowments and environmental stringency differentials.

  1. Information, Interests, and Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination of informa......This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination...... of information processing and interest group literatures, we develop hypotheses about regulatees' reliance upon and the influence of different sources of information. We test these hypotheses for Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental rules. Our findings show that information plays a role in bringing...

  2. Environmental impact statement requirements for CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciurciolo, Melisa N.; Mender, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the legal framework on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regarding the activities of the National Atomic Energy Commission (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), and particularly, the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements of CNEA (PN-PR-027). According to the distribution of powers stated in article 41 of the National Constitution, the environmental legal framework is constituted by National minimum standards for environmental protection and complementary provincial and municipal regulations. As a result, the EIA legal framework is not uniform across the Nation, and therefore, it differs according to the jurisdiction in which the activity subject to EIA is developed. Notwithstanding, the General Statute of the Environment (25.675) requires EIA for any project or activity developed in the National territory, which may cause a significant degradation to the environment, any of its components, or affect the populations' quality of life in a significant way. Since CNEA develops activities along the National territory, it is not possible to determine a uniform legal EIA framework for the entire Institution. Consequently, the binding requirements for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of CNEA activities differ among the activities developed in the different locations and atomic centers. In order to achieve a uniform environmental performance in CNEA, it has been considered necessary to uniform, in the internal sphere, the binding requirements for EIS, by means of a procedure written within the framework of the Environmental Management System of the Institution. The purpose of the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements is to determine the requirements to be complied by the atomic centers, locations and enterprises associated with CNEA, regarding EIS Management. This Procedure shall apply to those projects and activities subjected to EIA, according to a

  3. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance

  4. 40 CFR 63.312 - Existing regulations and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing regulations and requirements. 63.312 Section 63.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.312 Existing regulations and requirements. (a) The...

  5. Retooling for new environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is subject to regulations which require better management of emissions. This presentation discussed those regulations that dealt specifically with gasoline and diesel fuels and how they impact on vehicle emissions. The review showed that since 1975 the average fuel economy and improvements in tailpipe emissions for a light duty vehicle has increased significantly. Nitrogen oxide emissions were reduced by 94 per cent, carbon monoxide emissions were reduced by 96 per cent, and hydrocarbon emissions from tailpipes were reduced by 98 per cent. The phase-out of lead in fuel formulations, the controversy over the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT and a major study underway investigating the reduction of sulphur in gasoline, were also discussed. Future developments in regulations are likely to include capture of vapour emissions, mandatory inspection and maintenance programs, remote sensing of tailpipe emissions, and scrapping of old high emitting vehicles.5 figs

  6. 22 CFR 161.11 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements. 161.11 Section 161.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Coordination of Other Requirements... comments. (d) Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 16 U.S.C. 661 et seq. (e) Section 309 of the Clean Air...

  7. Manual: environmental impact statement and intervention regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, K.

    1992-01-01

    In order to be able to fulfil also legally the important tasks of environmental protection and natural preservation in the last ten years numerous legal provisions have been issued. Many of these laws require that the environmental impact of projects and constructional measures is taken into account to a higher degree. Two important instruments in this connection are the impact statement and the intervention regulation of natural preservation. Their importance and consequences for the planning and realization of projects are until now not sufficiently know. This manual is to fill this gap. This booklet shall help builder-owners and investors to realize their building projects in a way which is compatible with the environment. For architects and planners information is given in this manual about the requirements to be fulfilled in the individual planning and licensing procedures. The booklet is structured in a way that builder-owners, consultants and authorities find quickly the information needed. (orig./KW) [de

  8. Environmental regulations and their effects on the nuclear regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental regulations are discussed from the point of view of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The AECB's mission includes the environment, namely 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose any undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment'. The regulatory process was governed by the Atomic Energy Control Act, which at the time of the conference was outdated and due for replacement by a new version, and by the Environmental Assessment and Review Process Guidelines Order, which was due to be replaced by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, still not in force at the time of the conference. Through court decisions, the Guidelines Order had effectively acquired statutory authority. Public hearings and review can result in some considerable delay to the approval of a project, yet the AECB has no choice but to ensure that the requirements of the Guidelines Order are fulfilled. Collaboration between the federal and provincial governments is very evident in Saskatchewan. Of six mining projects being considered by the AECB, five were being reviewed by a joint federal provincial panel. For the future, it was hoped that the new Atomic Energy Control Act would increase fines and the powers of inspectors, require financial guarantees for decommissioning, regularize cooperation with the provinces, and empower the AECB to hold hearings that could effectively substitute for those prescribed by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act

  9. Environmental regulation and technological innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, A.E. [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Pittsburg, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Government policies are a major factor in the determination of structural conditions of competition. The innovative activity comprises the following: invention, adoption, and diffusion. Invention involves research and development activities such as patenting, research and development budgets. The adoption phase is concerned with deployment. As for the diffusion phase, it involves commercialization, and scale-economies. The process of introducing new technologies that are adopted by small numbers of customers in a niche market was explained. Once costs are lowered through experience gained in designing, manufacturing and servicing the new technology, mew applications generally lead to larger markets. Environmental technologies have no early adopters, implying that governments have an important role to play. However, commercial processes are not normally as well known to government as it is to the private sector. The electoral cycle also interferes with long term research and development efforts for technological clusters. A look at sulphur dioxide control at United States power plants illustrated the problem. The author then explained the reasons behind low allowance prices. Low-sulphur western coal was rendered economic in large areas of the United States by rail deregulation. Electricity restructuring was also a factor. The author indicated that binding government regulation must come before adoption and diffusion of emission controls. A summary of recent research was provided, in which the author stated that no single policy instrument was likely to properly stimulate innovative activity. In those cases where both supply and demand are stimulated by government, the technological innovation is greatest. Stringent regulations induce innovation, as do greater flexibility and greater regulatory certainty. Knowledge transfer within the industry is vital. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  10. 24 CFR 1000.18 - What environmental review requirements apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What environmental review requirements apply? 1000.18 Section 1000.18 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.18 What environmental...

  11. Environmentally Regulated Facilities in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A unique record for each facility site with an environmental interest by DNR (such as permits). This brings together core environmental information in one place for...

  12. Harnessing science for environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    An introductory chapter by Graham frames the issues to be discussed; then the following three chapters describe the formation and character of three organizations. These chapters are written by authors who have each had an active management role in the organization they are writing about: Terry F. Yosie, now at the American Petroleum Institute, who staffed the SAB (Science Advisory Board) while he was at EPA; Robert A. Neal, who headed CIIT (Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology) before leaving for a position at Vanderbilt University; and Thomas P. Grumbly, former executive director of HEI (Health Effects Institute) now president of Clean Sites, Inc. While these chapters are well written and make a vital contribution to the overall development of the book's themes, the most valuable and enjoyable parts of the book are the succeeding five chapters, which present case studies dealing with EPA's regulatory efforts on unleaded gasoline, perchloroethylene, formaldehyde, nitrates in drinking water, and carbon monoxide. Each of these case studies, nominally historical accounts of how one or more of these (three) organizations participated in the regulatory controversy, offer insight into the broader issues of dealing with, and incorporating into regulations scientific information that has high uncertainty. One of the richest aspects of the five case studies is the extensive use of referenced interviews with identified participants from all aspects of the regulatory process. This material illuminates the motivation, emotions, and goals of the different players, helping the reader to understand their positions and other issues, such as why industry pursues, and EPA and the environmental movement appear to resist, good science; what underlies EPA's preferences for one regulatory option over another; and why scientists are histant to give yes-or-no answers in accord with the real time needs of the regulatory agency

  13. Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    What role should governments play in protecting the environment and controlling the environmental impacts of industry? Do regulations benefit the environment, and how do they affect industrial innovation? Since the modern era of environmental management began in the early 1970s, regulations have been used with ...

  14. Environmental regulation in a network of simulated microbial ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Hywel T. P.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Earth possesses a number of regulatory feedback mechanisms involving life. In the absence of a population of competing biospheres, it has proved hard to find a robust evolutionary mechanism that would generate environmental regulation. It has been suggested that regulation must require altruistic environmental alterations by organisms and, therefore, would be evolutionarily unstable. This need not be the case if organisms alter the environment as a selectively neutral by-product of their ...

  15. 10 CFR 51.94 - Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to consider final environmental impact...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.94 Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement. The final environmental impact statement...

  16. New HCFA regulations clarify PSO requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T H

    1998-06-01

    In March and April of 1998, HCFA promulgated regulations regarding various requirements for provider-sponsored organizations (PSOs). These regulations define what constitutes an affiliated provider to a PSO, identify what percentage of services must be provided directly to beneficiaries by PSO affiliated providers, define what constitutes provider ownership in a PSO, and set minimum capitalization and liquidity standards for PSOs.

  17. The 2010 amendments to the environmental emergency regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, E.; Ketcheson, K.; Shrives, J.; Hradecky, K.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gave notice of amendments to the Environmental Emergency Regulations, pursuant to section 200 of the 1999 Canadian Environmental Protection Act. At the time of publication, the Regulations required the development and implementation of environmental emergency plans for 174 substances with associated thresholds that, if released to the environment, could harm human health or environmental quality. Substances of concern, including CEPA toxic substances are reviewed regularly by the Environmental Emergencies Division of Environment Canada to determine whether they should be added to the Regulations. An evaluation of substances has been completed and, as a result, 33 new substances have been proposed to be added to the Regulations. Thirty are known CEPA toxics and the other 3 are substances of concern, notably acetic acid, ammonium nitrate and styrene. These substances of concern are considered to pose an unacceptable level of risk from their release and would require environmental emergency planning. This paper also identified the substances from the Chemicals Management Plan that have been evaluated using environmental criteria and have been found to be candidates for possible future addition to the Regulations. The process used to determine regulated threshold quantities was also described. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations......During the last three decades, aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal-food-producing sector in the world, accounting for half of the present seafood supply. However, there is a significant growth disparity among aquaculture-producing countries. The reasons why some countries have achieved...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...

  19. Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Book cover Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: ... in steering the behaviour of economic agents in industrial production. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY - THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 44-page Technology Transfer Environmental Regulations and Technology publication is an update of a 1980 EPA publication that has been revised to reflect changes in the EPA regulations, as well as in the pollution control technologies that affect the electroplating industry. ...

  1. Environmental requirements for oil and gas operations in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystuen, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    The administration and regulation of environmental issues regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. The political and cultural differences in Saskatchewan that make environmental processes distinct from its neighbouring jurisdictions were described. The following Saskatchewan legislation deals with environmental requirements: Environmental Management and Protection Act, Environmental Assessment Act, Oil and Gas Conservation Act, Wildlife Habitat Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Planning and Development Act, Forest Act, Water Corporation Act, Heritage Property Act, and Parks Act. The Saskatchewan Department of Energy and Mines (SEM) is the primary regulator of the upstream oil and gas industry. It regulates the construction, operation, reporting and abandonment requirements for oilfield operations. SEM also manages crude oil prior to refining and manages the wastes contaminated with crude oil. Provisions of the relevant Acts regarding drilling in environmentally sensitive areas, flaring requirements, transporting and disposing of oilfield wastes, road-building, operating restrictions, emergency response plans, spill clean-up responsibilities, well abandonment and site reclamation responsibilities were discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  2. 24 CFR 970.13 - Environmental review requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq., or a disaster that has been... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental review requirements. 970.13 Section 970.13 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  3. Motivation for Compliance with Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    A combination of calculated, normative, and social motivations as well as awareness of rules and capacity to comply are thought to foster compliance with regulations. Hypotheses about these factors were tested with data concerning Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental regulations....... Three key findings emerge: that farmers’ awareness of rules plays a critical role; that normative and social motivations are as influential as calculated motivations in enhancing compliance; and that inspectors’ enforcement style affects compliance differently from that posited in much of the literature...... compliance with social and environmental regulations....

  4. Cancer risk assessments and environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scroggin, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Governmental regulation of toxic substances, such as carcinogens and radiation, prompts both legal and scientific controversies. Industry, environmental activist groups, government regulators, and the general public are all concerned with the question of how environmental risk to public health is to be measured and what level of risk warrants government action under the environmental laws. Several recent events shed light on the fundamental scientific and legal problems inherent in such regulation, and these events may affect the direction of future developments. These events include implementation of generic Risk Assessment Guidelines by the US EPA, litigation challenging EPA's regulation of carcinogenic substances, new scientific understanding of the relative risks from human exposure to natural and man-made sources, and the continuing growth of toxic tort litigation in which victims of cancer seek large damages from industrial emitters of pollution

  5. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Gullì, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets provides a study of environmental regulation when energy markets are imperfectly competitive. This theoretical treatment focuses on three relevant cases of energy markets. First, the residential space heating sector where hybrid regulation such as taxation and emissions trading together are possible. Second, the electricity market where transactions are organized in the form of multi-period auctions. Third, namely natural gas (input) and electricity (output) markets where there is combined imperfect competition in vertical related energy markets.   The development of free or low carbon technologies supported by energy policies, aiming at increasing security of supply, is also explored whilst considering competition policies that reduce market power in energy markets thus improving market efficiency. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets discusses the key issues of whether imperfect competition can lessen the ability of environmen...

  6. Environmental compliance requirements for uranium mines in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggit, P.; Zapantis, A.; Triggs, M.

    2001-01-01

    The current phase of uranium mining in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia began in the late 70's and is governed by a large number of legislative and administrative requirements. The primary responsibility for environmental regulation rests with the Northern Territory Government but the legislative framework is complex and involves agencies of the Commonwealth Government as well as the Aboriginal traditional owners. Two of the current uranium mining projects, Ranger and Jabiluka, are surrounded by the World Heritage listed Kakadu National Park. Thirteen former mines are located within the Park and one former mine, Nabarlek, is in the same catchment as part of the Park, in West Arnhem Land. For these reasons, environmental management at the operating mines has to be of the highest standard and environmental requirements are attached to all laws and agreements controlling the operating facilities. The paper describes the spirit and rationale behind the regulations as well as the operating details and methodology of the regulatory system in place for the operating mines. An integral part of the overall environmental protection regime is a bi-annual program of Environmental Audits and Environmental Performance Reviews and regular reporting to a stakeholder committee. Other elements include internal and external environmental auditing at the minesites as well as programs of routine monitoring, check monitoring and reporting on a scale and frequency rarely seen elsewhere. Public concern and perception is considered to be a valid issue requiring attention

  7. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Herrera; Laura González; Daniel Calegari; Bruno Rienzi

    2017-01-01

    In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with ...

  8. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON REGULATIONS AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR QUADRICYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pavlovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a new class of compact vehicles has been emerging and wide-spreading all around Europe: the quadricycle. These four-wheeled motor vehicles, originally derived from motorcycles, are a small and fuel-efficient mean of transportation used in rural or urban areas as an alternative to motorbikes or city cars. In some countries, they are also endorsed by local authorities and institutions which support small and environmentally-friendly vehicles. In this paper, several general considerations on quadricycles will be provided including the vehicle classification, evolution of regulations (as homologation, driver licence, emissions, etc, technical characteristics, safety requirements, most relevant investigations, and other additional useful information (e.g. references, links. It represents an important and actual topic of investigation for designers and manufacturers considering that the new EU regulation on the approval and market surveillance of quadricycles will soon enter in force providing conclusive requirements for functional safety environmental protection of these promising vehicles.

  9. Sustainable mining, local communities and environmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokko Kai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable mining is an objective as well as a tool for balancing economic, social, and environmental considerations. Each of these three dimensions of mining – and sustainable development – has many components, some of which were chosen for closer study in the SUMILCERE project. While there is no single component that in itself provides a definitive argument for or against sustainable mining, the research reveals some that have proven valuable in the process of balancing the different dimensions of sustainability. In the SUMILCERE project, comparative studies enabled us to identify factors such as the following, which are essential when discussing the balancing in practice of the three dimensions of sustainable mining cited above: the framework and functionality of environmental regulation to protect the environment (environmental sustainability; competitiveness of the mining industry in light of environmental regulation and its enforcement (economic sustainability; public participation and the opportunities local communities have to influence their surroundings, as well as communities’ acceptance of projects (social sustainability before and during operations; and the protection of Sámi cultural rights in mining projects (social and cultural sustainability. Although each of the three dimensions of sustainability leaves room for discretion in the weight assigned to it, ecological sustainability, protected by smart environmental regulation and minimum standards, sets essential boundaries that leave no room for compromises. Economic and social sustainability are possible only within these limits. Details of the analyses in the Kolarctic area and accounts of the methods used can befound in the cited SUMILCERE articles.

  10. Revenue rules when environmental regulation agencies collude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarn Hansen, L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the welfare implications of earmarking of revenues from environmental taxes in analyzed using a principal-agent model in the incomplete contracting tradition of constitutional design. In the model the public has very limited knowledge of the emissions problem to be regulated. Government has full knowledge and is given a general mandate to regulate, however government may be biased toward an interested party. To curb the welfare effects of government bias the public may either earmark revenues from environmental taxes for environmental expenditures or for transfers to the polluters. We find that earmarking for transfers to the polluters (under certain conditions) can be expected to maximize welfare when government bias is strong and the direction of bias is uncertain. (au) 10 refs

  11. Environmental regulation in a network of simulated microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M

    2008-07-29

    The Earth possesses a number of regulatory feedback mechanisms involving life. In the absence of a population of competing biospheres, it has proved hard to find a robust evolutionary mechanism that would generate environmental regulation. It has been suggested that regulation must require altruistic environmental alterations by organisms and, therefore, would be evolutionarily unstable. This need not be the case if organisms alter the environment as a selectively neutral by-product of their metabolism, as in the majority of biogeochemical reactions, but a question then arises: Why should the combined by-product effects of the biota have a stabilizing, rather than destabilizing, influence on the environment? Under certain conditions, selection acting above the level of the individual can be an effective adaptive force. Here we present an evolutionary simulation model in which environmental regulation involving higher-level selection robustly emerges in a network of interconnected microbial ecosystems. Spatial structure creates conditions for a limited form of higher-level selection to act on the collective environment-altering properties of local communities. Local communities that improve their environmental conditions achieve larger populations and are better colonizers of available space, whereas local communities that degrade their environment shrink and become susceptible to invasion. The spread of environment-improving communities alters the global environment toward the optimal conditions for growth and tends to regulate against external perturbations. This work suggests a mechanism for environmental regulation that is consistent with evolutionary theory.

  12. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  13. Domestic environmental requirements, new and projected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, B.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The paper outlines and/or gives data on the following: environmental concerns; goal of Title IV; national SO{sub 2} emissions; reductions in wet sulfate deposition; SO{sub 2} allowance program--benefits and costs; utility NO{sub x} emissions; NO{sub x} compliance options; cost effectiveness of NO{sub x} control; electric power regulations timeline; Clean Air power initiative; what a new approach would look like; and an analysis of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} cap and trade scenarios.

  14. 7 CFR 3407.8 - Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement. 3407.8 Section 3407.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.8 Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement. An...

  15. International environmental issues and requirements for new power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J.R. [Golder Associates Inc., Gainesville, FL (United States); Maltby, J.H. [Golder Associates Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this presentation was to discuss the emerging role of financial entities in determining environmental requirements for international power projects. The paper outlines the following: emerging conditions; examples of announced privatization energy projects by country; types of government and international financial entity sources; problems for IPPs; similarity and differences between the World Bank and the USEPA; comparison of the international standards and regulations for power plants; recent trends/issues involving international power project approval; and recommendations for understanding/expediting the financial entities` environmental approval process and how to expedite this process.

  16. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  17. Environmental impact statement law and environmental impact statement administration regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution does not deal with the question - as might be suggested by the heading - that the execution of the environmental impact statement law might be uncertain if there are no further accompanying legal transformatory acts. Putting the environmental impact statements into action is concerned in partiuclar with procedural provisions regarding the Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances and the Atomic Energy Act. The author deals with aspects of the environmental impact statement law and the state-of-the-art achieved so far. He also deals with legislative intent, with further points of putting the law into practice, i.e. the information requirements in the administrative provisions and the integrating aspect, the amalgamating aspect, the requirements made on the state of the environment, and the significance of administrative provisions. Also treated are legal procedures in the Federal Laender and on an international level. (RST) [de

  18. Effects of new environmental regulations on coal-fired generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaCount, R.

    1999-01-01

    As restructuring of the electricity industry places downward pressure on power production costs, new environmental regulations are having the opposite effect. Although power plants may be subject to a variety of environmental regulations over the next ten years including reductions in mercury, toxics, and carbon dioxide, new regulations for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are poised to impact the electricity industry in the very short term. The cost for coal-fired power plants to comply with these new regulations has the potential to alter their competitive position. January 1, 2000 marks the beginning of Phase II for the Environmental Protection Agency's SO2 allowance market. Starting in January, all coal and oil plants above 25 MW will be required to comply with the federal SO2 provisions. Regulatory deadlines for NOX are also fast approaching; though the ultimate requirements are still subject to change. On May 1, 1999, a NOX allowance market began for states within the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission (OTC). A second phase of this program is scheduled to begin in 2003 that will lower the overall cap for allowable NOX emissions in the participating states. EPA is also working to expand the reach of regional NOX reductions in 2003 through its NOX SIP call. This program, which is currently subject to litigation, would require NOX reductions in 14 states outside of the OTC. A new study by Resource Data International (RDI), Coal-Fired Generation in Competitive Power Markets, assessed the potential impact that the new SO2 and NOX regulations may have on the competitiveness of coal-fired generation. Overall, the study shows that coal-fired generation will continue to grow despite significant environmental costs and competition from natural gas-fired units. The new environmental regulations have the effect of increasing the dispatch cost of coal-fired units from $0.65/MWh on average in the WSCC to $4.14/MWh on average in the MAAC region. The addition

  19. Environmental regulations and industrial competitiveness: evidence from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stavropoulos (Spyridon); R.S. Wall (Ronald); Xu, Y. (Yuanze)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEconomic activities are closely related to real-world environmental issues. Currently, more attention is paid to the association between environmental regulations and industrial competitiveness (IC) because of pressures on economic development and environmental protection. In this study,

  20. Environmental regulation of tourism: impact on business innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    Tourism and environmental issues are particularly critical in small islands. This article compares environmental constraints and regulations on Bornholm, Isle of Wight and Mallorca.......Tourism and environmental issues are particularly critical in small islands. This article compares environmental constraints and regulations on Bornholm, Isle of Wight and Mallorca....

  1. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF); Boden, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cowley, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Dattoria, Vince [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Desai, Narayan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foster, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Goldstone, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregurick, Susan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological Systems Science Division; Houghton, John [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program; Izaurralde, Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Joseph, Renu [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Pritchard, Matt [British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), Oxon (United Kingdom); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Strand, Gary [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Stuart, Cory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tatusova, Tatiana [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Thomas, Brian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zurawski, Jason [Internet2, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  2. A strategy for addressing environmental regulations in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, an assessment was made concerning environmental regulatory trends and the electric power industry and an eight point environmental permitting strategy and approach was outlined in 1989 to handle the environmental approvals for new power plants in the 1990s. The main features of the suggested strategy included: (1) development of a comprehensive and coordinated approach to environmental permitting, (2) inclusion of all levels of government and appropriate jurisdictions, (3) disclosure of considerably more information than previously required, (4) maintenance of records to allow traceability of issues, technical data, and environmental licensing positions, (5) development of legal and technical reviews and develop positions on a wider range of environmental issues, (6) encourage the development of both a global as well as a project-specific perspective, (7) review of existing plants and projects against contemporary environmental trends and patterns to assure continued compliance, and (8) prepare to entertain more project or facility reviews, audits, inspections and independent reviews. Since then this strategy and approach has been tested on several power and non-power projects and has proven to be a viable and constructive approach to the problem of environmental regulation. This paper summarizes the main features of this strategy and reviews the results of its application to these various projects and reviews its applicability to non-utility power projects

  3. Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-making

  4. 13 CFR 500.206 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental assessment. (i) The Executive Director will...) Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement. (i) If after an environmental... integrated use of the natural and social sciences and the environmental design arts.” 42 U.S.C. 4332(A). If...

  5. Future requirements for petroleum fuels - an environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental impacts of fuel emissions were discussed. Emissions from petroleum fuels are the largest contributor to a wide range of environmental problems including damage to the ozone layer and risks to human health. Forecasts indicate that future demand for fossil fuels for energy will continue to grow. The transportation sector is the largest single source of air emissions in Canada. The environmental requirements for all fuels will become progressively more stringent. The pollutants of primary concern include toxics, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulates. The U.S. auto-oil research program has conducted considerable research to understand the impact of fuel parameters of vehicle tailpipe emissions. In Canada, lead was removed from Canadian gas a decade ago. Since January 1998, low sulphur diesel (less than 500 ppm) is required for on-road use. Regulations have also been passed to reduce the level of benzene in gasoline to less than one per cent by mid-1999. It will be necessary to manage our fossil fuels to minimize the environmental impacts from combustion. In the longer term, it will be necessary to minimize fossil fuel use through conservation and shift to less polluting fuels

  6. Environmental regulation of exploration and mining operations in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.; Naito, Koh; Pring, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper offers a new perspective on the environmental laws in Asian nations affecting the exploration, mining, and reclamation activities of the mineral resource industry: the perspective of the senior government officials in those countries, whose job is to enforce these new environmental laws. The article presents the results of a 1998 survey of national environmental officials in Asia conducted by the Colorado School of Mines and the Metal Mining Agency of Japan. Officials in 10 diverse countries - Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam - responded to a detailed questionnaire covering applicable laws, agencies, protected areas, covered mineral activities, financial assurance, environmental impact assessment, public involvement, environmental standards, permit and reclamation requirements. The survey confirms that Asian nations are part of the global trend towards national government regulatory structures that balance mineral development objectives with environmental considerations. The survey also shows developing regulatory systems (some embryonic, some more mature) utilizing a combination of mining and environmental acts, and often an 'insider' perspective of the national officials administering the laws. While that perspective is not without its biases (not least the rigor of enforcement), it may nevertheless be of use in company planning. The emerging regulatory picture contradicts the conventional notion that it is the 'lower' level of regulation in Asia that is attracting foreign direct investment in mining. (author)

  7. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will describe the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation's (FERMCO) Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RlDs) Program, the unique process used to implement it, and the status of the program. We will also discuss the lessons learned as the program was implemented. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Fernald site to produce uranium metals for the nation's defense programs in 1953. In 1989, DOE suspended production and, in 1991, the mission of the site was formally changed to one of environmental cleanup and restoration. The site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO's mission is to provide safe, early, and least-cost final clean-up of the site in compliance with all regulations and commitments. DOE has managed nuclear facilities primarily through its oversight of Management and Operating contractors. Comprehensive nuclear industry standards were absent when most DOE sites were first established, Management and Operating contractors had to apply existing non-nuclear industry standards and, in many cases, formulate new technical standards. Because it was satisfied with the operation of its facilities, DOE did not incorporate modern practices and standards as they became available. In March 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 90-2, which called for DOE to identify relevant standards and requirements, conduct adequacy assessments of requirements in protecting environmental, public, and worker health and safety, and determine the extent to which the requirements are being implemented. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of DOE embraced the recommendation for facilities under its control. Strict accountability requirements made it essential that FERMCO and DOE clearly identify applicable requirements necessary, determine the requirements' adequacy, and assess FERMCO's level of compliance

  8. 28 CFR 91.68 - Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements § 91.68 Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders. (a) Other Federal environmental laws. All projects...

  9. Globalization of environmental regulations for offshore E & P operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the enduring legacies of the Rio Environmental Summit of 1992 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED) is Agenda 21 (Chapter 17 - Protection of the Oceans), which among other things called for the assessment of the need for a global authority to regulate offshore Exploration & Production (E&P) discharges, emissions and safety. Despite advice to the contrary from the International Maritime Organization (IMO), interest is building within the European community for the standardization of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international frameworks or forums have been mentioned as possible candidates. These include the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 (UNCLOS); London Convention 1972 (LC 1972) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL) 73/78. International offshore oil and gas operators operate within requirements of regional conventions under the United Nations Environmental Program`s (UNEP) - Regional Seas Program. Domestic offshore operations are undertaken under the auspices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Minerals Management Service.

  10. 7 CFR 3550.5 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Policy. RHS will consider environmental quality as equal with economic, social, and other relevant factors in program development and decision-making processes. RHS will take into account potential environmental impacts of proposed projects by working with RHS applicants, other federal agencies, Indian tribes...

  11. 10 CFR 611.106 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... construction, compliance with regulations and codes, and permits that must be obtained. (e) Specific Report 2... governmental facilities and services and plans to reduce the impact on the local infrastructure; (3) Describe...

  12. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Herrera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with data coming from autonomous sensors (e.g. reporting carbon emission in protected areas and from citizens providing information (e.g. illegal dumping in a voluntary way. Complex Event Processing (CEP technologies allow processing large amount of event data and detecting patterns from them. However, they do not provide native support for the geographic dimension of events which is essential for monitoring requirements which apply to specific geographic areas. This paper proposes a geospatial extension for CEP that allows monitoring environmental requirements considering the geographic location of the processed data. We extend an existing platform-independent, model-driven approach for CEP adding the geographic location to events and specifying patterns using geographic operators. The use and technical feasibility of the proposal is shown through the development of a case study and the implementation of a prototype.

  13. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Directeur(s) : Veena Jha. Maison(s) d'édition : Edward Elgar, IDRC. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN : 184542512X. 250 pages. e-ISBN : 155250185X.

  14. Industrial sources in Norway -- Regulations and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxeboel, G.

    2001-01-01

    On 12 May 2000, a new Act on radiation protection passed the Norwegian parliament. The report explains the requirements for the licensing process of sealed industrial sources and provides information, in particular, on the national inventory of industrial gauges, industrial radiography and logging sources. (author)

  15. The innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations on maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Repka, Sari

    2016-01-01

    , contrasting views, arguing that environmental regulations will, in fact, enhance firms’ competitiveness by inducing innovation, have also been voiced. Here this issue is examined through a literature review on the innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations (i.e. the Porter Hypothesis......), in general, and the economic impacts of environmental regulations (here Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention) as it applies to shipping in Northern Europe, in particular. According to the review, the literature is still inconclusive and lacks a clear consensus on the economic and innovation inducement impacts......Maritime transport is facing wide-ranking challenges due to stricter environmental regulations. It has been positioned that these stricter environmental regulations will significantly hamper the competitiveness of the shipping industry and other export/import oriented industries. However...

  16. 40 CFR 158.1300 - Environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transformation products. 7. Environmental chemistry methods used to generate data associated with this study must... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental fate data requirements table. 158.1300 Section 158.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  17. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  18. Decree 435/994 Environmental Impacts : establish a standard joint complex named Evaluation Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Regulation of Evaluation of environmental Impact in the chapter I art.2 item 14 it establishes that It will require the previous Environmental Authorization the activities that refer to the construction of production factories and transformation of Nuclear Energy r, without damage of that settled down for the articulate 215 of the law 16.226 of October 29 1991 [es

  19. 7 CFR 2201.16 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capital loan means money used by an ongoing business concern to fund its existing operations. (3..., or in other cases, potentially affect: (A) A floodplain; (B) A wetland; (C) Important farmlands, or... that such studies are objective and comprehensive in scope and in depth. (4) NEPA requires that the...

  20. Environmental restoration remedial action quality assurance requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document (DOE/RL 90-28) defines the quality assurance program requirements for the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. This paper describes the objectives outlined in DOE/RL 90-28. The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program implements significant commitments made by the US Department of Energy in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency

  1. Growth Conditions Regulate the Requirements for Caulobacter Chromosome Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shebelut, Conrad W.; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Gitai, Zemer

    2009-01-01

    Growth environments are important metabolic and developmental regulators. Here we demonstrate a growth environment-dependent effect on Caulobacter chromosome segregation of a small-molecule inhibitor of the MreB bacterial actin cytoskeleton. Our results also implicate ParAB as important segregation...... determinants, suggesting that multiple distinct mechanisms can mediate Caulobacter chromosome segregation and that their relative contributions can be environmentally regulated....

  2. Environmental regulation in the new exploration climate: After Rio, what next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millison, D.

    1993-01-01

    Exploration activities of U.S.-headquartered petroleum companies have increasingly shifted to international targets, in large part due to excessive environmental regulation. However, governments hosting new exploration venues are promulgating environmental regulations, often based on U.S. EPA regulations, which affect the economics of oil and gas operations. New host-country regulations, combined with a growing worldwide open-quotes green movement,close quotes require the new exploration climate to be evaluated in terms of environmental restrictions on drilling, production, and downstream operations. Is the industry truly fleeing regulation, but destined to dead-end in a never-never land of dwindling opportunity? Or is there hope for a system of reasonable regulations which encourage open-quotes sustainable developmentclose quotes of new petroleum resources? The green movement now places a new burden on trade. Exporters must verify to open-quotes greenclose quotes consumers that their products are open-quotes environmentally friendlyclose quotes, effectively introducing a non-tariff trade restriction. The playing field of international trade is leveled by adaption of US or European-style environmental regulation. THe UNCED conference in Rio has further promoted a system of international environmental regulation which will likely grow stronger as globalization of trade increases. This presentation focuses on the increasing standardization of international regulations which affect petroleum development. Key issues discussed are: the effect of atmospheric emissions controls on energy development policy and petroleum operations, environmental regulations in Latin America-risk vs. technology-based policies, and linking environmental regulations and international trade

  3. Environmental regulation and the export dynamics of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Crespi, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The pollution haven hypothesis affirms that an open market regime will encourage the flow of low-technology polluting industries towards developing countries because of potential comparative advantages related to low environmental standards. In contrast, the hypothesis suggested by Porter and van der Linde claims that innovating firms operate in a dynamic competitive situation which allows global diffusion of environmental-friendly technologies. Environmental regulation may represent a relevant mechanism through which technological change is induced. In this way, countries that are subject to more stringent environmental regulations may become net exporters of environmental technologies. This paper provides new evidence on the evolution of export flows of environmental technologies across different countries for the energy sector. Advanced economies, particularly the European Union, have increasingly focused on the role of energy policies as tools for sustaining the development path. The Kyoto Protocol commitments, together with growing import dependence on energy products, have brought attention to the analysis of innovation processes in this specific sector. The analysis uses a gravity model in order to test the determinants and the transmission channels through which environmental technologies for renewable energies and energy efficiency are exported to advanced and developing countries. Our results are consistent with the Porter and van der Linde hypothesis where environmental regulation represents a significant source of comparative advantages. What strongly emerges is that the stringency of environmental regulation supplemented by the strength of the National Innovation System is a crucial driver of export performance in the field of energy technologies. (author)

  4. NEW INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REGULATION: NECESSITY OR REQUIRED BY CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojocari Anatol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The global economic and financial crisis showed the limits faced by the international financial system. International financial regulations in general, and especially the banking sector regulations, should be refined and adapted to build a stronger and stable international financial system. We analyze the main trends in international regulations: the proposed amendments on capital requirements, the introduction of a global standard for liquidity and indebtedness, the winding-up directive, as well as their impact on the Romanian financial system.

  5. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of ... are sometimes perceived in developing countries as nontariff barriers to trade. ... In some cases, products that had initially been refused access to a ...

  6. Competitiveness Implications of Environmental Regulations: Case Studies (1992- 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collection of reports is part of a series of case studies designed to examine Michael Porter’s hypothesis that innovative companies responding to environmental regulation can create competitive advantage through lower costs or higher sales.

  7. 77 FR 12754 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 719 48 Parts 931, 952 and 970 RIN 1990-AA37 Contractor Legal... rulemaking (NOPR) to revise existing regulations covering contractor legal management requirements and make... relating to the DOE notice of proposed rulemaking to revise existing regulations covering contractor legal...

  8. 78 FR 29247 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Part 952 RIN 1990-AA37 Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations; Correction AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The... (78 FR 25795). In this document, DOE revised existing regulations covering contractor legal management...

  9. Addressing environmental contamination through market regulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to the prevailing view that the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) law, which amended the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), is the 'gold standard' for chemical regulation, the central premise of this article is that the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety Act for the ...

  10. translin Is Required for Metabolic Regulation of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yurgel, Maria E; Stahl, Bethany A; Masek, Pavel; Mehta, Aradhana; Heidker, Rebecca; Bollinger, Wesley; Gingras, Robert M; Kim, Young-Joon; Ja, William W; Suter, Beat; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2016-04-04

    Dysregulation of sleep or feeding has enormous health consequences. In humans, acute sleep loss is associated with increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, while chronically sleep-deprived individuals are more likely to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, metabolic state potently modulates sleep and circadian behavior; yet, the molecular basis for sleep-metabolism interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of translin (trsn), a highly conserved RNA/DNA binding protein, as essential for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Strikingly, trsn does not appear to regulate energy stores, free glucose levels, or feeding behavior suggesting the sleep phenotype of trsn mutant flies is not a consequence of general metabolic dysfunction or blunted response to starvation. While broadly expressed in all neurons, trsn is transcriptionally upregulated in the heads of flies in response to starvation. Spatially restricted rescue or targeted knockdown localizes trsn function to neurons that produce the tachykinin family neuropeptide Leucokinin. Manipulation of neural activity in Leucokinin neurons revealed these neurons to be required for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Taken together, these findings establish trsn as an essential integrator of sleep and metabolic state, with implications for understanding the neural mechanism underlying sleep disruption in response to environmental perturbation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental regulation and MNEs location : does CSR matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Dam, L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate whether firms with relatively low environmental standards are more often located in countries that are poor, corrupt or have weak environmental regulations. We find new empirical evidence in favor of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, which states that MNEs are transferring their dirty

  12. Environmentally Friendly Concept in Spatial Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Taryono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial order of a region include purpose of structure and interrelatedness of spatial order which as a unity of development mechanism. Spatial order can’t be part from law basic that is UUD’45 and GBHN, in order to the management can be integrated and keep the environment. Spatial order also take note of physical factor and non physical factor. Physical factor consist of soil, water, flora, and fauna. Non physical factors consist of environment, social, economic, and soon. The principle of arrangement of spatial order in a region include national region, regional and local, and a region as an administrative baoundary, that is local government authority, like province, district, subdistrict, and village. The effort for spatial ordering of the environment, for example ordering resource, arrangement of allocation and location, arrangement of environmental aesthetic  and arrangement of environmental quality.

