WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulation harrison township

  1. 78 FR 28139 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Tuckahoe River, Between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Operation Regulation; Tuckahoe River, Between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... River, mile 8.0, between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ. The deviation is necessary to facilitate... operating schedule, the State Highway Bridge, mile 8.0, between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ shall...

  2. BENJAMIN HARRISON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    GRANDSON of a President and great-grandson of a signer of the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Harrison carried a distinguished American name into the White House, but historians generally agree that he added very little distinction to it during his stay there.

  3. PLSS Townships and Sections - MDC_Township

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of the Miami Dade County Townships. Townships are legal boundary description. Each Township is thirty six square miles with a few exceptions,...

  4. Personal and Contextual Influences on Township School Learners' Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduld, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Learners' self-regulation, which includes motivational variables, is influenced by personal variables within learners themselves, as well as by contextual factors. A great deal of research has focused on personal variables in learners that influence their self-regulated behaviours; yet contextual influences that operate outside of formal schooling…

  5. 2004 Harrison County, Mississippi Lidar Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the topographic mapping of Harrison County, Mississippi in March of 2004. Products generated include lidar point clouds in .LAS format...

  6. Harrison: Per aspera ad astra / Harda Roosna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosna, Harda, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    Kärdlast pärit Pille Harrison sai filosoofiadoktori kraadi Oxfordi ülikooli Green Templetoni kolledžist, teadustöö teemaks oli "Reumatoidartriidi geneetilised soodustavad ja raskendavad faktorid"

  7. BLM Colorado PLSS Township

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –In the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), a Township refers to a unit of land, that is nominally six miles on a side, usually containing 36 sections....

  8. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  9. Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.D.; Thrasher, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism

  10. LP IN TOWNSHIP PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Diegel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A township planner wants to house many people within a given area, without exceeding a tight budget, while yet respecting certain standards. These specify a variet::y of house t::ypes. They also imply indirect:: effect::s such as open space, schools or hospitals: more people use more of these. But as we build more schools, less space remains for houses, so we are left with fewer people l requiring fewer schools.
    We show how to capture such simultaneous interactions. We also discuss some unexpected results. These arise notably in the tr~nsition from fractional to integer solutions.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Dorpsbeplanner probeer soveel moontlik mense behuis in 'n betrokke area I sonder om 'n beperkte begroting te' oorskrei, terwyl gegewe standaarde behou moet word. Laasgenoemde maak voorsiening vir 'n verskeidenheid van behuising. Dit behels ook indirekt::e navolgel soos oop ruimte, skole of hospitale: groot getalle gehuisveste mense maak meer gebruik hiervan. Maar soos daar meer skole gebou word I word minder ruimte gelaat vir behuising, dus word minder mense behuis, wat minder skole benodig.
    Ons toon aan hoe om sulke gelyktydige interaksie te verwerk. Ons bespreek oak sommige onverwagte resultate. Hierdie ontstaan veral in die oorgang van fraksionele na heeltal oplossings.

  11. Public Land Survey Township Boundaries of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains polygons representing the PLSS township boundaries of the state of Iowa. TOWNSHIP was developed from a set of 99 individual county coverages...

  12. Obituary: Harrison Edward Radford, 1927-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James Michael; Kirby, Kate Page; Chance, Kelly V.; Brown, Campbell

    2003-12-01

    Harrison Edward ``Harry" Radford, a noted laboratory spectroscopist and pioneer in the application of magnetic resonance techniques to spectroscopy, died on 5 May 2000, after a long battle with amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS). During a 37-year career at the National Bureau of Standards and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harry measured the frequencies of numerous molecular transitions which aided the emerging field of astrochemistry. Harry was both an excellent theoretician and a preeminently skilled experimentalist. He has several major spectroscopic achievements to his credit. He performed the first study of a short-lived molecular free radical, OH, by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, opening up a huge and important field of research. Together with colleagues he made the first observation of the rotational spectrum of CH by far infrared laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy and extended the technique to other molecules such as CH3O. Harry was born in Peterborough, New Hampshire, on 26 July 1927. He was the son of Harrison Edwin Radford, a roofer, and Dorothy (née Cole) Radford. He dropped out of high school to join the Navy in 1944 as an electronics technician's mate. After his discharge in 1946 he worked in the family construction business for four years as a roofer. In 1950 he entered the University of New Hampshire and graduated four years later, Summa Cum Laude, with a degree in physics. As a graduate student at Yale from 1954 to 1959 he wrote his PhD thesis under the supervision of V.W. Hughes on the microwave Zeeman spectra of oxygen and fluorine where he used the technique of paramagnetic resonance absorption in atomic vapors. In 1954 he married Mildred Spofford. They had three daughters, Susan (born in 1955), Amy (1957), and Sarah (1960). In 1974 he married Alfa Goldthwaithe Morrison, who survived him. From 1959 until 1969 Harry worked at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology

  13. The Karvina Township reclamation concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Orsag, H.; Dirner, V.

    1997-01-01

    The paper contains a summary of all reclamation activities in the Karvina township territory, Czech Republic, including those completed, those being worked at, and those under preparation. All projects are connected with changes of the landscape due to coal extraction. The landscape reclamation requires a certain volume of mine waste and of soil. The policy, as presented in this paper, has been submitted for approval by the Municipal Council

  14. [Study on elasticity of medical service demand at the township level in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-xing; Lv, Jun; Xie, Yi-ping; Wang, Ying; Jia, Jin-zhong; Chang, Feng-shui; Duan, Lin; Sun, Mei; Wang, Zhi-feng; Hao, Mo

    2010-06-18

    To find out the economic laws regulating medical service demand in accordance with influencing factors at the township level, thus to provide references for further adjusting the medical service demand reasonably in the future. The model of medical service demand was established to measure the elasticity of demand in 49 township health clinics in 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2007. The price elasticity of outpatient and inpatient demand was stable during the four periods, and the average value was -0.029 and -0.132 respectively; the average value of income elasticity was 0.973 and 0.977, registering a downward trend in general. The medical service demand at the township level is price inelastic, indicating that it is a necessity for rural residents. The downward trend of income elasticity under the influence of some health policies illustrates a lightening in economic burden for medical service demand among rural residents in township health clinics.

  15. 78 FR 74163 - Harrison Medical Center, a Subsidiary of Franciscan Health System Bremerton, Washington; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-83,070] Harrison Medical Center, a Subsidiary of Franciscan Health System Bremerton, Washington; Notice of Negative Determination... workers of Harrison Medical Center, a subsidiary of Franciscan Health System, Bremerton, Washington...

  16. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Harrison County School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    There are 21 schools in the Harrison County School District (HCSD), located in southern Mississippi, in the Gulfport/Biloxi metropolitan area. Of those, only Harrison Central 9th Grade (HC9) and Harrison County High School (HCHS) participated in the Cisco 21S Initiative--therefore, this summary will focus on only administrators, teachers,…

  17. Obituary: Edward R. (Ted) Harrison, 1919-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, William M.; Arny, Thomas T.; Trimble, Virginia

    2007-12-01

    Cosmologist Edward R. (Ted) Harrison, emeritus Distinguished University Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, died on 29 January 2007 in his retirement city of Tucson, Arizona, where he was adjunct professor at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona. The cause of death was colon cancer. He is survived by a sister, brother, and daughter. (A son died in 2000.) Perhaps best known for his work on the growth of fluctuations in the expanding universe and his books on cosmology for the dedicated layperson, Ted had extremely broad interests, and he published more than 200 papers in space sciences, plasma physics, high-energy physics, physical chemistry, and, principally, many aspects of astrophysics. He was a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Astronomical Society, and the Institute of Physics (UK). Ted Harrison was born 8 January 1919 in London, England. His parents were Robert Harrison and Daisy Harrison (nee White). His education at Sir John Cass College, London University, was interrupted by the Second World War, during which he served for six years with the British Army in various campaigns, ultimately acting as Radar Adviser to the Northern Area of the Egyptian Army. It was during the latter service that he met his wife Photeni (nee Marangas). Following the War, Ted became a British Civil Servant, at first with the Atomic Energy Research Establishment in Harwell and then at the Rutherford High Energy Laboratory. During this period he acquired the equivalent of university degrees, becoming a graduate, then an Associate, and finally a Fellow of the Institute of Physics. His somewhat unorthodox education may have contributed to his broad interests and his very intuitive and physical approach to scientific problems. The latter became the bane of generations of graduate students, who might find themselves asked on their physics qualifying exams to

  18. The impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ligthelm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The retail sector forms a critical element of a community’s economic and social welfare. It provides people with choices and services. These choices were until recently very limited in township areas. The pre-1994 retail landscape was dominated by small, often informal businesses offering basic household necessities to relatively low income earners. This has resulted in township residents’ preference to shop outside townships, known as ‘outshopping’. Rapid income growth of township residents since 1994 resulted in a substantial increase in consumer expenditure in these areas, known as ‘in-bound shopping’. This lucrative emerging market forms the last retail frontier in South Africa and is being explored by national retailers, especially supermarket chains. This article is aimed at establishing the impact of shopping mall development in townships on the traditional small township retailers including spaza/tuck shops. The net balance sheet on the impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers clearly suggests a decline in the township retailers’ market share. A change in small business model towards, inter alia, effective customer service with a small dedicated assortment of merchandise, satisfaction of emergency needs, selling in small units and extension of credit facilities may result in the survival of some small township retailers (albeit often at a smaller turnover.

