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Sample records for regulation strategies affect

  1. Toddler Emotion Regulation with Mothers and Fathers: Temporal Associations Between Negative Affect and Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Maxwell, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated temporal associations between putative emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in 20-month-old toddlers. Toddlers’ parent-focused, self-distraction, and toy-focused strategies, as well as negative affect, were rated on a second-by-second basis during laboratory parent-toddler interactions. Longitudinal mixed-effects models were conducted to determine the degree to which behavioral strategy use predicts subsequent negative affect and negative affect predicts subsequent strategy use. Results with mother-toddler and father-toddler dyads indicated that parent-focused strategies with an unresponsive parent were followed by increases in negative affect, whereas toy-focused strategies were followed by decreases in negative affect. Results also indicated that toddler negative affect serves to regulate behavioral strategy use within both parent contexts. PMID:21552335

  2. Toddler Emotion Regulation with Mothers and Fathers: Temporal Associations between Negative Affect and Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Maxwell, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated temporal associations between putative emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in 20-month-old toddlers. Toddlers' parent-focused, self-distraction, and toy-focused strategies, as well as negative affect, were rated on a second-by-second basis during laboratory parent-toddler interactions. Longitudinal…

  3. Accuracy and Generalizability in Summaries of Affect Regulation Strategies: Comment on Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Adam A.; Hemenover, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    In their examination of the effectiveness of affect regulation strategies, Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012) offered the results of a broad meta-analysis of studies on regulatory interventions. Their analysis provides an alternative to our earlier, more focused meta-analysis of the affect regulation literature (Augustine & Hemenover, 2009).…

  4. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental...... affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretizisation...... and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts....

  5. The Relationship of Adult Attachment Theory and Affect Regulation Strategies to Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolya Calisir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the attachment theory which is also known as an affect regulation theory, internal working models that are constituted by the interaction between primary care giver and infant in the early period of life. These working models plays an important role how the infant gives a meaning to the world and himself/ herself and it determines the individual’s personality development and by the way the probable psychopathologies that can be observed in the future like depression. In relation with this, many of the empirical studies in the adult literature states on how internal models and cognitive representations have an influence on emotional reactions. According to various studies, reporting different attachment styles and individuals who has probably different internal models, differs in each others’ emotional reactions and how they behave according to these reactions. In view of attachment literature, individual makes a decision in terms of making affect regulation for maintaining proximity seeking and this process evokes the activation of secondary attachment strategies which are named as hyper and deactivating strategies. From the framework of this review, the relationship between major depression and adult attachment styles, affect regulation strategies is examined. Firstly, Bowlby’s attachment theory is mentioned shortly and adult attachment styles are introduced. Secondly, affect regulation strategies, which are thought to be related with major depression as a mood disorder are identified and finally, the empirical research findings relevant to the topic are represented.

  6. Psychometric properties of a Polish version of the Inventory of Cognitive Affect Regulation Strategies (ICARUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barańczuk, Urszula; Zawadzki, Bogdan; Kamholz, Barbara W; Hayes, Adele M; Lawrence, Amy

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a Polish version of the Inventory of Cognitive Affect Regulation Strategies (ICARUS) and to examine its psychometric properties in a sample of trauma-exposed individuals. The fidelity of instrument translation was assessed in bilingual retests with 103 undergraduate students of English philology. Psychometric properties were examined in a sample of 1,129 trauma-exposed participants. The Polish version of ICARUS exhibited (a) substantial congruence between item and scale scores with the English version of ICARUS; (b) acceptable internal consistency, ranging from α = .53 for mindful observation and acceptance of emotion to α = .93 for religious thoughts; (c) a 2-factor structure of ICARUS scales identifying active and avoidance-oriented coping strategies; and (d) significant associations with other instruments assessing coping, affect regulation strategies, mood dimensions, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Neuro Emotional Literacy Program: Does Teaching the Function of Affect and Affect Regulation Strategies Improve Affect Management and Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kathryn E.; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Although research on Emotion Regulation (ER) is developing at a rapid rate, much of it lacks a clear theoretical framework and most focuses on a narrow set of ER strategies. This work presents the details of a pilot project, the Neuro Emotional Literacy Program (NELP), designed for parents and based on the Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect (SAMA).…

  8. How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Subic-Wrana; Manfred E. Beutel; Elmar Brähler; Yve Stöbel-Richter; Achim Knebel; Lane, Richard D.; Jörg Wiltink

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general populat...

  9. How is emotional awareness related to emotion regulation strategies and self-reported negative affect in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative

  10. How is emotional awareness related to emotion regulation strategies and self-reported negative affect in the general population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Subic-Wrana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. SAMPLE AND METHODS: A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ, assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. RESULTS: LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. DISCUSSION: Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion

  11. Individual differences in the effects of emotion regulation strategies : The role of personality and trait affect intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.; Hanser, W.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    This experimental study examined if (1) emotion experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy (suppression, giving in, neutral) when listening to a well-known rock music fragment, and if (2) personality and trait affect intensity can predict individual differences in

  12. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  13. Linking Emotion Regulation Strategies to Affective Events and Negative Emotions at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorff, James M.; Richard, Erin M.; Yang, Jixia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of specific forms of emotion regulation at work, utilizing Gross's [Gross, J. J. (1998). "The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review." "Review of General Psychology" 2, 271-299] process-based framework of emotion regulation as a guiding structure. In addition to examining employee self-reported…

  14. Factors Affecting Poor Strategy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Darmin Ahmad Pella

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on strategy implementation has been developed for three decades, yet only a few studies focus on factors affecting poor strategy implementation. This research evaluates the influence of strategy implementation problems on strategy implementation success and firm performance. This survey was conducted in 60 Indonesian companies and the data were statistically analysed using Structural Equation Modeling Partial Least Square (SEM PLS. The results show significant influence of strategy implementation problems on the degree of successful strategy implementation and perceived firm performance. The seven major obstacles that have impact on poor strategy implementation are: problems related to corporate scorecard, key performance indicators, information technology, competence, performance appraisal, strategy management office, and financial support.

  15. A comparison of emotion regulation strategies in response to craving cognitions: Effects on smoking behaviour, craving and affect in dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadman, Matthew; Das, Ravi K; Freeman, Tom P; Scragg, Peter; West, Robert; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2015-06-01

    The effects of three emotion regulation strategies that targeted smoking-related thoughts were compared on outcomes relevant to smoking cessation. Daily smokers applied defusion (n = 25), reappraisal (n = 25) or suppression (n = 23) to thoughts associated with smoking during a cue-induced craving procedure. Smoking behaviour, approach/avoidance behavioural bias, and subjective measures of experiential avoidance, craving, and affect were assessed during the experimental session, with additional behavioural and subjective outcomes assessed at 24 h and seven day follow-up. The influence of baseline group differences in smoking level and nicotine dependence were explored statistically. Defusion and reappraisal were associated with greater restraint in smoking behaviour in the immediate post-session period as well as reduction in smoking at seven day follow-up compared to suppression. Relative to suppression, reduced subjective craving was seen in the reappraisal group, and reduced experiential avoidance in the defusion group. Differences in approach/avoidance responses to smoking and neutral cues were observed only between the suppression and reappraisal groups. Although suppression was rated as lower in both credibility and strategy-expectancy compared to defusion and reappraisal, neither credibility nor expectancy mediated the effect of any strategy on changes in levels of smoking. Defusion and reappraisal produced similar benefits in smoking-related behavioural outcomes but, relative to suppression, were associated with distinctive outcomes on experiential avoidance and craving. The effects appear to be independent of perceived expectancy and credibility of the different strategies. Overall, the results suggest a role for reappraisal and defusion strategies in the development of psychological treatments for addiction-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Musical affect regulation in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E; Ghazban, Niusha; Corbeil, Mariève

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents and adults commonly use music for various forms of affect regulation, including relaxation, revitalization, distraction, and elicitation of pleasant memories. Mothers throughout the world also sing to their infants, with affect regulation as the principal goal. To date, the study of maternal singing has focused largely on its acoustic features and its consequences for infant attention. We describe recent laboratory research that explores the consequences of singing for infant affect regulation. Such work reveals that listening to recordings of play songs can maintain 6- to 9-month-old infants in a relatively contented or neutral state considerably longer than recordings of infant-directed or adult-directed speech. When 10-month-old infants fuss or cry and are highly aroused, mothers' multimodal singing is more effective than maternal speech at inducing recovery from such distress. Moreover, play songs are more effective than lullabies at reducing arousal in Western infants. We explore the implications of these findings along with possible practical applications. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Personality and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Hayu Purnamaningsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emotions has many important functions in our life such as in relation of interpersonal communication, and health. In interpersonal communicative function aimed to signal to other information about internal state. Emotions manifests in specific cognitive, behavioural, and physiological reactions, thus closely related to health. There is wide variety of ways for individuals to regulate their emotion. In this regard, there are two kinds of emotion regulation strategy; first Antecedent-focused emotion regulation consisting of situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change and second, Response-focused emotion regulation consisting of suppression. The purpose of this research is to investigate personality factors relate with emotion regulation strategies. 339 students from Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada were participating in this study and given The Big Five Personality Factors (Ramdhani, 2012, adaptation, and the modified version of the Emotion Regulation Scale was used, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (John & Gross, 2004 which measure personality and emotion regulation respectively. Using multiple regression analysis, the study indicated that personality predicts emotion regulation strategies.

  18. Nurse Educator’s Affective Teaching Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myra C. Britiller; Frances Margott C. Ramos; Darryl Marvin C. Reyes; Kimberlyn D. Salazar; Joyce Ann M. Sandoval; Lovelyn Q. Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to determine nurse educators’ affective teaching strategies. Specifically, it assessed the strategies of nurse educators on how to develop the affective domain of student nurses...

  19. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of

  20. Understanding regulations affecting pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzanis, David A

    2008-08-01

    In the United States, pet foods are subject to regulation at both the federal and the state levels. The US Food and Drug Administration has jurisdiction over all animal feeds (including pet foods, treats, chews, supplements, and ingredients) in interstate commerce, which includes imported products. Many states adopt and enforce at least in part the Association of American Feed Control Officials Model Bill and Model Regulations for Pet Food and Specialty Pet Food. Thus, all pet foods in multi-state distribution are subject to a host of labeling requirements covering aspects such as product names, ingredient lists, nutrient content guarantees, and nutritional adequacy statements. Ingredients must be GRAS (generally recognized as safe) substances, approved food additives, or defined by Association of American Feed Control Officials for their intended use. Pet food labels may not bear claims that are false or misleading or that state or imply use for the treatment or prevention of disease. Pet foods that are found to be adulterated or misbranded may be subject to seizure or other enforcement actions.

  1. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies In women abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Galego Carrillo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional regulation through cognitions is directly linked to human life and help people to maintain control on their emotions, both during and after experimenting an stressful event.  Exposition to gender violence cause serious health problems related to stress that need the activation of cognitive and behavioral processes to cope with it. WHOWorld Health Organization states that women in maltreatment situation have limitations on self-autonomy (autonomy and independent behavior. For this reason, self-regulation, understood as a mechanic of self-management through cognitions, emotions, mood, impulsive control and executive task may be affected. The main objective of this research is, to know the impact that gender-based violence may result in the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. It was an observational cross-over design of two non-equivalent women's groups/samples. A total of 116 women completed adapted versions to Spanish of "Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ”. Of these, 51 were in a situation of abuse. Results show that the greatest differences between being affected or not by abuse reside in “Rumination”, “Acceptance”, “Catastrophizing and blaming others”. These findings contribute to the empirical evidence in the field of gender-based violence and provide key elements for intervention.

  2. Nurse Educator’s Affective Teaching Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra C. Britiller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is highly charged with feeling, aroused by and directed towards not just people, but also values and ideals (Garritz, 2010. Emotions and feelings greatly affect the way the students learn and acquire knowledge. There must be a balance between the three domains of learning because once one domain is left behind, the other domains will be affected. The purpose of this study is to determine nurse educators’ affective teaching strategies. Specifically, it assessed the strategies of nurse educators on how to develop the affective domain of student nurses. In addition, the study assessed the values of student nurses in terms of God-centeredness, Leadership, Integrity, and Nationalism. Lastly, the researchers proposed innovative teaching methodologies to enhance the attitudes of nursing students. This study used descriptive research design. The respondents of the study were the nursing students and clinical instructors of Lyceum of the Philippines University – Batangas. 190 student nurses were chosen through stratified random sampling while 10 clinical instructors were chosen based on the number of times they handled the students both in lecture and clinical area. The instruments were selfmade and standardized questionnaire and interview guide to obtain the data needed for the study. The data gathered are compiled, organized and tabulated for statistical treatment. Weighted mean was utilized to compute the quantitative data whereas the interview was used to form the qualitative analysis. Role modelling is the most common strategy of nurse educators to enhance the affective domain of student nurses. Their actions consciously and unconsciously affecting the attitude of the students. Hence, confidence among the students needs most attention in developing affective domain as it produce change in other values presented in the study. The proposed teaching strategies aim to enhance the affective domain of nursing students in line with the

  3. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  4. Emotion regulation strategies in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Maria Nives; Pons, Francisco; Molina, Paola

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the development of emotion regulation strategies as reflected in the narratives of children between the ages of 3 and 6 years. An experimental procedure based on story completion tasks was devised to elicit the emotion-related narratives of 69 preschool children. Coding of the narratives led to the observation of different emotion regulation strategies: Behavioural strategies, social support, and cognitive reappraisal. Several significant gender and age differences were identified in the use of these strategies. In addition, verbal skills, non-verbal intelligence, and emotion comprehension were found to be associated with use of the observed emotion regulation strategies, although only at specific ages. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Feeding your feelings: emotion regulation strategies and emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Catharine; Marijn Stok, F; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2010-06-01

    The process by which emotions affect eating behavior emerges as one of the central unresolved questions in the field of emotional eating. The present studies address the hypothesis that the regulation strategies people use to deal with these emotions are responsible for increased eating. Negative emotions were induced and intake of comfort food and non-comfort food was measured by means of taste tests. Emotion induction was preceded by measuring individual differences in emotion regulation strategies (Study 1) or by instructions to regulate emotions in either an adaptive (reappraisal) or maladaptive (suppression) manner (Study 2). Study 3 also entailed a control condition without any regulation instructions. Relative to reappraisal and spontaneous expression, suppression led to increased food intake, but only of the comfort foods. Emotions themselves were not responsible for this effect. These findings provide new evidence that the way in which emotions are regulated affects eating behavior.

  6. Self-Regulation through Transactional Strategies Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilden, Katherine R.; Pressley, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In a qualitative, multiple case study, we explored the challenges and successes teachers encounter while participating in a professional development program aimed at improving their reading comprehension instruction so as to increase students' self-regulated use of comprehension strategies. We documented five fifth grade teachers' experiences as…

  7. Dimensions of affect modulated by perceived mood regulation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanitz, Christine A; Hursh, Adrienne N; Hudepohl, Adam D

    2011-06-01

    The ability to regulate mood is a facet of emotional intelligence that may contribute to an individual's physical and mental health. Precisely what is regulated when mood regulation occurs is dependent on what "makes up" mood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether perceived mood regulation ability can predict regulation of affect during task engagement and whether affect regulation is specific to valence or arousal. Measures of positive affect, negative affect, and frontal area sEMG (as a measure of arousal) were obtained from a sample of one hundred twenty-four participants categorized by their self report as possessing low or high mood regulation ability. Modulation of positive affect, but not negative affect, was predicted by perceived mood regulation ability. The results of sEMG were mixed. These data provide some support for the hypothesis that mood regulation ability can predict future efforts to regulate affect, at least in the context of task engagement.

  8. Suspect Subjects: Affects of Bodily Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Henne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of academic literature that scrutinises the effects of technologies deployed to surveil the physical bodies of citizens. This paper considers the role of affect; that is, the visceral and emotive forces underpinning conscious forms of knowing that can drive one’s thoughts, feelings and movements. Drawing from research on two distinctly different groups of surveilled subjects – paroled sex offenders and elite athletes – it examines the effects of biosurveillance in their lives and how their reflections reveal unique insight into how subjectivity, citizenship, harm and deviance become constructed in intimate and public ways vis-à-vis technologies of bodily regulation. Specifically, we argue, their narratives reveal cultural conditions of biosurveillance, particularly how risk becomes embodied and internalised in subjective ways.

  9. The match-mismatch model of emotion processing styles and emotion regulation strategies in fibromyalgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, R.; Ooijen-van der Linden, L. van; Lumley, M.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Middendorp, H. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Individuals differ in their style of processing emotions (e.g., experiencing affects intensely or being alexithymic) and their strategy of regulating emotions (e.g., expressing or reappraising). A match-mismatch model of emotion processing styles and emotion regulation strategies is

  10. Age-Related Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies: Examining the Role of Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R.; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-01-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and…

  11. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Drawing versus Writing: The Role of Preference in Regulating Short-Term Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Hodge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot study we investigated whether the most effective medium for regulating short-term affect depends on one's preference for drawing or writing, and also investigated the emotion regulation strategy (distraction versus expression) spontaneously chosen when drawing and writing. Eighty undergraduates indicated their preference for drawing or…

  13. Affect regulation and Depressive Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Tsen; Huprich, Steven K; Hsiao, Wei-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Depressive Personality Disorder (DPD) has been under consideration for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders since 1994; yet, few studies have been published that test whether those with DPD have affective experiences that are characterized exclusively by depression and negative affect. One hundred ninety-seven undergraduate students were interviewed for DPD and Borderline Personality Disorder with the Personality Disorder Interview for DSM-IV (Widiger, Mangine, Corbitt, Ellis, & Thomas, 1995), in order to control for frequently co-occurring BPD which is characterized by affective lability. Participants also were administered measures of affective lability, affective intensity, anxious and depressive states, and more trait-like manifestations of depression, anxiety, and anger. Results indicate that those with DPD may be described as having a mood state characterized by transitions from a baseline neutral mood to one of anxiety, with their experiences being more prominently depressed and dysphoric. They also have tendencies toward angry hostility, though they may not report frequent shifts from a baseline neutral mood to anger. Those with DPD also report intense, frequent experiences of depression and dysphoria, with many shifts between depression and anxiety.

  14. Affect, Reason, and Persuasion: Advertising Strategies That Predict Affective and Analytic-Cognitive Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of specific advertising strategies to affective and analytic cognitive responses of the audience. Analyses undergraduate students' responses to 240 advertisements. Demonstrates that advertising strategy variables accounted substantially for the variance in affective and analytic cognition.…

  15. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the..., concerning the Victoria County 1-hour ozone maintenance plan. This SIP revision was adopted by TCEQ on...

  16. Emotion regulation strategies and childhood obesity in high risk preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current study examined the relationships between the specific strategies that preschool children use to regulate their emotions and childhood weight status to see if emotion regulation strategies would predict childhood weight status over and above measures of eating self-regulation. 185 4- to 5...

  17. Learning Strategies and Emotional Regulation of Pedagogy Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bortoletto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the learning strategies and emotional regulation of 298 students of private and public university teacher formation courses of a city in Minas Gerais state. The study also examined the joint contribution of emotional regulation, age group and year of the course on the learning strategies scores of the participants. The participants were of both sexes, ranging from 18 to 54 years of age and enrolled in the first to the fourth year of two universities. Data was collected using two Likert type scales for university students: one for the evaluation of learning strategies and the other for the evaluation of emotional regulation strategies. Results showed a positive, significant, moderate correlation between learning strategies and emotional regulation strategies. Emotional regulation, age range and year of the course showed a joint association with learning strategies scores. Data is discussed in terms of its psychoeducational implications.

  18. Regulations as Prevention Strategies for Shiftwork Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen; Bøggild; Larsen

    1997-07-01

    The study examines how the Danish system of regulations stemming from collective agreements and legislation and its associated participatory structures operate at the local level in relation to shiftwork and health and safety issues in a regional hospital system consisting of seven hospitals. The study analyzed ward reports of each employee's employment and working hours, local agreements about working time for deviations from legislation, and accounts from meetings in Co-operation Committees and Health and Safety Committees with respect to shiftwork issues from 1980 to 1994. The results showed that part-time employment, especially for those working on fixed evening and night shifts, was a dominant feature in the shiftwork arrangements. A majority of wards were found to have mixtures of employees working rotating or fixed shifts. Each hospital had local agreements that extended the number of work days between periods with days off and reduced the daily resting period to its minimum. None of the meetings of the Health and Safety Committees dealt with shiftwork, and when shiftwork and working time were on the agendas of the Co-operation Committees, health and safety aspects did not feature in the conclusions. The absence of consideration of health and safety aspects is discussed in relation to the uncertainty of the general regulatory principles for work organization and scheduling. The paper concludes that in order to utilize the potential af the participatory structures in developing prevention strategies for shiftwork problems, it is important to clarify responsibilities and cooperation between the two participatory committees.

  19. Emotion regulation strategies in daily life: mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Robert; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Kashdan, Todd

    2017-03-01

    Most empirical studies of emotion regulation have relied on retrospective trait measures, and have not examined the link between daily regulatory strategies and every day emotional well-being. We used a daily diary methodology with multilevel modelling data analyses (n = 187) to examine the influence of three emotion regulation strategies (mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression) on the experience of daily negative and positive affect. Our results suggested that daily mindfulness was associated with lower negative and higher positive affect whereas the converse pattern was found for daily emotion suppression; cognitive reappraisal was related to daily positive, but not negative affect. When daily mindfulness, suppression and reappraisal were included in the same models, these strategies predicted unique variance in emotional well-being. Random slope analyses revealed substantial variability in the utility of these strategies. Indeed the presumably "adaptive" cognitive reappraisal strategy seemed to confer no benefit to the regulation of negative affect in approximately half the sample. Additional analyses revealed that age moderates the effect of cognitive reappraisal on daily negative affect: Higher use of reappraisal was associated with more negative affect for adolescents (aged 17 to 19) but became associated with less negative affect with increasing age. We interpret these results in line with a contextual view of emotion regulation where no strategy is inherently "good" or "bad".

  20. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...

  1. Emotion regulation strategies and childhood obesity in high risk preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Olivera, Yadira A; Hill, Rachael A; Beck, Ashley D; Hopwood, Veronica; Garcia, Karina Silva; Ramos, Guadalupe G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-12-01

    The current study examined the relationships between the specific strategies that preschool children use to regulate their emotions and childhood weight status to see if emotion regulation strategies would predict childhood weight status over and above measures of eating self-regulation. 185 4- to 5-year-old Latino children were recruited through Head Start centers in a large city in the southeastern U.S. Children completed both a delay of gratification task (emotion regulation) and an eating in the absence of hunger task (eating regulation). Eating regulation also was assessed by maternal reports. Four emotion regulation strategies were examined in the delay of gratification task: shut out stimuli, prevent movement, distraction, and attention to reward. Hierarchical linear regressions predicting children's weight status showed that both measures of eating regulation negatively predicted child obesity, and the use of prevent movement negatively predicted child obesity. Total wait time during the delay of gratification tasks was not a significant predictor. The current findings are consistent with studies showing that for preschool children, summary measures of emotion regulation (e.g., wait time) are not concurrently associated with child obesity. In contrast, the use of emotion regulation strategies was a significant predictor of lower child weight status. These findings help identify emotion regulation strategies that prevention programs can target for helping children regulate their emotions and decrease their obesity risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Experience of Failed Humor: Implications for Interpersonal Affect Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michele; Emich, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate failed interpersonal affect regulation through the lens of humor. We investigated individual differences that influenced people's affective and cognitive responses to failed humor and their willingness to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect after a failed attempt. Using well-established autobiographical narrative methods and surveys, we collected data at two time points. All participants (n = 127) received identical surveys at time 1. At time 2, they were randomly assigned to complete a narrative about either successful or failed humor as well as a second survey. Using moderated regression analyses and SEM, we found significant differences between our failed and successful humor conditions. Specifically, individual differences, including gender, affective perspective taking, and humor self-efficacy, were associated with negative reactions to failed humor and the willingness of individuals to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect. Moreover, affective perspective taking moderated the effect of gender in both the failed and successful humor conditions. Our results suggest that failed humor is no laughing matter. Understanding individuals' willingness to continue in attempts to regulate the affect of others contributes to the comprehension of an understudied phenomenon that has implications for interpersonal behavior in organizations such as helping, group decision making, and intragroup conflict. Studies of interpersonal affect regulation often focus on people's ability to successfully regulate others' emotions. In contrast, this is the first quantitative study to explore factors that influence individual's willingness to persist in interpersonal affect regulation after failure, and to investigate how individual differences influence the personal outcomes associated with failed attempts.

  3. Affect and Cognitive Interference: An Examination of Their Effect on Self-Regulated Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Papantoniou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships among affect, self-regulated learning (SRL strategy use, and course attainment in the didactics of mathematics (teaching mathematics subject matter domain. The sample consisted of 180 undergraduate students attending a didactics of mathematics course (mean age = 21.1 years at the School of Early Childhood Education. The participants were asked to respond to the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS and the Cognitive Interference Questionnaire (CIQ. They also completed the Learning Strategies Scales of the MSLQ. Examination grades were used as the measure of course attainment. Pearson correlations and path analysis revealed that negative affect was positively related to cognitive interference, and positive affect influenced positively the use of almost all of the SRL strategies. Elaboration was the only SRL strategy found to predict the didactics of mathematics course attainment. Finally, cognitive interference was found to negatively predict course attainment.

  4. 40 CFR 52.1582 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... Control strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Subchapter 16 of the New Jersey Administrative Code, entitled... of the 1990 Clean Air Act. (d)(1) The base year ozone precursor emission inventory requirement of...

  5. A Computational Cognitive Model Integrating Different Emotion Regulation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abro, A.H.; Manzoor Rajper, A.; Tabatabaei, S.; Treur, J.; Georgeon, Olivier L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a cognitive model is introduced which integrates a model for emotion generation with models for three different emotion regulation strategies. Given a stressful situation, humans often apply multiple emotion regulation strategies. The presented computational model has been designed

  6. Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students with Writing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda H.; Harris, Karen R.; Graham, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Students with writing difficulties often struggle with the planning, composing, and revising skills required for effective writing. Fortunately, researchers have documented that explicit, interactive, scaffolded development of powerful composing strategies and strategies for self-regulating the writing process, as in Self-Regulated Strategy…

  7. Comparison of Loads for Wind Turbine Down Regulation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    For wind farm active power setpoint tracking, both farm level and turbine level down regulation strategies should to be optimized. Several down regulation strategies are chosen to analyse the wind turbine load performance according to different wind speed and power reference. In this paper we...... suggest appropriate down regulation strategy to control wind turbine for active power reference tracking. we compare four different control strategies, namely Const-Ω, Const-λ, Max-Ω and Min-Ct and discuss the loads on main components and downwind speed by presenting analysis of several wind scenarios...

  8. Affect, Epistemic Emotions, Metacognition, and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efklides, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the functioning of affect and epistemic emotions, such as surprise and curiosity, in self-regulated learning (SRL). The claim is that affect plays a major role in SRL not only as an independent process that can facilitate or impede learning activities and performance but also through its interactions with cognition and…

  9. Emotion regulation requirements and affective forecasts regarding expected organizational changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Kubicek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In organizational change processes, employees develop expectations of future events and make affective forecasts about their affective reactions to these events. When making such affective forecasts, people often project their current affect onto future events without considering the unique characteristics of the events. Although affective forecasts have been assessed in several applied settings, only a few studies have examined work contexts. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess whether employees making work-related affective forecasts also rely on current affect. Moreover, the study investigated whether employees whose work frequently requires regulation of their emotions are less likely to project their current work-related affect into the future. Cross-sectional data gathered from 1610 Austrian eldercare workers supported these assumptions. Employees relied heavily on current affect when making work-related affective forecasts. However, employees who reported that their work demanded high levels of emotion regulation exhibited a weaker relationship between current affect and predicted affect. We suggest that these findings have implications for understanding and managing organizational change processes.

  10. Relationships between leaders' and subordinates' emotion regulation and satisfaction and affect at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Nezlek, John B; Vassilakou, Thanai

    2012-01-01

    The study examined relationships between leaders' emotion regulation and leaders' and subordinates' work-related outcomes. Fifty-one school directors and 281 teachers reported on their strategies of emotion regulation (reappraisal, suppression), job satisfaction, and affect at work. For subordinates, suppression was negatively related to job satisfaction and was positively related to negative affect and emotional exhaustion, and reappraisal was positively related to job satisfaction and negatively to negativ affect. In contrast, multilevel analyses found that directors' use of reappraisal was neg atively related to subordinates' job satisfaction, and directors' use of suppression wa positively related to subordinates' positive affect. Leaders' suppression interacted wit group cohesion to predict subordinates' negative affect. This is one of the first studies to find evidence for the possible tension between leaders' emotion regulation competencie and organizational-role interests.

  11. How does Corporate Governance Affect Bank Capitalization Strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anginer, D.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, H.P.; Ma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines how corporate governance and executive compensation affect bank capitalization strategies for an international sample of banks over the 2003-2011 period. ‘Good’ corporate governance, which favors shareholder interests, is found to give rise to lower bank capitalization.

  12. How does corporate governance affect bank capitalization strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anginer, D.; Demirgüç-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, Harry; Ma, K.

    This paper examines how corporate governance and executive compensation affect bank capitalization strategies for an international sample of banks over the 2003-2011 period. ‘Good’ corporate governance, which favors shareholder interests, is found to give rise to lower bank capitalization. Boards of

  13. Understanding the Structure of Children's Emotion-Regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callear, Angela; Harvey, Shane Trevor; Bimler, David

    2017-01-01

    Emotion regulation is a central feature in human emotional development. However, measures based on children's observable emotion regulation behaviors are largely absent. An inventory of children's emotion regulation strategies was developed from current measures and four focus group discussions with experts in child behavior and emotion. From…

  14. Neuromagnetic Indication of Dysfunctional Emotion Regulation in Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pietrek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional emotion regulation is often reported in affective disorders, but it is unclear whether this dysfunction concerns initial processing of emotional input or regulation of resulting emotion. The present study addressed these aspects in 27 depressive and 15 borderline personality disorder patients and 28 healthy controls who were instructed to either passively view unpleasant and neutral pictures or downregulate emotional responses by reappraisal, while neuromagnetic brain activity was measured. All three groups showed more early response to unpleasant than to neutral pictures, whereas patients failed to show subsequent activity suppression under instructions to down-regulate. This deficient emotion regulation was evident primarily in those subjects reporting high childhood adversity. Results support intact emotional input processing but impaired emotion regulation in affective disorders and indicate a moderating influence of early life stress.

  15. Maternal Socialization of Positive Affect: The Impact of Invalidation on Adolescent Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relations among maternal socialization of positive affect (PA), adolescent emotion regulation (ER), and adolescent depressive symptoms. Two hundred early adolescents, 11-13 years old, provided self-reports of ER strategies and depressive symptomatology; their mothers provided self-reports of socialization responses to…

  16. On goals and strategies : How a fit between performance goals and regulatory strategies affects performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, L.J.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2008-01-01

    In the present research, we argue and demonstrate that a fit or non-fit between regulatory strategy and performance goal affects task performance. Specifically, we found that a prevention strategy results in better performance among performance avoidance (PAv) goal participants compared to

  17. Role of Mindfulness and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies on Predicting the Psychological Symptoms of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjadi MS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Besides many problems during education courses, an increase in the level of stress, depression, or anxiety leads to interferences with the students’ professional roles. Mindfulness and cognitive strategies to regulate emotions positively affect human health in different human classes and different psychological symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the differentiation roles of mindfulness and cognitive strategies to regulate emotions in prediction of the psychological symptoms in the medical students.  Instrument & Methods: As a descriptive-correlational study, 375 students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences were randomly studied in 2014-15. The study tools were 5-dimension Mindfulness Questionnaire, Cognitive Strategies to Regulate the Emotions Questionnaire, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Questionnaire. Data was analyzed in SPSS 20 software using Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Stepwise Regression test. Findings: There was a significant correlation between the emotion regulation strategies and mindfulness and depression, anxiety, and stress (p<0.01. 25% of variance changes in depression were explained by the emotion regulation negative cognitive strategies (12%, the emotion regulation positive cognitive strategies (9%, and mindfulness (4%. 17% of the variance changes in anxiety were explained by the emotion regulation negative (12% and positive (5% cognitive strategies. 19.3% of the variance changes in stress were explained by the emotion regulation negative (17% and positive (2.3% cognitive strategies (p<0.05. Conclusion: The effectiveness of cognitive strategies to regulate the emotions and especially, negative cognitive strategies to regulate the emotions is more considerable in explaining the psychological symptoms in the medical students than mindfulness. 

  18. Affect and Cognitive Interference: An Examination of Their Effect on Self-Regulated Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Papantoniou; Despina Moraitou; Maria Kaldrimidou; Katerina Plakitsi; Dimitra Filippidou; Effie Katsadima

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships among affect, self-regulated learning (SRL) strategy use, and course attainment in the didactics of mathematics (teaching mathematics) subject matter domain. The sample consisted of 180 undergraduate students attending a didactics of mathematics course (mean age = 21.1 years) at the School of Early Childhood Education. The participants were asked to respond to the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Cognitive Interference Question...

  19. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: An experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMartínez-Iñigo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behaviour that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agents´ resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on targets´ feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported actual and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78 were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving x 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent´s strategy and the target´s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as

  20. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: an experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent’s resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target’s feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent’s strategy and the target’s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as

  1. Factors affecting second language communication strategies use and development

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Micharet, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    [eng] The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to the field of second language (L2) communication strategies (CS) and, particularly, to examine which factors or combinations of factors are involved in the use and development of effective CS in L2 speakers. According to the review of the relevant literature, there is a series of potentially affecting factors that may influence or be connected to CS use, though their role remains controversial. The research questions in the present st...

  2. Do Emotion Regulation Intentions and Strategies Differ Between Situations?

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Andrew; Davis, Paul; Stanley, Damian

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between actual and desired emotional states, meta-beliefs concerning the utility of distinct emotions, and emotion regulation strategies used by individuals in a sport situation as well as an emotion-eliciting situation from a different aspect of their lives. Participants (N = 924) reported their emotions, meta-beliefs for optimal emotional states, and their use of emotion regulation strategies across two broad categories of situations: Before sports c...

  3. Regulation of pacing strategy during athletic competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos J de Koning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Athletic competition has been a source of interest to the scientific community for many years, as a surrogate of the limits of human ambulatory ability. One of the remarkable things about athletic competition is the observation that some athletes suddenly reduce their pace in the mid-portion of the race and drop back from their competitors. Alternatively, other athletes will perform great accelerations in mid-race (surges or during the closing stages of the race (the endspurt. This observation fits well with recent evidence that muscular power output is regulated in an anticipatory way, designed to prevent unreasonably large homeostatic disturbances. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that a simple index, the product of the momentary Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE and the fraction of race distance remaining, the Hazard Score, defines the likelihood that athletes will change their velocity during simulated competitions; and may effectively represent the language used to allow anticipatory regulation of muscle power output. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the concept that the muscular power output during high intensity exercise performance is actively regulated in an anticipatory manner that accounts for both the momentary sensations the athlete is experiencing as well as the relative amount of a competition to be completed.

  4. Self-Regulated Strategy Instruction in College Developmental Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Charles A.; Philippakos, Zoi A.; Ianetta, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a curriculum for college developmental writing classes, developed in prior design research and based on self-regulated strategy instruction. Students learned strategies for planning, drafting, and revising compositions with an emphasis on using knowledge of genre organization to guide…

  5. 40 CFR 52.282 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. (a) Attainment determination. EPA has determined that the Ventura County severe 1-hour ozone nonattainment area attained the 1-hour ozone NAAQS by the applicable attainment date...

  6. 40 CFR 52.977 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. Determination of Attainment. Effective March 12, 2010 EPA has determined the Baton Rouge 1-hour ozone nonattainment area has attained the 1-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  7. Regulation of pacing strategies during successive 4-km time trials

    OpenAIRE

    Ansley, Les; Lambert, Mike I; Scharbort, Elske; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Noakes, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Athletes adopt a pacing strategy to delay fatigue and optimize athletic performance. However, many current theories of the regulation of muscle function during exercise do not adequately explain all observed features of such pacing strategies. We studied power output, oxygen consumption, and muscle recruitment strategies during successive 4-km cycling time trials to determine whether alterations in muscle recruitment by the central nervous system could explain the observed pacing str...

  8. Neural correlates of emotion regulation in patients with schizophrenia and non-affected siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette van der Meer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia often experience problems regulating their emotions. Non-affected relatives show similar difficulties, although to a lesser extent, and the neural basis of such difficulties remains to be elucidated. In the current paper we investigated whether schizophrenia patients, non-affected siblings and healthy controls (HC exhibit differences in brain activation during emotion regulation. METHODS: All subjects (n = 20 per group performed an emotion regulation task while they were in an fMRI scanner. The task contained two experimental conditions for the down-regulation of emotions (reappraise and suppress, in which IAPS pictures were used to generate a negative affect. We also assessed whether the groups differed in emotion regulation strategies used in daily life by means of the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ. RESULTS: Though the overall negative affect was higher for patients as well as for siblings compared to HC for all conditions, all groups reported decreased negative affect after both regulation conditions. Nonetheless, neuroimaging results showed hypoactivation relative to HC in VLPFC, insula, middle temporal gyrus, caudate and thalamus for patients when reappraising negative pictures. In siblings, the same pattern was evident as in patients, but only in cortical areas. CONCLUSIONS: Given that all groups performed similarly on the emotion regulation task, but differed in overall negative affect ratings and brain activation, our findings suggest reduced levels of emotion regulation processing in neural circuits in patients with schizophrenia. Notably, this also holds for siblings, albeit to a lesser extent, indicating that it may be part and parcel of a vulnerability for psychosis.

  9. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; van Strien, Jan W.

    2016-01-01

    Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300–400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of

  10. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2016-01-01

    Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of romantic

  11. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J E Langeslag

    Full Text Available Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships. If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative

  12. Psychological skills for enhancing performance: arousal regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D; Udry, E

    1994-04-01

    This review summarizes and integrates current empirical and theoretical research on arousal regulation strategies for enhancing athletic performance. The need to view arousal as a multifaceted construct made up of both cognitive and physiological components was emphasized, as well as the importance of understanding arousal-performance relationship theories that go beyond a simple inverted-U notion. Categories of arousal regulation strategies were discussed and included: arousal energizing techniques, biofeedback techniques, relaxation response strategies, cognitive behavioral interventions, and mental preparation routines. It was concluded that these techniques can be effective in influencing arousal and facilitating performance. However, additional research (especially evaluation research) using more rigorous methods, determining how and why interventions work, using case study methodologies, identifying personality and situational factors influencing arousal regulation effectiveness, and identifying the most effective means of teaching arousal regulation is needed.

  13. Self-regulation from Educational Psychology to L2 Pedagogy: an Alternative to Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banisaeid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategy was the focus of many studies during the last two decades. Because of definitional fuzziness and unreliable instrument, the concept of language learning strategy was replaced by self-regulation in educational psychology. Subsequently, this shift affected L2 research. The notion of self-regulation is used in some L2 studies today (Tseng, Dörnyei & Schmitt, 2006; Rose, 2011b, Banisaeid, 2013a, 2013b. Self-regulation is more process-oriented while language learning strategy is more product-oriented. Although it only encompasses the metacognitive strategy, the general domain of it is meaningfully wider than the strategic framework. It covers some aspects in the learning process as motivation, goals and self-efficacy.

  14. Religiousness and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleś Maria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human religiousness is a complex and multidimensional reality embedded in basic human needs and connected with people’s desires, anxieties, and hopes. The aim of the paper is to assess religiousness, considered in terms of meaning and cognitive emotion regulation strategies, in adolescents. The religious meaning system is a multidimensional construct encompassing convictions, beliefs, emotional connotations, and the rules of worship. In situations of negative events or unpleasant experiences, young people resort to various coping strategies. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies concern relatively stable conscious ways of regulating emotions, which consist in mentally handling the incoming information that evoke emotions. The study concerned young people aged 13 to 16 years (N = 130. Religiousness was assessed using D. Krok’s Religious Meaning System Questionnaire (RMSQ and cognitive coping strategies were measured using the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ by N. Garnefski and V. Kraaij. The results show that there are relations between religiousness, understood in terms of the young participants’ meaning system, and adaptive as well as maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. The results of the study are discussed in the light of theory and research.

  15. Some cultural factors affecting costs of fertility regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of the costs or constraints in the use of fertility regulation, reviews the existing knowledge on the subject in a cross-cultural context, and indicates the need for further studies. It is suggested that the apparent contradiction noted in fertility surveys between a couple's desire to have no more children or to postpone the next birth and actual behavior can be explained by the costs involved in the use of fertility regulation methods. The costs of fertility regulation can be broadly classified into 4 categories: 1) physical/health (disruption of menstrual cycle, side effects and health hazards of contraceptive methods, perceived health hazards based on ethno-physical concepts, and sacrifice of sexual pleasure); 2) psychic (violation of sexual modesty and human dignity, conflict with religious beliefs; 3) social opinion (challenges to spouse and sex role expectations, challenges to social influence group); and 4) economic (money, time). The economic costs of fertility regulation to individuals vary greatly according to the presence or absence of public sector family planning programs. A substantial part of these costs could be eliminated by national and international programs. So far, no study has focused on the costs of fertility regulation and factors affecting them. A methodology that combines elements of both a questionnaire survey and anthropological investigation and collects data on both the individual and community levels may be most amenable to assessing the impact of costs on the use or nonuse of fertility regulation.

  16. Strategi Self Regulated Learning dan Prestasi Belajar: Kajian Meta Analisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Latipah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a meta‐analysis of the experimental and survey literature that has examined the effect of self regulated learning strategies on academic achievement. The result of meta analysis on 14 effects sizes from 3899 subjects show that self regulated learning strategies is positively correlated to academic achievement (r = 0.26. The difference in variance of correlation can, among others, be caused by sampling error (4.63% and error in measurement of independent as well as dependent variables (4.44%. This small percentage shows that error deviation probably caused by sampling error and error in measurement of independent and dependent variables was very small. Result indicated that self regulated learning strategies positively influence students’ academic achievement.