  13. Environmental regulations and emissions trading in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.-C.; Wang Nannan

    2010-01-01

    This paper begins with the international context concerning climate change and how China fits into this context. Concentration is then turning into the emissions control system in China including environmental planning, legislation, policy instruments and measures as well as institutional setting in China's environmental governance system. Special attentions also being paid to emissions control in China's power sector. It should be noted that the pollution discharge permit system in China only exists superficially in many places. Insufficient resources are applied to the implementation of the said permit system, which in turn means that the system is applied according to differing standards in different parts of the country. The findings of this paper suggested that emissions trading programmes are usually introduced alongside the existing policies. The power sector usually has numerous other policy objectives and therefore the design and implementation of emissions trading programmes in the sector will have to address concern about the compatibility of existing industry policies.

  14. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  15. Willingness to pay for environmental improvements in hydropower regulated rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, Mitesh

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate how Swedish households value different environmental improvements for the hydropower regulated rivers. We obtained clear evidence that Swedish households have preferences for environmental improvement in hydropower regulated waters, at least when the cost is relatively low. Remedial measures that improve the conditions for all of the included environmental attributes i.e. fish, benthic invertebrates, river-margin vegetation and birds were found to have a significant welfare increasing impact. The results can be of value for the implementation of the Water Framework Directives in Sweden, which aims to reform the use of all surface water and ground water in the member states. (author)

  16. Study on effects of environmental regulation on competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Man Ok; Lim, Hyun Jeong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    For Korea, the claim that the enhancement of environmental regulation is worsening the international competitiveness of the business is dominant. However, it is too early to reestablish a relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness with the above new aspect. In fact, the economic development, which is brought a quantitative growth, and the maintenance of environmental quality, which is brought a qualitative growth, are very important on decision making in economic and social policy. In this study, it represents the results of existing positive studies on the relationship between the enhancement of environmental regulation, trade and productivity. Moreover, the objective of this study is on applying it based on the data of Korea. 86 refs., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  17. Environmental regulation of a power investment in an international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennemo, H.; Halseth, A.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the optimal environmental regulation of three Norwegian power projects: energy conservation, a natural gas fired CCGT and a new hydro project. All projects reduce emissions elsewhere in the Nordic region, and the environmental costs of these emissions are not, in general, fully reflected in market prices. We develop a theory of second best optimal regulation for this case. The optimal regulation is found to deviate substantially from a purely domestic regulation. For instance, we find it optimal to grant a substantial credit to energy conservation. The credit is sensitive to the value of reduced CO 2 emissions and whether the current Norwegian end user tax should be interpreted as an environmental or a fiscal tax

  18. Extended Producer Responsibility and corporate performance: Effects of environmental regulation and environmental strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Benhong; Tu, Yu; Elahi, Ehsan; Wei, Guo

    2018-07-15

    While contemporary manufacturing technologies stimulate the industrial revolution and promote the rapidly changing global economy, it has caused enormous environmental negative externalities and managing the industrial waste remains a primary challenge, especially for fast developing countries such as China. Though existing studies explored the influence of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) legislations on environmental externalities, only fewer researches aimed at policy issues. Particularly, the relationship among environmental regulations, environmental strategies and corporate performance in the EPR system has not been deeply investigated. To fill this gap, this research will focus to assess the economic aspect and environmental performance associated with the environmental regulations and strategies. For this purpose, 208 cross-sectional questionnaires were administered with three major high-pollution industries, electrical and electronic, automobile and lead-acid storage battery industries. To accomplish this study objective, we employ a two-step approach: firstly, validity tests for environmental regulation and environmental strategy along with the corporate performance are performed by the factor analysis method, and secondly, the structural equation model is utilized to test the study hypotheses. Results reveal that command and control (CAC) and market-based incentive (MBI) environmental regulations are significantly impacting on the reactive environmental strategy (RES); however, the proactive environmental strategy (PES) only has a significant relationship with MBI regulation. On the other hand, RES only has a significant relationship with the enterprises economics performance, while PES has a statistically significant relationship with both economic and environmental performance of enterprises. Therefore, the central government and its local offices are strongly urged to coordinate the industries by making, implementing and monitoring necessary and

  19. 44 CFR 10.8 - Determination of requirement for environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... integrated into the decision-making process. Environmental impact statements will be prepared for all major Agency actions (see 40 CFR 1508.18) significantly (see 40 CFR 1508.27) affecting the quality of the human... regulations or standards requiring action or attention; (vii) Actions with the potential to affect special...

  20. Is environmental impact assessment regulation a 'burden' to private firms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annandale, David; Taplin, Ross

    2003-01-01

    The impact of environmental regulation on macroeconomic performance has been studied in some depth over the last 15 years. Similarly, impact on profit performance, investment intention and location decisions of firms has also been studied, although in less depth. There has been less academic interest, however, in the impact that environmental regulation has on the strategic objectives of companies. This article reports on a research project that focused on the impact that environmental approvals regulation (predominantly environmental impact assessment, EIA) has on proposed new development in the international mining sector. Based on a large and externally valid survey of senior mining company executives in Australia and Canada in the late 1990s, the research indicated that a significant majority of firms consider the environmental approvals process to be an important determinant of investment strategy. An initial reaction to these figures might suggest that the majority of respondents believe the environmental approvals process to be a negative influence. However, further questioning indicated that only a small proportion of companies in both countries thought of the environmental approvals process as an impediment to development. Instead, it is clear that most firms see EIA as a catalyst for integrating environmental design into the early planning of a project, thereby alleviating the need to spend money on overcoming environmental problems once a poorly designed project has been commissioned. The somewhat surprising conclusion that companies see environmental approvals regulation as important, but as an encouragement to development rather than as an impediment, goes against much previous industry and academic comment and, at least in relation to the mining sector, refutes the idea that EIA is ''burdensome''

  1. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  2. Just who is at risk? The ethics of environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ted

    2011-08-01

    The willingness to view risk as part of daily life has vanished. A risk-averse mindset among environmental regulators engenders confusion between the ethics of intention and the ethics of consequence, leading to the elevation of the precautionary principle with unintended and often unfortunate outcomes. Environmental risk assessment is conservative, but the actual level of conservatism cannot be determined. High-end exposure assumptions and current toxicity criteria from the USEPA, based on linear extrapolation for carcinogens and default uncertainty factors for systemic toxicants, obscure the degree of conservatism in risk assessments. Ideally, one could choose a percentile of the target population to include within environmental standards, but this choice is complicated by the food, pharmaceutical and advertising industries, whose activities, inadvertent or not, often promote maladaptive and unhealthy lifestyle choices. There has lately been much discussion about background exposures and disease processes and their potential to increase the risk from environmental chemicals. Should these background exposures or disease processes, especially those associated with maladaptive individual choices, be included as part of a regulatory risk evaluation? A significant ethical question is whether environmental regulation should protect those pursuing a self-destructive lifestyle that may add to or synergize with otherwise innocuous environmental exposures. Choosing a target percentile of protection would provide an increased level of transparency and the flexibility to choose a higher or lower percentile if such a choice is warranted. Transparency and flexibility will lead to more responsive environmental regulation that balances protection of public health and the stewardship of societal resources.

  3. Information management systems for integrating the technical data and regulatory requirements of environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffen, C.A.; Garrett, B.A.; Walter, M.B.

    1990-03-01

    Current environmental regulations require that comprehensive planning be conducted before remediating a hazardous waste site to characterize the nature and extent of site contamination, calculate the risk to the public, and assess the effectiveness of various remediation technologies. Remediation of Department of Energy (DOE) sites contaminated with hazardous or mixed wastes will require the effective integration of scientific and engineering data with regulatory and institutional requirements. The information management challenge presented by waste site cleanup activities goes beyond merely dealing with the large quantity of data that will be generated. The information must be stored, managed, and presented in a way that provides some consistency in approach across sites, avoids duplication of effort, and facilitates responses to requests for information from the regulators and the public. This paper provides background information on the regulatory requirements for data gathering and analysis for environmental restoration activities, and outlines the data and information management requirements for completing the pre-remediation phases of an environmental restoration project. Information management systems for integrating the regulatory and institutional requirements of the environmental restoration process with the technical data and analysis requirements are also described. 7 refs

  4. Estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements: Case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhifeng; CUI Baoshan; LIU Jingling

    2005-01-01

    Supplying water to the ecological environment with certain quantity and quality is significant for the protection of diversity and the realization of sustainable development. The conception and connotation of eco-environmental water requirements, including the definition of the conception, the composition and characteristics of eco-environmental water requirements, are evaluated in this paper. The classification and estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements are then proposed. On the basis of the study on the Huang-Huai-Hai Area, the present water use, the minimum and suitable water requirement are estimated and the corresponding water shortage is also calculated. According to the interrelated programs, the eco-environmental water requirements in the coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are estimated. The result indicates that the minimum and suitable eco-environmental water requirements fluctuate with the differences of function setting and the referential standard of water resources, and so as the water shortage. Moreover, the study indicates that the minimum eco-environmental water requirement of the study area ranges from 2.84×1010m3 to 1.02×1011m3, the suitable water requirement ranges from 6.45×1010m3 to 1.78×1011m3, the water shortage ranges from 9.1×109m3 to 2.16×1010m3 under the minimum water requirement, and it is from 3.07×1010m3 to 7.53×1010m3 under the suitable water requirement. According to the different values of the water shortage, the water priority can be allocated. The ranges of the eco-environmental water requirements in the three coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are 4.49×1010m3-1.73×1011m3, 5.99×10m3?2.09×1011m3, and 7.44×1010m3-2.52×1011m3, respectively.

  5. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T.D.

    1980-08-01

    A guide to environmental laws and regulations which have special significance for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is presented. The Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, federal regulations, and state regulations are discussed. This handbook has been designed as a planning tool and a convenient reference source. The 16 states included comprise the major oil-producing states in various regions of the state. The major topics covered are: general guidelines for complying with environmental laws and regulations; air pollution control; water pollution control; protecting drinking water: underground injection control; hazardous waste management; and federal laws affecting siting or operation of EOR facilities. (DMC)

  6. Institutionalizing environmental protection through self-regulation: the case of environmental standards adoption in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bileisis, Mantas; Misiune, Ieva

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of human activity in the environment have a global dimension, but there are no effective global governance instruments to enforce environmental standards. At the same time, many national governments lack incentives to pursue strict environmental policies. In this context, self-regulation is seen as an alternative venue to address environmental challenges. This work aims to identify factors that influence companies to engage in environmental self-regulation? For this aim in March 2015 a survey of 482 companies was conducted. The target group were companies operating in Lithuania that hold ISO14001 certificates - one of the most prolific instruments for self-regulation. The questionnaire was designed to test assumptions developed in new institutionalist literature which claim that common practices can emerge through isomorphism.- The results showed that the main motive for environmental self-regulation is the desire to improve company image, rather than protecting the environment per se. Another important finding was that the main source of pressure to adopt self-regulation was based less on the perceived demands but the customers. Rather the driver for the adoption was a feeling of a need no to fall behind industry leaders. Thus, normative isomorphism is the main mechanism through which environmental self-regulation proliferates. We claim for a rapid proliferation of environmental self-regulation perceived industry leaders need to be identified and they need to be persuaded that environmental standards are key for the development of the industry. However, this also raises questions of sustainability. Few industries have long standing leaders, and through successful investment and technological development new actors can arise and this may risk stalling or even reversing self-regulation.

  7. Environmental Restoration Remedial Action quality assurance requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document defines the quality assurance requirements for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program at the Hanford Site. The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program implements significant commitments made by the US Department of Energy in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency. This document combines quality assurance requirements from various source documents into one set of requirements for use by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and other Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program participants. This document will serve as the basis for developing Quality Assurance Program Plans and implementing procedures by the participants. The requirements of this document will be applied to activities affecting quality, using a graded approach based on the importance of the item, service, or activity to the program objectives. The Quality Assurance Program that will be established using this document as the basis, together with other program and technical documents, form an integrated management control system for conducting the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program activities in a manner that provides safety and protects the environment and public health

  8. A methodology for determining environmental threshold quantities for substances covered by CEPA's Environmental Emergency Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketcheson, K.; Shrives, J.

    2005-01-01

    Sections 199 and 200 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) 1999 oblige persons who own or manage specified toxic and hazardous substances to develop and implement environmental emergency plans. This paper discussed the methodology for determining how a chemical is assessed for recommending an environmental emergency plan. For Section 199, once substances are declared toxic, each chemical is assessed to determine whether it requires a plan or not. For Section 200, any chemical can be added under the E2 regulations, as long as it can be ascertained that the substance is toxic according to the following criteria: it has an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity; it constitutes a danger to the environment on which human life depends; and/or it constitutes a danger in Canada to human life or health. An overview of the risk evaluation framework was provided, including details of the pre-assessment filter. Summaries of trigger criteria were presented, as well as environmental hazard ratings and details of persistence of organic chemicals in the environment and bioaccumulation. Aquatic toxicity and ingestion toxicity details were also provided. Human hazard ratings included carcinogenicity, inhalation toxicity, dermal toxicity, rabbit and rat toxicity and corrosion and skin irritation ratings. Issues concerning vapour cloud explosions were examined. A reactivity table was presented with hazard descriptions. European Union Threshold quantities were examined, as well as a list of comparisons of selected substances of CEPA with the European Union. It was concluded that the Environmental Emergency Branch (EEB) has created environmental thresholds by first examining how other countries have protected the environment. Substance thresholds for the United States have focused on protecting humans, while Europe has established threshold quantities that work for their countries. The EEB has selected classification tables

  9. Methods for ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements: regulators and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the methods of ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements contained in various radiation protection documents such as Regulations, ICRP Recommendations etc. are considered. These include radiation safety officers and radiation safety committees, personnel monitoring services, dissemination of information, inspection services and legislative power of enforcement. Difficulties in ensuring compliance include outmoded legislation, financial and personnel constraints

  10. The problem of the information in the environmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra León R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two outstanding elements for the recent studies of environmental regulation: Firsdy the importance of recognizing the rationality agents that participate in the process to be regulated and in the other hand the asymmetric information problem. So, this context shows a mechanism regulation theory to price a natural resource, just like water, under moral hazard and adverse selection. These are issues concerned by every social scientist; therefore geographers must take these tools trying to develop harder works that engage some academic subjects.

  11. Regulation E 69-14. Monitoring requirements for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 'Regulations for the State Evaluation and Registration of Medical Equipment' force (Hereinafter Rules) set forth in Chapter VII, Articles 79 and 86, the monitoring activity as one of the programs necessary for evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical monitoring equipment. In the years 2008 and 2011 were approved and implemented by the Center for State Control of Medical Equipment (CCEEM) Regulations and -1.1 ER and ER-1 that support and regulatory requirements 'Control and monitoring of pacemakers and implantable defibrillators' and 'Assessment, recording and control after market surgical silicone implants,' which are specific to these products and have provided a useful result for the performance of the activity. Given the number and diversity of high-risk medical devices as implantable or sustain human life that are brought into our National Health System (SNS), a regulation establishing control over the behavior becomes necessary safety and effectiveness of this equipment during use, which provide inputs to risk management. The objective of this regulation is to establish the regulatory requirements for tracking medical equipment introduced in the NHS. The provisions of this Regulation is aimed at health institutions, to CECMED as manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and importers of medical equipment.

  12. Environmental requirements in thermochemical and biochemical conversion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frings, R.M.; Mackie, K.L.; Hunter, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many biological and thermochemical processing options exist for the conversion of biomass to fuels. Commercially, these options are assessed in terms of fuel product yield and quality. However, attention must also be paid to the environmental aspects of each technology so that any commercial plant can meet the increasingly stringent environmental legislation in the world today. The environmental aspects of biological conversion (biogasification and bioliquefaction) and thermal conversion (high pressure liquefaction, flash pyrolysis, and gasification) are reviewed. Biological conversion processes are likely to generate waste streams which are more treatable than those from thermal conversion processes but the available data for thermal liquefaction are very limited. Close attention to waste minimisation is recommended and processing options that greatly reduce or eliminate waste streams have been identified. Product upgrading and its effect on wastewater quality also requires attention. Emphasis in further research studies needs to be placed on providing authentic waste streams for environmental assessment. (author)

  13. Regulations on environmental data for the petroleum activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The publication deals with the regulations on environmental data for the petroleum activity, stipulated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate on 1 December 1989 pursuant to Royal Decree of 28 June 1985, cf. Sections 7 and 33, cf. delegation of authority by the Ministry of Local Government and Labour of 28 June 1985. 1 tab

  14. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2006 ... Environmental Regulation and Food Safety intéressera les artisans des politiques et les ONG , les chercheurs et les spécialistes de l'économie ... This funding will help strengthen the Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization's (STIPRO) role as a credible public policy institution in ...

  15. Strategic choices in the environmental debate: Environmental regulation and self-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    Den aktuelle miljødebat, der føres i litteraturen, kan give direkte anledning til den uheldige opfattelse, at det overvejende er et spørgsmål om miljøregulering eller indirekte regulering baseret på markedskræfterne. Dette er i modstrid med den kendsgerning, at der findes mange kombinationer i...

  16. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for an Environmental Restoration Management Contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the Standards/Requirements Identification Program, developed partially in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-2, was to identify applicable requirements that established the Environmental Restoration Management Contractor's (ERMC) responsibilities and authorities under the Environmental Restoration Management Contract, determine the adequacy of these requirements, ascertain a baseline level of compliance with them, and implement a maintenance program that would keep the program current as requirements or compliance levels change. The resultant Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RIDs) consolidate the applicable requirements. These documents govern the development of procedures and manuals to ensure compliance with the requirements. Twenty-four such documents, corresponding with each functional area identified at the site, are to be issued. These requirements are included in the contractor's management plan

  17. Sweden's radiation protection regulations for spent fuel and nuclear waste: Requirements and compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norden, M.; Jensen, M.; Larsson, C.M.; Avila, R.; Bergman, S.S.; Wiebert, A.; Wiklund, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Swedish regulations on radiation protection in connection with spent fuel and nuclear waste disposal concern protection of human health and the environment. The reasoning behind the regulations is in observance with the Rio declaration, in the sense that they take into consideration sustainable development also in continued presence of multiple sources of radioactive effluents. Optimisation and best available technique are used as methods for risk reduction. For human health, a risk concept is used, whereas for environmental protection, focus is set on protection of biological resources and diversity. Compliance with the health and environmental goals is discussed using generic definition of the environment. The hypothetical outflow from a repository takes place in the different compartments and the resulting spread in doses are discussed and compared to the requirements of the individual dose standard, and other environmental effects are assessed. (author)

  18. Consolidated permit regulations and hazardous waste management system: Environmental Protection Agency. Notice of issuance of regulation interpretation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-10

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing today a Regulation Interpretation Memorandum (RIM) which provides official interpretation of the issue of whether a generator who accumulates hazardous waste pursuant to 40 CFR 262.34, may qualify for interim status after November 19, 1980. This issue arose when the requirements for submitting a Part A permit application (one of the prerequisites to qualifying for interim status) were amended on November 19, 1980. The provisions interpreted today are part of the Consolidated Permit Regulations promulgated under Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA).

  19. System requirements and design description for the environmental requirements management interface (ERMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Environmental Requirements Management Interface (ERMI). The ERMI database assists Tank Farm personnel with scheduling, planning, and documenting procedure compliance, performance verification, and selected corrective action tracking activities for Tank Farm S/RID requirements. The ERMI database was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This document was prepared by SAIC and edited by LMHC

  20. 78 FR 55230 - Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements for Vessels on the U.S. Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...\\ including the regulation of workplace safety and health.\\2\\ The Coast Guard's regulatory authority extends... 147 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0779] RIN 1625-AC05 Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements... a vessel-specific Safety and Environmental Management System (SEMS) that incorporates the management...

  1. Cellular growth in plants requires regulation of cell wall biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2017-02-01

    Cell and organ morphogenesis in plants are regulated by the chemical structure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, the cell wall. The two primary load bearing components in the plant cell wall, the pectin matrix and the cellulose/xyloglucan network, are constantly remodelled to generate the morphological changes required during plant development. This remodelling is regulated by a plethora of loosening and stiffening agents such as pectin methyl-esterases, calcium ions, expansins, and glucanases. The tight spatio-temporal regulation of the activities of these agents is a sine qua non condition for proper morphogenesis at cell and tissue levels. The pectin matrix and the cellulose-xyloglucan network operate in concert and their behaviour is mutually dependent on their chemical, structural and mechanical modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Property Right and the Requirements of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental protection has lately become an essential component of the concept of sustainable development, along with the economic, social and cultural components. Being an objective of public interest, the environmental protection and conservation are essential to ensure the habitat necessary for continuing the human existence. Considering this aspect, the limitation of ownership required by certain laws has both a social and moral justification, the environmental protection having a direct link with the level of public health, which is a value of national interest. The legal limits of the ownership are restrictions brought by the law, considering aspects regarding the general interest of society. In this article we intend to emphasize, on the analysis and comparison of legislation and case law, the nature of the relationship between ownership of property and environmental rights, as well as the limitations of property rights in favor of environmental protection. As a conclusion, the environmental easements meet a wide national and international recognition and guarantee, the holder of the property having to exercise it in the interest of the whole community, including the protection and conservation of the environment. At the same time, we must consider that the right to property and environment are fundamental rights guaranteed by the Romanian Constitution itself, which makes us conclude that they converge and mutually enrich across the fundamental duties as well.

  3. An international comparison of the outcomes of environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouldson, Andy; Carpenter, Angela; Afionis, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Whilst there is much discussion about the stringency of environmental regulations and the variability of industrial environmental performance in different countries, there are very few robust evaluations that allow meaningful comparisons to be made. This is partly because data scarcity restricts the ability to make ‘like for like’ comparisons across countries and over time. This paper combines data on benzene emissions from Pollution Release and Transfer Registers with data on industrial production from oil refineries to generate normalized measures of industrial environmental performance across eight Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries and the EU-15. We find that normalized emissions levels are improving in nearly all countries, and that there is some convergence in emissions performance between countries, but that there are still very significant variations across countries. We find that average emissions levels are lower in Japan and Germany than in the USA and Australia, which in turn are lower than in Canada and the EU-15, but we note that average emissions in the EU-15 are significantly affected by particularly high emissions in the UK. These findings have significant implications for wider debates on the stringency of environmental regulations and the variability of industrial environmental performance in different countries. (paper)

  4. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641

  5. The impact of environmental regulations on drilling fluid technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    A multitude of new drilling fluid products, systems, and treatment processes have been developed in recent years in response to increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Many fluid additives and systems that once played a major role in the drilling industry are little used today or are no longer available. New water-base mud systems are approaching the performance levels typical of conventional oil-base muds, levels largely achieved by the new synthetic-base fluids. However, these new drilling fluids do not have the adverse environmental impact associated with oil-base systems when waste fluids and cuttings are discarded. 65 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  7. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  8. Environmental assessments required to support nomination of sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussler, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 establishes a schedule for siting the nation's first repository for nuclear waste and spent fuel. The Act assigns the primary responsibility for conducting this siting program to the Department ofEnergy. The provisions of the Act are reviewed, including six legal requirements that must be considered for each environmental assessment, each of which is discussed in detail

  9. Meeting the requirements for a DOE environmental restoration project. The Fernald strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanoss, R.L.; Risenhoover, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) of five Operable Units (OU) at Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) includes compliance with the requirements of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE Orders. Each regulatory driver has differing procedural requirements for documenting calculations, decisions, and actions involved in site cleanup. Integration of documentation and avoidance of duplication can save time and money. Such savings are being achieved by OU specific application of supporting studies, revised procedures, and guidance documents. Each OU is seeking appropriate opportunities to produce single documents that simultaneously fulfill the important requirements of the other regulations and DOE orders. These opportunities are evaluated at all phases of decision making, remedial design, and remedial action. Three essential processes precede environmental restoration/remedial action at a DOE site/project: 1. Completion of decision-making documents required by governing or applicable statutes. 2. Completion of important scientific and engineering analyses of remedial alternatives, and design and implementation of the remedial solution established in the CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD). 3. Preparation of DOE-mandated documentation to record engineering evaluations and cost estimates required for budgeting, decision making, and project management. Methodology and requirements for each process have developed from long, successful practice, but independently of each other. FERMCO, as new DOE contractor at Fernald and first Environmental Restoration Management Contractor (ERMC), is committed to a process of Continuous Performance Improvement (CPI). A major reevaluation of documentation and processes for support of environmental decision-making and design of cleanup activities to remediate the five OUs at the FEMP is being undertaken

  10. A study on the relationship of environmental regulations and economic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Jia; Chen, Shen

    2017-11-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanism transmission of environmental regulation affecting on economic performance from a new perspective. It shows that environmental regulations affect country’s economic performance through direct transmission and indirect transmission. Direct transmission means that environmental regulations affect economic performance from influencing corporation’s cost and revenue, and indirect transmission is that environmental regulations affect economic performance through leading to the increased effort of corporations in improving the quality of environment and building the image of fulfilling environmental responsibility.

  11. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  12. Incorporating Environmental Regulation and Litigation in Earth Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, A. R.

    2004-12-01

    Fundamental knowledge of geological processes is not only needed for effective environmental regulation and litigation, but Earth Science students find that relevance motivating in their studies of those processes. Crustal abundance and redox reactions suddenly become personally meaningful when they are used to account for the presence of high levels of carcinogenic Cr(VI) in the students' drinking water. Similarly, epithermal mercury deposits and the element's speciation gain new importance when they are related to the warning signs on the consumption of fish that the students catch and eat. And even those students that are not motivated by these, and many other, applications of geology find solace in learning that anthropogenic perturbations of the global lead cycle may partially account for their short attention span, lack of interest, and inability to learn the material. Consequently, a number of courses in environmental toxicology and ground water contamination have been developed that are based on (1) case studies in environmental regulation and litigation and (2) active student participation as "expert witnesses" opining on the scientific basis of environmental decisions.

  13. Environmental Restoration Program quality system requirements for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.F.

    1993-11-01

    This document defines the quality system requirements for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Program at the Hanford Site. The Quality System Requirements (OSR) for the Hanford Site integrates quality assurance requirements from the US Department of Energy Orders, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), and applicable industry standards into a single source document for the development of quality systems applicable to the Environmental Restoration Program activities. This document, based on fifteen criteria and divided intro three parts, provides user organizations with the flexibility to incorporate only those criteria and parts applicable to their specific scopes of work. The requirements of this document shall be applied to activities that affect quality based on a graded approach that takes into consideration the risk inherent in, as well as the importance of, specific items, services, and activities in terms of meeting ER Program objectives and customer expectations. The individual quality systems developed in accordance with this document are intended to provide an integrated management control system that assures the conduct of ER Program activities in a manner that protects human health and the environment

  14. Environmental effects on hormonal regulation of testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebaek, N E

    2006-01-01

    cause some cases of undescended testis. Similarly, androgen insensitivity or androgen deficiency can cause cryptorchidism. Estrogens have been shown to down regulate INSL3 and thereby cause maldescent. Thus, a reduced androgen-estrogen ratio may disturb testicular descent. Environmental effects changing......Regulation of testicular descent is hormonally regulated, but the reasons for maldescent remain unknown in most cases. The main regulatory hormones are Leydig cell-derived testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3). Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the secretion of these hormones...... hypothesize that an exposure to a mixture of chemicals with anti-androgenic or estrogenic properties (either their own activity or their effect on androgen-estrogen ratio) may be involved in cryptorchidism....

  15. Environmental Regulation in Uganda: Successes and Challenges - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Echookit Akellol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of environmental regulatory framework in Uganda was initiated by the national environment action planning process in 1990, as a realization that environment needed special focus. As a result of the said process environmental policy and law were developed. The 1995 constitutional of the Republic of Uganda was among the first ever such constitution in the East African region to deliberately enshrine the right to a decent environment and to provide for sustainable development, in addition to the principle that natural resources are held in trust for the people and should be responsibly managed for their benefit. Following the constitution, a number of environment legislations were enacted and others were revised to take into account environmental cardinal principles and considerations, including embedding in them environmental regulatory provisions. Hence, in addition to the framework of National Environment Act, a number of environment sect oral legislation exists and environmental management is spread throughout the respective institutions responsible for aspects of the environment. It is therefore safe to say that Uganda has developed a lot of legislation on the environment but the challenge remains that of developing more regulations under the relevant parent Acts, effective monitoring and enforcement.

  16. Impact of Environmental Regulation on Productivity: Case Studies of Three Industries in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chalermthanakom, Adisak; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Although fi rms bear the cost of compliance, strict but fl exible environmental regulation may benefi t them by spurring the innovation process. However, the relationship between environmental regulation and productivity is unclear. We calculate productivity growth by using data envelopment analysis; we then conduct regression analysis, using panel data on productivity growth by environmental regulation stringency. A one-year lag of environmental regulation stringency is included in the model...

  17. Environmental policies and regulations on the electricity market in EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of natural resources like ground and water, the emissions of noxious gases and particles, the thermal rejections, the production of waste and the noise are the main environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity. Emission regulations and standards have been selected so far by the European Community (EC) and the different Member States to deal with the abatement problem. They simply consist in defining some ceilings or regulations for the different types of noxious gases and particles which are emitted by power plants and forcing the power generation companies to comply with these norms within some pre-determined time period. They can also take the form of a general constraint on the sulfur content of the fuel, for example. Tables of emission limits for various gases from existing and new plants are presented. 3 figs., 8 tabs

  18. State environmental regulation and economic development: Are they compatible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.

    1992-01-01

    An underlying assumption of the partial preemption approach is the belief that minimum federal standards contribute to the prospective decentralization of environmental protection programs by removing or reducing industry incentives to shop around for states with a more lenient regulatory stance. This assumption was examined through a survey of chiev executive officers of pollution-generating firms. The data suggest that corporate officials see regulatory climate as an important component of overhead costs. The author concludes that the desire to retain industries within state boundaries does inhibit the promulgation of strict environment regulations by public officials. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Yu-Bong; Hu, Chia-Hsien [Department of Public Finance, National Taipei University (China)

    2008-05-15

    This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)

  20. Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Yu-Bong; Hu, Chia-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)

  1. Can local environmental regulation of companies deal with a broader environmental view?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper; Smink, Carla

    Environmental concern of companies has gradually expanded from a focus on local environmental problems to a broader inclusion of inputs as well as lifecycle perspectives. At the same time, the regulatory approach has changed from a “pure” command-and-control regime, towards a governance regime......, where strict regulations increasingly are supplemented with other regulatory instruments such as economic incentives, information and facilitation. In Denmark, municipalities are the competent authority for companies. Throughout the last decade, several attempts to expand competences of municipalities...

  2. Proposal for elicitation and analysis of environmental requirements into the construction design process: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Proposal: As new demands from sustainable development, environmental requirements arise as another challenge to design process management. It is already known that companies which design buildings are usually exposed to many managerial difficulties. Faced to the environmental demands, these companies require new facilities to align environmental requirements to the business goals and to include them properly in design process. This paper is based on a case study in a construction company, which was developed through interviews and document analysis. It is intended to present a procedure for the project environmental requirements elicitation, organization and analysis, which is based on the requirements engineering (ER concepts. As results it was concluded that the ER concepts are useful for the environmental requirements integration into the design process and that strategic planning should give directions for the effective environmental requirements adherence. Moreover, a procedure for environmental requirements modeling is proposed. Key-words: Design process, Requirements management, Environmental requirements, Construction

  3. Study on environmental results improvement plan through flexible industrial environmental regulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun Joo; Chang, Kee Bok; Lee, Young Soon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    As the economic environment has been changed to the direction of decentralization and diversification, there shows various changes in the area and method of market intervention by the government. In the environmental sector, it has been discussed to extend its use of economic incentive coming out of an existing direct regulation policy. Recently the importance on the new forms of government role such as voluntary agreements and information opening have been emphasized. Although the existing direct regulation policy has an advantage of visible and direct effect, it blocked the chance to explore technological and economical alternatives toward environmental problems by business sector. Therefore it is recognized that there is a fundamental limit on inducing the efficient pollution resisting activities from the business sector. Therefore this study analyzed and recommended theoretical characteristics on mechanism that a voluntary approach can bring appropriate results on policy objectives. 98 refs. 7 figs., 47 tabs.

  4. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent open-quotes Murder Board.close quotes Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters' budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management

  5. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent {open_quotes}Murder Board.{close_quotes} Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters` budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management.

  6. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Biological and Environmental Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of PECBO Module, using scripts to infer environmental conditions from biological observations, statistically estimating species-environment relationships, methods for inferring environmental conditions, statistical scripts in module.

  7. Developing New Modelling Tools for Environmental Flow Assessment in Regulated Salmon Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Josie; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2013-04-01

    There is a strong political drive in Scotland to meet all electricity demands from renewable sources by 2020. In Scotland, hydropower generation has a long history and is a key component of this strategy. However, many rivers sustain freshwater communities that have both high conservation status and support economically important Atlantic salmon fisheries. Both new and existing hydropower schemes must be managed in accordance with the European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires that all surface water bodies achieve good ecological status or maintain good ecological potential. Unfortunately, long-term river flow monitoring is sparse in the Scottish Highlands and there are limited data for defining environmental flows. The River Tay is the most heavily regulated catchment in the UK. To support hydropower generation, it has an extensive network of inter- and intra- catchment transfers, in addition to a large number of regulating reservoirs for which abstraction legislation often only requires minimum compensation flows. The Tay is also considered as one of Scotland's most important rivers for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and there is considerable uncertainty as to how best change reservoir operations to improve the ecological potential of the river system. It is now usually considered that environmental flows require more than a minimum compensation flow, and instead should cover a range of hydrological flow aspects that represent ecologically relevant streamflow attributes, including magnitude, timing, duration, frequency and rate of change. For salmon, these hydrological indices are of particular interest, with requirements varying at different stages of their life cycle. To meet the WFD requirements, rationally alter current abstraction licences and provide an evidence base for regulating new hydropower schemes, advanced definitions for abstraction limits and ecologically appropriate flow releases are desirable. However, a good understanding

  8. Radioactive materials and nuclear fuel transport requirements in Poland in the light of international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musialowicz, T.

    1977-01-01

    National regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and nuclear fuel in Poland are discussed. Basic transport requirements and regulations, transport experience including transport accidents and emergency service are described. The comparison with international regulations is given

  9. Physical environment. [environmental impact statement required for general aviation airport construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Environmental legislation affecting airports and the more common environmental effects resulting from airport construction are discussed with special emphasis on general aviation airports. The discussion is focused on the regulation of noise, pollution, and water quality.

  10. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  11. Environmental restoration disposal facility applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements study report. Revision 00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, F.V.; Vedder, B.L.; Rugg, J.E.

    1995-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) will be a landfill authorized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and will comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) substantive requirements. The facility will also comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), including portions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), and to-be-considered (TBC) elements such as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. In considering the requirements of CERCLA, a detailed analysis of various alternatives for ERDF was completed using the nine CERCLA criteria, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), and public comments. The ERDF record of decision (ROD) selected an alternative that includes a RCRA-compliant double-lined trench for the disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes resulting from the remediation of operable units (OU) within the National Priorities List (NPL) sites in the 100, 200, and 300 Areas. Only wastes resulting from the remediation of Hanford NPL sites will be allowed in the ERDF. Of the various siting and design alternatives proposed for ERDF, the selected alternative provides the best combination of features by balancing the nine CERCLA criteria, ARAR compliance, environmentally protective site, and various stakeholder and public recommendations. The ERDF trench design, compliant with RCRA Subtitle C minimum technical requirements (MTR), will be double lined and equipped with a leachate collection system. This design provides a more reliable system to protect groundwater than other proposed alternatives. The ERDF is located on the Hanford Site Central Plateau, southeast of the 200 West Area

  12. Regulation and decision-making in environmental radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The EC-funded project FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental impact), which completed in 2003, has developed an assessment framework for evaluating the environmental impact of ionising radiation on biota in natural ecosystems. The FASSET framework comprises: source characterisation and initial hazard analysis; ecosystem description and selection of reference organisms (ca 30, with defined geometry and life history); exposure analysis, including conversion of input data to external and internal radionuclide concentrations, and subsequent conversion to dose rates; effects analysis, supported by an effects database; and, guidance for interpretation. The framework provides practical and scientific support to the international development of recommendations for radiological protection of the environment through the International Commission on Radiological Protection (cf. ICRP Publication 91). However, on the basis of experiences from FASSET and other recent developments, it can be concluded that there are challenges remaining before environmental radiological protection can be seen as a natural component of general environmental protection. The major future challenge is the development of an integrated approach where decision-making can be guided by sound scientific judgements. This requires, inter alia, filling in gaps in basic knowledge of relevance to assessment and protection, through targeted experimental, theoretical (including expert judgements) and real case studies; development of risk characterisation methodologies, based on both theoretical and experimental studies; development of screening standards, where appropriate; development of user-friendly assessment tools; and stakeholder involvement, including development of supporting communication strategies. A new EC-funded project, ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and management), has recently started. The project has four operational work packages, being devoted to

  13. Heterogeneity of the environmental regulation of industrial wastewater: European wineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Sánchez, Isabel M; Aznar-Sánchez, José A; Belmonte-Ureña, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    The European legislation of the pollution of industrial wastewater shows a high degree of heterogeneity. This fact implies that there is a market failure with relevant consequences. Within the European Union, each Member State performs a specific transposition of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60. The member states introduce different sanitation fees to correct water pollution. In this paper, the case of the European wine industry is analyzed. It studies the sanitation fees of the five major wine producing countries: France, Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal. Results show significant differences among the wastewater fees and the study reveals how such heterogeneity leads to relevant market distortions. The research concludes that more homogeneous environmental regulation would promote more sustainable wine production processes with more efficient water management and purification systems, as well as the introduction of cutting edge technologies.