  19. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Alaska. Final report, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    During the months of July and August of 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 3 0 x 1 0 and one (1) 4 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles of the Alaska North Slope. These include the Barrow, Wainwright, Meade River, Teshekpuk, Harrison Bay, Beechey Point, Point Lay, Utukok River, Lookout Ridge, Ikpikpuk River, Umiat, and Sagavanirktok quadrangles. This report discusses the results obtained over the Harrison Bay map area

  20. AHP 10: CHILDBIRTH AND CHILDCARE IN RDO SBIS TIBETAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klu mo tshe ring ཀླུ་མོ་ཚེ་རིང་།

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rdo sbis (Daowei 道帏 Tibetan Autonomous Township, Xunhua 循化 Salar Autonomous County, Haidong 海东 Region, is located in eastern Qinghai 青海 Province, PR China. Knowledge, beliefs, and behavior associated with childbirth, midwifery, and childcare in Rdo sbis Township Tibetan communities are described, focusing on a single village as a case-study.

  1. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Harrison Bay quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 328 water samples from the Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  2. L. Harrison: Mass (to St. Anthony); A. Pärt: Berliner Messe / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "L. Harrison: Mass (to St. Anthony); A. Pärt: Berliner Messe. Oregon Repertory Singers / Gilbert Seeley. Koch International Classics CD 37 177-2; Pärt - comparative version: Estonian Phil. Chbr. Ch., Tallinn CO / Kaljuste" (11/93)(ECM) 439 162-2

  3. The experiences of AIDS orphans living in a township

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... of juvenile delinquency, reduced literacy and, consequently, a huge economic ... of the township communities where this research was conducted, is .... the effect of the absence of their parent or loved one in the home, the ...

  4. DETERMINANTS OF WELLBEING IN A SOUTH AFRICAN TOWNSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Muzindutsi, Paul-François; Sekhu, Tshediso Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Life evaluations capture a reflective assessment on a person’s life or some specific aspects of it. Given the relative lack of empirical work on subjective wellbeing (SWB) amongst residents in South African townships, this paper seeks to fill that gap by exploring the determinants of SWB in a township of Kwakwatsi. This study is based on household data collected through a survey to investigate the factors that might affect wellbeing. A multiple regression model was used to determine the impac...

  5. Gawain de Harrison Birtwistle : un opéra (extra- national ? Gawain by Harrison Birtwistle: an opera with (extra- national features?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Héberlé

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Harrison Birtwistle’s opera Gawain (1991. Written on a libretto by the English poet, David Harsent, Gawain is characterized both by national and extra-national elements. The most obvious national features are to be found in the subject of the opera based on the famous English medieval epic poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. They are also displayed in the references to Shakespeare, to other British composers (Michael Tippett and Henry Purcell for instance and to typical English musical or musico-dramatic forms such as the masque. As far as the foreign borrowings or influences are concerned, Harrison Birtwistle’s debt to composers like Richard Wagner, Igor Stravinsky and Olivier Messiaen is once more displayed in Gawain. Other influences are shown through his translation into music of aesthetic ideas inspired by the great German painter Paul Klee and through his adaptation of elements taken from Greek tragedy. One can thus wonder if this fusion or juxtaposition of vernacular and foreign elements is not one of the key features of Gawain.

  6. Political Township Boundaries in Iowa for 2010, derived from Census Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, Iowa townships are not actually classified as civil townships, but as special district governments. Special district governments exist to provide only one...

  7. 77 FR 22185 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service..., without change, an interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by removing the townships of... that the fields in these two townships are free of golden nematode, and we determined that regulation...

  8. Influence Factors and Improvement Recommendations for Core Competency of Township Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chengjun

    2014-01-01

    Core competency of township enterprises may be influenced from the property right, technology, scale operation, financial management and talent. In view of these influence factors, township enterprises should conduct technological innovation, bring into full play functions of talents, promote corporate culture of township enterprises, attach great importance to development of core products and innovation of relevant systems, and establish market information platform for township enterprises.

  9. Magic neutrino mass matrix and the Bjorken-Harrison-Scott parameterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Observed neutrino mixing can be described by a tribimaximal MNS matrix. The resulting neutrino mass matrix in the basis of a diagonal charged lepton mass matrix is both 2-3 symmetric and magic. By a magic matrix, I mean one whose row sums and column sums are all identical. I study what happens if 2-3 symmetry is broken but the magic symmetry is kept intact. In that case, the mixing matrix is parameterized by a single complex parameter U e3 , in a form discussed recently by Bjorken, Harrison, and Scott

  10. Community Violence and PTSD in Selected South African Townships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, B. Ann; McCall, George J.; Gibson, Diana

    2004-01-01

    Given the high rates of crime in South Africa's townships, nonpolitical violence out-side the home and its psychological impact on women were investigated within two samples, the primary a help-seeking sample and the secondary a community sample. In the help-seeking sample, two thirds of the women reported having experienced several traumatic…

  11. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are at a disadvantage in areas such as technology, labor skills, education levels of staff access to bank loans and government

  12. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are disadvantaged in areas such as technology, labour skills, education levels of staff, access to bank loans and government

  13. going children in a densely populated township in Lilongwe, Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetened beverages among children in a Lilongwe township 55 ... help in guiding interventions and public health nutrition policies. Aim ... of the key factors associated with overweight and obesity. ... caregivers had given verbal consent to participate in the study ..... Impaired parent-reported health-related quality of life of.