  17. Developmental delays in emotion regulation strategies in preschoolers with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, Heather J; Hedley, Darren; Woollacott, Alexandra; Thomson, Phoebe; Macari, Suzanne; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2017-11-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly present with difficulty regulating negative emotions, which has been found to impact their behavioral and mental health. Little research has documented the strategies that children with ASD use to regulate their emotion to understand whether they use qualitatively different strategies to children without ASD, whether these are developmentally delayed, or both. Forty-four children with ASD and 29 typically-developing children (2-4 years) were given tasks designed to mimic everyday life experiences requiring children to manage low-level stress (e.g., waiting for a snack) and children's emotion regulation strategies were coded. Parents reported on their child's mental health, wellbeing, and self-development. The results suggest differences in using emotion regulation strategies in children with ASD, reflecting a delay, rather than a deviance when compared to those used by children without ASD. Only children with ASD relied on their family members for physical and communicative soothing; the typically developing children relied on people outside of their family for help regulating their emotion. More frequent approach/less frequent avoidance was related to a higher self-evaluation in both groups, but was only additionally related to higher self-recognition and autonomy in the ASD group. These findings help to identify important emotion regulation intervention targets for this population, including supporting communication with people outside of the family and independence. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1808-1822. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Results suggest that children with autism had more difficulty using communication strategies to manage stress only with people outside the family; they used these strategies with family members as often as children without autism. For all children, more task approach/less avoidance was related to children's higher self-evaluation. These

  18. Mentalized affectivity: A new model and assessment of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Kolasi, Jonela; Hegsted, Camilla P; Berkowitz, Yoni; Jurist, Elliot L

    2017-01-01

    Here we introduce a new assessment of emotion regulation called the Mentalized Affectivity Scale (MAS). A large online adult sample (N = 2,840) completed the 60-item MAS along with a battery of psychological measures. Results revealed a robust three-component structure underlying mentalized affectivity, which we labeled: Identifying emotions (the ability to identify emotions and to reflect on the factors that influence them); Processing emotions (the ability to modulate and distinguish complex emotions); and Expressing emotions (the tendency to express emotions outwardly or inwardly). Hierarchical modeling suggested that Processing emotions delineates from Identifying them, and Expressing emotions delineates from Processing them. We then showed how these components are associated with personality traits, well-being, trauma, and 18 different psychological disorders (including mood, neurological, and personality disorders). Notably, those with anxiety, mood, and personality disorders showed a profile of high Identifying and low Processing compared to controls. Further, results showed how mentalized affectivity scores varied across psychological treatment modalities and years spent in therapy. Taken together, the model of mentalized affectivity advances prior theory and research on emotion regulation and the MAS is a useful and reliable instrument that can be used in both clinical and non-clinical settings in psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience.

  19. Mentalized affectivity: A new model and assessment of emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasi, Jonela; Hegsted, Camilla P.; Berkowitz, Yoni; Jurist, Elliot L.

    2017-01-01

    Here we introduce a new assessment of emotion regulation called the Mentalized Affectivity Scale (MAS). A large online adult sample (N = 2,840) completed the 60-item MAS along with a battery of psychological measures. Results revealed a robust three-component structure underlying mentalized affectivity, which we labeled: Identifying emotions (the ability to identify emotions and to reflect on the factors that influence them); Processing emotions (the ability to modulate and distinguish complex emotions); and Expressing emotions (the tendency to express emotions outwardly or inwardly). Hierarchical modeling suggested that Processing emotions delineates from Identifying them, and Expressing emotions delineates from Processing them. We then showed how these components are associated with personality traits, well-being, trauma, and 18 different psychological disorders (including mood, neurological, and personality disorders). Notably, those with anxiety, mood, and personality disorders showed a profile of high Identifying and low Processing compared to controls. Further, results showed how mentalized affectivity scores varied across psychological treatment modalities and years spent in therapy. Taken together, the model of mentalized affectivity advances prior theory and research on emotion regulation and the MAS is a useful and reliable instrument that can be used in both clinical and non-clinical settings in psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience. PMID:29045403

  20. Factors affecting self-regulated learning in medical students: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL). This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study at Isfahan University of Medical Science participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The students were selected using purposive sampling based on their overall grade point average (GPA). Five main themes were found to affect SRL. These themes included family with the two subthemes of family supervisory and supportive roles; peers with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting roles; instructors with the two subthemes of personal and educational instructor's characteristics; educational environment with the two subthemes of facilitator and inhibitor roles; and student with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting personal factors. The outcomes of student understanding of the factors affecting self-regulation indicate that facilitating factors should be used on an individual basis to reduce the effect of inhibiting factors to improve self-regulation in students.

  1. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo; Sofía Charvel; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2017-01-01

    The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breast...

  2. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies in outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hui; Zhang, Xiaocui; Cai, Lin; Wang, Yuping; Bai, Mei; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine cognitive emotion regulation strategies in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). A clinical sample of 191 MDD outpatients and a non-clinical sample of 267 general adults were recruited. Nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies were assessed in all participants (aged 21-65 years). Results showed that MDD participants had significantly higher scores on the following strategies: self-blame, acceptance, rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others, but lower scores on positive refocusing, refocus on planning, positive reappraisal, and putting in perspective strategies than general populations. In addition, self-blame, acceptance, and catastrophizing positively correlated and positive reappraisal negatively correlated with depressive symptoms in MDD populations. Further logistic regression analyses indicated that five strategies have significant and independent contributions to the prediction of MDD group membership (a higher reported use of self-blame, catastrophizing, and acceptance, and a lower reported use of positive refocusing, and putting in perspective). The results suggest that cognitive emotion regulation strategies may be a useful target for psychological assessment and treatment in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neural correlates of emotion regulation deficits in remitted depression: the influence of regulation strategy, habitual regulation use, and emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Heissler, Janine; Schönfelder, Sandra; Wessa, Michèle

    2012-07-02

    Regulating emotions through reappraisal has been shown to elicit abnormal neural activation patterns in currently depressed patients. It is, however, unclear if this deficit generalizes to other emotion regulation strategies, if it persists when patients recover, and if it is related to habitual use of reappraisal strategies. Therefore, we measured the neural responses to emotional images with functional magnetic resonance imaging in remitted patients with previous episodes of major depression and healthy controls. While viewing the images participants regulated the elicited emotions using either a reappraisal or a distraction strategy. Habitual reappraisal use was measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Depressed patients showed a selective deficit in down-regulating amygdala responses to negative emotional stimuli using reappraisal. This down-regulation of amygdala activity was strongest in participants high in habitual reappraisal use. Activity in the regulating control-network including anterior cingulate and lateral orbitofrontal cortex was increased during both emotion regulation strategies. The findings in remitted patients with previous episodes of major depression suggest that altered emotion regulation is a trait-marker for depression. This interpretation is supported by the relation of habitual reappraisal use to amygdala down-regulation success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vestibular rehabilitation strategies and factors that affect the outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Anna; Skalidi, Nikoleta; Velegrakis, Georgios A

    2012-11-01

    Ever since the introduction of Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, vestibular rehabilitation (VR) has been gaining popularity in the treatment of the dizzy patient. Numerous studies support the effectiveness of VR in improving balance/walking skills, eye-head coordination and the quality of life of the patient. Different rehabilitation protocols have been used to treat patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Assessment of the patients' progress is based on the patients' selfperception of dizziness and their functional skills. Factors such as age, medication, time of onset of vertigo and home based VR have been evaluated on their effect on the rehabilitation's outcome. The aim of this review is to evaluate rehabilitation strategies and discuss the factors that affect the outcome.

  5. Tillering affected by sowing density and growth regulators in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Luiz Fioreze

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tillering capacity of wheat is highly influenced by environmental conditions and management practices. This research had as objective to evaluate tiller emission, survival and contribution to grain final yield affected by increasing sowing densities and growth regulators application in wheat. The experiment was conducted under completely randomized block design, with subdivided plots and four replications. Treatments consisted of four plant densities (30, 50, 70 and 90 plants m-1 combined with the application of growth regulators [control, (IBA+GA+KT, Trinexapac-Ethyl and (IBA+GA+KT + Trinexapac- Ethyl]. Tiller emission, contribution to dry matter accumulation and grain yield, survival and yield potential in relation to the main stem were evaluated, as well as yield components and grain final yield. The application plant growth regulators did not affect tiller emission or any other yield parameters related to the main stem. Increasing plant densities reduced tiller emission and dry matter accumulation, which led to lower tiller contribution and yield potential. Reduced plant densities increased grain yield due to higher grain number and mass per ear, making up for lower number of ears per area.

  6. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Relation with Statistics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesici, Sahin; Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin

    2011-01-01

    Dealing with students' attitudinal problems related to statistics is an important aspect of statistics instruction. Employing the appropriate learning strategies may have a relationship with anxiety during the process of statistics learning. Thus, the present study investigated multivariate relationships between self-regulated learning strategies…

  7. Age, Emotion Regulation Strategies, Temperament, Creative Drama, and Preschoolers' Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Chu; Li, Me-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Based on Yeh's (2004) "Ecological Systems Model of Creativity Development", this study investigated the effects that age, the use of emotion regulation strategies, temperament, and exposure to creative drama instruction have on the development of creativity among preschool children. Participants were 116 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. This…

  8. Adolescents' Emotion Regulation Strategies, Self-Concept, and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…

  9. Dissociable effects of conscious emotion regulation strategies on explicit and implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Daniel G; Ritchey, Maureen; Johnson, Brian D; LaBar, Kevin S

    2007-05-01

    The authors manipulated emotion regulation strategies at encoding and administered explicit and implicit memory tests. In Experiment 1, participants used reappraisal to enhance and decrease the personal relevance of unpleasant and neutral pictures. In Experiment 2, decrease cues were replaced with suppress cues that directed participants to inhibit emotion-expressive behavior. Across experiments, using reappraisal to enhance the personal relevance of pictures improved free recall. By contrast, attempting to suppress emotional displays tended to impair recall, especially compared to the enhance condition. Using reappraisal to decrease the personal relevance of pictures had different effects depending on picture type. Paired with unpleasant pictures, the decrease cue tended to improve recall. Paired with neutral stimuli, the decrease cue tended to impair recall. Emotion regulation did not affect perceptual priming. Results highlight dissociable effects of emotion regulation on explicit and implicit memory, as well as dissociations between regulation strategies with respect to explicit memory.

  10. Studying Children's Intrapersonal Emotion Regulation Strategies from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Belén; Gummerum, Michaela; Wilson, Ellie; Dellaria, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    The authors relied on the Process Model of Emotion Regulation (PMER; J. J. Gross, 2007 ) to investigate children's abilities to regulate their emotions and to assess how distinct emotion regulation strategies are used by children of different ages. In Study 1, 180 parents of children aged between 3 and 8 years old reported about a situation in which their child had been able to change what she or he was feeling. In Study 2, 126 children 3-8 years old answered 2 questions about how they regulate their own emotions. Results from both studies showed age differences in children's reported emotion regulation abilities and the strategies they used. As expected, strategies such as situation selection, situation modification, and cognitive change were used more frequently by 5-6- and 7-8-year-olds, whereas attention deployment was mainly used by 3-4-year-olds. No age differences were found for response modulation. The present research contributes to the existing body of literature on emotion regulation by adding more information about the developmental patterns for each specific emotion regulation strategy.

  11. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Steward

    Full Text Available Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25 and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18-25 performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures, Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques. When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight.

  12. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Trevor; Picó-Pérez, Maria; Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18-25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight.

  13. The Effect of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Binnur; Kanadli, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: Self-regulated learning strategies (cognitive, metacognitive, resource management, and motivational strategies) influence students' academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and motivation. Reviewing the national literature about self-regulated learning strategies, studies have indicated both significant and insignificant…

  14. [Well-being, quality of life and affect regulation in Portuguese adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paulo César; Bastos, Ana Sofia; Marzo, Juan Carlos; García Del Castillo Rodríguez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the emotional regulation, quality of life, and subjective well-being in adolescence, taking into account individual and family differences, as well as gender, age and educationlevel of parents. Relationships between the questionnaires wariables were also considered. Descriptive-comparative, cross-sectional, and quantitative study. Two schools in the north of Portugal. The sample was selected for convenience due to geographic proximity. adolescents with age between 12 and 18 years old, from compulsory courses and without any special difficulty. Total sample: 619, valid sample: 602. Personal Wellness; Health Questionnaire SF-8 (quality of life); and the Measurement of Affect Regulation Styles-trait version Questionnaire. There were no differences between well-being and gender. Health perception is better for boys, and affect regulation for girls. In relation to age, there are negative correlations mainly with variables from the health questionnaire. Significant differences in relation to study level of parents were observed. Main correlations were found between wellness and health variables. The influence of the education level of parents and age have differentiating role, mainly for well-being and quality of life. From a promotion of wellness perspective in adolescence, potential of health perception and some emotional regulation strategies should be considered in interventions and health education strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Reactions to Crime as a Hierarchy Regulating Strategy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Eva G. T.; Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Across two studies, we demonstrated that support for group-based hierarchies differentially affects evaluation of ingroup and outgroup criminal offenders and that this effect generalizes to overall evaluations of their respective groups. Drawing on social dominance theory, our results show...... of ethnicity or nationality, not education level and employment status, were the important cues for hierarchy-regulating judgments of criminal offenders...

  16. Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

  17. Religiousness and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Oleś Maria; Woźny Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Human religiousness is a complex and multidimensional reality embedded in basic human needs and connected with people’s desires, anxieties, and hopes. The aim of the paper is to assess religiousness, considered in terms of meaning and cognitive emotion regulation strategies, in adolescents. The religious meaning system is a multidimensional construct encompassing convictions, beliefs, emotional connotations, and the rules of worship. In situations of negative events or unpleasant experiences,...

  18. ADP1 Affects Plant Architecture by Regulating Local Auxin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  19. Counter-regulation in affective attentional biases: a basic mechanism that warrants flexibility in emotion and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermund, Klaus; Voss, Andreas; Wentura, Dirk

    2008-02-01

    We investigated whether anticipating positive or negative future outcomes during goal pursuit has a modulatory effect on attentional biases for affectively congruent and incongruent distractor stimuli. In two experiments using a flanker task, we found that distractor interference of stimuli signaling opportunities or dangers was stronger after inducing an outcome focus of the opposite valence. The second experiment provided additional evidence that the incongruency effect reflects a global shift in affective attentional biases and is not mediated by changes in strategies or in the perceived valence of the stimuli. It is argued that counter-regulation in affective attentional biases serves an important function for the regulation of emotion and action.

  20. Beyond sensation seeking: affect regulation as a framework for predicting risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim

    2010-10-01

    Sensation seeking has been widely studied when investigating individual differences in the propensity for taking risks. However, risk taking can serve many different goals beyond the simple management of physiological arousal. The present study is an investigation of affect self-regulation as a predictor of risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport. Risk-taking behaviors, negative affectivity, escape self-awareness strategy, and sensation seeking data were obtained from 265 high-risk sportsmen. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed significant main and interaction effects of negative affectivity and escape self-awareness strategy in predicting risk-taking behaviors: high-risk sportsmen's negative affectivity leads them to adopt risk-taking behaviors only if they also use escape self-awareness strategy. Furthermore, the affective model remained significant when controlling for sensation seeking. The present study contributes to an in-depth understanding of risk taking in high-risk sport.

  1. Affect regulation and purging: An ecological momentary assessment study in purging disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A; Keel, Pamela K

    2015-05-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with purging disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs, which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N = 24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and behavior for 2 weeks. Multilevel models examined associations between affect and purging at different levels of analysis, including a novel analytic approach to address the specificity of changes in affect relative to purging behavior by comparing trajectories of change on purge versus nonpurge days. For trajectories of affect over time, NA increased before purging and decreased following purging on purge days; however, only the decrease in NA following purging was significantly different from the trajectory of NA on nonpurge days. Conversely, PA failed to increase before purging on purge days compared with a matched time-point on nonpurge days. These findings suggest unique roles of PA in triggering and NA in maintaining purging in PD and support models in which purging functions to regulate affect. For comparisons of ratings before and after purging, NA increased and PA decreased after purging, highlighting how different analytic strategies produce different findings requiring integration into affect regulation models. These data provide insight into why women with PD purge after consuming normal amounts of food, a crucial first step for developing effective interventions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Rethinking emotion: cognitive reappraisal is an effective positive and negative emotion regulation strategy in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, June; Hay, Aleena C; Gross, James J

    2014-04-01

    Bipolar disorder involves difficulties with emotion regulation, yet the precise nature of these emotion regulatory difficulties is unclear. The current study examined whether individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 23) differ in their ability to use one effective and common form of emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal. Positive, negative, and neutral films were used to elicit emotion, and participants were cued to watch the film carefully (i.e., uninstructed condition) or reappraise while measures of affect, behavior, and psychophysiology were obtained. Results showed that reappraisal was associated with reductions in emotion reactivity across subjective (i.e., positive and negative affect), behavioral (i.e., positive facial displays), and physiological (i.e., skin conductance) response domains across all participants. Results suggest that reappraisal may be an effective regulation strategy for both negative and positive emotion across both healthy adults and individuals with bipolar disorder. Discussion focuses on clinical and treatment implications for bipolar disorder.

  3. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults' differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict…

  4. The Impact of Personality Traits on the Affective Category of English Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at discovering the impact of personality traits in the prediction use of the Affective English Language Learning Strategies (AELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Adapted Inventory for Affective English Language Learning Strategies based on Affective category of…

  5. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation’s target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. Recommendations: modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  6. Health regulation: knowledge of Family Health Strategy professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Roney Mota Lima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive and qualitative study that aimed to verify the knowledge of nurses, doctors and dentists of the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Bela Cruz, Ceará, Brazil, about health regulation. Data collection happened from November to December 2008 by applying a questionnaire. Data were organized according to content analysis of Bardin. The results show that the participants have knowledge about the referral flow of patients referred from the primary care to specialized care, the mechanisms used for this purpose, as well as the reference and counter-reference system; they also reported difficulties in the return of patients with the counter-reference form properly filled, thus jeopardizing the continuity of assistance. For these professionals, the regulation is an important management tool for SUS, guaranteeing the right to health.

  7. The effects of different regulation strategies on Jiangsu's wind integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Lund, Henrik; Möller, Bernd

    This paper presents the influence of different regulation strategies on wind energy integration into existing Jiangsu’s energy system. The ability of wind integration is defined in terms of the ability to avoid excess electricity production, to conserve primary energy consumptions and to reduce CO2...... are compared and analyzed in the range of a wind input from 0% to 47% of the electricity demand. It is concluded that operating power plants of existing Jiangsu’s energy system in a flexible way is...... emissions in the system. Firstly, a reference model of Jiangsu’s energy system is built by using EnergyPLAN based on the year 2009. The model results then are compared to actual values from 2009 to validate its accuracy. Based on the reference model, different regulations of Jiangsu’s energy system...

  8. Anti-Competitive Regulations and Subsidiary Relational Embeddedness Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia; Andersson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The institution-based view (IBV) of firm strategy argues that formal and informal institutions combine to govern firm behavior and suggests a predominant reliance on network-based informal relationships when formal institutions are absent or deficient. Our knowledge on how formal and informal...... institutions combine to govern firm behavior remains scant when formal institutions are present but show varying degrees of non-marketsupporting regulation. This issue gains great relevance for subsidiaries which in host locations have also to confront the liability of outsidership. To advance IBV, we draw...... on industrial organization and firm productivity literature. In particular, we propose and test a conceptual model illustrating a U-shaped relationship between the extent of anti-competitive regulation in relevant service supplying sectors and the degree to which subsidiaries embed with value chain partners...

  9. Procrastination as a Form of Misregulation in the Context of Affect and Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzak Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims in situating procrastination, as a specific form of affect regulation failure in context of general affect and self-regulation literature. This will be brought starting with definition of the phenomenon and its’ various forms and perspectives. Next, giving an insight into affect regulation literature. In the third step we will focus on elaborating the picture of procrastination and its’ underlying mechanisms in order to locate it in a broader domain of affect regulation as a specific form of self-regulatory lapse. A commentary regarding dealing with procrastination and effective affect regulation will be provided.

  10. The Main and Interactive Effects of Maternal Interpersonal Emotion Regulation and Negative Affect on Adolescent Girls' Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Whalen, Diana J; Scott, Lori N; Cummins, Nicole D; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2016-06-01

    The transaction of adolescent's expressed negative affect and parental interpersonal emotion regulation are theoretically implicated in the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although problem solving and support/validation are interpersonal strategies that foster emotion regulation, little is known about whether these strategies are associated with less BPD severity among adolescents. Adolescent girls (age 16; N = 74) and their mothers completed a conflict discussion task, and maternal problem solving, support/validation, and girls' negative affect were coded. Girls' BPD symptoms were assessed at four time points. A 3-way interaction of girls' negative affect, problem solving, and support/validation indicated that girls' negative affect was only associated with BPD severity in the context of low maternal support/validation and high maternal problem solving. These variables did not predict changes in BPD symptoms over time. Although high negative affect is a risk for BPD severity in adolescent girls, maternal interpersonal emotion regulation strategies moderate this link. Whereas maternal problem solving coupled with low support/validation is associated with a stronger negative affect-BPD relation, maternal problem solving paired with high support/validation is associated with an attenuated relationship.

  11. An investigation on the effect of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Shahba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the effects of cognitive emotion regulation on employees’ job satisfaction. In this survey, Questionnaire and the questions were divided into two categories of cognitive emotion regulation and job satisfaction. To measure cognitive emotion regulation, including unadjusted emotion regulation strategies and adjusted strategies, 36 items questionnaire was used originally developed by Garnefski et al. (2001 [Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation, and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311–1327.]. The questionnaires were distributed among 340 staff employee of the Islamic Republic of Iran Customs Administration. The results revealed that the adjusted cognitive emotion regulation strategies increase job satisfaction of employees. However, unadjusted cognitive emotion regulation strategies reduce employees' job satisfaction. Moreover, among adjusted emotion regulation strategies, put in perspective strategy did not have significant effect on job satisfaction and rumination, had no significant effect on job satisfaction, which was one of the unadjusted strategies of cognitive emotion regulation.

  12. Strategies for Developing Effective Teaching Skills in the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other academic discipline, physical education holds the highest potential for teaching affective skills. By its very nature, the typical physical education setting offers countless teachable moments and opportunities to capitalize on the development of affective skills. The seeming lack of attention given to affective…

  13. Factors Affecting Mitigation of Methane Emission from Ruminants: Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, greenhouse gas emission which results in elevating global temperature is an important subject of worldwide ecological and environmental concern. Among greenhouse gases, methane is considered a potent greenhouse gas with 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Worldwide, ruminant livestock produce about 80 million metric tons of methane each year, accounting for about 28% of global emissions from human related activities. Therefore it is impelling animal scientists to finding solutions to mitigate methane emission from ruminants. It seems that solutions can be discussed in four topics including: nutrition (feeding, biotechnology, microbiology and management strategies. We have already published the first review article on feeding strategies. In the current review, management strategies such as emphasizing on animals - type and individual variability, reducing livestock numbers, improving animal productivity and longevity as well as pasture management; that can be leads to decreasing methane production from ruminant animal production are discussed.

  14. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  15. How positioning strategies affect co-branding outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Wason

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-branding is a widely applied strategy, with research indicating differential benefits to the parent brands. Past studies suggest the source of these differences may be due to the partners’ relative market position, and characteristics such as brand familiarity, brand equity and proximity to the consumer have been explored. However, the role of brand positioning has received little attention in the context of co-branding. The current study attempts to address this gap, considering the positioning of a brand and the impact of a co-branding strategy on customer perceptions. Using the Blankson and Kalafatis positioning typology, we explore the impact of co-branding on the parent brand perceptions from a hedonic vs. functional (utilitarian focus. The results suggest that for hedonically oriented positioning strategies, fit between the brands is more important than fit between the product categories in driving positive brand perceptions. For a functionally oriented positioning strategy, the reverse holds, with product fit a more important factor than brand fit in driving post-alliance perceptions.

  16. Nutritional strategy affects gut wall integrity in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, J.M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Weaning is a stressful event for pigs and induces changes in the gut integrity of pigs. Feed intake is a very important determinant for gut integrity. In this thesis the effect of nutritional strategies (with regard to feed intake level and physical structure of the feed) on changes in gut

  17. Does innovation strategy affect financial, social and environmental performance?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezzi, Ferdaws; Jarboui, Anis

    2016-01-01

    ... to maximize not only its financial performance but also its social and environmental performance. This concept is presented as a precautionary stakeholder model established by Freeman (1984) who highlights the problem of profitability. CSR was defined by Bowen (1953) as the prerequisite that business leaders must implement. CSR entails strategies, decisions and practices that go along with the goals and values of the community in general. In the 1990s, CSR became the crux of the matter of the long-...

  18. Research on Affective Teaching Strategy in China's College English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Affective teaching plays an increasing significant role in the teaching process; it not only attaches great importance to the teaching of knowledge and skills, but also pays specific attention to students' attitude and emotional needs in the process of teaching, so as to promote students' overall development as well as improving their…

  19. Reappraise the situation but express your emotions:Impact of emotion regulation strategies on ad libitum food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eTaut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165 could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of 1 whether eating (yes/no is used as a secondary emotion regulation strategy and 2 whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the emotion regulation strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, emotion regulation strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion-induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without emotion regulation instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no emotion regulation instruction then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no emotion regulation instruction and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted emotion regulation is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive emotion regulation such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when emotion regulation is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  20. Affect regulation, mental health disorders, and maladaptive brain responses in music listening : a correlational study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Affect regulation may be defined as a process by which an individual maintains or modifies his or her mood or emotional state, by conscious or automatic processes. Adequate affect regulation may play an important role in mitigating or preventing mental illness, which is a widespread, inadequately treated and inadequately understood phenomenon. Music, which is known to express and induce emotions, may be used for affect regulation in a variety of ways, both self-directed and in therapeutic con...

  1. Large-scale integration of off-shore wind power and regulation strategies of cogeneration plants in the Danish electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply......The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply...

  2. Distraction and Expressive Suppression Strategies in Regulation of High- and Low-Intensity Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Fan, Cong; Zhu, Chuanlin; Li, Shuaixia; Zhang, Zhao; Qi, Zhengyang; Luo, Wenbo

    2017-10-12

    The current study compared the effectiveness of distraction, an antecedent-focused strategy that involves diverting an individual's attention away from affective terms, and expressive suppression, a response-focused strategy that involves inhibiting conscious emotion-expressive behavior during an emotionally aroused state, in the regulation of high- and low-intensity unpleasant stimuli, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Sixteen participants completed an emotion regulation experiment in which they passively viewed high- or low-intensity unpleasant images (view), solved a mathematical equation presented on high- or low-intensity negative images (distraction), or suppressed their emotional expression in response to high- or low-intensity unpleasant images (suppression). Their negative experiences after implementation of these strategies were rated by participants on a 1-9 scale. We mainly found that compared with expressive suppression, distraction yielded greater attenuation of the early phase of centro-parietal LPP when the participants responded to high-intensity stimuli. In the low-intensity condition, distraction, but not expressive suppression, effectively decreased the early phase of LPP. The findings suggest that expressive suppression works as early as distraction in the high-intensity condition; more importantly, distraction is superior to expressive suppression in regulating negative emotion, which is influenced by emotional intensity.

  3. The affective profiles in the USA: happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Erica; Sailer, Uta; Al Nima, Ali; Rosenberg, Patricia; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background. The affective profiles model categorizes individuals as self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The model has been used extensively among Swedes to discern differences between profiles regarding happiness, depression, and also life satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate such differences in a sample of residents of the USA. The study also investigated differences between profiles with regard to happiness-increasing strategies. Methods. In Study I, 900 participants reported affect (Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS) and happiness (Happiness-Depression Scale). In Study II, 500 participants self-reported affect (PANAS), life satisfaction (Satisfaction With Life Scale), and how often they used specific strategies to increase their own happiness (Happiness-Increasing Strategies Scales). Results. The results showed that, compared to the other profiles, self-fulfilling individuals were less depressed, happier, and more satisfied with their lives. Nevertheless, self-destructive individuals were more depressed, unhappier, and less satisfied than all other profiles. The self-fulfilling individuals tended to use strategies related to agentic (e.g., instrumental goal-pursuit), communal (e.g., social affiliation), and spiritual (e.g., religion) values when pursuing happiness. Conclusion. These differences suggest that promoting positive emotions can positively influence a depressive-to-happy state as well as increasing life satisfaction. Moreover, the present study shows that pursuing happiness through strategies guided by agency, communion, and spirituality is related to a self-fulfilling experience described as high positive affect and low negative affect.

  4. The affective profiles in the USA: happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Schütz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The affective profiles model categorizes individuals as self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect, high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect, low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect, and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect. The model has been used extensively among Swedes to discern differences between profiles regarding happiness, depression, and also life satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate such differences in a sample of residents of the USA. The study also investigated differences between profiles with regard to happiness-increasing strategies.Methods. In Study I, 900 participants reported affect (Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS and happiness (Happiness-Depression Scale. In Study II, 500 participants self-reported affect (PANAS, life satisfaction (Satisfaction With Life Scale, and how often they used specific strategies to increase their own happiness (Happiness-Increasing Strategies Scales.Results. The results showed that, compared to the other profiles, self-fulfilling individuals were less depressed, happier, and more satisfied with their lives. Nevertheless, self-destructive individuals were more depressed, unhappier, and less satisfied than all other profiles. The self-fulfilling individuals tended to use strategies related to agentic (e.g., instrumental goal-pursuit, communal (e.g., social affiliation, and spiritual (e.g., religion values when pursuing happiness.Conclusion. These differences suggest that promoting positive emotions can positively influence a depressive-to-happy state as well as increasing life satisfaction. Moreover, the present study shows that pursuing happiness through strategies guided by agency, communion, and spirituality is related to a self-fulfilling experience described as high positive affect and low negative affect.

  5. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  6. Learning Goals and Strategies in the Self-regulation of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta Gonzalez, Martha Leticia

    2013-01-01

    In order to self-regulate their learning, students need to use different strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning activities (meta-cognitive strategies), as well as to control their motivation and emotion (volitional strategies). Students' effectiveness in their self-regulated learning process also varies depending on the academic…

  7. Adviser's Manual of Federal Regulations Affecting Foreign Students and Scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Washington, DC.

    A manual of U.S. immigration law and regulations pertaining to foreign students and scholars is presented to assist foreign student advisers. Overall topics include nonimmigrant status, student (F) status, exchange visitor (J) status, temporary worker or trainee (H) status, other nonimmigrant classes, and immigrant status. Specific areas include:…

  8. The Role of Motivation in Self-regulated Learning and Language Learning Strategy: In the Case of Chinese EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banisaeid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although self-regulation, derived from educational psychology, is a new topic in the second language learning field, language learning strategy was the main focus of many studies in the last two decades. Also, among the L2 individual differences, motivation plays an important role in achieving the educational goals. In this research, motivation is investigated from self-determination theory by which five types of motivation are presented. No study was found to investigate the role of motivation in both self-regulation and language learning strategy. For such a purpose, 49 Chinese EFL learners respond to SILL, MSLQ and LLOS_IEA respectively proposed by Oxford (1990, Pintrich et al (1991 and Noel et al (2000. The results running Pearson correlation showed that there is a significant relationship between motivation, self-regulation and language learning strategies. It is also revealed that Chinese EFL learners use memory, social and affective strategy more than the other ones. The most common motivational orientation is identified regulation. Among self-regulated learning strategies, effort regulation is highly used by them. At the end some implication is considered.

  9. Affect regulation and temporal discounting: interactions between primed, state, and trait affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Adam A; Larsen, Randy J

    2011-04-01

    Previous research has largely focused on the influence of experienced affect on decision making; however, other sources of affective information may also shape decisions. In two studies, we examine the interacting influences of affective information, state affect, and personality on temporal discounting rates (i.e., the tendency to choose small rewards today rather than larger rewards in the future). In Study 1, participants were primed with either positive or negative affect adjectives before making reward choices. In Study 2, participants underwent either a positive or negative affect induction before making reward choices. Results in both studies indicate that neuroticism interacts with state unpleasant affect and condition (i.e., positive or negative primes or induction) to predict discounting rates. Moreover, the nature of the interactions depends on the regulatory cues of the affective information available. These results suggest that irrelevant (i.e., primes) and stable (i.e., personality traits) sources of affective information also shape judgments and decision making. Thus, current affect levels are not the only source of affective information that guides individuals when making decisions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  10. The yeast VPS genes affect telomere length regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rog, Ofer; Smolikov, Sarit; Krauskopf, Anat; Kupiec, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells invest a large proportion of their genome in maintaining telomere length homeostasis. Among the 173 non-essential yeast genes found to affect telomere length, a large proportion is involved in vacuolar traffic. When mutated, these vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) genes lead to telomeres shorter than those observed in the wild type. Using genetic analysis, we characterized the pathway by which VPS15, VPS34, VPS22, VPS23 and VPS28 affect the telomeres. Our results indicate that these VPS genes affect telomere length through a single pathway and that this effect requires the activity of telomerase and the Ku heterodimer, but not the activity of Tel1p or Rif2p. We present models to explain the link between vacuolar traffic and telomere length homeostasis.

  11. [Functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies for depressive symptoms in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Julia; Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2016-10-13

    Dysfunctional and functional emotion regulation strategies in adolescence have so far been examined separately, but not in interaction. Our aim is to analyze a possible compensation of dysfunctional regulation strategies through functional strategies in depressive symptoms. The Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire (REQ) was used to examine the ability of emotion regulation in 247 adolescents between 12 to 17 years (M = 14.41, SD = 1.39). To measure depressive symptoms, Allgemeine Depressionsskala (ADS) was established. Results speak for a compensation of internal-dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies with internal-functional emotion regulation strategies in girls. In boys, functional emotion regulation strategies strengthen the relationship between internal-dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms. Other strategies do not interact with each another. Results indicate a compensative effect in girls, while in boys functional emotion regulation seems to have an amplifying effect on depressive symptoms. Results suggest that boys use functional strategies in a dysfunctional way, while girls are able to use them appropriately. An exploration of the understanding of functional emotion regulation may enable approaches to treatment.

  12. Does Regulation Affect Economic Outcomes?: The Case of Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Morris M. Kleiner; Robert T. Kudrle

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the role of variations in occupational licensing policies in improving the quality of services provided to consumers and the effect of restrictive regulations on the prices of certain services and on the earnings of practitioners. Theory suggests that more restrictive licensing may raise prices and at the same time raise demand by reducing uncertainty about the quality of the services. This article uses unique data on the dental health of incoming Air Force personnel to an...

  13. Heat Shock Factor 1 Deficiency Affects Systemic Body Temperature Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenwerth, Marc; Noichl, Erik; Stahr, Anna; Korf, Horst-Werner; Reinke, Hans; von Gall, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a ubiquitous heat-sensitive transcription factor that mediates heat shock protein transcription in response to cellular stress, such as increased temperature, in order to protect the organism against misfolded proteins. In this study, we analysed the effect of HSF1 deficiency on core body temperature regulation. Body temperature, locomotor activity, and food consumption of wild-type mice and HSF1-deficient mice were recorded. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were measured by ELISA. Gene expression in brown adipose tissue was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Hypothalamic HSF1 and its co-localisation with tyrosine hydroxylase was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. HSF1-deficient mice showed an increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia), decreased overall locomotor activity, and decreased levels of prolactin in pituitary and blood plasma reminiscent of cold adaptation. HSF1 could be detected in various hypothalamic regions involved in temperature regulation, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in hypothalamic thermoregulation. Moreover, HSF1 co-localises with tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in the hypothalamic control of prolactin release. In brown adipose tissue, levels of prolactin receptor and uncoupled protein 1 were increased in HSF1-deficient mice, consistent with an up-regulation of heat production. Our data suggest a role of HSF1 in systemic thermoregulation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Joan S.; Diddams, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The authors used structural equation modeling to test the mediational role of affect regulation on attachment and deliberate self-harm in 216 undergraduates. Results suggest that affect regulation mediates the relationship between attachment and deliberate self-harm, providing support for the theoretical importance of attachment and affect…

  15. Diffuse affect as regulator of attitude and behavior processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, B.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of diffuse affect (or mood) on automatic attitude activation and the attitude behavior link was examined. Positive mood induces an intuitive processing style, while negative mood elicits a rather deliberative and cautious processing style. Due to a cautious processing style in negative

  16. Emotion regulation and emotion coherence: evidence for strategy-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan-Glauser, Elise S; Gross, James J

    2013-10-01

    One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve coordinated changes across experiential, behavioral, and physiological response domains. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate their emotions. To address this issue, we recorded experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses while participants watched negative and positive pictures. Cross-correlations were used to quantify emotion coherence. Study 1 tested how two types of suppression (expressive and physiological) influence coherence. Results showed that both strategies decreased the response coherence measured in negative and positive contexts. Study 2 tested how multichannel suppression (simultaneously targeting expressive and physiological responses) and acceptance influence emotion coherence. Results again showed that suppression decreased coherence. By contrast, acceptance was not significantly different from the unregulated condition. These findings help to clarify the nature of emotion response coherence by showing how different forms of emotion regulation may differentially affect it.

  17. Effects of emotion regulation strategies on music elicited emotions : An experimental study explaining individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.M.; Hanser, W.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study examined if emotional experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy during music listening and if individual differences in effects of strategies can be explained by person characteristics. Adults (N = 466) completed questionnaires and rated

  18. Effects of emotion regulation strategies on music-elicited emotions: An experimental study explaining individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364227885; Hanser, Waldie; vingerhoets, ad

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study examined if emotional experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy during music listening and if individual differences in effects of strategies can be explained by person characteristics. Adults (N = 466) completed questionnaires and rated

  19. A Comparison of Emotion Regulation Strategies of Blind Students With Sighted Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Salimi

    2016-06-01

    Discussion: Emotion regulation is a possible influential factor in many problems that blind people suffer from, more than sighted ones, and using interventions that target emotion regulation strategies would be useful.

  20. How does cell size regulation affect population growth?

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of a growing microbial colony is well characterized by the population growth rate. However, at the single-cell level, isogenic cells often exhibit different cell-cycle durations. For evolutionary dynamics, it is thus important to establish the connection between the population growth rate and the heterogeneous single-cell generation time. Existing theories often make the assumption that the generation times of mother and daughter cells are independent. However, it has been shown that to maintain a bounded cell size distribution, cells that grow exponentially at the single-cell level need to adopt cell size regulation, leading to a negative correlation of mother-daughter generation time. In this work, we construct a general framework to describe the population growth in the presence of size regulation. We derive a formula for the population growth rate, which only depends on the variability of single-cell growth rate, independent of other sources of noises. Our work shows that a population ca...

  1. Repertoires of emotion regulation: A person-centered approach to assessing emotion regulation strategies and links to psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing research on emotion regulation (ER) strategies and psychopathology, research has primarily focused on identifying one-to-one associations between ER strategies and symptoms. Thus, little is known about how patterns in the repertoires of ER strategies are associated with different mental disorders. We utilised latent class analysis to identify distinct repertoires of ER strategies, and their links with various psychopathology domains (i.e., anxiety, depression, disordered eating, borderline personality). Participants (N = 531) reported on their use of seven ER strategies in six recalled stressful contexts, as well as on their symptoms of psychopathology. We identified five classes of ER strategies: Low Regulators (n = 168), High Regulators (n = 140), Adaptive Regulators (n = 99), Worriers/Ruminators (n = 96) and Avoiders (n = 28). Generally, High Regulators and Worriers/Ruminators endorsed greater levels of psychopathology, relative to Low and Adaptive Regulators. Our findings underscore the importance of characterising the dynamics of ER repertoires when seeking to understand links between ER strategies and psychopathology.

  2. Implicit self and affect regulation: Effects of sublimal self-activation and action orientation in an affective priming task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Coenen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies examined the impact of subliminal self-activation on affect regulation among action- versus state-oriented individuals. Action orientation is a regulatory mode characterized by decisiveness and initiative, whereas state orientation is a regulatory mode characterized by indecisiveness and

  3. Counter-regulation triggered by emotions: positive/negative affective states elicit opposite valence biases in affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Susanne; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether counter-regulation in affective processing is triggered by emotions. Automatic attention allocation to valent stimuli was measured in the context of positive and negative affective states. Valence biases were assessed by comparing the detection of positive versus negative words in a visual search task (Experiment 1) or by comparing interference effects of positive and negative distractor words in an emotional Stroop task (Experiment 2). Imagining a hypothetical emotional situation (Experiment 1) or watching romantic versus depressing movie clips (Experiment 2) increased attention allocation to stimuli that were opposite in valence to the current emotional state. Counter-regulation is assumed to reflect a basic mechanism underlying implicit emotion regulation.

  4. Situation selection is a particularly effective emotion regulation strategy for people who need help regulating their emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Lindquist, Kristen A; Jones, Katelyn; Avishai, Aya; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-03-01

    Situation selection involves choosing situations based on their likely emotional impact and may be less cognitively taxing or challenging to implement compared to other strategies for regulating emotion, which require people to regulate their emotions "in the moment"; we thus predicted that individuals who chronically experience intense emotions or who are not particularly competent at employing other emotion regulation strategies would be especially likely to benefit from situation selection. Consistent with this idea, we found that the use of situation selection interacted with individual differences in emotional reactivity and competence at emotion regulation to predict emotional outcomes in both a correlational (Study 1; N = 301) and an experimental field study (Study 2; N = 125). Taken together, the findings suggest that situation selection is an effective strategy for regulating emotions, especially for individuals who otherwise struggle to do so.

  5. Invigorating self-regulated learning strategies of mathematics among higher education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechi, Vijay Kumar; Bhalla, Jyoti

    2017-07-01

    The global market is transforming at its ever-increasing rate of knots. Consequently, the work skills challenges that current students will encounter throughout their lifetimes will be drastically different from those of present and past and proffering new-fangled opportunities and posing new challenges. However, in order to deal with tomorrow's opportunities and challenges students ought to equip with higher order cognitive skills which are substantially different from those needed in the past. In order to accomplish this intention, students must be academically self-regulated, as academic self-regulation is playing a vital role for academic success, particularly in higher education. Students must be prepared in such a way that they should take responsibility for their own learning. Self-regulation suggests activities and thinking processes that learners can engage in during his learning. Self-regulation is encompassing a number of inter-dependent aspect viz. affective beliefs, cognition and meta-cognitive skills [1]. It helps the learners to make sagacious use of their intellect and expertise [2]. As statistics has shown that the achievement of students in mathematics has persistently been poor. Along with it, mathematics is considered as one of the most important subject course in architecture, agriculture, medicine, pharmacy and especially in engineering. In spite of its importance, most of the students considered it as a dull and dry subject and their performance is remarkably low and alarming. Therefore, the present paper will highlight various factors affecting performance of higher education students in mathematics and will suggest different self-regulated learning strategies which will act as boon for higher education students.

  6. Heparanase affects food intake and regulates energy balance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Karlsson-Lindahl

    Full Text Available Mutation of the melanocortin-receptor 4 (MC4R is the most frequent cause of severe obesity in humans. Binding of agouti-related peptide (AgRP to MC4R involves the co-receptor syndecan-3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The proteoglycan can be structurally modified by the enzyme heparanase. Here we tested the hypothesis that heparanase plays a role in food intake behaviour and energy balance regulation by analysing body weight, body composition and food intake in genetically modified mice that either lack or overexpress heparanase. We also assessed food intake and body weight following acute central intracerebroventricular administration of heparanase; such treatment reduced food intake in wildtype mice, an effect that was abolished in mice lacking MC4R. By contrast, heparanase knockout mice on a high-fat diet showed increased food intake and maturity-onset obesity, with up to a 40% increase in body fat. Mice overexpressing heparanase displayed essentially the opposite phenotypes, with a reduced fat mass. These results implicate heparanase in energy balance control via the central melanocortin system. Our data indicate that heparanase acts as a negative modulator of AgRP signaling at MC4R, through cleavage of heparan sulfate chains presumably linked to syndecan-3.