  14. The precautionary principle in environmental regulations for drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Crawford-Brown, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The precautionary principle has been proposed as a means of providing increased safety for consumers of drinking water. While the principle has received increased attention over the past 2 decades, it remains rather poorly defined both in law and practice. Hence, the implications for application in risk-based decisions on water quality are not fully developed. This paper examines a series of philosophical, practical and decision-theoretic issues related to the application of the principle in such decisions, highlighting areas where at least the intent of the principle is already well embedded in environmental regulation through margins of safety, and identifying residual issues. A conclusion is drawn that full application of the principle may be driven forward both by programmes such as REACH in the EU, and by the emerging Water Framework Directive and multi-stakeholder approaches to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  15. Molecular targets of epigenetic regulation and effectors of environmental influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhuri, Supratim; Cui Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    The true understanding of what we currently define as epigenetics evolved over time as our knowledge on DNA methylation and chromatin modifications and their effects on gene expression increased. The current explosion of research on epigenetics and the increasing documentation of the effects of various environmental factors on DNA methylation, chromatin modification, as well as on the expression of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have expanded the scope of research on the etiology of various diseases including cancer. The current review briefly discusses the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulation and expands the discussion with examples on the role of environment, such as the immediate environment during development, in inducing epigenetic changes and modulating gene expression.

  16. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Sethupathy, Praveen [Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fry, Rebecca C., E-mail: rfry@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Curriculum in Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression.

  17. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth; Sethupathy, Praveen; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression

  18. Some problems of risk balancing for regulating environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Rational regulation of environmental hazards may be based on the implicit underlying principles that government actions should enhance the average quality of life for those governed and maintain some degree of equity in the distribution of benefits, costs, and risks. Issues arising from these principles have practical implications for risk management policy in general and for the development and application of radiological protection criteria in particular. One of the issues is the appropriate distribution of expenditures for regulating different risks. The total resources available for risk regulation are finite; hence, minimizing the total risk subject to this constraint is an appropriate strategy for optimum risk management. Using a simple model, it is shown that this strategy leads to a distribution of expenditures between different risks such that a greater fraction is allocated to a risk with a higher cost of mitigation or control but the allocation is limited in such a manner that the fractional contribution of that risk to the total risk is also higher. The effect of deviating from this strategy is examined. It is shown that reducing a single risk of concern below the optimum value by a factor 1/F can increase the total risk by about F times the risk of concern. Taking into account the large uncertainties in risk assessment for establishing radiological protection criteria, it is argued that an optimum strategy for remedial action should (1) set basic risk limits as high as reasonable; (2) use realistic, case-specific data and analyses in deriving allowable residual contamination levels from basic risk limits; and (3) implement a policy of reducing residual contamination to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the constraints imposed by optimum resource allocation. 10 references

  19. Problems of risk balancing for regulating environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Rational regulation of environmental hazards may be based on the implicit underlying principles that government actions should enhance the average quality of life for those governed and maintain some degree of equity in the distribution of benefits, costs, and risks. Issues arising from these principles have practical implications for risk management policy in general and for the development and application of radiological protection criteria in particular. One of the issues is the appropriate distribution of expenditures for regulating different risks. The total resources available for risk regulation are finite; hence, minimizing the total risk subject to this constraint is an appropriate strategy for optimum risk management. Using a simple model, it is shown that this strategy leads to a distribution of expenditures between different risks such that a greater fraction is allocated to a risk with a higher cost of mitigation or control but the allocation is limited in such a manner that the fractional contribution of that risk to the total risk is also higher. The effect of deviating from this strategy is examined. It is shown that reducing a single risk of concern below the optimum value by a factor 1/F can increase the total risk by about F times the risk of concern. Taking into account the large uncertainties in risk assessment for establishing radiological protection criteria, it is argued that an optimum strategy for remedial action should (1) set basic risk limits as high as reasonable; (2) use realistic, case-specific data and analyses in deriving allowable residual contamination levels from basic risk limits; and (3) implement a policy of reducing residual contamination to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the constraints imposed by optimum resource allocation. 10 references, 1 figure

  20. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive--inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, A; Bejgarn, S; Rudén, C; Molander, L; Breitholtz, M

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Present state of nuclear regulation organizations of main countries in the world. Importance of regulation staffs and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    After Fukushima accident, NRA (Nuclear Regulation Authority) was established in Japan as an independent organization from promotion. In order to perform effective and reliable nuclear regulation, it was important management organization such as nuclear regulation commission worked efficiently, and also requirements for nuclear regulation staffs engaged in actual regulatory works were of importance so as for appropriate decision making or judgments of management organization. Since regulation staffs needed professional expertise and technical judgment capabilities in wide areas including other than nuclear energy, various efforts had been done to get able regulation staffs in US, France and UK nuclear regulation organizations concerned, which became clarified after overseas investigation for this article. Since knowledge in nuclear industry could be used for effective regulation, mid-career recruitment had been employed in regulation organization of each country so as to take such knowledge and so it was important how to utilize industrial knowledge under appropriate conditions compatible with independence of regulation organization. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Discovery of a Splicing Regulator Required for Cell Cycle Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvorova, Elena S.; Croken, Matthew; Kratzer, Stella; Ting, Li-Min; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Balu, Bharath; Markillie, Lye Meng; Weiss, Louis M.; Kim, Kami; White, Michael W.

    2013-02-01

    In the G1 phase of the cell division cycle, eukaryotic cells prepare many of the resources necessary for a new round of growth including renewal of the transcriptional and protein synthetic capacities and building the machinery for chromosome replication. The function of G1 has an early evolutionary origin and is preserved in single and multicellular organisms, although the regulatory mechanisms conducting G1 specific functions are only understood in a few model eukaryotes. Here we describe a new G1 mutant from an ancient family of apicomplexan protozoans. Toxoplasma gondii temperature-sensitive mutant 12-109C6 conditionally arrests in the G1 phase due to a single point mutation in a novel protein containing a single RNA-recognition-motif (TgRRM1). The resulting tyrosine to asparagine amino acid change in TgRRM1 causes severe temperature instability that generates an effective null phenotype for this protein when the mutant is shifted to the restrictive temperature. Orthologs of TgRRM1 are widely conserved in diverse eukaryote lineages, and the human counterpart (RBM42) can functionally replace the missing Toxoplasma factor. Transcriptome studies demonstrate that gene expression is downregulated in the mutant at the restrictive temperature due to a severe defect in splicing that affects both cell cycle and constitutively expressed mRNAs. The interaction of TgRRM1 with factors of the tri-SNP complex (U4/U6 & U5 snRNPs) indicate this factor may be required to assemble an active spliceosome. Thus, the TgRRM1 family of proteins is an unrecognized and evolutionarily conserved class of splicing regulators. This study demonstrates investigations into diverse unicellular eukaryotes, like the Apicomplexa, have the potential to yield new insights into important mechanisms conserved across modern eukaryotic kingdoms.

  3. Minimum power requirement for environmental control of aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, Juan Carlos; Bejan, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses two basic issues in the thermodynamic optimization of environmental control systems (ECS) for aircraft: realistic limits for the minimal power requirement, and design features that facilitate operation at minimal power consumption. Four models are proposed and optimized. In the first, the ECS operates reversibly, the air stream in the cabin is mixed to one temperature, and the cabin experiences heat transfer with the ambient, across its insulation. The cabin temperature is fixed. In the second model, the fixed cabin temperature is assigned to the internal solid surfaces of the cabin, and a thermal resistance separates these surfaces from the air mixed in the cabin. In the third model, the ECS operates irreversibly, based on the bootstrap air cycle. The fourth model combines the ECS features of the third model with the cabin-environment interaction features of the second model. It is shown that in all models the temperature of the air stream that the ECS delivers to the cabin can be optimized for operation at minimal power. The effect of other design parameters and flying conditions is documented. The optimized air delivery temperature is relatively insensitive to the complexity of the model; for example, it is insensitive to the size of the heat exchanger used in the bootstrap air cycle. This study adds to the view that robustness is a characteristic of optimized complex flow systems, and that thermodynamic optimization results can be used for orientation in the pursuit of more complex and realistic designs

  4. The regulation and deregulation requirements for the decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of a brief outline of the starting point in terms of technical conditions and status, and of the main aspects of application and interpretation of the law, the regulation and deregulation requirements are elaborated in the light of suggestions for change and with regard to their possible concretization in laws and subordinate laws; the strongest need for change undoubtedly is in the field of the technical codes and regulations, which hitherto have been established primarily for the construction and operation of nuclear installations and hence are not necessarily applicable to the activities to be performed for decommissioning. Practice so far has shown, however, that these regulations are applied not analogously, as would be adequate, but in direct manner. The required review and modification of the existing regulatory codes for the purpose of decommissioning will have to concentrate on the following aspects: - Scope and level of specification of application documents; - definition of important, safety-related events (as e.g. accidents); - scope and level of specification of expert opinions, taking into account the reduced risk level. As a long-term objective, it would be desirable to harmonize existing German regulatory provisions for the decommissioning of industrial plants with an environmental impact (as e.g, the Waste Management Act, Atomic Energy Act, mining law, Federal Emission Control Act), and to seek an approach of national regulatory systems and technical codes in this field under the roof of the EC. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. 78 FR 60898 - Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory; Revision of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements... collection requirements specified by its Regulation at 29 CFR 1910.7, ``definition and requirements for a...

  6. Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C. (comp.)

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.

  7. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  8. 10 CFR 504.9 - Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information. In addition, OFP will have the authority to approve and modify any statement, analysis, and... the costs of preparing any necessary Environmental Assessment (EA) or Environmental Impact Statement... review and prepare an EA or EIS, as appropriate, and who does not have a financial or other interest in...

  9. Politics of environmental regulation: acid rain in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogarth Wood, G P

    1984-01-01

    This study looks at the case of the Ontario government and Inco Limited in order to explain political responses to the acid rain issue and to generalize about the dynamics of environmental regulation. Existing accounts of the acid rain situation neglect a systematic explanation of the political processes that guide the selection of policy. This reflects a tendency in Canadian public policy analysis generally. Most literature in this field is both apolitical and atheoretical. In addition, most models of public policy focus attention on a narrow range of policy determinants, making the models inappropriate as exclusive guides for public policy analysis. This study follows an approach that assumes that no variable can, a priori, be viewed as the primary determinant of a policy choice. Instead, relevant features of the economic, social, and political environment surrounding the policy process have to be examined in addition to that process itself. Accordingly, a number of potential influences on the acid rain policy outcome in Ontario are explored: the economic structure of Ontario, political-geographic factors, the role of science and technology, political power in the province, political values and attitudes, the institutional structure of Ontario politics, and finally, the policy process itself. This exercise points to the overriding influence of the political system environment, particularly the economic structure of the province, in explaining the policy choice. The findings of this study can be extended to explain regulatory responses to the issue in other political jurisdictions.

  10. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  11. 10 CFR 205.328 - Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits-Alternative 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy at International Boundaries § 205.328 Environmental... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits... responsible for the costs of preparing any necessary environmental document, including an Environmental Impact...

  12. 18 CFR 380.6 - Actions that require an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental impact statement. 380.6 Section 380.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.6 Actions that require an environmental impact statement. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an environmental impact statement will normally be prepared first...

  13. Mine planning and scheduling at Ranger Uranium Mine - environmental requirements and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Ranger Uranium Mines operates an open cut located in the Northern Territory. Strict environmental controls govern all operations and the water management requirements have the greatest impact on mine planning. The two main goals of planning are to provide mill feed and to mine sufficient suitable quality waste rock for ongoing construction of the tailings dam. Early planning concentrated on staged development of the pit to provide access to as much ore as possible for a given amount of development. All waste was considered to be suitable construction material. Grade control of crusher feed was the main problem in planning, as wide variations occur in ore grade over relatively short distances. Water management for the site operates a 'no release' system for contaminated waters. Design storage has proven inadequate, and the open cut has been used as the extra storage. As construction of future stages of the tailings dam requires non-mineralised rock materials which meet specific quality criteria, the mine has had to re-examine long term planning and pit development strategies. This has entailed the collection of much data not required under normal mining conditions, such as the assaying of waste drill core. The overall impact on mine planning of the environmental regulations has been to alter the philosophy of earlier planning, making it necessary to create a new strategy for pit development with the accent on exposing waste

  14. Vulnerability of US thermoelectric power generation to climate change when incorporating state-level environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad; Li, Hongyi; Forman, Barton; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-07-10

    This study explores the interactions between climate and thermoelectric generation in the U.S. by coupling an Earth System Model with a thermoelectric power generation model. We validated model simulations of power production for selected power plants (~44% of existing thermoelectric capacity) against reported values. In addition, we projected future usable capacity for existing power plants under two different climate change scenarios. Results indicate that climate change alone may reduce average thermoelectric generating capacity by 2%-3% by the 2060s. Reductions up to 12% are expected if environmental requirements are enforced without waivers for thermal variation. This study concludes that the impact of climate change on the U.S. thermoelectric power system is less than previous estimates due to an inclusion of a spatially-disaggregated representation of environmental regulations and provisional variances that temporarily relieve power plants from permit requirements. This work highlights the significance of accounting for legal constructs in which the operation of power plants are managed, and underscores the effects of provisional variances in addition to environmental requirements.

  15. Environmental management for dredging sediments - the requirement of developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research has characterized the effects of dredging, an underwater excavation process for navigational purposes or material extraction, and has shown its association with a number of chemical, physical and biological impacts. Due to this, much environmental management has been applied in the dredging industry in order to manage its detrimental effects. However, developing nations may have different approaches towards their dredging environmental management to compare to their companions with higher economic strength. Moreover, scientific evidence to make an informed decision is often lacking, hence affecting the number of research executed at these nations, limiting their efforts to preserve the environment. This paper reviews the dredging environmental impacts and its two important factors, dredging technology and sediment characteristic, that determine the magnitude of impacts through literature review, and discusses the need for a more integrated dredging environmental management to be developed for developing nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi M. Korpela

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507 evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS. The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM. Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation.

  17. Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Kalevi M.; Pasanen, Tytti; Repo, Veera; Hartig, Terry; Staats, Henk; Mason, Michael; Alves, Susana; Fornara, Ferdinando; Marks, Tony; Saini, Sunil; Scopelliti, Massimiliano; Soares, Ana L.; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2018-01-01

    Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507) evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS). The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM). Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation. PMID:29720955

  18. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... process. Environmental Review Procedures ...

  19. Thyroid hormone is required for hypothalamic neurons regulating cardiovascular functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, J.; Lyons, D.J.; Sällström, J.; Vujoviv, M.; Dudazy-Gralla, S.; Warner, A.; Wallis, K.; Alkemade, A.; Nordström, K.; Monyer, H.; Broberger, C.; Arner, A.; Vennström, B.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone’s

  20. 76 FR 81408 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 719 48 CFR Parts 931, 952 and 970 RIN 1990-AA37 Contractor Legal... Energy (DOE or Department) is proposing to revise existing regulations covering contractor legal... costs by certain contractors whose contracts exceed $100,000,000 as well as legal counsel retained...

  1. 78 FR 25795 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 719 48 CFR Parts 931, 952, and 970 RIN 1990-AA37 Contractor Legal.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy revises existing regulations covering contractor... costs by certain contractors whose contracts exceed $100,000,000 as well as legal counsel retained...

  2. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepcion, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about

  3. Environmental regulations and plant exit: A logit analysis based on established panel data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bioern, E; Golombek, R; Raknerud, A

    1995-12-01

    This publication uses a model to study the relationship between environmental regulations and plant exit. It has the main characteristics of a multinomial qualitative response model of the logit type, but also has elements of a Markov chain model. The model uses Norwegian panel data for establishments in three manufacturing sectors with high shares of units which have been under strict environmental regulations. In two of the sectors, the exit probability of non-regulated establishments is about three times higher than for regulated ones. It is also found that the probability of changing regulation status from non-regulated to regulated depends significantly on economic factors. In particular, establishments with weak profitability are the most likely to become subject to environmental regulation. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Financial Market Regulation in Germany - Capital Requirements of Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Karl Detzer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines capital adequacy regulation in Germany. The first part reviews capital adequacy regulation from the 1930s up to the financial crisis and identifies two main trends: a gradual softening of the eligibility criteria for equity and increasing reliance on internal risk models. While the first trend has been reversed following the financial crisis, internal risk models still play a central role. Therefore, the second part discusses the problems with the use of internal risk models and discusses the potentials of Basel 2.5 and Basel III to alleviate the identified problems. It is concluded that the relevant problems are not resolved. Therefore, in the final part some suggestions of how the problems could be addressed properly are given.

  5. Cost regulation on the inspection of plants requiring supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    According to annexes I to VI of this regulation, TUeVs (technical control authorities) (2nd sentence of para. 1 of sect. 24 c of the trade law) collect fees for inspections ordered by the authorities for the following plants and installations: 1. steam boiler plants, 2. pressure vessels, high-pressure gas vessels, feeders, 3. lifts, 4. acetylene plants, 5. plants for the storage, racking and transport of combustile liquids, 6. electrical installations on hazardous location. (orig.) [de

  6. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive — Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobek, A.; Bejgarn, S.; Rudén, C.; Molander, L.; Breitholtz, M.

    2013-01-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. - Highlights: • UV-filters are used in both cosmetic and industrial products/applications • UV-filters in cosmetic products are excluded from CLP • We

  7. Bulk Fuel Storage Requirements for Maintenance, Repair, and Environmental Projects at Fort Hood, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carros, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, environmental, and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  8. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mahatab

    that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it. As different kinds of threats posed by climate change are continuously increasing all over the world the issue of “technology transfer” especially the transfer of environmentally sound technologies has become one of the key topics...

  9. 76 FR 78933 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ..., electronic record requirements, and investigator initiated research. Topics for discussion include the...] Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good Clinical... Clinical Research Associates (SoCRA), is announcing a public workshop. The public workshop on FDA's...

  10. 75 FR 14593 - Environmental Impact Statements and Regulations; Availability of EPA Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Management Plan for Reef Fish Resources, Addresses Bycatch of Sea Turtles in the Bottom Longline Component of... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8989-4] Environmental Impact Statements and Regulations; Availability of EPA Comments Availability of EPA comments prepared pursuant to the Environmental Review Process...

  11. 78 FR 80369 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Service Contracts Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... (e.g., cost-reimbursement, time-and- materials, and labor-hour contracts), which already require... contract costs and labor can significantly fluctuate each year or how this type of labor can be comingled... of direct labor hours expended on the services performed is extremely concerning, particularly in a...

  12. 75 FR 1585 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...] Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101 and J163 as regulated... International (FGI) alfalfa events J101 and J163 were no longer considered regulated articles under the...

  13. Low Cost Environmental Sensors for Spaceflight: NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buehler, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  14. Epigenetic Regulation of Centromere Chromatin Stability by Dietary and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saavedra, Diego; Strakovsky, Rita S; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2017-11-01

    The centromere is a genomic locus required for the segregation of the chromosomes during cell division. This chromosomal region together with pericentromeres has been found to be susceptible to damage, and thus the perturbation of the centromere could lead to the development of aneuploidic events. Metabolic abnormalities that underlie the generation of cancer include inflammation, oxidative stress, cell cycle deregulation, and numerous others. The micronucleus assay, an early clinical marker of cancer, has been shown to provide a reliable measure of genotoxic damage that may signal cancer initiation. In the current review, we will discuss the events that lead to micronucleus formation and centromeric and pericentromeric chromatin instability, as well transcripts emanating from these regions, which were previously thought to be inactive. Studies were selected in PubMed if they reported the effects of nutritional status (macro- and micronutrients) or environmental toxicant exposure on micronucleus frequency or any other chromosomal abnormality in humans, animals, or cell models. Mounting evidence from epidemiologic, environmental, and nutritional studies provides a novel perspective on the origination of aneuploidic events. Although substantial evidence exists describing the role that nutritional status and environmental toxicants have on the generation of micronuclei and other nuclear aberrations, limited information is available to describe the importance of macro- and micronutrients on centromeric and pericentromeric chromatin stability. Moving forward, studies that specifically address the direct link between nutritional status, excess, or deficiency and the epigenetic regulation of the centromere will provide much needed insight into the nutritional and environmental regulation of this chromosomal region and the initiation of aneuploidy. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. 76 FR 35218 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Pricing Data, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit...; Information Collection; Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and Information Other Than Cost or Pricing Data... concerning cost or pricing data requirements and information other than cost or pricing data. Public comments...

  16. 10 CFR 205.329 - Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits-Alternative 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy at International Boundaries § 205.329 Environmental... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits... such Presidential Permits: (1) ERA will determine whether an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or an...

  17. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 200 - Actions Requiring Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement C Appendix C to Part 200 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 200, App. C Appendix C to Part 200—Actions Requiring Environmental Impact Statement The following actions are considered to be major Federal...

  18. 43 CFR 46.415 - Environmental impact statement content, alternatives, circulation and filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statement content... Impact Statements § 46.415 Environmental impact statement content, alternatives, circulation and filing requirements. The Responsible Official may use any environmental impact statement format and design as long as...

  19. 40 CFR 6.201 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 6.201 Section 6.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA ACTIONS EPA's NEPA Environmental Review Procedures § 6.201 Coordination with other...

  20. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...

  1. The regulation of the EC on the environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupei, J.

    1985-01-01

    In March 1985, the Council of Ministers of the European Communities agreed on a draft directive for an environmental impact assessment. Preparations and difficult negotiations lasted for nearly ten years. An important step was the draft of the Commission of 1980. Besides the history of the draft topics of discussion are the following: Scope of the directive, procedural problems of the environmental impact assessment, phases of the investigation, content and scope of the assessment, periodical control of the installation and its environmental effects, problems of communication. (DR)

  2. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  3. Managing Campus Energy: Compromising between Rapid Needs and Environmental Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Utama, Yos J.; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of energy, especially electricity at Diponegoro University campus continues to increase in line with the development of the university. This increase has a direct impact on the increased costs to be paid by the university. Some of the causes of increased utilization of electrical energy is the construction of new buildings to meet the needs, increased learning activities and education, research activities in the laboratory, and various other activities. On the other hand, the increase of energy utilization is considered not good from the environment point of view, especially the utilization of electrical energy coming from non sustainable resources. Efforts to compromise on both are to develop policies in developing environmentally friendly buildings, efficiency in utilization of electrical energy, and development of sustainable energy sources.

  4. Environmental regulations: their impact on the battery and lead industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, John R.

    This paper presents a general overview of the past and current position of the lead industry in relation to environmental legislation and its impact. The lead industry has watched environmental lead levels being steadily reduced down to levels that, ten years ago, would have been considered unachievable. Nevertheless, the industry has managed to survive the effect of the ever-increasing demands of environmental controls. During the last ten to twenty years, lead producers and users have had to assess their future positions, as the cost implications of environmental laws have had a significant impact on their bottom lines. Without doubt, this consideration most definitely affected the viability of many plants. The need to be aware of the existence of new and proposed legislation is of paramount importance, as the threat from the vast array of EEC legislation is ever apparent. Lead companies have all considered environmental legislation to have no more than a nuisance value, but it is of vital importance to the future of the industry that such legislation is approached in a positive and sensible way in order to demonstrate a full commitment to protecting both employees and the general environment. Lead must receive the credit that it so richly deserves.

  5. Development of plasma cutting process at observation of environmental requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czech, J.; Matusiak, J.; Pasek-Siurek, H.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma cutting is one of the basic methods for thermal cutting of metals. It is characterized by high productivity and quality of the cut surface. However, the plasma cutting process is one of the most harmful processes for environment and human health. It results from many agents being a potential environmental risk The large amount of dust and gases emitted during the process as well as an intensive radiation of electric arc and excessive noise are considered as the most harmful hazards. The existing ventilation and filtration systems are not able to solve all problems resulting from the process. Plasma cutting under water is worthy of notice, especially during an advancement of plasma cutting process, because of human safety and environment protection. Such a solution allows to reduce considerably the emission of dust and gases, as well as to decrease the noise level and ultraviolet radiation. An additional advantage of underwater plasma cutting is a reduction in the width of material heating zone and a decrease in strains of elements being cut. However, the productivity of this process is a little lower what results in an increase in cutting cost. In the paper, it has been presented the results of the investigations made at the Institute of Welding in Gliwice on the area of plasma cutting equipment with energy-saving inverter power supplies used in automated processes of underwater plasma cutting as well as the results of testing of welding environment contamination and safety hazards. (author)

  6. Power requirements and environmental impact of a pedelec. A case study based on real-life applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abagnale, Carmelina, E-mail: c.abagnale@unina.it; Cardone, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.cardone@unina.it; Iodice, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.iodice@unina.it; Strano, Salvatore, E-mail: salvatore.strano@unina.it; Terzo, Mario, E-mail: m.terzo@unina.it; Vorraro, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.vorraro@unina.it

    2015-07-15

    This paper describes the methodologies to appraise the power requests and environmental analysis of an electrically assisted bicycle under real driving conditions, also containing regulations and technical-science-related aspects. For this purpose, in this study, the on-road test program of an electrically assisted bicycle was executed in the urban area of Naples on different test tracks, so a general assessment about its driving behavior under several driving conditions was performed. The power requirements in different typical riding situations were estimated by a procedure based on the experimental kinematic parameters that characterize the driving dynamics collected during the real-life applications. An environmental analysis was also performed, with a methodology that takes into account the environmental assessment of a moped by measuring the experimental moped exhaust emissions of the regulated pollutants. Starting from the results acquired during the different test samples, besides, an assessment of the electric traction offered by this pedelec on the driving comfort was evaluated for different riding situations. - Highlights: • The power requirements of a pedelec in typical riding conditions were identified. • The estimated electricity consumption for battery recharging was defined. • An environmental valuation of the tested pedelec and of a moped was performed. • Emissions that could be saved utilizing a pedelec instead of a moped were derived.

  7. Power requirements and environmental impact of a pedelec. A case study based on real-life applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abagnale, Carmelina; Cardone, Massimo; Iodice, Paolo; Strano, Salvatore; Terzo, Mario; Vorraro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies to appraise the power requests and environmental analysis of an electrically assisted bicycle under real driving conditions, also containing regulations and technical-science-related aspects. For this purpose, in this study, the on-road test program of an electrically assisted bicycle was executed in the urban area of Naples on different test tracks, so a general assessment about its driving behavior under several driving conditions was performed. The power requirements in different typical riding situations were estimated by a procedure based on the experimental kinematic parameters that characterize the driving dynamics collected during the real-life applications. An environmental analysis was also performed, with a methodology that takes into account the environmental assessment of a moped by measuring the experimental moped exhaust emissions of the regulated pollutants. Starting from the results acquired during the different test samples, besides, an assessment of the electric traction offered by this pedelec on the driving comfort was evaluated for different riding situations. - Highlights: • The power requirements of a pedelec in typical riding conditions were identified. • The estimated electricity consumption for battery recharging was defined. • An environmental valuation of the tested pedelec and of a moped was performed. • Emissions that could be saved utilizing a pedelec instead of a moped were derived

  8. Environmental Accounting as a Tool for Environmental Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Accounting as a Tool for Environmental Management System. ... This paper reviews about the relationship of environmental accounting and environmental ... to legal and regulation requirement, to reduce cost from customer

  9. Regulation of developmental and environmental signaling by interaction between microtubules and membranes in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cell division and expansion require the ordered arrangement of microtubules, which are subject to spatial and temporal modifications by developmental and environmental factors. Understanding how signals translate to changes in cortical microtubule organization is of fundamental importance. A defining feature of the cortical microtubule array is its association with the plasma membrane; modules of the plasma membrane are thought to play important roles in the mediation of microtubule organization. In this review, we highlight advances in research on the regulation of cortical microtubule organization by membrane-associated and membrane-tethered proteins and lipids in response to phytohormones and stress. The transmembrane kinase receptor Rho-like guanosine triphosphatase, phospholipase D, phosphatidic acid, and phosphoinositides are discussed with a focus on their roles in microtubule organization.

  10. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  11. Environmental Regulation and Innovation Dynamics in the Oil Tanker Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The maritime industry is widely seen as less permeable to innovation than other industries. However, the industry is now recognizing that demands for increased environment protection can only be achieved by more innovation.This study demonstrates that environmental innovation has played a signifi......The maritime industry is widely seen as less permeable to innovation than other industries. However, the industry is now recognizing that demands for increased environment protection can only be achieved by more innovation.This study demonstrates that environmental innovation has played...

  12. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Government Regulation and Enterprise Emission from the Perspective of Environmental Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yazong

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the upcoming implementation of the environmental tax policy, there is a need for a focus on the relationship between government regulation and corporate emissions. To achieve the real effect of environmental tax policy, government need to regulate the illegal emissions of enterprises. Based on the hypothesis of bounded rationality, this paper analyses the strategic set of government regulators and polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy. By using the evolutionary game model, the utility function and payoff matrix of the both sides are constructed, and the evolutionary analysis and strategy adjustment of the environmental governance target and the actual profit of the stakeholders are carried out. Thus, the wrong behaviours could be corrected so that the equilibrium of the evolutionary system can be achieved gradually, which could also get the evolutionary stable strategies of the government and the polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy.

  13. The Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Product Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. A. Pigosso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from manufacturing-oriented to product-oriented instruments. Compliance with product-related environmental legislation is achieved by the incorporation of environmental requirements into the early phases of the product development process (PDP. Nevertheless, the deployment of product-related environmental legislation into product requirements is still a challenge. This study followed an inductive approach to propose a guideline to support the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements based on product-related environmental legislation. The guideline is composed of nine steps, clustered into three groups according to their main objective: (A identification of environmental product-related legislation; (B identification of legislative topics to be considered for the deployment of requirements; and (C creation and validation of product requirements. The product requirements deployed are to be considered during the PDP. The guideline was evaluated in an expert consultation in a large manufacturing company, suggesting that it can be used to support the systematization and deployment of product-related environmental requirements.

  14. The Effect of Environmental Regulation on the Locational Choice of Japanese Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper assesses the impact of environmental regulation in host countries on Japanese foreign direct investment decision-making. It tests the pollution haven hypothesis using data on national environmental regulation standards and Japanese inward FDI in five dirty industries. The results do not support the pollution haven haven hypothesis. On the contrary, inward Japanese FDI appears to be attracted to countries which have committe themselves to a tranparent and stable ...

  15. Do Countries with Lax Environmental Regulations Have a Comparative Advantage in Polluting Industries?.

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angel Quiroga; Martin Persson; Thomas Sterner

    2009-01-01

    We study whether lax environmental regulations induce comparative advantages, causing the least-regulated countries to specialize in polluting industries. We seek to improve three areas in the empirical literature based on the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek’s factor content of trade, more specifically in Tobey’s (1990) approach: the measurement of environmental endowments, the possible endogeneity due to an omitted variable that has not been considered, and the influence of the industrial level of agg...

  16. Have Countries with Lax Environmental Regulations a Comparative Advantage in Polluting Industries?

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Miguel; Sterner, Thomas; Persson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We aim to study whether lax environmental regulations induce comparative advantages, causing the least-regulated countries to specialize in polluting industries. The study is based on Trefler and Zhu’s (2005) definition of the factor content of trade. For the econometrical analysis, we use a cross-section of 71 countries in 2000 to examine the net exports in the most polluting industries. We try to overcome three weaknesses in the empirical literature: the measurement of environmental endowme...

  17. Mechanisms for the environmental regulation of gene expression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-01-07

    Jan 7, 2005 ... The environment can play a significant role in the production of phenotypes. However, the developmental mechanisms by which the environmental agents effect normal development are just becoming known. At least three paths have been found through which the environment can modify gene activity.

  18. Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment and its Relevance to Environmental Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Singer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The environment is increasingly being recognised for the role it might play in the global spread of clinically-relevant antibiotic resistance. Environmental regulators monitor and control many of the pathways responsible for the release of resistance-driving chemicals into the environment (e.g., antimicrobials, metals, biocides. Hence, environmental regulators should be contributing significantly to the development of global and national antimicrobial resistance (AMR action plans. It is argued that the lack of environment-facing mitigation actions included in existing AMR action plans is likely a function of our poor fundamental understanding of many of the key issues. Here, we aim to present the problem with AMR in the environment through the lens of an environmental regulator, using the Environment Agency (England’s regulator as an example from which parallels can be drawn globally. The issues that are pertinent to environmental regulators are drawn out to answer: What are the drivers and pathways of AMR? How do these relate to the normal work, powers and duties of environmental regulators? What are the knowledge gaps that hinder the delivery of environmental protection from AMR? We offer several thought experiments for how different mitigation strategies might proceed. We conclude that: 1 AMR Action Plans do not tackle all the potentially relevant pathways and drivers of AMR in the environment; and 2 AMR Action Plans are deficient, in part, because the science to inform policy is lacking and this needs to be addressed.

  19. Establishing Reusable Requirements Derived from Laws and Regulations for Medical Device Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Ritsing, Brian

    2016-01-01

    skills and consumes significant effort in product development. Therefore initiating reuse from the analysis and elicitation of requirements from standards and regulations may provide promising potential for gaining efficiency in development and also for assuring sufficient quality of the work...

  20. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of...

  1. ER-16 regulation. Requirements for granting the permit exceptional use of medical devices in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this regulation is to establish requirements for applying for a permit exceptional use of medical equipment in Human Beings, the procedures for the evaluation process and bestowal. This regulation is aimed at researchers and designers of medical equipment, related to or associated with National Health Service's priority programs of interest to health.

  2. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste transportation regulations and requirements study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyacke, M.; Schmitt, R.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively

  4. Eco-Efficiency Assessments as a Tool for Revealing the Environmental Improvement Potential of New Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Michelsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public regulations can result in improved environmental performance of products. In this paper eco-efficiency is used to assess the most likely outcome of potential new regulations. The paper presents a case study of furniture production in Norway where different scenarios for improving the environmental performance of the products are presented. Four regulatory options for imposing environmental improvements are assessed; (1 an introduction of a tax on emissions, (2 an increase of the tax on landfills, (3 an introduction of a tax on raw material consumption, and (4 introduction of take-back legislation.

  5. 36 CFR 223.218 - Consistency with plans, environmental standards, and other management requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., environmental standards, and other management requirements. 223.218 Section 223.218 Parks, Forests, and Public... Special Forest Products § 223.218 Consistency with plans, environmental standards, and other management... with applicable land management plans. Each contract, permit, or other authorizing instrument shall...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2150 - Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2150 Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

  7. Environmental regulation and competitiveness. A meta-analysis of international trade studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Master-point and Tinbergen Institute, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Withagen, C.A.A.M. [Department of Economics and CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena such as ecological dumping, ecological capital flight, and regulatory 'chill' in environmental standards. A different view is that strict environmental regulation triggers industry's innovation potential, and subsequently increases its competitiveness. The impact of environmental regulation on competitiveness has been analyzed in terms of international capital movements, new firm formation, and international trade. This paper focuses on a statistically rigorous analysis of international trade studies, using a technique that is known as meta-analysis. The paper presents a statistically supported evaluation of the literature, in order to assess what the main conclusions regarding the relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness are when it comes to studies on international trade flows. The synthesis of the literature is subsequently used to present guidelines for future primary research in this area.

  8. Environmental regulation and competitiveness. A meta-analysis of international trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena such as ecological dumping, ecological capital flight, and regulatory 'chill' in environmental standards. A different view is that strict environmental regulation triggers industry's innovation potential, and subsequently increases its competitiveness. The impact of environmental regulation on competitiveness has been analyzed in terms of international capital movements, new firm formation, and international trade. This paper focuses on a statistically rigorous analysis of international trade studies, using a technique that is known as meta-analysis. The paper presents a statistically supported evaluation of the literature, in order to assess what the main conclusions regarding the relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness are when it comes to studies on international trade flows. The synthesis of the literature is subsequently used to present guidelines for future primary research in this area

  9. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2009 ed. Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication establishes the regulations that are applied to the transport of radioactive material by all modes of transport on land, water or in the air, including transport that is incidental to the use of the radioactive material. The objective and scope of the regulations are described in detail as well as the range of their application. The publication provides requirements useful to governments, regulators, operators of nuclear and radiation facilities, carriers, users of radiation sources and cargo handling personnel. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Definitions; 3. General provisions; 4. Activity limits and classification; 5. Requirements and controls for transport; 6. Requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages; 7. Test procedures; 8. Approval and administrative requirements; Annex I: Summary of approval and prior notification requirements; Annex II: Conversion factors and prefixes.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of ageing: linking environmental inputs to genomic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benayoun, Bérénice A.; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Brunet, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Preface Ageing is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Here, we review the chromatin-based epigenetic changes that occur during ageing, the role of chromatin modifiers in modulating lifespan and the importance of epigenetic signatures as biomarkers of ageing. We also discuss how epigenome remodeling by environmental stimuli impacts several aspects of transcription and genomic stability, with important consequences on longevity, and outline epigenetic differences between the ‘mortal soma’ and the ‘immortal germline’. Finally, we discuss the inheritance of ageing characteristics and potential chromatin-based strategies to delay or reverse hallmarks of ageing or age-related diseases. PMID:26373265

  11. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing...... public health emergencies of international concern: (i) can syndromic surveillance support countries, especially the subnational level, to meet the International Health Regulations (2005) core surveillance capacity requirements, (ii) are European syndromic surveillance systems comparable to enable cross...... effect of different types of public health emergencies in a timely manner as required by the International Health Regulations (2005)....