  14. Liberating voices: narrative strategies and style in township choral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article the authors argue for the close reading of South African township choral music in order to liberate the voices of a musical genre that has long been one of this country's musical silences. In this regard an analysis of selected compositions by three composers from the Eastern Cape – Tonny Vumazonke, Phillippe ...

  15. Social entrepreneurship as a way of developing sustainable township economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semape J. Manyaka-Boshielo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates using social entrepreneurship as a way of developing sustainabletownship economies, so that poverty can be eradicated from the townships of South Africaand township dwellers can begin to play a role in the economic development of the country.The author also thinks it is God’s purpose for people to enjoy life, free from economic hardship.A reduction in poverty would also bring down the crime rate and other social ills. It starts bydefining and clarifying the concepts of ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘social entrepreneurship’. Itcontinues by looking in more depth into township life and its challenges. This is done throughreviewing the literature and observations obtained through participant observation research.Post-foundationalist practical theology believes in interdisciplinary dialogue as a means ofallowing the concept of social entrepreneurship to bring about a sustainable townshipeconomy. From the author’s observations, it became apparent that to see the attainment of asustainable township economy, training and development should start with a strong emphasison personal identity and interpersonal and business skills. The author, therefore, proposes aholistic approach to social entrepreneurship.

  16. Township boundaries and the colonization of the Moravian landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter; Šipoš, Jan; Müllerová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 89-99 ISSN 0305-7488 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11805S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : settlement morphology * township size * historical GIS Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.772, year: 2016

  17. Genetics and the origin of species: the continuing synthesis a symposium in honor of Richard G. Harrison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Richard K.; Rand, David M.; Normark, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    This is a special issue of Genetica that has its origins in a symposium held in honor of Richard G. Harrison at Ithaca, New York on July 22–23. Former students of Rick Harrison organized the symposium and most of the speakers were former students, as well. The quality and breadth of the talks were a testament to Rick’s influence as a thinker, synthesizer, and mentor and it is only appropriate to reflect on Rick’s contributions to the fields of evolutionary ecology, systematics, and genetics in this preface to the symposium articles. PMID:21152955

  18. Factors Associated with the Competencies of Public Health Workers in Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing Municipality, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhifei; Cheng, Zhaohui; Fu, Hang; Tang, Shangfeng; Fu, Qian; Fang, Haiqing; Xian, Yue; Ming, Hui; Feng, Zhanchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs) of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China), and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; Methods: A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China), from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. Results: (1) Results of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3) By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China), are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial to improve the competencies of PHWs in the township hospitals of Chongqing Municipality. The results of this study can be mirrored in other areas of China. PMID:26569273

  19. Factors Associated with the Competencies of Public Health Workers in Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing Municipality, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhifei; Cheng, Zhaohui; Fu, Hang; Tang, Shangfeng; Fu, Qian; Fang, Haiqing; Xian, Yue; Ming, Hui; Feng, Zhanchun

    2015-11-09

    This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs) of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China), and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China), from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. (1) RESULTS of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3) By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China), are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial to improve the competencies of PHWs in the township hospitals of Chongqing Municipality. The results of this study can be mirrored in other areas of China.

  20. Occupational health and safety challenges in China--focusing on township-village enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Siying; Song, Qingkun; Tse, Lap-Ah; Yu, Ignatius T S; Wong, Tze-Wai; Griffiths, Sian

    2011-01-01

    China has experienced dramatic industrialization, urbanization, and economic growth over the last 3 decades. The rapid transformation and dramatic prosperity of industries in rural areas have, in turn, created tremendous challenges for occupational health and safety (OHS). This article was prepared to address occupational health and safety issues in township- and village-owned enterprises (TVEs) from several aspects, including working conditions and workplace hazards, major recognized OHS problems, implications of TVE industries to environmental health, and migrant workers. Among the major recognized OHS problems, pneumoconiosis, chemical poisoning, and workplace accidents, especially in small-scale coal mines, are highlighted. It is suggested that the national polices and regulations that specifically target TVEs are indispensable and a more powerful administrative structure should be established to ensure that the pertinent polices, regulations, and OHS standards can be enforced widely and effectively in practice. Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  1. Symmetry Analysis of Gauge-Invariant Field Equations via a Generalized Harrison-Estabrook Formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Costas J.