  7. Dietary macronutrient composition affects hypothalamic appetite regulation in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConn, Betty R; Matias, Justin; Wang, Guoqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of high-protein and high-fat diets, and fasting and refeeding, on appetite regulation in chicks. Day of hatch chicks were fed one of four diets: basal, high protein (25% crude protein), and 15 and 30% high fat (15 and 30% metabolizable energy derived from soybean oil, respectively), and assigned to one of three treatments at 4 days: (1) access to feed, (2) 3 hours of fasting, or (3) fasting followed by 1 hour of refeeding. The hypothalamus was collected, total RNA isolated, and mRNA abundance measured. Food intake was reduced in chicks fed the high-protein and high-fat diets. Agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors 1, 2, and 5, melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 (MC3R and 4R, respectively), mesotocin, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and CRF receptor sub-type 2 (CRFR2) mRNAs were greatest in chicks that consumed the basal diet. Refeeding was associated with increased MC3R mRNA in the high-protein diet group. CRFR2 mRNA was increased by fasting and refeeding in chicks that consumed the high-protein diet. Food intake and hypothalamic gene expression of some important appetite-associated factors were reduced in chicks fed the high-protein or high-fat diets. Fasting and refeeding accentuated several differences and results suggest that the CRF and melanocortin pathways are involved.

  8. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexis R Mauger Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kent, Chatham, UK Abstract: During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed "exercise-induced pain". Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. Keywords: pain, exercise-induced pain, discomfort, exercise performance, self-paced

  9. The regulation of autophagy differentially affects Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Vanrell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a cellular process required for the removal of aged organelles and cytosolic components through lysosomal degradation. All types of eukaryotic cells from yeasts to mammalian cells have the machinery to activate autophagy as a result of many physiological and pathological situations. The most frequent stimulus of autophagy is starvation and the result, in this case, is the fast generation of utilizable food (e.g. amino acids and basic nutrients to maintain the vital biological processes. In some organisms, starvation also triggers other associated processes such as differentiation. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi undergoes a series of differentiation processes throughout its complex life cycle. Although not all autophagic genes have been identified in the T. cruzi genome, previous works have demonstrated the presence of essential autophagic-related proteins. Under starvation conditions, TcAtg8, which is the parasite homolog of Atg8/LC3 in other organisms, is located in autophagosome-like vesicles. In this work, we have characterized the autophagic pathway during T. cruzi differentiation from the epimastigote to metacyclic trypomastigote form, a process called metacyclogenesis. We demonstrated that autophagy is stimulated during metacyclogenesis and that the induction of autophagy promotes this process. Moreover, with exception of bafilomycin, other classical autophagy modulators have similar effects on T. cruzi autophagy. We also showed that spermidine and related polyamines can positively regulate parasite autophagy and differentiation. We concluded that both polyamine metabolism and autophagy are key processes during T. cruzi metacyclogenesis that could be exploited as drug targets to avoid the parasite cycle progression.

  10. The regulation of autophagy differentially affects Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrell, María Cristina; Losinno, Antonella Denisse; Cueto, Juan Agustín; Balcazar, Darío; Fraccaroli, Laura Virginia; Carrillo, Carolina; Romano, Patricia Silvia

    2017-11-01

    Autophagy is a cellular process required for the removal of aged organelles and cytosolic components through lysosomal degradation. All types of eukaryotic cells from yeasts to mammalian cells have the machinery to activate autophagy as a result of many physiological and pathological situations. The most frequent stimulus of autophagy is starvation and the result, in this case, is the fast generation of utilizable food (e.g. amino acids and basic nutrients) to maintain the vital biological processes. In some organisms, starvation also triggers other associated processes such as differentiation. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi undergoes a series of differentiation processes throughout its complex life cycle. Although not all autophagic genes have been identified in the T. cruzi genome, previous works have demonstrated the presence of essential autophagic-related proteins. Under starvation conditions, TcAtg8, which is the parasite homolog of Atg8/LC3 in other organisms, is located in autophagosome-like vesicles. In this work, we have characterized the autophagic pathway during T. cruzi differentiation from the epimastigote to metacyclic trypomastigote form, a process called metacyclogenesis. We demonstrated that autophagy is stimulated during metacyclogenesis and that the induction of autophagy promotes this process. Moreover, with exception of bafilomycin, other classical autophagy modulators have similar effects on T. cruzi autophagy. We also showed that spermidine and related polyamines can positively regulate parasite autophagy and differentiation. We concluded that both polyamine metabolism and autophagy are key processes during T. cruzi metacyclogenesis that could be exploited as drug targets to avoid the parasite cycle progression.

  11. A Latent Profile Analysis of University Students' Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hoi Kwan; Downing, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Based on self-reported cognitive, metacognitive, and behavioural strategy measures obtained from 828 final-year students from a university in Hong Kong, latent profile analysis (LPA) identified four distinct types of students with differential self-regulated learning strategy orientations: "competent self-regulated learners",…

  12. Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Enhancing Language Proficiency with a Focus on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Gholam-Reza; Hartoonian, Anahid

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated learning strategies have recently received a remarkable attention by researchers. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies and students' language proficiency as well as their reading comprehension. To do so, 115 Iranian EFL university students were selected. First, a TOEFL test…

  13. EFL Students' Attitudes towards Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadikhah, Shirin; Aliyan, Zahra; Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate EFL university students' attitude towards self-regulated learning strategies in writing academic papers. A further aim of the study was to compare the attitudes of two groups of university students (third and fourth years) in the employment of self-regulated learning strategies to find out whether…

  14. Emotion Regulation Strategies in Offspring of Childhood-Onset Depressed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Skuban, Emily M.; Oland, Alyssa A.; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examines emotion regulation strategies used by children of mothers with childhood-onset depression (COD) and children of never-depressed mothers (NCOD). Methods: Participants were 49 COD offspring (ages 4-7) and 37 NCOD offspring (ages 4-7) and their mothers. Emotion regulation strategies were assessed observationally during…

  15. Conceptions, Self-Regulation, and Strategies of Learning Science among Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mang; Zheng, Chunping; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Zhang, Yun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the structural relationships among secondary school students' conceptions, self-regulation, and strategies of learning science in mainland China. Three questionnaires, namely conceptions of learning science (COLS), self-regulation of learning science (SROLS), and strategies of learning science (SLS) were developed for…

  16. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  17. The Relationship between the Big-Five Model of Personality and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidjerano, Temi; Dai, David Yun

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between the big-five model of personality and the use of self-regulated learning strategies. Measures of self-regulated learning strategies and big-five personality traits were administered to a sample of undergraduate students. Results from canonical correlation analysis indicated an overlap between the…

  18. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Pre-University Math Performance of International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Tang Eng

    2012-01-01

    This study is an attempt to compare the use of self-regulated learning strategies and their math performance between home and international students in the Monash University Foundation Year (MUFY) and determine the self-regulated learning strategies that are significantly associated with their math performance. The participants of the study were…

  19. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.126 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G and § 51.281 of this...

  20. Young Brazilian and Norwegian Children’s Concepts of Strategies and Goals for Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikan, Arne; Karstad, Silja Berg; Dias, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Four-hundred-and-eighty children in the age groups of four and six years, 240 each from Brazil and Norway, were asked how their feelings of anger, sadness and fear were reduced in a recollected episode, to propose emotion regulation strategies for protagonists and to envisage the result of regulation strategies. A majority of even the youngest…

  1. 40 CFR 52.1675 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides. 52.1675 Section 52.1675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1675 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a)-(c) (d) Section 225.3(e) of Subchapter A...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1601 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides. 52.1601 Section 52.1601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1601 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) The applicable limitation on the sulfur...

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, underlying affective vulnerabilities, and smoking for affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Cook, Jessica W; Japuntich, Sandra J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is overrepresented among cigarette smokers. It has been hypothesized that those with PTSD smoke to alleviate negative affect and counteract deficient positive affect commonly associated with the disorder; however, limited research has examined associations between PTSD symptoms, smoking motives, and affective vulnerability factors. In the current study, we examined (1) whether PTSD symptoms were associated with positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement smoking motives; and (2) whether two affective vulnerability factors implicated in PTSD-anxiety sensitivity and anhedonia-mediated relationships between PTSD symptoms and smoking motives. Data were drawn from a community sample of non-treatment-seeking smokers recruited without regard for trauma history (N = 342; 10+ cig/day). We used the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) to assess overall PTSD symptom severity as well as individual PTSD subfactors. Overall, PTSD symptom severity was significantly associated with negative reinforcement, but not positive reinforcement, smoking motives. Variation in anxiety sensitivity significantly mediated the relation between PTSD symptom severity and negative reinforcement smoking motives, whereas anhedonia did not. Regarding PTSD subfactors, emotional numbing was the only PTSD subfactor associated with smoking rate, while re-experiencing symptoms were uniquely associated with both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement smoking motives. Findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important feature associated with PTSD that enhances motivation to smoke for negative reinforcement purposes. Smoking cessation interventions that alleviate anxiety sensitivity and enhance coping with negative affect may be useful for smokers with elevated PTSD symptoms. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Adaptive coping strategies of affected family members of a relative with substance misuse: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I

    2018-01-01

    To explore the coping strategies used by affected family members of a relative with substance misuse. Families play an important role in supporting a relative with substance misuse. However, the experience often has an adverse effect on their general well-being, the extent of which depends largely on their coping strategies. An interpretative phenomenological analysis study. Data were collected between January - December 2015. Semistructured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 affected family members. Three main themes and related subthemes were abstracted from the data illustrating how participants coped with their relative's substance misuse: (1) Seeking timely access to evidence-based information; (2) Enhancing personal coping strategies and (3) Accessing informal and formal support. Greater investment is needed in support services for affected family members, particularly in regional and rural areas. A wide range of accessible evidence-based information and informal and formal support, including telephone and online support, is needed to assist them to cope in this crucial support-giving role. Affected family members need to adopt a flexible set of coping strategies while supporting a relative with substance misuse. Family and friends, alcohol and other drug services, mental health nurses and other clinicians have a critical role providing emotional, instrumental and educational support to affected family members to enhance their adaptive coping strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  6. Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2012-02-01

    Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Within the mind's eye: Negative mental imagery activates different emotion regulation strategies in high versus low socially anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, David A; Chiupka, Caitlin A; Gavric, Dubravka L

    2013-12-01

    The link between social anxiety (SA) and maladaptive emotion regulation has been clearly established, but little is known about the spontaneous regulation strategies that may be activated during social stress by negative involuntary mental images and whether the nature of such strategies might distinguish individuals with high vs. low trait SA. Participants with high (n = 33) or low (n = 33) trait SA performed an evaluative speech and reported whether they experienced an involuntary negative mental image during the task. They also rated their negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) and the extent to which they viewed their image as being controllable and malleable. Finally, they described the types of strategies they spontaneously used to try to control or change their image intrusions. Reported strategies were then subjected to a content analysis and categorized by blinded coders. Among high SA participants, image controllability was both diminished overall and positively correlated with PA. Whereas 90% of low SA individuals reported that they spontaneously self-regulated by altering the content or perceptual features of their images, only about half of the high SA participants used this strategy, with the other 50% reporting that they either suppressed their images or succumbed passively to them in whatever form they took. Although these initial findings require replication in future experimental studies on clinical samples, they also help to enrich our understanding of the strategies that are commonly used by high and low SA individuals to manage their image intrusions during in-vivo stress and suggest potential avenues for future research on the role of imagery in adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-regulation strategies of children with emotional disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Karin J; Vogel, Kimberly A; Beck, Alison J; Schoenfeld, Heidi B; Owen, Steven V

    2008-01-01

    Children with emotional disturbance frequently have difficulty regulating their classroom behaviors. Many have co-occurrence of other disabilities, such as sensory processing problems, which compound difficulties in school participation. This exploratory project evaluated the 8-week-long use of the Alert Program within the classroom setting for seven children with emotional disturbance. Five children with emotional disturbance served as a control group. Self-regulation, behavioral adjustments, and sensory processing skills as reported by the children and teachers were evaluated. Changes from pretest to posttest indicated that children who received the Alert Program demonstrated a small improvement on all measures while performance of the control group remained relatively constant or decreased. These preliminary results indicate programs that target self-regulation skills may be useful in helping to improve self-regulation of children with emotional disturbance.

  9. Mutual regulation between infant facial affect and maternal touch in depressed and nondepressed dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    research suggests that touch is an important means through which parents regulate their infants’ affects. Also, previous research has shown that post-partum depressed (PPD) mothers and nonclinical mothers differ in their touching behaviors when interacting with their infants. We examined the affect...

  10. ADHD and SCT Symptomatology in Relation to College Students' Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Christopher R; Addison, William E; Hartung, Cynthia M

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies and ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptomatology. Participants were 303 college students, aged 18 to 25 ( M = 20.04, SD = 1.45), from a Midwestern university who completed the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV (BAARS-IV), and a shortened, generalized version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Among college students, inattention symptomatology was consistently predictive of deficits in use of value, expectancy, and self-regulation strategies, while SCT symptomatology was only predictive of deficits in the use of self-regulation strategies. This study is the first to examine the relation between SCT symptomatology and SRL strategy use in college students. The findings revealed that SRL strategy use differs between college students exhibiting ADHD or SCT symptomatology. Remediation focusing on these deficits would likely increase academic achievement. Clinical implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  11. Should I just listen to you or change your mind too? Target's perceived efficacy of agents' interpersonal affect improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Belén

    2017-09-19

    People shape and influence others' emotions every day. If these attempts are perceived as successful, they may have a positive effect on people's relationships and well-being. Across two studies, targets' perceived efficacy of regulation strategies to improve their sadness and anxiety/stress has been investigated. In Study 1, participants (n = 120) were provided with two scenarios depicting sadness and anxiety/stress and asked to imagine themselves in these situations. Afterwards, they were provided with different regulation strategies and asked to rate their perceived efficacy to downregulate their sadness and anxiety. In Study 2, participants (n = 120) were asked to describe a situation where they felt sad and another one where they felt anxious. They were then provided with strategies aimed at reducing their sadness and anxiety. Results from both studies showed that whereas for sadness higher perceived efficacy was predicted by affective engagement, for anxiety/stress was predicted by cognitive engagement. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Look before you regulate: differential perceptual strategies underlying expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y

    2011-08-01

    Successful emotion regulation is important for maintaining psychological well-being. Although it is known that emotion regulation strategies, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, may have divergent consequences for emotional responses, the cognitive processes underlying these differences remain unclear. Here we used eye-tracking to investigate the role of attentional deployment in emotion regulation success. We hypothesized that differences in the deployment of attention to emotional areas of complex visual scenes may be a contributing factor to the differential effects of these two strategies on emotional experience. Eye-movements, pupil size, and self-reported negative emotional experience were measured while healthy young adult participants viewed negative IAPS images and regulated their emotional responses using either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression. Consistent with prior work, reappraisers reported feeling significantly less negative than suppressers when regulating emotion as compared to a baseline condition. Across both groups, participants looked away from emotional areas during emotion regulation, an effect that was more pronounced for suppressers. Critically, irrespective of emotion regulation strategy, participants who looked toward emotional areas of a complex visual scene were more likely to experience emotion regulation success. Taken together, these results demonstrate that attentional deployment varies across emotion regulation strategies and that successful emotion regulation depends on the extent to which people look toward emotional content in complex visual scenes. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  13. An investigation into the factors affecting the use of language learning strategies by Persian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of a larger study (Rahimi, 2004, this study investigates the use of language learning strategies by post-secondary level Persian EFL learners. Particular attention is paid to the variables affecting learners’ choice of strategies, and the relationship, if any, between these variables and learners’ patterns of strategy use. Data were gathered from 196 low-, mid- and high proficiency learners using such instruments as the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL; Oxford, 1990, and two questionnaires of attitude and motivation (adapted from Laine, 1988 and learning style (Soloman and Felder, 2001. The results of the study point to proficiency level and motivation as major predictors of the use of language learning strategies among this group of learners. Gender, on the other hand, is not found to have any effect while years of language study appear to negatively predict strategy use. The difference between learners’ use of the SILL’s six major strategy categories is found to be significant and indicates learners’ preference for metacognitive strategies.

  14. The presence of root-feeding nematodes - Not AMF - Affects an herbivore dispersal strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roissart, Annelies; Peña, Eduardo de la; Van Oyen, Lien; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Bonte, Dries

    2013-10-01

    Plant quality and aboveground herbivore performance are influenced either directly or indirectly by the soil community. As herbivore dispersal is a conditional strategy relative to plant quality, we examined whether belowground biotic interactions (the presence of root-feeding nematodes or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) affect aerial dispersal of a phytophagous mite (Tetranychus urticae) through changes in performance of their host plant (Phaseolus vulgaris). Aerial dispersal strategies of mites were analyzed in wind-tunnel experiments, in which a unique mite pre-dispersal behavior (rearing) was assessed in relation to the presence of belowground biota on the host plant on which mites developed. Spider mite pre-dispersal behavior significantly increased with the experienced mite density on the host during development. Additionally, plants infected with root-feeding nematodes induced an increase of spider mite aerial dispersal behavior. The results highlight that belowground herbivores can affect population dynamics of aboveground herbivores by altering dispersal strategies.

  15. Survival strategies of Listeria monocytogenes - roles of regulators and transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wemekamp-Kamphuis, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Outbreaks of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes are mainly associated with ready-to-eatfoods. Survival strategies of L. monocytogenes in relation to minimally processed foods were studied.

  16. Electron Transfer Strategies Regulate Carbonate Mineral and Micropore Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhirui; Tice, Michael M.

    2018-01-01

    Some microbial carbonates are robust biosignatures due to their distinct morphologies and compositions. However, whether carbonates induced by microbial iron reduction have such features is unknown. Iron-reducing bacteria use various strategies to transfer electrons to iron oxide minerals (e.g., membrane-bound enzymes, soluble electron shuttles, nanowires, as well as different mechanisms for moving over or attaching to mineral surfaces). This diversity has the potential to create mineral biosignatures through manipulating the microenvironments in which carbonate precipitation occurs. We used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Geothrix fermentans, and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, representing three different strategies, to reduce solid ferric hydroxide in order to evaluate their influence on carbonate and micropore formation (micro-size porosity in mineral rocks). Our results indicate that electron transfer strategies determined the morphology (rhombohedral, spherical, or long-chained) of precipitated calcium-rich siderite by controlling the level of carbonate saturation and the location of carbonate formation. Remarkably, electron transfer strategies also produced distinctive cell-shaped micropores in both carbonate and hydroxide minerals, thus producing suites of features that could potentially serve as biosignatures recording information about the sizes, shapes, and physiologies of iron-reducing organisms.

  17. Comprehension and application of learning strategies at self-regulated learning in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pečjak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to show the connection between the comprehension and application of learning strategies in self-regulated learning in elementary school students. We would also like to show the connection between the comprehension and application of learning strategies and age, sex and school efficiency. The theoretical framework for the research is the four component model of self-regulative learning by B. Hofer, S. Yu and Pintrich (1998. We have focused on the first part of the model, which is about cognitive structure and cognitive strategies. The results of our research show that fifthgraderes use cognitive strategies before reading more often than seventhgraders. Girls use learning strategies more often than boys, particularly the strategies between and after reading. There are no significant differences in application of learning strategies between pupils with different school achievement. On the basis of the results of this research we also discuss possible educational implications.

  18. Regulation of romantic love feelings: Preconceptions, strategies, and feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.E. Langeslag (Sandra); J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractLove feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-Term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive

  19. Strategy for public understanding and participation in nuclear safety regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Chung, Yun Hyung

    2004-02-15

    The objective of this study is to help the general public and local residents to better understand and trust nuclear safety regulation. In order to obtain public confidence in nuclear safety regulation, the emotion and demand of public should be first understood and the change in an attitude to meet the present circumstances actively is requisite. Hence it is intended that a genuine communication shall be newly arranged and accomplished on the basis of mutual understanding. To achieve this, a series of public opinion poll have performed periodically and symposium for the public acceptance is held in order to frame a policy based on the understanding of nuclear safety and regulation of the general public and local residents. Besides nuclear safety indicators including safety sentiment indicators are being developed as a means to understand the safety of operating nuclear power plants from the viewpoint of the general public, a plan for the harmonious communication of nuclear safety information is established, and handbooks of nuclear terminologies and report-writing are under development in part. Finally plans for convergence of the public opinions and a wide public involvement in nuclear safety regulation are formulated and their applicability as organization and administration program is now under consideration.

  20. Affective regulation in trichotillomania: Evidence from a large-scale internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, Anna; Feld, Lauren; Baer, Lee; Keuthen, Nancy

    2009-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), a repetitive hair-pulling disorder, is underrepresented in the clinical literature. The current project explores the relationship between affective regulation and disordered hair-pulling. Previous research suggests that cycles of emotional states are correlated with the disorder and may induce, reinforce, or otherwise contribute to hair-pulling behavior. We use anonymous internet survey responses from 1162 self-identified hair-pullers to address four questions about affective regulation in people with TTM: (1) Do hair-pullers experience greater difficulty "snapping out" of affective states than non-pullers? (2) Does difficulty with emotional control correlate with TTM severity? (3) Are subtypes identifiable based on the emotions that trigger hair-pulling behavior? (4) Does difficulty "snapping out" of an emotion predict whether that emotion triggers pulling behavior? The results showed a small-to-moderate relationship between affective regulation and problematic hair-pulling. In addition, individual patterns of emotion regulation were systematically related to emotional cues for hair-pulling as well as overall hair-pulling severity. These findings contribute to an understanding of the phenomenology of TTM and provide empirical support for treatments focused on affect regulation.

  1. Modeling the Structure of the Relationship Between Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Positive and Negative affect Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Amiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Poor quality sleep is very common in modern societies and has a significant negative impact on psychological and physiological Dimensions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate correlational relationships and draw up a positive and negative affect mediation model between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and quality of sleep.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the participants of the study were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Then, the difficulty questionnaire was distributed in emotion regulation, affective and negative and sleep quality among the participants . Collected data was analyzed for descriptive, correlation, structural equation modeling to investigate the research objectives.   Results: The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the difficulty components of emotion regulation and negative emotion with poor sleep quality and positive correlation between positive affection and high sleep quality (p <0.01. Also, the pattern of structural equation modeling indicates the role of mediating positive and negative affects in the relationship between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and sleep quality . Conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis that the difficulty in regulation of emotion interferes with the quality of sleep, and positive affection can have a moderating role in this regard.    

  2. Affect intensity and negative mood regulation (NMR) expectancies: a preliminary Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Seema; Tripathi, Ravikesh

    2012-06-01

    Individuals differ in the intensity with which they typically experience affect as well as in their beliefs regarding their ability to alleviate negative mood states. These variables have been implicated in a range of clinical problems. Most studies utilize a single index of affect intensity. The differential correlates of positive and negative affect intensity, their association with negative mood regulation expectancy and their role as predictors of psychological outcomes have been insufficiently explored. This study aimed at exploring the relationship of affect intensity variables with negative mood regulation (NMR) expectancy, their association with age and gender and examining the role of affect intensity and NMR expectancy as predictors of stress and well being in a community sample of Indian adults. The sample consisted of 206 participants aged between 20 and 60 years. Higher age was associated with higher NMR expectancy but lower positive affect intensity. Positive and negative affect intensity showed differential patterns of association with NMR expectancy. Higher negative affect intensity was associated with lower NMR expectancy whereas higher positive affect intensity was associated with higher NMR expectancy. Affect intensity and NMR expectancy variables jointly predicted 30-39% of variance in perceived stress and well being. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in academic achievement according to the levels of cognitive and of self-regulation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding study as a strategic and self-regulated activity and having in mind the distinction between cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies suggested in the literature, this paper analyses whether the differences in the use of this kind of strategies leads to different levels of academic achievement. Data were collected using a sample of 447 (12 to 16 years-old students from Spanish Secondary Compulsive Education. Various instruments were applied to assess students’ cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies. Students’ marks in Maths, Spanish, English (Foreign language, Science, Social studies and Music were taken as indicators of academic achievement. Data suggest that the more students use cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies in a specifi c subject the better their level of achievement in that same subject.

  4. Intensity and duration of negative emotions: comparing the role of appraisals and regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brans, Karen; Verduyn, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Intensity and duration are two central characteristics of an emotional response. Appraisals and regulation strategies are among the most important determinants of these emotion features. However, as intensity and duration are only moderately correlated, appraisals and regulation strategies may be differently related to these characteristics. A systematic empirical study comparing predictors of emotion intensity and duration is missing. The goal of the present study is to fill this gap. Participants were asked to recall recently experienced episodes of anger, fear, disgust, guilt, sadness, and shame. Subsequently, they were asked to answer a number of questions regarding (a) the intensity and duration of these emotions, (b) their appraisal of the emotion-eliciting event, and (c) their use of a wide range of regulation strategies. Emotion intensity was found to be mainly predicted by appraisals whereas emotion duration was equally well predicted by appraisals and regulation strategies.

  5. Intensity and duration of negative emotions: comparing the role of appraisals and regulation strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Brans

    Full Text Available Intensity and duration are two central characteristics of an emotional response. Appraisals and regulation strategies are among the most important determinants of these emotion features. However, as intensity and duration are only moderately correlated, appraisals and regulation strategies may be differently related to these characteristics. A systematic empirical study comparing predictors of emotion intensity and duration is missing. The goal of the present study is to fill this gap. Participants were asked to recall recently experienced episodes of anger, fear, disgust, guilt, sadness, and shame. Subsequently, they were asked to answer a number of questions regarding (a the intensity and duration of these emotions, (b their appraisal of the emotion-eliciting event, and (c their use of a wide range of regulation strategies. Emotion intensity was found to be mainly predicted by appraisals whereas emotion duration was equally well predicted by appraisals and regulation strategies.

  6. Using portable EEG devices to evaluate emotional regulation strategies during Virtual Reality exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    As Virtual Reality (VR) is starting to be used to train emotional regulation strategies, it would be interesting to propose objective techniques to monitor the emotional reactions of participants during the virtual experience. In this work, the main goal is to analyze if portable EEG systems are adequate to monitor brain activity changes caused by the emotional regulation strategies applied by the participants. The EEG signals captured from subjects that navigate through a virtual environment designed to induce a negative mood will be compared between three experimental groups that will receive different instructions about the emotional regulation strategies to apply. The study will allow us to validate the possibilities of portable EEG devices to monitor emotional regulation strategies during VR exposure.

  7. Intensity and Duration of Negative Emotions: Comparing the Role of Appraisals and Regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brans, Karen; Verduyn, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Intensity and duration are two central characteristics of an emotional response. Appraisals and regulation strategies are among the most important determinants of these emotion features. However, as intensity and duration are only moderately correlated, appraisals and regulation strategies may be differently related to these characteristics. A systematic empirical study comparing predictors of emotion intensity and duration is missing. The goal of the present study is to fill this gap. Participants were asked to recall recently experienced episodes of anger, fear, disgust, guilt, sadness, and shame. Subsequently, they were asked to answer a number of questions regarding (a) the intensity and duration of these emotions, (b) their appraisal of the emotion-eliciting event, and (c) their use of a wide range of regulation strategies. Emotion intensity was found to be mainly predicted by appraisals whereas emotion duration was equally well predicted by appraisals and regulation strategies. PMID:24670979

  8. Emotion Regulation in Preschoolers: The Roles of Behavioral Inhibition, Maternal Affective Behavior, and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Shaw, Daniel S.; Kovacs, Maria; Lane, Tonya; O'Rourke, Flannery E.; Alarcon, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined preschoolers' emotion regulation (ER) strategies and the association with temperament, maternal interactive style, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Methods: Participants were 62 children and their mothers, 37 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's ER was assessed using a disappointment…

  9. An evolution-based strategy for engineering allosteric regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, David; Resnekov, Orna; Reynolds, Kimberly A.

    2017-04-01

    Allosteric regulation provides a way to control protein activity at the time scale of milliseconds to seconds inside the cell. An ability to engineer synthetic allosteric systems would be of practical utility for the development of novel biosensors, creation of synthetic cell signaling pathways, and design of small molecule pharmaceuticals with regulatory impact. To this end, we outline a general approach—termed rational engineering of allostery at conserved hotspots (REACH)—to introduce novel regulation into a protein of interest by exploiting latent allostery that has been hard-wired by evolution into its structure. REACH entails the use of statistical coupling analysis (SCA) to identify ‘allosteric hotspots’ on protein surfaces, the development and implementation of experimental assays to test hotspots for functionality, and a toolkit of allosteric modulators to impinge on endogenous cellular circuitry. REACH can be broadly applied to rewire cellular processes to respond to novel inputs.

  10. Violence-related behaviors among adolescents and its association with cognitive emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Jing, Jin; Yang, Wen-Han; Li, Xiu-Hong; Cai, Yu-Sui

    2016-02-01

    Adolescent violence is now regarded as a major public health concern. Despite growing interest in psychographic risk factors for violent behavior, few studies have explored the role of strategies to regulate cognitive emotion in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of adolescent violence behaviors and to identify the relationship between specific strategies to regulate cognitive emotion and forms of violent behavior.Adolescent violence is now regarded as a major public health concern. Despite growing interest in psychographic risk factors for violent behavior, few studies have explored the role of strategies to regulate cognitive emotion in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of adolescent violence behaviors and to identify the relationship between specific strategies to regulate cognitive emotion and forms of violent behavior. We cross-sectionally surveyed 3315 students in grades 7 to 10 using anonymous, self-reporting questionnaires to examine strategies to regulate cognitive emotion and violence-related behaviors in young adolescents. A logistic regression model was used to identify the relationship between specific violent behaviors and strategies to regulate cognitive emotion. The most commonly reported type of violent behavior was verbal attack (48.6%), while 7.1% of students were involved in fights and 2.4% had been injured in fights. Boys were involved in all forms of violent behavior studied, and did so significantly more often than girls (PViolence-related behaviors, especially verbal attacks, were common among adolescents. Several cognitive emotion regulation strategies were positively associated with specific violent behaviors, but catastrophisizing was strongly related to all forms of violent behavior. Thus, programs targeting adolescent violence must address this and other maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies.

  11. Using Portable EEG Devices to Evaluate Emotional Regulation Strategies during Virtual Reality Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Beatriz; Rodriguez Ortega, Alejandro; Alcañiz Raya, Mariano Luis

    2012-01-01

    [EN] As Virtual Reality (VR) is starting to be used to train emotional regulation strategies, it would be interesting to propose objective techniques to monitor the emotional reactions of participants during the virtual experience. In this work, the main goal is to analyze if portable EEG systems are adequate to monitor brain activity changes caused by the emotional regulation strategies applied by the participants. The EEG signals captured from subjects that navigate through a virtual enviro...

  12. A study on the implementation strategy of risk informed regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. P.; Lee, K. J.; Na, M. K.; Yeom, Y. S.; Hwang, J. R.; Cheong, C. G.; Oh, S. J. [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The final research goal of this project is to develop a reasonable method to implement RIR (Risk Informed Regulation) to domestic Nuclear Power Plants. The scope of this project is to survey the trends of RIR system of advanced nations and study the methodology of RIR and study the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Also, several possible problems which can be made by adopting RIR system are analyzed and dissolved.

  13. Regulating approaches to learning: Testing learning strategy convergences across a year at university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K; Vermunt, Jan D

    2018-03-01

    Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences. Develop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience. Japanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken. Initial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa. Person-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students' strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  14. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Brain Levels of Prostaglandins, Endocannabinoids, and Related Lipids Are Affected by Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn M. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs are involved in the development and regulation of reproductive behaviors. Likewise, prostaglandins (PGs drive sexual differentiation and initiation of ovulation. Here, we use lipidomics strategies to test the hypotheses that mating immediately activates the biosynthesis and/or metabolism of eCBs and PGs and that specific mating strategies differentially regulate these lipids in the brain. Methods. Lipid extractions and tandem mass spectrometric analysis were performed on brains from proestrous rats that had experienced one of two mating strategies (paced or standard mating and two nonmated groups (chamber exposed and home cage controls. Levels of PGs (PGE2 and PGF2alpha, eCBs (AEA and 2-AG, N-arachidonoyl glycine, and 4 related lipids (4 N-acylethanolamides were measured in olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, midbrain, cerebellum, and brainstem. Results. Overall, levels of these lipids were significantly lower among paced compared to standard mated rats with the most dramatic decreases observed in brainstem, hippocampus, midbrain, and striatum. However, chamber exposed rats had significantly higher levels of these lipids compared to home cage controls and paced mated wherein the hippocampus showed the largest increases. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that mating strategies and exposure to mating arenas influence lipid signaling in the brain.

  16. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: The role of MP3 players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Strand Skånland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners’ mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  17. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: the role of MP3 players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skånland, Marie Strand

    2013-08-07

    The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners' mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  18. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: The role of MP3 players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners’ mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation. PMID:23930987

  19. A Limited Repertoire of Emotion Regulation Strategies Is Associated with Internalizing Problems in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P.; Hollenstein, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to test whether the beneficial effects of emotion regulation (ER) have less to do with the use of singular, "adaptive" strategies and more to do with using a range of strategies. Using a community sample of adolescents (N = 177, M = 13.6 years), groups based on five measures of ER (reappraisal, suppression,…

  20. The Flexibility of Self Regulated Strategy Development for Teaching Argumentative Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leins, Patricia A.; Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna; Kiuhara, Sharlene A.; Jacobson, Laura Thompson

    2017-01-01

    An increasing challenge for many secondary special education teachers is preparing students for the writing demands in postsecondary settings. The self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) model of writing instruction, considered an evidence-based practice, is an effective strategy for enhancing the writing skills of students with disabilities,…

  1. Self-Regulated Strategy Development Instruction: Effects of Lesson Structure on a Teacher's Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Mason, Linda H.; Vostal, Brooks R.; Taft, Raol J.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated strategy development instruction or SRSD is a method developed for teaching students how and what to think while writing. SRSD instruction for the persuasive writing strategy POW (Pick my idea, Organize notes, Write and Say more) + TREE (Topic sentence, Reasons, Explain reasons, Ending) helps students by teaching them to develop…

  2. Regulating Approaches to Learning: Testing Learning Strategy Convergences across a Year at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to…

  3. A Questionnaire-Based Validation of Multidimensional Models of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lin Sophie; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to validate a newly-developed instrument, The Writing Strategies for Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) Questionnaire, with respect to its multifaceted structure of SRL strategies in English as a foreign language (EFL) writing. A total of 790 undergraduate students from 6 universities in Northeast China volunteered to be participants.…

  4. From distraction to mindfulness : Psychological and neural mechanisms of attention strategies in self-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dillen, Lotte F.; Papies, Esther K.

    2015-01-01

    The current chapter examines attention strategies that may facilitate self-regulation. In particular, we focus on the attention strategies of distraction and mindfulness. By distraction, we mean shifting attention from the original object of attention onto a different focal object. Mindfulness, on

  5. Self-Regulated Strategies Chinese Graduate Students Employ to Learn English at Three American Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Wang, Chuang

    2012-01-01

    International students in the United States often employ culture-specific learning strategies to help them improve their proficiency in English. This study explored the use of self-regulated strategies by 49 Chinese graduate students from 24 fields of study at three universities in the Northeast. The research used the mixed survey method to…

  6. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: The role of MP3 players

    OpenAIRE

    Skånland, Marie Strand

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners’ mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual’s efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affec...

  7. Emotional Facet of Language Teaching: Emotion Regulation and Emotional Labor Strategies as Predictors of Teacher Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Royaei, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to scrutinize the multidimensional nature of teacher emotion. Three emotion-associated constructs, namely, emotion regulation, emotional labor strategies, and burnout were studied within a single framework. In particular, it was hypothesized that English as a foreign language teachers' emotion regulation and emotional labor…

  8. Emotion Regulation Strategies That Promote Learning: Reappraisal Enhances Children's Memory for Educational Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Levine, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds ("N" = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group…

  9. 75 FR 49843 - Regulated Navigation Area; Boom Deployment Strategy Testing, Great Bay, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Boom Deployment Strategy.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is temporarily establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) in navigable waters... Department ] of Environmental Services (NHDES) conducts boom deployments to test the effectiveness of oil...

  10. Cognitive behaviour regulation strategies and emotional problems in early adolescents: The development of an instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garnefski, N.; Rieffe, C.J.; Jellesma, F.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Kraaij, V.

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the development of the child version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-k). Like the adult version of the CERQ, the CERQ-k measures nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that children may use after having experienced negative life events. The

  11. Relationships between Parent and Child Emotion Regulation Strategy Use: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariola, Emily; Hughes, Elizabeth K.; Gullone, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    We examined the direct relationships between parent and child emotion regulation (ER) strategy use during the transitionary and understudied developmental periods of middle childhood through to adolescence. Three hundred and seventy-nine participants aged between 9 and 19 years, completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and…

  12. Efficacy of Treatment Acceptance and Commitment and Emotion Regulation Strategies on Anxiety Sensitivity, Excitement Irregularities and Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshrat Krimi Afshar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of treatment acceptance and commitment therapy based on cognitive emotion regulation strategies on the sensitivity of anxiety, excitement irregularities and efficacy in patients with chronic headache disorder. For this purpose, in a single subject multiple baselines pre-test and posttest and follow-upin two groups, 3 patients with chronic pain who were referred to health centers in Kerman using the sampling method Selected and randomly divided and were assigned into two experimental groups. The group initially sensitivity of anxiety, excitement irregularities and self-efficacy were tested. The training is based on acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive emotion regulation strategies were presented and then after completing the training program and follow-upperiod, both in terms of sensitivity, anxiety, excitement irregularities and self-efficacy were tested. Results: Analysis of data by the method of Cohen's effect size indicators was showed that acceptance and commitment therapy based on reducing anxiety sensitivity, excitement irregularities and increase self-efficacy in disarray and the treatment based on cognitive emotion regulation strategies has not affecting on reducing anxiety sensitivity and excitement irregularities and the self-efficacy. The cognitive and behavioral intervention (acceptance and commitment cognitive emotion regulation was significant in reducing anxiety sensitivity and excitement irregularities of migraine headaches and tension.

  13. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Martine; Wijnia, Lisette; Paas, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale), motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation), mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels). In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.

  14. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Baars

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning (SRL skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation, mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels. In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.

  15. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Martine; Wijnia, Lisette; Paas, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale), motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation), mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels). In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way. PMID:28848467

  16. Improving Students’ Writing Performance: A Self-regulated Strategy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reski Pilu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is Effective in teaching narrative writing to the students of the sixth semester of English students of English Study Program of Cokroaminoto Palopo University. This research aims to find out whether the use of POW + W = 2, H = 2 strategy efficacious to improve the students’ ability in writing of the sixth semester English department students of Cokroaminoto Palopo University. This research used a pre-experimental design. The population of this research was the sixth semester students of English department of Cokroaminoto University Palopo. The sample of this research was the sixth semester students where the total sample is 30 students. This research used cluster random sampling technique. The research data were collected by using instruments namely narrative text. Data on the students’ writing skill were analyzed by using descriptive and SPSS v.20 to find and analyzed the mean score, standar deviation and T-test. The results of the research that there is difference between pre-test and post-test, where the mean score of the pretest (74 is lower than the mean score of the post-test (86.58, It means that there is a significant improvement after treatment by using POW + WWW, W = 2, H = 2 as strategy in teaching short story writing. Therefore, The T-Test of the students’ writing in post-test was smaller than α (0.01 < 0.05, it can be concluded that using POW + WWW, W = 2, H = 2 is significance improving

  17. Strategies to identify long noncoding RNAs involved in gene regulation

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    Lee Catherine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been detected in nearly every cell type and found to be fundamentally involved in many biological processes. The characterization of lncRNAs has immense potential to advance our comprehensive understanding of cellular processes and gene regulation, along with implications for the treatment of human disease. The recent ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements study reported 9,640 lncRNA loci in the human genome, which corresponds to around half the number of protein-coding genes. Because of this sheer number and their functional diversity, it is crucial to identify a pool of potentially relevant lncRNAs early on in a given study. In this review, we evaluate the methods for isolating lncRNAs by immunoprecipitation and review the advantages, disadvantages, and applications of three widely used approaches – microarray, tiling array, and RNA-seq – for identifying lncRNAs involved in gene regulation. We also look at ways in which data from publicly available databases such as ENCODE can support the study of lncRNAs.

  18. Overexpression and Down-Regulation of Barley Lipoxygenase LOX2.2 Affects Jasmonate-Regulated Genes and Aphid Fecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Losvik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are pests on many crops and depend on plant phloem sap as their food source. In an attempt to find factors improving plant resistance against aphids, we studied the effects of overexpression and down-regulation of the lipoxygenase gene LOX2.2 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. on the performance of two aphid species. A specialist, bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L. and a generalist, green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer were studied. LOX2.2 overexpressing lines showed up-regulation of some other jasmonic acid (JA-regulated genes, and antisense lines showed down-regulation of such genes. Overexpression or suppression of LOX2.2 did not affect aphid settling or the life span on the plants, but in short term fecundity tests, overexpressing plants supported lower aphid numbers and antisense plants higher aphid numbers. The amounts and composition of released volatile organic compounds did not differ between control and LOX2.2 overexpressing lines. Up-regulation of genes was similar for both aphid species. The results suggest that LOX2.2 plays a role in the activation of JA-mediated responses and indicates the involvement of LOX2.2 in basic defense responses.

  19. Affect-regulated exercise intensity: does training at an intensity that feels 'good' improve physical health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Gaynor; Alrumh, Amnah; Rowlands, Alex V

    2012-11-01

    Affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' can be used to control exercise intensity amongst both active and sedentary individuals and should support exercise adherence. It is not known, however, whether affect-regulated exercise training can lead to physical health gains. The aim of this study was to examine if affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' leads to improved fitness over the course of an 8-week training programme. A repeated measures design (pretest-posttest) with independent groups (training and control). 20 sedentary females completed a submaximal graded exercise test and were then allocated to either a training group or control group. The training group completed two supervised sessions and one unsupervised session per week for 8 weeks. Exercise intensity was affect-regulated to feel 'good'. Following the 8 weeks of training, both groups completed a second submaximal graded exercise test. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated a significant increase in the time to reach ventilatory threshold in the training group (318 ± 23.7s) compared to control (248 ± 16.9s). Overall compliance to training was high (>92%). Participants in the training group exercised at intensities that would be classified as being in the lower range of the recommended guidelines (≈ 50% V˙O(2) max) for cardiovascular health. Affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' can be used in a training programme to regulate exercise intensity. This approach led to a 19% increase in time to reach ventilatory threshold, which is indicative of improved fitness. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Affective strategies, attitudes, and a model of speaking performance development for engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijirahayu, S.; Dorand, P.