  12. Environmental regulation of a power market investment in an international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halseth, Arve; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-01

    This document examines the optimal environmental regulation of three Norwegian power projects, energy conservation, a natural gas fired combined cycle gas turbine and a new hydro project. All projects reduce emissions elsewhere in the Nordic region, and in general the environmental costs of these emissions are not optimally reflected in market prices. A theory of second best optimal regulation is developed for this case. The optimal regulation is found to deviate considerably from a purely domestic regulation. For instance, it is found optimal to grant a substantial credit to energy conservation. The credit is sensitive to the value of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions and whether the current Norwegian end user tax should be interpreted as an environmental or a fiscal tax. 27 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Lessons learned implementing environmental regulations at non-Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, R.B.; Dippo, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) has been involved in the implementation of environmental regulations at non-Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for > 5 years. If any common thread has been identified in working at these sites, it is that no two sites can be treated the same. Each site and its associated wastes, governing regulations, and environmental conditions are different. The list of technical lessons learned is long, and their applicability to other sites must be looked at for each specific case. That is far too large a task to undertake here. The most important lesson HAZWRAP learned is not technical. Implementing environmental regulations at non-DOE sites is not any different from implementing regulations or anything else done at DOE facilities. The key to success lies in quality, planning, and communication. Taking the time to implement a good quality program based on sound planning and open communication will ensure program success

  14. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, J.M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  15. Final Environmental Impact Statement on 10 CFR Part 61 licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The three-volume final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is prepared to guide and support publication of a final regulation, 10 CFR Part 61, for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The FEIS is prepared in response to public comments received on the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) on the proposed Part 61 regulation. The DEIS was published in September 1981 as NUREG-0782. Public comments received on the proposed Part 61 regulation separate from the DEIS are also considered in the FEIS. The FEIS is not a rewritten version of the DEIS, which contains an exhaustive and detailed analysis of alternatives, but rather references the DEIS and presents the final decision bases and conclusions (costs and impacts) which are reflected in the Part 61 requirements. Four cases are specifically considered in the FEIS representing the following: past disposal practice, existing disposal practice, Part 61 requirements, and an upper bound example. The Summary and Main Report are contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of Appendices A - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61, and Appendices B - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on Proposed 10 CFR Part 61 Rulemaking. Volume 3 contains Appendices C-F, entitled as follows: Appendix C - Revisions to Impact Analysis Methodology, Appendix D - Computer Codes Used for FEIS Calculations, Appendix E - Errata for the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61 and last, Appendix F - Final Rule and Supplementary Information

  16. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  17. Regulatory analysis for amendments to regulations for the environmental review for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This regulatory analysis provides the supporting information for a proposed rule that will amend the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's environmental review requirements for applications for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses. The objective of the proposed rulemaking is to improve regulatory efficiency by providing for the generic evaluation of certain environmental impacts associated with nuclear plant license renewal. After considering various options, the staff identified and analyzed two major alternatives. With Alternative A, the existing regulations would not be amended. This option requires that environmental reviews be performed under the existing regulations. Alternative B is to assess, on a generic basis, the environmental impacts of renewing the operating license of individual nuclear power plants, and define the issues that will need to be further analyzed on a case-by-case basis. In addition, Alternative B removes from NRC's review certain economics-related issues. The findings of this assessment are to be codified in 10 CFR 51. The staff has selected Alternative B as the preferred alternative

  18. 75 FR 14448 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... requirements, and investigator initiated research. Topics for discussion include the following: (1) What FDA...] Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good Clinical... Society of Clinical Research Associates, Inc. (SoCRA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``FDA...

  19. 77 FR 8886 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., electronic record requirements, and investigator initiated research. Topics for discussion include the...] Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good Clinical... Research Associates (SoCRA) is announcing a public workshop. The public workshop on FDA's clinical trial...

  20. 76 FR 51040 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... requirements, and investigator initiated research. Topics for discussion include the following: (1) What FDA...] Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good Clinical... Clinical Research Associates (SoCRA) is announcing a public workshop. The public workshop on FDA's clinical...

  1. Environmental conditions regulate the impact of plants on cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D F; Buchholz, A; Tillmann, R; Kleist, E; Wu, C; Rubach, F; Kiendler-Scharr, A; Rudich, Y; Wildt, J; Mentel, Th F

    2017-02-20

    The terrestrial vegetation emits large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere, which on oxidation produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), SOA influences cloud formation and climate. In a warming climate, changes in environmental factors can cause stresses to plants, inducing changes of the emitted VOC. These can modify particle size and composition. Here we report how induced emissions eventually affect CCN activity of SOA, a key parameter in cloud formation. For boreal forest tree species, insect infestation by aphids causes additional VOC emissions which modifies SOA composition thus hygroscopicity and CCN activity. Moderate heat increases the total amount of constitutive VOC, which has a minor effect on hygroscopicity, but affects CCN activity by increasing the particles' size. The coupling of plant stresses, VOC composition and CCN activity points to an important impact of induced plant emissions on cloud formation and climate.

  2. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  3. Requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The project on the requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work includes contributions on the following topics: the development of the European transmission grid, the grid extension law, restrictions for the power grid and their infrastructure, requirements for the regulations concerning the realization of the transnational grid extension, inclusion of the public - public acceptance - communication, requirements concerning the environmental compensation law, overhead line - underground cable - health hazards, ecological effects of overhead lines and underground cables, infrastructural projects, power supply in the future, structural relief by photovoltaics.

  4. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreter, M.; Gray, M.; Falck, E.; Bonne, A.; Bell, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors and fuel cycle applications. This paper reports progress made on the identification of user requirements as they relate to the environment and environmental protection. The user requirements being formulated are intended to limit adverse environmental effects from the different facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycles to be well below maximum acceptable levels. To determine if the user requirements are met, it is necessary to identify those factors that are relevant to assessment of the environmental performance of innovative nuclear systems. To this effect, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Material Flow accounting (MFA) methodologies are being appraised for the suitability for application. This paper develops and provides the rationale for the 'users' requirements' as they are currently defined. Existing Environmental Impact Assessment and Materials Flow Accounting methodologies that can be applied to determine whether or not innovative technologies conform to the User Requirements are briefly described. It is concluded that after establishing fundamental principles, it is possible to formulate sets of general and specific users' requirements against which, the potential adverse environmental effects to be expected from innovative nuclear energy systems (INES) can be assessed. The application of these users' requirements should keep the adverse environmental effects from INES's within acceptable limits. (authors)

  5. 32 CFR Enclosure 2 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a serious public health risk; or (2) a physical project that is prohibited or strictly regulated in... of global importance designated for protection by the President or, in the case of such a resource... studies—bilateral or multilateral environmental studies, relevant or related to the proposed action, by...

  6. 75 FR 80287 - Environmental Protection Agency Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... of omnibus drug legislation on November 18, 1988. Federal agencies issued an interim final common...; FRL- 9242-2] Environmental Protection Agency Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace... Protection Agency is removing its regulation implementing the Governmentwide common rule on drug-free...

  7. Inefficient national environmental regulation as a signal of high abatement costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyses the importance of informational asymmetries in international environmental regulation by use of a game theoretic approach of signaling games. More specific it analysis whether it is possible for a government to try to extract higher compensation in an international unidirectoral environmental problem. This may be possible when the national environmental regulation carries a signal of the cost of the regulated industry. In this case the government e.g. by means of inefficient environmental regulation on a national level may try to signal high abatement costs. In spite of the fact that many international environmental problems seem to be solvable by the use of financial payments there are only few examples that compensation payment arrangements have been implemented. As many countries and especially many polluting firms possess better information about abatement costs than the countries that receive the pollution, it is worthwhile to include asymmetric information. Consequently, this paper analyses whether the introduction of asymmetric information about abatement costs may bring forward incentives to misrepresent the true abatement cost in order to capture more compensation. If these incentives turn out to be present, it may explain some of the suspicion against using financial payment in order to induce other countries to join an agreement. The analysis shows that it may indeed be the case that the expected gain from cheating is so large that it gives incentives to use an inefficient national environmental policy. (au) 13 refs.

  8. 10 CFR 503.34 - Inability to comply with applicable environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements. 503.34 Section 503.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... use of alternate fuels in compliance with applicable Federal or state environmental requirements, are... presented as part of a demonstration submitted under § 503.32 (Lack of alternate fuel supply). (2) Prior to...

  9. Source to sink transport and regulation by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi eLemoine

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Source-to-sink transport of sugar is one of the major determinants of plant growth and relies on the efficient and controlled distribution of sucrose (and some other sugars such as raffinose and polyols across plant organs through the phloem. However, sugar transport through the phloem can be affected by many environmental factors that alter source/sink relationships. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the phloem transport mechanisms and review the effects of several abiotic (water and salt stress, mineral deficiency, CO2, light, temperature, air and soil pollutants and biotic (mutualistic and pathogenic microbes, viruses, aphids and parasitic plants factors. Concerning abiotic constraints, alteration of the distribution of sugar among sinks is often reported, with some sinks as roots favoured in case of mineral deficiency. Many of these constraints impair the transport function of the phloem but the exact mechanisms are far from being completely known. Phloem integrity can be disrupted (e.g. by callose deposition and under certain conditions, phloem transport is affected, earlier than photosynthesis. Photosynthesis inhibition could result from the increase in sugar concentration due to phloem transport decrease. Biotic interactions (aphids, fungi, viruses… also affect crop plant productivity. Recent breakthroughs have identified some of the sugar transporters involved in these interactions on the host and pathogen sides. The different data are discussed in relation to the phloem transport pathways. When possible, the link with current knowledge on the pathways at the molecular level will be highlighted.

  10. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers

  11. Determinants of Renewable Energy Innovation: Environmental Policies vs. Market Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nesta, Lionel; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    This paper carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion- mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base. For OECD countries and years 1970-2005, we build a unique dataset containing time-varying information on quality-adjusted patent production in renewable energy, the latter being a function of environmental policies, green R and D, entry barriers, knowledge stock, knowledge diversity and income inequality. We develop count data models using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity of policy support. Our synthetic policy index positively affects innovations especially in countries with deregulated energy markets and low entry barriers. The effect of entry barriers and inequality is negative and of similar magnitude as that of policy. Product market liberalization positively affects green patent generation, especially so when ambitious policies are adopted, when the initial level of public R and D expenditures and when the initial share of distributed energy generation is high. Our results are robust to alternative specifications, to the inclusion of technology-specific effects and to the use of quality-adjusted patents as dependent variables. In the latter case, the estimated effect of lowering entry barriers and of knowledge diversity almost double on citation count relatively to patent count. (authors)

  12. Manual: environmental impact statement and intervention regulation; Leitfaden Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung und Eingriffsregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, K

    1993-12-31

    In order to be able to fulfil also legally the important tasks of environmental protection and natural preservation in the last ten years numerous legal provisions have been issued. Many of these laws require that the environmental impact of projects and constructional measures is taken into account to a higher degree. Two important instruments in this connection are the impact statement and the intervention regulation of natural preservation. Their importance and consequences for the planning and realization of projects are until now not sufficiently know. This manual is to fill this gap. This booklet shall help builder-owners and investors to realize their building projects in a way which is compatible with the environment. For architects and planners information is given in this manual about the requirements to be fulfilled in the individual planning and licensing procedures. The booklet is structured in a way that builder-owners, consultants and authorities find quickly the information needed. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Um die wichtigen Aufgaben des Umwelt- und Naturschutzgesetzes auch rechtlich zu bewaeltigen, sind in den letzten Jahren eine Vielzahl von Rechtsvorschriften erlassen worden. Zahlreiche dieser Gesetze erfordern, dass kuenftig Umwelt- und Naturschutzbelange bei Planungen und Baumassnahmen staerker beruecksichtigt werden. Zwei wesentliche Instrumente dafuer sind die Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung (UVP) und die naturschutzrechtliche Eingriffsregelung. Ihre Bedeutung und die sich daraus ergebenden Konsequenzen fuer die Planung und Ausfuehrung von Vorhaben sind bislang allerdings noch nicht hinreichend bekannt. Diese Luecke soll der vorliegende Leitfaden schliessen helfen. Bauherren und Investoren sollen mit dieser Broschuere informiert werden, wie sie ihr geplantes Bauvorhaben umweltvertraeglich realisieren koennen. Architekten und Planer koennen durch diesen Leitfaden erfahren, welche Leistungen in den einzelnen Planungs- und Genehmigungsverfahren zu

  13. Implications for the Venezuelan oil industry of new environmental regulations in consumer countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez M, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    New and tighter environmental regulations are being enacted in major oil consumer countries, inducing a reshaping of oil business strategies and operations in oil exporting countries. The priority areas include air and water pollution control, waste management, conservation of natural resources and oil spill control among others. This paper summarizes the more significant of those regulations in the U.S.A. and Europe, their aims, as well as the implications for Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) in terms of investment in new product specifications and pollution prevention programmes. A review of the Venezuelan environmental regulations has also been done recently, and the necessary investment to comply with the new national standards in existing installations are estimated in US$500 million for the period 1992-1996. Investment in local environmental protection, associated with the new installations in Venezuela for manufacturing cleaner products during the same period, are included in the costs of these installations presented in this document. (author)

  14. Zinc coordination is required for and regulates transcription activation by Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh Aras

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1 is essential for Epstein-Barr virus to immortalize naïve B-cells. Upon binding a cluster of 20 cognate binding-sites termed the family of repeats, EBNA1 transactivates promoters for EBV genes that are required for immortalization. A small domain, termed UR1, that is 25 amino-acids in length, has been identified previously as essential for EBNA1 to activate transcription. In this study, we have elucidated how UR1 contributes to EBNA1's ability to transactivate. We show that zinc is necessary for EBNA1 to activate transcription, and that UR1 coordinates zinc through a pair of essential cysteines contained within it. UR1 dimerizes upon coordinating zinc, indicating that EBNA1 contains a second dimerization interface in its amino-terminus. There is a strong correlation between UR1-mediated dimerization and EBNA1's ability to transactivate cooperatively. Point mutants of EBNA1 that disrupt zinc coordination also prevent self-association, and do not activate transcription cooperatively. Further, we demonstrate that UR1 acts as a molecular sensor that regulates the ability of EBNA1 to activate transcription in response to changes in redox and oxygen partial pressure (pO(2. Mild oxidative stress mimicking such environmental changes decreases EBNA1-dependent transcription in a lymphoblastoid cell-line. Coincident with a reduction in EBNA1-dependent transcription, reductions are observed in EBNA2 and LMP1 protein levels. Although these changes do not affect LCL survival, treated cells accumulate in G0/G1. These findings are discussed in the context of EBV latency in body compartments that differ strikingly in their pO(2 and redox potential.

  15. The future of environmental protection: A U.S. regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. has the largest number of nuclear installations of any country in the world. This puts us at an extreme end of the spectrum. As a result, I have touched on many issues relative to environmental protection. Therefore in summary, let me list these issues: Before moving ahead, look at what has been done thus far. Executive policy and a national regulatory infrastructure. - Environmental Impact Statements. - Environmental Justice. Standards determined by law or courts. Consultation with other national agencies and countries. Improving the timetable for issuing regulations and supporting guidance. Improved communications and training of staff. Transparency and flexibility throughout the regulatory process. Differences in regulatory approaches are OK, as long as the end result is to achieve sound national environmental and public health and safety policy. I believe that this series of conferences represents an excellent opportunity to come to resolution about the future of environmental regulations and policies. Having this information will assist us in harmonizing any proposed recommendation(s) for radiological protection of the environment involving commodities containing radioactive materials or unrestricted release of slightly radioactive materials by using the existing environmental radiation protection framework as a starting point. Doing so in an open, encompassing manner will, in my opinion, go a long way towards resolving some of the current controversies about radiation protection standards in the U.S., as well as around the world, with the desirable end result of increasing public confidence in our environmental radiation protection programs. (author)

  16. Liberalization, Moral Hazard in Banking, and Prudential Regulation: Are Capital Requirements Enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin C. Murdock; Thomas F. Hellmann; Joseph E. Stiglitz

    2000-01-01

    In a dynamic model of moral hazard, competition can undermine prudent bank behavior. While capital-requirement regulation can induce prudent behavior, the policy yields Pareto-inefficient outcomes. Capital requirements reduce gambling incentives by putting bank equity at risk. However, they also have a perverse effect of harming banks' franchise values, thus encouraging gambling. Pareto-efficient outcomes can be achieved by adding deposit-rate controls as a regulatory instrument, since they f...

  17. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (impacts would be 2%-21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%-20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end

  18. Environmental control and life support system requirements and technology needs for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sedej, Melaine; Lin, Chin

    1987-01-01

    NASA has completed an environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technology R&D plan for advanced missions which gave attention to the drivers (crew size, mission duration, etc.) of a range of manned missions under consideration. Key planning guidelines encompassed a time horizon greater than 50 years, funding resource requirements, an evolutionary approach to goal definition, and the funding of more than one approach to satisfy a given perceived requirement. Attention was given to the ECLSS requirements of transportation and service vehicles, platforms, bases and settlements, ECLSS functions and average load requirements, unique drivers for various missions, and potentially exploitable commonalities among vehicles and habitats.

  19. Impact of environmental regulations on control of copper ion concentration in the DIII-D cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1993-10-01

    Tokamaks and industrial users are faced with the task of maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. Operating these systems concentrates the impurities in the water requiring subsequent disposal. Environmental regulations are making this increasingly difficult. This paper will discuss the solution to the problem of removing and disposing of copper ions in the DIII-D low conductivity water system. Since the commissioning of the Doublet facility, the quality of the water in the 3000 gpm system that cools the DIII-D vacuum vessel coils, power supplies and auxiliary heating components has been controlled with mixed-bed ion exchangers. Low ion levels, particularly copper, are required to operate this equipment. In early 1992, the company that leases and regenerates DIII-D ion exchangers said they no longer can accept these resin beds for regeneration due to the level of copper ion on the resin. This change in policy, a change that has been adopted throughout their industry, was necessary to assure that the Metropolitan Sewerage System of the City of San Diego stays in compliance with State of California regulations and EPA-mandated national pretreatment standards and regulations. A cost effective solution was implemented which utilizes a reverse osmosis filtration system with the ion exchangers for make-up water. Levels of copper ion disposed to the sewer are in compliance with government standards. These measures have thus far proved effective in maintaining low conductivity and overall good quality cooling water. Specifically, this paper discusses DIII-D deionized cooling water quality requirements and an affective means to meet these requirements in order to be in compliance with government regulations for copper ion disposal. The problems discussed, the alternatives considered and the approach taken would be readily applicable to any deionized cooling water system containing copper where EPA standards and regulations are mandated

  20. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [DOCKET ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised...

  1. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of...

  2. A task management system for compliance with health, safety, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, J.J.; O'Gorman, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Shell Western E and P Inc. (SWEPI) has developed a new computer system to help it comply with health, safety, and environmental (HS and E) regulations. It is a task management system that functions at the detailed inventory level. It schedules work, instructs operations, and records compliance status. This article discusses design and development of the system

  3. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...] Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... making a determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa... status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101...

  4. Casein kinase 1-Like 3 is required for abscisic acid regulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casein kinase 1-Like 3 is required for abscisic acid regulation of seed germination, root growth, and gene expression in Arabidopsis. M Wang, D Yu, X Guo, X Li, J Zhang, L Zhao, H Chang, S Hu, C Zhang, J Shi, X Liu ...

  5. 13 CFR 120.1511 - Certification and other reporting and notification requirements for Other Regulated SBLCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification and other reporting and notification requirements for Other Regulated SBLCs. 120.1511 Section 120.1511 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Enforcement Actions § 120...

  6. 78 FR 63462 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Relating to Organizational Conflict of Interest-Major Defense Acquisition Program; OMB Control Number 0704...] Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflict... submit comments, identified by OMB Control Number 0704-0477, using any of the following methods: [cir...

  7. Capital Regulation, Liquidity Requirements and Taxation in a Dynamic Model of Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nicolo, G.; Gamba, A.; Lucchetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper formulates a dynamic model of a bank exposed to both credit and liquidity risk, which can resolve financial distress in three costly forms: fire sales, bond issuance and equity issuance. We use the model to analyze the impact of capital regulation, liquidity requirements and taxation on

  8. 78 FR 65218 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In-Sourcing Actions... Supplement (DFARS) to implement a section of the National Defense Authorization Act regarding private sector... section 938 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012 regarding private sector...

  9. Capital Regulation, Liquidity Requirements and Taxation in a Dynamic Model of Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nicolo, G.; Gamba, A.; Lucchetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper formulates a dynamic model of a bank exposed to both credit and liquidity risk, which can resolve financial distress in three costly forms: fire sales, bond issuance ad equity issuance. We use the model to analyze the impact of capital regulation, liquidity requirements and taxation on

  10. 75 FR 26165 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra-Low Sulfur... refiners, importers, distributors, and retailers of highway diesel fuel the option to use an alternative affirmative defense if the Agency finds highway diesel fuel samples above the specified sulfur standard at...

  11. Energy-economy relationship and environmental regulation in the presence of unrecorded economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, F.

    2008-12-01

    This PhD thesis including five manuscripts and a brief international comparison analysis proposes a multi-field study on the economic and environmental effects of energy consumption. It first investigates the causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in Turkey and then offers a new methodology for the estimation of unrecorded economy based on environmental data. The thesis develops also asymmetric information models, where the regulator does not know the true emission level of each firm that it wishes to regulate, so as to examine to what extend different enforcement mechanisms affect incentives for the firms to reduce polluting emissions and to invest in clean energy technologies. In order to provide a complete insight on the effects of both fiscal and environmental enforcement policies, some similar analysis are conducted taking into account the existence of unrecorded economy. The results in this thesis essentially show that: first, energy conservation policies can be implemented in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without any adverse effect on the recorded economic activities; second, different audit mechanisms should be used depending on the environmental objective of the enforcement agency; third, in some cases, environmental regulations may increase the size of unrecorded economy; fourth, economic policies to combat unrecorded economy may not serve as a complement to energy conservation policies. (author)

  12. Regulation amending the mandatory reporting requirements for emissions of certain contaminants into the atmosphere : economic impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, R.; Turgeon, M.L.; Dumais, M.; Bernier, A.G.; Leblond, V.; Benoit, J.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Quebec's proposal to amend regulations regarding pollutants responsible for the increase in greenhouse gases, acid rain, smog and toxic pollution will ensure improved monitoring of the state of the environment. The proposed amendments are designed to harmonize with the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and determine certain methods of calculation. The WCI includes seven U.S. states, including California, and 4 Canadian provinces including Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Manitoba. By joining WCI in 2008, Quebec agreed to a cap and trade of GHG emissions. One of the first steps of the process leading to the creation of a common carbon market is to ensure the thoroughness of the information collected on these emissions. Once established, the system of cap and trade will become an important instrument of the provincial strategy to address climate change. The current regulations require Quebec businesses to report GHG emissions that equal or exceed 50,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent. According to the rules of the WCI, the new threshold for reporting will be 10,000 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent. To date, companies did not have any requirements as to how to quantify their emissions. With the amended regulation, calculation methods for GHG emissions will be required for most emission sources. These methods have been adapted for Quebec businesses and were first developed by WCI partners from existing techniques used by international organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). They will standardize how issuers calculate their GHG emissions. In addition, the reporting of 25,000 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent or more, will have to be verified by an accredited organization to ensure that the prescribed methods of calculation have been followed and that the statements contain all required data. 1 tab.

  13. Implications of environmental regulations on refinery product specification, operation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s, refiners mainly in OECD countries were occupied with improving their refinery configurations for producing high-value light products which would not only satisfy the product demand slate but also meet the increasingly restrictive environmental regulations. In the 1990s refiners will continue to be challenged to improve the world's air quality not only by producing products that minimize emissions of toxic and hazardous hydrocarbons, but also through the refinery operation itself by investment in upgrading the industry and products to cope with the constant flow of new regulations. These investments will not only be limited to consuming centres but will also be extended to cover exporting refineries as well due to competition of acquiring market shares for product exports. The additional cost will be directly related to product quality and site regulations and will vary from one country to the other. This paper deals mainly with the air pollution and the impact of related environmental issues on the refining industry. Environmental regulations for refinery products in the USA and Europe are examined and international regulations for the tanker industry are noted. (author)

  14. Effects of environmental regulations on heavy metal pollution decline in core sediments from Manila Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Siringan, Fernando; Amano, Atsuko; Onodera, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the high-resolution heavy metal pollution history of Manila Bay using heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios together with 210 Pb dating to find out the effects of environmental regulations after the 1990s. Our results suggested that the rate of decline in heavy metal pollution increased dramatically from the end of the 1990s due to stricter environmental regulations, Administrative Order No. 42, being enforced by the Philippines government. The presented data and methodology should form the basis for future monitoring, leading to pollution control, and to the generation of preventive measures at the pollution source for the maintenance of environmental quality in the coastal metropolitan city of Manila. Although this is the first report of a reduction in pollution in Asian developing country, our results suggest that we can expect to find similar signs of pollution decline in other parts of the world as well.

  15. Institutional preconditions of socio-ecological-economic regulation of environmental management activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Plaksunova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to regulate environmental management activities of institutional entities arises when it affects the interests of third-party entities or threatened by the ongoing entity manufacturing practices its own resilience, to achieve the main goal. The complexity and diversity of the forms of socio-ecological and ecological-economic issues at different levels of the economic system leads to the development of many directions and views on the expansion of the management process of these levels (global, national, regional, local and techniques from rigid-deklorative state before combination with the market. In this respect, the neoclassical economic theory actively generated new analytical ideas and concept that enables to respond adequately to emerging economic realities. So we can distinguish the following approaches to regulate environmental management activities: T. Malthus and D. Ricardo, revealing issues of social, ecological and economic implications of limited natural resources in the context of the law of diminishing effectiveness and the need to regulate environmental management activities. John. St. Mill and George proved to be ineffective in addressing environmental problems in the industrial economy of the type of the imperfection of the institutions of society, justifying the occurrence of crises protohistoric speculation nature's benefits. A. Pigou developed the theory of externalities, which revealed the need for state regulation of the environmental management activities of economic entities, harmonization of individual and social interests. Research I. Kula, F. Khan and P. Samuelson identified a pattern about the formation of the system of regulation nature-safety activities, not only within individual States but also on a global level. R. Crows have shown that the methods of direct state regulation of nature economic activity is not as good as it seems at first glance and so you should not underestimate the role and potential

  16. Environmental Regulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — KR305b 1994 coverage, used to support water quality programs, references water quality use designations and support levels. The KR305b 1994 coverage is available for...

  17. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 380 - Minimum Filing Requirements for Environmental Reports Under the Natural Gas Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Requirements for Environmental Reports Under the Natural Gas Act A Appendix A to Part 380 Conservation of Power... Filing Requirements for Environmental Reports Under the Natural Gas Act Environmental Reports Under the Natural Gas Act. Resource Report 1—General Project Description 1. Provide a detailed description and...

  18. Impacts and Compliance Implementation Plans and Required Deviations for Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Regulation of Double Shell Tanks (DST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held meetings regarding the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) contain waste which will become subject to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor (TFC) to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. Two components of the PCB management plans are this assessment of the operational impacts of TSCA regulation and the identifications of deviations from TSCA that are required to accommodate tank farm unique limitations. This plan provides ORP and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) with an outline of TSCA PCB requirements and their applicability to tank farm activities, and recommends a compliance/implementation approach. Where strict compliance is not possible, the need for deviations from TSCA PCB requirements is identified. The purpose of assembling this information is to enhance the understanding of PCB management requirements, identify operational impacts and select impact mitigation strategies. This information should be useful in developing formal agreements with EPA where required

  19. New requirements, rules and regulations, and vested rights of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, C.

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with the question whether new requirements can be imposed on existing nuclear power plants. It was promoted by the fact that the German Federal Ministry for the Environment currently is working on a thorough revision of German nuclear regulations. When looking at backfitting requirements, the all-important question is whether new findings show that the provisions taken in the license to guarantee the 'necessary precautions' (as defined in the German Atomic Energy Act) contain errors or omissions; only in this case can the authority demand that remedial measures, including backfitting, be taken. Beyond that, German nuclear law contains no obligation for operators to improve and develop safety still further. This applies regardless of whether new requirements are justified by new technical possibilities or new scientific analyses or whether they are prompted by a mere abstract re-evaluation of the safety level to be achieved. In the former case, if there are good technical or scientific reasons, the operators, as a rule, will perform backfitting voluntarily. Pursuant to these criteria, the article covers three categories of backfitting requirements and illustrates them by examples. These general principles are also valid when a new set of regulations - as planned by the BMU - are put into effect and applied. They may lead to existing plants not having to comply fully with the requirements contained in new regulations. (orig.)

  20. User requirements for the Harmonization of Environmental Measurement Information System HEMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, I.K.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to define as much as possible, the functional requirements of the potential main users of the Harmonization of Environmental Measurement Information System, HEMIS. The resulting report is to be used as a basis for a rapid decision on technical approaches to system development, planning of schedule and costs, and to guide the system development and implementation process

  1. Off-road compression-ignition engine emission regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 : guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This guide explained the requirements for Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Emission Regulations established under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The regulations are enforced by Environment Canada, which authorizes and monitors the use of the national emissions mark. The regulations prescribe standards for off-road engines that operate as reciprocating, internal combustion engines, other than those that operate under characteristics similar to the Otto combustion cycle and that use a spark plug or other sparking device. The regulations apply to engines that are typically diesel-fuelled and found in construction, mining, farming and forestry machines such as tractors, excavators and log skidders. Four different types of persons are potentially affected by the regulations: Canadian engine manufacturers; distributors of Canadian engines or machines containing Canadian engines; importers of engines or machines for the purpose of sale; and persons not in companies importing engines or machines. Details of emission standards were presented, as well as issues concerning evidence of conformity, importing engines, and special engine cases. Compliance and enforcement details were reviewed, as well as applicable standards and provisions for emission control systems and defeat devices; exhaust emissions; crankcase and smoke emissions; and adjustable parameters. Details of import declarations were reviewed, as well as issues concerning defects and maintenance instructions. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Environmental and Genetic Factors Regulating Localization of the Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Tan, Li Xuan; Bushey, Daniel B; Swanson, Sarah J; Sussman, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    A P-type H + -ATPase is the primary transporter that converts ATP to electrochemical energy at the plasma membrane of higher plants. Its product, the proton-motive force, is composed of an electrical potential and a pH gradient. Many studies have demonstrated that this proton-motive force not only drives the secondary transporters required for nutrient uptake, but also plays a direct role in regulating cell expansion. Here, we have generated a transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) plant expressing H + -ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2) that is translationally fused with a fluorescent protein and examined its cellular localization by live-cell microscopy. Using a 3D imaging approach with seedlings grown for various times under a variety of light intensities, we demonstrate that AHA2 localization at the plasma membrane of root cells requires light. In dim light conditions, AHA2 is found in intracellular compartments, in addition to the plasma membrane. This localization profile was age-dependent and specific to cell types found in the transition zone located between the meristem and elongation zones. The accumulation of AHA2 in intracellular compartments is consistent with reduced H + secretion near the transition zone and the suppression of root growth. By examining AHA2 localization in a knockout mutant of a receptor protein kinase, FERONIA, we found that the intracellular accumulation of AHA2 in the transition zone is dependent on a functional FERONIA-dependent inhibitory response in root elongation. Overall, this study provides a molecular underpinning for understanding the genetic, environmental, and developmental factors influencing root growth via localization of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Environmental and Genetic Factors Regulating Localization of the Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Xuan; Bushey, Daniel B.; Swanson, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    A P-type H+-ATPase is the primary transporter that converts ATP to electrochemical energy at the plasma membrane of higher plants. Its product, the proton-motive force, is composed of an electrical potential and a pH gradient. Many studies have demonstrated that this proton-motive force not only drives the secondary transporters required for nutrient uptake, but also plays a direct role in regulating cell expansion. Here, we have generated a transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant expressing H+-ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2) that is translationally fused with a fluorescent protein and examined its cellular localization by live-cell microscopy. Using a 3D imaging approach with seedlings grown for various times under a variety of light intensities, we demonstrate that AHA2 localization at the plasma membrane of root cells requires light. In dim light conditions, AHA2 is found in intracellular compartments, in addition to the plasma membrane. This localization profile was age-dependent and specific to cell types found in the transition zone located between the meristem and elongation zones. The accumulation of AHA2 in intracellular compartments is consistent with reduced H+ secretion near the transition zone and the suppression of root growth. By examining AHA2 localization in a knockout mutant of a receptor protein kinase, FERONIA, we found that the intracellular accumulation of AHA2 in the transition zone is dependent on a functional FERONIA-dependent inhibitory response in root elongation. Overall, this study provides a molecular underpinning for understanding the genetic, environmental, and developmental factors influencing root growth via localization of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. PMID:29042459

  4. Can Environmental Regulations Promote Corporate Environmental Responsibility? Evidence from the Moderated Mediating Effect Model and an Empirical Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhong Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stakeholder theory, a moderated mediating effect model is developed to reach the study objective, revealing an important connection that suggests environmental regulations (ERs influence corporate environmental responsibility (CER (Porter Hypothesis. In building the model, the validity of the questionnaire data was analyzed with factor analysis. By employing a two-step approach, a regression analysis is utilized to discuss the mediating effect of altruistic motivation and moderating effect of green innovation, and a structural equation model is used to explore the interactive mechanism of different variables. It is found that altruistic motivation plays a medium role in the relationship between ERs and CER, and green innovation engages a positive coordination in the relationship. The empirical study identifies factors affecting enterprises’ willingness to undertake environmental responsibility, including environment policies, corporate culture, and personal characters among others. It is also revealed that altruistic motivation is conducive to forming a community interests among enterprises and enhancing their resistance to market risks, which explains and corroborates the Stakeholder theory; and the higher the level of green innovation, the more willing enterprises are to implement environmentally friendly operations.

  5. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress—Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhao; Lian, Yuehan; Huang, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity). The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications—high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI. PMID:29382112

  6. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress—Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity. The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications—high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI.

  7. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress-Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhao; Lian, Yuehan; Huang, Qinghua

    2018-01-29

    This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity). The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications-high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI.

  8. A decision-making framework to model environmental flow requirements in oasis areas using Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei; Zhao, Ying; Lei, Jiaqiang; Zeng, Fanjiang; Feng, Xinlong; Mao, Donglei; Shareef, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    The competition for water resources between agricultural and natural oasis ecosystems has become an increasingly serious problem in oasis areas worldwide. Recently, the intensive extension of oasis farmland has led to excessive exploitation of water discharge, and consequently has resulted in a lack of water supply in natural oasis. To coordinate the conflicts, this paper provides a decision-making framework for modeling environmental flows in oasis areas using Bayesian networks (BNs). Three components are included in the framework: (1) assessment of agricultural economic loss due to meeting environmental flow requirements; (2) decision-making analysis using BNs; and (3) environmental flow decision-making under different water management scenarios. The decision-making criterion is determined based on intersection point analysis between the probability of large-level total agro-economic loss and the ratio of total to maximum agro-economic output by satisfying environmental flows. An application in the Qira oasis area of the Tarim Basin, Northwest China indicates that BNs can model environmental flow decision-making associated with agricultural economic loss effectively, as a powerful tool to coordinate water-use conflicts. In the case study, the environmental flow requirement is determined as 50.24%, 49.71% and 48.73% of the natural river flow in wet, normal and dry years, respectively. Without further agricultural economic loss, 1.93%, 0.66% and 0.43% of more river discharge can be allocated to eco-environmental water demands under the combined strategy in wet, normal and dry years, respectively. This work provides a valuable reference for environmental flow decision-making in any oasis area worldwide.

  9. Environmental regulation of households. An empirical review of economic and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on sustainable consumption and environmental regulation of household behavior is dominated by conceptual and normative approaches. As a result, many suggestions lack a firm empirical basis. To overcome this deficiency, econometric studies in three areas of environmentally relevant activities of households are reviewed: residential use of energy, generation of solid waste and recycling, and residential use of water. Next to price and income elasticities, attention is devoted to individual socio-economic features and psychological factors, such as attitudes, knowledge, perceptions and values. Potential psychological determinants and related insights are further examined by discussing a range of representative and illustrative statistical-psychological studies of environmental behavior. One important general finding is that there are very few empirical studies that systematically combine socio-economic and psychological determinants. A range of insights for environmental policy is derived, and research recommendations are offered. (author)

  10. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zarka, M.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  11. A new approach to determine the environmental qualification requirements for the safety related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnaoui, C.; Parent, G.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the environmental qualification of safety related equipment is to ensure that the plant defense-in-depth is not compromised by common mode failures following design basis accidents with a harsh environment. A new approach based on safety functions has been developed to determine what safety-related equipment is required to function during and after a design basis accident, as well as their environmental qualification requirements. The main feature of this approach is to use auxiliary safety functions established from safety requirements as credited in the safety analyses. This approach is undertaken in three steps: identification of the auxiliary safety functions of each main safety function; determination of the main equipment groups required for each auxiliary safety function; and review of the safety analyses for design basis accidents in order to determine the credited auxiliary safety functions and their mission times for each accident scenario. Some of the benefits of the proposed approach for the determination of the safety environmental qualification requirements are: a systematic approach for the review of safety analyses based on a safety function check list, and the insurance, with the availability of the safety functions, that Gentilly-2 defense-in-depth would not be compromised by design basis accidents with a harsh environment. (author)

  12. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.gallegoschmid@manchester.ac.uk; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  13. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  14. Upholding science in health, safety and environmental risk assessments and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschner, Michael; Autrup, Herman N.; Berry, Sir Colin L.; Boobis, Alan R.; Cohen, Samuel M.; Creppy, Edmond E.; Dekant, Wolfgang; Doull, John; Galli, Corrado L.; Goodman, Jay I.; Gori, Gio B.; Greim, Helmut A.; Joudrier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A public appeal has been advanced by a large group of scientists, concerned that science has been misused in attempting to quantify and regulate unmeasurable hazards and risks. The appeal recalls that science is unable to evaluate hazards that cannot be measured, and that science in such cases should not be invoked to justify risk assessments in health, safety and environmental regulations. The appeal also notes that most national and international statutes delineating the discretion of regulators are ambiguous about what rules of evidence ought to apply. Those statutes should be revised to ensure that the evidence for regulatory action is grounded on the standards of the scientific method, whenever feasible. When independent scientific evidence is not possible, policies and regulations should be informed by publicly debated trade-offs between socially desirable uses and social perceptions of affordable precaution. This article explores the premises, implications and actions supporting the appeal and its objectives.