    The Harrison-Estabrook formalism for the study of invariance groups of partial differential equations is generalized and extended to equations that define, through their solutions, sections on vector bundles of various kinds. Applications include the Dirac, Yang-Mills, and self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) equations. The latter case exhibits interesting connections between the internal symmetries of SDYM and the existence of integrability characteristics such as a linear ("inverse scattering") system and Backlund transformations (BT's). By "verticalizing" the generators of coordinate point transformations of SDYM, nine nonlocal, generalized (as opposed to local, point) symmetries are constructed. The observation is made that the prolongations of these symmetries are parametric BT's for SDYM. It is thus concluded that the entire point group of SDYM contributes, upon verticalization, BT's to the system.

  2. Investigation of thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid transition metals using Wills-Harrison potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleque, M.A.; Bhuiyan, G.M.; Rashid, R.I.M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties such as entropy, specific heat capacity at constant pressure and isothermal compressibility have been calculated for liquid 3d, 4d and 5d transition metals near melting temperature. The hard sphere diameter for all such systems is estimated from the potential profile generated from the Wills and Harrison's prescription using linearized WCA theory of liquid. Evaluated values of entropy and specific heat capacity are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Transport property like shear viscosity for these liquid metals is obtained using the same potential profile. Lack of experimental data at melting temperatures hampers detailed comparison for all such systems. However, for the case of transport property, the results obtained are found to compare qualitatively well with the available experimental data. (author)

  3. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program

  4. Impurity doping effects on the orbital thermodynamic properties of hydrogenated graphene, graphane, in Harrison model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    Using the Harrison model and Green's function technique, impurity doping effects on the orbital density of states (DOS), electronic heat capacity (EHC) and magnetic susceptibility (MS) of a monolayer hydrogenated graphene, chair-like graphane, are investigated. The effect of scattering between electrons and dilute charged impurities is discussed in terms of the self-consistent Born approximation. Our results show that the graphane is a semiconductor and its band gap decreases with impurity. As a remarkable point, comparatively EHC reaches almost linearly to Schottky anomaly and does not change at low temperatures in the presence of impurity. Generally, EHC and MS increases with impurity doping. Surprisingly, impurity doping only affects the salient behavior of py orbital contribution of carbon atoms due to the symmetry breaking.

  5. Geographical patterns and disasters management : case study of Alexandra Township / O.M. Mere

    OpenAIRE

    Mere, Oniccah Monimang

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the study is to explore Geographic patterns and Disasters Management in the context of Alexandra Township situated in the Johannesburg Metro. The research evaluates if the Disaster Management Unit in Johannesburg municipality is prepared in terms of policies, community campaigns on flood disasters as well as forming organizations that will assist in times of disaster. It also refers to other South African townships with regard to where most affected townships are l...

  6. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiwei; Yang, Lan; Feng, Qiming; Tighe, Scott S.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction o...

  7. Time Restored - The Harrison Timekeepers and R.T. Gould, the Man Who Knew (Almost) Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Jonathan

    2006-09-01

    This is the story of Rupert T. Gould (1890-1948), the polymath and horologist. A remarkable man, Lt Cmdr Gould made important contributions in an extraordinary range of subject areas throughout his relatively short and dramatically troubled life. From antique clocks to scientific mysteries, from typewriters to the first systematic study of the Loch Ness Monster, Gould studied and published on them all. With the title The Stargazer, Gould was an early broadcaster on the BBC's Children's Hour when, with his encyclopaedic knowledge, he became known as The Man Who Knew Everything. Not surprisingly, he was also part of that elite group on BBC radio who formed The Brains Trust, giving on-the-spot answers to all manner of wide ranging and difficult questions. With his wide learning and photographic memory, Gould awed a national audience, becoming one of the era's radio celebrities. During the 1920s Gould restored the complex and highly significant marine timekeepers constructed by John Harrison (1693-1776), and wrote the unsurpassed classic, The Marine Chronometer, its History and Development . Today he is virtually unknown, his horological contributions scarcely mentioned in Dava Sobel's bestseller Longitude. The TV version of Longitude, in which Jeremy Irons played Rupert Gould, did at least introduce Gould's name to a wider public. Gould suffered terrible bouts of depression, resulting in a number of nervous breakdowns. These, coupled with his obsessive and pedantic nature, led to a scandalously-reported separation from his wife and cost him his family, his home, his job, and his closest friends. In this first-ever biography of Rupert Gould, Jonathan Betts, the Royal Observatory Greenwich's Senior Horologist, has given us a compelling account of a talented but flawed individual. Using hitherto unknown personal journals, the family's extensive collection of photographs, and the polymath's surviving records and notes, Betts tells the story of how Gould's early life, his

  8. Kolm tundi päevas jõusaalis ja dieet : nii voolis Harrison Ford end taas Indiana Jonesiks / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008. Indiana Jonesi tähestik