    2018-01-01

    Learning English as a Foreign language (EFL) as one of the challenges especially for students majoring in Telecommunication Engineering to develop their communication skill as a professional could be one of the chances for them to face a more global era. Yet, there are important factors that may influence the progress of the speaking performance and attitude is one of them. Therefore, a survey involving two main psychological variables in language learning namely attitude and affective strategies and the third variable is speaking performance was conducted and a model of affective strategies in language learning developing through the application of Content Language Integrated Learning and multimedia instruction was introduced. This study involved 71 sophomore students and two classes of university students majoring in Telecommunication Engineering and Electrical Engineering. The researchers used both survey and action research method with quantitative as well as qualitative in approach.

  1. Time to wait: a systematic review of strategies that affect out-patient waiting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiker, Ugenthiri; FitzGerald, Gerry; Dulhunty, Joel M; Rosemann, Michael

    2017-03-30

    Objective Out-patient waiting times pose a significant challenge for public patients in need of specialist evaluation and intervention. The aim of the present study was to identify and categorise effective strategies to reduce waiting times for specialist out-patient services with a focus on the Australian healthcare system.Methods A systematic review of major health databases was conducted using the key terms 'outpatient*' AND 'waiting time', 'process*' AND 'improvement in outpatient clinics'. Identified articles were assessed for their relevance by sequential review of the title, abstract and full text. References of the selected manuscripts were scanned for additional relevant articles. Selected articles were evaluated for consistent and emerging themes.Results In all, 152 articles were screened, of which 38 were included in the present review. Numerous strategies identified in the articles were consolidated into 26 consistent approaches. Three overarching themes were identified as significantly affecting waiting times: resource realignment, operational efficiency and process improvement.Conclusions Strategies to align resources, increase operational efficiency and improve processes provide a comprehensive approach that may reduce out-patient waiting times.What is known about the topic? Out-patient waiting times are a challenge in most countries that seek to provide universal access to health care for all citizens. Although there has been extensive research in this area, many patients still experience extensive delays accessing specialist care, particularly in the public health sector. The multiple factors that contribute to bottlenecks and inefficiencies in the referral process and affect patient waiting times are often poorly understood.What does this paper add? This paper reviews the published healthcare literature to identify strategies that affect specialist out-patient waiting times for patients. The findings suggest that there are numerous operational

  2. Emotion regulation strategies moderate the relationship of fatigue with depersonalization and derealization symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibubos, Ana N; Grammes, Jennifer; Beutel, Manfred E; Michal, Matthias; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships of common emotion regulation strategies (suppression and reappraisal) to self-reported fatigue and depersonalization/derealization symptoms. Specifically, we tested the moderating effect of suppression and reappraisal on the link of fatigue with depersonalization and derealization symptoms. Opposite effects were expected for both emotion regulation strategies assuming that cognitive reappraisal has an adaptive buffering effect, while suppression intensifies the association of fatigue and depersonalization/derealization experiences. In a representative study (N = 2524) we assessed emotion regulation strategies, fatigue, depersonalization/derealization, distress, and demographic variables via questionnaires. 55.5% of the participants were female, mean age was 49.4 (SD = 18.2) years with age groups represented in comparable proportions. In line with the assumptions, moderated regression analyses revealed an interaction effect of emotion regulation strategies and fatigue. Simple slope analyses indicated a buffering effect of cognitive reappraisal on the positive relation of fatigue with depersonalization and derealization symptoms. In contrast, suppression fosters the positive correlation of fatigue and depersonalization and derealization experiences. Our study is limited to these two habitual emotion regulation strategies employing a cross sectional design. Our findings provide comprehensive empirical data investigating depersonalization/derealization symptoms from the perspective of emotion regulation research. Cognitive reappraisal might help people suffering from fatigue to prevent depersonalization and derealization tendencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship between Emotion Regulation Strategies and Interpersonal Behavior among Substance Abusers

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    Adel Zahed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with substance abuse show signs of negative emotion regulation strategies and impaired interpersonal behaviors. The aim of the present research was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and interpersonal behavior among substance abusers. Method: The research design was a correlation study. The research sample consisted of 100 who were selected of the substance abusers that referred to clinical of addiction withdrawal by random sample method in Ardabil city. To collect the data, Emotion regulation Scale and Interpersonal Reactivity Index were used. Results: The results showed that positive and negative emotion regulation strategies were correlated to interpersonal behavior in substance abusers. The results of multiple regression analysis showed positive and negative emotion regulation strategies explained 16 percent of interpersonal behavior variance. Also the results showed that “putting into perspective“ was found to be the best predictor for interpersonal behavior. Conclusion: These results have important implications in psychopathological of substance abuse. On the basis of these results, clinicians can use emotion regulation strategies in order to cope substance abuse.

  4. Gene regulation network behind drought escape, avoidance and tolerance strategies in black poplar (Populus nigra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Kubilay; Kaya, Zeki

    2017-06-01

    Drought is the major environmental problem limiting the productivity and survival of plant species. Here, previously identified three black poplar genotypes having contrasting response to drought were subjected to gradual soil water depletion in a pot trial to identify their physiological, morphological and antioxidation related adaptations. We also performed a microarray based transcriptome analyses on the leaves of genotypes by using Affymetrix poplar Genome Array containing 56,000 transcripts. Phenotypic analyses of each genotype confirmed their differential adaptations to drought that could be classified as drought escape, avoidance and tolerance. Comparative transcriptomic analysis indicated highly divergent gene expression patterns among the genotypes in response to drought and post drought re-watering (PDR). We identified 10641, 3824 and 9411 transcripts exclusively regulated in drought escape, avoidance and tolerant genotypes, respectively. The key genes involved in metabolic pathways, such as carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, lipid metabolism, generation of precursor metabolites/energy, protein folding, redox homeostasis, secondary metabolic process and cell wall component biogenesis, were affected by drought stresses in the leaves of these genotypes. Transcript isoforms showed increased expression specificity in the genes coding for bark storage proteins and small heat shock proteins in drought tolerant genotype. On the other hand, drought-avoiding genotype specifically induced the transcripts annotated to the genes functional in secondary metabolite production that linked to enhanced leaf water content and growth performance under drought stress. Transcriptome profiling of drought escape genotype indicated specific regulation of the genes functional in programmed cell death and leaf senescence. Specific upregulation of GTP cyclohydrolase II and transcription factors (WRKY and ERFs) in only this genotype were associated to ROS dependent signalling

  5. An agent-based model for integrated emotion regulation and contagion in socially affected decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzoor, A.; Treur, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses an agent-based computational social agent model for the integration of emotion regulation, emotion contagion and decision making in a social context. The model integrates emotion-related valuing, in order to analyse the role of emotions in socially affected decision making. The

  6. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, M.C.W.; Wingen, G.A. van; Wittwer, J.; Mohajeri, M.H.; Kloek, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport

  7. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Marijn C. W.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M. Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, hyptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across

  8. The Changing Climate Toward Occupational Regulation: How Does It Affect Cosmetology Board Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimberg, Benjamin

    This document contains two letters. The first letter, which might have been written by a cosmetology licensing board member to his mother, illustrates the changing climate toward occupational regulations and how it might affect the attitudes of a board member. The second letter, the mother's reply, attempts to put some of the changes into a…

  9. Neurofeedback, Affect Regulation and Attachment: A Case Study and Analysis of Anti-Social Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sebern F.

    2007-01-01

    This case study examines the effects of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training on affect regulation in a fifty-five year-old man with a history marked by fear, rage, alcoholism, chronic unemployment and multiple failed treatments. He had been diagnosed with ADHD and attachment disorder and met criteria for anti-social personality disorder. The…

  10. Get Over It! A Multilevel Threshold Autoregressive Model for State-Dependent Affect Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan-Rietdijk, Silvia; Gottman, John M.; Bergeman, Cindy S.; Hamaker, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive longitudinal data provide rich information, which is best captured when specialized models are used in the analysis. One of these models is the multilevel autoregressive model, which psychologists have applied successfully to study affect regulation as well as alcohol use. A limitation of

  11. The Role of Depression and Negative Affect Regulation Expectancies in Tobacco Smoking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…

  12. When love is not blind: Rumination impairs implicit affect regulation in response to romantic relationship threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jostmann, N.B.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Finkenauer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined how rumination influences implicit affect regulation in response to romantic relationship threat. In three studies, the disposition to ruminate impaired the ability to maintain positive feelings about the romantic partner in the face of explicit or implicit reminders of

  13. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  14. When love is not blind: rumination impairs implicit affect regulation in response to romantic relationship threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jostmann, N.B.; Karremans, J.; Finkenauer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined how rumination influences implicit affect regulation in response to romantic relationship threat. In three studies, the disposition to ruminate impaired the ability to maintain positive feelings about the romantic partner in the face of explicit or implicit reminders of

  15. The Impact of Perspective Change As a Cognitive Reappraisal Strategy on Affect: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M A; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2016-01-01

    The strategic or deliberate adoption of a cognitively distanced, third-person perspective is proposed to adaptively regulate emotions. However, studies of psychological disorders suggest spontaneous adoption of a third-person perspective reflects counter-productive avoidance. Here, we review studies that investigate the deliberate adoption of a third- or first-person vantage perspective and its impact on affect in healthy people, "sub-clinical" populations and those with psychological disorders. A systematic search was conducted across four databases. After exclusion criteria were applied, 38 studies were identified that investigated the impact of both imagery and verbal instructions designed to encourage adoption of a third-person perspective on self-reported affect. The identified studies examined a variety of outcomes related to recalling memories, imagining scenarios and mood induction. These were associated with specific negative emotions or mood states (dysphoria/sadness, anxiety, anger), mixed or neutral affect autobiographical memories, and self-conscious affect (e.g., guilt). Engaging a third-person perspective was generally associated with a reduction in the intensity of positive and negative affect. Studies that included measures of semantic change, suggested that this is a key mediator in reduction of affect following perspective change. Strategically adopting a "distanced," third-person perspective is linked to a reduction in affect intensity across valence, but in addition has the potential to introduce new information that regulates emotion via semantic change. Such reappraisal distinguishes deliberate adoption of a distanced perspective from the habitual and/or spontaneous shift in perspective that occurs in psychopathology.

  16. Multi-Faceted Emotion Regulation, Stress, and Affect in Mothers of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Li, Mengjiao; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-01-01

    We tested a novel multi-component emotion self-regulation (ER) construct that captured physiological (vagal tone), cognitive (reappraisal), and temperament (effortful control) aspects of ER as a moderator of the link between more stressors and greater negative/less positive affectivity. A socioeconomically diverse sample of 151 women with young children completed questionnaires and a laboratory visit (including cognitive and parent-child interaction tasks, and vagal tone measurement). Women with more stressors had more negative affectivity and less positive affectivity. Furthermore, for negative affectivity only, having more stressors was substantially associated with negative affectivity but only among women with the lowest ER. This pattern was evident for the composite as well as individual indicators of ER. Results were not attributable to individual differences in executive function. Findings are discussed in light of the diathesis-stress model of stress and coping. PMID:25759238

  17. When death is not a problem: Regulating implicit negative affect under mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdecke, Christina; Baumann, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Terror management theory assumes that death arouses existential anxiety in humans which is suppressed in focal attention. Whereas most studies provide indirect evidence for negative affect under mortality salience by showing cultural worldview defenses and self-esteem strivings, there is only little direct evidence for implicit negative affect under mortality salience. In the present study, we assume that this implicit affective reaction towards death depends on people's ability to self-regulate negative affect as assessed by the personality dimension of action versus state orientation. Consistent with our expectations, action-oriented participants judged artificial words to express less negative affect under mortality salience compared to control conditions whereas state-oriented participants showed the reversed pattern. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Coping strategies in farmed African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Does it affect their welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Nieuwegiessen, P G; Ramli, N M; Knegtel, B P F J M; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether and how coping strategies affect the welfare of African catfish Clarias gariepinus housed at low and high densities. Group composition influenced feed intake; re-active groups (comprised of 100% re-active fish) had a lower specific growth rate (G) and feed intake and a higher feed conversion ratio (R(FC)) than pro-active groups. Furthermore, re-active groups had a lower energy retention than pro-active groups. The latter was fully due to differences in feed intake, since energy partitioning (on % total gross energy intake basis) was similar among the group composition treatments. Fish held at high stocking density showed a higher R(FC) and feeding speed and a lower energy retention and agonistic behaviour. None of the measured variables was influenced by the interaction effect. In mixed groups, G and number of skin lesions seemed to be affected by different behavioural phenotypes at low stocking density, but not at high density. These results indicate that both stocking density and group composition affect physical and behavioural responses of C. gariepinus. Furthermore, physical and behavioural data of individual fish housed in mixed groups suggest that coping strategy affects the fitness of different behavioural phenotypes at low, but not at high, stocking density.

  19. In the mood for adaptation: how affect regulates conflict-driven control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Henk; Band, Guido P H; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-11-01

    Cognitive conflict plays an important role in tuning cognitive control to the situation at hand. On the basis of earlier findings demonstrating emotional modulations of conflict processing, we predicted that affective states may adaptively regulate goal-directed behavior that is driven by conflict. We tested this hypothesis by measuring conflict-driven control adaptations following experimental induction of four different mood states that could be differentiated along the dimensions of arousal and pleasure. After mood states were induced, 91 subjects performed a flanker task, which provided a measure of conflict adaptation. As predicted, pleasure level affected conflict adaptation: Less pleasure was associated with more conflict-driven control. Arousal level did not influence conflict adaptation. This study suggests that affect adaptively regulates cognitive control. Implications for future research and psychopathology are discussed.

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Affect Regulation and Social Problem-Solving Psychotherapies for Mothers with Victimization-Related PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Steinberg, Karen L.; Zhang, Wanli

    2011-01-01

    Addressing affect dysregulation may provide a complementary alternative or adjunctive approach to the empirically supported trauma memory processing models of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A CBT designed to enhance affect regulation without trauma memory processing--trauma affect regulation: guide for…

  1. Self-Regulated Strategies for School Writing Tasks: A Cross-Cultural Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malpique Anabela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated cross-cultural differences in ninth-grade students’ reported use of self-regulated strategies for writing. We assessed 12 self-regulated strategies for writing tapping environmental, behavioural, and personal self-regulated processes. Seven hundred and thirty-two Portuguese and Brazilian students in transition to high school (Mage = 14.3; 372 male and 306 female from mainstream urban schools reported on their use of the strategies. Statistical analyses included a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA with 12 dependent variables (self-regulated strategies for writing and 2 between-subjects variables (country and gender. There were significant main effects for country with medium effect sizes and statistically significant small effect sizes for gender main effects. All-male and all-female comparisons indicated significant differences and medium effect sizes within gender groups. The majority of the differences tapped personal self-regulated strategies. Taken together, these findings suggest that initiating and controlling writing may be a contextualised bounded process.

  2. The structure of common emotion regulation strategies: A meta-analytic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; McMahon, Tierney P; Chacko, Thomas P

    2017-04-01

    Emotion regulation has been examined extensively with regard to important outcomes, including psychological and physical health. However, the literature includes many different emotion regulation strategies but little examination of how they relate to one another, making it difficult to interpret and synthesize findings. The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine the underlying structure of common emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, behavioral avoidance, distraction, experiential avoidance, expressive suppression, mindfulness, problem solving, reappraisal, rumination, worry), and to evaluate this structure in light of theoretical models of emotion regulation. We also examined how distress tolerance-an important emotion regulation ability -relates to strategy use. We conducted meta-analyses estimating the correlations between emotion regulation strategies (based on 331 samples and 670 effect sizes), as well as between distress tolerance and strategies. The resulting meta-analytic correlation matrix was submitted to confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. None of the confirmatory models, based on prior theory, was an acceptable fit to the data. Exploratory factor analysis suggested that 3 underlying factors best characterized these data. Two factors-labeled Disengagement and Aversive Cognitive Perseveration-emerged as strongly correlated but distinct factors, with the latter consisting of putatively maladaptive strategies. The third factor, Adaptive Engagement, was a less unified factor and weakly related to the other 2 factors. Distress tolerance was most closely associated with low levels of repetitive negative thought and experiential avoidance, and high levels of acceptance and mindfulness. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and applications to emotion regulation assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The relations between interpersonal self-support traits and emotion regulation strategies: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Xiang; Gao, Xin; Wang, Qian; Hollon, Steven D

    2014-08-01

    Although several cross-sectional surveys have shown that certain traits such as extraversion and neuroticism are related to emotion regulation, few studies have explored the nature of this relationship. The present study tried to explore the longitudinal relation between traits and emotion regulation strategies. The Interpersonal Self-Support Scale for Middle School Students (ISSS-MSS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) were administrated to 374 middle school students two times across a 6-month interval. A path analysis via structural equation modeling of the five interpersonal self-support traits and the two emotion regulation strategies was tested. The results showed that interpersonal independence predicted expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal, and that interpersonal initiative also predicted reappraisal, while reappraisal predicted interpersonal flexibility and interpersonal openness 6 month later. These results support the hypotheses that some personality traits influence certain emotion regulation strategies, while other traits may be influenced by specific emotion regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coping strategies for activities of daily living in women whose hands affected by systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Fatma I; Unver, Vesile; Cinar, Muhammet; Yilmaz, Sedat; Simsek, Ismail; Tosun, Nuran; Erdem, Hakan; Yilmaz, Fatma; Pay, Salih; Dinc, Ayhan

    2014-06-01

    To determine the challenges experienced by women with systemic sclerosis, whose hands affected, while performing activities of daily living and their coping strategies. Many of the patients with systemic sclerosis experience difficulties in performing daily activities. One of the most important reasons for that is the impaired hand function due to their diseases. A descriptive cross-sectional design was conducted and questionnaire was used in this study. The study was performed in a Rheumatology Department at a tertiary-care hospital in Turkey between April 2010-December 2011. Nineteen patients with systemic sclerosis with hand involvement were enrolled in this study. The data were collected by using both a demographic data form and an Evaluation of Daily Activity Questionnaire. According to Evaluation of Daily Activity Questionnaire, the most scored dimension that patients can do with much difficulty was 'eating' and the dimension that patients unable to do was 'washing/clothes care'. In 'eating' dimension, the most difficult activities were 'opening glass jar', 'opening juice bottle' and 'opening bottle' that requiring the movement of rotation. Their coping strategies for these activities were as follows: try to open with a towel, try to remove the edge of the palm with a knife, use the hand palm and help from someone else (spouse, neighbour, etc.). In 'washing/clothes care' dimension, the most difficult activities were 'turning up hem of a skirt', 'washing up in bowl' and 'cutting out material'. For these activities, they use some coping strategies such as getting help from tailor, washing in the machine instead of hand washing. This study demonstrates that impaired hand function affects the daily life activities of patients with systemic sclerosis, and patients have developed some coping strategies to overcome these difficulties. The coping strategies used by patients can be helpful for the other patients with systemic sclerosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Substantiating Recommendations on the Choice of an Efficient Strategy of the State Regulation for System of Monitoring Economy Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashchaulov Vitalii V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with substantiating recommendations on the choice of an effective strategy of the State regulation for system of monitoring economy branches. To display the financial aspect of the enterprise's strategic positioning in the sectoral environment, a modified ADL matrix was used. A matrix of choosing an optimum variant (scenario of the enterprise's financial strategy has been considered taking into account possibilities of its use in the system of monitoring the development of economic sectors. Disadvantages in the use of modified ADL matrices and in choosing an optimum variant (scenario financial strategy of the enterprise's financial strategy have been identified. Factors of internal and external environment, which affect the strategic choice of enterprises, have been determined and analyzed. The SPACE matrix for building the model of choosing a strategy of financing the development of enterprises in the economy branches has been modified in the context of the system of monitoring the development of economy branches. A description of the strategies proposed by author for financing the development of enterprise has been provided, their advantages and disadvantages have been determined. Individual tools of the proposed models of actions can be accepted as a way of improving the strategic positions with a view to achieving a higher quantitative-qualitative situation as well as adjustment of the existing model of behavior.

  6. Incongruency effects in affective processing: automatic motivational counter-regulation or mismatch-induced salience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermund, Klaus; Gast, Anne; Wentura, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    Attention is automatically allocated to stimuli that are opposite in valence to the current motivational focus (Rothermund, 2003; Rothermund, Voss, & Wentura, 2008). We tested whether this incongruency effect is due to affective-motivational counter-regulation or to an increased salience of stimuli that mismatch with cognitively activated information. Affective processing biases were assessed with a search task in which participants had to detect the spatial position at which a positive or negative stimulus was presented. In the motivational condition, positive or negative affective-motivational states were induced by performance feedback after each trial. In the cognitive activation condition, participants memorised the word "good" or "bad" during the search task. The affective incongruency effect was replicated in the motivational condition, whereas an affective congruency effect obtained in the cognitive activation condition. These findings support an explanation of affective incongruency effects in terms of automatic counter-regulation that is motivational in nature. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  7. The role of coping strategies and cognitive emotion regulation in well-being of patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SeyedTabaee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is a destructive and usually progressive disease while put too much stress on the patients family and the society. Then, recognizing of variables which can help to improve wellbeing of these patients can be important and very helpful to diminish the stress of them. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the role of coping strategies and emotion regulation in well-being of patients with cancer. Methods: This descriptive study with predictive design was conducted in 2016. The research sample consisted of 62 cancerous patients in three chemotherapy centers of Qom city. The patients completed demographic questionnaire, Garnefski cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ, Endler and Parker coping strategies questionnaire and Ryff psychological well-being questionnaire. Findings: Results showed that there were significant relationships between coping styles and psychological well-being of cancer patients (P=0.01. But there was no relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and psychological well-being. Regression analysis showed that coping styles had more power to predict psychological well-being than cognitive emotion regulation (P=0.01. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that coping styles are the most important factors that affect encountering with tensional events such as cancer. Major focus on the therapeutic and educational programs related to recognizing and applying adaptive coping styles, has important role in increasing psychological well-being of these patients.

  8. Relationship between emotion regulation and emotional intelligence in borderline personality disorder [Strategie regulacji emocji a inteligencja emocjonalna u pacjentów z zaburzeniem osobowości borderline

    OpenAIRE

    Pastuszak, ?anna

    2012-01-01

    Aim. A typical trait of borderline personality disorder is emotional instability. The strategies that patients with BPD use to regulate their affects are not yet known. The purpose of presented research was an attempt to find the often used emotion regulation strategies, the eventual differences in value of emotional intelligence between BPD patients and healthy controls, and a relationship between emotion regulation and emotional intelligence in BPD. The work on FrAGe (an own self-descriptiv...

  9. Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqing; Chatterjee, Samir

    With rapid advances in information and communication technology, computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies are utilizing multiple IT platforms such as email, websites, cell-phones/PDAs, social networking sites, and gaming environments. However, no studies have compared the effectiveness of a persuasive system using such alternative channels and various persuasive techniques. Moreover, how affective computing impacts the effectiveness of persuasive systems is not clear. This study proposes (1) persuasive technology channels in combination with persuasive strategies will have different persuasive effectiveness; (2) Adding positive emotion to a message that leads to a better overall user experience could increase persuasive effectiveness. The affective computing or emotion information was added to the experiment using emoticons. The initial results of a pilot study show that computer-mediated communication channels along with various persuasive strategies can affect the persuasive effectiveness to varying degrees. These results also shows that adding a positive emoticon to a message leads to a better user experience which increases the overall persuasive effectiveness of a system.

  10. Effects of an experimental social stressor on resources loss, negative affect, and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidner, Moshe; Ben-Zur, Hasida

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study, grounded in Hobfoll's conservation of resources (COR) theory, assessed the effects of manipulating a social stressor on loss of psychological resources, negative affect, and coping strategies. Israeli student volunteers were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: (1) social stressor (n = 66) and (2.) nonstressor (n = 59). The social stressor, aimed at reducing participant's personal resources, was experimentally induced via the Trier Social Stress Test protocol. The protocol consisted of a mock job interview administered under evaluative conditions, followed by performing a difficult arithmetic calculation task. The nonstressor condition involved a neutral interaction with an experimenter, followed by performing a relatively easy mental calculation task. Consistent with our hypotheses, the social stressor, compared to the nonstressor condition, resulted in statistically significant lower mean levels of psychological resources, higher levels of negative affect, and increased emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping. Furthermore, under the social stressor condition, compared with the nonstressor condition, negative affect was more strongly related to loss of psychological resources and various coping strategies. Overall, the data provide experimental support for key tenets of COR theory.

  11. Dysfunctional affect regulation in borderline personality disorder and in somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although affect dysregulation is considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD and somatoform disorders (SoD, remarkably little research has focused on the prevalence and nature of affect dysregulation in these disorders. Also, despite apparent similarities, little is known about how dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and positive and negative somatoform and psychoform dissociative experiences inter-relate. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood psychological trauma and affect dysregulation, especially when the caretaker is emotionally, sexually, or physically abusing the child, but how these relate to under- and overregulation while differentiating for developmental epochs is not clear. Although an elevated risk of childhood trauma exposure or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD symptoms has been reported in BPD and SoD, trauma histories, dysfunctional affect regulation, dissociation, PTSD, and CPTSD were never assessed in unison in BPD and/or SoD. Method: BPD and/or SoD diagnoses were confirmed or ruled out in 472 psychiatric inpatients using clinical interviews. Dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and somatoform and psychoform dissociation, childhood trauma-by-primary-caretaker (TPC, PTSD, and CPTSD were all measured using self reports. Results: No disorder-specific form of dysfunctional affect regulation was found. Although both BPD and SoD can involve affect dysregulation and dissociation, there is a wide range of intensity of dysfunctional regulation phenomena in patients with these diagnoses. Evidence was found for the existence of three qualitatively different forms of experiencing states: inhibitory experiencing states (overregulation of affect and negative psychoform dissociation most commonly found in SoD, excitatory experiencing states (underregulation of affect and positive psychoform dissociation most commonly found in BPD, and

  12. SELF-REGULATION STRATEGIES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CHILDREN WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois GHERGUT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study identifies some self-regulation strategies used by deaf children in order to make their speech more intelligible. To achieve self-control while speaking, the child with severe hearing loss needs not only a high level of intelligence, but also an effective lip-reading capability and a strong intrinsic motivation. This is the reason why there are many cases of children with a high level of intelligence, but with a mediocre lip-reading capability and others with a lower level of intelligence, but with a good lip-reading capability. These differences also depend on the degree of hearing loss. Among the self-regulation strategies used by the children that achieve an intelligible speech are: the cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies, the motivational strategies etc. These results are important while designing the therapeutic activities, and especially the speech intelligibility factor being crucial in the social integration of those children with hearing impairment.

  13. Self-efficacy and Use of Strategies for Self-regulated Learning in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jesús Pool-Cibrián

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the relationship between perceived self-efficacy, learning goals, and self-regulated learning strategies. Questionnaires concerning self-efficacy and learning goals were applied to 766 university students. The instrument`s psychometric properties was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis with Samejima’s graded response model (GRM of the Item Response Theory (IRT. Six factors were obtained: perceived self-efficacy, concentration problems, learning goals, metacognitive strategies; domain and comprehension strategies. Path analysis showed associations between perceived self-efficacy with learning goals (r=.48 and concentration problems (r=-.45; there was also a negative association found between the last two variables (r=-.46. The last three factors are predictors of metacognitive (R2=.22, domain (R2=.26 and comprehension (R2=.12 strategies. The results were interpreted with a social cognitive perspective of self-regulated learning.

  14. Self-regulation in learning: Application of strategies and roles of orientation towards goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents different views on self-regulation in the process of learning. What is shown is the model in which self-regulation is treated as the interaction of processes connected to personality, behavioral and contextual processes. The regulation processes are organized in several phases, and within each phase self-regulatory activities are structured in different fields. Special attention is paid to the application of strategies - cognitive, meta-cognitive, motivational and strategies of resource management. As a critical component of self-regulation, the monitoring and the steps it consists of were discussed in more detail. The emphasis is on the role of feedback in monitoring, as well as on the wider significance it has for self-regulation in the process of learning. Since orientation towards the goal is considered an essential aspect of self-regulation, what was performed was the analysis of the results and implications of different researches of the relation of pupils’ orientations towards the goals with regulation of the process of learning. The possibilities for encouraging self-regulation in the tuition process were considered. By enabling pupils to make decisions, set their own goals, perform the choice and plan and organize their activities, the development of self-regulation and autonomy is encouraged. The guidelines for planning the training aimed towards the development of strategy behavior in pupils are stated. What is presented are the different methods which are applied within the model and interventions in tuition directed towards encouragement of self-regulation.

  15. Communities are not all created equal: Strategies to prevent violence affecting youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Larry; Davis, Rachel; Realini, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We describe violence in the United States (US) and solutions the Urban Networks to Increase Thriving Youth (UNITY) Initiative has developed, led by Prevention Institute, a US non-governmental organization (NGO) and authors of this article, with initial funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Safety distribution across populations is unequal, while public health research has identified aspects of community environments that affect the likelihood of violence, or risk and resilience factors. An overwhelming number of risk factors have accumulated in some US communities, disproportionately impacting young people of color. US policies, systems, and institutions powerfully shape how and where these factors manifest. Violence is preventable, not inevitable. We argue that comprehensive strategies for improving community environments can reduce violence and promote health equity. We present lessons, tools, and frameworks that UNITY cities use to adapt for international application, including multi-sector collaboration, strategies for influencing policy and legislation, and strengthening local violence prevention efforts.

  16. Frequency Regulation Strategies in Grid Integrated Offshore Wind Turbines via VSC-HVDC Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Jallad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of wind energy in a power system network is currently seeing a significant increase. However, this inclusion has resulted in degradation of the inertia response, which in turn seriously affects the stability of the power system’s frequency. This problem can be solved by using an active power reserve to stabilize the frequency within an allowable limit in the event of a sudden load increment or the loss of generators. Active power reserves can be utilized via three approaches: (1 de-loading method (pitching or over-speeding by a variable speed wind turbine (VSWT; (2 stored energy in the capacitors of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC transmission; and (3 coordination of frequency regulation between the offshore wind farms and the VSC-HVDC transmission. This paper reviews the solutions that can be used to overcome problems related to the frequency stability of grid- integrated offshore wind turbines. It also details the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG with full-scale back to back (B2B converters, its corresponding control strategies, and a typical VSC-HVDC system with an associated control system. The control methods, both on the levels of a wind turbine and the VSC-HVDC system that participate in a system’s primary frequency control and emulation inertia, are discussed.

  17. The temporal deployment of emotion regulation strategies during negative emotional episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Résibois, Maxime; Verduyn, Philippe; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Time is given a central place in theoretical models of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998, 2015), but key questions regarding the role of time remain unanswered. We investigated 2 such unanswered questions. First, we explored when different emotion regulation strategies were used within the course of an emotional episode in daily life. Second, we investigated the association between the temporal deployment of strategies and negative emotional experience. We conducted a daily diary study in which participants (N = 74) drew an intensity profile depicting the temporal unfolding of their negative emotional experience across daily events (N = 480), and mapped their usage of emotion regulation strategies onto this intensity profile. Strategies varied in their temporal deployment, with suppression and rumination occurring more at the beginning of the episode, and reappraisal and distraction occurring more toward the end of the episode. Strategies also varied in their association with negative emotion: rumination was positively associated with negative emotion, and reappraisal and distraction were negatively associated with negative emotion. Finally, both rumination and reappraisal interacted with time to predict negative emotional experience. Rumination was more strongly positively associated with negative emotions at the end of the episode than the beginning, but reappraisal was more strongly negatively associated with negative emotion at the beginning of the episode than the end. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for timing in the study of emotion regulation, as well as the necessity of studying these temporal processes in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Metacognitive beliefs and emotion regulation strategies: obese women with negative and positive body images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Nejati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Women have higher vulnerability regarding to increase prevalence of obesity and its effect on people’s body image and women’s health on the society and future generations’ health is unquestionable role , negative body image influence on women’s eating habits and mental health, so aim of present research is to compare metacognitive beliefs and emotional regulation strategies in obese women with positive and negative body image. This study was a causal-comparative. The statistical population of this study consisted of 100 obese women with a BMI>30 who had referred to five nutritional clinics in Tehran. The clinics and the participants were selected by using the convenience sampling method. The data collection tools were the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I/II, Body Mass Index (BMI, the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, and fisher’s body image scale. The multivariate hoteling t-test was used to compare the difference between the two groups. Results indicated that obese women with negative body image had higher mean scores in inefficient emotion regulation strategies including self-blame or focus on thought, catastrophizing and other-blame compared with obese women with positive body image. Moreover, the mean scores of obese women with positive body images was higher in efficient emotional regulation strategies include acceptance, positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, perspective taking and positive reappraisal. Metacognitive beliefs and emotion regulation strategies are significant variables in obese woman with positive and negative body images.

  19. Efficient strategies for genome scanning using maximum-likelihood affected-sib-pair analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmans, P.; Craddock, N. [Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    Detection of linkage with a systematic genome scan in nuclear families including an affected sibling pair is an important initial step on the path to cloning susceptibility genes for complex genetic disorders, and it is desirable to optimize the efficiency of such studies. The aim is to maximize power while simultaneously minimizing the total number of genotypings and probability of type I error. One approach to increase efficiency, which has been investigated by other workers, is grid tightening: a sample is initially typed using a coarse grid of markers, and promising results are followed up by use of a finer grid. Another approach, not previously considered in detail in the context of an affected-sib-pair genome scan for linkage, is sample splitting: a portion of the sample is typed in the screening stage, and promising results are followed up in the whole sample. In the current study, we have used computer simulation to investigate the relative efficiency of two-stage strategies involving combinations of both grid tightening and sample splitting and found that the optimal strategy incorporates both approaches. In general, typing half the sample of affected pairs with a coarse grid of markers in the screening stage is an efficient strategy under a variety of conditions. If Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds, it is most efficient not to type parents in the screening stage. If Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium does not hold (e.g., because of stratification) failure to type parents in the first stage increases the amount of genotyping required, although the overall probability of type I error is not greatly increased, provided the parents are used in the final analysis. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Regulating and facilitating: the role of emotional intelligence in maintaining and using positive affect for creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Michael R; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Sherf, Elad N

    2015-05-01

    Although past research has identified the effects of emotional intelligence on numerous employee outcomes, the relationship between emotional intelligence and creativity has not been well established. We draw upon affective information processing theory to explain how two facets of emotional intelligence-emotion regulation and emotion facilitation-shape employee creativity. Specifically, we propose that emotion regulation ability enables employees to maintain higher positive affect (PA) when faced with unique knowledge processing requirements, while emotion facilitation ability enables employees to use their PA to enhance their creativity. We find support for our hypotheses using a multimethod (ability test, experience sampling, survey) and multisource (archival, self-reported, supervisor-reported) research design of early career managers across a wide range of jobs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Authentic and Hubristic Pride: Differential Relations to Aspects of Goal Regulation, Affect, and Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationships of trait-like tendencies towards authentic and hubristic pride (Tracy & Robins, 2004) with goal-regulation tendencies, affective tendencies, and impulsive traits. Undergraduates (n = 936) completed the 14-item measure of authentic and hubristic pride (Tracy & Robins, 2007b) and a battery of other self-report measures. The two types of pride correlated with distinct profiles of goal regulation tendencies, affective tendencies, and self-control. Authentic pride correlated with measures of self-control, whereas hubristic pride was related to measures of impulsivity and aggression. Overall, the differential pattern of correlations fits with a model in which authentic pride is tied to adaptive achievement and goal engagement, whereas hubristic pride is tied to extrinsic values of public recognition and social dominance.

  3. Genes Affecting the Regulation of SUC2 Gene Expression by Glucose Repression in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    OpenAIRE

    Neigeborn, Lenore; Carlson, Marian

    1984-01-01

    Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defects in sucrose or raffinose fermentation were isolated. In addition to mutations in the SUC2 structural gene for invertase, we recovered 18 recessive mutations that affected the regulation of invertase synthesis by glucose repression. These mutations included five new snf1 (sucrose nonfermenting) alleles and also defined five new complementation groups, designated snf2, snf3, snf4, snf5 and snf6. The snf2, snf4 and snf5 mutants produced little or...

  4. Musical Intensity in Affect Regulation: Uncovering Hope and Resilience Through Heavy Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hereld, Diana Christine

    2016-01-01

    This thesis discusses the nature of music’s impact on identity, subjectivity, and the self. To better understand music’s role in promoting hope and resilience, I pinpoint how heavy, intense, and highly emotive music applied over distinct listening practices impacts the regulation of affect and self-destructive impulses in individuals who suffer from trauma, mental illness, or self-destructive behavior. This research also investigates the characteristic of intensity often found in heavy music ...

  5. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain, and behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirolli, Marco; Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Despite the great amount of knowledge produced by the neuroscientific literature on affective phenomena, current models tackling non-cognitive aspects of behaviour are often bio-inspired but rarely bio-constrained. This paper presents a theoretical account of affective systems centred on the amygdala (Amg). This account aims to furnish a general framework and specific pathways to implement models that are more closely related to biological evidence. The Amg, which receives input from brain areas encoding internal states, innately relevant stimuli, and innately neutral stimuli, plays a fundamental role in the motivational and emotional processes of organisms. This role is based on the fact that Amg implements the two associative processes at the core of Pavlovian learning (conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) and CS-unconditioned response (UR) associations), and that it has the capacity of modulating these associations on the basis of internal states. These functionalities allow the Amg to play an important role in the regulation of the three fundamental classes of affective responses (namely, the regulation of body states, the regulation of brain states via neuromodulators, and the triggering of a number of basic behaviours fundamental for adaptation) and in the regulation of three high-level cognitive processes (namely, the affective labelling of memories, the production of goal-directed behaviours, and the performance of planning and complex decision-making). Our analysis is conducted within a methodological approach that stresses the importance of understanding the brain within an evolutionary/adaptive framework and with the aim of isolating general principles that can potentially account for the wider possible empirical evidence in a coherent fashion.

  6. Self-Esteem and Negative Affect as Moderators of Sociocultural Influences on Body Dissatisfaction, Strategies To Decrease Weight, and Strategies To Increase Muscles among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of sociocultural influences and the moderating role of self-esteem and negative affect on body dissatisfaction and body change strategies for adolescent boys and girls. Surveys indicated that sociocultural pressures significantly predicted body dissatisfaction and body change strategies among both sexes. Both boys and girls…

  7. Interrelationships between Hormones, Behavior, and Affect during Adolescence: Complex Relationships Exist between Reproductive Hormones, Stress‐Related Hormones, and the Activity of Neural Systems That Regulate Behavioral Affect. Comments on Part III

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CAMERON, JUDY L

    2004-01-01

    ..., and changes in behavioral affect regulation. The interactions between activity in the reproductive axis, the neural systems that regulate stress, hormones produced in response to stress, and neural systems governing behavioral affect regulation...

  8. Strategies of diversification in regulated energy markets: the natural gas and electric power industries in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Gonzalez, Gerado; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Eibenschutz Hartman, Juan

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show a structured and systematic approach to analyze the strategies of diversification undertaken by the State-owned companies Petroleos Mexicanos and Comision Federal de Electricidad, during the period 1938-2006, in the Mexican energy market that has been strongly dominated by the State control. Furthermore, we explore the future of these strategies by using a Strengthens, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) matrix. This analyze also include changes in regulation that should happen in order to consolidated the proposed strategies. (auth)

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF BIOLOGY TEACHING KITS USING SELF REGULATED LEARNING (SRL STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erie Agusta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was aimed to develop Biology teaching kits using Self Regulated Learning (SRL-based strategy in senior high schools that have been validated and tested. The study was carried out by using the development strategy of Borg and Gall. The subjects were the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Sentolo in the academic year of 2014/2015. The data for the validation process and the implementation of the teaching kits were collected through questionnaires and observations. The data of the validator assessment were analyzed using the categorization formula and Borich formula. The data on the try-out were analyzed using the paired sample test. The findings were in the form of teaching kits product for Bryophyta materials for the tenth grade students. The teaching kits had been validated theoretically by experts and teachers, the lesson plans had been validated and simulated, and the teaching kits and research instruments had been tried out in a small scale and implemented in the field. Keywords: teaching kits, Self Regulated Learning (SRL strategies PENGEMBANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGI DENGAN STRATEGI SELF REGULATED LEARNING (SRL Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian pengembangan ini adalah dihasilkannya perangkat pembelajaran biologi berbasis Self Regulated Learningdi SMA yang telah tervalidasi dan teruji. Metode penelitian menggunakan strategi pengembangan Borg dan Gall. Subjek penelitian perangkat pembelajaran adalah siswa kelas X SMAN 1 Sentolo. Teknik pengumpulan data dalam proses validasi dan implementasi perangkat pembelajaran menggunakan angket dan observasi. Data penilaian validator dianalisis dengan rumus kategorisasi, sedang persamaan validator terhadap lembar validasi menggunakan rumus Borich. Data hasil uji coba dianalisis dengan paired sample test. Hasil penelitian berupa produk perangkat pembelajaran pada materi tumbuhan lumut di kelas X SMA. Perangkat pembelajaran tersebut telah divalidasi secara teoretis

  10. Effects of emotion regulation strategy use in response to stressors on PTSD symptoms: An ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Boffa, Joseph W; Clancy, Kevin; Schmidt, Norman B

    2018-04-01

    Although a burgeoning line of research identifies emotion regulation difficulties as a potential maintenance factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known in regard to what emotion regulation strategies individuals with PTSD use in their daily lives, their predictors, and their consequences on later PTSD symptoms. The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to explore prospective relationships between maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategy use and PTSD symptoms in participants with PTSD (N = 30). Participants completed 4 EMAs per day over 8 days, assessing stressors, emotional response, and emotion regulation strategy use. Individuals with PTSD most commonly used avoidance as an emotion regulation strategy. Multilevel modeling indicated that baseline PTSD symptoms predicted maladaptive emotion regulation strategy use. After covarying for morning PTSD symptoms, maladaptive emotion regulation prospectively predicted increased PTSD symptoms later in the day. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies did not uniquely predict later PTSD symptoms. In line with conceptualizations of difficulties in emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic maintenance factor in PTSD, findings indicate that maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to stressors exacerbate PTSD symptoms. The use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies had no positive or negative impact on subsequent PTSD symptoms. Future studies should utilize longer-term prospective designs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of emotion regulation on explicit memory depend on strategy and testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Marisa; Ponzio, Allison

    2013-12-01

    Although previous work has shown that emotion regulation strategies can influence memory, the mechanisms through which different strategies produce different memory outcomes are not well understood. We examined how two cognitive reappraisal strategies with similar elaboration demands but diverging effects on visual attention and emotional arousal influenced explicit memory for emotional stimuli and for the strategies used to evaluate the stimuli. At encoding, participants used reappraisal to increase and decrease the personal relevance of neutral and emotional pictures. In two experiments, recall accuracy was highest for emotional pictures featured on increase trials, intermediate for emotional pictures featured on look (respond naturally) trials, and lowest for emotional pictures featured on decrease trials. This recall pattern emerged after a short delay (15 min) and persisted over a longer delay (48 hr). Memory accuracy for the strategies used to evaluate the pictures showed a different pattern: Strategy memory was better for emotional pictures featured on decrease and increase trials than for pictures featured on look trials. Our findings show that the effects of emotion regulation on memory depend both on the particular strategy engaged and the particular aspect of memory being tested.