  15. Environmental regulation and competition in the U.S. electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, S.C.; Weyant, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The structural evolution of the electric utility industry, with reference to its dynamics with environmental regulation, is described, explicitly including suppliers to the industry, the consumers of the products of the industry, and the industries that produce substitutes for the products. The structure of the industry has changed dramatically over the years 1970-1990, and is likely to continue to evolve throughout the 1990s. This evolution has resulted from changes in the milieu within which the industry operates, for example changes in fuel and capital markets, as well as federal, state and local regulations governing its activities. The environmental regulations of the 1970s have had a significant impact on the structure, behavior and performance of the industry and changes in the structure have had a feedback effect on the types of environmental regulations likely to be successful within the industry in reducing emissions of SO 2 , NOx and CO 2 . This and numerous other studies using the framework designed by Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School have demonstrated that this expanded view of competition frequently provides a much better explanation for changes in industry structure and corporate strategy than conventional analyses. 10 refs., 3 figs

  16. Environmental regulation and competitiveness: Empirical evidence on the Porter Hypothesis from European manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubashkina, Yana; Galeotti, Marzio; Verdolini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the “weak” and “strong” versions of Porter Hypothesis (PH) focusing on the manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. The hypothesis that well-crafted and well-enforced regulation would benefit both the environment and the firm was originally proposed by Porter (1991) and Porter and van der Linde (1995). To date, the literature has analyzed the impact of environmental regulation on innovation and on productivity mostly in separate analyses and focusing on the USA. The few existing contributions on Europe study the effect of environmental regulation either on green innovation or on performance indicators such as exports. We instead look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. First, focusing on overall innovative activity allows us to account for potential opportunity costs of induced innovations. Second, productivity impacts are arguably the most relevant indicators for the “strong” PH. As a proxy of environmental policy stringency we use pollution abatement and control expenditures (PACE), one of the few sectoral level indicators available. We remedy upon its main drawback, namely potential endogeneity, by adopting an instrumental variable estimation approach. We find evidence of a positive impact of environmental regulation on the output of innovation activity, as proxied by patents, thus providing support in favor of the “weak” PH. This result is in line with most of the literature. On the other front, we find no evidence in favor of the “strong” PH, as productivity appears to be unaffected by the degree of pollution control and abatement efforts. -- Highlights: •Weak and strong Porter Hypothesis. •Panel of manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. •Look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. •Pollution abatement & control expenditures proxy of environmental policy stringency. •Account for potential endogeneity of PACE by adopting

  17. Identifying Critical Habitat for Australian Freshwater Turtles in a Large Regulated Floodplain: Implications for Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocock, J. F.; Bino, G.; Wassens, S.; Spencer, J.; Thomas, R. F.; Kingsford, R. T.

    2018-03-01

    Freshwater turtles face many threats, including habitat loss and river regulation reducing occupancy and contributing to population decline. Limited knowledge of hydrological conditions required to maintain viable turtle populations in large floodplain wetlands hinders effective adaptive management of environmental water in regulated rivers. We surveyed three turtle species over 4 years across the Lower Murrumbidgee River floodplain, a large wetland complex with a long history of water resource development. Using site and floodplain metrics and generalized linear models, within a Bayesian Model Averaging framework, we quantified the main drivers affecting turtle abundance. We also used a hierarchical modeling approach, requiring large sample sizes, quantifying possible environmental effects while accounting for detection probabilities of the eastern long-necked turtle ( Chelodina longicollis). The three species varied in their responses to hydrological conditions and connectivity to the main river channel. Broad-shelled turtles ( Chelodina expansa) and Macquarie River turtles ( Emydura macquarii macquarii) had restricted distributions, centered on frequently inundated wetlands close to the river, whereas the eastern long-necked turtles were more widely distributed, indicating an ability to exploit variable habitats. We conclude that turtle communities would benefit from long-term management strategies that maintain a spatiotemporal mosaic of hydrological conditions. More specifically, we identified characteristics of refuge habitats and stress the importance of maintaining their integrity during dry periods. Neighboring habitats can be targeted during increased water availability years to enhance feeding and dispersal opportunities for freshwater turtles.

  18. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients' needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL's Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs

  19. Production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies is to justify the feasibility of recycling different types of industrial waste instead of conventional expensive raw materials in production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties. The impact of wastes from various industries on the environmental condition of affected areas, as well as the results of their environmental assessment were analyzed to determine whether these wastes could be used in production of high-performance building materials. The assessment of industrial wastes in aerated concrete production suggests that industrial wastes of hazard class IV can be recycled to produce aerated concrete. An environmentally friendly method for large-scale waste recycling, including a two-step environmentally sustainable mechanism, was developed. The basic quality indicators of the modified aerated concrete proved that the environmental safety could be enhanced by strengthening the structure, increasing its uniformity and improving thermal insulation properties. The modified non-autoclaved aerated concrete products with improved physical and operational properties were developed. They have the following properties: density – D700; class of concrete – B3.5; thermal transmittance coefficient – 0.143 W/(m·°C; frost resistance – F75.

  20. Implementation of requirements of environmental management (ISO 14000) for the decommissioning of the heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria I.; Otero de Eppenstein, Marta; Tosi, Lidia E.; Sabio, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina has a project of decommissioning in the heavy water plant (Planta Experimental de Agua Pesada - PEAP). The aim of this project is to get some experience for decommissioning of nuclear plants and to achieve knowledge about the application of the requirements in environmental management. The project is being carried out according to ISO 14001 standards 'Environmental Management Systems'. The objectives were taken from the model without any expectation of achieving the complete implementation or certification of the system. This report is a description of the acts that have been done. (author)

  1. Plant responses to environmental stress: regulation and functions of the Arabidopsis TCH genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the Arabidopsis TCH genes is markedly upregulated in response to a variety of environmental stimuli including the seemingly innocuous stimulus of touch. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicates that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that at least a subset of the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  2. Sterol homeostasis requires regulated degradation of squalene monooxygenase by the ubiquitin ligase Doa10/Teb4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foresti, Ombretta; Ruggiano, Annamaria; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K

    2013-01-01

    Sterol homeostasis is essential for the function of cellular membranes and requires feedback inhibition of HMGR, a rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. As HMGR acts at the beginning of the pathway, its regulation affects the synthesis of sterols and of other essential mevalonate......-derived metabolites, such as ubiquinone or dolichol. Here, we describe a novel, evolutionarily conserved feedback system operating at a sterol-specific step of the mevalonate pathway. This involves the sterol-dependent degradation of squalene monooxygenase mediated by the yeast Doa10 or mammalian Teb4, a ubiquitin...... ligase implicated in a branch of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. Since the other branch of ERAD is required for HMGR regulation, our results reveal a fundamental role for ERAD in sterol homeostasis, with the two branches of this pathway acting together...

  3. The community regulation for environmental management and audit: an opportunity for firms. Some Enea promotion actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriola, L.; Brunetti, N.; Caropreso, G.; Luciani, R.; Merelli, A.

    1999-01-01

    EMAS (Environmental Management and Audit Scheme), introduced by the 1836/93 Community regulation, is one of the tools activated by the European Union in the field of firm-environment interactions, to overcome the old Command and Control logic by means of the new Moral Suasion one. EMAS has a voluntary character: it intends to replace conflicting relations between control authority and firm with relations centred on a dialogue and action agreed upon by the parties, on the basis of impartial and reliable information. The report illustrates the procedure for applying this regulation, EMAS advantages for firms, its implementation in Italy and the most important pilot actions carried out by ENEA [it

  4. Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in emotion regulation and its relation to working memory in toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    This is the first study to explore genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in emotion regulation in toddlers, and the first to examine the genetic and environmental etiology underlying the association between emotion regulation and working memory. In a sample of 304 same-sex twin pairs (140 MZ, 164 DZ) at age 3, emotion regulation was assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BRS; Bayley, 1993), and working memory was measured by the visually cued recall (VCR) task (Zelazo, Jacques, Burack, & Frye, 2002) and several memory tasks from the Mental Scale of the BSID. Based on model-fitting analyses, both emotion regulation and working memory were significantly influenced by genetic and nonshared environmental factors. Shared environmental effects were significant for working memory, but not for emotion regulation. Only genetic factors significantly contributed to the covariation between emotion regulation and working memory.

  5. Requirements, guidance and logic in planning environmental investigations: Approval versus implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, D.A.; Meredith, D.V.; Harris, M.Q.

    1993-01-01

    In today's litigious society, it is important for both private parties and government to plan and conduct environmental investigations in a scientifically sound manner, documenting the purpose, methods, and results in a consistent fashion throughout the exercise. Planning documents are prepared during the initial phases of environmental investigations. Project objectives, including data quality requirements, specific work to be conducted to fulfill data needs, and operating procedures are specified. Regulatory agency approval of these documents is often required prior to plan implementation. These approvals are necessary and appropriate to fulfilling the agency's mandated role. Many guidance documents prepared by regulatory agencies suggest the content and format of various scoping documents. These guidances help standardize thought processes and considerations in planning, and provide a template to ensure that both the plan and the proposed work will fulfill regulatory requirements. This work describes the preparation and use of guidance documents for planning environmental studies. The goals and some of the pitfalls of such documents are discussed. Guidance should include the following elements: the purpose of the guidance and a description of where it applies; the type of items to be addressed in planning; identification of requirements are applicable to all projects for which the guidance is intended; identification of requirements only applicable in certain situations; a description of items to facilitate planning; a suggested format for fulfilling requirements; example applications of the guidance. Disagreements arise between planners and reviewers/approvers when elements of guidance are used as leverage to require work not directly related to project objectives. Guidance may be inappropriately used as a milestone by which site-specific plans are judged. Regulatory agency review and approval may be regarded as a primary objective of the plan

  6. Impacts of new environmental and safety regulations on uranium mining, milling and waste management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongping; Zheng Yuhui; Shi Xiangjun

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power progress has triggered the development and innovation of nuclear fuel industries in China. At present the Chinese government has put more emphasis on industrial readjustment and technical innovation in uranium mining and milling in order to fuel the nuclear power development, satisfy environmental protection and improve economic efficiency of the industry. The current organizations and approval procedure for establishing regulations and the implementation and consequences of the regulations, technical polices and development strategies concerning uranium mining, milling, treatment of waste ores and mill tailings, and reduction of the workers' suffered exposure dose etc. in China are discussed and the economic, health and environmental impacts of the uranium mining and metallurgy with reformation achievement and the introduction of advanced technologies such as the in-situ leaching and heap leaching mining technologies are assessed in this paper. (author)

  7. Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness: Evidence from Trade and Production in the Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tsung Yu

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical studies of the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) have not reached a consistent conclusion. The existing literature is primarily based on anecdotes and scattered case studies. This study analyzes the trade flows and composition change of the most polluting industries in manufacturing sectors among countries in order to offer a more general conclusion. This study finds that stricter environmental regulation stringency decreases the net export and production share of the most p...

  8. Do Environmental Regulations Influence the Competitiveness of Pollution-Intensive Products?

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Lu

    2010-01-01

    According to "Pollution Haven Effect," in order to circumvent stringent environment standards, polluting industries in developed countries will be chosen to locate into developing countries; another way is that developed countries increase imports of pollution-intensive products instead of producing by their own, both of which can contribute to the changes of comparative advantages in the past 30 years. Since 1990s, many scholars have paid special attention on whether environmental regulation...

  9. Exploring the Role of Peer Advice in Self-Regulated Learning: Metacognitive, Social, and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Hanin; Lebeau, Robert; Saks, Norma; Cianciolo, Anna T; Artino, Anthony R; Shea, Judy A; Ten Cate, Olle

    2016-01-01

    This Conversation Starters article presents a selected research abstract from the 2016 Association of American Medical Colleges Northeast Region Group on Educational Affairs annual spring meeting. The abstract is paired with the integrative commentary of three experts who shared their thoughts stimulated by the pilot study. These thoughts explore the metacognitive, social, and environmental mechanisms whereby advice plays a role in self-regulated learning.

  10. Requirements for quality control of analytical data for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, J.

    1992-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was established for the investigation and remediation of inactive US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and facilities that have been declared surplus in terms of their previous uses. The purpose of this document is to Specify ER requirements for quality control (QC) of analytical data. Activities throughout all phases of the investigation may affect the quality of the final data product, thus are subject to control specifications. Laboratory control is emphasized in this document, and field concerns will be addressed in a companion document Energy Systems, in its role of technical coordinator and at the request of DOE-OR, extends the application of these requirements to all participants in ER activities. Because every instance and concern may not be addressed in this document, participants are encouraged to discuss any questions with the ER Quality Assurance (QA) Office, the Analytical Environmental Support Group (AESG), or the Analytical Project Office (APO)

  11. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r 2 = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs

  12. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, S K [VTT Communities and Infrastructure. Water Engineering and Ecotechnology, Oulu (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r{sup 2} = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs.

  13. Productivity and environmental regulations. A long run analysis of the Swedish industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar

    2008-01-15

    The aim with this study is to evaluate the potential effects on productivity development in the Swedish manufacturing industry due to changes in environmental regulations over a long time period. The issue is closely related to the so called Porter hypothesis, i.e. whether environmental regulations (of the right kind) that usually is associated with costs triggers mechanisms that enhances efficiency and productivity that finally outweighs the initial cost increase. To test our hypothesis we use historical data spanning over the period 1913-1999 for the Swedish manufacturing sector. The model used is a two stage model were the total factor productivity is calculated in the first stage, and is then used in a second stage as the dependent variable in a regression analysis where one of the independent variables is a measure of regulatory intensity. The results show that the productivity growth has varied considerably over time. The least productive period was the second world war period, whereas the period with the highest productivity growth was the period after the second world war until 1970. Development of emissions follows essentially the same path as productivity growth until 1970. After 1970, however, there is a decoupling in the sense that emissions are decreasing, both in absolute level and as emissions per unit of value added. A rather robust conclusion is that there is no evident relationship between environmental regulations and productivity growth. One explanation is that regulations and productivity actually is unrelated. Another potential explanation is that the regulatory measure used does not capture perceived regulations in a correct way

  14. Fiscal reform of fuel regulation in Brazil: recent developments and environmental implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, Miriam; Sauer, Ildo Luis; Guerra, Sinclair M.-G.

    2005-11-15

    Internationally the fossil fuel-based energy sector now faces increasing uncertainties due to changes in its fiscal regulation, prompted by pressure for environmental regulation. These changes typically eliminate some taxes at the beginning of the oil production chain, but compensate for these by increasing taxation on consumption. In Brazil, fiscal reform proposals focus not on environmental arguments but on the elimination of excess levies and red tape and on increasing equity across income classes. However, liberalization process of oil and gas industries in Brazil has led to modifications in fuels taxation. This article discusses current Brazilian fiscal policy as related to fossil fuels, explaining the nature of recently introduced contribution for economic regulation (Contribuicao de Intervencao ao Dominio Economico, CIDE) and the impacts on price formation. It also shows how those modifications tend to include external costs from activities in the fuel sector; through revenues from a levy earmarked for two purposes: i) funding investments in projects deemed to be environmentally beneficial, and, ii) improvements in road infrastructure aimed at reducing emissions from transportation. Some ideas on how to improve use of the levy to perk up fuel alcohol competitiveness are also discussed. (Author)

  15. Electronic document management meets environmental restoration recordkeeping requirements: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts at migrating records management at five Department of Energy sites operated under management by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. for Environmental Restoration (ER) business activities are described. The corporate environment, project definition, records keeping requirements are described first. Then an evaluation of electronic document management technologies and of internal and commercially available systems are provided. Finally adopted incremental implementation strategy and lessons learned are discussed

  16. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Stabel, Peter; Hardt, Christopher [Univ. of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  17. The economic value of the flow regulation environmental service in a Brazilian urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Guilherme F.; de Souza, Verônica B. F. S.; Moraes, Natália V.

    2017-11-01

    Urban flood management have often focused either on the capacity expansion of drainage systems or on artificial detention storage. While flood control should take part early on urban planning, not enough is known to guide such plans and provide incentive to land use decisions that minimize the vulnerability to localized floods. In this paper, we offer a broader perspective on flood protection, by treating the original hydrologic flow regulation as an environmental service, and exploring how the value of this environmental service drives economic land use decisions that convert original (permeable) land into urbanized (impermeable). We investigate the relationship between land use decisions and their hydrologic consequences explicitly, and use this relationship to simulate resulting land use scenarios depending on the value attached to the environmental service of flow regulation. Rainfall-runoff simulation model results are combined to an optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming approach to model economic land use decisions. The objective function maximizes the total expected land use benefit in an urban area, considering the opportunity cost of permeable areas in the first stage and the resulting loss of the environmental service of flow regulation on the second stage, under several probable hydrological events. A watershed in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is used to demonstrate the approach. Different values attached to the environmental service were tested, from zero to higher than the opportunity cost of land, and artificial detention infrastructure was included to calculate the resulting land use change and the loss in the environmental service value. Results indicate that by valuing the environmental service loss and discounting it from the economic benefits of land use, alternative solutions to land use are found, with decreased peak flows and lower flood frequency. Combined solutions including structural and non

  18. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisalmi, T.; Riihimaeki, J.; Vehanen, T.; Yrjaenae, T.

    1997-01-01

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs

  19. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  20. Environmental qualification design for NPP refurbishment to comply with revised licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacBeth, M. J.; Hemmings, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent Canadian Nuclear Regulatory decisions have imposed Environmental Qualification (EQ) requirements for twenty-four Reactor Building (RB) airlocks at the four-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station-B (PNGS-B) facility. This paper describes the EQ modification design work completed by CANATOM-NPM for the problematic aspects for such projects. The airlocks allow RB access while providing a containment boundary and are designed to prevent a potential breach of containment for all analysed station conditions. Each PNGS-B unit has three large equipment airlocks and three smaller personnel airlocks. The airlocks must function under postulated worst-case design basis accident(DBA) conditions for assigned mission durations. The design must ensure that accident conditions cannot spuriously initiate an un-requested door opening. CANATOM-NPM reviewed site data to specify the necessary EQ modifications required to satisfy licensing requirements while providing a correct and complete as-found record of the existing airlock installation. The design team assessed the installed airlocks configuration against environmental qualification requirements to finalize the list of necessary modifications. A comprehensive, cross-discipline review of proposed design changes was completed to identify any further changes required to satisfy the final EQ licensing goal. The design team also conducted a design review of the EQ modification installation strategy to integrate the design deliverables with the installation team requirements while attempting to minimize necessary outage time for EQ modification installations. This project was completed on schedule and within the cost limitations required by the client with comprehensive, high quality final design packages. Overall improvements were realized for OPG system drawings and the electronic documentation of design data. The EQ modifications designed by CANATOM-NPM will ensure the continued operation of the PNGS-B NPP past December 31

  1. Regulation EM-ER-6. Requirements for the realization of clinical essays to the medical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This regulation applies to the medical equipment that become incorporated to the stage of clinical trial required for its evaluation and record, for which they are subdued to clinical investigation for the sake of verifying, in conditions specified of use, its functioning, identifying besides any undesirable defect. It extends to manufacturers of medical equipments, Public Health's units where the clinical investigations with those equipments take place and to the rest of the entities of the MINSAP . Its objective is to protect the participating subjects in the clinical investigations; Assuring the conduction of the clinical investigation and specifying the requirements for the conduction of the clinical investigations and the documentation required for it.

  2. [Research advance in nitrogen metabolism of plant and its environmental regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2004-03-01

    Nitrogen metabolism is not only one of the basic processes of plant physiology, but also one of the important parts of global chemical cycle. Plant nitrogen assimilation directly takes part in the synthesis and conversion of amino acid through the reduction of nitrate. During this stage, some key enzymes, e.g., nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthase (GOGAT), aspargine synthetase (AS), and asparate aminotransferase (AspAT) participate these processes. The protein is assimilated in plant cell through amino acid, and becomes a part of plant organism through modifying, classifying, transporting and storing processes, etc. The nitrogen metabolism is associated with carbonic metabolism through key enzyme regulations and the conversion of products, which consists of basic life process. Among these amino acids in plant cell, glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn), etc., play a key role, which regulates their conversion each other and their contents in the plant cell through regulating formation and activity of those key enzymes. Environmental factors also affect the conversion and recycle of the key amino acids through regulating gene expression of the key enzymes and their activities. Nitrate and light intensity positively regulate the gene transcription of NR, but ammonium ions and Glu, Gln do the negative way. Water deficit is a very serious constraint on N2 fixation rate and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) grain yield, in which, ureide accumulation and degradation under water deficit appear to be the key issues of feedback mechanism on nitrogen fixation. Water stress decreases NR activity, but increases proteinase activity, and thus, they regulate plant nitrogen metabolism, although there are some different effects among species and cultivars. Water stress also decreases plant tissue protein content, ratio of protein and amino acid, and reduces the absorption of amino

  3. Sterol homeostasis requires regulated degradation of squalene monooxygenase by the ubiquitin ligase Doa10/Teb4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Ombretta; Ruggiano, Annamaria; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K; Ejsing, Christer S; Carvalho, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Sterol homeostasis is essential for the function of cellular membranes and requires feedback inhibition of HMGR, a rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. As HMGR acts at the beginning of the pathway, its regulation affects the synthesis of sterols and of other essential mevalonate-derived metabolites, such as ubiquinone or dolichol. Here, we describe a novel, evolutionarily conserved feedback system operating at a sterol-specific step of the mevalonate pathway. This involves the sterol-dependent degradation of squalene monooxygenase mediated by the yeast Doa10 or mammalian Teb4, a ubiquitin ligase implicated in a branch of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. Since the other branch of ERAD is required for HMGR regulation, our results reveal a fundamental role for ERAD in sterol homeostasis, with the two branches of this pathway acting together to control sterol biosynthesis at different levels and thereby allowing independent regulation of multiple products of the mevalonate pathway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00953.001 PMID:23898401

  4. The effects of environmental regulation and technical progress on CO2 Kuznets curve: An evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Jianhua; Zheng, Mingzheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Based on environmental Kuznets curve theory, a panel data model which takes environmental regulation and technical progress as its moderating factors was developed to analyse the institutional and technical factors that affect the path of low-carbon economic development. The results indicated that there was a CO 2 emission Kuznets curve seen in China. Environmental regulation had a significant moderating effect on the curve, and the inflection of CO 2 emissions could come substantially earlier under stricter environmental regulation. Meanwhile, the impact of technical progress on the low-carbon economic development path had a longer hysteresis effect but restrained CO 2 emission during its increasing stage and accelerated its downward trend during the decreasing stage which was conducive to emission reduction. Strict environmental regulation could force the high-carbon emitting industries to transfer from the eastern regions to the central or the western regions of China, which would make the CO 2 Kuznets curve higher in its increasing stage and lower in its decreasing stage than that under looser regulation. Furthermore, energy efficiency, energy structure, and industrial structure exerted a significant direct impact on CO 2 emissions; we should consider the above factors as essential in the quest for low-carbon economic development. - Highlights: • Estimate moderating effect of environmental regulation and technical progress on EKC. • There was a CO 2 emission Kuznets curve in effect in China. • Environmental regulation presents significant moderating effect on EKC. • Technical progress moderates the relationship between income and CO 2 emissions

  5. Effect of increased regulation on capital costs and manual labor requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, S.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs

  6. A Requirement for Mena, an Actin Regulator, in Local mRNA Translation in Developing Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaki, Marina; Drees, Frauke; Saxena, Tanvi; Lanslots, Erwin; Taliaferro, Matthew J; Tatarakis, Antonios; Burge, Christopher B; Wang, Eric T; Gertler, Frank B

    2017-08-02

    During neuronal development, local mRNA translation is required for axon guidance and synaptogenesis, and dysregulation of this process contributes to multiple neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. However, regulation of local protein synthesis in developing axons remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover a novel role for the actin-regulatory protein Mena in the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex that involves the RNA-binding proteins HnrnpK and PCBP1 and regulates local translation of specific mRNAs in developing axons. We find that translation of dyrk1a, a Down syndrome- and autism spectrum disorders-related gene, is dependent on Mena, both in steady-state conditions and upon BDNF stimulation. We identify hundreds of additional mRNAs that associate with the Mena complex, suggesting that it plays broader role(s) in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Our work establishes a dual role for Mena in neurons, providing a potential link between regulation of actin dynamics and local translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Responding to environmental regulations through collaborative arrangements: Social aspects of manure partnerships in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu; Langer, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    In livestock-intensive regions of Europe, on-farm application of manure and other fertilisers is being increasingly regulated to protect aquatic environments. This study examined collaborative arrangements between intensive livestock farms in Denmark with surplus manure and farms requiring crop n...

  8. Quality assurance and reference material requirements and considerations for environmental sample analysis in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.; Perrin, R.E.; Goldberg, S.A.; Cappis, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High-sensitivity nuclear environmental sampling and analysis techniques have been proven in their ability to verify declared nuclear activities, as well as to assist in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and facilities. Following the Gulf War, the capability and revealing power of environmental sampling and analysis techniques to support international safeguards was demonstrated and subsequently adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as routine safeguards measures in safeguards inspections and verifications. In addition to having been proved useful in international safeguards, environmental sampling and analysis techniques have demonstrated their utility in identifying the origins of 'orphaned' nuclear material, as well as the origin of intercepted smuggled nuclear material. Today, environmental sampling and analysis techniques are now being applied in six broad areas to support nonproliferation, disarmament treaty verification, national and international nuclear security, and environmental stewardship of weapons production activities. Consequently, more and more laboratories around the world are establishing capabilities or expanding capabilities to meet these growing applications, and as such requirements for quality assurance and control are increasing. The six areas are: 1) Nuclear safeguards; 2) Nuclear forensics/illicit trafficking; 3) Ongoing monitoring and verification (OMV); 4) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); 5) Weapons dismantlement/materials disposition; and 6) Research and development (R and D)/environmental stewardship/safety. Application of environmental sampling and analysis techniques and resources to illicit nuclear material trafficking, while embodying the same basic techniques and resources, does have unique requirements for sample management, handling, protocols, chain of custody, archiving, and data interpretation. These requirements are derived from needs of how data from nuclear forensics

  9. Cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements in the Danish Building Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggerholm, S.

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the report is to analyse the cost optimality of the energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 2010, BR10 to new building and to existing buildings undergoing major renovation. The energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations have by tradition always been based on the cost and benefits related to the private economical or financial perspective. Macro economical calculations have in the past only been made in addition. The cost optimum used in this report is thus based on the financial perspective. Due to the high energy taxes in Denmark there is a significant difference between the consumer price and the macro economical for energy. Energy taxes are also paid by commercial consumers when the energy is used for building operation e.g. heating, lighting, ventilation etc. In relation to the new housing examples the present minimum energy requirements in BR 10 all shows gaps that are negative with a deviation of up till 16 % from the point of cost optimality. With the planned tightening of the requirements to new houses in 2015 and in 2020, the energy requirements can be expected to be tighter than the cost optimal point, if the costs for the needed improvements don't decrease correspondingly. In relation to the new office building there is a gap of 31 % to the point of cost optimality in relation to the 2010 requirement. In relation to the 2015 and 2020 requirements there are negative gaps to the point of cost optimality based on today's prices. If the gaps for all the new buildings are weighted to an average based on mix of building types and heat supply for new buildings in Denmark there is a gap of 3 % in average for the new building. The excessive tightness with today's prices is 34 % in relation to the 2015 requirement and 49 % in relation to the 2020 requirement. The component requirement to elements in the building envelope and to installations in existing buildings adds up to significant energy efficiency

  10. Centriole maturation requires regulated Plk1 activity during two consecutive cell cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dong; Farmer, Veronica; Shukla, Anil; James, Jana; Gruskin, Richard; Kiriyama, Shigeo; Loncarek, Jadranka

    2014-09-29

    Newly formed centrioles in cycling cells undergo a maturation process that is almost two cell cycles long before they become competent to function as microtubule-organizing centers and basal bodies. As a result, each cell contains three generations of centrioles, only one of which is able to form cilia. It is not known how this long and complex process is regulated. We show that controlled Plk1 activity is required for gradual biochemical and structural maturation of the centrioles and timely appendage assembly. Inhibition of Plk1 impeded accumulation of appendage proteins and appendage formation. Unscheduled Plk1 activity, either in cycling or interphase-arrested cells, accelerated centriole maturation and appendage and cilia formation on the nascent centrioles, erasing the age difference between centrioles in one cell. These findings provide a new understanding of how the centriole cycle is regulated and how proper cilia and centrosome numbers are maintained in the cells.

  11. Successful emotion regulation requires both conviction and skill: beliefs about the controllability of emotions, reappraisal, and regulation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutentag, Tony; Halperin, Eran; Porat, Roni; Bigman, Yochanan E; Tamir, Maya

    2017-09-01

    To succeed in self-regulation, people need to believe that it is possible to change behaviour and they also need to use effective means to enable such a change. We propose that this also applies to emotion regulation. In two studies, we found that people were most successful in emotion regulation, the more they believed emotions can be controlled and the more they used an effective emotion regulation strategy - namely, cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive reappraisal moderated the link between beliefs about the controllability of emotion and success in emotion regulation, when reappraisal was measured as a trait (Study 1) or manipulated (Study 2). Such moderation was found when examining the regulation of disgust elicited by emotion-inducing films (Study 1), and the regulation of anger elicited by real political events (Study 2). We discuss the implications of our findings for research and practice in emotion regulation.

  12. jurisprudence precedent on the instruments of environmental regulation of the electrical colombian sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcila R, Jaime Leon; Velasquez A, Hector I

    2009-01-01

    What the authors of the Law of the Environment have named the green Constitution or the ecological Constitution of 1991, necessarily it has consequences in the legal practice of the instruments of environmental management in all the levels and sectors of the economy, especially if the previous thing is analyzed in the frame of the Social State of Law in the Constitution of 1991, under this perspective, it is possible to understand the emptiness and inconsistencies of the environmental management in the electrical Colombian sector (SEC), from the critical analysis of the instruments of environmental regulation established in the in the Law in addition it is possible to check these instruments in his role of tools for the environmental management, to identify a constitutional and legal conceptualization adapted for the development of the same ones and to determine the necessary adjustments to realize in his environmental role of management tools in the SEC. The attainment of the previous aims carries an own methodology of the social qualitative research in his juridical political levels. The content of this article realizes the first advances in order to study from a juriprudential and not merely legal optics, since up to the moment the topic has been approached.

  13. Eph receptor interclass cooperation is required for the regulation of cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurek, Aleksandra; Genander, Maria; Kundu, Parag; Catchpole, Timothy; He, Xiao; Strååt, Klas; Sabelström, Hanna; Xu, Nan-Jie; Pettersson, Sven; Henkemeyer, Mark; Frisén, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Cancer often arises by the constitutive activation of mitogenic pathways by mutations in stem cells. Eph receptors are unusual in that although they regulate the proliferation of stem/progenitor cells in many adult organs, they typically fail to transform cells. Multiple ephrins and Eph receptors are often co-expressed and are thought to be redundant, but we here describe an unexpected dichotomy with two homologous ligands, ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2, regulating specifically migration or proliferation in the intestinal stem cell niche. We demonstrate that the combined activity of two different coexpressed Eph receptors of the A and B class assembled into common signaling clusters in response to ephrin-B2 is required for mitogenic signaling. The requirement of two different Eph receptors to convey mitogenic signals identifies a new type of cooperation within this receptor family and helps explain why constitutive activation of a single receptor fails to transform cells. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 have largely non-overlapping functions in the intestinal stem cell niche. • Ephrin-B1 regulates cell positioning and ephrin-B2 regulates cell proliferation in the intestinal stem cell niche. • EphA4/B2 receptor cooperation in response to ephrin-B2 binding is obligatory to convey mitogenic signals in the intestine. • EphA4 facilitates EphB2 phosphorylation in response to ephrin-B2 in SW480 adenocarcinoma cells. • Ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 induce phosphorylation and degradation of the EphB2 receptor with different kinetics.

  14. Eph receptor interclass cooperation is required for the regulation of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurek, Aleksandra; Genander, Maria [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kundu, Parag [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Catchpole, Timothy [Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas TX 75390 (United States); He, Xiao; Strååt, Klas; Sabelström, Hanna [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Xu, Nan-Jie [Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas TX 75390 (United States); Pettersson, Sven [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); The National Cancer Centre, Singapore General Hospital (Singapore); Henkemeyer, Mark [Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas TX 75390 (United States); Frisén, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.frisen@ki.se [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-10-15

    Cancer often arises by the constitutive activation of mitogenic pathways by mutations in stem cells. Eph receptors are unusual in that although they regulate the proliferation of stem/progenitor cells in many adult organs, they typically fail to transform cells. Multiple ephrins and Eph receptors are often co-expressed and are thought to be redundant, but we here describe an unexpected dichotomy with two homologous ligands, ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2, regulating specifically migration or proliferation in the intestinal stem cell niche. We demonstrate that the combined activity of two different coexpressed Eph receptors of the A and B class assembled into common signaling clusters in response to ephrin-B2 is required for mitogenic signaling. The requirement of two different Eph receptors to convey mitogenic signals identifies a new type of cooperation within this receptor family and helps explain why constitutive activation of a single receptor fails to transform cells. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 have largely non-overlapping functions in the intestinal stem cell niche. • Ephrin-B1 regulates cell positioning and ephrin-B2 regulates cell proliferation in the intestinal stem cell niche. • EphA4/B2 receptor cooperation in response to ephrin-B2 binding is obligatory to convey mitogenic signals in the intestine. • EphA4 facilitates EphB2 phosphorylation in response to ephrin-B2 in SW480 adenocarcinoma cells. • Ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 induce phosphorylation and degradation of the EphB2 receptor with different kinetics.

  15. Guidelines for the Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Requirements for the Product Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Mariana; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Teixeira, Cláudia Echevenguá

    2013-01-01

    Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from end-of-pipe approaches to a life cycle perspective. Therefore, manufacturing companies are increasingly identifying the need of deploying and incorporating product-related environmental requirements into the product development...... process. This paper presents twelve guidelines, clustered into three groups, to support companies in the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements from product-related environmental legislation....

  16. Benefits and disadvantages of self-regulation of environmental noise from military training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, George A.

    2002-05-01

    In a 1981 Executive decision, the Administration's Office of Management and Budget (OMB) told the Environmental Protection Agency to end funding of the Office of Noise Abatement and Control (ONAC). This decision, coupled with a specific exemption for military equipment contained in the Noise Control Act of 1972, ensured that the military departments would be self-regulating in regard to noise. This self-regulation for noise stands in contrast to the external regulation of other pollutants, such as air and water emissions. Two possible disadvantages of self-regulation are (1) reduced funding for noise management compared with funding for externally regulated pollutants, and (2) lack of an independent and external set of standards for determining acceptable limits on community noise exposure. Three possible benefits are (1) avoiding the costs of mitigating trivial violations of external standards, (2) maintaining a long-standing policy of preventing noise problems through land use planning, and (3) enabling negotiated solutions between installations and their neighboring communities. The paper ends with an examination of a negotiated solution for a community subjected to noise from the detonation of obsolete ammunition.

  17. Safety and environmental requirements and design targets for TIBER-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1987-09-01

    A consistent set of safety and environmental requirements and design targets was proposed and adopted for the TIBER-II (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design effort. TIBER-II is the most recent US version of a fusion experimental test reactor (ETR). These safety and environmental design targets were one contribution of the Fusion Safety Program in the TIBER-II design effort. The other contribution, safety analyses, is documented in the TIBER-II design report. The TIBER-II approach, described here, concentrated on logical development of, first, a complete and consistent set of safety and environmental requirements that are likely appropriate for an ETR, and, second, an initial set of design targets to guide TIBER-II. Because of limited time in the TIBER-II design effort, the iterative process only included one iteration - one set of targets and one design. Future ETR design efforts should therefore build on these design targets and the associated safety analyses. 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Hydraulic Methods Regarding Hydromorphologic Data Derivation Methods to Determine Environmental Water Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shokoohi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the accuracy of hydraulic methods in determining environmental flow requirements. Despite the vital importance of deriving river cross sectional data for hydraulic methods, few studies have focused on the criteria for deriving this data. The present study shows that the depth of cross section has a meaningful effect on the results obtained from hydraulic methods and that, considering fish as the index species for river habitat analysis, an optimum depth of 1 m should be assumed for deriving information from cross sections. The second important parameter required for extracting the geometric and hydraulic properties of rivers is the selection of an appropriate depth increment; ∆y. In the present research, this parameter was found to be equal to 1 cm. The uncertainty of the environmental discharge evaluation, when allocating water in areas with water scarcity, should be kept as low as possible. The Manning friction coefficient (n is an important factor in river discharge calculation. Using a range of "n" equal to 3 times the standard deviation for the study area, it is shown that the influence of friction coefficient on the estimation of environmental flow is much less than that on the calculation of river discharge.

  19. Assessment of environmental flow requirements for river basin planning in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazvimavi, D.; Madamombe, E.; Makurira, H.

    There is a growing awareness and understanding of the need to allocate water along a river to maintain ecological processes that provide goods and services. Legislation in Zimbabwe requires water resources management plans to include the amount of water to be reserved for environmental purposes in each river basin. This paper aims to estimate the amount of water that should be reserved for environmental purposes in each of the 151 sub-basins or water management units of Zimbabwe. A desktop hydrological method is used to estimate the environmental flow requirement (EFR). The estimated EFRs decrease with increasing flow variability, and increase with the increasing contribution of base flows to total flows. The study has established that in order to maintain slightly modified to natural habitats along rivers, the EFR should be 30-60% of mean annual runoff (MAR) in regions with perennial rivers, while this is 20-30% in the dry parts of the country with rivers, which only flow during the wet season. The inclusion of EFRs in water resources management plans will not drastically change the proportion of the available water allocated to water permits, since the amount of water allocated to water permit holders is less than 50% of the MAR on 77% of the sub-basins in the country.