  9. Deviations of the lepton mapping matrix form the harrison-perkins-scott form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, R.; Lee, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple set of hypotheses governing the deviations of the leptonic mapping matrix from the Harrison-Perkins-Scott (HPS) form. These deviations are supposed to arise entirely from a perturbation of the mass matrix in the charged lepton sector. The perturbing matrix is assumed to be purely imaginary (thus maximally T-violating) and to have a strength in energy scale no greater (but perhaps smaller) than the muon mass. As we shall show,it then follows that the absolute value of the mapping matrix elements pertaining to the tau lepton deviate by no more than O((m μ /m τ ) 2 ) ≅ 3.5 x 10 -3 from their HPS values. Assuming that(m μ /m τ ) 2 can be neglected, we derive two simple constraints on the four parameters θ12, θ23, θ31, and δ of the mapping matrix. These constraints are independent of the details of the imaginary T-violating perturbation of the charged lepton mass matrix. We also show that the e and μ parts of the mapping matrix have a definite form governed by two parameters α and β; any deviation of order m μ /m τ can be accommodated by adjusting these two parameters. (authors)

  10. Oceanographic studies in Harrison Bay and the Colville River Delta, Alaska, to support the development of oil spill response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Taylor, E.; Hale, B.

    2003-01-01

    The risk of an oil spill resulting from the development of the Alpine oil field is considered to be low. The field is located on the North Slope of Alaska adjacent to the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and reaches coastal waters from the distributary channels of the Colville River Delta. The physical environmental (hydrodynamic) conditions that would affect the transport and fate of spilled oil was investigated to further reduce the risk. During the open-water season of 2001 in Harrison Bay, near shore current meters were deployed and data on weather and surface currents was analyzed. Ocean current and wind measurements were examined to evaluate the relationship between meteorology and water levels during the open-water season. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the near shore hydrodynamic processes at play in Harrison Bay, in order to plan the most appropriate spill response strategies. The results obtained indicate that surface currents within the bay adjacent to the Colville Delta are variable. They respond to wind forces as well as other possible mechanisms like estuarine circulation. The surface currents reach maximum speeds of 0.26 metre per second. For the late July-September deployment, the calculated net surface drift was a 0.02 metre per second current to the east southeast. In both Harrison Bay and Colville Delta, prevailing southwest and northeast winds, respectively, induced water level changes of more than 0.5 metre above and below the average. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Decolonised Sexualities : The Lived Experiences of Black Township Women Who Love Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbasalaki, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369405560

    2018-01-01

    This thesis centres the lived experiences of black township women in same-sex relationships in Cape Town and Johannesburg. The main question—‘How do black township women construct their same-sex sexuality?’—called for a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative data. Set against

  12. Violent political contexts and the emotional concerns of township youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, G; Mendelsohn, M; Moosa, F; Tudin, P

    1996-02-01

    This article presents the findings of a series of studies that examine the perceptions of black South African youth about township life and the civil conflict and violence it encompasses. The studies were conducted with comparable samples of 58-82 youth at 3 points in South Africa's history, all characterized by high levels of violence but differing in terms of their political contexts. These contexts were overt State-community conflict, covert opposition and political repression, and intracommunity violence. The data revealed that in all 3 contexts youth reported a high exposure to violence, but only when violence occurred in the context of intracommunity conflict was it subjectively construed to be the most problematic. Reasons for this may include the real increase in more extreme forms of violence, including deaths, that occurs in intracommunity violence and the blurring of the distinction between political and criminal violence in this context.

  13. Equality versus Freedom in ‘‘Harrison Bergeron” by Kurt Vonnegut: A Study of Dystopian Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Joodaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of one of Kurt Vonnegut’s dystopian short stories, Harrison Bergeron, through the setting analysis  focusing mainly on the use of media as a means of creating mono logical setting and discussing the dance scene as an act of escape from this mono logical setting. Kurt Vonnegut, a contemporary American novelist and short story writer, using his experiences during World War II, reflects on the post war American society especially through his satirical works about power structures. And in this short story he satirizes the forced equality in an imaginary American society.

  14. Clara Harrison Town and the origins of the first institutional commitment law for the "feebleminded": psychologists as expert diagnosticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farreras, Ingrid G

    2014-11-01

    The first law providing for the commitment of "feeble-minded" individuals in the United States was passed in 1915, in the state of Illinois. House Bill 655 not only allowed for the permanent, involuntary institutionalization of feeble-minded individuals, but it shifted the commitment and discharge authority from the institution superintendents to the courts. Clara Harrison Town, a student of Lightner Witmer, and the state psychologist at the second largest institution for feeble-minded individuals in the country, was instrumental in this law passing and in ensuring that psychologists, for the first time, be viewed as court "experts" when testifying as to the feeble mindedness of individuals.