  12. The Effects of Design Strategies for Promoting Students' Self-Regulated Learning Skills on Students' Self-Regulation and Achievements in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon-Heum

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of design strategies for promoting students' self-regulated learning skills on students' self-regulation and achievements. Seven strategies for promoting students' SRL are identified through the literature review and applied into the experimental group: goal setting, self-evaluation,…

  13. Assessing self-regulation strategies : Development and validation of the tempest self-regulation questionnaire for eating (TESQ-E) in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vet, E.W.M.L.; De Ridder, D.T.D.; Stok, F.M.; Brunso, K.; Baban, A.; Gaspar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self-regulation

  14. Assessing self-regulation strategies: development and validation of the tempest self-regulation questionnaire for eating (TESQ-E) in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Ridder, de Denise; Stok, M.; Brunso, K.; Baban, A.; Gaspar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self-regulation

  15. Functional connectivity of pain-mediated affect regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Niedtfeld

    Full Text Available Affective instability and self-injurious behavior are important features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Whereas affective instability may be caused by a pattern of limbic hyperreactivity paired with dysfunctional prefrontal regulation mechanisms, painful stimulation was found to reduce affective arousal at the neural level, possibly underlying the soothing effect of pain in BPD.We used psychophysiological interactions to analyze functional connectivity of (para- limbic brain structures (i.e. amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex in Borderline Personality Disorder in response to painful stimulation. Therefore, we re-analyzed a dataset from 20 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and 23 healthy controls who took part in an fMRI-task inducing negative (versus neutral affect and subsequently applying heat pain (versus warmth perception.Results suggest an enhanced negative coupling between limbic as well as paralimbic regions and prefrontal regions, specifically with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, when patients experienced pain in addition to emotional arousing pictures. When neutral pictures were combined with painful heat sensation, we found positive connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder between (para-limbic brain areas and parts of the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, putamen, as well areas involved in self-referential processing (precuneus and posterior cingulate.We found further evidence for alterations in the emotion regulation process in Borderline Personality Disorder, in the way that pain improves the inhibition of limbic activity by prefrontal areas. This study provides new insights in pain processing in BPD, including enhanced coupling of limbic structures and basal ganglia.

  16. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... PLANS California § 52.269 Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and... provide for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons...

  17. The Influence of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Depression Severity on Deliberate Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Nadja; Garnefski, Nadia; Spinhoven, Philip; Arensman, Ella

    2008-01-01

    Elaborating on previous studies on emotion regulation and deliberate self-harm (DSH), in the present study we distinguish between strategies of cognitive content (e.g., suicidal cognitions of perceived burdensomeness, helplessness, poor distress tolerance) and cognitive process (e.g., nonacceptance of emotional responses, lack of awareness of…

  18. Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies to Develop Students' Multicultural Counseling Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleke, Waganesh A.; Karayigit, Cebrail; Myers-Brooks, Kaitlyn

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effect of self-regulated learning strategies on students' multicultural competency development. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 26 students who took a semester-long multicultural counseling course. Results show statistically significant improvement in students' multicultural awareness and knowledge and…

  19. Predicting College Students' Mathematics Anxiety By Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesici, Sahin; Erdogan, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning strategies are significant predictors of college students' mathematics anxiety. The subscales for the motivation scale are intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and…

  20. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... attainment and maintenance of NAAQS for nitrogen dioxide in the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate AQCR: (1...

  1. Assessment Strategies, Self-Regulated Learning Skills, and Perceptions of Assessment in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jin; Peck, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of assessment strategies and self-regulated learning skills on students' learning and perceptions of assessment for learning. The results revealed no statistically significant difference in the immediate skill-based and cognitive learning outcomes, but peer assessment teams scored significantly higher than the…

  2. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010: Markets, regulation, strategies and know-how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, Hans; Lennerfors, Thomas Taro; Poulsen, René Taudal

    2012-01-01

    of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one hand, the direction taken by two failing companies and, on the other, the courses followed by two...

  3. Physiological Arousal and Emotion Regulation Strategies in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zantinge, Gemma; van Rijn, Sophie; Stockmann, Lex; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess physiological arousal and behavioral regulation of emotion in the context of frustration in 29 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 45 typically developing children (41-81 months). Heart rate was continuously measured and emotion strategies were coded, during a locked-box task. Results revealed increases in…

  4. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements of...

  5. Brief Report: Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with a Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…

  6. A Hybrid Control Strategy for Robust Contact Detection and Force Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carloni, Raffaella; Sanfelice, Ricardo G.; Teel, Andrew R.; Melchiorri, Claudio

    We present an innovative hybrid control strategy for contact detection and force regulation of robotic manipulators. This hybrid architecture controls the robotic manipulator during the following stages of interaction with the work environment: the free motion, the transition phase, and the

  7. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-05-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Reflective Science Journal Writing on Students' Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawahi, Nawar M.; Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the effectiveness of grade-ten students' reflective science journal writing on their self-regulated learning strategies. We used a pre-post control group quasi-experimental design. The sample consisted of 62 tenth-grade students (15 years old) in Oman, comprising 32 students in the experimental group and 30 students…

  9. 40 CFR 52.1475 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Sulfur oxides. 52.1475 Section 52.1475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1475 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur oxides in the Nevada Intrastate Region. (b) Article 8.1.3...

  10. Lowering Foreign Language Anxiety through Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirossian, Armineh; Hartoonian, Anahid

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) and self-regulated learning strategies (SRLSs) are important factors that influence language learning process in negative and positive ways respectively. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between FLCA and SRLSs. To this end, 100 university students majoring in TEFL were selected. For…

  11. Assessing Self-Regulated Strategies for School Writing: Cross-Cultural Validation of a Triadic Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpique, Anabela Abreu; Veiga Simão, Ana Margarida

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the construction of a questionnaire to assess ninth-grade students' use of self-regulated strategies for school writing tasks. Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses were conducted to validate the factor structure of the instrument. The initial factor analytic stage (n = 296) revealed a 13-factor scale, accounting…

  12. Relationships between students' conceptions of constructivist learning and their regulation and processing strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); R.M.J.P. Rikers (Remy); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe present study investigated relationships between students' conceptions of constructivist learning on the one hand, and their regulation and processing strategies on the other hand. Students in a constructivist, problem-based learning curriculum were questioned about their conceptions

  13. 45 CFR Appendix I to Part 617 - List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I Appendix I to Part 617.... 617, App. I Appendix I to Part 617—List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I. Section 6 of Pub. L. 94-86, 42 U.S.C...

  14. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is a...

  15. Object similarity affects the perceptual strategy underlying invariant visual object recognition in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bianca Rosselli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have explored the possible use of rats as models of high-level visual functions. One central question at the root of such an investigation is to understand whether rat object vision relies on the processing of visual shape features or, rather, on lower-order image properties (e.g., overall brightness. In a recent study, we have shown that rats are capable of extracting multiple features of an object that are diagnostic of its identity, at least when those features are, structure-wise, distinct enough to be parsed by the rat visual system. In the present study, we have assessed the impact of object structure on rat perceptual strategy. We trained rats to discriminate between two structurally similar objects, and compared their recognition strategies with those reported in our previous study. We found that, under conditions of lower stimulus discriminability, rat visual discrimination strategy becomes more view-dependent and subject-dependent. Rats were still able to recognize the target objects, in a way that was largely tolerant (i.e., invariant to object transformation; however, the larger structural and pixel-wise similarity affected the way objects were processed. Compared to the findings of our previous study, the patterns of diagnostic features were: i smaller and more scattered; ii only partially preserved across object views; and iii only partially reproducible across rats. On the other hand, rats were still found to adopt a multi-featural processing strategy and to make use of part of the optimal discriminatory information afforded by the two objects. Our findings suggest that, as in humans, rat invariant recognition can flexibly rely on either view-invariant representations of distinctive object features or view-specific object representations, acquired through learning.

  16. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  17. The affective profiles in the USA: happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Schütz; Uta Sailer; Ali Al Nima; Patricia Rosenberg; Ann-Christine Andersson Arntén; Trevor Archer; Danilo Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Background. The affective profiles model categorizes individuals as self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The model has been used extensively among Swedes to discern differences between profiles regarding happiness, depression, and also life satisfaction. The aim of the present study was ...

  18. Codon usage regulates protein structure and function by affecting translation elongation speed in Drosophila cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fangzhou; Yu, Chien-Hung; Liu, Yi

    2017-08-21

    Codon usage biases are found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and have been proposed to regulate different aspects of translation process. Codon optimality has been shown to regulate translation elongation speed in fungal systems, but its effect on translation elongation speed in animal systems is not clear. In this study, we used a Drosophila cell-free translation system to directly compare the velocity of mRNA translation elongation. Our results demonstrate that optimal synonymous codons speed up translation elongation while non-optimal codons slow down translation. In addition, codon usage regulates ribosome movement and stalling on mRNA during translation. Finally, we show that codon usage affects protein structure and function in vitro and in Drosophila cells. Together, these results suggest that the effect of codon usage on translation elongation speed is a conserved mechanism from fungi to animals that can affect protein folding in eukaryotic organisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Marijn C W; van Wingen, Guido A; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be mitigated by increasing the tryptophan/LNAA ratio. We therefore tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study (N=32) whether a drink with a favourable tryptophan/LNAA ratio improves mood and modulates specific brain processes as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We show that one serving of this drink increases the tryptophan/LNAA ratio in blood plasma, lifts mood in healthy young women and alters task-specific and resting-state processing in brain regions implicated in mood regulation. Specifically, Test-drink consumption reduced neural responses of the dorsal caudate nucleus during reward anticipation, increased neural responses in the dorsal cingulate cortex during fear processing, and increased ventromedial prefrontal-lateral prefrontal connectivity under resting-state conditions. Our results suggest that increasing tryptophan/LNAA ratios can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. When love is not blind: rumination impairs implicit affect regulation in response to romantic relationship threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostmann, Nils B; Karremans, Johan; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2011-04-01

    The present research examined how rumination influences implicit affect regulation in response to romantic relationship threat. In three studies, the disposition to ruminate impaired the ability to maintain positive feelings about the romantic partner in the face of explicit or implicit reminders of relationship threatening events. In Study 1, a high disposition to ruminate was correlated with impaired down-regulation of negative feelings toward the partner in response to a hurtful relationship incident. Two follow-up studies manipulated relationship threat explicitly through an experiential recall procedure (Study 2) or implicitly through a subliminal evaluative-conditioning procedure (Study 3). In both studies only individuals with low disposition to ruminate were able to ward off negative feelings and maintain positive feelings toward the partner. These findings illuminate the role of implicit affect regulation in the context of relationship threat-and how it is inextricably connected with the processes underlying rumination. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  1. Study on Economic Regulation of Collaborative Strategies among Container Shipping Companies Following Repeal of European Union Regulation 4056/86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawindaran Nair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union removed the block exemption granted under Regulation 4056/86, to liner shipping companies to provide scheduled services on a collaborative basis effective October 2008. This has also been followed by the proposed P3 alliance with participation of Maersk, MSC and CMA CGM. This paper explores, the arguments adopted by the US Federal Maritime Commission, the European Commission and the Ministry of Commerce of China, in rejecting the case proposed by the P3 alliance. The findings of this paper will inform on understanding strategies adopted by major Competition Regulatory authorities in their interpretation of horizontal collaboration in the industry.

  2. Regulation of cocaine craving by cognitive strategies in an online sample of cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Reynolds, Anna R; Stoops, William W

    2016-08-01

    Emphasis on the negative consequences of drug use is a critical component of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) skills to regulate craving. Despite the relative success of CBT for treating substance use disorders, effective human laboratory models of CBT are lacking. Recent reports have indicated that the regulation of craving (ROC) task provides a valid model of craving regulation for nicotine, alcohol, and methamphetamine use. The present study examined ROC in an online sample of regular cocaine users (n = 44) recruited from Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk. In the ROC task, cognitive regulation strategies were manipulated by instructing participants to think about either the positive or negative consequences of consuming cocaine. Participants were then presented with cocaine images while engaging in each cognitive regulation strategy and asked to report current craving that was then compared to neutral look conditions. Food images served as a control. A cocaine purchase task was also completed to assess economic demand for cocaine and its relationship with cocaine craving. The use of negative appraisal strategies that model those used in CBT significantly attenuated craving for cocaine. Cocaine craving was also stimulus-specific, with greater smoked cocaine craving reported by individuals with a history of smoked cocaine use. This online extension of the ROC task provides converging evidence for its use as a model of CBT cocaine-craving regulation. Futures studies can use this model to examine the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of CBT for cocaine use and the relationship between craving regulation and drug-use behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. An experimental analysis of the affect regulation model of binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sarah L; Haynos, Ann F; Crow, Scott J; Fruzzetti, Alan E

    2017-03-01

    There is research suggesting that binge eating may serve an affect regulation function. However, experimental evidence supporting this model in adults is sparse and studies have been mixed regarding whether negative affect impacts objective energy intake. This study examined the impact of a real-time interpersonal stressor on laboratory test meal intake between individuals endorsing recent objective binge eating (≥1×/week) and those denying disordered eating. Generalized linear modeling was used to compare individuals with recent binge eating (BE group; n = 52) to those denying recent eating pathology (HC group; n = 51) on test meal intake following a stressor (stressful condition) or neutral stimulus (non-stressful condition). Moderated mediation analyses were used to examine whether negative affect mediated the impact of condition on intake differently between BE and HC groups. The BE group did not have significantly higher energy intake than the HC group in the stressful verses non-stressful condition. However, the BE group was more likely to engage in extreme intake (i.e., over- or under-consumption) than the HC group in the stressful versus non-stressful condition (p = 0.02). Changes in negative affect did not significantly mediate the relationship between condition and intake extremes for the BE group. The results indicate that both over- and under-consumption are triggered by stress among individuals with recent binge eating. Continued research investigating both binge eating and restriction as a means of affect regulation in binge-eating samples is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Yield components in wheat affected by sowing density and growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Luiz Fioreze

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on yield potential of plants by crop management is the main research challenge due to the growing of food demand worldwide. The objective of this work was to study physiological and morphological traits and its relationship with yield components and yield of wheat as affected by sowing densities and plant growth regulators. The experimental design was a split-plot design with four replications. The plots were consisted by four sowing densities (30, 50 70 and 90 plants m-1 and the subplots were consisted by plant growth regulators [control, (IBA+GA+KT, Trinexapac-Ethyl e (IBA+GA+KT + Trinexapac-Ethyl]. Dry matter accumulation, plant height, source-sink distance, gas exchange and yield were determined. Trinexapac-Ethyl application resulted in decreasing of plant height, source-sink distance and flag leaf length; however, the grain yield was not affected. The number of plants per unit area affected dry matter accumulation. Higher dry matter accumulation showed direct relationship with yield and yield components in lower plant densities.

  5. ASPM and CITK regulate spindle orientation by affecting the dynamics of astral microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Marta; Bianchi, Federico T; Vagnoni, Cristiana; Vernì, Fiammetta; Bonaccorsi, Silvia; Pasquero, Selina; Berto, Gaia E; Sgrò, Francesco; Chiotto, Alessandra Ma; Annaratone, Laura; Sapino, Anna; Bergo, Anna; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Bond, Jacqueline; Huttner, Wieland B; Di Cunto, Ferdinando

    2016-10-01

    Correct orientation of cell division is considered an important factor for the achievement of normal brain size, as mutations in genes that affect this process are among the leading causes of microcephaly. Abnormal spindle orientation is associated with reduction of the neuronal progenitor symmetric divisions, premature cell cycle exit, and reduced neurogenesis. This mechanism has been involved in microcephaly resulting from mutation of ASPM, the most frequently affected gene in autosomal recessive human primary microcephaly (MCPH), but it is presently unknown how ASPM regulates spindle orientation. In this report, we show that ASPM may control spindle positioning by interacting with citron kinase (CITK), a protein whose loss is also responsible for severe microcephaly in mammals. We show that the absence of CITK leads to abnormal spindle orientation in mammals and insects. In mouse cortical development, this phenotype correlates with increased production of basal progenitors. ASPM is required to recruit CITK at the spindle, and CITK overexpression rescues ASPM phenotype. ASPM and CITK affect the organization of astral microtubules (MT), and low doses of MT-stabilizing drug revert the spindle orientation phenotype produced by their knockdown. Finally, CITK regulates both astral-MT nucleation and stability. Our results provide a functional link between two established microcephaly proteins. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Counter-regulation in affective attentional biases: Evidence in the additional singleton paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentura, Dirk; Müller, Philipp; Rothermund, Klaus; Voss, Andreas

    2017-04-05

    We investigated motivational influences on affective processing biases; specifically, we were interested in whether anticipating positive vs. negative future outcomes during goal pursuit affects attentional biases towards positive or negative stimuli. Attentional valence biases were assessed with the additional singleton task, with the task-irrelevant singleton colors being either positive, negative, or neutral. The motivational relevance of colors was established in a preceding task: in a balanced design, one color acquired positive valence by indicating the chance to win money, and a different color acquired negative valence by indicating the danger to lose money. Blocks of the additional singleton task were associated with either the chance of winning money (positive outcome focus) or the danger of losing money (negative outcome focus). We found an interaction of outcome focus and singleton valence in the accuracy rates, indicating an incongruency effect: Attentional capture was stronger for positive (negative) singletons in the negative (positive) outcome focus conditions. This result further corroborates the counter-regulation hypothesis, extending previous findings on the motivational top-down regulation of affective processing to the domain of early attentional processes.

  7. P. brasiliensis Virulence Is Affected by SconC, the Negative Regulator of Inorganic Sulfur Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151

  8. Infertility-related communication and coping strategies among women affected by primary or secondary infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Taina; Aanesen, Arthur; Fossum, Bjöörn; Karlgren, Klas; Westerbotn, Margareta

    2017-07-05

    To explore infertility-related communication and coping strategies among women affected by primary or secondary fertility problems. Infertility is a worldwide problem and is experienced as psychologically stressful. Communication about infertility varies depending on clinical aspects, personal relationships and culture. A quantitative cross-sectional study design was used. One hundred and ninety-nine women affected by primary and secondary infertility were recruited from one fertility clinic in Stockholm. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The answers were compared across the two groups using the chi-squared test for independence. The majority of the women discussed infertility-related subjects with intimate friends and/or relatives and did not discuss the results of examinations and tests with people outside of the family. There were significant differences between the two groups. Twice as many women with secondary infertility acknowledged that they never talk about the causes or results of the tests and examinations with other people, compared with women with primary infertility. Approximately 25% of the women with primary infertility used distraction techniques, such as turning to work, as a coping strategy compared to women with secondary infertility (10%). Some women did not discuss the inability to conceive and reasons why they were childless with their spouses. Twelve percentage of the women reported that they left the room when the subjects of children were being discussed. Approximately 30% of the participants did not ask friends or relatives for advice and a few were not able to discuss how tests and treatments affected them emotionally. This study indicates that a majority of infertile women discuss about infertility-related subjects with their spouses. However, they are less likely to discuss the reason for infertility and results of tests and examinations with people outside the family. The result of the current

  9. Epigenetic mechanisms affecting regulation of energy balance: many questions, few answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterland, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Extensive human and animal model data show that nutrition and other environmental influences during critical periods of embryonic, fetal, and early postnatal life can affect the development of body weight regulatory pathways, with permanent consequences for risk of obesity. Epigenetic processes are widely viewed as a leading mechanism to explain the lifelong persistence of such "developmental programming" of energy balance. Despite meaningful progress in recent years, however, significant research obstacles impede our ability to test this hypothesis. Accordingly, this review attempts to summarize progress toward answering the following outstanding questions: Is epigenetic dysregulation a major cause of human obesity? In what cells/tissues is epigenetic regulation most important for energy balance? Does developmental programming of human body weight regulation occur via epigenetic mechanisms? Do epigenetic mechanisms have a greater impact on food intake or energy expenditure? Does epigenetic inheritance contribute to transgenerational patterns of obesity? In each case, significant obstacles and suggested approaches to surmounting them are elaborated.

  10. Expression of cell cycle regulator p16 is not affected by diabetes during oral oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Goutzanis, Lambros; Nkenke, Emeka; Spyridonidou, Sofia; Vassiliou, Stavros; Derka, Spyridoula; Vylliotis, Antonis; Yapijakis, Christos; Lazaris, Andreas; Patsouris, Efstratios

    2007-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p16 plays a vital role in the regulation of the cell cycle. The expression of p16 was investigated in an experimental model of chemically induced carcinogenesis in normal and diabetic (type I) Sprague-Dawley rats. Tissue sections ranging from normal oral mucosa to moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied immunohistochemically. In normal rats p16 expression increased gradually during oral oncogenesis, but a significant increase was observed only in moderately differentiated OSCC (p=0.038). On the contrary, in diabetic rats the detected gradual increase was significant in hyperplasia, dysplasia, early invasion and well-differentiated OSCC (panimals. It seems that the expression of cell cycle regulator p16 is not affected by diabetes in the studied animal model of oral oncogenesis.

  11. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  12. Attentional control and executive functioning in school-aged children: Linking self-regulation and parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Andrea M; Dekker, Marielle C; Ziermans, Tim B; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-10-09

    Good parenting strategies can shape children's neurocognitive development, yet little is known about the nature of this relation in school-aged children and whether this association shifts with age. We aimed to investigate the relation between parenting strategies observed during a home visit and children's performance-based attentional control and executive functioning (N=98, aged 4-8years). Linear and curvilinear regression analyses showed that children of parents who were more supportive, were less intrusive, and asked more open-ended questions displayed better inhibitory control. In addition, children of parents who asked relatively more open-ended than closed-ended questions showed better performance on inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility tasks. Curvilinear relations indicated the presence of an optimal amount of closed-ended and elaborative questions by parents-that is, not too few and not too many-which is linked to increased performance on attentional and inhibitory control in children. Higher parental intrusiveness and more frequent elaborative questioning were associated with decreased inhibitory control in younger children, whereas no such negative associations were present in older children. These results suggest that susceptibility to certain parenting strategies may shift with age. Our findings underscore the importance of adaptive parenting strategies to both the age and needs of school-aged children, which may positively affect their self-regulation skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The epigenetic regulation of the opioid system: new individualized prompt prevention and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoa, Iraia; Urizar, Itziar; Casis, Luis; Irazusta, Jon; Subirán, Nerea

    2015-11-01

    The most well-known physiological effect associated with opiod system is their efficacy in pain reduction or analgesia, although their effect on a variety of other physiological and physiophological functions has become apparent in recent years. This review is an attempt to clarify in more detail the epigenetic regulation of opioid system to understand with more precision their transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation in multiple pyisiological and pharmacological contexts. The opioid receptors show an epigenetic regulation and opioid peptide precursors by methylation, chromatin remodeling and microRNA. Although the opioid receptor promoters have similarity between them, they use different epigenetic regulation forms and they exhibit different pattern of expression during the cell differentiation. DNA methylation is also confirmed in opioid peptide precursors, being important for gene expression and tissue specificity. Understanding the epigenetic basis of those physiological and physiopathological procesess is essential for the development of individualized prompt prevention and treatment strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The relationship between emotion regulation strategies and job search behavior among fourth-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Xue; Fang, Ping

    2017-08-01

    The job search process is a stressful experience. This study investigated the effect of emotion regulation strategies on job search behavior in combination with anxiety and job search self-efficacy among Chinese university fourth-year students (N = 816, mean age = 21.98, 31.5% male, 34.9% majored in science, 18.0% from "211 Project" universities). Results showed that cognitive reappraisal was positively related to job search behavior, while expressive suppression was negatively related to job search behavior. Additionally, anxiety was negatively related to job search behavior, while job search self-efficacy was positively associated with job search behavior. Moreover, both anxiety and job search self-efficacy mediated the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and job search behavior. In general, emotion regulation strategies played an important role in job search behavior. Implications include the notion that emotion regulation interventions may be helpful to increase job search behavior among university students. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dominance rank causally affects personality and glucocorticoid regulation in female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Jordan N; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Barreiro, Luis B; Johnson, Zachary P; Tung, Jenny; Wilson, Mark E

    2016-12-01

    Low social status is frequently associated with heightened exposure to social stressors and altered glucocorticoid regulation by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Additionally, personality differences can affect how individuals behave in response to social conditions, and thus may aggravate or protect against the effects of low status on HPA function. Disentangling the relative importance of personality from the effects of the social environment on the HPA axis has been challenging, since social status can predict aspects of behavior, and both can remain stable across the lifespan. To do so here, we studied an animal model of social status and social behavior, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). We performed two sequential experimental manipulations of dominance rank (i.e., social status) in 45 adult females, allowing us to characterize personality and glucocorticoid regulation (based on sensitivity to the exogenous glucocorticoid dexamethasone) in each individual while she occupied two different dominance ranks. We identified two behavioral characteristics, termed 'social approachability' and 'boldness,' which were highly social status-dependent. Social approachability and a third dimension, anxiousness, were also associated with cortisol dynamics in low status females, suggesting that behavioral tendencies may sensitize individuals to the effects of low status on HPA axis function. Finally, we found that improvements in dominance rank increased dexamethasone-induced acute cortisol suppression and glucocorticoid negative feedback. Our findings indicate that social status causally affects both behavioral tendencies and glucocorticoid regulation, and that some behavioral tendencies also independently affect cortisol levels, beyond the effects of rank. Together, they highlight the importance of considering personality and social status together when investigating their effects on HPA axis function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Network Regulation and Support Schemes - How Policy Interactions Affect the Integration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect distributed generation. Firstly, the incentives of distributed generators and distribution system operators are examined. Frequently there exists a trade......-off between the incentives for these two market agents to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based on five EU Member States. Aspects of operational nature and investments in grid and distributed...... generation facilities are covered. The question in which policy segment to incorporate locational signals is at the heart of the debate...

  17. Perceptions of Intragroup Rejection and Coping Strategies: Malleable Factors Affecting Hispanic Adolescents’ Emotional and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michael T.; Crano, William D.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54 % female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection. PMID:24234042

  18. Perceptions of intragroup rejection and coping strategies: malleable factors affecting Hispanic adolescents’ emotional and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basáñez, Tatiana; Warren, Michael T; Crano, William D; Unger, Jennifer B

    2014-08-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54% female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection.

  19. Development of a qPCR strategy to select bean genes involved in plant defence response and regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defence response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defence-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from From the 48 bean genes initially analysed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34 or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected.As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defence, which respond to the presence of a biocontrol agent or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defence genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani.

  20. Beliefs about learning, self-regulated strategies and text comprehension among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum; Chan, Carol K K; Sachs, John

    2008-03-01

    Most studies have investigated college and high school students' epistemological beliefs in Western contexts, with few studies examining how beliefs about learning are related to children's strategies and comprehension in the Chinese cultural context. The present study investigated Chinese elementary school children's beliefs about learning and examined their relations with self-regulated learning strategies and text comprehension. The participants were 417 Grade 5 (mean age=10.8 years) and 420 Grade 6 (mean age=11.9 years) elementary school children in Hong Kong. A questionnaire assessing children's beliefs about learning was constructed; children were also asked to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire and several text comprehension tasks assessing deep understanding. Factor analysis indicated two contrasting factors of constructivist and reproductive beliefs about learning. High achievers outperformed low achievers on beliefs, strategy and comprehension scores. Multiple regression indicated that constructivist beliefs contributed to text comprehension over and above the effects of grade and strategy. This study corroborates current research on the roles of beliefs and strategies in text comprehension and suggests that meta-cognitive beliefs and strategies examined in English reading can also be identified among Chinese children in text comprehension.

  1. Longitudinal association between adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, Katherine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci. Results indicated that greater insecurity to parents and peers in adolescence predicted a more anxious romantic attachment style and greater use of emotion-oriented strategies in adulthood. Concurrently, anxious adult attachment style was related to more emotion-oriented strategies, whereas an avoidant attachment style was related to less support-seeking. Analyses also identified emotion-oriented coping strategies as a partial mediator of the link between adolescent attachment insecurity to parents and adult anxious attachment, and a complete mediator of the association between adolescent attachment insecurity to peers and adult anxious attachment. These findings support the core assumption of continuity in attachment theory, where relationships to parents influence close romantic relationships in adulthood.

  2. A 'select and swap' strategy for the isolation of clones with tightly regulated transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M J; Carpenter, A J; Porter, A C

    2001-03-01

    Increasing numbers of biological problems are being addressed by genetic approaches that rely on inducible expression of transgenes. It is desirable that expression of such a transgene is tightly regulated, from close to zero expression in the 'off' state, to appreciable (at least physiological) expression in the 'on' state. Although there are many examples where tight regulation has been achieved, certain factors, including chromosomal position effects due to random integration of the transgene, often cause suboptimal inducibility and make the isolation of tightly regulated clones difficult and/or laborious. Here we describe a 'select and swap' strategy for the isolation, from a population of stable transfectants, of clones with tightly regulated transgenes. In this approach, a positively and negatively selectable, inducible marker gene is used to select for clones with optimal transgene regulation. After isolation of such clones, the marker gene is swapped with a linked gene of interest by the use of site-specific recombination. To test this strategy we introduced into human cells a plasmid with a tetracycline-inducible bacterial gpt gene linked to a promoterless luciferase gene, isolated clones with tight gpt expression and used the Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system to swap the gpt gene with the luciferase gene. We discuss ways for refining and developing the system and widening its applicability.

  3. Implications of emotion regulation strategies for empathic concern, social attitudes, and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Matthew S; Dovidio, John F

    2015-04-01

    Empathic concern-a sense of caring and compassion in response to the needs of others-is a type of emotional response to the plights and misfortunes of others that predicts positive social attitudes and altruistic interpersonal behaviors. One psychological process that has been posited to facilitate empathic concern is the ability to regulate one's own emotions. However, existing research links some emotion-regulation approaches (e.g., suppression) to social outcomes that would appear at odds with empathic concern, such as decreased interpersonal closeness. In the present research, we tested whether relying on suppression to regulate one's emotions would lead to decreases in empathic concern-and related downstream variables, such as negative social attitudes and unwillingness to engage in altruistic behavior-when learning about another person's misfortune. In Study 1, dispositional and instructionally induced suppression was negatively associated with empathic concern, which led to increased stigmatizing attitudes. By contrast, instructing participants to use another emotion-regulation strategy examined for comparison-reappraisal-did not decrease empathic concern, and dispositional reliance on reappraisal was actually positively associated with empathic concern. In Study 2, the findings of Study 1 regarding the effects of habitual use of reappraisal and suppression were replicated, and reliance on suppression was also found to be associated with reluctance to engage in helping behaviors. These findings are situated within the existing literature and employed to shed new light on the interpersonal consequences of intrapersonal emotion-regulation strategies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A universal strategy for regulating mRNA translation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jicong; Arha, Manish; Sudrik, Chaitanya; Mukherjee, Abhirup; Wu, Xia; Kane, Ravi S

    2015-04-30

    We describe a simple strategy to control mRNA translation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells which relies on a unique protein-RNA interaction. Specifically, we used the Pumilio/FBF (PUF) protein to repress translation by binding in between the ribosome binding site (RBS) and the start codon (in Escherichia coli), or by binding to the 5' untranslated region of target mRNAs (in mammalian cells). The design principle is straightforward, the extent of translational repression can be tuned and the regulator is genetically encoded, enabling the construction of artificial signal cascades. We demonstrate that this approach can also be used to regulate polycistronic mRNAs; such regulation has rarely been achieved in previous reports. Since the regulator used in this study is a modular RNA-binding protein, which can be engineered to target different 8-nucleotide RNA sequences, our strategy could be used in the future to target endogenous mRNAs for regulating metabolic flows and signaling pathways in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Psychophysiological Assessment of the Effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Strategies in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Parsafar, Parisa; Quiñones-Camacho, Laura E; Shih, Emily W

    2017-02-11

    Effective regulation of emotion is one of the most important skills that develops in childhood. Research interest in this area is expanding, but empirical work has been limited by predominantly correlational investigations of children's skills. Relatedly, a key conceptual challenge for emotion scientists is to distinguish between emotion responding and emotion regulatory processes. This paper presents a novel method to address these conceptual and methodological issues in child samples. An experimental paradigm that assesses the effectiveness with which children regulate emotion is described. Children are randomly assigned to use specific emotion regulation strategies, negative emotions are elicited with film clips, and changes in subsequent psychophysiology index the extent to which emotion regulation is effective. Children are instructed to simply watch the emotion-eliciting film (control), distract themselves from negative emotions (cognitive distraction), or reframe the situation in a way that downplays the importance of the emotional event (cognitive reappraisal). Cardiac physiology, continuously acquired before and during the emotional task, serves as an objective measure of children's unfolding emotional responding while viewing evocative films. Key comparisons in patterns of obtained physiological reactivity are between the control and emotion regulation strategy conditions. Representative results from this approach are described, and discussion focuses on the contribution of this methodological approach to developmental science.

  6. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kawada-Matsuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (NagB have crucial roles in sugar distribution to the glycolysis pathway and to cell wall biosynthesis. In Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic pathogen, the expression levels of glmS and nagB are coordinately regulated in response to the presence or absence of amino sugars. In addition, the disruption of this regulation affects the virulence of S. mutans. The expression of nagB and glmS is regulated by NagR in S. mutans, but the precise mechanism underlying glmS regulation is not clear. In Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA of glmS has ribozyme activity and undergoes self-degradation at the mRNA level. However, there is no ribozyme activity region on glmS mRNA in S. mutans. In this review article, we summarize the sugar distribution, particularly the coordinated regulation of GlmS and NagB expression, and its relationship with the virulence of S. mutans.

  7. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Oogai, Yuichi; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-12-28

    Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production) and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS) and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (NagB) have crucial roles in sugar distribution to the glycolysis pathway and to cell wall biosynthesis. In Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic pathogen, the expression levels of glmS and nagB are coordinately regulated in response to the presence or absence of amino sugars. In addition, the disruption of this regulation affects the virulence of S. mutans. The expression of nagB and glmS is regulated by NagR in S. mutans, but the precise mechanism underlying glmS regulation is not clear. In Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA of glmS has ribozyme activity and undergoes self-degradation at the mRNA level. However, there is no ribozyme activity region on glmS mRNA in S. mutans. In this review article, we summarize the sugar distribution, particularly the coordinated regulation of GlmS and NagB expression, and its relationship with the virulence of S. mutans.

  8. Arm Dominance Affects Feedforward Strategy more than Feedback Sensitivity during a Postural Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elise H. E.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Handedness is a feature of human motor control that is still not fully understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the dominant and nondominant arm each excel at different behaviors, and has proposed that this behavioral asymmetry arises from lateralization in the cerebral cortex: the dominant side specializes in predictive trajectory control, while the nondominant side is specialized for impedance control. Long-latency stretch reflexes are an automatic mechanism for regulating posture, and have been shown to contribute to limb impedance. To determine whether long-latency reflexes also contribute to asymmetric motor behavior in the upper limbs, we investigated the effect of arm dominance on stretch reflexes during a postural task that required varying degrees of impedance control. Our results demonstrated slightly but significantly larger reflex responses in the biarticular muscles of the nondominant arm, as would be consistent with increased impedance control. These differences were attributed solely to higher levels of voluntary background activity in the nondominant biarticular muscles, indicating that feedforward strategies for postural stability may differ between arms. Reflex sensitivity, which was defined as the magnitude of the reflex response for matched levels of background activity, was not significantly different between arms for a broad subject population ranging from 23–51 years of age. These results indicate that inter-arm differences in feedforward strategies are more influential during posture than differences in feedback sensitivity, in a broad subject population. Interestingly, restricting our analysis to subjects under 40 years of age revealed a small increase in long-latency reflex sensitivity in the nondominant arm relative to the dominant arm. Though our subject numbers were small for this secondary analysis, it suggests that further studies may be required to assess the influence of reflex lateralization throughout development. PMID

  9. Attachment in late adolescence: working models, affect regulation, and representations of self and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, R R; Sceery, A

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the coherence of attachment organization during late adolescence. In a sample of 53 first-year college students, 3 kinds of working models of attachment were assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview: Dismissing of Attachment, Secure, and Preoccupied with Attachment. Affect regulation was evaluated with peer Q-sort ratings of Ego-Resiliency, Ego-Undercontrol, Hostility, and Anxiety, and representations of self and others were assessed with self-report measures of distress, perceived competence, and social support. The Secure group was rated as more ego-resilient, less anxious, and less hostile by peers and reported little distress and high levels of social support. The Dismissing group was rated low on ego-resilience and higher on hostility by peers and reported more distant relationships in terms of more loneliness and low levels of social support from family. The Preoccupied group was viewed as less ego-resilient and more anxious by peers and reported high levels of personal distress, while viewing their family as more supportive than the Dismissing group. These findings are interpreted in terms of different styles of affect regulation and representational bias associated with particular working models of attachment.

  10. Laccase-13 Regulates Seed Setting Rate by Affecting Hydrogen Peroxide Dynamics and Mitochondrial Integrity in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed setting rate is one of the most important components of rice grain yield. To date, only several genes regulating setting rate have been identified in plant. In this study, we showed that laccase-13 (OsLAC13, a member of laccase family genes which are known for their roles in modulating phenylpropanoid pathway and secondary lignification in cell wall, exerts a regulatory function in rice seed setting rate. OsLAC13 expressed in anthers and promotes hydrogen peroxide production both in vitro and in the filaments and anther connectives. Knock-out of OsLAC13 showed significantly increased seed setting rate, while overexpression of this gene exhibited induced mitochondrial damage and suppressed sugar transportation in anthers, which in turn affected seed setting rate. OsLAC13 also induced H2O2 production and mitochondrial damage in the root tip cells which caused the lethal phenotype. We also showed that high abundant of OsmiR397, the suppressor of OsLAC13 mRNA, increased the seed setting rate of rice plants, and restrains H2O2 accumulation in roots during oxidative stress. Our results suggested a novel regulatory role of OsLAC13 gene in regulating seed setting rate by affecting H2O2 dynamics and mitochondrial integrity in rice.

  11. Big Five Personality Traits, Cognitive Appraisals and Emotion Regulation Strategies as Predictors of Achievement Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sorić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In academic settings, emotions can arise in a variety of contexts and have adverse and interfering effects on learning and performance, especially those of negative valence. Thus, the investigation of their personal antecedents and different strategies implemented by students in order to regulate them, are important topics of research. The aim of this study was to examine the unique contribution of Big Five personality traits (as distal personal antecedents of emotions, cognitive control and value appraisals (as their proximal antecedents and students' tendencies to reappraise or suppress their emotions (as most important emotion regulation strategies for experiencing academic emotions of unhappiness, anger, anxiety and humiliation. The sample consisted of 500 high school students who completed the self-report questionnaire during their regular scheduled classes. The series of multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that all groups of predictors have made significant and independent contribution to the explanation of all analysed emotions.

  12. Mutations in TSPEAR, Encoding a Regulator of Notch Signaling, Affect Tooth and Hair Follicle Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Peled

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias (EDs, the molecular basis of many of these disorders remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of a new form of ED featuring facial dysmorphism, scalp hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified 2 frameshift and 2 missense mutations in TSPEAR segregating with the disease phenotype in 3 families. TSPEAR encodes the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and EAR repeats (TSPEAR protein, whose function is poorly understood. TSPEAR knock-down resulted in altered expression of genes known to be regulated by NOTCH and to be involved in murine hair and tooth development. Pathway analysis confirmed that down-regulation of TSPEAR in keratinocytes is likely to affect Notch signaling. Accordingly, using a luciferase-based reporter assay, we showed that TSPEAR knock-down is associated with decreased Notch signaling. In addition, NOTCH1 protein expression was reduced in patient scalp skin. Moreover, TSPEAR silencing in mouse hair follicle organ cultures was found to induce apoptosis in follicular epithelial cells, resulting in decreased hair bulb diameter. Collectively, these observations indicate that TSPEAR plays a critical, previously unrecognized role in human tooth and hair follicle morphogenesis through regulation of the Notch signaling pathway.

  13. Emotion malleability beliefs, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: Integrating affective and clinical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, Elizabeth T; Dovidio, John F; Joormann, Jutta; Clark, Margaret S

    2016-04-01

    Beliefs that individuals hold about whether emotions are malleable or fixed, also referred to as emotion malleability beliefs, may play a crucial role in individuals' emotional experiences and their engagement in changing their emotions. The current review integrates affective science and clinical science perspectives to provide a comprehensive review of how emotion malleability beliefs relate to emotionality, emotion regulation, and specific clinical disorders and treatment. Specifically, we discuss how holding more malleable views of emotion could be associated with more active emotion regulation efforts, greater motivation to engage in active regulatory efforts, more effort expended regulating emotions, and lower levels of pathological distress. In addition, we explain how extending emotion malleability beliefs into the clinical domain can complement and extend current conceptualizations of major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. This may prove important given the increasingly central role emotion dysregulation has been given in conceptualization and intervention for these psychiatric conditions. Additionally, discussion focuses on how emotion beliefs could be more explicitly addressed in existing cognitive therapies. Promising future directions for research are identified throughout the review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Water deficit affected flavonoid accumulation by regulating hormone metabolism in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan

    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids especially baicalin and baicalein determined the medical quality of Scutellaria baicalensis which is a Chinese traditional medicinal plant. Here, we investigated the mechanism responsible for the content and composition of flavonoids in S. baicalensis under water deficit condition. The transcription levels of several genes which are involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were stimulated by water deficit. Under water deficit condition, fifteen up-regulated proteins, three down-regulated proteins and other six proteins were detected by proteomic analysis. The identified proteins include three gibberellin (GA- or indoleacetic acid (IAA-related proteins. Decreased endogenous GAs level and increased IAA level were observed in leaves of S. baicalensis which was treated with water deficit. Exogenous application of GA or α-naphthalene acelic acid (NAA to plants grown under water deficit conditions led to the increase of endogenous GAs and the decrease of IAA and flavonoids, respectively. When the synthesis pathway of GA or IAA in plants was inhibited by application with the inhibitors, flavonoid levels were recovered. These results indicate that water deficit affected flavonoid accumulation might through regulating hormone metabolism in S. baicalensis Georgi.