  20. Study on influence over approaching a market in the international trade by enhancing the international environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Park, Joon Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The focal point of connecting trade and environment is what kind of influence over a national competitiveness of a national economy can be brought by enhancing environmental regulations. Traditionally it was accepted that the enhancement of environmental policy had a negative impact on competitiveness. However, recent study results show that the enhancement of environmental policy can strengthen industrial competitiveness for a long term. This study analyzes the significance of enhancing the international environmental regulation from a developing country's standpoint in association with this. 27 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. Study on influence over approaching a market in the international trade by enhancing the international environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Park, Joon Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The focal point of connecting trade and environment is what kind of influence over a national competitiveness of a national economy can be brought by enhancing environmental regulations. Traditionally it was accepted that the enhancement of environmental policy had a negative impact on competitiveness. However, recent study results show that the enhancement of environmental policy can strengthen industrial competitiveness for a long term. This study analyzes the significance of enhancing the international environmental regulation from a developing country's standpoint in association with this. 27 refs., 8 tabs.

  2. Rab from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and its regulation upon environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Jin; Chen, Chu-Xian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    With the destruction of the ecological environment, shrimp cultivation in China has been seriously affected by outbreaks of infectious diseases. Rab, which belong to small GTPase Ras superfamily, can regulate multiple steps in eukaryotic vesicle trafficking including vesicle budding, vesicle tethering, and membrane fusion. Knowledge of Rab in shrimp is essential to understanding regulation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental stress. In this study, we analyzed the functions of Rab from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNA of Rab was obtained, which was 751 bp long, with open reading frame encoding 206 amino acids. In this study, for the first time, the gene expression of Rab of L. vannamei was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five kinds of environmental stresses (bacteria, pH, Cd, salinity and low temperature). The results demonstrate that Rab is sensitive and involved in bacteria, pH, and Cd stress responses and Rab is more sensitive to bacteria than other stresses. Therefore we infer that Rab may have relationship with the anti-stress mechanism induced by environment stress in shrimp and Rab could be used as critical biomarkers for environmental quality assessment.

  3. A Compact Diffusion Sampler for Environmental Applications Requiring HTO or HTO + HT Determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otlet, R.L.; Walker, A.J.; Mather, I.D.

    2005-01-01

    Passive diffusion samplers have now been in use in the UK for the measurement of tritium at environmental levels in the form of HTO and HTO + HT for more than ten years. At the outset their main purpose was to identify the direction of a possible inadvertent release of tritium into the environment. More recently, however, there has been growing interest in their use as stand-alone devices for tritium determination at environmental levels. This has necessitated a more rigorous design to reduce the 'draughts effect' in exposed locations and has also required modifications to enable the measurement of HTO + HT. The paper describes the recent design improvements and the results of validation tests carried out against dynamic, discriminating (dry-bed) samplers

  4. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Operations System: Version 4.0 - system requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashporenko, D.

    1996-07-01

    This document is intended to provide an operations standard for the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory OPerations System (EMSL OPS). It is directed toward three primary audiences: (1) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) facility and operations personnel; (2) laboratory line managers and staff; and (3) researchers, equipment operators, and laboratory users. It is also a statement of system requirements for software developers of EMSL OPS. The need for a finely tuned, superior research environment as provided by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory has never been greater. The abrupt end of the Cold War and the realignment of national priorities caused major US and competing overseas laboratories to reposition themselves in a highly competitive research marketplace. For a new laboratory such as the EMSL, this means coming into existence in a rapidly changing external environment. For any major laboratory, these changes create funding uncertainties and increasing global competition along with concomitant demands for higher standards of research product quality and innovation. While more laboratories are chasing fewer funding dollars, research ideas and proposals, especially for molecular-level research in the materials and biological sciences, are burgeoning. In such an economically constrained atmosphere, reduced costs, improved productivity, and strategic research project portfolio building become essential to establish and maintain any distinct competitive advantage. For EMSL, this environment and these demands require clear operational objectives, specific goals, and a well-crafted strategy. Specific goals will evolve and change with the evolution of the nature and definition of DOE`s environmental research needs. Hence, EMSL OPS is designed to facilitate migration of these changes with ease into every pertinent job function, creating a facile {open_quotes}learning organization.{close_quotes}

  5. Co-ordinate regulation of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes by environmental and regulatory factors is mediated by control of hilA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, V; Lucas, R L; Hwang, C; Lee, C A

    1996-11-01

    During infection of their hosts, salmonellae enter intestinal epithelial cells. It has been proposed that when Salmonella typhimurium is present in the intestinal lumen, several environmental and regulatory conditions modulate the expression of invasion factors required for bacterial entry into host cells. We report here that the expression of six different S. typhimurium invasion genes encoded on SPI1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1) is co-ordinately regulated by oxygen, osmolarity, pH, PhoPQ, and HilA. HilA is a transcriptional activator of the OmpR/ToxR family that is also encoded on SPI1. We have found that HilA plays a central role in the co-ordinated regulation of invasion genes by environmental and regulatory conditions. HilA can activate the expression of two invasion gene-lacZY fusions on reporter plasmids in Escherichia coll, suggesting that HilA acts directly at invasion-gene promoters in S. typhimurium. We have found that the regulation of invasion genes by oxygen, osmolarity, pH, and PhoPQ is indirect and is mediated by regulation of hilA expression by these environmental and regulatory factors. We hypothesize that the complex and co-ordinate regulation of Invasion genes by HilA is an important feature of salmonella pathogenesis and allows salmonellae to enter intestinal epithelial cells.

  6. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies

  7. Meeting United States re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection using innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Cook, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    Procedure for meeting re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection and an overview of several new and emerging technologies regarding the development of ways to prevent fish passage through hydraulic turbines at hydroelectric power dams is described. Fish mortality and injury has long been a concern in the hydroelectric industry and research and development efforts have been ongoing since the 1970s to prevent fish passage through turbines. Several new and emerging technologies are examined that have the potential for wide-spread cost-effective applications

  8. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  9. Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation? A differentiated-products example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Clas [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    This paper assumes that consumers are willing to pay an extra premium for a good if it has a low impact on the environment. We examine if a little dose of such idealistic behavior has a large impact on the market equilibrium, and to what extent it can replace the environmental regulation. The analysis is carried out in a model with product differentiation, where consumers differ in their preferences for product quality. Consumers' willingness to pay the environmental premium may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Green consumerism will only be modestly influential in both cases, despite the fact that product differentiation leads to relaxed competition and increased profits, and thereby creates leverage.

  10. Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation? A differentiated-products example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Clas

    2004-01-01

    This paper assumes that consumers are willing to pay an extra premium for a good if it has a low impact on the environment. We examine if a little dose of such idealistic behavior has a large impact on the market equilibrium, and to what extent it can replace the environmental regulation. The analysis is carried out in a model with product differentiation, where consumers differ in their preferences for product quality. Consumers' willingness to pay the environmental premium may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Green consumerism will only be modestly influential in both cases, despite the fact that product differentiation leads to relaxed competition and increased profits, and thereby creates leverage

  11. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program Office (BER),

    2009-09-30

    In May 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BER-funded research over the subsequent three to five years. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. Chief among them: scientific progress in BER-funded research is limited by current allocations of computational resources. Additionally, growth in mission-critical computing -- combined with new requirements for collaborative data manipulation and analysis -- will demand ever increasing computing, storage, network, visualization, reliability and service richness from NERSC. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. It also presents a number of"case studies" as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BER. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this"case study" format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and 3-5 year computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel,"multi-core" environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years.

  12. The impact of environmental regulations on United States crude oil supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.L.; Biglarbigi, K.

    1991-01-01

    A number of legislative and regulatory initiatives being considered to protect the environment could affect the economics of oil and gas exploration and production (E and P) in the Unites States. This paper summarizes the results of a comprehensive assessment of the potential cumulative energy and economic impacts of environmental regulatory initiatives on United States crude oil supplies. The results of the analysis clearly will determine the level of impact, but the results show that significant impacts are felt over a wide range of regulations, over a wide range of crude oil prices, and at two levels of development for extraction technologies. The regulations evaluated all have an impact on all resource categories analyzed in the study

  13. Corruption in the commons: why bribery hampers enforcement of environmental regulations in South African fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Sundström

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored on the micro-level why corruption hampers environmental regulations. The relationship between corruption and regulatory compliance is here investigated through confidential in-depth interviews with South African small-scale fishermen. Respondents describe how the expected behavior of inspectors and other resource users to ask for or accept bribes are vital in their compliance decisions. The interviews also shed some light on the puzzling role of trust and trustworthiness of public officials. While resource users often knows inspectors personally – and uphold discretion necessary for bribery to continue – they depict them as dishonest and describe how corrupt acts decrease their trustworthiness. The findings from the South African case illustrate the importance of curbing both grand and petty corruption to increase the effectiveness of regulations in natural resource management.

  14. A study on environmental regulation and public inquiry system of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Chang Sun; Son, Ki Yon; Cho, Young Ho; Yang, Ji Won; Lee, Young Wook; Ko, Hyun Suk

    2000-03-01

    Public hearing system for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities are investigated and analyzed. As a result, Korean public hearing system are developed. Atomic Energy Act, Environmental Impact Assessment Act and Administrative Procedure Act of Korea are reviewed and appropriate acts, regulations, procedures and mandates of foreign countries including U.S.A are reviewed and analyzed. On the basis of these results the role of device to collect public opinion is identified for nuclear facility of Korea and the elementary principle of the system and recommendations are developed

  15. A study on environmental regulation and public inquiry system of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Sun; Son, Ki Yon; Cho, Young Ho; Yang, Ji Won; Lee, Young Wook; Ko, Hyun Suk [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Public hearing system for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities are investigated and analyzed. As a result, Korean public hearing system are developed. Atomic Energy Act, Environmental Impact Assessment Act and Administrative Procedure Act of Korea are reviewed and appropriate acts, regulations, procedures and mandates of foreign countries including U.S.A are reviewed and analyzed. On the basis of these results the role of device to collect public opinion is identified for nuclear facility of Korea and the elementary principle of the system and recommendations are developed.

  16. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of two gene clusters and a transcriptional regulator required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa glycine betaine catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Matthew J; Szwergold, Benjamin S; Hogan, Deborah A

    2008-04-01

    Glycine betaine (GB), which occurs freely in the environment and is an intermediate in the catabolism of choline and carnitine, can serve as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Twelve mutants defective in growth on GB as the sole carbon source were identified through a genetic screen of a nonredundant PA14 transposon mutant library. Further growth experiments showed that strains with mutations in two genes, gbcA (PA5410) and gbcB (PA5411), were capable of growth on dimethylglycine (DMG), a catabolic product of GB, but not on GB itself. Subsequent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with 1,2-(13)C-labeled choline indicated that these genes are necessary for conversion of GB to DMG. Similar experiments showed that strains with mutations in the dgcAB (PA5398-PA5399) genes, which exhibit homology to genes that encode other enzymes with demethylase activity, are required for the conversion of DMG to sarcosine. Mutant analyses and (13)C NMR studies also confirmed that the soxBDAG genes, predicted to encode a sarcosine oxidase, are required for sarcosine catabolism. Our screen also identified a predicted AraC family transcriptional regulator, encoded by gbdR (PA5380), that is required for growth on GB and DMG and for the induction of gbcA, gbcB, and dgcAB in response to GB or DMG. Mutants defective in the previously described gbt gene (PA3082) grew on GB with kinetics similar to those of the wild type in both the PAO1 and PA14 strain backgrounds. These studies provided important insight into both the mechanism and the regulation of the catabolism of GB in P. aeruginosa.

  18. Development and application of a permit information system for shale oil (PERMISSO). Final report appendix: summary sheets of regulations required for oil shale development, June 1978--May 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This appendix is comprised of summaries of various governmental permits, licenses and other approvals required for oil shale development. The summaries were completed during the period June--October 1978, and are current as of July 1, 1978, although more recent authority was cited in some cases. One of the major purposes of Phase II of the project will be to update these summaries as statutes and regulations are added, changed or eliminated. This updating will be particularly important in the case of environmental permits and approvals. Many legislative and regulatory changes affecting environmental requirements are pending at this time and will alter many of the summaries herein. In addition, many regulatory proposals have been or likely will be challenged in the courts. When such conflicts are resolved further changes may be in order.

  19. Regulatory and management requirements for investigation-derived waste generated during environmental investigations and cleanups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clary, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental cleanup efforts often result in the generation of waste materials, such as soil samples, drill cuttings, decontamination water, drilling muds, personal protective equipment, and disposable sampling equipment. The management of associated with site characterization and remediation issues is a complicated issue at many CERCLA/RCRA facilities throughout the country, primarily because of the federal hazardous waste regulations. The hazardous waste regulations were intended to apply to the active generation of hazardous waste at industrial facilities and do not often make sense when applied to sites con by poor disposal practices of the past. In order to manage investigation derived waste in a more rational, logical manner, EPA issued guidance on the management of investigation-derived waste (IDW) at Superfund sites in January, 1992. The basic intent of the EPA guidance is to provide Superfund Site Managers with options for handling, managing, and disposing of IDW. The second part of this paper provides a detailed analysis of current IDW practices at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and Superfund sites across the nation. Some sites, particularly the DOE facilities, with more complicated on-going cleanup efforts have developed site-specific written procedures for managing IDW, often incorporating risk assessment. In come cases, these site-specific policies are going farther than the current EPA and Colorado policies in terms of conservatively managing IDW

  20. Incorporating land-use requirements and environmental constraints in low-carbon electricity planning for California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Grace C; Torn, Margaret S; Williams, James H

    2015-02-17

    The land-use implications of deep decarbonization of the electricity sector (e.g., 80% below 1990 emissions) have not been well-characterized quantitatively or spatially. We assessed the operational-phase land-use requirements of different low-carbon scenarios for California in 2050 and found that most scenarios have comparable direct land footprints. While the per MWh footprint of renewable energy (RE) generation is initially higher, that of fossil and nuclear generation increases over time with continued fuel use. We built a spatially explicit model to understand the interactions between resource quality and environmental constraints in a high RE scenario (>70% of total generation). We found that there is sufficient land within California to meet the solar and geothermal targets, but areas with the highest quality wind and solar resources also tend to be those with high conservation value. Development of some land with lower conservation value results in lower average capacity factors, but also provides opportunity for colocation of different generation technologies, which could significantly improve land-use efficiency and reduce permitting, leasing, and transmission infrastructure costs. Basing siting decisions on environmentally-constrained long-term RE build-out requirements produces significantly different results, including better conservation outcomes, than implied by the current piecemeal approach to planning.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOME COPPER BASED FUNGICIDES ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga GRĂDILĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data demonstrating the functionality of biological systems reconstituted with aquatic organisms developed under Good Laboratory Practice testing facility within Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection Bucharest for environmental risk assessment of four fungicides based on copper, according to Good Laboratory Practice requirements. For risk assessment, according to GLP were made the following steps: Good Laboratory Practice test facility was established, we have ensured adequate space for growth, acclimatization and testing for each test species, it was installed a complex water production instalation needed to perform tests, it was achieved control system for checking environmental conditions and have developed specific operating procedures that have been accredited according to Good Laboratory Practice.The results showed that biological systems model of the Good Laboratory Practice test facility in Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection meet the requirements of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines regarding GLP, and after testing copper-based fungicides in terms of acute toxicity Cyprinus carpio and to Daphnia magna revealed that three of them (copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide and copper sulphate showed ecological efficiency, ie low toxicity. Metallic copper based fungicides showed a higher toxicity, resulting in fish toxicity symptoms: sleep, sudden immersion, faded, weakness, swimming in spiral, lack of balance, breathing slow and cumbersome, spasms and mortality.

  2. Natural gas and the generation of electricity in relation to environmental protection regulations in EC member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosenbauer, T.

    1994-01-01

    A brief account is given of regulations governing the use of gas in power plants, of emission limits for some substances such as SO 2 , NO x and dust, and of regulations concerning existing and newly built facilities, specifying the highest permissible emissions of environmental pollutants. (J.B.)

  3. Regulations and decisions in environmental impact assessment of residues radioactivity content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance of natural radionuclides in the environment did not have high priority over many years compared to that of man-made radioactivity. There is, however, an increasing interest in such measurements since enhanced exposure to natural radioactivity is receiving the same legal weight as any other radiation exposure. In this context the surveillance of technologically enhanced naturally occurring materials, called TENORM becomes important. In Brazil, the industries of processing and chemical compounds production were developed based on mining, milling, transformation and manufacture of ores from sedimentary origin, ignea or metamorphic, which must determine the radioactive composition of the generated solid wastes and residues. Many solids residues stored in the environment has been of environmental concern facing the industries and environmentalists in Brazil as it presents a potential threat to the surrounding environment and to individuals occupationally exposed. Radiation protection regulations have not been applied yet to these industries, as the Brazilian regulatory agency (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN) has only recently published a regulatory guide concerning mining and milling of naturally occurring radioactive materials, which may generate enhanced concentrations of radionuclides. With respect to external and internal exposure to natural radionuclides from the solid residues storage, the nuclides of 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U decay chains are relevant, due to the exposure of workers as well as of members of the public. Radionuclides released from a source can be present as ions, molecules, complexes, mononuclear or polynuclear species, colloids, pseudocolloids, particles or fragments varying in size (nominal molecular mass), structure, morphology, density, valence and charge properties. One of the main points in environmental impact assessment is to identify whether the chemical availability is under influence of these speciation

  4. New requirements embodied in expert knowledge regulations for industrial radiation protection officers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, H.G.

    2001-01-01

    Expert knowledge standards and certification requirements of health physics responsible persons or radiation safety officers in industry or in health care are laid down in Germany in administrative regulations. Now the new Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) contains a specific section exclusively devoted to all aspects of expert knowledge in industrial radiation protection, which inter alia demonstrates the special significance of education and further training of radiation protection specialists. It is expected that the forthcoming new X-ray Ordinance (RoeV) will contain a similar amendment. The article explains the implications of the new Radiation Protection Ordinance for the education and further training of industrial radiation protection officers, but does not address specific aspects of nuclear engineering. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Learned stressor resistance requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Christianson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally controllable stressors confer protection from the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of future uncontrollable stressors, a phenomenon termed behavioral immunization. Recent data implicate neuroplasticity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC as critical to behavioral immunization. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a series of controllable tailshocks and one week later to uncontrollable tailshocks, followed 24h later by social exploration and shuttlebox escape tests. To test the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK cascade in behavioral immunization, either D-AP5 or the MEK inhibitor U0126 was injected to the prelimbic (PL or infralimbic (IL mPFC prior to controllable stress exposure. Phosphorylated ERK and P70S6K, regulators of transcription and translation, were quantified by Western blot or immunohistochemistry after controllable or uncontrollable tailshocks. Prior controllable stress prevented the social exploration and shuttlebox performance deficits caused by the later uncontrollable stressor, and this effect was blocked by injections of D-AP5 into mPFC. A significant increase in phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, but not P70S6K, occurred within the PL and IL in rats exposed to controllable stress, but not to uncontrollable stress. However, U0126 only prevented behavioral immunization when injected to the PL. We provide evidence that NMDAR and ERK dependent plasticity within the PL region is required for behavioral immunization, a learned form of stressor resistance.

  6. Interdomain allosteric regulation of Polo kinase by Aurora B and Map205 is required for cytokinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaner, David; Pinson, Xavier; El Kadhi, Khaled Ben; Normandin, Karine; Talje, Lama; Lavoie, Hugo; Lépine, Guillaume; Carréno, Sébastien; Kwok, Benjamin H.; Hickson, Gilles R.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Polo and its human orthologue Polo-like kinase 1 fulfill essential roles during cell division. Members of the Polo-like kinase (Plk) family contain an N-terminal kinase domain (KD) and a C-terminal Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions. How Plks are regulated in cytokinesis is poorly understood. Here we show that phosphorylation of Polo by Aurora B is required for cytokinesis. This phosphorylation in the activation loop of the KD promotes the dissociation of Polo from the PBD-bound microtubule-associated protein Map205, which acts as an allosteric inhibitor of Polo kinase activity. This mechanism allows the release of active Polo from microtubules of the central spindle and its recruitment to the site of cytokinesis. Failure in Polo phosphorylation results in both early and late cytokinesis defects. Importantly, the antagonistic regulation of Polo by Aurora B and Map205 in cytokinesis reveals that interdomain allosteric mechanisms can play important roles in controlling the cellular functions of Plks. PMID:25332165

  7. Environmental Regulation of Offshore (E&P Waste Management in Nigeria: How Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwuli Irene Ofuani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of technology has led to the rapid development of the offshore oil and gas industry and a corresponding increase in the amount of wastes generated from the industry. These wastes must be properly managed so as to curtail their potential to negatively affect human health and the environment. As a result, environmental regulation of offshore oil and gas operations is becoming more stringent worldwide. The Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN were issued to ensure that oil and gas industry operators do not degrade the environment in the course of their operations in Nigeria. Nonetheless, more attention has been focused on the economic aspects of offshore oil and gas industry rather than environmental aspects such as waste management. This article examines the legal aspects of offshore oil and gas waste management in Nigeria. It assesses the effectiveness of the mechanisms for the management of offshore E&P wastes in Nigeria as provided under EGASPIN in relation to other jurisdictions.

  8. A review of the methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the financial impacts of the repository regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pflum, C.G.; Mattson, S.R.; Matthusen, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    All Federal agencies must consider the financial impacts of their regulations. When costs significantly outweigh benefits, the Office of Management and Budget can recommend that Congress not provide the funds needed to implement the regulation. Without funds, the agency is forced to either revise or retract the regulation. This has happened previously with a regulation on uranium mill tailings proposed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and it could happen again with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations that govern the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The EPA (1985, 1992) claims that its regulation: ''Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Waste'' (40 CFR Part 191 or standards) does not increase costs above what the US Department of Energy (DOE) would spend anyway or, at most, what the DOE would spend to comply with 10 CFR Part 60: a regulation promulgated by the NRC. This report reviews and disputes the EPA claim. In Chapter 2 a summary of the basis for the EPA claim is presented and in Chapter 3 a critique of the basis of the claim is presented. This critique finds the EPA basis unrealistic, incomplete, and misleading. According to the EPA, a repository at Yucca Mountain would easily meet 40 CFR Part 191 even without the use of special engineered barriers. Because the NRC regulation (10 CFR Part 60) requires engineered barriers, the EPA places the onus for regulatory costs on the NRC. We disagree; the EPA standards drive regulatory costs as much as NRC regulations. The EPA has the higher responsibility for setting the overall standard for safety while the NRC can only implement this standard

  9. Appetite self-regulation: Environmental and policy influences on eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Just, David R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-03-01

    Appetite regulation is influenced by the environment, and the environment is shaped by food-related policies. This review summarizes the environment and policy research portion of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated." In this paper, we begin by making the case for why policy is an important tool in efforts to improve nutrition, and we introduce an ecological framework that illustrates the multiple layers that influence what people eat. We describe the state of the science on how policies influence behavior in several key areas: the federal food programs, schools, child care, food and beverage pricing, marketing to youth, behavioral economics, and changing defaults. Next, we propose novel approaches for multidisciplinary prevention and intervention strategies to promote breastfeeding, and examine interactions between psychology and the environment. Policy and environmental change are the most distal influences on individual-level appetite regulation, yet these strategies can reach many people at once by changing the environment in which food choices are made. We note the need for more research to understand compensatory behavior, reactance, and how to effectively change social norms. To move forward, we need a more sophisticated understanding of how individual psychological and biological factors interact with the environment and policy influences. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  10. Examining the Extent of Environmental Compliance Requirements on Mechatronic Products and Their Implementation through Product Lifecycle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Vukica

    2010-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study examined the opinions of industry practitioners related to the implementation of environmental compliance requirements into design and manufacturing processes of mechatronic and electromechanical products. It focused on the environmental standards for mechatronic and electromechanical products and how Product…

  11. Handling of Environmental Related Requirements : Awareness and Ability to Act at Small and Medium Sized Electric and Electronic Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Han-Hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Environmental related product requirements are increasing worldwide from government authorities, customers and other stakeholders. For small and medium sized companies manufacturing electric and electronic products it is more difficult compared to bigger companies to meet new product related requirements due to smaller budget, resources and knowledge. This research studies the awareness and ability to act upon changes when small and medium sized companies in Sweden face environmental related ...

  12. Program of environmental radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirement of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', as expressed in the section 5.14, related to the Program of Environmental Radiological Monitoring (PMRA)

  13. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P.C.; Moe, M.A.; Hombach, W.G.; Urdangaray, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  14. Extensions to the Joshua GDMS to support environmental science and analysis data handling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suich, J.E.; Honeck, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    For the past ten years, a generalized data management system (GDMS) called JOSHUA has been in use at the Savannah River Laboratory. Originally designed and implemented to support nuclear reactor physics and safety computational applications, the system is now also supporting environmental science modeling and impact assessment. Extensions to the original system are being developed to meet neet new data handling requirements, which include more general owner-member record relationships occurring in geographically encoded data sets, unstructured (relational) inquiry capability, cartographic analysis and display, and offsite data exchange. This paper discusses the need for these capabilities, places them in perspective as generic scientific data management activities, and presents the planned context-free extensions to the basic JOSHUA GDMS

  15. Extensions to the Joshua GDMS to support environmental science and analysis data handling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suich, J.E.; Honeck, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    For the past ten years, a generalized data management system (GDMS) called JOSHUA has been in use at the Savannah River Laboratory. Originally designed and implemented to support nuclear reactor physics and safety computational applications, the system is now also supporting environmental science modeling and impact assessment. Extensions to the original system are being developed to meet new data handling requirements, which include more general owner-member record relationships occurring in geographically encoded data sets, unstructured (relational) inquiry capability, cartographic analysis and display, and offsite data exchange. This paper discusses the need for these capabilities, places them in perspective as generic scientific data management activities, and presents the planned context-free extensions to the basic JOSHUA GDMS

  16. On regulation of environmental responsibility in the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. - Parallel regulation within the framework of Euratom and the Lisbon-treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhag, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    In Sweden, the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel is regulated in various laws and regulations. This means that there is an overlap between laws providing a sometimes vague and weak legal situation. Although attempts have been made to coordinate environmental and nuclear law these attempts have not succeeded. Recently, several Swedish reports have again described the fact that we have a parallel system of legal rules for the handling of spent nuclear fuel and the consequences of this. Foremost attention has been drawn to the fact that the licensing of a repository must be made both under the Nuclear Safety Act and the Environmental Code. The regulation referred to above is Swedish, and both the parallel regulation of nuclear safety-, radiation protection- and environmental- responsibility, and the relationship between such legislation, has its own Swedish history. However, Swedish legislation in all these areas is also under the influence of international regulations. This article describes the parallel regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection issues on a European level. It shows that the division and logic found in the relationship between the Swedish laws is only partially reflected at European level. First treated is the relationship between the EC-treaty and Euratom. The article then turns to examples of regulatory responsibility for waste management and communication of information relating to license applications (environmental impact assessments) for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel within the framework of Euratom and the EC-treaty. Finally, it discusses the implications of this type of parallel regulation for the Swedish licensing procedure

  17. On regulation of environmental responsibility in the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. - Parallel regulation within the framework of Euratom and the Lisbon-treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhag, Thomas (Dept. of Law, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)), e-mail: thomas.erhag@law.gu.se

    2010-09-15

    In Sweden, the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel is regulated in various laws and regulations. This means that there is an overlap between laws providing a sometimes vague and weak legal situation. Although attempts have been made to coordinate environmental and nuclear law these attempts have not succeeded. Recently, several Swedish reports have again described the fact that we have a parallel system of legal rules for the handling of spent nuclear fuel and the consequences of this. Foremost attention has been drawn to the fact that the licensing of a repository must be made both under the Nuclear Safety Act and the Environmental Code. The regulation referred to above is Swedish, and both the parallel regulation of nuclear safety-, radiation protection- and environmental- responsibility, and the relationship between such legislation, has its own Swedish history. However, Swedish legislation in all these areas is also under the influence of international regulations. This article describes the parallel regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection issues on a European level. It shows that the division and logic found in the relationship between the Swedish laws is only partially reflected at European level. First treated is the relationship between the EC-treaty and Euratom. The article then turns to examples of regulatory responsibility for waste management and communication of information relating to license applications (environmental impact assessments) for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel within the framework of Euratom and the EC-treaty. Finally, it discusses the implications of this type of parallel regulation for the Swedish licensing procedure

  18. Final Environmental Impact Statement on 10 CFR Part 61 licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. Summary and main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The three-volume final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is prepared to guide and support publication of a final regulation, 10 CFR Part 61, for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The FEIS is prepared in response to public comments received on the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) on the proposed Part 61 regulation. The DEIS was published in September 1981 as NUREG-0782. Public comments received on the proposed Part 61 regulation separate from the DEIS are also considered in the FEIS. The FEIS is not a rewritten version of the DEIS, which contains an exhaustive and detailed analysis of alternatives, but rather references the DEIS and presents the final decision bases and conclusions (costs and impacts) which are reflected in the Part 61 requirements. Four cases are specifically considered in the FEIS representing the following: past disposal practice, existing disposal practice, Part 61 requirements, and an upper bound example. The Summary and Main Report are contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of Appendices A - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61, and Appendices B - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on Proposed 10 CFR Part 61 Rulemaking. Volume 3 contains Appendices C-F, entitled as follows: Appendix C - Revisions to Impact Analysis Methodology, Appendix D - Computer Codes Used for FEIS Calculations, Appendix E - Errata for the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61 and last, Appendix F - Final Rule and Supplementary Information

  19. Pressure transmitters: Addressing post-Fukushima regulations and requirements with Bibloc technology by Rolls-Royce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, Herve; Desgeorge, Romain; Chowanek, Michel

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear power stations are designed to withstand substantial seismic activity and as such represent some of the most robust buildings in the world. However The Fukushima nuclear incident highlighted the potential vulnerability of nuclear power plants when multiple natural events of historic proportions happen simultaneously. Following the incident, the worldwide nuclear industry quite rightly called for an immediate review and a targeted reassessment of the safety margins of nuclear reactors. Several recommendations have been given by international safety authorities, including a significant toughening of the already stringent regulations and requirements, with respect to earthquakes, extreme temperatures, pressure and radiation resistance. In the event of an accident, a quick response is imperative and to act efficiently, a correct knowledge of the situation as well as an accurate estimation of its severity are required. Thus, it is essential to be able to rely on the most reliable sensors possible, in particular for the 50 to 100 classified pressure transmitters. Equipment used in nuclear plants all over the world, such pressure transmitters, are implemented following one of two different types of design: - The Monobloc design where almost all the equipment or system is installed very close to the reactor, within the reactor building. - The Bibloc design where the most sensitive parts (in particular the electronics) are removed from the harsh environment present in the vicinity of the reactor to be placed outside of the reactor building. The paper will present the advantages of the Bibloc technology and will show how this technology meets the 'Post Fukushima' requirements. (authors)

  20. Environmental and ecological water requirement of river system: a case study of Haihe-Luanhe river system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental and ecological problems induced by water resources development and utilization, this paper proposes a concept of environmental and ecological water requirement. It is defined as the minimum water amount to be consumed by the natural water bodies to conserve its environmental and ecological functions. Based on the definition, the methods on calculating the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement are determined. In the case study on Haihe-Luanhe river system, the water requirement is divided into three parts, i.e., the basic in-stream flow, water requirement for sediment transfer and water consumption by evaporation of the lakes or everglades. The results of the calculation show that the environmental and ecological water requirement in the river system is about 124×108 m3, including 57×108 m3 for basic in-stream flow, 63×108m3 for sediment transfer and 4×l08m3 for net evaporation loss of lakes. The total amount of environmental and ecological water requirement accounts for 54% of the amount of runoff (228×108 m3). However, it should be realized that the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement must be more than that we have calculated. According to this result, we consider that the rational utilization rate of the runoff in the river systems must not be more than 40%. Since the current utilization rate of the river system, which is over 80%, has been far beyond the limitation, the problems of environment and ecology are quite serious. It is imperative to control and adjust water development and utilization to eliminate the existing problems and to avoid the potential ecological or environmental crisis.

  1. Life in a changing world: TCH gene regulation of expression and responses to environmental signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes were discovered as a consequence of their marked upregulation of expression in response to seemingly innocuous stimuli such as touch. Further analyses have indicated that these genes are upregulated by a variety of diverse stimuli. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to changing environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicate that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  2. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance of Cea centers. Assessment and regulation and method 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The quality of the natural environment around the centers of the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique is an important point of its safety policy. The environmental protection is based on the control of risks coming from research and development activities of its installations. It aims to reduce as low as possible, the impact of its activities on man and his environment. This publication develops the sampling and measurement methods that are made on effluents and in environment, according to the radionuclides characteristics, that are present. It gives also the regulation that applied to the effluents monitoring. The results of radioactive effluents releases (liquid and gaseous) and the surveillance of environment around cea centers is given in the 'Bilan 1999' publication. An analysis of these results on the 1995-1999 period allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  3. Requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work; Anforderungen an den Um- und Ausbau des Hoechstspannungsstromnetzes. Aus der Sicht von Naturschutz und Kulturlandschaftspflege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The project on the requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work includes contributions on the following topics: the development of the European transmission grid, the grid extension law, restrictions for the power grid and their infrastructure, requirements for the regulations concerning the realization of the transnational grid extension, inclusion of the public - public acceptance - communication, requirements concerning the environmental compensation law, overhead line - underground cable - health hazards, ecological effects of overhead lines and underground cables, infrastructural projects, power supply in the future, structural relief by photovoltaics.

  4. Environmental oxygen tension regulates the energy metabolism and self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristal, Catherine E; Christensen, David R; Chinnery, Fay E; Petruzzelli, Raffaella; Parry, Kate L; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman; Houghton, Franchesca D

    2013-01-01

    Energy metabolism is intrinsic to cell viability but surprisingly has been little studied in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The current study aims to investigate the effect of environmental O2 tension on carbohydrate utilisation of hESCs. Highly pluripotent hESCs cultured at 5% O2 consumed significantly more glucose, less pyruvate and produced more lactate compared to those maintained at 20% O2. Moreover, hESCs cultured at atmospheric O2 levels expressed significantly less OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG than those maintained at 5% O2. To determine whether this difference in metabolism was a reflection of the pluripotent state, hESCs were cultured at 5% O2 in the absence of FGF2 for 16 hours leading to a significant reduction in the expression of SOX2. In addition, these cells consumed less glucose and produced significantly less lactate compared to those cultured in the presence of FGF2. hESCs maintained at 5% O2 were found to consume significantly less O2 than those cultured in the absence of FGF2, or at 20% O2. GLUT1 expression correlated with glucose consumption and using siRNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation was found to be directly regulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α at 5% O2. In conclusion, highly pluripotent cells associated with hypoxic culture consume low levels of O2, high levels of glucose and produce large amounts of lactate, while at atmospheric conditions glucose consumption and lactate production are reduced and there is an increase in oxidative metabolism. These data suggest that environmental O2 regulates energy metabolism and is intrinsic to the self-renewal of hESCs.

  5. Strengthening the capacity of SMEs and local authorities in developing countries to tackle environmental requirements in the supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnemann, G. [Div. of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    UNEP DTIE, through its Life Cycle Initiative, proposes to join with industry to strengthen the capacity of the weakest economic actors in the global supply chains to tackle environmental requirements. Two particularly important target groups for this project are SMEs and local authorities. Although the SMEs are the immediate actors, they need appropriate political institutions to provide an enabling framework. Multinational companies are continuously increasing the environmental requirements that their suppliers have to meet in order to provide a green image for the final product reaching western markets. Some multinational companies have accompanied these requirements with information and training of suppliers. By joining with UNEP they will be able to expand the effectiveness of their outreach and also gain greater visibility for their environmental policies. For SMEs this project is an opportunity to develop environmental management expertise and thus position themselves as reliable suppliers to leading companies. (orig.)

  6. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eusebio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy, it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  7. 78 FR 68829 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... DFARS 252.232-7007, Limitation of Government's Obligation. DFARS subpart 232.7, Contract [[Page 68830...; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contract Financing AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... and OMB Number: Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Part 232, Contract Financing...

  8. Environmental compatible design of power operated products. Contribution of the ecological design regulation to the energy efficiency targets of the EU; Umweltgerechte Gestaltung energiebetriebener Produkte. Der Beitrag der Oekodesign-Richtlinie zu den Energieeffizienzzielen der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehme, Ines; Halatsch, Andreas; Schuberth, Jens; Mordziol, Christoph

    2009-07-15

    The ecological design regulation and its further arrangement are a central component of the climatic protection politics and the policy of the European Union according to the sustainability in production and consumption. This regulation is to contribute to reduce the environmental impacts caused by power operated products. In the contribution under consideration, the Federal Office for Environment Protection (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the ecological design regulation and answers the following questions: (a) Which goals pursues the ecological design regulation and which processes lead to their arrangement?; (b) Which contribution does the regulation perform to the energy saving?; (c) Which challenges and chances exist for the manufacturers?; (d) What are the effects of the ecological design regulation for the consumers?; (e) What mean the ecological design requirements concretely for the individual products? The ecological design requirements not only reduce the environmental impacts but also contribute to the climate protection and reduce the energy costs in the phase of utilization. The consumers receive comprehensive information on the technical characteristics of the products as well as their quality and environmental fairness. Parallel to the conversion of the ecological design regulation, the European Union updates the marking of the energy consumption for numerous products. The ecological design requirements refer to technical characteristics. They do not forbid products or techniques as such.