  15. Factors Associated with the Competencies of Public Health Workers in Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing Municipality, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifei He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China, and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; Methods: A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China, from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. Results: (1 Results of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 < 0.05 and the majors of PHWs (p = 0.045 < 0.05; (2 In terms of the self-evaluation competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3 By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.05, age (p = 0.000 < 0.05, years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.05 and title of PHWs (p = 0.000 < 0.05; (4 Stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.001, years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.001, title (p = 0.001 < 0.005, and public health major (p = 0.007 < 0.01. Conclusions: The competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China, are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial

  16. Kayenta Township Building & Safety Department, Tribal Green Building Code Summit Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal Green Building Code Summit Presentation by Kayenta Township Building & Safety Department showing how they established the building department, developed a code adoption and enforcement process, and hired staff to carry out the work.

  17. Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010 as Derived from Census Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010, as Derived from Census Datasets Original Abstract: The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and...

  18. URBAN RECONFIGURATIONS OF SPACE AND PLACE WITHIN TOWNSHIP TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Craciunescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays global economic and cultural constellation determined urban communities to find a solution in order to preserve local identity and at the same time to attract capital into the area. Tourism represents in our opinion one of the greatest solutions ever exploited in mankind’s history which erases boundaries of nations and economic policies, creating glocalized encounters. In the case of a city, tourism or township tourism becomes an economical, political and cultural vector that unifies urban space which develops a network of genuine and artificial urban inter-relations between the principal stakeholders. The city as a destination must be a ‘safe’ construct that meets the expectations of various kinds of travellers and of their different travelling motivations. We believe that to a certain extent, the (rebranding of cities consists in the creation of a harmonized space that would reiterate the home-facilities of the traveller. A matter of life-style and life-quality, this issue will be analysed through the lens of travelling as a leisure activity, or as a way of escaping monotone routine of daily living, eventually a way of reinvesting income and creating economic equilibrium.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF HOUSING INSECURITY IN A LOW INCOMESOUTH AFRICAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P Mncayi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The campaign to end povertyby 2030,as advocated by the World Bank,has multifacetedcomponents. Food security and abject poverty have received more attention;however,little attention has been focused on housing insecurity. This is important,especially giventhe fact that it iswidely acknowledged that housing satiates an essential human need forphysical security, dignity and prosperity,among other things. Housing, for some time,has been observed as crucial to individual and family functioning. As indicated byorganisations such as the United Nations Habitat, the importance of appropriate housingis explained by the fact that safe housing is seen as a basic need among other needs suchas food, all of which are regarded as central components of the security of ordinaryhouseholds, particularly in developing countries. In 2015, more than 1.5 billionpeopleinthe world were living in housing that was unsafe and inadequate, while in the meantime,millions experienced eviction from their homes every year, with at least 100 millionpeople becoming homeless on any given day.Therefore, it ispertinent to understand whatdetermines housing insecurity. The studyaims toinvestigatefactors thatdetermineshousing insecurity. Using data collected from Sharpeville and Bophelong, two lowincome townships in South Africa that are particularlyvulnerable to housing insecurity,the study employs amultinomiallogisticregression to investigate the effects of head ofhousehold and the general household characteristics on housing insecurity. Theresults ofthe regression analysis show that income, gender, number of people in the household andthe amount paid to bond or rent are significant predictors of housing insecurity.Contentious issues like access to land and job opportunities are areas of further study inunderstanding the multifaceted phenomenon of housing insecurity.

  20. Seeking and Finding Positive Youth Development Among Zulu Youth in South African Townships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kelly D; Theron, Linda C; Scales, Peter C

    2017-07-01

    A cross-sectional study explored the presence and power of developmental assets in a sample of youth from rural South African townships. Learners (female = 58%; M age  = 17.1; N = 505) attending three township high schools completed self-report measures of developmental assets and thriving outcomes. Participants reported contextual assets (e.g., family, school, community) in the vulnerable ranges, with gender, family structure, and school type accounting for some differences. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that five asset contexts (family, school, community, personal, social) were uniquely predictive of thriving outcomes. Discussion focuses on contextual expressions of positive youth development among Zulu township youth in challenging environments. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Partnerships for Educational Excellence and Research: HPT in the Townships of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joanne K.; Weisenburgh-Snyder, Amy B.; Damons, Bruce; Van Rooyen, Marie; Ismail, Camila

    2011-01-01

    Effective performance-based instruction is making a sustained and noticeable impact on township schools in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We document the performance improvement effort made over the past 7 years by Partnerships for Educational Excellence and Research International (P.E.E.R), a team of educators, instructional system designers,…

  2. 75 FR 28685 - Oritani Financial Corp., MHC, Township of Washington, NJ; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-39: OTS Nos. H-2944 and H-4701... hereby given that on May 10, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Oritani Financial Corp., MHC, and Oritani Bank, Township of Washington, New Jersey, to convert to the stock form of...

  3. TownshipNet: A localized hybrid TVWS-WiFi and cloud services network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadzic, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a network architecture to provide low cost last mile access and cloud services for local content sharing in a poorly resourced township environment. We describe how ICT solutions are developed in close partnership with the local...