  15. Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Alice; Grant, Michaela; Hofmann, Stefan G; Hiller, Wolfgang; Berking, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Cognitive reappraisal and acceptance are two presumably adaptive emotion regulation strategies in depression. More recently, self-compassion has been discussed as another potentially effective strategy for coping with depression. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of self-compassion with a waiting condition, reappraisal, and acceptance in a clinically depressed sample, and tested the hypothesis that the intensity of depressed mood would moderate the differential efficacy of these strategies. In an experimental design, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 48 participants meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to wait, reappraise the situation, accept their negative emotions, or employ self-compassion to regulate their depressed mood. Self-ratings of depressed mood were assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation phase. Results showed that the reduction of depressed mood was significantly greater in the self-compassion condition than in the waiting condition. No significant differences were observed between the self-compassion and the reappraisal condition, and between the self-compassion and the acceptance condition in patients' mood ratings. However, the intensity of self-rated depressed mood at baseline was found to moderate the comparative effectiveness of self-compassion and reappraisal with a trend of self-compassion being more effective than reappraisal in high depressed mood at baseline. These findings support the use of self-compassion as another adaptive emotion regulation strategy for patients with major depressive disorder, especially for those suffering from high levels of depressed mood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Focus on the feeding behaviors inducing obesity and their regulation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingli; Li, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide public health concern. In particular, obesity caused by excessive energy intake was widespread which has strong causal relationship with food preference behaviors. In this review, we would briefly talk about characteristics of feeding behaviors inducing obesity, as well as the possible neurophysiological mechanisms involved in food preference formation and development. Meantime, we would introduce some regulation strategies to deal with obesity which mainly based on the current feeding behaviors of the obese.

  17. Drought responses of two gymnosperm species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies under elevated [CO2] and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Honglang; O'Grady, Anthony P; Duursma, Remko A; Choat, Brendan; Huang, Guomin; Smith, Renee A; Jiang, Yanan; Tissue, David T

    2015-07-01

    Future climate regimes characterized by rising [CO2], rising temperatures and associated droughts may differentially affect tree growth and physiology. However, the interactive effects of these three factors are complex because elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature may generate differential physiological responses during drought. To date, the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature on drought-induced tree mortality remain poorly understood in gymnosperm species that differ in stomatal regulation strategies. Water relations and carbon dynamics were examined in two species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies: Pinus radiata D. Don (relatively isohydric gymnosperm; regulating stomata to maintain leaf water potential above critical thresholds) and Callitris rhomboidea R. Br (relatively anisohydric gymnosperm; allowing leaf water potential to decline as the soil dries), to assess response to drought as a function of [CO2] and temperature. Both species were grown in two [CO2] (C(a) (ambient, 400 μl l(-1)) and C(e) (elevated, 640 μl l(-1))) and two temperature (T(a) (ambient) and T(e) (ambient +4 °C)) treatments in a sun-lit glasshouse under well-watered conditions. Drought plants were then exposed to a progressive drought until mortality. Prior to mortality, extensive xylem cavitation occurred in both species, but significant depletion of non-structural carbohydrates was not observed in either species. Te resulted in faster mortality in P. radiata, but it did not modify the time-to-mortality in C. rhomboidea. C(e) did not delay the time-to-mortality in either species under drought or T(e) treatments. In summary, elevated temperature (+4 °C) had greater influence than elevated [CO2] (+240 μl l(-1)) on drought responses of the two studied gymnosperm species, while stomatal regulation strategies did not generally affect the relative contributions of hydraulic failure and carbohydrate depletion to mortality under severe drought.

  18. Shiga toxin in enterohemorrhagic E.coli: regulation and novel anti-virulence strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Alline R.; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are responsible for major outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) throughout the world. The mortality associated with EHEC infections stems from the production and release of a potent Shiga toxin (Stx) by these bacteria. Stx induces cell death in endothelial cells, primarily in the urinary tract, causing HUS. Stx was first described in Shigella dysenteriae serotype I by Kiyoshi Shiga and was discovered later in EHEC. Multiple environmental cues regulate the expression of Stx, including temperature, growth phase, antibiotics, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and quorum sensing. Currently, there is no effective treatment or prophylaxis for HUS. Because antibiotics trigger Stx production and their use to treat EHEC infections is controversial, alternative therapeutic strategies have become the focus of intense research. One such strategy explores quorum sensing inhibitors as therapeutics. These inhibitors target quorum sensing regulation of Stx expression without interfering with bacterial growth, leading to the hypothesis that these inhibitors impose less selective pressure for bacteria to develop drug resistance. In this review, we discuss factors that regulate Stx production in EHEC, as well as novel strategies to prevent and/or minimize the development of HUS in infected subjects. PMID:22919672

  19. Affective science and health: the importance of emotion and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Gross, James J; Kubzansky, Laura

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this article is to provide insight into how recent findings from affective science may be translated into the health arena. We first review definitional issues related to the key concepts of emotion and stress. We then review relevant research that informs our understanding of the affect-health relationship. Subsequently, we highlight findings that are the most informative and also ripe for translation into the domains of health and health-related behaviors. We identify several domains of affect-relevant processes (e.g., emotion-regulation, stress response) that would benefit from increased elaboration. Three themes may guide how best to broaden our understanding across multiple domains: the need to use a differentiated emotion-based approach, the need to consider potential synergistic and oppositional effects of emotion that can occur in parallel, and the need to examine the impact of emotions with respect to regulation and coping at both the intra- and interindividual levels. Building on insights derived from these themes, we suggest a broad integrative framework for use with future investigations. This framework categorizes potential emotion-related effects on health according to whether they influence health directly (e.g., shaping physiological responses) or indirectly (e.g., guiding decision making and behavior). Using this approach will allow researchers to examine systematically the often simultaneous and sometimes opposing influences of emotion on distinct health-relevant cognitive and physiological mechanisms, and to integrate across potentially disparate findings. We conclude by suggesting opportunities for future work that we see as most fruitful based on the presented framework. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Investigating Self-Regulated Study Strategies among Postsecondary Students with and without Dyslexia: A Diary Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Rune; Jensen, Magne S.; Bråten, Ivar

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the use of self-regulated study strategies among undergraduates with dyslexia by means of extensive web-based diary data, comparing their strategy use to that of matched students without dyslexia who completed the diary in the same period. Additionally, we examined the perceived benefits of using the recorded strategies in both…

  1. Pathways to positivity from perceived stress in adolescents: multiple mediation of emotion regulation and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Yildiz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study aimed to examine the multiple mediation of emotion regulation and coping strategies in the relationship between perceived stress and positivity in adolescents. Participants and procedure Participants included 312 adolescents attending high schools. 162 of the participants were female and 150 were male, with an average age of 16.26, SD = 1.21. Data collection was conducted with the Perceived Stress Scale, the Emotion Regulation Scale for Adolescents, the Coping Scale for Children and Youth, and the Positivity Scale. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, regression based on ordinary least squares, and the bootstrap method were used to analyze the research data. Results The research findings indicated that internal dysfunctional emotion regulation, assistance seeking, problem solving, and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between perceived stress and positivity. Conclusion In conclusion, internal dysfunctional emotion regulation, seeking assistance, problem solving, and behavioral avoidance were found to mediate the relationship between adolescents’ perceived stress and positivity. Thus, preparing individual and group psychological counseling as well as emotion regulation and coping-oriented psycho-educational programs for adolescents to regulate negative emotions and to cope with stress may be important. The research findings were discussed and interpreted based on the relevant literature, and suggestions for relevant experts were included.

  2. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies Applied to Undergraduate, Graduate and Specialization Students from Civil Engineering

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    Jose Carlos Redaelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The current demand for civil engineering work requires new skills and knowledge and calls for new and effective learning methods. This paper shows self-regulated learning strategies applied to undergraduate, graduate and specialization students from Civil Engineering in a Brazilian University. A Scale of Evaluation of Learning Strategies was administered with a view to identifying students´ cognitive, metacognitive and dysfunctional learning strategies.

  3. Metacognitive, affective-motivational processes in self-regulated learning and students' achievement in native language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical and empirical research has focused on metacognitive and affective processes in learning and performance in diverse domains of inquiry. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between these processes and achievement in native language (Slovene. 369 pupils in fifth grade of primary school participated in the study. A 41-item questionnaire was constructed to measure pupils' metacognitive and affective processes in learning native language. Factor analysis of the items revealed four different factors that accounted for 38.4% of the explained variance: two metacognitive (strategies of learning and solving tasks in Slovenian, searching for meaning and understanding in Slovenian and two affective (experiencing fear of Slovenian, feelings of success and interest in Slovenian. Further analysis showed negative correlations between achievement and these factors: searching for meaning and understanding in Slovenian, experiencing fear of Slovenian. Positive correlation was found between achievement and the factor feelings of success and interest in Slovenian. In conclusion, implications for educational practice are discussed.

  4. Optimal Control and Operation Strategy for Wind Turbines Contributing to Grid Primary Frequency Regulation

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    Mun-Kyeom Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a frequency regulation strategy to enable the participation of wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs. The optimal strategy focuses on developing the frequency support capability of PMSGs connected to the power system. Active power control is performed using maximum power point tracking (MPPT and de-loaded control to supply the required power reserve following a disturbance. A kinetic energy (KE reserve control is developed to enhance the frequency regulation capability of wind turbines. The coordination with the de-loaded control prevents instability in the PMSG wind system due to excessive KE discharge. A KE optimization method that maximizes the sum of the KE reserves at wind farms is also adopted to determine the de-loaded power reference for each PMSG wind turbine using the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control and operation strategy, three different case studies are conducted using the PSCAD/EMTDC simulation tool. The results demonstrate that the optimal strategy enhances the frequency support contribution from PMSG wind turbines.

  5. Accounting for intrusive thoughts in PTSD: Contributions of cognitive control and deliberate regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomyea, Jessica; Lang, Ariel J

    2016-03-01

    Persistent, trauma-related intrusive thoughts are common in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Automatic aspects of cognitive functioning (including executive functioning) and maladaptive deliberate attempts at cognitive regulation have been proposed as individual difference factors that may perpetuate intrusive thoughts. The current study sought to examine the joint contribution of these two factors on intrusive thoughts in PTSD. Forty-two women with PTSD completed an executive functioning assessment followed by a thought suppression task. Intrusive thoughts (frequency and duration), as well as participants' use of specific cognitive regulation strategies (avoidance-based thought regulation strategies; TRS), were measured during the task. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the interaction of executive functioning and TRS on intrusive thoughts. Greater use of TRS was associated with greater intrusive thought persistence for those with low executive functioning, but not those with high executive functioning. Data was collected cross-sectionally and the laboratory thought suppression task may not correspond to naturalistic thought regulation. Results are consistent with prior literature suggesting that certain responses deployed by individuals to control intrusive thoughts may be unhelpful, but that a higher level of cognitive capacity may mitigate this effect. Implications of these findings for recent models of cognition in PTSD are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS: activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006 shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS and their relationship to positive and negative affect.Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73 responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule.Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41 and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27.Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

  7. 3x2 Classroom Goal Structures, Motivational Regulations, Self-Concept, and Affectivity in Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini-Estrada, José-Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio; Méndez-Alonso, David

    2017-09-20

    The main objective was to analyze relationships and predictive patterns between 3x2 classroom goal structures (CGS), and motivational regulations, dimensions of self-concept, and affectivity in the context of secondary education. A sample of 1,347 secondary school students (56.6% young men, 43.4% young women) from 10 different provinces of Spain agreed to participate (M age = 13.43, SD = 1.05). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated the self-approach CGS was the most adaptive within the spectrum of self-determination, followed by the task-approach CGS. The other-approach CGS had an ambivalent influence on motivation. Task-approach and self-approach CGS predicted academic self-concept (p affect was predicted by all three approach-oriented CGS's (p affect was predicted by other-approach (positively) and self-approach (negatively) CGS (p < .001; p < .05, respectively; R 2 = .028). These results expand the 3x2 achievement goal framework to include environmental factors, and reiterate that teachers should focus on raising levels of self- and task-based goals for students in their classes.

  8. Cultural factors affecting urban planners’ intentions to regulate public space in Prishtina, Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visar Hoxha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural factors can affect urban planners’ intentions to regulate public space in a particular way. The effects of cultural identity or ideology on urban planning are significant, but are often overlooked because they are difficult to quantify. This study verifies which factors affect planners’ perceptions in Prishtina, which are further reflected in their intentions behind designing and producing space. The factors are adopted from previous studies and are national identity, ethnic nationalism, social constructs and political pressure. We use qualitative research with cross-case analysis. By using purposive sampling and conducting semi-structured interviews with selected urban planners in Prishtina, the study shows the effects of such factors on urban planners’ perceptions and intentions. National identity is the most important factor affecting planners’ perceptions, followed by political pressure, whereas ethnic nationalism and social constructs are much less important. In addition, the structural relativity of planners’ perceptions and intentions has positive effects. The results of this study highlight elements that urban planners in Kosovo should consider and provide insights for future studies.

  9. The Effect of Explicit Affective Strategy Training on Iranian EFL learners’ Oral Language Proficiency and Anxiety Reduction

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    Fatemeh Mostafavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at investigating the possible effects of explicit teaching of affective strategies on Iranian EFL learners’ oral language proficiency and the extent of their anxiety in EFL classroom.  First, PET test was administered to a total number of 120 female third grade high school EFL students.  Then, 60 participants whose score fell within the range of + 1 SD from the mean score were selected for the main study.  Next, they were randomly assigned into two groups (one control and one experimental.  The design of the study was Experimental comparison-group plan.  Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale adopted from Horwitz (1986 was used to examine the EFL learners’ anxiety level in English class.  Moreover, two equivalent oral tests adopted from Heaton (1975 were administered to the participants of the two groups both at the beginning and at the end of the study served as pre and post-tests.  The treatment for the experimental group included Oxford's (1990 taxonomy of affective strategies, which included explicit affective strategy instruction (in relaxation, music, visualization, humor, positive self-talk, risk-taking, and monitoring emotions.  The control group did not receive any special instruction in terms of affective strategies.  To investigate the possible effects of explicit affective strategy use instruction on the participants’ oral language proficiency and their anxiety level, the pre and posttests of oral tests and the participants’ self-reports of anxiety control in both groups were analyzed and compared.  The results of independent samples T- test indicated that while the two groups were homogeneous in terms of oral proficiency and level of anxiety control before introducing the treatment, the experimental group performed better than the control group in the oral post-test.  Moreover, the level of anxiety control for the experimental group was significantly different and higher than that of the

  10. The relationship between childhood trauma and the severity of adulthood depression and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample: The mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-04-15

    Childhood trauma is an important factor in adverse mental health outcomes, including depression and anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a hypothesized model describing a pathway of childhood trauma and its influence on psychiatric symptoms in patients with depressive disorder. In this model, childhood trauma was positively associated with current depression and anxiety symptoms, which were mediated by a cognitive emotional regulation strategy. Patients with depressive disorder (n=585, 266 men, 316 women) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). We divided the cognitive emotion regulation strategies into adaptive and maladaptive strategies using a CERQ subscore. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) and simple/multiple mediation analyses. The indirect effect of maladaptive strategies was significant in the relationship between overall childhood trauma and depression/anxiety severity, whereas the mediation effect of adaptive strategies was limited to depressive symptoms. With respect to specific types of trauma, maladaptive strategies mediated the association between emotional abuse and current depression/anxiety, while the mediation effect of adaptive strategies was limited to emotional neglect. This study's cross-sectional design does not allow establishment of causal relationships. Childhood trauma recall bias may be possible. These findings support the hypothesized model in which childhood trauma is associated with adulthood depression/anxiety symptoms in clinical samples, and mediated by emotion regulation strategies. These results suggest that cognitive emotion dysregulation is an important factor affecting depression/anxiety symptoms in patients with childhood trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Testing bidirectional associations among emotion regulation strategies and substance use: a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H; Bold, Krysten W; Sullivan, Tami P; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol and marijuana are widely used among college students. Emotion regulation strategies have been linked to alcohol and marijuana use, but little attention has been devoted to modeling the directionality of these associations. The aims of the current study were to test whether (a) daytime use of emotion regulation strategies influences the likelihood of evening substance use and (b) evening substance use influences the likelihood of next-day use of emotion regulation strategies. Longitudinal daily diary data were collected for 30 days via on-line surveys. Northeastern United States. A total of 1640 college students (mean age = 19.2 years, 54% female, 80% European American) were recruited each semester between Spring 2008 and Spring 2012. Daily diaries assessed emotion regulation strategies (distraction, reappraisal, problem-solving, avoidance) and substance use (any drinking, heavy drinking, marijuana use, co-use of any drinking/heavy drinking and marijuana). Covariates included gender, age, race/ethnicity, fraternity/sorority involvement and baseline depression. Daytime distraction [odds ratio (OR) = 0.95], reappraisal (OR = 0.95) and problem-solving (OR = 0.94) predicted lower odds of evening marijuana use (P-values < 0.02). Evening heavy drinking (OR = 0.90) and marijuana use (OR = 0.89) predicted lower odds of next-day problem-solving, with heavy drinking also predicting higher odds (OR = 1.08) of next-day avoidance and marijuana use also predicting higher odds (OR = 1.08) of next-day reappraisal (P-values < 0.03). There appear to be reciprocal relations among emotion regulation strategies and substance use: greater daytime use of distraction, reappraisal, and problem solving predicts lower evening substance use, while higher evening substance use predicts higher next-day avoidance and reappraisal but lower next-day problem-solving. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Impact of European Union Timber Regulation on Forest Certification Strategies in the Finnish Wood Industry Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Holopainen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this explorative study is to find out how the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR has affected the forest and chain of custody (CoC certification strategies and practices among the Finnish wood industry companies. We are especially interested to find out whether more integrated strategies and collaborative networks have emerged for enhanced communications throughout the industry value chains. This qualitative interview study included both EUTR ex ante and ex post analysis, based on three rounds of managerial and expert interviews during 2011–2015. The results indicate that the EUTR appears to have enforced the supplier–client relations in the Finnish wood industry value chain. The sector still lacks integrated communication strategies with better understanding of customer and stakeholder values, which could contribute to more cohesive communication and marketing efforts reflecting the values of the whole industry. The certification practices are fairly spontaneously implemented following the traditional industry culture, which is not supportive of innovations and gaining competitive advantages in the broader material markets. Furthermore, the existence of two parallel forest certificates (Forest Stewardship Council (FSC and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC seems to hamper the effective communication and building of an image of sustainable wood products among customers and end consumers, groups that are also exposed to more general environmental communication, e.g., in the building material markets.

  13. Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H

    2015-10-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How the New Faculty Workshop in 2004 affected my teaching-learning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushkina, Natalia

    2009-03-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss how my experience with the New Faculty Workshop in fall 2004 affected my course offering and teaching-learning strategies in PHYS 103, PHYS 132 and PHYS 331: Fundamentals of Optics courses. PHYS 103, Elements of Physics, is a general education conceptual physics lab course with no prerequisites for non-science majors. PHYS 132 is an introductory algebra-based general physics lab course which deals with electricity, magnetism, waves, light atomic and nuclear physics. PHYS 331, Fundamentals of Optics, is a lab-based course required for physics majors, which was offered for the first time at the MU Department of Physics in fall 2007. I will discuss curricular changes, as well as new teaching-learning and assessment methods implemented in these courses for the first time at our department. I will offer examples of peer group discussions, just in time teaching and the effect of chapter summaries on motivating the students and their participation in problem solving.

  15. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  16. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  17. Development of Taiwan's strategies for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals harmonized with international considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiun-Wen; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hsiau-Wen; Tzou, Mei-Chyun; Wang, Ying-Jan; Tsai, Jui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical developments for improving drug delivery systems, medical imaging, diagnosis, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. Although there is no international regulation or legislation specifically for nanomedicine, it is agreed worldwide that considerably more attention should be paid to the quality, safety, and efficacy of nanotechnology-based drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have provided several draft regulatory guidance and reflection papers to assist the development of nanomedicines. To cope with the impact of nanotechnology and to foster its pharmaceutical applications and development in Taiwan, this article reviews the trends of regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the international community and proposes strategies for Taiwan's regulation harmonized with international considerations. The draft regulatory measures include a chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review checklist and guidance for CMC review of liposomal products. These have been submitted for discussion among an expert committee, with membership comprised of multidisciplinary academia, research institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators, and are currently approaching final consensus. Once a consensus is reached, these mechanisms will be recommended to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for jurisdiction and may be initiated as the starting point for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in Taiwan.

  18. Development of Taiwan’s strategies for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals harmonized with international considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiun-Wen; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hsiau-Wen; Tzou, Mei-Chyun; Wang, Ying-Jan; Tsai, Jui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical developments for improving drug delivery systems, medical imaging, diagnosis, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. Although there is no international regulation or legislation specifically for nanomedicine, it is agreed worldwide that considerably more attention should be paid to the quality, safety, and efficacy of nanotechnology-based drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have provided several draft regulatory guidance and reflection papers to assist the development of nanomedicines. To cope with the impact of nanotechnology and to foster its pharmaceutical applications and development in Taiwan, this article reviews the trends of regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the international community and proposes strategies for Taiwan’s regulation harmonized with international considerations. The draft regulatory measures include a chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review checklist and guidance for CMC review of liposomal products. These have been submitted for discussion among an expert committee, with membership comprised of multidisciplinary academia, research institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators, and are currently approaching final consensus. Once a consensus is reached, these mechanisms will be recommended to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for jurisdiction and may be initiated as the starting point for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in Taiwan. PMID:25342901

  19. DEPTOR in POMC neurons affects liver metabolism but is dispensable for the regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; Labbé, Sébastien M; Mouchiroud, Mathilde; Huard, Renaud; Lanfray, Damien; Richard, Denis; Laplante, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    We have recently demonstrated that specific overexpression of DEP-domain containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) protects mice against high-fat diet-induced obesity, revealing DEPTOR as a significant contributor to energy balance regulation. On the basis of evidence that DEPTOR is expressed in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the MBH, the present study aimed to investigate whether these neurons mediate the metabolic effects of DEPTOR. Here, we report that specific DEPTOR overexpression in POMC neurons does not recapitulate any of the phenotypes observed when the protein was overexpressed in the MBH. Unlike the previous model, mice overexpressing DEPTOR only in POMC neurons 1) did not show differences in feeding behavior, 2) did not exhibit changes in locomotion activity and oxygen consumption, 3) did not show an improvement in systemic glucose metabolism, and 4) were not resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. These results support the idea that other neuronal populations are responsible for these phenotypes. Nonetheless, we observed a mild elevation in fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance, and alterations in liver glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice overexpressing DEPTOR in POMC neurons. Taken together, these results show that DEPTOR overexpression in POMC neurons does not affect energy balance regulation but could modulate metabolism through a brain-liver connection. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  1. Mutation of AREA affects growth, sporulation, nitrogen regulation, and pathogenicity in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Fangcheng; Ment, Dana; Luria, Neta; Meng, Xiangchun; Prusky, Dov

    2017-02-01

    The GATA transcription factor AreA is a global nitrogen regulator that restricts the utilization of complex and poor nitrogen sources in the presence of good nitrogen sources in microorganisms. In this study, we report the biological function of an AreA homolog (the CgareA gene) in the fruit postharvest pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Targeted gene deletion mutants of areA exhibited significant reductions in vegetative growth, increases in conidia production, and slight decreases in conidial germination rates. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of AreA was highly induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Moreover, compared to wild-type and complemented strains, nitrogen metabolism-related genes were misregulated in ΔareA mutant strains. Pathogenicity assays indicated that the virulence of ΔareA mutant strains were affected by the nitrogen content, but not the carbon content, of fruit hosts. Taken together, our results indicate that CgareA plays a critical role in fungal development, conidia production, regulation of nitrogen metabolism and virulence in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Respondek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC, which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  3. [Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respondek, Michalina; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC), which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  4. Shopping for Society? Consumers’ Value Conflicts in Socially Responsible Consumption Affected by Retail Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Myong Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality and social values (i.e., equity and common good. In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC in the choice of grocery store format and to investigate actual store choice behavior across consumer groups with those different perspectives while considering the role of retail regulation. For this purpose, we conducted a Q methodological study in which 30 South Korean consumers rank-ordered 40 statements regarding SRC. After performing Q factor analysis using PQ-Method software, we classified four distinctive consumer groups: “ethical conformist”, “market liberalist”, “ambivalent bystander”, and “internally conflicted”. After investigating similarities and differences between these consumer groups, we found major criteria for understanding consumer perspectives to SRC such as the priority of values pursued, the experience of a value-action gap, and internal conflicts in the decision-making process.

  5. SF2/ASF regulates proteomic diversity by affecting the balance between translation initiation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Matías; Quadrana, Leandro; Risso, Guillermo; Mata, Manuel de la; Pelisch, Federico; Srebrow, Anabella

    2009-07-01

    Post-splicing activities have been described for a subset of shuttling serine/arginine-rich splicing regulatory proteins, among them SF2/ASF. We showed that growth factors activate a Ras-PI 3-kinase-Akt/PKB signaling pathway that not only modifies alternative splicing of the fibronectin EDA exon, but also alters in vivo translation of reporter mRNAs containing the EDA binding motif for SF2/ASF, providing two co-regulated levels of isoform-specific amplification. Translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs is initiated via the scanning mechanism, which implicates recognition of the m7G cap at the mRNA 5'-terminus by the eIF4F protein complex. Several viral and cellular mRNAs are translated in a cap-independent manner by the action of cis-acting mRNA elements named internal ribosome entry sites that direct internal ribosome binding to the mRNA. Here we use bicistronic reporters that generate mRNAs carrying two open reading frames, one translated in a cap-dependent manner while the other by internal ribosome entry site-dependent initiation, to show that in vivo over-expression of SF2/ASF increases the ratio between cap-dependent and internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation. Consistently, knocking-down of SF2/ASF causes the opposite effect. Changes in expression levels of SF2/ASF also affect alternative translation of an endogenous mRNA, that one coding for fibroblast growth factor-2. These results strongly suggest a role for SF2/ASF as a regulator of alternative translation, meaning the generation of different proteins by the balance among these two translation initiation mechanisms, and expand the known potential of SF2/ASF to regulate proteomic diversity to the translation field. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The Role of Self-Regulated Strategies and Goal Orientation in Predicting Achievement of Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia KITSANTAS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the predictiveness of self-regulated learning strategies and goal orientation of elementary students’ academic achievement. Eighty one (n = 81 fifth graders were asked to respond to two scales. It was hypothesized that student achievement would be predicted by prior achievement, use of self-regulation strategies, and goal orientation. Results showed that prior achievement and use of self-regulation strategies accounted for a significant amount of variance in students’ academic achievement. Overall, goal orientation was not a significant predictor of students’ outcomes measures across different subject areas. Areas for future research are explored and implications for school personnel are provided.

  7. The role of self-regulated strategies and goal orientation in predicting achievement of elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kitsantas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the predictiveness of self-regulated learning strategies and goal orientation of elementary students’ academic achievement. Eighty one (n = 81 fifth graders were asked to respond to two scales. It was hypothesized that student achievement would be predicted by prior achievement, use of self-regulation strategies, and goal orientation. Results showed that prior achievement and use of self-regulation strategies accounted for a significant amount of variance in students’ academic achievement. Overall, goal orientation was not a significant predictor of students’ outcomes measures across different subject areas. Areas for future research are explored and implications for school personnel are provided.

  8. Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies Associated With the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Zang, Yinyin; Gay, Natalie G; Peterson, Alan L; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Borah, Elisa V; Dondanville, Katherine A; Hembree, Elizabeth A; Litz, Brett T; Mintz, Jim; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Foa, Edna B

    2017-08-01

    Maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies have been proposed to contribute to the maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prior work has focused on the relationship between these strategies and PTSD as a whole, rather than on how they are related to each PTSD symptom cluster. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether cognitive emotion regulation strategies are predictive of certain PTSD symptom clusters under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th ed. (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) criteria (intrusive thoughts, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and hyperarousal). Participants included 365 treatment-seeking, active-duty military personnel with PTSD. The negative alterations in cognitions and mood cluster were associated with dysfunctional cognitions: greater negative cognitions about the self, negative cognitions about the world, and self-blame, as well as catastrophizing (Rc2 = .519). The negative alterations in cognitions and mood cluster did not show a strong relationship with blaming others, possibly due to the complex nature of self- and other-blame in this primarily deployment-related PTSD sample. Finally, the intrusive thoughts cluster was associated with catastrophizing (Rc2 = .211), suggesting an association between frequent intrusive memories and excessively negative interpretation of those memories. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism

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    Churchward-Venne Tyler A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Provision of dietary amino acids increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS, an effect that is enhanced by prior resistance exercise. As a fundamentally necessary process in the enhancement of muscle mass, strategies to enhance rates of MPS would be beneficial in the development of interventions aimed at increasing skeletal muscle mass particularly when combined with chronic resistance exercise. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on current findings regarding the nutritional regulation of MPS and highlight nutrition based strategies that may serve to maximize skeletal muscle protein anabolism with resistance exercise. Such factors include timing of protein intake, dietary protein type, the role of leucine as a key anabolic amino acid, and the impact of other macronutrients (i.e. carbohydrate on the regulation of MPS after resistance exercise. We contend that nutritional strategies that serve to maximally stimulate MPS may be useful in the development of nutrition and exercise based interventions aimed at enhancing skeletal muscle mass which may be of interest to elderly populations and to athletes.

  10. Work Environment Characteristics and Teacher Well-Being: The Mediation of Emotion Regulation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongbiao; Huang, Shenghua; Wang, Wenlan

    2016-09-13

    Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers' work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers' well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers' emotion regulation in teachers' well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers' well-being are identified.

  11. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

  12. Computer Mediated Social Comparative Feedback Does Not Affect Metacognitive Regulation of Memory Reports

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    Joanne Rechdan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, we investigated how social comparative feedback affects the metacognitive regulation of eyewitness memory reports. In Experiment 1, 87 participants received negative, positive, or no feedback about a co-witness’s performance on a task querying recall of a crime video. Participants then completed the task individually. There were no significant differences between negative and positive feedback groups on any measure. However, participants in both of these conditions volunteered more fine-grain details than participants in the control condition. In Experiment 2, 90 participants answered questions about a crime video. Participants in the experimental groups received either positive or negative feedback, which compared their performance to that of others. Participants then completed a subsequent recall task, for which they were told their performance would not be scored. Feedback did not significantly affect participants’ confidence, accuracy, or the level of detail they reported in comparison to a no feedback control group. These findings advance our understanding of the boundary conditions for social feedback effects on meta-memory.

  13. Extreme values of fluvial discharges to the Guadalquivir estuary as affected by precipitation and regulation upstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguen Sánchez, M.; Contreras Arribas, E.; Aguilar Porro, C.; Polo Gómez, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Freshwater input to the Guadalquivir Estuary (Southern Spain) has been affected since 1930 by a strong regulation due to the dense network of reservoirs in the catchment, ending in the Alcalá del Río dam, which closes a contributing area of 47900 km2 and blocks the propagation of the tidal wave upstream. The Guadalquivir catchment, in a Mediterranean area, with strong annual and seasonal variability in the precipitation regime, has a large storage capacity in order to face the cyclic droughts. The result is a continuous freshwater inflow to the estuary, with a daily average value of around 10 m3s-1, and higher discharges as pulse inputs during one or some days associated with the occurrence of precipitation with higher values (~O(100 m3s-1) which, exceptionally, rise up to extreme values two orders of magnitude higher (~O(1000 m3s-1). This work focuses on the extreme values (maximum and minimum) analyses of the fluvial discharges to the estuary since the 1930s, and quantifies the influence of the since then increasing regulation upstream on the extreme value regime. It differentiates between the atmospheric and human-induced variations from the relationship between rainfall and discharges from the dam during this 80 yr-period obtained for the different regulation stages reached since the reservoir network was begun upstream. Data available included daily average discharge from the Alcalá del Río dam, since 1931, and daily precipitation since 1945 in 14 selected weather stations along the whole catchment. The analysis of the daily fluvial discharge from the dam for the study period, with an average value of 50 m3s-1 for the 50% of the data, established three discharge regimes from the contributing area: low, with an average discharge lower than 30 m3s-1; high (flood), when the daily average discharge exceeds 50 m3s-1(10% of the data), caused by intense precipitation or discharges from other dams upstream, which may be over 2100 m3s-1(1% of the data), and, medium

  14. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

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    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  15. The Effectiveness of Group Training of Procedural Emotion Regulation Strategies in Cognitive Coping of Individuals Suffering Substance Abuse

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    ali ghaedniay jahromi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies in cognitive coping of individuals suffering substance abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for this study. Then, 16 patients suffering substance abuse were selected through convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to two control and experimental groups. The experimental group received 10 sessions of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies while the control group received no treatment. Both groups before and after the treatment completed the Persian version of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (Hasani, 2011. Results: The results showed that group training of e procedural motion regulation strategies leads to a reduction in maladaptive strategies such as self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, and other-blame and an increase in adaptive strategies such as refocus on planning, positive reappraisal, and perspective development. Conclusion: Training of procedural emotion regulation strategies via the reduction of maladaptive and increase of adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies can provide the opportunity for the improvement and non-return to substance abuse.

  16. Numerical strategies for the modelling of reinforced concrete structures affected by internal swelling in variable thermo-hydric conditions

    OpenAIRE

    NEDJAR, Boumediene; ROSPARS, Claude

    2018-01-01

    Internal swelling reactions (ISR) can affect long term duration of reinforced concrete (RC) structures by causing cracking and expansion of concrete material. These pathologies mainly consist in Alkali Aggregate Reaction (AAR) and/or Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF). Thus, it is necessary to provide robust predictive numerical models able to re-assess the mechanical state of affected structures. A new numerical strategy is proposed in this paper to compute the evolution of the ISR reaction ...

  17. Regulation strategies of contemporary school life: an analysis of the 8th brazilian teacher prize

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    Clarice Salete Traversini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze some regulation strategies of contemporary school life taking place under the neoliberal governmentality in Brazil according to authors such as Foucault (2008, Veiga-Neto & Saraiva (2011 and Young (2011, and researchers of teacher education and contemporary teaching, such as Nóvoa (2009, 2012 and Silva (2014. The publication of the 8th Brazilian Teacher Prize, 2014 edition, with 39 teachers awarded, and the syntheses of the winning projects were selected for analysis. The question raised is which regulation strategies of contemporary school life are present in the set of projects in the 8th edition of the Brazilian Teacher Prize? Two regulation strategies of contemporary school life have been identified. In one of them, called pedagogy of protections, according to Silva (2014, knowledge related to social issues is central. The other one concerns the emphasis given on full-time education, which takes place by extending school hours, as a means for the early intervention of students in social issues. Based on Nóvoa (2013, the authors have proposed the refocusing of school roles by considering the appropriation of school knowledge as central to school. An intersectoral coordination is needed so that the political pedagogical project and school daily actions can be planned along with other social agencies that assist to the community. This enables the partner sectors to perform protection roles, and both the school and the teachers are able to focus on their specific functions, i.e. teaching and educating in the full sense of education.

  18. Body weight regulation and obesity: dietary strategies to improve the metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, M J M; Saris, W H M

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  19. The Effect of Self-regulated Strategy Instruction on Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyebeh Eivazi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of teaching Self-Regulated Strategy on the writing accuracy and cohesion of Iranian EFL learners. In so doing, this study followed the SRS instruction model, using a transition word chart, examples, and a graphic organizer. To achieve the objectives, 50 intermediate Iranian EFL learners participated in this study. The design was experimental which used a proficiency, pretest-posttest and random sampling. The analyses of writing tests in the control and experimental groups revealed that SRS instruction had a positive impact on the participants’ writing ability. The effect of SRS instruction was significant on the participants’ writing accuracy and cohesion. The findings draw language instructors’ attention to the meta-cognitive dimension of writing and importance of teaching self-regulatory strategies as a way for achieving autonomy in writing.

  20. Rumination is independently associated with poor psychological health: Comparing emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) strategies are related to psychological health, with most work examining reappraisal and suppression. Yet, emerging findings suggest that rumination may have stronger relationships with psychological health, namely depression, than other ER strategies. This paper replicated and extended this work by testing whether rumination was independently associated with a range of poor psychological health risk indicators and outcomes. In addition, it explored whether the reason why rumination is so deleterious to health is because it underlies the stress-health relationship. Participants (n = 218) completed measures online. Surveys assessed ER strategies (reappraisal, suppression, proactive coping, emotion support seeking, and rumination), health risk indicators (hostility, optimism, self-esteem), health outcomes (depression, poor sleep quality, anxiety) and perceived chronic stress. Multivariate regression analyses revealed rumination as the only ER strategy with a consistent independent effect on all the health risk indicators and outcomes. Bootstrapping analyses revealed indirect effects of perceived chronic stress on all the health variables via rumination. Rumination had a deleterious relationship with psychological health, perhaps because rumination underlies the relationship between stress and psychological health. Results have implications for interventions, particularly emphasizing the need to target ruminative thinking after stressful experiences.

  1. [Study on the correlation between depression and emotion regulation strategies in the elderly residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, J M; Kong, F Z; Zhang, Y T; Shang, Y X

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To explore the cross-sectional study of depressive and emotional regulation strategies of elderly residents in Yinchuan and their relationship. Methods: A total number of 1 043 elderly cases, including 505 from 5 nursing institutions and 538 from 5 communities in Yinchuan city were chosen, from March to May, 2016. Depression survey using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), emotional adjustment strategies were conducted using the Gross Emotional Regulatory Questionnaire and the Rumination Scale. Results: The overall incidence rate of depression among the elderly residents appeared as 32.0%, with 35.5% in the communities and 28.3% in the nursing homes and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=6.187, Pemotional adjustment strategies and on expression inhibition were (26.7±8.0) and (16.3±6.6) points respectively. The score of the rumination was (34.5±11.7) points. There were significant differences in cognitive reappraisal scores on different sex, hobbies and physical exercise (all Psemotional adjustment strategies, in Yinchuan city.

  2. Effective Strategies for Monitoring and Regulating Chemical Mixtures and Contaminants Sharing Pathways of Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun K. Venkatesan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, hazardous chemicals have been regulated in the U.S. on a one-by-one basis, an approach that is slow, expensive and can be inefficient, as illustrated by a decades-long succession of replacing one type of organohalogen flame retardants (OHFRs with another one, without addressing the root cause of toxicity and associated public health threats posed. The present article expounds on the need for efficient monitoring strategies and pragmatic steps in reducing environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts. A promising approach is to combine specific bioassays with state-of-the-art chemical screening to identify chemicals and chemical mixtures sharing specific modes of action (MOAs and pathways of toxicity (PoTs. This approach could be used to identify and regulate hazardous chemicals as classes or compound families, featuring similar biological end-points, such as endocrine disruption and mutagenicity. Opportunities and potential obstacles of implementing this approach are discussed.

  3. Push-pull strategy in the regulation of postembryonic root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Goh; Lee, Ji-Young

    2017-02-01

    Unlike animals, plants continue to grow throughout their lives. The stem cell niche, protected in meristems of shoots and roots, enables this process. In the root, stem cells produce precursors for highly organized cell types via asymmetric cell divisions. These precursors, which are "transit-amplifying cells," actively divide for several rounds before entering into differentiation programs. In this review, we highlight positive feedback regulation between shoot- and root-ward signals during the postembryonic root growth, which is reminiscent of a "push-pull strategy" in business parlance. This property of molecular networks underlies the regulation of stem cells and their organizer, the "quiescent center," as well as of the signaling between stem cell niche, transit-amplifying cells, and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of medical students' learning and study strategies in self-regulated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh

    2016-04-01

    Research on medical students shows that adopting self-regulation of effort, time, and study strategies can positively influence academic achievement. The purpose of the current study was to assess learning and study strategies in medical students. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014-2015 at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The sample size was determined 360 students based on the results of a pilot study on 30 members of the study population. Medical students in the first to fourth year of their studies were selected through simple sampling randomly. A valid and reliable Persian translation of Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) questionnaire was completed by the students. It measures three latent factors of self-regulated learning: Skill, Will, and Self-Regulation. It consists of 80 questions in ten different scales (each scale including eight questions and a variable score of 8-40). Data were analyzed using t-test, correlation analysis, and ANOVA. Considering the ten LASSI scales, the highest mean score belonged to test strategies (28.67±4.44), and the lowest mean to self-testing (21.91±4.91). The results showed significant statistical differences between male and female students in selecting the main idea, attitude, and self-testing. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests showed a significant difference between the mean scores of different areas of LASSI among students with different grade point average (GPA) in the university. In all areas except the study aids, the mean scores of students with GPA higher than 17.5 were significantly higher than those of students with GPA lower than 14.5. The results showed that students need help and consultation in most areas of learning and study strategies. Using 10 areas of LASSI can determine the strengths and weaknesses of students in various areas. Knowing their own limitations, students will be able to improve their study habits. Hence, it is suggested to evaluate the students when enrolling

  5. Assessment of medical students’ learning and study strategies in self-regulated learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOUHARI, ZAHRA; HAGHANI, FARIBA; CHANGIZ, TAHEREH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research on medical students shows that adopting self-regulation of effort, time, and study strategies can positively influence academic achievement. The purpose of the current study was to assess learning and study strategies in medical students. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014-2015 at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The sample size was determined 360 students based on the results of a pilot study on 30 members of the study population. Medical students in the first to fourth year of their studies were selected through simple sampling randomly. A valid and reliable Persian translation of Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) questionnaire was completed by the students. It measures three latent factors of self-regulated learning: Skill, Will, and Self-Regulation. It consists of 80 questions in ten different scales (each scale including eight questions and a variable score of 8-40). Data were analyzed using t-test, correlation analysis, and ANOVA. Results Considering the ten LASSI scales, the highest mean score belonged to test strategies (28.67±4.44), and the lowest mean to self-testing (21.91±4.91). The results showed significant statistical differences between male and female students in selecting the main idea, attitude, and self-testing. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests showed a significant difference between the mean scores of different areas of LASSI among students with different grade point average (GPA) in the university. In all areas except the study aids, the mean scores of students with GPA higher than 17.5 were significantly higher than those of students with GPA lower than 14.5. Conclusion The results showed that students need help and consultation in most areas of learning and study strategies. Using 10 areas of LASSI can determine the strengths and weaknesses of students in various areas. Knowing their own limitations, students will be able to improve their study habits. Hence, it is suggested

  6. FKBP5 moderation of the relationship between childhood trauma and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; de Matos, Ana Paula Soares; Awaloff, Yvonne; Arnarson, Eiríkur Örn; Craighead, W Edward; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2017-10-01

    Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as rumination and catastrophizing, are transdiagnostic risk factors for psychopathology. FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5) has been found to moderate the relationship between stressful life events and various psychiatric disorders. Given the cross-disorder moderation effect of FKBP5 at the diagnostic level, the aim of the current study was to examine whether the relationship between exposure to childhood trauma and transdiagnostic maladaptive emotion regulation processes would also be moderated by genetic FKBP5 variation in a community sample of adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescent carriers of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype composed of rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, and rs9470080, that has been associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders in adulthood, would also show higher levels of rumination and catastrophizing. Participants included 1345 genotyped adolescents (M age =13.95, 64.2% female; 100% European Caucasians of Portuguese descent) who completed self-report measures on exposure to childhood trauma and emotion regulation strategies. Genotypes of rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, and rs9470080 were used to estimate the CATT haplotype (carriers versus non-carriers). Consistent with our hypotheses and previous findings, adolescent CATT haplotype carriers with higher levels of childhood trauma endorsed higher levels of both rumination and catastrophizing compared to non-carriers. Given the association of these maladaptive emotion regulation processes and psychiatric disorders, the findings suggest possible psychological mechanisms why FKBP5 haplotype carriers exposed to childhood trauma are more vulnerable to developing a psychiatric disorder later in life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Developmental gene x environment interactions affecting systems regulating energy homeostasis and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Barry E

    2010-07-01

    Most human obesity is inherited as a polygenic trait which is largely refractory to medical therapy because obese individuals avidly defend their elevated body weight set-point. This set-point is mediated by an integrated neural network that controls energy homeostasis. Epidemiological studies suggest that perinatal and pre-pubertal environmental factors can promote offspring obesity. Rodent studies demonstrate the important interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors in promoting obesity. This review covers issues of development and function of neural systems involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and the roles of leptin and insulin in these processes, the ways in which interventions at various phases from gestation, lactation and pre-pubertal stages of development can favorably and unfavorably alter the development of obesity n offspring. These studies suggest that early identification of obesity-prone humans and of the factors that can prevent them from becoming obese could provide an effective strategy for preventing the world-wide epidemic of obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, Duane A.; Weaver, Clifford L.; Rielley, Kevin J.; Gallagher, Kevin C.; Harmon, Susan B.; Hejna, David T.; Kitch, Edmund W.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. A pleiotropic regulator, Frp, affects exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation, and competence development in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Kuramitsu, Howard K

    2006-08-01

    Exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation, and competence are important physiologic functions and virulence factors for Streptococcus mutans. In this study, we report the role of Frp, a transcriptional regulator, on the regulation of these traits crucial to pathogenesis. An Frp-deficient mutant showed decreased transcription of several genes important in virulence, including those encoding fructosyltransferase (Ftf), glucosyltransferase B (GtfB), and GtfC, by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of Ftf was decreased in the frp mutant, as assessed by Western blotting as well as by the activity assays. Frp deficiency also inhibited the production of GtfB in the presence of glucose and sucrose as well as the production of GtfC in the presence of glucose. As a consequence of the effects on GtfB and -C, sucrose-induced biofilm formation was decreased in the frp mutant. The expression of competence mediated by the competence-signaling peptide (CSP) system, as assessed by comC gene transcription, was attenuated in the frp mutant. As a result, the transformation efficiency was decreased in the frp mutant but was partially restored by adding synthetic CSP. Transcription of the frp gene was significantly increased in the frp mutant under all conditions tested, indicating that frp transcription is autoregulated. Furthermore, complementation of the frp gene in the frp mutant restored transcription of the affected genes to levels similar to those in the wild-type strain. These results suggest that Frp is a novel pleiotropic effector of multiple cellular functions and is involved in the modulation of exopolysaccharide synthesis, sucrose-dependent biofilm formation, and competence development.