  9. The interaction of new environmental regulations and the financing of waste processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will first explore new EPA regulations and how they are driving demand for environmental facilities. Special attention will be paid to the legal interaction of technology and federal and state policymaking. Attention also will be paid to the barriers to capital formation caused by federal regulation and the legal inadequacy of many infrastructure systems at the state and local level. Next, the paper will consider the implication of various financing techniques in light of these regulatory developments. Particular attention will be paid to existing legal and structural difficulties to the use of each of these three approaches, including tax incentives at the federal level, inability to use pollution control financing mechanisms in states, and the general decline of the availability of industrial revenue bond mechanisms. Finally, the paper will explore alternate credit support techniques that might be used to fill gaps between the regulatory pressures and the possible finance structures. It will examine possible uses of letters of credit, guarantees, forms of equity investment. Other, more difficult credit support devices such as insurance will be given brief consideration. Finally, there will be a brief overview of the liability implication for the various participants (debt inequity) in the financing of these facilities

  10. On the developmental and environmental regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium spp. berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eKarppinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype x environment (GxE interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes.

  11. Reaction of simple sterile sugar beet hybrids to regulated environmental factors for sugar yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar yield, an important indicator, is resulting from interaction of two components: the yield and sugar content, both they are controlled by polygenes, and influenced significantly by environment. A.V. Kilchevskyi and L.V. Hotyliova pointed to the fact that in breeding, contrary to evolution, stabilizing forms are dominated by driving ones, which determine the growth response to regulated factors and decreased resistance to non-regulated environmental factors [1]. A relevant breeding trend is to create the genotypes adequate with certain technologies, so to say «low input variety high input variety» i.e. varieties with low and high energy contribution to technology. From this perspective, selection of stable in their manifestation lines against the analyzing backgrounds has become an important element of the breeding process [2]. Home scientists, such as A.L. Mazmulov and M.S. Hrytsyk have contributed greatly to the development and application of the agro-backgrounds [3, 4].

  12. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-12-15

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention.

  13. Environmental emergency response plans (EERPs): A single plan approach to satisfy multiple regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzyka, L.

    1995-01-01

    Conrail is a freight railroad operating in twelve northeast and midwestern states transporting goods and materials over 11,700 miles of railroad. To repair, maintain, rebuild, and manufacture locomotives and rail cars, and to maintain the track, right of way, bridges, tunnels and other structures, Conrail uses petroleum products, solvents and cleaners. These products are stored in hundreds of storage tanks in and around the yards and right of way. To power the trains, locomotives are fueled with diesel fuel. With large volumes of fuel, lubricants, solvents and cleaners, safe and efficient handling of petroleum and chemicals is crucial to avoid negative impacts on the environment. Conrail recently revisited the issue of environmental emergency response planning. In an attempt to assure full compliance with a myriad of federal, state, and local regulation, a ''single plan approach'' was chosen. Single plans for each facility, coined EERPs, were decided on after careful review of the regulations, and evaluation of the company's operational and organizational needs

  14. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.285 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction...

  15. 75 FR 13305 - Notice of Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Statement for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9 AGENCY: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9 project (CAR 9). This notice briefly... contractor's to house up to 1,889 federal, low-security, adult male, non-U.S. citizen, criminal aliens at...

  16. Experiences in certification of packages for transportation of fresh nuclear fuel in the context of new safety requirements established by IAEA regulations (IAEA-96 regulations, ST-1) for air transportation of nuclear materials (requirements to C-type packages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudai, V.I.; Kovtun, A.D.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Nilulin, V.M.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Yakushev, V.A.; Bobrovsky, V.S.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Agapov, A.M.; Kolesnikov, A.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' MSZ' ' , Electrostal (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' NPCC' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Minatom of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Every year in Russia, a large amount of domestic and international transportation of fresh nuclear fuel (FNF) used in Russian and foreign energy and research atomic reactors and referred to fissile materials based on IAEA Regulations is performed. Here, bulk transportation is performed by air, and it concerns international transportation in particular. According to national ''Main Regulations for Safe Transport and physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ- 83)'' and ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Regulations), nuclear and radiation security under normal (accident free) and accident conditions of transport must be completely provided by the package design. In this context, high requirements to fissile packages exposed to heat and mechanical loads in transport accidents are imposed. A long-standing experience in accident free transportation of FM has shown that such approach to provide nuclear and radiation security pays for itself completely. Nevertheless, once in 10 years the International Atomic Energy Agency on every revision of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' places more stringent requirements upon the FM and transportation thereof, resulting from the objectively increasing risk associated with constant rise in volume and density of transportation, and also strained social and economical situation in a number of regions in the world. In the new edition of the IAEA Regulations (ST-1), published in 1996 and brought into force in 2001 (IAEA-96 Regulations), the requirements to FM packages conveyed by aircraft were radically changed. These requirements are completely presented in new Russian ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' (PBTRM- 2004) which will be brought into force in the time ahead.

  17. Vernalization and the Chilling Requirement to Exit Bud Dormancy: Shared or Separate Regulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Brunner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Similarities have long been recognized between vernalization, the prolonged exposure to cold temperatures that promotes the floral transition in many plants, and the chilling requirement to release bud dormancy in woody plants of temperate climates. In both cases the extended chilling period occurring during winter is used to coordinate developmental events to the appropriate seasonal time. However, whether or not these processes share common regulatory components and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Both gene function and association genetics studies in Populus are beginning to answer this question. In Populus, studies have revealed that orthologs of the antagonistic flowering time genes FT and CEN/TFL1 might have central roles in both processes. We review Populus seasonal shoot development related to dormancy release and the floral transition and evidence for FT/TFL1-mediated regulation of these processes to consider the question of regulatory overlap. In addition, we discuss the potential for and challenges to integrating functional and population genomics studies to uncover the regulatory mechanisms underpinning these processes in woody plant systems.

  18. CSL protein regulates transcription of genes required to prevent catastrophic mitosis in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Převorovský, Martin; Oravcová, Martina; Zach, Róbert; Jordáková, Anna; Bähler, Jürg; Půta, František; Folk, Petr

    2016-11-16

    For every eukaryotic cell to grow and divide, intricately coordinated action of numerous proteins is required to ensure proper cell-cycle progression. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been instrumental in elucidating the fundamental principles of cell-cycle control. Mutations in S. pombe 'cut' (cell untimely torn) genes cause failed coordination between cell and nuclear division, resulting in catastrophic mitosis. Deletion of cbf11, a fission yeast CSL transcription factor gene, triggers a 'cut' phenotype, but the precise role of Cbf11 in promoting mitotic fidelity is not known. We report that Cbf11 directly activates the transcription of the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase gene cut6, and the biotin uptake/biosynthesis genes vht1 and bio2, with the former 2 implicated in mitotic fidelity. Cbf11 binds to a canonical, metazoan-like CSL response element (GTGGGAA) in the cut6 promoter. Expression of Cbf11 target genes shows apparent oscillations during the cell cycle using temperature-sensitive cdc25-22 and cdc10-M17 block-release experiments, but not with other synchronization methods. The penetrance of catastrophic mitosis in cbf11 and cut6 mutants is nutrient-dependent. We also show that drastic decrease in biotin availability arrests cell proliferation but does not cause mitotic defects. Taken together, our results raise the possibility that CSL proteins play conserved roles in regulating cell-cycle progression, and they could guide experiments into mitotic CSL functions in mammals.

  19. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, P.C. [Consultant, 11221 E. Cimmarron Dr., Englewood, CO 80111 (United States); Moe, M.A. [EMCBC Office of Cost Estimating and Analysis, United States Department of Energy, 250 E. 5th Street, Suite 500, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States); Hombach, W.G. [Team Analysis, Inc., 2 Cardinal Park Drive, Suite 105A, Leesburg, VA 20175 (United States); Urdangaray, R. [Project Performance Corporation, 1760 Old Meadow Road, McLean, VA 22102 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  20. The Impact of Environmental Regulation on Total Factor Energy Efficiency: A Cross-Region Analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianting Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental regulations are the key measure by which governments achieve sustainable environmental and economic development. This study aimed to determine the direct and indirect impacts of environmental regulations on total factor energy efficiency of regions in China. Since regions have different levels of economic development and resource endowment, we used the slacks-based measure (SBM-undesirable model to calculate total factor energy efficiency considering regional technology heterogeneity and examined the regional impacts of environmental regulation on this efficiency using the Tobit regression model. A positive direct impact was generated in the eastern region of China by the forced mechanism, which forced enterprises to reduce fossil fuel energy demand and increase clean energy consumption; whereas a negative direct impact was generated in the middle and western regions owing to the green paradox, which is the observation that expected stringent environmental regulation prompts energy owners to accelerate resource extraction. Moreover, indirect impacts through technological progress and foreign direct investment were taken into account in the model, and the results show that the indirect impacts vary across regions. A logical response to these findings would be to develop different policies for different regions.

  1. Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Rübbelke; Pia Weiss

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on inn...

  2. Arabidopsis MADS-Box Transcription Factor AGL21 Acts as Environmental Surveillance of Seed Germination by Regulating ABI5 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Zi-Sheng; Miao, Zi-Qing; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Wang, Zhen; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2017-06-05

    Seed germination is a crucial checkpoint for plant survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a vital role in integrating environmental information to regulate seed germination. It has been well known that MCM1/AGAMOUS/DEFICIENS/SRF (MADS)-box transcription factors are key regulators of seed and flower development in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about their functions in seed germination. Here we report that MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 is a negative regulator of seed germination and post-germination growth by controlling the expression of ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) in Arabidopsis. The AGL21-overexpressing plants were hypersensitive to ABA, salt, and osmotic stresses during seed germination and early post-germination growth, whereas agl21 mutants were less sensitive. We found that AGL21 positively regulated ABI5 expression in seeds. Consistently, genetic analyses showed that AGL21 is epistatic to ABI5 in controlling seed germination. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated that AGL21 could directly bind to the ABI5 promoter in plant cells. Moreover, we found that AGL21 responded to multiple environmental stresses and plant hormones during seed germination. Taken together, our results suggest that AGL21 acts as a surveillance integrator that incorporates environmental cues and endogenous hormonal signals into ABA signaling to regulate seed germination and early post-germination growth. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II existing... technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact for your facility in accordance with paragraphs... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. This determination must be based on...

  4. Many ways to be small: different environmental regulators of size generate distinct scaling relationships in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Shingleton, Alexander W.; Estep, Chad M.; Driscoll, Michael V.; Dworkin, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Static allometries, the scaling relationship between body and trait size, describe the shape of animals in a population or species, and are generated in response to variation in genetic or environmental regulators of size. In principle, allometries may vary with the different size regulators that generate them, which can be problematic since allometric differences are also used to infer patterns of selection on morphology. We test this hypothesis by examining the patterns of scaling in Drosop...

  5. Preliminary analysis of environmental regulations related to remedial action activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 2695

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Saylor, R.E.

    1986-11-01

    Past research and development activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have resulted in the presence of several areas where low-level radioactive and/or hazardous waste have been disposed of or that have been contaminated through accidental spills or planned releases of radionuclides. Although these areas have been monitored and controlled to ensure that on-site and off-site releases of contaminants are within applicable Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines, ORNL established the Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade (ERFU) Program to address formally the immediate and long-range needs of meeting all applicable federal and state regulations regarding waste disposal. The environmental laws, regulations, and DOE Orders governing the cleanup activities are numerous and complex. Hence, a synthesis of the principal regulations related to the ERFU Program is presented to facilitate efficient planning for characterization and cleanup of contaminated sites. Because of regulatory decisions made after this report was finalized, several statements presented herein may no longer apply to the ERFU Program. Nevertheless, the report is issued as originally written so that ORNL's early planning efforts to comply with environmental laws and legislation are formally documented. Several general principles to consider when developing a plan for environmental compliance - which would be of use to others who must comply with legislation related to the cleanup of sites contaminated with radionuclides and hazardous chemicals - are also discussed

  6. Potential impact of environmental requirements on petroleum products derived from synthetic crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Fuel quality proposals regarding gasoline and diesel fuels were discussed. Strict regulations on air emissions will mean changes in transportation fuel specifications which will ultimately impact on the refining industry. As fuel quality requirements become more stringent, refiners will need to look more closely at increasing the use of Canadian synthetic crude as a refinery feed. The fuel quality specifications with the potentially highest impact for the continued use of synthetic crude are those relating to sulphur, aromatics (including benzene), and olefins in gasoline and sulphur, aromatics and cetane in diesel fuel. Synthetic crude has an advantage in terms of gasoline sulphur content. The FCC feed is at a low enough sulphur level to result in gasoline components that would allow refiners to meet final gasoline sulphur levels of less than 100 ppm. In either case, synthetic middle distillate must be upgraded. Options that face the synthetic crude and refining industries are: (1) synthetic crude producers may install the process equipment needed to upgrade the middle distillate portion of their synthetic crude stream, (2) refiners may install equipment to upgrade just the diesel fuel portion of the middle distillate pool and jet fuel, and (3) a joint effort may be made by the two industries. The National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT) and the Western Research Centre of Natural Resources Canada will continue to assist with research into improved catalysts for hydrotreating of middle distillates, and new lower cost processes for upgrading middle distillates from synthetic and conventional crude oils to meet future product requirements. 5 refs., 1 tab

  7. Revamping of thermal power stations focusing on extension of service life and compliance with environmental requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on some of advanced clean coal technologies supplied by the Austrian Energy and Environment GmbH (AE). A short description is given of their main advantages and possibilities to offer optimal environmental and technical solutions for removal of SO x , NO x , HCL, HF, fine dust, aerosols, heavy metals and noise. The following technologies are considered: 1) Revamping; 2) Flue gas desulfuration - Dry Circulating Fluid Bed Scrubbing (DCFBS); MgO-based Regenerative Process (MgO-Process); Semi Dry Flue Gas Desulphurization (Spray Absorption Technology) ; Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization (limestone slurry scrubbing - IFO process); 3) Fluidized Bed Combustion - Bubbling Bed Combustion , Fast Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion, External Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion. AE's objective is to cooperate with local firms which will provide benefits to the local economy in the following manner: 1) Foreign currency requirements for applying the technology to domestic sources would be minimized; 2) A substantial portion of the work involved in engineering, manufacturing and installing the system could be done by local personnel

  8. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 A bout the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies , which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  9. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  10. Environmental policy and technological change: The effects of economic incentives and direct regulation on energy-saving innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Richard G., Jr.

    Over the long run, the impacts of environmental policies will be greatly affected by the influence these policies have on the rate and direction of technological change. In particular, the roles played by energy prices and product regulation in energy-saving technology innovation are exceptionally important considerations in modeling climate change and evaluating alternative policy options. We analyze the effects of energy prices and energy-efficiency regulations on the menu of air conditioner and water heater models available on the market over a period of more than three decades, measuring their innovation in terms of improvements in the products' underlying characteristics. Through estimation of a series of "characteristics transformation surfaces," we find that during less than four decades, substantial innovation in these products reduced the total capital and operating costs of air conditioning by one-half and water heating by more than one-fifth. Although the overall rate of innovation in these products appears to be independent of energy prices and regulations, the evidence suggests that the direction of innovation may be responsive to energy price changes. This would imply that energy price increases induced innovation in a direction that lowered the capital cost tradeoffs inherent in producing more energy-efficient products. The evidence supporting "regulation-induced" changes in these tradeoffs is much weaker. Our estimates indicate that about one- to two-fifths of the energy-efficiency improvements in these products from 1973 to 1993 were associated with historical changes in energy prices. We also find that this responsiveness to price changes increased substantially after product labeling requirements came into effect, and that minimum efficiency standards had a significant positive effect on average efficiency levels. Nonetheless, a sizeable portion of historical efficiency improvements in these technologies is associated with the products' overall

  11. NFAT5 regulates the canonical Wnt pathway and is required for cardiomyogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Atsuo; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Ogata, Takehiro; Imoto-Tsubakimoto, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ueyama, Tomomi; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NFAT5 protein expression is downregulated during cardiomyogenesis. ► Inhibition of NFAT5 function suppresses canonical Wnt signaling. ► Inhibition of NFAT5 function attenuates mesodermal induction. ► NFAT5 function is required for cardiomyogenesis. -- Abstract: While nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), a transcription factor implicated in osmotic stress response, is suggested to be involved in other processes such as migration and proliferation, its role in cardiomyogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of NFAT5 in cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells, and observed that it was abundantly expressed in undifferentiated P19CL6 cells, and its protein expression was significantly downregulated by enhanced proteasomal degradation during DMSO-induced cardiomyogenesis. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of NFAT5 markedly attenuated cardiomyogenesis, which was associated with the inhibition of mesodermal differentiation. TOPflash reporter assay revealed that the transcriptional activity of canonical Wnt signaling was activated prior to mesodermal differentiation, and this activation was markedly attenuated by NFAT5 inhibition. Pharmacological activation of canonical Wnt signaling by [2′Z, 3′E]-6-bromoindirubin-3′-oxime (BIO) restored Brachyury expression in NFAT5DN-expressing cells. Inhibition of NFAT5 markedly attenuated Wnt3 and Wnt3a induction. Expression of Dkk1 and Cerberus1, which are secreted Wnt antagonists, was also inhibited by NFAT5 inhibition. Thus, endogenous NFAT5 regulates the coordinated expression of Wnt ligands and antagonists, which are essential for cardiomyogenesis through the canonical Wnt pathway. These results demonstrated a novel role of NFAT5 in cardiac differentiation of stem cells.

  12. Novel insights into iron regulation and requirement in marine medaka Oryzias melastigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-05-24

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for marine fish. However, our knowledge of Fe requirements at different development stages of marine fish is still limited. Here, we reported the efficient Fe absorption strategies adopted by larval fish under different dietary Fe supplementary levels (i.e., 0-640 mg/kg). Biokinetically, the larval fish controlled their dietary Fe assimilation efficiency (AE, 1.6-18.5%), and enhanced their waterborne Fe uptake (ca. 2.5 fold change of uptake rate constant) once the dietary Fe was deficient (i.e., 27.4 mg Fe/kg feed). Transcriptionally, the expression of hepcidin1 (hep1; Fe regulator; i.e., 2.3-15.7 fold change) in larval fish was positively correlated with the Fe supplementary levels. Comparatively, the female adult fish were poor in assimilating the added Fe source (i.e., ferric form) with similar life-sustainable levels of Fe (i.e., 0.046-0.12 μg/g/d assimilated for Fe supplementary levels of 27.4, 162 and 657 mg Fe/kg feed). The overall feeding experiments suggested that dietary net Fe flux sufficient for the normal growth of larval medaka was 0.71-1.75 μg/g/d (i.e., 83.9 mg Fe/kg feed), consistent with the modeled value (i.e., 1.09-2.16 μg/g/d). In female adults, the estimated essential net Fe flux was 0.88-0.90 μg/g/d.

  13. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  14. Integrating NEPA [National Environmental Policy Act] and CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs

  15. 25 CFR 518.7 - If a tribe holds a certificate of self-regulation, is it required to report information to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a tribe holds a certificate of self-regulation, is it... REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.7 If a tribe holds a certificate of self-regulation, is it required to... certificate of self-regulation shall be required to submit a self-regulation report annually to the Commission...

  16. Adaptive Regulation of the Northern California Reservoir System for Water, Energy, and Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Kistenmacher, M.; Yao, H.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program emphasizes that water resources managers and planners in most US regions will have to cope with new risks, vulnerabilities, and opportunities, and recommends the development of adaptive capacity to effectively respond to the new water resources planning and management challenges. In the face of these challenges, adaptive reservoir regulation is becoming all the more ncessary. Water resources management in Northern California relies on the coordinated operation of several multi-objective reservoirs on the Trinity, Sacramento, American, Feather, and San Joaquin Rivers. To be effective, reservoir regulation must be able to (a) account for forecast uncertainty; (b) assess changing tradeoffs among water uses and regions; and (c) adjust management policies as conditions change; and (d) evaluate the socio-economic and environmental benefits and risks of forecasts and policies for each region and for the system as a whole. The Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) prototype demonstration project operated in Northern California through the collaboration of several forecast and management agencies has shown that decision support systems (DSS) with these attributes add value to stakeholder decision processes compared to current, less flexible management practices. Key features of the INFORM DSS include: (a) dynamically downscaled operational forecasts and climate projections that maintain the spatio-temporal coherence of the downscaled land surface forcing fields within synoptic scales; (b) use of ensemble forecast methodologies for reservoir inflows; (c) assessment of relevant tradeoffs among water uses on regional and local scales; (d) development and evaluation of dynamic reservoir policies with explicit consideration of hydro-climatic forecast uncertainties; and (e) focus on stakeholder information needs.This article discusses the INFORM integrated design concept, underlying

  17. Designing Green Taxes in a Political Context: From Optimal to Feasible Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    How should green taxation be designed? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can...... be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute...... financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, we demonstrate how green taxation can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry....

  18. United States import safety, environmental health, and food safety regulation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambok, Edward O; Kastner, Justin J

    2012-01-01

    China boasts a rapidly growing economy and is a leading food exporter. Since China has dominated world export markets in food, electronics, and toys, many safety concerns about Chinese exports have emerged. For example, many countries have had problems with Chinese food products and food-processing ingredients. Factors behind food safety and environmental health problems in China include poor industrial waste management, the use of counterfeit agricultural inputs, inadequate training of farmers on good farm management practices, and weak food safety laws and poor enforcement. In the face of rising import safety problems, the U.S. is now requiring certification of products and foreign importers, pursuing providing incentives to importers who uphold good safety practices, and considering publicizing the names of certified importers.

  19. Technological innovation and environmental regulation at the petroleum refining industry: the Paulinia refinery case; Inovacao tecnologica e regulacao ambiental na industria de refino de petroleo: o caso da Refinaria de Paulinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano de; Pereira, Newton Mueller [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mails: adalba@ige.unicamp.br; newpe@ige.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses the influence of environmental regulation on the adoption of new production techniques and on the improvement of existing techniques in the refining petroleum industry, namely at the Paulinia refinery (REPLAN). Describes the techniques adopted in order to fit refining processes into the regulation about environmental impacts (related to the protection of resources like water, air and soil), and also techniques adopted in order to produce less pollutant diesel and gasoline. This article has support on bibliographic research and data collected in REPLAN and CENPES, which permit characterize technologies adopted in REPLAN at the end of the 90s and the regulatory rules that drive them. The regulation is presented under an evolutionary approach, considering that technology develops along whit the socio-economic context, the environmental regulation is a related element which determines the search and selection of technologies able to comply with regulation ensuring economic viability. Regulation is also a determinant factor for the adoption of innovations in the refining industry. Specifically in REPLAN, the environmental regulation has required large investments in order to comply processes and products with the established standards. (author)

  20. Melanocortin 4 receptor is not required for estrogenic regulations on energy homeostasis and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain estrogen receptor-a (ERa) is essential for estrogenic regulation of energy homeostasis and reproduction. We previously showed that ERa expressed by pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons mediates estrogen's effects on food intake, body weight, negative regulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal...

  1. 9 CFR 201.4 - Bylaws, rules and regulations, and requirements of exchanges, associations, or other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bylaws, rules and regulations, and... 201.4 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND... of any exchange, association, or other organization, or any other valid law, rule or regulation, or...

  2. Impact of Environmental Regulation and Technical Progress on Industrial Carbon Productivity: An Approach Based on Proxy Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the main influencing factors of China’s industrial carbon productivity by incorporating environmental regulation and technical progress into an econometric model. The paper focuses on data from 35 of China’s industrial sectors and covers the period from 2006 to 2014, in order to examine the impact of environmental regulation and technical progress on carbon productivity. Methods applied include panel fixed effect model, panel random effect model and two stage least squares with instrumental variables (IV-2SLS. The effect of environmental regulation and technical progress has industrial heterogeneity. The paper subdivides industrial sectors into capital and technology intensive, resource intensive and labor intensive sectors according to factor intensiveness. The estimation results of the subgroups have uncovered that for capital and technology intensive and resource intensive sectors, environmental regulation has a more significant impact than technical progress; while for labor intensive sectors, innovation more significantly influences carbon productivity. In addition, foreign direct investment (FDI and industrialization level facilitate improving carbon productivity for the full sample. By contrast, industrial structure inhibits the overall industrial carbon productivity. The industry-specific results indicate that for capital and technology intensive sectors, optimizing of the industrial structure can improve carbon productivity; for resource intensive sectors, FDI and energy consumption structure should be emphasized more; for labor intensive sectors, industrialization levels help enhance carbon productivity. Finally the industrial sector-specific policy suggestions are proposed.

  3. The Environmental Quality – Requirements for the Pro-active Approach of Production Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Stehlíková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The interrelationship and cooperation of the Quality Management System, the Environmental Management System QMS, and Environmental Management System EMS in production enterprises has a very important impact to their performance. The synergic effect of two systems {QMS + EMS} created the so called POEMS Product and the Process Oriented Environmental Management System functioning for the benefit of the Company Profit, Customer Satisfaction, Product Competition, Environment and the Social Responsibility.

  4. The impact of U.S. environmental regulations on fuel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, K.H.; Dukek, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act passed in 1990 focused attention on the emissions from mobile sources, such as automobiles and trucks, as they degrade air quality, particularly in urban areas. In legislating the 1990 amendments, it was recognized that a change in gasoline composition could have as great an effect on improved air quality as design changes in the automobile itself. Without lead available to meet vehicle octane requirements, the refiners increased the use of isoparaffinic and aromatic streams as blending components and began a search for replacement octane enhancers. More reforming units were added in refineries to produce streams of high aromatic content, a step that fortuitously produced more hydrogen gas for treating other products, such as jet fuel and heavier middle distillates, to reduce sulfur content and improve stability. The close relationship between motor gasoline and the quality of other products explains why the advent of reformulated gasoline in the 1990s is viewed with concern by refiners, particularly because the government has now decided to also mandate improvements in diesel fuel quality that will require much of the hydrogen that was counted on to treat jet fuels. As a consequence, the fuel subcommittees of Committee D-2 on Petroleum Products decided that the best forum for highlighting the interrelationships between all major fuels and the impending regulations to improve air quality was a symposium. The symposium began with the latest thinking of the Federal and State governments on air quality regulations and results were then presented from the industry Auto/Oil Air Quality Research Program. The impact of these pending changes on petroleum refining was then discussed. Later, the impact on fuel users for various applications and the effect on ASTM standards was presented. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Five Conditions Commonly Used to Down-regulate Tor Complex 1 Generate Different Physiological Situations Exhibiting Distinct Requirements and Outcomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jennifer J.; Cooper, Terrance G.

    2013-01-01

    Five different physiological conditions have been used interchangeably to establish the sequence of molecular events needed to achieve nitrogen-responsive down-regulation of TorC1 and its subsequent regulation of downstream reporters: nitrogen starvation, methionine sulfoximine (Msx) addition, nitrogen limitation, rapamycin addition, and leucine starvation. Therefore, we tested a specific underlying assumption upon which the interpretation of data generated by these five experimental perturbations is premised. It is that they generate physiologically equivalent outcomes with respect to TorC1, i.e. its down-regulation as reflected by TorC1 reporter responses. We tested this assumption by performing head-to-head comparisons of the requirements for each condition to achieve a common outcome for a downstream proxy of TorC1 inactivation, nuclear Gln3 localization. We demonstrate that the five conditions for down-regulating TorC1 do not elicit physiologically equivalent outcomes. Four of the methods exhibit hierarchical Sit4 and PP2A phosphatase requirements to elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. Rapamycin treatment required Sit4 and PP2A. Nitrogen limitation and short-term nitrogen starvation required only Sit4. G1 arrest-correlated, long-term nitrogen starvation and Msx treatment required neither PP2A nor Sit4. Starving cells of leucine or treating them with leucyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors did not elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. These data indicate that the five commonly used nitrogen-related conditions of down-regulating TorC1 are not physiologically equivalent and minimally involve partially differing regulatory mechanisms. Further, identical requirements for Msx treatment and long-term nitrogen starvation raise the possibility that their effects are achieved through a common regulatory pathway with glutamine, a glutamate or glutamine metabolite level as the sensed metabolic signal. PMID:23935103

  6. Greenhouse gas emission trading schemes: a new tool for the environmental regulator's kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleille, Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    As the European Union greenhouse gas emission trading scheme (ETS) is emerging, it seems interesting to look back on previous experiments and to bring together a few elements of reflection about the pertinence of ETS as a new policy tool to regulate industrial pollution. So far, several regulatory tools have been used to decrease pollution. This article focuses on two of them, command-and-control (CAC) and ETS. There is no simple answer to which one is more efficient. It depends strongly on the context. Given a few elements outlined in this paper, the choice of an ETS to abate industrial emissions of greenhouse gases in the European Union (EU) can be considered pertinent. But, ultimately, what makes a scheme environmentally efficient is not the tool in itself (ETS or CAC) but the ambition of the target. Hence the design of the National Allocation Plans setting the emission caps are of paramount importance. They will make the EU ETS either a useless mess or an effective climate change mitigation policy tool

  7. Recent developments in environmental regulations and their impact on the U.S. refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmassebi, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Public concern over the environment has heightened considerably since the hot, dry summer of 1988. Responding to these concerns, the administration and Congress have initiated a number of measures to address such issues as acid rain, ozone depletion, smog, and global climate change. Most of these measures are aimed at the oil industry or energy-producing companies. They cone on the heels of other costly environmental legislation, to phase out lead in gasoline and reduce gasoline volatility. Additional measures aimed at different segments of the oil industry (production, refining, and retailing) are expected. In analyzing the merits of these policies, one must address the following issues: the feasibility of reaching an optimum point for these regulatory measures, considering the potential costs and benefits; the ramifications of such measures on the U.S. oil industry, particularly on the U.S. refining industry; the costs to the final consumer and the economy; and the effects of the implementation of such regulations by other countries and our trading partners. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concerns raised above, particularly as they relate to the U.S. refining industry

  8. The Yeast Environmental Stress Response Regulates Mutagenesis Induced by Proteotoxic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors. PMID:23935537

  9. The decision on the application to carry out a decommissioning project at Hinkley Point A Power Station under the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    European Council Directive 85/337/EEC, as amended by Council Directive 97/1 I/EC, sets out a framework on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. The Directive is implemented in Great Britain for decommissioning nuclear reactor projects by the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999. The intention of the Directive and Regulations is to involve the public through consultation in considering the potential environmental impacts of a decommissioning project, and to make the decision-making process on granting consent open and transparent. The Regulations require the licensee to undertake an environmental impact assessment, prepare an environmental statement that summarises the environmental effects of the project, and apply to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for consent to carry out a decommissioning project. There is an optional stage where the licensee may request from HSE an opinion on what the environmental statement should contain (called a pre-application opinion). The licensee of Hinkley Point A Power Station, Magnox Electric pie, requested a pre-application opinion and provided information in a scoping report in December 2000. HSE undertook a public consultation on the scoping report and provided its pre- application opinion in April 2001. The licensee applied to HSE for consent to carry out a decommissioning project and provided an environmental statement in December 2001. Following a public consultation on the environmental statement, HSE requested further information that was subsequently provided by the licensee. A further public consultation was undertaken on the further information that ended in March 2003. All these public consultations involved around 60 organisations. HSE granted consent to carry out a decommissioning project at Hinkley Point A Power Station under the Regulations in July 2003, and attached conditions to the Consent. HSE took relevant

  10. Environmental and genetic preconditioning for long-term anoxia responses requires AMPK in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby L LaRue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Preconditioning environments or therapeutics, to suppress the cellular damage associated with severe oxygen deprivation, is of interest to our understanding of diseases associated with oxygen deprivation. Wildtype C. elegans exposed to anoxia enter into a state of suspended animation in which energy-requiring processes reversibly arrest. C. elegans at all developmental stages survive 24-hours of anoxia exposure however, the ability of adult hermaphrodites to survive three days of anoxia significantly decreases. Mutations in the insulin-like signaling receptor (daf-2 and LIN-12/Notch (glp-1 lead to an enhanced long-term anoxia survival phenotype.In this study we show that the combined growth environment of 25°C and a diet of HT115 E. coli will precondition adult hermaphrodites to survive long-term anoxia; many of these survivors have normal movement after anoxia treatment. Animals fed the drug metformin, which induces a dietary-restriction like state in animals and activates AMPK in mammalian cell culture, have a higher survival rate when exposed to long-term anoxia. Mutations in genes encoding components of AMPK (aak-2, aakb-1, aakb-2, aakg-2 suppress the environmentally and genetically induced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. We further determine that there is a correlation between the animals that survive long-term anoxia and increased levels of carminic acid staining, which is a fluorescent dye that incorporates in with carbohydrates such as glycogen.We conclude that small changes in growth conditions such as increased temperature and food source can influence the physiology of the animal thus affecting the responses to stress such as anoxia. Furthermore, this supports the idea that metformin should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for treatment of oxygen-deprived tissues. Finally, the capacity for an animal to survive long bouts of severe oxygen deprivation is likely dependent on specific subunits of the heterotrimeric

  11. 77 FR 33635 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... business rule reflects that the definition of currency used therein is slightly different from the... Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations--Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain Currency...: FinCEN is amending the rules relating to the reporting of certain currency transactions consistent...

  12. Life cycle environmental evaluation of kettles: Recommendations for the development of eco-design regulations in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-06-01

    Between 117 and 200 million kettles are used in the European Union (EU) every year. However, the full environmental impacts of kettles remain largely unknown. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of conventional plastic and metallic kettles in comparison with eco-kettles. The results show that the use stage contributes 80% to the impacts. For this reason, the eco-kettle has over 30% lower environmental impacts due to a greater water efficiency and related lower energy consumption. These results have been extrapolated to the EU level to consider the implications for proposed eco-design regulations. For these purposes, the effects on the impacts of durability of kettles and improvements in their energy and water efficiency have been assessed as they have been identified as two key parameters in the proposed regulations. The results suggest that increasing the current average durability from 4.4 to seven years would reduce the impacts by less than 5%. Thus, improving durability is not a key issue for improving the environmental performance of kettles and does not justify the need for an eco-design regulation based exclusively on it. However, improvements in water and energy efficiency through eco-design can bring relevant environmental savings. Boiling the exact amount of water needed would reduce the impacts by around a third and using water temperature control by further 2%-5%. The study has also considered the effects of reducing significantly the number of kettles in use after the UK (large user of kettles) leaves the EU and reducing the excess water typically boiled by the consumer. Even under these circumstances, the environmental savings justify the development of a specific EU eco-design regulation for kettles. However, consumer engagement will be key to the implementation and achievement of the expected environmental benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Michigan are cooperating in a project to reduce environmental impacts and health risks through product system design. The resulting framework for life cycle design is pr...

  14. 14 CFR 1216.305 - Criteria for actions requiring environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA... amounts of foreign materials into the earth's atmosphere, or into space. (3) Development and operation of... Research and Analysis, Planetary Exploration Mission Operations and Data Analysis) other than specific...

  15. 77 FR 16196 - Delaying the Compliance Date for Certain Requirements of the Regulations Implementing Titles II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... be received. The constraints imposed by the Regulations.gov/FDMS system do not apply to U.S. postal... pools, wading pools, and spas in compliance with the 2010 Standards. The proposed extension would run...

  16. 76 FR 17138 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... initiated research. Topics for discussion include the following: (1) What FDA Expects in a Pharmaceutical Clinical Trial; (2) Adverse Event Reporting--Science, Regulation, Error, and Safety; (3) Part 11 Compliance...

  17. 75 FR 51824 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... discussion include the following: (1) What FDA expects in a pharmaceutical clinical trial; (2) adverse event reporting--science, regulation, error, and safety; (3) Part 11 Compliance--Electronic signatures; (4...

  18. Tethys: The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System -- Requirements Specification -- Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R. Scott; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ellis, Peter C.

    2010-11-09

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental impacts knowledge management system (KMS), dubbed Tethys after the mythical Greek goddess of the seas, is being developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This requirements specification establishes the essential capabilities required of Tethys and clarifies for WHTP and the Tethys development team the results that must be achieved by the system.

  19. Importance of considering riparian vegetation requirements for the long-term efficiency of environmental flows in aquatic microhabitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rivaes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental flows remain biased toward the traditional biological group of fish species. Consequently, these flows ignore the inter-annual flow variability that rules species with longer lifecycles and therefore disregard the long-term perspective of the riverine ecosystem. We analyzed the importance of considering riparian requirements for the long-term efficiency of environmental flows. For that analysis, we modeled the riparian vegetation development for a decade facing different environmental flows in two case studies. Next, we assessed the corresponding fish habitat availability of three common fish species in each of the resulting riparian landscape scenarios. Modeling results demonstrated that the environmental flows disregarding riparian vegetation requirements promoted riparian degradation, particularly vegetation encroachment. Such circumstance altered the hydraulic characteristics of the river channel where flow depths and velocities underwent local changes of up to 10 cm and 40 cm s−1, respectively. Accordingly, after a decade of this flow regime, the available habitat area for the considered fish species experienced modifications of up to 110 % when compared to the natural habitat. In turn, environmental flows regarding riparian vegetation requirements were able to maintain riparian vegetation near natural standards, thereby preserving the hydraulic characteristics of the river channel and sustaining the fish habitat close to the natural condition. As a result, fish habitat availability never changed more than 17 % from the natural habitat.

  20. 14 CFR 11.61 - May I ask FAA to adopt, amend, or repeal a regulation, or grant relief from the requirements of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I ask FAA to adopt, amend, or repeal a regulation, or grant relief from the requirements of a current regulation? 11.61 Section 11.61 Aeronautics... to adopt, amend, or repeal a regulation, or grant relief from the requirements of a current...