  10. The Role of Gender as Moderator Between Cognitive-Emotional Regulation Strategies and Internalizing/Externalizing Behavioural Problems Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mansor Abu Talib, Rojanah BT Kahar, Vahid Momtaz, Mariani BTE Mansor

    2016-01-01

    Internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems among adolescents are the most important issue in adolescents' mental health. Cognitive-emotional regulation strategies are the important protective and risk factor for internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems. In the present study the moderating role of gender in the relationship between cognitive-emotional regulation strategies and internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems among adolescents was investigated. The respondents wer...

  11. Pacing strategy during the final stage of a self-paced V̇O₂max (SPV) test does not affect maximal oxygen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Nicholas J; Reid, Carter R; Cornwell, Kaitlin M; Lee, Taylor L; Scheadler, Cory M

    2017-09-01

    Self-paced [Formula: see text] tests (SPVs) have shown to produce maximal oxygen consumption values similar to those from traditional protocols. These tests involve perceptually regulated stages in which subjects are asked to maintain rating of perceived exertion values of 11, 13, 15, 17 and 20 for 2 min each. What is not clear is how the last stage should be paced. The purpose of this study was to compare two different pacing strategies during the final stage. Fourteen healthy, recreationally active individuals (11 men, 3 women) participated in a familiarization and two experimental laboratory visits. For both lab visits, a treadmill-based SPV was performed. In one of these SPVs, an aggressive pacing strategy was used; in the other, a conservative strategy was implemented. [Formula: see text], HR, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and RER were recorded and compared between conditions. There were no differences in [Formula: see text] between the conditions [aggressive 58.8 ± 8.8 ml kg -1  min -1 (mean ± SD), conservative 58.3 ± 7.9 ml kg -1  min -1 ; p = 0.548]. There were also no differences in HR, [Formula: see text], or [Formula: see text] between the pacing strategies. There was a significantly higher RER found in the aggressive (1.25 ± 0.09) compared to the conservative (1.18 ± 0.07) strategy (p = 0.040). The pacing strategy that is implemented in the last 2 min of an SPV on a treadmill does not affect the maximal oxygen consumption that is elicited during that test. Either pacing strategy can be used for this protocol without compromising the results, when [Formula: see text] is the variable of interest.

  12. Interactive uncertainty reduction strategies and verbal affection in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Schouten, A.P.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the language-based strategies that computer-mediated communication (CMC) users employ to reduce uncertainty in the absence of nonverbal cues. Specifically, this study investigated the prevalence of three interactive uncertainty reduction strategies (i.e.,

  13. Strategic analysis of factors affecting the coupling of environmental management with business strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Bjarnø, Ole-Christian

    1997-01-01

    This paper aims at introducing a framework through which companies can adress and overcome the uncertainty regarding their strategic environmental posture and formulate an appropriate environmental strategy in line with their business context, environmental pressures, internal strenghts...... and weaknesses and with their strategy in general. The relevance of the outlined framework is tested through an extensive case study....

  14. Pre-Exposure to Context Affects Learning Strategy Selection in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunur, Tumay; Dohanich, Gary P.; Schrader, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    The multiple memory systems hypothesis proposes that different types of learning strategies are mediated by distinct neural systems in the brain. Male and female mice were tested on a water plus-maze task that could be solved by either a place or response strategy. One group of mice was pre-exposed to the same context as training and testing (PTC)…

  15. Shiga Toxin in Enterohemorrhagic E.coli: regulation and novel antivirulence strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eSperandio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infects about 73,000 people annually in the USA and is a major cause of outbreaks of bloody diarrhea worldwide, and. In 5 to 7% of the cases, the person infected develops the potentially fatal sequelae hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, characterized by acute kidney failure. A hallmark of EHEC pathogenesis and cause of HUS is the production of Shiga toxin (Stx. Stx was first described by Kiyoshi Shiga in Shigella dysenterae serotype I and later discovered in EHEC, and it has been linked to HUS since 1983. Many factors regulate the production of Stx, including temperature, growth phase, antibiotics, reactive oxygen species and quorum sensing. Currently, there is no effective treatment or prophylaxis for HUS. Since the use of antibiotics is not advised to treat EHEC infections because it triggers Stx production, alternative antibacterial strategies need to be developed. Quorum sensing inhibitors represent a novel class of antibacterial compounds, which have the advantage of not interfering on bacterial growth, thereby without selective pressure that can lead to appearance of resistant strains. In this review, we discuss factors that regulate Stx production in EHEC as well as novel strategies to fight Stx and minimize development to HUS in EHEC-infected patients.

  16. [Self-reported Anxiety and Regulation Strategies in Primary School-age Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Yvonne; Kolmorgen, Katja; Andreas, Anna; Köppe, Claudia; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the self-reported anxiety in different situations (social anxiety, cognitive fears, fears of injury) and the use of regulation strategies (problem orientation, problem avoidance and seeking social support) in a sample of N=175 primary school children (mean age 8 years 4 months). At time of recruitment we oversampled for children with internalizing symptoms. In addition, mothers rated the overall anxiety of their children. According to their mothers 14.3% of the children showed anxiety symptoms in an abnormal range which is comparable to prevalence rates of children from population samples. 19.4% of the children described themselves as being anxious in an abnormal range. The correlations between different measures of children's self-reported anxieties were low to moderate. We found no significant correlations between mothers' and children's reports. The higher children's self-reported overall and cognitive anxiety, the more frequently they reported seeking social support in frightening situations. Girls reported more frequently pm cognitive fears than boys. Regarding regulation strategies we found that boys reported more problem orientation than girls whereas girls reported more social support seeking than boys. The results are discussed and practical implications are outlined.

  17. Individual differences in positive and negative emotion regulation: Which strategies explain variability in loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sinead M; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling accompanying the perception that one's social needs are not being met by one's social relationships. Conceptual models point to a role for cognitive factors in this experience. Because research on determinants of loneliness is sparse, this study investigates associations between individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) and loneliness. Participants (N = 116) completed measures of loneliness, and a vignette-based measure of adaptive and maladaptive ER in response to positive and negative scenarios. Regression analyses indicated that the regulation of positive and negative emotions explained comparable variance in loneliness, and associations were only partially reduced by the inclusion of social support. The specific strategies positive reappraisal, being present and negative mental time travel explained the most variance in loneliness. The findings are consistent with both the cognitive and the social needs models of loneliness and suggest that variability in ER strategies should be considered relevant to loneliness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Self-reported Emotion Regulation Strategies in Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greuel, Jan Felix; Reinhold, Nadine; Wenglorz, Markus; Heinrichs, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is extensively researched in the context of psychopathology. It is quite controversial if deficits in ER are related to psychopathology across disorders or specifically linked to certain forms of psychopathology. Furthermore, it appears unclear if there are differences in ER depending on the specific emotion to be regulated. There are only few studies comparing different forms of psychopathology in terms of ER, specifically in childhood and adolescence. We explored ER in a consecutive clinical sample seeking help in two outpatient university clinics (N=129, age: 7-17 years, 45% female). In a first step, the ER of all children and adolescents seeking professional help for emotional and behavioral problems was compared with the ER-characteristics of children and adolescents identified in school samples. In a second step, the clinical sample was divided into different groups of psychopathology, comparing the associations of different types of psychopathology with ER. ER in the clinical sample differed significantly from children and adolescents in school settings. The clinical sample was particularly characterized by a lack of adaptive strategies, and only partially by an increased use of maladaptive strategies. Further analysis revealed no specific deficits in the ER depending on types of psychopathology. The findings suggest a transdiagnostic and emotion-overarching conceptualization of ER in childhood and adolescence.

  19. An effective strategy for intervention with children and adolescents affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossart-Walker, S; Moss, N E

    2000-04-01

    angry outbursts and provocative behavior have been integrated into the story of the group. As children need to express rage they at times speak of John, using his ability to express this feeling as an example to the safety of the group. Again this type of work is not only powerful and intense, but needs to be unhurried. Children such as John and his comembers need time to experience their grief and heal their pain. Thus, groups are an effective strategy for work with HIV-affected children in helping them deal with the losses within their families and continue to grow into healthy adults.

  20. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  1. Self-Regulated Learning in the Museum: Understanding the Relationship of Visitor's Goals, Learning Strategies, and Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) in the museum was explored by 2 investigations. The first one investigated 233 visitors on their goals and intended learning strategies by questionnaire before they visited the science museum. Results indicated visitors' learning goals can predict their intended deep-learning strategy. Moreover, visitors can be…

  2. A Qualitative Account of the Nature and Use of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) Strategies Employed by University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Effat; Iqbal, Zafar; Masood, Fatima; Batool, Tooba

    2016-01-01

    Students' conceptions of how they initiate, plan, implement and monitor self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies have practical implications for teaching and learning. This study explores the nature and use of SRL strategies employed by university students as it occurs in naturalistic settings, for example, studying in non-classroom environments.…

  3. Regulation No. 44 of 11 September 1989 on the development of areas affected by migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this Bulgarian Regulation establishes the following measures to aid the development of districts affected by migration: 1) local councils shall lease municipal land, buildings, and other property to newcomers for periods of at least 10 years; after the 10-year period has passed the lessee shall acquire title to the leased land or premises and be exempted from paying a transfer tax; 2) the State Savings Bank shall extend to the people of these districts loans for the construction of houses and farm buildings and reconstruction of living premises, with the state paying the interest on the loans; 3) new residents who have to change professions shall receive monetary benefits for up to 6 months during the time they are changing professions; 4) new residents employed in agriculture shall be exempted from payment of income taxes for 5 years; 5) transportation expenses incurred by new residents and their families during the process of resettlement are to be paid by the state; 6) persons under 35 who have graduated from high school shall be admitted to engineering, agriculture, and economic institutions of higher education without taking an entrance exam, if they agree to return to these districts after graduation and work there for no fewer than 6 years; and 7) retired persons working in these districts shall be entitled to receive full remuneration for their work, as well as full pensions.

  4. Schistosomiasis differentially affects vasoconstrictor responses: up-regulation of 5-HT receptor-mediated aorta contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D'Arc dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, classified by the World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease, is an intravascular parasitic disease associated to a chronic inflammatory state. Evidence implicating inflammation in vascular dysfunction continues to mount, which, broadly defined, reflects a failure in the control of intracellular Ca2+ and consequently, vascular contraction. Therefore, we measured aorta contraction induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and endothelin-1 (ET-1, two important regulators of vascular contraction. Isometric aortic contractions were determined in control and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. In the infected animals, 5-HT induced a 50% higher contraction in relation to controls and we also observed an increased contraction in response to Ca2+ mobilisation from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Nevertheless, Rho kinase inhibition reduced the contraction in response to 5-HT equally in both groups, discarding an increase of the contractile machinery sensitivity to Ca2+. Furthermore, no alteration was observed for contractions induced by ET-1 in both groups. Our data suggest that an immune-vascular interaction occurs in schistosomiasis, altering vascular contraction outside the mesenteric portal system. More importantly, it affects distinct intracellular signalling involved in aorta contraction, in this case increasing 5-HT receptor signalling.

  5. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Zinc oxide nanoparticles cause inhibition of microbial denitrification by affecting transcriptional regulation and enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Liu, Kun; Li, Mu; Yin, Daqiang

    2014-12-02

    Over the past few decades, human activities have accelerated the rates and extents of water eutrophication and global warming through increasing delivery of biologically available nitrogen such as nitrate and large emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. In particular, nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important greenhouse gases, because it has a 300-fold higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Microbial denitrification is a major pathway responsible for nitrate removal, and also a dominant source of N2O emissions from terrestrial or aquatic environments. However, whether the release of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) into the environment affects microbial denitrification is largely unknown. Here we show that the presence of ZnO NPs lead to great increases in nitrate delivery (9.8-fold higher) and N2O emissions (350- and 174-fold higher in the gas and liquid phases, respectively). Our data further reveal that ZnO NPs significantly change the transcriptional regulations of glycolysis and polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis, which causes the decrease in reducing powers available for the reduction of nitrate and N2O. Moreover, ZnO NPs substantially inhibit the gene expressions and catalytic activities of key denitrifying enzymes. These negative effects of ZnO NPs on microbial denitrification finally cause lower nitrate removal and higher N2O emissions, which is likely to exacerbate water eutrophication and global warming.

  7. Dealing with Feeling: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Strategies Derived from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L.; Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal

    2012-01-01

    The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER)…

  8. Predicting Preservice Music Teachers' Performance Success in Instrumental Courses Using Self-Regulated Study Strategies and Predictor Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersozlu, Zehra N.; Nietfeld, John L.; Huseynova, Lale

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which self-regulated study strategies and predictor variables predict performance success in instrumental performance college courses. Preservice music teachers (N = 123) from a music education department in two state universities in Turkey completed the Music Self-Regulated Studying…

  9. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional problems in 9-11-year-old children. The development of an instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garnefski, N.; Rieffe, C.; Jellesma, F.C.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Kraaij, V.

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the development of the child version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-k). Like the adult version of the CERQ, the CERQ-k measures nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that children may use after having experienced negative life events. The

  10. Loving-kindness in the treatment of traumatized refugees and minority groups: a typology of mindfulness and the nodal network model of affect and affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Ojserkis, Rebecca A; Jalal, Baland; Peou, Sonith; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses how loving-kindness can be used to treat traumatized refugees and minority groups, focusing on examples from our treatment, culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CA-CBT). To show how we integrate loving-kindness with other mindfulness interventions and why loving-kindness should be an effective therapeutic technique, we present a typology of mindfulness states and the Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect and Affect Regulation. We argue that mindfulness techniques such as loving-kindness are therapeutic for refugees and minority populations because of their potential for increasing emotional flexibility, decreasing rumination, serving as emotional regulation techniques, and forming part of a new adaptive processing mode centered on psychological flexibility. We present a case to illustrate the clinical use of loving-kindness within the context of CA-CBT. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Assessment of medical students’ learning and study strategies in self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHRA JOUHARI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research on medical students shows that adopting self-regulation of effort, time, and study strategies can positively influence academic achievement. The purpose of the current study was to assess learning and study strategies in medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014-2015 at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The sample size was determined 360 students based on the results of a pilot study on 30 members of the study population. Medical students in the first to fourth year of their studies were selected through simple sampling randomly. A valid and reliable Persian translation of Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI questionnaire was completed by the students. It measures three latent factors of selfregulated learning: Skill, Will, and Self-Regulation. It consists of 80 questions in ten different scales (each scale including eight questions and a variable score of 8-40. Data were analyzed using t-test, correlation analysis, and ANOVA. Results: Considering the ten LASSI scales, the highest mean score belonged to test strategies (28.67±4.44, and the lowest mean to self-testing (21.91±4.91. The results showed significant statistical differences between male and female students in selecting the main idea, attitude, and self-testing. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests showed a significant difference between the mean scores of different areas of LASSI among students with different grade point average (GPA in the university. In all areas except the study aids, the mean scores of students with GPA higher than 17.5 were significantly higher than those of students with GPA lower than 14.5. Conclusion: The results showed that students need help and consultation in most areas of learning and study strategies. Using 10 areas of LASSI can determine the strengths and weaknesses of students in various areas. Knowing their own limitations, students will be able to improve their study habits. Hence

  12. Spontaneous emotion regulation during evaluated speaking tasks: associations with negative affect, anxiety expression, memory, and physiological responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C; Burns, Lawrence R; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas

    2006-08-01

    In these studies, the correlates of spontaneously using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal during stressful speeches were examined. Spontaneous emotion regulation means that there were no instructions of how to regulate emotions during the speech. Instead, participants indicated after the speech to what extent they used self-motivated expressive suppression or reappraisal during the task. The results show that suppression is associated with less anxiety expression, greater physiological responding, and less memory for the speech while having no impact on negative affect. In contrast, reappraisal has no impact on physiology and memory while leading to less expression and affect. Taken together, spontaneous emotion regulation in active coping tasks has similar consequences as experimentally induced emotion regulation in passive tasks. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Burnout syndrome and wellbeing in anesthesiologists: the importance of emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Teresa A; Madeira, Filipa M; Viana, Joaquim S; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2017-02-01

    Anesthesiologists face stressful working conditions that can culminate in burnout syndrome. Despite various studies and protective measures which have attempted to prevent this situation, burnout continues to be a problem within the profession, impacting negatively on physicians' lives and their performance. In this review article mechanisms and consequences of burnout are described in addition to individual strategies for stress management and burnout reduction with potential impact on health care quality and wellbeing in anesthesiologists. Organizational strategies appear to have an important role in burnout reduction but need to be used in conjunction with individual programs. The latter are essential to both reducing stress and burnout in anesthesiologists and improving happiness and wellbeing. New measures of emotion regulation strategies such as mindfulness, self-compassion, resilience and empathy promotion have been shown to be approaches with substantial supporting evidence for reducing burnout and improving stress management. The evaluation and implementation of these self-regulatory competencies is a challenge. Further research is necessary to identify which programs will best suit the needs of anesthesiologists and to measure their effects on patient care and health care system quality.

  14. Do emotional eating urges regulate affect? Concurrent and prospective associations and implications for risk models of binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A; Keel, Pamela K; Racine, Sarah E; Burt, S Alexandra; Hu, Jean Yueqin; Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Klump, Kelly L

    2014-12-01

    Emotional eating (EE) reflects an urge to eat in response to emotional rather than physical cues and is a risk factor for the development of binge eating. EE has been conceptualized as an attempt to regulate negative affect (NA), a posited maintenance factor for binge eating. However, no study has examined whether EE urges regulate affect. Further, no studies have examined longitudinal associations between EE urges and positive affect (PA). We examined within-subject longitudinal associations between affect and EE urges in a community-based sample of female twins (mean age = 17.8 years). Participants (N = 239) completed ratings of affect and EE urges for 45 consecutive days. Greater NA was concurrently associated with greater EE urges. Additionally, greater EE urges predicted worse NA for both concurrent and prospective (next-day) analyses. Finally, lower PA was associated with greater EE urges in concurrent analyses, but there were no prospective associations between changes in PA and EE urges. EE urges do not appear to effectively regulate affect. EE urges in a community-based sample appear to have the same functional relationship with affect as binge eating in clinical samples, further supporting EE as a useful dimensional construct for examining processes related to binge eating. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Bus Voltage Regulation in Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods. PMID:24883374

  16. An optimal control strategy for DC bus voltage regulation in photovoltaic system with battery energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  17. An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Bus Voltage Regulation in Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Zalani Daud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system with battery energy storage (BES. The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC. For the grid side VSC (G-VSC, two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  18. Encoding strategy affects false recall and recognition: Evidence from categorical study material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Justyna; Ulatowska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated memory vulnerability to distortions. Different encoding strategies were used when categorized lists were studied. The authors assumed that an imagery strategy would be responsible for decreasing false memories more than a word-whispering strategy, which is consistent with the model of semantic access and previous research in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (the DRM paradigm; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). A normative study of category lists and 4 experiments were conducted to verify the memory vulnerability to different encoding strategies (imagery, word-whispering, control). Half of subjects recalled and half recognized previously studied words. The results revealed a marked reduction in false recognition and recall after imagery encoding, relative to after word-whispering encoding.

  19. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale battery storage will become an essential part of the future smart grid. This paper investigates the optimal bidding strategy for battery storage in power markets. Battery storage could increase its profitability by providing fast regulation service under a performance-based regulation...... mechanism, which better exploits a battery’s fast ramping capability. However, battery life might be decreased by frequent charge–discharge cycling, especially when providing fast regulation service. It is profitable for battery storage to extend its service life by limiting its operational strategy to some...... degree. Thus, we incorporate a battery cycle life model into a profit maximization model to determine the optimal bids in day-ahead energy, spinning reserve, and regulation markets. Then a decomposed online calculation method to compute cycle life under different operational strategies is proposed...

  20. Emotion regulation of the affect-modulated startle reflex during different picture categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzelmann, Annette; McGregor, Victoria; Pauli, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on emotion regulation of the startle reflex found an increase in startle amplitude from down-, to non-, to up-regulation for pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. We wanted to clarify whether this regulation effect remains stable for different picture categories within pleasant and unpleasant picture sets. We assessed startle amplitude of 31 participants during down-, non-, or up-regulation of feelings elicited by pleasant erotic and adventure and unpleasant victim and threat pictures. Startle amplitude was smaller during adventure and erotic compared to victim and threat pictures and increased from down-, to non-, to up-regulation independently of the picture category. Results indicate that the motivational priming effect on startle modulation elicited by different picture categories is independent of emotion regulation instructions. In addition, the emotion regulation effect is independent of motivational priming effects. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Distress Response to the Failure to an Insoluble Anagrams Task: Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Strategies in Binge Drinking Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Poncin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion regulation refers to the attempt to influence the latency, magnitude, and duration of an emotion, and to modify the experiential, behavioral, or physiological components of the emotional response. In situations of personal failure, individuals, and in particular those who present a tendency to self-focus, may experience intense emotional distress. Individuals who lack proper adaptive emotion regulation strategies may engage in activities leading to immediate pleasure, such as alcohol drinking, in order to escape the self-relevance of emotional experiences. This self-awareness theory of drinking has been shown explain relapses in self-focused alcohol-dependent individuals in situations of personal failure, after detoxification. Such relapses support the existence of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in alcohol dependence. As binge drinking may be considered as an early stage of alcohol-use-disorder, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional distress, self-regulation and self-consciousness in binge drinkers (BD.Methods: Fifty-five students (32 BD and 23 controls completed different questionnaires related to the self (self-consciousness and self-regulation questionnaires and were exposed to a situation of self-failure (insoluble anagrams.Results: The distress induced by the anagrams task was more related to self-blame, ruminations and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in BD than in controls. Emotional distress was related to less positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, and adaptive emotion regulation strategies among the control group with less public self-consciousness. Emotional distress was related to more positive refocusing, positive reappraisal, refocusing on planning, and adaptive emotion regulation strategies among control participants with higher public self-consciousness. Low self-conscious BD who experienced anagram distress used less acceptance and less refocusing on

  2. A relation between dynamic strength and manual materials-handling strategy affected by knowledge of strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Daniel; Li, Kang; Zhang, Xudong

    2007-06-01

    We studied the relation between dynamic (isokinetic) strength and the batch-assorting strategy to initiate a manual materials-handling task and the effect of knowledge of strength on that relation. The debated, complex relationship between muscular strength and the risk of injury can be better understood from a behavioral perspective by examining performance strategies in physical acts such as lifting. Thirty-two participants (16 men and 16 women) were first tested for their isokinetic strengths of trunk extension, knee extension, shoulder extension, and shoulder abduction. The participants were then divided into two groups, one provided with knowledge feedback of their strength testing results and the other not provided with such feedback. Participants subsequently performed the same load-handling task in which they carried batches of various weight plates while allowed to assort batches of more than one plate into any combination. Dynamic strength, as represented by a total isokinetic strength score, and knowledge feedback both had significant effects on measures quantifying the batch-assorting strategy. Individuals with greater strength tended to adopt a strategy corresponding to a heavier load per carry and fewer carries per batch. Receiving knowledge feedback evoked a tendency toward handling a heavier load, and this tendency was more salient in the weaker individuals. Potential applications include the use of strength testing in worker selection and training as well as in job design to promote better strategies of balancing productivity and injury prevention.

  3. IL-7 up-regulates TNF-alpha-dependent osteoclastogenesis in patients affected by solid tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Roato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin-7 (IL-7 is a potent regulator of lymphocyte development, which has also significant effects on bone; in fact it is a potent osteoclastogenic factor. Some human solid tumors produce high IL-7 levels, suggesting a potential IL-7 role on tumor development and progression. METHODOLOGY: We studied 50 male patients affected by solid tumors, and their blood samples were collected at tumor diagnosis. PBMCs were isolated and cultured with/without IL-7 to study its influence on osteoclastogenesis. Serum and cell culture supernatant IL-7 levels were measured by ELISA. The quantitative analysis of IL-7 expression on T and B cells was performed by Real-Time PCR. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum IL-7 levels were highest in osteolytic cancer patients, followed by cancer patients without bone lesions, and then healthy controls. We showed the IL-7 production in PBMC cultures and particularly in monocyte and B cell co-cultures. A quantitative analysis of IL-7 expression in T and B cells confirmed that B cells had a high IL-7 expression. In all cell culture conditions, IL-7 significantly increased osteoclastogenesis and an anti-IL-7 antibody inhibited it. We demonstrated that IL-7 supports OC formation by inducing the TNF-alpha production and low RANKL levels, which synergize in promoting osteoclastogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the presence of high serum IL-7 levels in patients with bone metastasis, suggesting the use of serum IL-7 level as a clinical marker of disease progression and of bone involvement. Moreover, we showed the capability of IL-7 to stimulate spontaneous osteoclastogenesis of bone metastatic patients and to induce osteoclastogenesis in cancer patients without bone involvement. These findings add further details to the disclosure of the mechanisms controlling bone metastasis in solid tumors.

  4. Voltage regulation in LV grids by coordinated volt-var control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel; Yang, Guangya; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2014-01-01

    The increasing penetration level of photovoltaic (PV) power generation in low voltage (LV) networks results in voltage rise issues, particularly at the end of the feeders. In order to mitigate this problem, several strategies, such as grid reinforcement, transformer tap change, demand......-side management, active power curtailment, and reactive power optimization methods, show their contribution to voltage support, yet still limited. This paper proposes a coordinated volt-var control architecture between the LV distribution transformer and solar inverters to optimize the PV power penetration level...... in terms of network power losses and voltage level along the feeder. As a practical implementation, a reconfigurable hardware is used for developing a testing platform based on real-time measurements to regulate the reactive power level. The proposed testing platform has been developed within PVNET...

  5. Immunologic Regulation in Pregnancy: From Mechanism to Therapeutic Strategy for Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyi-Jou Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunologic interaction between the fetus and the mother is a paradoxical communication that is regulated by fetal antigen presentation and/or by recognition of and reaction to these antigens by the maternal immune system. There have been significant advances in understanding of abnormalities in the maternal-fetal immunologic relationship in the placental bed that can lead to pregnancy disorders. Moreover, immunologic recognition of pregnancy is vital for the maintenance of gestation, and inadequate recognition of fetal antigens may cause abortion. In this paper, we illustrate the complex immunologic aspects of human reproduction in terms of the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA, immune cells, cytokines and chemokines, and the balance of immunity in pregnancy. In addition, we review the immunologic processes of human reproduction and the current immunologic therapeutic strategies for pathological disorders of pregnancy.

  6. Editorial. Special issue on strategies and self-regulation in self-access learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Rose

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Learner strategy and self-regulation theory have been in a state of flux in recent years, and this is an exciting time to share new ideas, conceptualizations and models of research in order to move the field forward. Therefore, the editor was eager to pursue a special issue where emerging voices in these fields could be heard, and these new ideas could be shared. The representation of strategic learning in recent conferences is indicative of a growing trend in the field to move towards a self-access and learner autonomy perspective. There is great potential to share knowledge between these fields. This special issue brings these fields, which have already been gravitating together, closer in a more concrete and published format.

  7. Event-related potentials reveal preserved attention allocation but impaired emotion regulation in patients with epilepsy and comorbid negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Taeye, Leen; Pourtois, Gilles; Meurs, Alfred; Boon, Paul; Vonck, Kristl; Carrette, Evelien; Raedt, Robrecht

    2015-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy have a high prevalence of comorbid mood disorders. This study aims to evaluate whether negative affect in epilepsy is associated with dysfunction of emotion regulation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are used in order to unravel the exact electrophysiological time course and investigate whether a possible dysfunction arises during early (attention) and/or late (regulation) stages of emotion control. Fifty epileptic patients with (n = 25) versus without (n = 25) comorbid negative affect plus twenty-five matched controls were recruited. ERPs were recorded while subjects performed a face- or house-matching task in which fearful, sad or neutral faces were presented either at attended or unattended spatial locations. Two ERP components were analyzed: the early vertex positive potential (VPP) which is normally enhanced for faces, and the late positive potential (LPP) that is typically larger for emotional stimuli. All participants had larger amplitude of the early face-sensitive VPP for attended faces compared to houses, regardless of their emotional content. By contrast, in patients with negative affect only, the amplitude of the LPP was significantly increased for unattended negative emotional expressions. These VPP results indicate that epilepsy with or without negative affect does not interfere with the early structural encoding and attention selection of faces. However, the LPP results suggest abnormal regulation processes during the processing of unattended emotional faces in patients with epilepsy and comorbid negative affect. In conclusion, this ERP study reveals that early object-based attention processes are not compromised by epilepsy, but instead, when combined with negative affect, this neurological disease is associated with dysfunction during the later stages of emotion regulation. As such, these new neurophysiological findings shed light on the complex interplay of epilepsy with negative affect during the processing of emotional

  8. Design and Evaluation of Affective Serious Games for Emotion Regulation Training

    OpenAIRE

    Jerčić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Emotions are thought to be a key factor that critically influences human decision-making. Emotion regulation can help to mitigate emotion related decision biases and eventually lead to a better decision performance. Serious games emerged as a new angle introducing technological methods to learning emotion regulation, where meaningful biofeedback information displays player's emotional state. This thesis investigates emotions and the effect of emotion regulation on decision performance. F...

  9. Supporting Affect Regulation in Children With Multiple Disabilities During Psychotherapy: A Multiple Case Design Study of Therapeutic Attachment. [Miscellaneous Article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, C; Sterkenburg, P S; Jeczynski, P; Janssen, C G C; Jongbloed, G

    2009-01-01

    : In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase,

  10. Supporting affect regulation in children with multiple disabilities during psychotherapy: A multiple case design study of therapeutic attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, C.; Sterkenburg, P.S.; Jeczynski, P.; Janssen, C.G.C.; Jongbloed, G.

    2009-01-01

    In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase, children

  11. The Importance of Affects, Self-Regulation and Relationships in the Writing of a Master's Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Bastien

    2018-01-01

    While the number of postgraduate students is increasing, the writing of a master's dissertation still poses numerous challenges to them. The outcome of this work depends just as much on technical and methodological skills as on affects, self-regulation, and the relationship to the supervisor. In order to test a comprehensive model including all…

  12. Individual differences in effects of child care quality : The role of child affective self-regulation and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357402456; Van Aken, Marcel A G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081831218; Dubas, Judith S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/155382195; Mulder, Hanna|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322944880; Leseman, Paul P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands.

  13. Procrastination, Self-Regulation Failure, Academic Life Satisfaction, and Affective Well-Being: Underregulation or Misregulation Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-regulation failure in procrastination. In addition, it also aimed to investigate the effects of procrastination on affective well-being and academic life satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The most obvious finding emerging from this…

  14. Personality affects aspects of health-related quality of life in parkinson's disease via psychological coping strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitworth, Stephanie R.; Loftus, Andrea M.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Personality traits influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Further, an individual's personality traits can influence the strategies they use to cope with a particular stressful situation. However, in PD, the interplay between personality traits......, choice of coping strategy, and their subsequent effect on HRQoL remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine whether personality (neuroticism and extraversion) indirectly affects HRQoL through the use of specific psychological coping strategies. Methods: One hundred and forty......-six patients with PD completed questionnaires on personality (Big Five Aspects Scale; BFAS), coping (Ways of Coping Questionnaire; WCQ), and mood-specific (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; DASS-21) and disease-specific HRQoL (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire; PDQ-39). Results: After controlling...

  15. The Analysis Of Factors Affect The Quality Of Competitive Strategy In Industry SME For Embroidery At Padang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dahliana kamener dahlia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the quality factors of competitive strategy on SME for Industrial embroidery in Padang city. With this research is expected to provide benefits to the industry, especially SMEs Industrial embroidery to be able to improve and consider the factors that can affect the quality of competitive strategy in this industry, which the factors influenced such as Quality Strategic Asset, Environment Adabtability and price strategic to the Quality Strategic Competition. The populations of this study were SME industry for the embroidery product in the city of Padang and used census sampling. Data retrieved from the primary data by spreading questionnaires and the measurement by using a Likert scale. Methods of analysis by using descriptive analysis, multiple regression analysis to test the hyphotheses. The result showed that the quality of asset strategik was postively significant effect the Quality Strategic Competition, and enviromental adaptability and price strategy have positively not significant effect on the Quality Strategic Competition.

  16. Personality affects aspects of health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease via psychological coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Stephanie R; Loftus, Andrea M; Skinner, Timothy C; Gasson, Natalie; Barker, Roger A; Bucks, Romola S; Thomas, Meghan G

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Further, an individual's personality traits can influence the strategies they use to cope with a particular stressful situation. However, in PD, the interplay between personality traits, choice of coping strategy, and their subsequent effect on HRQoL remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether personality (neuroticism and extraversion) indirectly affects HRQoL through the use of specific psychological coping strategies. One hundred and forty-six patients with PD completed questionnaires on personality (Big Five Aspects Scale; BFAS), coping (Ways of Coping Questionnaire; WCQ), and mood-specific (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; DASS-21) and disease-specific HRQoL (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire; PDQ-39). After controlling for gender, age at diagnosis, and age at testing, the emotion-focused coping strategy of escape-avoidance was significantly correlated with neuroticism and certain aspects of HRQoL (cognitive impairment and social support). This suggests that neurotic personality traits may negatively impact on some aspects of HRQoL due to an increased use of escape-avoidance coping strategies. By contrast, planned problem-solving and escape-avoidance coping strategies were both significantly linked to extraversion and interpersonal and mood-related domains of HRQoL. This suggests that extraversion may positively impact on some aspects of HRQoL due to patients adopting greater planned, problem-solving coping strategies, and using fewer escape-avoidance coping mechanisms. Psychological interventions aimed at targeting maladaptive coping strategies, such as the use of escape-avoidance coping, may be effective in minimising the negative impact of neuroticism on HRQoL in PD.

  17. Using the Learning Together Strategy to Affect Student Achievement in Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Manda D.

    Despite efforts mandated by national legislation, the state of Georgia has made little progress in improving Grade 5 students' standardized test scores in science, spurring the need for social change. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in the student achievement in the conceptual understanding of science concepts in a classroom where the teacher applied the cooperative learning strategy, Learning Together, as compared to the classroom in which teacher-directed instruction was applied. The theories of positive social interdependence and social development, which posit that social interaction promotes cognitive gains, provided a framework for the study. A convenience sample of 38 students in Grade 5 participated in the 6-week study. Nineteen students received the cooperative learning strategy treatment, while 19 students did not. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both groups, and an analysis of variance was performed to examine differences between the 2 sample means. Results indicated that the group receiving the cooperative learning strategy scored significantly higher than did the control group receiving direct instruction. The experimental group also scored higher in vocabulary acquisition. Using the cooperative learning strategy of Learning Together could guide teachers' efforts to help students achieve excellent state-mandated test scores. Learning Together may be employed as a powerful teaching tool across grade levels and content areas, thus promoting positive gains in other state-mandated testing areas such as math, language arts, and social studies.

  18. How Teaching Science Using Project-Based Learning Strategies Affects the Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…

  19. Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students' study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Elzubair, M.; Magzoub, M.E.; AlMutairi, A.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health

  20. Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

  1. Hypoxia-regulated therapeutic gene as a preemptive treatment strategy against ischemia/reperfusion tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachori, Alok S; Melo, Luis G; Hart, Melanie L; Noiseux, Nicholas; Zhang, Lunan; Morello, Fulvio; Solomon, Scott D; Stahl, Gregory L; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J

    2004-08-17

    Ischemia and reperfusion represent major mechanisms of tissue injury and organ failure. The timing of administration and the duration of action limit current treatment approaches using pharmacological agents. In this study, we have successfully developed a preemptive strategy for tissue protection using an adenoassociated vector system containing erythropoietin hypoxia response elements for ischemia-regulated expression of the therapeutic gene human heme-oxygenase-1 (hHO-1). We demonstrate that a single administration of this vector several weeks in advance of ischemia/reperfusion injury to multiple tissues such as heart, liver, and skeletal muscle yields rapid and timely induction of hHO-1 during ischemia that resulted in dramatic reduction in tissue damage. In addition, overexpression of therapeutic transgene prevented long-term pathological tissue remodeling and normalized tissue function. Application of this regulatable system using an endogenous physiological stimulus for expression of a therapeutic gene may be a feasible strategy for protecting tissues at risk of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  2. Implementation of training programs in self-regulated learning strategies in Moodle format: results of a experience in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, José Carlos; Cerezo, Rebeca; Bernardo, Ana; Rosário, Pedro; Valle, Antonio; Fernández, Estrella; Suárez, Natalia

    2011-04-01

    This paper tests the efficacy of an intervention program in virtual format intended to train studying and self-regulation strategies in university students. The aim of this intervention is to promote a series of strategies which allow students to manage their learning processes in a more proficient and autonomous way. The program has been developed in Moodle format and hosted by the Virtual Campus of the University of Oviedo. The present study had a semi-experimental design, included an experimental group (n=167) and a control one (n=206), and used pretest and posttest measures (self-regulated learning strategies' declarative knowledge, self-regulated learning macro-strategy planning-execution-assessment, self-regulated learning strategies on text, surface and deep learning approaches, and academic achievement). Data suggest that the students enrolled in the training program, comparing with students in the control group, showed a significant improvement in their declarative knowledge, general and on text use of learning strategies, increased their deep approach to learning, decreased their use of a surface approach and, in what concerns to academic achievement, statistically significant differences have been found in favour of the experimental group.

  3. [Analysis of prenatal follow-up strategies for trisomy 21 affected pregnancies in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, J-M; Simon-Bouy, B; Zebina, A; Pessione, F; Royère, D; Doco-Fenzy, M

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to screen the prenatal follow-up of women with live birth trisomy 21 child in order to evaluate the proportion of prenatal screening failure versus cases where the women refused either the screening or the prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. This study covers the period of time from 2009 to 2012 when the national prenatal screening policy changed from second to first trimester and allows for a comparative assessment of the nationwide efficiency of the various maternal serum marker based strategies. All authorized cytogenetic laboratories sent required data for all cases of trisomy 21 diagnosed in FRANCE in new-borns (less than 1-year-old) from January 2010 to July 2013. A total of 1253 cases of trisomy 21 were diagnosed before 1 year of age whose mother did not had prenatal diagnosis. For 861 of them, information on the prenatal follow-up was available, with 72% of cases where a prenatal screening was organized either by maternal serum marker or by ultrasound. Results of the screening strategy was positive with maternal serum marker in 28% of cases (calculated risk≥1/250), positive because of abnormal ultrasound in 5% and negative with maternal marker screening (whatever the strategy used) in 67% of cases. Detection rate over the period of the study was 82%, with similar efficiency of first and second trimester strategies (83%) but significantly lower with sequential association of first trimester Nuchal translucency measurement and second trimester serum screening (70%). Switching from second trimester to first trimester screening strategy, with as many trisomy 21 foetuses diagnosed with half invasive procedures fulfilled national health policy objectives. Analysis of these data gives useful insights to elaborate a future screening policy involving cell-free foetal DNA sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary stability of mutualism: interspecific population regulation as an evolutionarily stable strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Schultz, Stewart T.

    2004-01-01

    Interspecific mutualisms are often vulnerable to instability because low benefit : cost ratios can rapidly lead to extinction or to the conversion of mutualism to parasite–host or predator–prey interactions. We hypothesize that the evolutionary stability of mutualism can depend on how benefits and costs to one mutualist vary with the population density of its partner, and that stability can be maintained if a mutualist can influence demographic rates and regulate the population density of its partner. We test this hypothesis in a model of mutualism with key features of senita cactus (Pachycereus schottii) – senita moth (Upiga virescens) interactions, in which benefits of pollination and costs of larval seed consumption to plant fitness depend on pollinator density. We show that plants can maximize their fitness by allocating resources to the production of excess flowers at the expense of fruit. Fruit abortion resulting from excess flower production reduces pre–adult survival of the pollinating seed–consumer, and maintains its density beneath a threshold that would destabilize the mutualism. Such a strategy of excess flower production and fruit abortion is convergent and evolutionarily stable against invasion by cheater plants that produce few flowers and abort few to no fruit. This novel mechanism of achieving evolutionarily stable mutualism, namely interspecific population regulation, is qualitatively different from other mechanisms invoking partner choice or selective rewards, and may be a general process that helps to preserve mutualistic interactions in nature.

  5. Deployment strategy for battery energy storage system in distribution network based on voltage violation regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Zhou, L.; Xu, T.; Fang, W. L.; He, W. G.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the situation of voltage violation caused by the grid-connection of photovoltaic (PV) system in a distribution network, a bi-level programming model is proposed for battery energy storage system (BESS) deployment. The objective function of inner level programming is to minimize voltage violation, with the power of PV and BESS as the variables. The objective function of outer level programming is to minimize the comprehensive function originated from inner layer programming and all the BESS operating parameters, with the capacity and rated power of BESS as the variables. The differential evolution (DE) algorithm is applied to solve the model. Based on distribution network operation scenarios with photovoltaic generation under multiple alternative output modes, the simulation results of IEEE 33-bus system prove that the deployment strategy of BESS proposed in this paper is well adapted to voltage violation regulation invariable distribution network operation scenarios. It contributes to regulating voltage violation in distribution network, as well as to improve the utilization of PV systems.

  6. The Longitudinal Effect of Emotion Regulation Strategies on Anxiety Levels in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rebecca L; Arch, Joanna J; Landy, Lauren N; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2016-06-02

    There is growing evidence linking emotion dysregulation to anxiety. However, few studies have examined this relationship longitudinally or developmentally. Additionally, no studies have specifically examined the predictive relevance of the emotion regulation skills taught in mindfulness- and acceptance-based therapies. We explore whether specific emotion regulation processes differentially predict specific anxiety symptoms over time among children and adolescents. Initial emotion non-awareness, nonacceptance, and difficulties with goal-directed behavior were assessed in a community sample (n = 312, age range = 8-16, mean age = 11.68, 59% female, 69% Caucasian). Social anxiety, separation anxiety, and physical anxiety symptoms were assessed every 3 months for 3 years. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the concurrent and longitudinal effects of emotion dysregulation assessed at baseline or 18 months on anxiety. After controlling for depression, age, and gender, all three processes concurrently predicted physical and social anxiety, and all but nonacceptance predicted separation anxiety. Only difficulties with goal-directed behavior, however, predicted longitudinal change in separation anxiety over time with covariates. Additionally, emotion non-awareness and difficulties with goal-directed behavior predicted subsequent changes in social anxiety. Emotion dysregulation may serve as a potential risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms among youth. It may be beneficial to target reductions in maladaptive strategies in prevention or intervention work.

  7. Strategies used by dairy family farmers in the south of Brazil to comply with organic regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, L A; Machado Filho, L C P; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Hötzel, M J

    2014-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the environmental, feeding, and health management of organic (ORG) family dairy farms in the south of Brazil in comparison with conventional (CONV) farms, and to assess their degree of compliance with Brazilian organic legislation and the strategies they adopt to accomplish this (n=17 per group). During 2 visits to each farm in March and September, 2010, observations were made on the environment, feed, and health management, followed by bulk milk testing, clinical evaluation, and breed assessment of each individual cow, and an evaluation of diseases and treatments reported within the period. Additional data were collected directly from the farmers through direct interviews. The number of lactating cows was, on average, 11 (range 5 to 19) in the ORG and 16 (range 7 to 42) in the CONV herds. The ORG herds presented a lower percentage of the Holstein breed; whereas CONV herds were predominantly Holstein, in the ORG herds, only 2 herds were 100% Holstein and the remaining herds were crosses of Holstein, Jersey, and Gir (Bos indicus) cattle. Milk production per cow was lower (10.2 vs. 15.1 ± 1.22 L/cow, respectively) in ORG than in the CONV farms. The ORG farms offered less concentrate feed than CONV farms and had better pasture management. Organic farmers reported using phytotherapic and homeopathic products, and pasture management as a strategy to keep infection levels of endo- and ectoparasites low, whereas CONV farmers regularly used anthelmintics and acaricides. Milk production was lower in ORG than in CONV farms, but cow health and condition scores were broadly similar, indicating that the with these strategies ORG farms were able to secure levels of animal welfare comparable with CONV farms while complying with organic regulation, although at the cost of lower cow productivity. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationships between HIV stigma, emotional status, and emotional regulation among HIV-affected children in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV/AIDS have unique psychosocial needs that often go unaddressed in traditional treatment approaches. They are more likely than unaffected peers to encounter stigma, including overt discriminatory behaviors, as well as stereotyped attitudes. In addition, HIV-affected children are at risk for experiencing negative affect, including sadness and depression. Previous studies have identified a link between HIV stigma and the subsequent emotional status of children affected by HIV/AIDS. However, limited data are available regarding protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effects of HIV stigma and thus promote resiliency for this vulnerable population. Utilizing data from 790 children aged 6-17 years affected by parental HIV in rural central China this study aims to examine the association between HIV stigma, including both enacted and perceived stigma, and emotional status among HIV-affected children, as well as to evaluate the mediating effects of emotional regulation on the relationship between HIV stigma and emotional status. In addition, the moderating role of age is tested. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. We found that the experience of HIV stigma had a direct positive effect on negative emotions among children affected by HIV. Emotional regulation offers a level of protection, as it mediated the impact of HIV stigma on negative emotions. Moreover, age was found to moderate the relationship between perceived stigma and negative emotions. A significant interaction between perceived stigma and age suggested that negative emotions increase with age among those who perceived a higher level of stigmatization. Results suggest that children affected by HIV may benefit from interventions designed to enhance their capacity to regulate emotions and that health professionals should be aware of the link between stigma and negative emotion in childhood and adolescence and use the knowledge to inform their

  9. Motivational and emotional components affecting male's and female's self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between self-referenced feelings and cognitions and self-regulated learning has become an important area of research. But to what extent can differences in self-regulation be explained by differences in motivation and emotion? And how facilitating or debilitating is the effect of

  10. Individual differences in learning to teach: relating cognition, regulation and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterheert, Ida E; Vermunt, JD

    The purpose of this study was to describe individual differences in learning to teach. Thirty secondary student teachers were interviewed about several components of their learning: mental models of learning to teach, learning activities, regulation in general, emotion regulation in particular,

  11. Knowledge vs. Action: Discrepancies in University Students' Knowledge about and Self-Reported Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerst, Nora M; Klug, Julia; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    University students are supposed to be autonomous learners, able to adapt to an educational environment significantly less guided than school. Entering higher education poses a challenge of self-regulation, in which beginning students are often not prepared with self-regulation strategies needed. Since there are many studies assessing self-regulated learning (SRL) via classical self-reports, we know a lot about how students generally self-assess their SRL strategies. However, SRL and performance do not always correlate highly in these studies. The aim of the present study is to determine whether there are discrepancies between students' knowledge about SRL and their action in applying adequate SRL strategies in relevant learning situations. We also want to know whether such discrepancies generalize across domains and what the reasons for discrepancies are. The situation-specific Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire for Action and Knowledge (SRL-QuAK) was used in a sample of 408 psychology and economic sciences students. Descriptive data analysis was conducted to determine potential discrepancies between SRL knowledge and action and differences between the study domains in an explorative way. The reasons for not using SRL-strategies were derived via qualitative content analysis. The results showed that although students had quite advanced knowledge of SRL strategies, they did not put this knowledge into action. This dissonance between SRL knowledge and action was found in both domains. In terms of reasons, students stated that they (a) lacked the time to use SRL strategies, (b) would not benefit from SRL strategies in the given situation, (c) would not be able to put the strategies to use effectively or (d) found it too arduous to use SRL strategies. The implications of these results will be discussed, e.g., the consequences for measures to overcome students' dissonance between knowledge and action and therefore to promote academic performance and well-being.

  12. Knowledge vs. Action: Discrepancies in University Students' Knowledge about and Self-Reported Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerst, Nora M.; Klug, Julia; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    University students are supposed to be autonomous learners, able to adapt to an educational environment significantly less guided than school. Entering higher education poses a challenge of self-regulation, in which beginning students are often not prepared with self-regulation strategies needed. Since there are many studies assessing self-regulated learning (SRL) via classical self-reports, we know a lot about how students generally self-assess their SRL strategies. However, SRL and performance do not always correlate highly in these studies. The aim of the present study is to determine whether there are discrepancies between students' knowledge about SRL and their action in applying adequate SRL strategies in relevant learning situations. We also want to know whether such discrepancies generalize across domains and what the reasons for discrepancies are. The situation-specific Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire for Action and Knowledge (SRL-QuAK) was used in a sample of 408 psychology and economic sciences students. Descriptive data analysis was conducted to determine potential discrepancies between SRL knowledge and action and differences between the study domains in an explorative way. The reasons for not using SRL-strategies were derived via qualitative content analysis. The results showed that although students had quite advanced knowledge of SRL strategies, they did not put this knowledge into action. This dissonance between SRL knowledge and action was found in both domains. In terms of reasons, students stated that they (a) lacked the time to use SRL strategies, (b) would not benefit from SRL strategies in the given situation, (c) would not be able to put the strategies to use effectively or (d) found it too arduous to use SRL strategies. The implications of these results will be discussed, e.g., the consequences for measures to overcome students' dissonance between knowledge and action and therefore to promote academic performance and well-being. PMID

  13. Glycerol affects root development through regulation of multiple pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol metabolism has been well studied biochemically. However, the means by which glycerol functions in plant development is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of glycerol on root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Exogenous glycerol inhibited primary root growth and altered lateral root development in wild-type plants. These phenotypes appeared concurrently with increased endogenous glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and H2O2 contents in seedlings, and decreased phosphate levels in roots. Upon glycerol treatment, G3P level and root development did not change in glycerol kinase mutant gli1, but G3P level increased in gpdhc1 and fad-gpdh mutants, which resulted in more severely impaired root development. Overexpression of the FAD-GPDH gene attenuated the alterations in G3P, phosphate and H2O2 levels, leading to increased tolerance to exogenous glycerol, which suggested that FAD-GPDH plays an important role in modulating this response. Free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content increased by 46%, and DR5pro::GUS staining increased in the stele cells of the root meristem under glycerol treatment, suggesting that glycerol likely alters normal auxin distribution. Decreases in PIN1 and PIN7 expression, β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining in plants expressing PIN7pro::GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in plants expressing PIN7pro::PIN7-GFP were observed, indicating that polar auxin transport in the root was downregulated under glycerol treatment. Analyses with auxin-related mutants showed that TIR1 and ARF7 were involved in regulating root growth under glycerol treatment. Glycerol-treated plants showed significant reductions in root meristem size and cell number as revealed by CYCB1;1pro::GUS staining. Furthermore, the expression of CDKA and CYCB1 decreased significantly in treated plants compared with control plants, implying possible alterations in cell cycle progression. Our data demonstrated that glycerol

  14. Factors affecting employee turnover and sound retention strategies in business organization: a conceptual view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Abdullah Al Mamun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available “Employee turnover” as an expression is broadly used in business organization. Despite the fact that several studies have been performed on this topic, little research has been conducted on examining the causes and leading factors of turnover as well, as advising some feasible approaches, which can be applied by bosses to ensure that employees will continue in their respective organizations to enhance organizational effectiveness and productivity. The main purpose of this study is to determine the reasons and key factors in the perspectives of the relevant literature and identify to the intention of employee turnover. This conceptual paper also suggests various possible strategies on how to minimize the turnover and retain employees in the organizations. Hence, the paper has proposed a conceptual framework that shows the major variables in explaining the phenomenon of employee turnover and addressing sound retention strategies to handle these issues.

  15. Pythium spp. affecting aerobic rice cultivation in the Philippines: characterization, virulence strategies and plant defense

    OpenAIRE

    Van Buyten, Evelien

    2013-01-01

    Global warming and a continuously rising world population are causing water scarcity for agricultural usage. The traditional rice cultivation in flooded paddy fields consumes tremendous amounts of fresh water and therefore, its sustainability is severely threatened. Since rice paddies provide 75% of the total rice production, this poses a huge problem on the future food security of billions of people mainly living in Asia. Several strategies have been developed to save water in paddy fields, ...

  16. An analysis of vascular surgery in elderly patients to determine whether age affects treatment strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of arterial disease increases with age. Increasing life expectancy in the western world will intensify demands on vascular surgeons with regard to increasing caseload, expanding patient selection criteria, and more complex and minimally-invasive treatment options. We analysed our arterial cases over the past 31 years (n = 6,144) and compared our methods of intervention and complication rates in the elderly population (>75) with the younger cohort, in order to determine whether age should influence our management strategies.

  17. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. How copying affects the amount, evenness and persistence of cultural knowledge: insights from the social learning strategies tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, L.; Boyd, R.; Enquist, M.; Feldman, M. W.; Fogarty, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2011-01-01

    Darwinian processes should favour those individuals that deploy the most effective strategies for acquiring information about their environment. We organized a computer-based tournament to investigate which learning strategies would perform well in a changing environment. The most successful strategies relied almost exclusively on social learning (here, learning a behaviour performed by another individual) rather than asocial learning, even when environments were changing rapidly; moreover, successful strategies focused learning effort on periods of environmental change. Here, we use data from tournament simulations to examine how these strategies might affect cultural evolution, as reflected in the amount of culture (i.e. number of cultural traits) in the population, the distribution of cultural traits across individuals, and their persistence through time. We found that high levels of social learning are associated with a larger amount of more persistent knowledge, but a smaller amount of less persistent expressed behaviour, as well as more uneven distributions of behaviour, as individuals concentrated on exploiting a smaller subset of behaviour patterns. Increased rates of environmental change generated increases in the amount and evenness of behaviour. These observations suggest that copying confers on cultural populations an adaptive plasticity, allowing them to respond to changing environments rapidly by drawing on a wider knowledge base. PMID:21357234

  19. Online advertisement: how are visual strategies affected by the distance and the animation of banners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotti, Léa; Baccino, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Most of studies about online advertisements have indicated that they have a negative impact on users' cognitive processes, especially when they include colorful or animated banners and when they are close to the text to be read. In the present study we assessed the effects of two advertisements features-distance from the text and the animation-on visual strategies during a word-search task and a reading-for-comprehension task using Web-like pages. We hypothesized that the closer the advertisement was to the target text, the more cognitive processing difficulties it would cause. We also hypothesized that (1) animated banners would be more disruptive than static advertisements and (2) banners would have more effect on word-search performance than reading-for-comprehension performance. We used an automatic classifier to assess variations in use of Scanning and Reading visual strategies during task performance. The results showed that the effect of dynamic and static advertisements on visual strategies varies according to the task. Fixation duration indicated that the closest advertisements slowed down information processing but there was no difference between the intermediate (40 pixel) and far (80 pixel) distance conditions. Our findings suggest that advertisements have a negative impact on users' performance mostly when a lots of cognitive resources are required as for reading-for-comprehension.

  20. Online advertisement: how are visual strategies affected by the distance and the animation of banners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotti, Léa; Baccino, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Most of studies about online advertisements have indicated that they have a negative impact on users' cognitive processes, especially when they include colorful or animated banners and when they are close to the text to be read. In the present study we assessed the effects of two advertisements features—distance from the text and the animation—on visual strategies during a word-search task and a reading-for-comprehension task using Web-like pages. We hypothesized that the closer the advertisement was to the target text, the more cognitive processing difficulties it would cause. We also hypothesized that (1) animated banners would be more disruptive than static advertisements and (2) banners would have more effect on word-search performance than reading-for-comprehension performance. We used an automatic classifier to assess variations in use of Scanning and Reading visual strategies during task performance. The results showed that the effect of dynamic and static advertisements on visual strategies varies according to the task. Fixation duration indicated that the closest advertisements slowed down information processing but there was no difference between the intermediate (40 pixel) and far (80 pixel) distance conditions. Our findings suggest that advertisements have a negative impact on users' performance mostly when a lots of cognitive resources are required as for reading-for-comprehension. PMID:24672501

  1. Online advertisements: how are visual strategies affected by the distance and the animation of banners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa ePasqualotti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies about online advertisements have indicated that they have a negative impact on users’ cognitive processes, especially when they include colourful or animated banners and when they are close to the text to be read. In the present study we assessed the effects of two advertisements features - distance from the text and the animation - on visual strategies during a word-search task and a reading-for-comprehension task using Web-like pages. We hypothesised that the closer the advertisement was to the target text, the more cognitive processing difficulties it would cause. We also hypothesised that 1 animated banners would be more disruptive than static advertisements and 2 banners would have more effect on word-search performance than reading-for-comprehension performance. We used an automatic classifier to assess variations in use of Scanning and Reading visual strategies during task performance. The results showed that the effect of dynamic and static advertisements on visual strategies varies according to the task. Fixation duration indicated that the closest advertisements slowed down information processing but there was no difference between the intermediate (40 pixel and far (80 pixel distance conditions. Our findings suggest that advertisements have a negative impact on users’ performance mostly when a lots of cognitive resources are required as for reading-for-comprehension.

  2. Regulation of snow-fed rivers affects flow regimes more than climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheimer, B; Donnelly, C; Lindström, G

    2017-07-05

    River flow is mainly controlled by climate, physiography and regulations, but their relative importance over large landmasses is poorly understood. Here we show from computational modelling that hydropower regulation is a key driver of flow regime change in snow-dominated regions and is more important than future climate changes. This implies that climate adaptation needs to include regulation schemes. The natural river regime in snowy regions has low flow when snow is stored and a pronounced peak flow when snow is melting. Global warming and hydropower regulation change this temporal pattern similarly, causing less difference in river flow between seasons. We conclude that in snow-fed rivers globally, the future climate change impact on flow regime is minor compared to regulation downstream of large reservoirs, and of similar magnitude over large landmasses. Our study not only highlights the impact of hydropower production but also that river regulation could be turned into a measure for climate adaptation to maintain biodiversity on floodplains under climate change.Global warming and hydropower regulations are major threats to future fresh-water availability and biodiversity. Here, the authors show that their impact on flow regime over a large landmass result in similar changes, but hydropower is more critical locally and may have potential for climate adaptation in floodplains.

  3. Power in the Classroom VI: Verbal Control Strategies, Nonverbal Immediacy and Affective Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plax, Timothy G.; And Others

    Recognizing that nonverbal behaviors typically provide the framework for interpreting verbal messages, this project (the sixth in a series of projects designed to examine teacher power in the classroom) proposed and sequentially tested a heuristic model of student affective learning as a function of behavior alteration techniques and teacher…

  4. Improving Engineering Students' Cognitive and Affective Preparedness with a Pre-Instructional E-Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyung, Seung Youn; Moll, Amy; Marx, Brian; Frary, Megan; Callahan, Janet

    2010-01-01

    During the 2006-2007 academic year, five faculty members from the College of Engineering at Boise State University initiated a curriculum augmentation project using new instructional technologies with the intention to help improve undergraduate engineering students' cognitive and affective preparedness for their classroom learning. The…

  5. Validation of the FEEL-KJ: An Instrument to Measure Emotion Regulation Strategies in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Emiel Cracco; Kim Van Durme; Caroline Braet

    2015-01-01

    Although the field of emotion regulation in children and adolescents is growing, there is need for age-adjusted measures that assess a large variety of strategies. An interesting instrument in this respect is the FEEL-KJ because it measures 7 adaptive and 5 maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to three different emotions. However, the FEEL-KJ has not yet been validated extensively. Therefore, the current study aims to test the internal structure and validity of the FEEL-KJ in...

  6. The Assessment of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Sensory Processing Sensitivity and Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeil Soleymani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive emotional regulation strategies, sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal people. Materials and Methods: Statistical population of this study was all of patients with multiple sclerosis that referred to M.S association of Iran in the tehran. Sample of this study was 30 individuals of patients with multiple sclerosis selected by available sampling method and were matched with 30 individuals of normal people. Two groups completed cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity questionnaires. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results: The results indicated that there is significant difference between two groups in view of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in which the mean of scores of patients with multiple sclerosis in maladaptive strategies of self- blame, catastrophizing and other blame were more than normal people and mean of scores of them in adaptive strategies of positive refocusing, positive reappraisal and putting into perspective were less than normal people. The results also indicated that there is a significant difference between two groups in anxiety sensitivity and sensory processing sensitivity. Conclusion: The most of emotional problems in patients with multiple sclerosis can be the result of more application of maladaptive strategies of cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and high anxiety sensitivity.

  7. 75 FR 33501 - Definitions for Regulations Affecting All Savings Associations; Money Market Deposit Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... (HOLA),\\2\\ OTS issued regulations addressing limits on certain types of savings accounts known as Money...'s authority under HOLA to raise funds through accounts, further specifies that ``12 CFR parts 204...

  8. Customer social network affects marketing strategy: A simulation analysis based on competitive diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Jiawen; Du, Helen S.

    2017-03-01

    To explain the competition phenomenon and results between QQ and MSN (China) in the Chinese instant messaging software market, this paper developed a new population competition model based on customer social network. The simulation results show that the firm whose product with greater network externality effect will gain more market share than its rival when the same marketing strategy is used. The firm with the advantage of time, derived from the initial scale effect will become more competitive than its rival when facing a group of common penguin customers within a social network, verifying the winner-take-all phenomenon in this case.

  9. Factors affecting the implementation of childhood vaccination communication strategies in Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Eteng, Glory; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2017-02-15

    The role of health communication in vaccination programmes cannot be overemphasized: it has contributed significantly to creating and sustaining demand for vaccination services and improving vaccination coverage. In Nigeria, numerous communication approaches have been deployed but these interventions are not without challenges. We therefore aimed to explore factors affecting the delivery of vaccination communication in Nigeria. We used a qualitative approach and conducted the study in two states: Bauchi and Cross River States in northern and southern Nigeria respectively. We identified factors affecting the implementation of communication interventions through interviews with relevant stakeholders involved in vaccination communication in the health services. We also reviewed relevant documents. Data generated were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. We used the SURE framework to organise the identified factors (barriers and facilitators) affecting vaccination communication delivery. We then grouped these into health systems and community level factors. Some of the commonly reported health system barriers amongst stakeholders interviewed included: funding constraints, human resource factors (health worker shortages, training deficiencies, poor attitude of health workers and vaccination teams), inadequate infrastructure and equipment and weak political will. Community level factors included the attitudes of community stakeholders and of parents and caregivers. We also identified factors that appeared to facilitate communication activities. These included political support, engagement of traditional and religious institutions and the use of organised communication committees. Communication activities are a crucial element of immunization programmes. It is therefore important for policy makers and programme managers to understand the barriers and facilitators affecting the delivery of vaccination communication so as to be able to implement

  10. Knowledge of Repetition Range Does Not Affect Maximal Force Production Strategies of Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jonathan C; Greene, Rebecca M; Herat, Nehara; Hodgson, Daniel D; Halperin, Israel; Behm, David G

    2017-02-01

    Contrary to adult force reserve strategies, it is not known whether adolescent females with less experience performing maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) have specific responses to a known or unknown fatigue endpoint. Using a counterbalanced random crossover design, fourteen inexperienced female adolescents completed three elbow flexor (EF) fatiguing protocols. Participants were randomly assigned to a control (informed they would perform 12 MVCs), unknown (not informed of the number of MVCs to be completed, but stopped after 12) or deception condition (instructed to complete 6 MVCs, however, after the sixth repetition performed another 6 MVCs). Before and during the interventions, EF impulse, force, and biceps brachii (BB) and triceps brachii (TB) electromyography (EMG) activity were recorded. Participants exhibited decreases in impulse (10.9%; p < .05), force (7.5%; p = .001), BB (16.2%; p < .05) and TB (12.9%; p < .05) EMG activity between the pretest and the first repetition of all protocols. Knowledge of endpoint, or lack of it, did not change measures with the repeated MVCs. When informed about the final repetition, force remained depressed suggesting no physiological reserve. Adolescent females exhibited an anticipatory response to the task of performing repeated MVCs. A lack of change with knowledge of endpoint indicates that those lacking in MVC experience do not employ the same pacing strategies as in previous studies of participants with MVC experience.

  11. Implementation of 2011 Duty Hours Regulations through a Workload Reduction Strategy and Impact on Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Jonathon; Dattalo, Melissa; Ghanem, Khalil G; Christmas, Colleen

    2016-12-01

    Training programs have implemented the 2011 ACGME duty hour regulations (DHR) using "workload compression" (WLC) strategies, attempting to fit similar clinical responsibilities into fewer working hours, or workload reduction (WLR) approaches, reducing the number of patient encounters per trainee. Many have expressed concern that these strategies could negatively impact patient care and learner outcomes. This study evaluates the medical knowledge and clinical impact of a WLR intervention in a single institution. Nonrandomized intervention study with comparison to a historical control study among 58 PGY-1 internal medicine trainees in the 2 years after duty hour implementation [exposure cohort (EC), 7/1/2011-6/30/2013], compared to 2 years before implementation [comparison cohort (CC), 7/1/2009-6/30/2011]. Process outcomes were average inpatient encounters, average new inpatient admissions, and average scheduled outpatient encounters per PGY-1 year. Performance outcomes included trainee inpatient and outpatient days on service, In-Training Examination (ITE) scores as an objective surrogate of medical knowledge, Case-Mix Index (CMI), and quality of care measures (30-day readmission rate, 30-day mortality rate, and average length of stay). Baseline characteristics and average numbers of inpatient encounters per PGY-1 class were similar between the EC and CC. However, the EC experienced fewer new inpatient admissions (157.47 ± 40.47 vs. 181.72 ± 25.45; p number of new inpatient admissions and an increase in outpatient encounters. ITE and care quality outcomes were maintained or improved. While there is theoretical concern that reducing PGY-1 inpatient admissions volumes may negatively impact education and clinical care measures, this study found no evidence of such a trade-off.

  12. Seasonal biotic and abiotic factors affecting hunting strategy in free-living Saharan sand vipers, Cerastes vipera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Sefi J A; Sivan, Jaim; Rosenstrauch, Avi; Tesler, Itay; Degen, A Allan; Kam, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Sit-and-wait ambushing and active hunting are two strategies used by predators to capture prey. In snakes, hunting strategy is conserved phylogenetically; most species employ only one strategy. Active hunters encounter and capture more prey but invest more energy in hunting and have higher risks of being predated. This trade-off is important to small predators. The small Cerastes vipera employs both modes of hunting, which is unlike most viperids which use only sit-and wait ambushing. This species hibernates in October and emerges in April. Energy intake should be high prior to hibernation to overcome the non-feeding hibernation period and for reproduction on their emergence. We predicted that more individuals would hunt actively towards hibernation and an abiotic factor would trigger this response. Furthermore, since more energy is required for active hunting, we predicted that snakes in good body condition would use active hunting to a greater extent than snakes in poor body condition. To test our predictions, we tracked free-living snakes year round and determined their hunting strategy, estimated their body condition index (BCI), and calculated circannual parameters of day length as environmental cues known to affect animal behaviour. Two novel findings emerged in this study, namely, hunting strategy was affected significantly by 1) the circannual change in day length and 2) by BCI. The proportion of active hunters increased from 5% in April to over 30% in October and BCI of active foragers was higher than that of sit-and-wait foragers and, therefore, our predictions were supported. The entrainment between the proportion of active hunting and the abiotic factor is indicative of an adaptive function for choosing a hunting strategy. A trend was evident among life stages. When all life stages were present (September-October), the proportion of active foragers increased with age: 0.0% among neonates, 18.2% among juveniles and 31.4% among adults. We concluded that

  13. A single nucleotide change affects fur-dependent regulation of sodB in H. pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M Carpenter

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that has adapted to survive the many stresses found within the gastric environment. Superoxide Dismutase (SodB is an important factor that helps H. pylori combat oxidative stress. sodB was previously shown to be repressed by the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur in the absence of iron (apo-Fur regulation [1]. Herein, we show that apo regulation is not fully conserved among all strains of H. pylori. apo-Fur dependent changes in sodB expression are not observed under iron deplete conditions in H. pylori strains G27, HPAG1, or J99. However, Fur regulation of pfr and amiE occurs as expected. Comparative analysis of the Fur coding sequence between G27 and 26695 revealed a single amino acid difference, which was not responsible for the altered sodB regulation. Comparison of the sodB promoters from G27 and 26695 also revealed a single nucleotide difference within the predicted Fur binding site. Alteration of this nucleotide in G27 to that of 26695 restored apo-Fur dependent sodB regulation, indicating that a single base difference is at least partially responsible for the difference in sodB regulation observed among these H. pylori strains. Fur binding studies revealed that alteration of this single nucleotide in G27 increased the affinity of Fur for the sodB promoter. Additionally, the single base change in G27 enabled the sodB promoter to bind to apo-Fur with affinities similar to the 26695 sodB promoter. Taken together these data indicate that this nucleotide residue is important for direct apo-Fur binding to the sodB promoter.

  14. Diary study of sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and strategies for reducing negative affect in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Nicolette L; Orcutt, Holly K

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study was to examine motivations for engaging in risky sexual behaviors (RSBs) and factors that may increase the likelihood of engaging in RSB. RSB was defined as not using condoms during intercourse and having intercourse with poorly known partners, which were treated separately with regard to analyses. Utilizing a weekly diary methodology, the present study examined whether using situation-specific coping strategies (e.g, using alcohol to reduce negative affect and sex to reduce negative affect) and whether subjective reports of intoxication significantly predicted if participants would engage in RSB. Female college students (N = 93) completed a weekly computerized questionnaire for 8 weeks reporting on their sexual behavior, their level of intoxication, and use of strategies (i.e., sex and alcohol) to reduce negative affect at the time of the sexual encounter. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results indicated that level of intoxication was the sole significant main effect related to engaging in RSB; specifically, level of intoxication was positively related to sex with a poorly known partner. Alcohol use, as opposed to motivation for intercourse, is an important area to focus on with regard to prevention of RSB.

  15. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  16. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  17. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education.

  18. Why Control Activity? Evolutionary Selection Pressures Affecting the Development of Physical Activity Genetic and Biological Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Timothy Lightfoot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature strongly suggests that daily physical activity is genetically and biologically regulated. Potential identities of the responsible mechanisms are unclear, but little has been written concerning the possible evolutionary selection pressures leading to the development of genetic/biological controls of physical activity. Given the weak relationship between exercise endurance and activity levels and the differential genomic locations associated with the regulation of endurance and activity, it is probable that regulation of endurance and activity evolved separately. This hypothesis paper considers energy expenditures and duration of activity in hunter/gatherers, pretechnology farmers, and modern Western societies and considers the potential of each to selectively influence the development of activity regulation. Food availability is also considered given the known linkage of caloric restriction on physical activity as well as early data relating food oversupply to physical inactivity. Elucidating the selection pressures responsible for the genetic/biological control of activity will allow further consideration of these pressures on activity in today’s society, especially the linkages between food and activity. Further, current food abundance is removing the cues for activity that were present for the first 40,000 years of human evolution, and thus future research should investigate the effects of this abundance upon the mechanisms regulating activity.

  19. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter—DM) has....... The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around...... proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry...

  20. Factors Affecting Result in Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK Level 6: Reading Section and Preparation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  1. Framework of stock-recovery strategies: analyses of factors affecting success and failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Cornelius; Dorrien, Christian von; Hopkins, Christopher C. E.

    2010-01-01

    The EU FP6 UNCOVER project was aimed at producing a rational scientific basis for developing recovery strategies for some ecologically and socio-economically important fish stocks/fisheries in European seas. The immediate objectives were to identify changes experienced during stock depletion....../collapses, to understand prospects for recovery, to enhance the scientific understanding of the mechanisms of recovery, and to formulate recommendations on how best to implement long-term management/recovery plans. We extended an earlier analysis conducted within the project of 13 performance criteria in relation...... to the recovery of more than 30 fish stocks/fisheries worldwide by multivariate exploratory analysis (canonical correspondence analysis), followed by model building [discriminant analysis (DA)] to quantify the relative importance of key performance criteria, singly or combined. Using the existing database, DA...

  2. Health-related quality of life and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the unemployed: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2014-11-29

    The loss of one's job has been conceptualized as a major stressful life event in an adult's life and has consistently been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies after the experience of stressful events has emerged as an important predictor of adverse psychological and health outcomes. However, the effect of these coping strategies on the HRQoL of unemployed people has not been examined until now. We aimed to study the associations of these cognitive emotion regulation strategies on HRQoL of unemployed people. Using cross-sectional data, 1,125 unemployed adults were assessed using a Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for cognitive coping and SF-12 to assess HRQoL. We studied the effect of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on mental and physical health composite separately, adjusting for gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, using hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed unemployed men tended to express greater use of self-blame, other-blame, and catastrophizing, and lower use of perspective taking strategies when confronted with unemployment. Moreover, self-blame (for mental health composite only), blaming others, rumination, and catastrophizing negatively correlated, while positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, planning, and positive refocusing positively correlated with both mental and physical health composite in unemployed people. Further hierarchical regression analyses indicate that five strategies (a lower reported use of self-blame, rumination, and catastrophizing, as well as higher scores of positive reappraisal and positive refocusing) and three strategies (lower scores of catastrophizing and rumination and high scores in planning) have significant and independent contributions, beyond gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, to the prediction of mental health and physical health composite, respectively

  3. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  4. Reduced population size does not affect the mating strategy of a vulnerable and endemic seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Cristina; Neves, Verónica C.; Andris, Malvina; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Jarne, Philippe; Bolton, Mark; Bried, Joël

    2017-12-01

    Bottleneck episodes may occur in small and isolated animal populations, which may result in decreased genetic diversity and increased inbreeding, but also in mating strategy adjustment. This was evaluated in the vulnerable and socially monogamous Monteiro's Storm-petrel Hydrobates monteiroi, a seabird endemic to the Azores archipelago which has suffered a dramatic population decline since the XVth century. To do this, we conducted a genetic study (18 microsatellite markers) in the population from Praia islet, which has been monitored over 16 years. We found no evidence that a genetic bottleneck was associated with this demographic decline. Monteiro's Storm-petrels paired randomly with respect to genetic relatedness and body measurements. Pair fecundity was unrelated to genetic relatedness between partners. We detected only two cases of extra-pair parentage associated with an extra-pair copulation (out of 71 offspring). Unsuccessful pairs were most likely to divorce the next year, but genetic relatedness between pair mates and pair breeding experience did not influence divorce. Divorce enabled individuals to improve their reproductive performances after re-mating only when the new partner was experienced. Re-pairing with an experienced partner occurred more frequently when divorcees changed nest than when they retained their nest. This study shows that even in strongly reduced populations, genetic diversity can be maintained, inbreeding does not necessarily occur, and random pairing is not risky in terms of pair lifetime reproductive success. Given, however, that we found no clear phenotypic mate choice criteria, the part played by non-morphological traits should be assessed more accurately in order to better understand seabird mating strategies.

  5. Down-regulation of Wnt10a affects odontogenesis and proliferation in mesenchymal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: Ly10160624@163.com; Han, Dong, E-mail: Donghan@bjmu.edu.cn; Wang, Lei, E-mail: wanglei_dentist@163.com; Feng, Hailan, E-mail: kqfenghl@bjmu.edu.cn

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Down-regulation of Wnt10a in dental mesenchymal cells impairs odontogenesis of reassociated tooth germs. •Dspp is down- and up-regulated after Wnt10a-knockdown and overexpression in dental mesenchymal cells. •Down-regulation of Wnt10a inhibits proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells. -- Abstract: The WNT10a mutation has been found in patients with abnormal odontogenesis. In mice, Wnt10a expression is found in the tooth germ, but its role has not yet been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the role of Wnt10a in odontogenesis. Mesenchymal cells of the first mandibular molar germ at the bell stage were isolated, transfected with Wnt10a SiRNA or plasmid, and reassociated with epithelial part of the molar germ. Scrambled SiRNA or empty vector was used in the control group. The reassociated tooth germs were transplanted into mice subrenal capsules. After gene modification, dental mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro were checked for cell proliferation and the expression of Dspp was examined. All 12 reassociated tooth germs in the control group resumed odontogenesis, while only 5 of 12 in the Wnt10a knockdown group developed into teeth. After Wnt10a knockdown, the mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro presented repressed proliferation. Wnt10a knockdown and overexpression led to both down- and up-regulation of Dspp. We conclude that the down-regulation of Wnt10a impairs odontogensis and cell proliferation, and that Wnt10a regulates Dspp expression in mesenchymal cells. These findings help to elucidate the mechanism of abnormal tooth development in patients with the WNT10A mutation.

  6. Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ): indicadores psicométricos e relações com medidas afetivas em amostra idosa Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ): psychometric indicators and affective relations in an elderly sample

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samila Sathler Tavares Batistoni; Tiago Nascimento Ordonez; Thaís Bento Lima da Silva; Priscila Pascarelli Pedrico do Nascimento; Meire Cachioni

    2013-01-01

    ... idosos.We examined psychometric indicators of the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) and their relationship with measures of affective experience, satisfaction with life and depression in the elderly...

  7. Inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis without affecting expression of p53-regulated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Lotem, Joseph; Gal, Hilah; Kama, Rachel; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Domany, Eytan; Sachs, Leo; Givol, David

    2003-01-01

    Using DNA microarray and clustering of expressed genes we have analyzed the mechanism of inhibition of wild-type p53-induced apoptosis by the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the calcium mobilizer thapsigargin (TG). Clustering analysis of 1,786 genes, the expression level of which changed after activation of wild-type p53 in the absence or presence of IL-6 or TG, showed that these compounds did not cause a general inhibition of the ability of p53 to up-regulate or down-regulate gene ex...

  8. Age-related differences in neural recruitment during the use of cognitive reappraisal and selective attention as emotion regulation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Eric S.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined age differences in the timing and neural recruitment within lateral and medial PFC while younger and older adults hedonically regulated their responses to unpleasant film clips. When analyses focused on activity during the emotional peak of the film clip (the most emotionally salient portion of the film), several age differences emerged. When comparing regulation to passive viewing (combined effects of selective attention and reappraisal) younger adults showed greater regulation related activity in lateral PFC (DLPFC, VLPFC, OFC) and medial PFC (ACC) while older adults showed greater activation within a region DLPFC. When assessing distinct effects of the regulation conditions, an ANOVA revealed a significant Age × Regulation Condition interaction within bilateral DLPFC and ACC; older adults but not young adults showed greater recruitment within these regions for reappraisal than selective attention. When examining activity at the onset of the film clip and at its emotional peak, the timing of reappraisal-related activity within VLPFC differed between age groups: younger adults showed greater activity at film onset while older adults showed heightened activity during the peak. Our results suggest that older adults rely more heavily on PFC recruitment when engaging cognitively demanding reappraisal strategies while PFC-mediated regulation might not be as task-specific for younger adults. Older adults' greater reliance on cognitive control processing during emotion regulation may also be reflected in the time needed to implement these strategies. PMID:24782800

  9. The Effect of Explicit Affective Strategy Training on Iranian EFL learners’ Oral Language Proficiency and Anxiety Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Mostafavi; Fereidoon Vahdany

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the possible effects of explicit teaching of affective strategies on Iranian EFL learners’ oral language proficiency and the extent of their anxiety in EFL classroom.  First, PET test was administered to a total number of 120 female third grade high school EFL students.  Then, 60 participants whose score fell within the range of + 1 SD from the mean score were selected for the main study.  Next, they were randomly assigned into two groups (one control ...

  10. Local ordinances as an instrument of social exclusion: the regulation affecting the homeless is administrative law of the enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Melero Alonso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses local ordinances, especially the so-called coexistence ordinances, to the extent they affect the daily activities of the homeless. There are three areas of regulation: the prohibition of begging; a ban on sleeping, washing and perform physiological needs in public spaces; and the prohibition of sorting through garbage. This regulation is subjected to a critical analysis, focusing on the fact that has an impact on the fundamental rights of the homeless. The basic parameters of control are the reserve of law and, above all, the principle of proportionality. The conclusion reached is that, in many cases, this regulation is not only illegal, it can also be included within the category Administrative Law of the enemy.

  11. Better Regulatory Impact Assessment - Making Behavioural Insights Work for the Commission’s New Better Regulation Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Feindt, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission’s (Commission) Better Regulation Strategy (BRS) is the major guideline for the Commission to assess legislation. It draws on regulatory impact assessment (RIA) via cost-benefit analysis (CBA), expert advice, and simplification in EU law-making. Yet, the practice of RIA by the

  12. Story Composition, Mental State Language and Self-Regulated Strategy Instruction for Writers with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgkasi, Vasiliki; Mavropoulou, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    In this single-subject study, we evaluated the effects of an intervention using a modified version of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) approach on the story composition skills and the use of mental state language in three writers with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Interestingly, the intervention was not found to be effective in…

  13. Teaching Writing to At-Risk Students: The Quality of Evidence for Self-Regulated Strategy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Scott K.; Chard, David J.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Apichatabutra, Chanisa; Doabler, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the quality of the research and evidence base for a writing intervention called Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD; Graham & Harris, 1989; Harris & Graham, 1996) for students with and at risk for learning disabilities, using criteria for group research studies suggested by Gersten et al. (2005) and single-subject…

  14. Investigation of the Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Students from the Faculty of Education Using Ordinal Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozpolat, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal whether the low, medium, and high level self-regulated learning strategies of third year students at the Education Faculty of Cumhuriyet University can be predicted by the variables of gender, academic self-efficacy, and general academic average. The study uses the Relational Screening Model. The dependent…

  15. The Effects of Self-Regulation Strategy Development on Written Expression of Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Ronald Howard

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) on the written expression of students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD). The target students for this study were elementary students who receive special education services under the category of EBD. An AB Multiple Baseline Design (i.e., Baseline,…

  16. The Use of Self-Regulation Strategies by Foreign Language Learners and Its Role in Language Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that incorporating self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies into foreign language teaching encourages the development of autonomous learners. However, interviews with teachers (n = 51) indicate that they mostly do not consider SRL in classroom practices. The present study attempts to highlight the significance of SRL in language…

  17. Examination of the Relationships between Fifth Graders' Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Motivational Beliefs, Attitudes, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Gurbuz; Yamac, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of current study was to examine predictor and explanatory relationships between fifth graders' self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics, and academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 204 students studying in the primary schools of Afyonkarahisar province. Motivated…

  18. Self-Regulated Strategy Instruction for Developing Speaking Proficiency and Reducing Speaking Anxiety of Egyptian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sakka, Samah Mohammed Fahim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching some self-regulated strategies to Egyptian university students on improving their speaking proficiency and reducing their speaking anxiety. The design of the study was a one group pre-posttest quasi experimental design. Forty 3rd- year EFL university students were selected to form the…

  19. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning for College Students with Asperger Syndrome: Exploring the "Strategies for College Learning" Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Bryan M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, I piloted the feasibility, effects, and perceived acceptability of a peer mentoring intervention targeting academic achievement and self-regulated learning (SRL) for three college students with Asperger syndrome. The approach, dubbed Strategies for College Learning (SCL), features individualized assessment of academic performance in…

  20. Sustained Attention Development during the Toddlerhood to Preschool Period: Associations with Toddlers' Emotion Regulation Strategies and Maternal Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the role of maternal behaviour and toddlers' emotion regulation strategies in the development of children's sustained attention abilities. Participants for this study included 447 children (232 girls) obtained from three different cohorts participating in a larger ongoing longitudinal study. When the children were 2…