  1. Rhetoric and Realities: What Independence of the Bar Requires of Lawyer Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Woolley

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian legal profession is largely self-regulating. Provincial law societies governed by lawyers elected by their peers set the standards for admission to the profession and for ethical conduct, and investigate, prosecute and adjudicate allegations of professional misconduct by lawyers. Advocates for this regulatory structure rely on the concept of “independence of the bar”, the idea that lawyers must be free from any external interference with their representation of clients. Critics of the regulatory structure, meanwhile, argue that independence has a broader meaning than the advocates suppose and that, in any event, the self-regulatory structure of the Canadian profession is not necessary to ensure independence. This paper presents the varying interpretations of independence of the bar and suggests that while the advocates for self-regulation have a more justifiable understanding of independence than do critics, the concept of independence of the bar is not itself central to assessing the validity of any particular regulatory scheme. Rather, the things that independence should protect – the ability of lawyers to be zealous advocates for clients within the bounds of legality – should be used to assess the adequacies of any regulatory scheme. Does regulation ensure that lawyers fulfill their duty of zealous advocacy? Does regulation ensure that lawyers remain within the bounds of legality? Does regulation ensure access to justice? With these criteria in mind, and using recent changes to the regulation of lawyers in England and Wales as a comparator, the paper then analyzes the adequacy of regulation of Canadian lawyers with respect to competence, the general structure of professional regulation and access to justice. Based on this analysis, the author proposes changes to improve lawyer regulation in Canada. These changes do not abandon self-regulation. However, they include separating the adjudicative function of the law societies

  2. An evaluation of a risk-based environmental regulation in Brazil: Limitations to risk management of hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naime, Andre

    2017-01-01

    The environmental regulation of hazardous projects with risk-based decision-making processes can lead to a deficient management of human exposure to technological hazards. Such an approach for regulation is criticized for simplifying the complexity of decisions involving the economic, social, and environmental aspects of the installation and operation of hazardous facilities in urban areas. Results of a Brazilian case study indicate that oil and gas transmission pipelines may represent a threat to diverse communities if the relationship between such linear projects and human populations is overlooked by regulatory bodies. Results also corroborate known challenges to the implementation of EIA processes and outline limitations to an effective environmental and risk management. Two preliminary topics are discussed to strengthen similar regulatory practices. Firstly, an effective integration between social impact assessment and risk assessment in EIA processes to have a more comprehensive understanding of the social fabric. Secondly, the advancement of traditional management practices for hazardous installations to pursue a strong transition from assessment and evaluation to management and control and to promote an effective interaction between land-use planning and environmental regulation.

  3. An evaluation of a risk-based environmental regulation in Brazil: Limitations to risk management of hazardous installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naime, Andre, E-mail: andre.naime.ibama@gmail.com

    2017-03-15

    The environmental regulation of hazardous projects with risk-based decision-making processes can lead to a deficient management of human exposure to technological hazards. Such an approach for regulation is criticized for simplifying the complexity of decisions involving the economic, social, and environmental aspects of the installation and operation of hazardous facilities in urban areas. Results of a Brazilian case study indicate that oil and gas transmission pipelines may represent a threat to diverse communities if the relationship between such linear projects and human populations is overlooked by regulatory bodies. Results also corroborate known challenges to the implementation of EIA processes and outline limitations to an effective environmental and risk management. Two preliminary topics are discussed to strengthen similar regulatory practices. Firstly, an effective integration between social impact assessment and risk assessment in EIA processes to have a more comprehensive understanding of the social fabric. Secondly, the advancement of traditional management practices for hazardous installations to pursue a strong transition from assessment and evaluation to management and control and to promote an effective interaction between land-use planning and environmental regulation.

  4. 36 CFR 1234.14 - What are the requirements for environmental controls for records storage facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stored under environmental conditions that prevent the active growth of mold. Exposure to moisture through leaks or condensation, relative humidities in excess of 70%, extremes of heat combined with...

  5. Environmental risk management for: insurance requirements, mergers and acquisitions and plant closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzi, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Industry cannot rely on external sources such as EIL Insurance as the primary vehicle for minimizing or reducing environmental liabilities. We must develop strong internal risk management programs and procedures to eliminate or minimize the risks from operations.

  6. Differential regulation of c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes by environmental signals modulates biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Xian eRen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP is essential for Yersinia pestis biofilm formation, which is important for flea-borne blockage-dependent plague transmission. Two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs, HmsT and HmsD and one phosphodiesterase (PDE, HmsP are responsible for the synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP in Y. pestis. Here, we systematically analyzed the effect of various environmental signals on regulation of the biofilm phenotype, the c-di-GMP levels, and expression of HmsT, HmsD and HmsP in Y. pestis. Biofilm formation was higher in the presence of nonlethal high concentration of CaCl2, MgCl2, CuSO4, sucrose, sodium dodecyl sulfonate, or dithiothreitol, and was lower in the presence of FeCl2 or NaCl. In addition, we found that HmsD plays a major role in biofilm formation in acidic or redox environments. These environmental signals differentially regulated expression of HmsT, HmsP and HmsD, resulting in changes in the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP in Y. pestis. Our results suggest that bacteria can sense various environmental signals, and differentially regulates their DGCs and PDEs to coordinately regulate and adapt metabolism of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation to changing environments.

  7. Oil Well Blowout 3D computational modeling: review of methodology and environmental requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Mello Paiva; Alexandre Nunes Barreto; Jader Lugon Junior; Leticia Ferraço de Campos

    2016-01-01

    This literature review aims to present the different methodologies used in the three-dimensional modeling of the hydrocarbons dispersion originated from an oil well blowout. It presents the concepts of coastal environmental sensitivity and vulnerability, their importance for prioritizing the most vulnerable areas in case of contingency, and the relevant legislation. We also discuss some limitations about the methodology currently used in environmental studies of oil drift, which considers sim...

  8. Developmental and environmental regulation of Aquaporin gene expression across Populus species: divergence or redundancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvère; Merret, Rémy; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Moretti, Sébastien; Bizet, François; Guilliot, Agnès; Hummel, Irène

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channels belonging to the major intrinsic proteins family and are known for their ability to facilitate water movement. While in Populus trichocarpa, AQP proteins form a large family encompassing fifty-five genes, most of the experimental work focused on a few genes or subfamilies. The current work was undertaken to develop a comprehensive picture of the whole AQP gene family in Populus species by delineating gene expression domain and distinguishing responsiveness to developmental and environmental cues. Since duplication events amplified the poplar AQP family, we addressed the question of expression redundancy between gene duplicates. On these purposes, we carried a meta-analysis of all publicly available Affymetrix experiments. Our in-silico strategy controlled for previously identified biases in cross-species transcriptomics, a necessary step for any comparative transcriptomics based on multispecies design chips. Three poplar AQPs were not supported by any expression data, even in a large collection of situations (abiotic and biotic constraints, temporal oscillations and mutants). The expression of 11 AQPs was never or poorly regulated whatever the wideness of their expression domain and their expression level. Our work highlighted that PtTIP1;4 was the most responsive gene of the AQP family. A high functional divergence between gene duplicates was detected across species and in response to tested cues, except for the root-expressed PtTIP2;3/PtTIP2;4 pair exhibiting 80% convergent responses. Our meta-analysis assessed key features of aquaporin expression which had remained hidden in single experiments, such as expression wideness, response specificity and genotype and environment interactions. By consolidating expression profiles using independent experimental series, we showed that the large expansion of AQP family in poplar was accompanied with a strong divergence of gene expression, even if some cases of functional redundancy

  9. Developmental and environmental regulation of Aquaporin gene expression across Populus species: divergence or redundancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are membrane channels belonging to the major intrinsic proteins family and are known for their ability to facilitate water movement. While in Populus trichocarpa, AQP proteins form a large family encompassing fifty-five genes, most of the experimental work focused on a few genes or subfamilies. The current work was undertaken to develop a comprehensive picture of the whole AQP gene family in Populus species by delineating gene expression domain and distinguishing responsiveness to developmental and environmental cues. Since duplication events amplified the poplar AQP family, we addressed the question of expression redundancy between gene duplicates. On these purposes, we carried a meta-analysis of all publicly available Affymetrix experiments. Our in-silico strategy controlled for previously identified biases in cross-species transcriptomics, a necessary step for any comparative transcriptomics based on multispecies design chips. Three poplar AQPs were not supported by any expression data, even in a large collection of situations (abiotic and biotic constraints, temporal oscillations and mutants. The expression of 11 AQPs was never or poorly regulated whatever the wideness of their expression domain and their expression level. Our work highlighted that PtTIP1;4 was the most responsive gene of the AQP family. A high functional divergence between gene duplicates was detected across species and in response to tested cues, except for the root-expressed PtTIP2;3/PtTIP2;4 pair exhibiting 80% convergent responses. Our meta-analysis assessed key features of aquaporin expression which had remained hidden in single experiments, such as expression wideness, response specificity and genotype and environment interactions. By consolidating expression profiles using independent experimental series, we showed that the large expansion of AQP family in poplar was accompanied with a strong divergence of gene expression, even if some cases of

  10. WhiB6 is required for the secretion-dependent regulation of ESX-1 substrates in pathogenic mycobacteria.

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah

    2018-04-09

    The mycobacterial type VII secretion system ESX-1 is responsible for the secretion of a number of proteins that play important roles during host infection. The regulation of the expression of secreted proteins is often essential to establish successful infection. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the abrogation of ESX-1 function in Mycobacterium marinum leads to a pronounced increase in gene expression levels of the espA operon during the infection of macrophages, suggesting an important role in ESX-1-mediated virulence during the early phase of infection. In addition, the disruption of ESX-1-mediated protein secretion also leads to a specific down-regulation of the ESX-1 substrates, but not of the structural components of this system, during growth in culture medium. This effect is observed in both M. marinum and M. tuberculosis. We established that down-regulation of ESX-1 substrates is the result of a regulatory process that is influenced by the putative transcriptional regulator whib6, which is located adjacent to the esx-1 locus. In addition, the overexpression of the ESX-1-associated PE35/PPE68 protein pair resulted in a significantly increased secretion of the ESX-1 substrate EsxA, demonstrating a functional link between these proteins. Taken together, these data show that WhiB6 is required for the secretion-dependent regulation of ESX-1 substrates and that ESX-1 substrates are regulated independently from the structural components, both during infection and as a result of active secretion.

  11. WhiB6 is required for the secretion-dependent regulation of ESX-1 substrates in pathogenic mycobacteria.

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah; Weerdenburg, Eveline; Guan, Qingtian; Ummels, Roy; Borggreve, S; Adroub, Sabir; Malas, Tareq; Naeem, Raeece; Zhang, Huoming; Otto, Thomas; Bitter, Wilbert; Pain, Arnab

    2018-01-01

    The mycobacterial type VII secretion system ESX-1 is responsible for the secretion of a number of proteins that play important roles during host infection. The regulation of the expression of secreted proteins is often essential to establish successful infection. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the abrogation of ESX-1 function in Mycobacterium marinum leads to a pronounced increase in gene expression levels of the espA operon during the infection of macrophages, suggesting an important role in ESX-1-mediated virulence during the early phase of infection. In addition, the disruption of ESX-1-mediated protein secretion also leads to a specific down-regulation of the ESX-1 substrates, but not of the structural components of this system, during growth in culture medium. This effect is observed in both M. marinum and M. tuberculosis. We established that down-regulation of ESX-1 substrates is the result of a regulatory process that is influenced by the putative transcriptional regulator whib6, which is located adjacent to the esx-1 locus. In addition, the overexpression of the ESX-1-associated PE35/PPE68 protein pair resulted in a significantly increased secretion of the ESX-1 substrate EsxA, demonstrating a functional link between these proteins. Taken together, these data show that WhiB6 is required for the secretion-dependent regulation of ESX-1 substrates and that ESX-1 substrates are regulated independently from the structural components, both during infection and as a result of active secretion.

  12. Profiles of Motivated Self-Regulation in College Computer Science Courses: Differences in Major versus Required Non-Major Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Duane F.; Soh, Leen-Kiat

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to utilize a profiling approach to understand differences in motivation and strategic self-regulation among post-secondary STEM students in major versus required non-major computer science courses. Participants were 233 students from required introductory computer science courses (194 men; 35 women; 4 unknown) at a large Midwestern state university. Cluster analysis identified five profiles: (1) a strategic profile of a highly motivated by-any-means good strategy user; (2) a knowledge-building profile of an intrinsically motivated autonomous, mastery-oriented student; (3) a surface learning profile of a utility motivated minimally engaged student; (4) an apathetic profile of an amotivational disengaged student; and (5) a learned helpless profile of a motivated but unable to effectively self-regulate student. Among CS majors and students in courses in their major field, the strategic and knowledge-building profiles were the most prevalent. Among non-CS majors and students in required non-major courses, the learned helpless, surface learning, and apathetic profiles were the most prevalent. Students in the strategic and knowledge-building profiles had significantly higher retention of computational thinking knowledge than students in other profiles. Students in the apathetic and surface learning profiles saw little instrumentality of the course for their future academic and career objectives. Findings show that students in STEM fields taking required computer science courses exhibit the same constellation of motivated strategic self-regulation profiles found in other post-secondary and K-12 settings.

  13. Designing green taxes in a political context: From optimal to feasible environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugbjerg, C.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2001-01-01

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation demonstrates that relatively high tax levels can be implemented if an equal relationship between the tax object and the object determining the level of refunds exists throughout the sector. This means that revenues can be reimbursed without creating redistribution within producer communities. (au)

  14. Designing green taxes in a political context: From optimal to feasible environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugbjerg, C; Tinggaard Svendsen, G

    2001-07-01

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation demonstrates that relatively high tax levels can be implemented if an equal relationship between the tax object and the object determining the level of refunds exists throughout the sector. This means that revenues can be reimbursed without creating redistribution within producer communities. (au)

  15. Integrating environmental management into food safety and food packaging in Malaysia: review of the food regulation 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. H.; Hara, H.; Kaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Food safety is an important issue that is related to public safety to prevent the toxicity threats of the food. Management through legal approach has been used in Malaysia as one of the predominant approaches to manage the environment. In this regard, the Food Regulation 1985 has been one of the mechanisms of environmental management through legal approach in controlling the safety of packaged food in food packaging industry in Malaysia. The present study aims to analyse and to explain the implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food in Malaysia and to integrate the concept of environmental management into the food safety issue. Qualitative analysis on the regulation document revealed that there are two main themes, general and specific, while their seven sub themes are included harmful packages, safety packages, reuse packages, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), alcoholic bottle, toys, money and others and iron powder. The implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food should not be regarded solely for regulation purposes but should be further developed for a broader sense of food safety from overcoming the food poisoning.

  16. 75 FR 26121 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... standard at retail facilities. This alternative defense consists of a comprehensive program of quality... without change and may be made available online at http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal..., import, sell, store or transport ULSD highway diesel fuel to meet the standards specified in the diesel...

  17. 78 FR 20624 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Identification Advance Shipment Notices AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (Do...) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of... at 252.211; Radio Frequency Identification Advance Shipment Notices, OMB Control Number 0704-0434...

  18. 78 FR 27308 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth In Lending Act (Regulation Z...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... consumer financial laws, to consider the potential benefits and costs of regulation to consumers and... effective date of Sec. 1026.36(i) would also delay the consumer benefit that would result from allowing the..., 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 27308

  19. 27 CFR 70.411 - Imposition of taxes, qualification requirements, and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (including activities incident thereto) of distilled spirits plants for the production and/or warehousing... use in making the necessary computation from gauge data. (5) Rules of practice in permit proceedings... regulations relating to the production, bonded warehousing, and withdrawal of distilled spirits, and denatured...

  20. Franchise Values, Regulatory Monitoring, and Capital Requirements in Optimal Bank Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that financial deregulation is likely to make standard prudential regulatory instruments less effective in curbing excessive risk-taking incentives among banks. This has interesting implications for optimal bank regulation. When there is an increase in competition, the opt...

  1. 75 FR 33271 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Certain Contracts with Foreign Entities for the Conduct of Ballistic Missile Defense Research, Development..., development, test, or evaluation in connection with the Ballistic Missile Defense Program. The provision... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System [OMB Control Number 0704-0229...

  2. 78 FR 69267 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements Relating to Supply Chain Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications; or (2) Is protected at all times by... recommendation from the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD(AT&L)) and the... assess all costs and benefits of available regulatory alternatives and, if regulation is necessary, to...

  3. 78 FR 15935 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. The Office of Management and... construction contract in Spain has adequate insurance coverage. Affected Public: Businesses or other for profit... construction contract in Spain. Kortnee Stewart, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. [FR Doc. 2013...

  4. 76 FR 78126 - Disclosure Requirements for Depository Institutions Lacking Federal Deposit Insurance (Regulation I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ..., Office of Regulations, at (202) 435-7700. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Federal Deposit... products or services or information otherwise promoting the institution; and (2) Small utilitarian items.... SUMMARY: Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act...

  5. 76 FR 65411 - Specialty Crops; Import Regulations; Proposed Pistachio Import Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ..., or E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected] . Small businesses may request... the proposed regulations, ``pistachio'' would mean the nut of the pistachio tree, Pistachia vera.... Pages 326-359. \\5\\ Eaton, David L.; Jennifer E. Hobden; and Bruce J. Kelman. 2002. Aflatoxin in...

  6. 77 FR 51686 - Specialty Crops; Import Regulations; New Pistachio Import Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... the new regulation, ``pistachio'' means the nut of the pistachio tree, Pistachia vera, whether inshell... Order No. 983. 2002. Pages 326-359. \\5\\ Eaton, David L.; Jennifer E. Hobden; and Bruce J. Kelman. 2002..., and New Mexico. AMS is committed to complying with the E-Government Act, to promote the use of the...

  7. 77 FR 43076 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Value Engineering Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... respond, through the use of appropriate technological collection techniques or other forms of information... collection. All comments received will be posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal and/or business confidential information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Curtis E...

  8. 75 FR 26739 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Part 244...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Control Number 0704-0253) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense. ACTION... proposed information collection; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information..., withhold, or withdraw purchasing system approval at the conclusion of a purchasing system review...

  9. 78 FR 70025 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... and Procedures AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... proposed information collection; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information..., withhold, or withdraw purchasing system approval at the conclusion of a purchasing system review...

  10. 78 FR 2868 - Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks, medium and heavy duty trucks and buses, low... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  11. 78 FR 4032 - Prompt Corrective Action, Requirements for Insurance, and Promulgation of NCUA Rules and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... interest rate risk requirements. The amended IRPS increases the asset threshold that identifies credit... asset threshold used to define a ``complex'' credit union for determining whether risk-based net worth... or credit unions) with assets of $50 million or less from interest rate risk rule requirements. To...

  12. 76 FR 72916 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... information collection requires contractors to comply with the notification process at DFARS clause 252.204... purposes. The U.S.-IAEA Additional Protocol permits the United States unilaterally to declare exclusions from inspection requirements for activities with direct national security significance. The clause at...

  13. 75 FR 34277 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-007, Additional Requirements for Market Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... executive agencies. Specifically, the head of the agency must conduct market research before issuing an... million for the procurement of items other than commercial items is required to conduct market research... 10 U.S.C. 2377(c), ``Preliminary Market Research'', to require the head of an agency to conduct...

  14. REVIEW OF THE METHODS USED IN STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF PROJECTS OF REGULATIONS ON DETERMINING THE USE OF WATER CONDITIONS IN WATER REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pyszny

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine what methods of assessment are used for the strategic environmental assessment, and what is the range of usage of Geographic Information Systems (GIS in strategic environmental assessment of projects of regulations on determining the conditions for use of water in water regions in Poland. Based on the analysis it can be concluded that in most of the analyzed documents, the assessment criteria are not explicitly defined and not applying quantitative methods of forecasting the impact on the environment makes it impossible to compare the nature and primarily the scale of the impact on the individual components of the environment.Wider use of Geographic Information Systems in strategic environmental assessment is recommended, not only for data visualization but mainly for the use of tools helping to conduct spatial analysis and decision making. The results confirm that methods currently used in strategic environmental assessment are not sufficiently rewarding and provide technical and methodological challenge for experts working on their development. Solving the problem requires the development of more innovative and effective methods of evaluation.

  15. Good for your health? An analysis of the requirements for scientific substantiation in European health claims regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Todt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the various types of evidence, as well as their relative importance in European health claims regulation, in order to analyze the consequences for consumer protection of the requirements for scientific substantiation in this regulation. Materials and methods. Qualitative analysis of various documents relevant to the regulatory process, particularly as to the implications of the standards of proof for the functional food market, as well as consumer behavior. Results. European regulation defines a hierarchy of evidence that turns randomized controlled trials into a necessary and sufficient condition for health claim autho- rizations. Conclusions. Consumer protection can be interpreted in different manners. High standards of proof protect consumers from false information about the health outcomes of functional foods, while lower standards lead to more, albeit less accurate information about such outcomes being available to consumers.

  16. [High voltage objects and radiocommunication investments in view of requirements of the environmental protection act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuba, Marek

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the most important elements of the localization procedure of high voltage overhead lines and substations and radiocommunication objects which are the source of electromagnetic fields. These fields are perceived as a major threat to human health. The point of departure to make a choice of investments is the special classification of technical installations described in one of the executive directive issued by virtue of the Environmental Protection Act. This special executive directive enumerates a lot of technical objects (installation), classified in the group of investments which have significant impact on the environment and some objects which could be classified in this group. For all this technical installations (e.g., overhead high voltage power lines) the provisions of the Environmental Protection Act impose an obligation to take particular steps to assure transparency of the environmental protection procedures, transborder procedures and the protection of areas included in the Natura 2000 network.

  17. Financial and environmental behavior of the regulated firm: A case study of the US nuclear power industry, 1974-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study of the US commercial nuclear power industry from 1974-1984 covers the operations of 87 power plants. It seeks to help explain the actions of a regulated firm faced with environmental constraints from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and financial constraints from State regulatory bodies. Theoretical and applied conceptions of the regulated monopoly are reviewed in a historical and integrated format using both the neoclassical and institutional positions. For the neoclassical approach, the author seeks empirical support for the Averch-Johnson hypothesis by including profit-maximizing and environmental constraints in his econometric model. For the institutionalist approach, he tries to look into the institutional reasons for the behavior exhibited by the firms. A date base which consists of financial, radioactive emissions, and technical operations information has been compiled in order to allow testing of various hypotheses drawn from theoretical and applied sources. The results of the analysis support five very clear conclusions which are presented

  18. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Environmental control and electrical power system performance models requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Software design specifications for developing environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and electrical power system (EPS) programs into interactive computer programs are presented. Specifications for the ECLSS program are at the detail design level with respect to modification of an existing batch mode program. The FORTRAN environmental analysis routines (FEAR) are the subject batch mode program. The characteristics of the FEAR program are included for use in modifying batch mode programs to form interactive programs. The EPS program specifications are at the preliminary design level. Emphasis is on top-down structuring in the development of an interactive program.

  19. Oligomerization of Bacillus subtilis DesR is required for fine tuning regulation of membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najle, Sebastián R; Inda, María E; de Mendoza, Diego; Cybulski, Larisa E

    2009-10-01

    The DesK-DesR two-component system regulates the order of membrane lipids in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis by controlling the expression of the des gene coding for the delta 5-acyl-lipid desaturase. To activate des transcription, the membrane-bound histidine kinase DesK phosphorylates the response regulator DesR. This covalent modification of the regulatory domain of dimeric DesR promotes, in a cooperative fashion, the hierarchical occupation of two adjacent, non-identical, DesR-P binding sites, so that there is a shift in the equilibrium toward the tetrameric active form of the response regulator. However, the mechanism of regulation of DesR activity by phosphorylation and oligomerization is not well understood. We employed deletion analysis and reporter fusions to study the role of the N-terminal domain on DesR activity. In addition, electromobility shift assays were used to analyze the binding capacity of the transcription factor to deletion mutants of the des promoter. We show that DesR lacking the N-terminal domain is still able to bind to the des promoter. We also demonstrate that if the RA site is moved closer to the -35 region of Pdes, the adjacent site RB is dispensable for activation. Our results indicate that the unphosphorylated regulatory domain of DesR obstructs the access of the recognition helix of DesR to its DNA target. In addition, we present evidence showing that RB is physiologically relevant to control the activation of the des gene when the levels of DesR-P reach a critical threshold.

  20. Wnt9a signaling is required for joint integrity and regulation of Ihh during chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Später, Daniela; Hill, Theo P; O'sullivan, Roderick J; Gruber, Michaela; Conner, David A; Hartmann, Christine

    2006-08-01

    Joints, which separate skeleton elements, serve as important signaling centers that regulate the growth of adjacent cartilage elements by controlling proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes. Accurate chondrocyte maturation is crucial for endochondral ossification and for the ultimate size of skeletal elements, as premature or delayed maturation results predominantly in shortened elements. Wnt9a has previously been implicated as being a player in joint induction, based on gain-of function experiments in chicken and mouse. We show that loss of Wnt9a does not affect joint induction, but results to synovial chondroid metaplasia in some joints. This phenotype can be enhanced by removal of an additional Wnt gene, Wnt4, suggesting that Wnts are playing a crucial role in directing bi-potential chondro-synovioprogenitors to become synovial connective tissue, by actively suppressing their chondrogenic potential. Furthermore, we show that Wnt9a is a temporal and spatial regulator of Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a central player of skeletogenesis. Loss of Wnt9a activity results in transient downregulation of Ihh and reduced Ihh-signaling activity at E12.5-E13.5. The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway probably mediates regulation of Ihh expression in prehypertrophic chondrocytes by Wnt9a, because embryos double-heterozygous for Wnt9a and beta-catenin show reduced Ihh expression, and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates a direct interaction between the beta-catenin/Lef1 complex and the Ihh promoter.

  1. Regulation requirements for the protection of workers against electromagnetic fields occurring in the work environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Zmyslony, M.

    2006-01-01

    In Poland, electromagnetic fields (EMF), one of potentially hazardous physical factors occurring in the work environment, are subjected to compulsory surveillance. In 2001, the Directive issued by the Minister of Labor and Social Policy substantially changed the approach towards the protection of workers against EMF. The Directive regulates the whole range of EMF frequencies and electromagnetic radiation, namely from 0 Hz to 300 GHz, which means the possibility of assessing workers EMF exposure, determined by exposure index, along with the hygiene assessment of EMF sources, defined by protection zones. In 2003 - 2005, a number of amended executive and supplementary regulations were issued. However, it should be emphasized that in the process of their elaboration, striving after perfection, numerous incoherent and ambiguous provisions were adopted, which finally created difficulties in the interpretation of individual regulations. This is also linked with doubts and discussions on their practical application by services responsible for control, measurements and monitoring of working conditions under the exposure to EMF. In this work an attempt was made to clarify all issues and arrange them according to the faced problems. The authors also present proposals how to solve all these problems. (author)

  2. Identification and Transcription Profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Identification and transcription profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): developmental regulation and environmental response...7205 Email lmzhao@ufl.edu Abstract: The cDNA of a NADH dehydrogenase-ubiquinone Fe-S protein 8 subunit (NDUFS8) gene from Aedes (Ochlerotatus...information useful for developing dsRNA pesticide for mosquito control. Keywords: Aedes taeniorhynchus, AetNDUFS8, mRNA expression, development

  3. Environmental management in the Mexican tourism sector. Effects of regulation on hotel performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Elva Esther; Zizumbo, Lilia; Viesca, Felipe Carlos; Serrano, Rocío del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the role of public institutions in environmental management, and the application of the National Environmental Audit Programme in the Mexican tourism sector. The research recognizes the role of the hoteliers in the development of tourist zones, and in the alteration of the natural environment. This is an exploratory study of the general perception of management of 28 hotels in the Cancún area regarding the environmental management of their businesses, the factors which l...

  4. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also

  5. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, 2005 edition. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication includes amendments to the 1996 Edition (As Amended 2003) arising from the second cycle of the biennial review and revision process, as agreed by the Transport Safety Standards Committee (TRANSSC) at its ninth meeting in March 2004, as endorsed by the Commission on Safety Standards at its meeting in June 2004 and as approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in November 2004. Although this publication is identified as a new edition, there are no changes that affect the administrative and approval requirements in Section VIII. The fields covered are General Provisions (radiation protection; emergency response; quality assurance; compliance assurance; non-compliance; special arrangement and training); Activity Limits and Materials Restrictions, Requirement and Controls for Transport , Requirements for Radioactive Materials and for Packagings and Packages, Test Procedures, Approval and Administrative Requirements

  6. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  7. Public Participation Planning of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Regulations: Analysis of Inconsistency for Some Cases in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrayani, Aniek; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    The failure in community involvement during the environmental documents planning may result in the failure of the planned project implementation. This study aims to determine the gap between practices and regulations that apply to the process of community involvement in the environmental documents planning, and find out inconsistency of implementation on each stakeholder in the planning of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the environmental permit. The method used was qualitative through interview and literature study which is analyzed using triangulation model and presented in the form of concept map. The results of the study indicate that 1) the determination of community representatives based on the criteria of the impacted communities is not clearly described, 3) suggestions, opinions, and responses to the environmental impact management are not well implemented by the project proponent, 3) implementation of the environmental management of other licensed activities affecting the behavior (4) stakeholders (project proponent, EIA consultants, and EIA appraisal committee) do not play their role as mandated in applicable legislation.

  8. Public Participation Planning of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and Regulations: Analysis of Inconsistency for Some Cases in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindrayani Aniek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure in community involvement during the environmental documents planning may result in the failure of the planned project implementation. This study aims to determine the gap between practices and regulations that apply to the process of community involvement in the environmental documents planning, and find out inconsistency of implementation on each stakeholder in the planning of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and the environmental permit. The method used was qualitative through interview and literature study which is analyzed using triangulation model and presented in the form of concept map. The results of the study indicate that 1 the determination of community representatives based on the criteria of the impacted communities is not clearly described, 3 suggestions, opinions, and responses to the environmental impact management are not well implemented by the project proponent, 3 implementation of the environmental management of other licensed activities affecting the behavior (4 stakeholders (project proponent, EIA consultants, and EIA appraisal committee do not play their role as mandated in applicable legislation.

  9. Skill Sets Required for Environmental Engineering and Where They Are Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kathaleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, skills, abilities and traits environmental engineers need. Two questions were asked: what skills are considered important, and where are they learned? Dreyfus and Dreyfus' novice-to-expert model, which describes a progressive, five-step process of skill development that occurs over time…

  10. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Global Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a particular action. The assessment should be brief and concise but should include sufficient... it significantly harms the environment of the global commons. As a minimum, the assessment should... the global commons, an environmental impact statement, as described below, will be prepared to enable...

  11. A review of Environmental Impact Assessment parameters required for set up of a hydropower project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Pankaj Kumar; Mazumdar, Asis

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment in general, hydro-meteorological conditions, topography, hydrology, water availability analysis of a river system, importance of hydropower and feasibility study of Environmental Impact assessment due to the construction of the hydropower plant have been discussed in this research work. The site selection is one of the major components so far the hydropower is concerned and also the minimum flow should have known to us so that the capacity of a hydropower plant can be predicted. The sustainable flow, which refers the flow is available throughout the year, has been calculated based on flow duration curve. This study highlights the environmental impact assessment particularly related to hydropower project. Here the study area a district town located in the eastern region of India on the banks of river Kosi has been considered. The historical rainfall and the river discharge data have been collected from various organizations. The stage-discharge correlation and hydrological parameters related to hydropower have been analyzed and also to discuss the review of environmental impact assessment in hydropower project. The EIA analysis can be also carried out by using fuzzy logic wherein the EIA parameters can be given different weight-age based on the various survey reports that have been carried out at different places at different time. Such analysis has also been provided below based on the various data obtained.

  12. Regulation of mtl operon promoter of Bacillus subtilis: requirements of its use in expression vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altenbuchner Josef

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several vector systems have been developed to express any gene desired to be studied in Bacillus subtilis. Among them, the transcriptionally regulated promoters involved in carbohydrate utilization are a research priority. Expression systems based on Bacillus promoters for xylose, maltose, and mannose utilization, as well as on the heterologous E. coli lactose promoter, have been successfully constructed. The promoter of the mtlAFD operon for utilization of mannitol is another promising candidate for its use in expression vectors. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the mtl genes in order to identify the elements needed to construct a strong mannitol inducible expression system in B. subtilis. Results Regulation of the promoters of mtlAFD operon (PmtlA and mtlR (PmtlR encoding the activator were investigated by fusion to lacZ. Identification of the PmtlA and PmtlR transcription start sites revealed the σA like promoter structures. Also, the operator of PmtlA was determined by shortening, nucleotide exchange, and alignment of PmtlA and PmtlR operator regions. Deletion of the mannitol-specific PTS genes (mtlAF resulted in PmtlA constitutive expression demonstrating the inhibitory effect of EIICBMtl and EIIAMtl on MtlR in the absence of mannitol. Disruption of mtlD made the cells sensitive to mannitol and glucitol. Both PmtlA and PmtlR were influenced by carbon catabolite repression (CCR. However, a CcpA deficient mutant showed only a slight reduction in PmtlR catabolite repression. Similarly, using PgroE as a constitutive promoter, putative cre sites of PmtlA and PmtlR slightly reduced the promoter activity in the presence of glucose. In contrast, glucose repression of PmtlA and PmtlR was completely abolished in a ΔptsG mutant and significantly reduced in a MtlR (H342D mutant. Conclusions The mtl operon promoter (PmtlA is a strong promoter that reached a maximum of 13,000 Miller units with lacZ as a reporter on

  13. CEP genes regulate root and shoot development in response to environmental cues and are specific to seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Christina; Imin, Nijat; Djordjevic, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    The manifestation of repetitive developmental programmes during plant growth can be adjusted in response to various environmental cues. During root development, this means being able to precisely control root growth and lateral root development. Small signalling peptides have been found to play roles in many aspects of root development. One member of the CEP (C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE) gene family has been shown to arrest root growth. Here we report that CEP genes are widespread among seed plants but are not present in land plants that lack true branching roots or root vasculature. We have identified 10 additional CEP genes in Arabidopsis. Expression analysis revealed that CEP genes are regulated by environmental cues such as nitrogen limitation, increased salt levels, increased osmotic strength, and increased CO2 levels in both roots and shoots. Analysis of synthetic CEP variants showed that both peptide sequence and modifications of key amino acids affect CEP biological activity. Analysis of several CEP over-expression lines revealed distinct roles for CEP genes in root and shoot development. A cep3 knockout mutant showed increased root and shoot growth under a range of abiotic stress, nutrient, and light conditions. We demonstrate that CEPs are negative regulators of root development, slowing primary root growth and reducing lateral root formation. We propose that CEPs are negative regulators that mediate environmental influences on plant development.

  14. Hazardous Substance Release Reporting Under CERCLA, EPCR {section}304 and DOE Emergency Management System (EMS) and DOE Occurrence Reporting Requirements. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traceski, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    Releases of various substances from DOE facilities may be subject to reporting requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), as well as DOE`s internal ``Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information`` and the ``Emergency Management System`` (EMS). CERCLA and EPCPA are Federal laws that require immediate reporting of a release of a Hazardous Substance (HS) and an Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS), respectively, in a Reportable Quantity (RQ) or more within a 24-hour period. This guidance uses a flowchart, supplemental information, and tables to provide an overview of the process to be followed, and more detailed explanations of the actions that must be performed, when chemical releases of HSs, EHSs, pollutants, or contaminants occur at DOE facilities. This guidance should be used in conjunction with, rather than in lieu of, applicable laws, regulations, and DOE Orders. Relevant laws, regulations, and DOE Orders are referenced throughout this guidance.

  15. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W. (eds.)

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  16. Requirements for Ion and Solute Transport, and pH Regulation During Enamel Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LACRUZ, RODRIGO S.; SMITH, CHARLES E.; MOFFATT, PIERRE; CHANG, EUGENE H.; BROMAGE, TIMOTHY G.; BRINGAS, PABLO; NANCI, ANTONIO; BANIWAL, SANJEEV K.; ZABNER, JOSEPH; WELSH, MICHAEL J.; KURTZ, IRA; PAINE, MICHAEL L.

    2012-01-01

    Transcellular bicarbonate transport is suspected to be an important pathway used by ameloblasts to regulate extracellular pH and support crystal growth during enamel maturation. Proteins that play a role in amelogenesis include members of the ABC transporters (SLC gene family and CFTR). A number of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have also been identified. The defined functions of these genes are likely interlinked during enamel mineralization. The purpose of this study is to quantify relative mRNA levels of individual SLC, Cftr, and CAs in enamel cells obtained from secretory and maturation stages on rat incisors. We also present novel data on the enamel phenotypes for two animal models, amutant porcine(CFTR-ΔF508) and the NBCe1-null mouse.Our data show that two SLCs(AE2 and NBCe1),Cftr,and Car2, Car3,Car6,and Car12 are all significantly up-regulated at the onset of the maturation stage of amelogenesis when compared to the secretory stage. The remaining SLCs and CA gene transcripts showed negligible expression or no significant change in expression from secretory to maturation stages. The enamel of Cftr-ΔF508 adult pigs was hypomineralized and showed abnormal crystal growth. NBCe1-null mice enamel was structurally defective and had a marked decrease in mineral content relative to wild-type. These data demonstrate the importance of many non-matrix proteins to amelogenesis and that the expression levels of multiple genes regulating extracellular pH are modulated during enamel maturation in response to an increased need for pH buffering during hydroxyapatite crystal growth. PMID:21732355

  17. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates South Florida, Ladyfish and Tarpon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Elops saurus England (but uncommon north of Cape Linnaeus (Robins et al. TW T Hatteras) to Rio de Janeiro , Brazil, Preferred common name... lagoons , and coastal habitats (Breder (1966) in the laboratory from Stage 1944; Dahlberg 1972; Gilmore et al. III larvae (18.1-22.7 mm SL; mean, 1981...Biological Report 82P1104)--’ T R EL.82.4. /c0.- July 1989. 0t Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes DT

  18. Environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable

  19. Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2014-08-01

    Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment.

  20. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) Crangonid Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp. PREFACE This species profile is one of a series on coastal aquatic organisms, principally fish, of sport , commercial, or...in the spring documented. These shrimp are often the and summer in coastal embayments but are predominant food of the principal sport and abundant...inhibit gonadogenesis and Department of Fish and Game 1987), suggesting castrated male shrimp would take on feminizing that environmental conditions