  4. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiwei; Yang, Lan; Feng, Qiming; Tighe, Scott S

    2017-01-01

    Background . Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method . To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results . About 75% (28/39) of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39) mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39) showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion . Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor's relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.

  5. Living with Bats: The Case of Ve Golokuati Township in the Volta Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S. Ayivor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bats to humans through direct and indirect contact with bats raises public apprehension about living close to bats. In the township of Ve Golokuati in Ghana, several “camps” of Epomophorus gambianus roost in fruit trees that provide ecosystems services for residents. This study explored human-bat interaction in the township and the potential risks of disease transmission from bats to humans. Data were derived through questionnaire administration and participatory appraisal approach involving focus group discussions, participatory landscape mapping, and transect walk. The study found that most human activities within the township, such as petty-trading, domestic chores, and children’s outdoor recreation, exposed people to bats. Though there have been no reported cases of disease spillover from bats to humans from the perspective of residents and from medical records, respondents whose activities brought them closer to bats within the township were found to be more likely to experience fevers than those who do not interact with bats frequently. The study recommends education of community members about the potential risks involved in human-bat interactions and makes suggestions for reducing the frequent interactions with and exposure to bats by humans.

  6. Site suitability evaluation for ecotourism using GIS and AHP: A case study of Isfahan Townships, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mobaraki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism, as a multibillion dollars business, is an industry with high potentials for economic competition. One of the proper solutions for developing ecotourism is better identification of different regions where there is a tourism capacity and accurate planning for performing feasibility study of those regions in terms of attracting ecotourism as well as creating infrastructures in those regions. This paper evaluates capacities and power of tourism as well as nature tourism in Isfahan Township using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process. The present research is applied and research method is descriptive-analytical. Meanwhile, to analyze data, Arc GIS is used. Findings indicate that regarding the map of ecotourism capacity of Isfahan townships, resulted from combining various climatologically, geological, hydrological, topological maps and access maps, the township is not homogeneous in terms of nature tourism and coastal parts of the township (regions around Zayand-e-Rood have better condition than other parts and should be considered for tourism development planning.

  7. Household food wastage in a developing country: A case study of Mamelodi Township in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, including those with food shortages a large portion of household waste is estimated to be food. This paper reports on findings of a research study conducted in one of South Africa’s largest townships (Mamelodi) within...

  8. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results. About 75% (28/39 of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39 mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39 showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion. Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor’s relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.

  9. Labour Manoeuvrability and Economic Performance in Township-Village Enterprises: The Case of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modderman, Eelco; Gorter, Cees; Dalhuisen, Jasper; Nijkamp, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the relationship between economic performance and labourmanoeuvrability of township-village enterprises in the Jiangsu province, China. We start with a general overview of the development in the Chinese economy and the functioning of labour markets. Next, we

  10. Utilising excess minibus-taxi capacity for South African townships tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S.J.H.; Makoriwa, Collins; de Boer, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an option for the utilisation of excess off-peak capacity of minibus-taxis in South Africa for township tours. The minibus-taxi system typically faces steep peak loads during rush hours with excess vehicle and person capacity available during off-hours. The advantages of the

  11. Money and violence : financial self-help groups in a South African township

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bähre, Erik

    2007-01-01

    This ethnography is about the way in which Xhosa migrants in the townships of Cape Town, South Africa, collectively manage their money in financial self-help groups, also known as financial mutuals. This is an umbrella term for a myriad of collective financial arrangements that are mostly informal.

  12. Budget Monitoring and Control in South African Township Schools: Democratic Governance at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…

  13. 78 FR 21849 - Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-72; RM-11694, DA 13-448] Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  14. The promotion of mental health of adolescents in a township in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Siphepho

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of adolescents have been observed drinking alcohol, pushing and abusing drugs and also stealing cars. A lot of adolescents idle in the township streets, girls are falling pregnant and dropping out of school. No research has been done to elicit the opinions of families on the everyday life of the adolescents in this township. The objectives of this research were twofold, namely: To explore and describe the families’ opinions on the everyday life of adolescents in a specific township in Swaziland, and to describe guidelines for advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners to assist these families to mobilize resources in order to promote, maintain and restore mental health as integral part of health of adolescents in this township. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used where the research was conducted in two phases. Trustworthiness measures as well as ethical measures were applied throughout the research. Five categories were identified from the result of the focus group interviews with families: Adolescents presenting ineffective communication patterns due to lack of support from their families; adolescents engaging into risky lifestyles related to lack of support and healthy relationships with their parents; families unable to create a supportive and conducive environment for their adolescents due to their focus on own family stumbling blocks and non-availability of recreational centres related to lack of a supportive and conducive environment in the community and inadequate accommodation leading to overcrowding. Guidelines for advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners were deducted from identified themes and the literature control.

  15. Red Oak Research and Demonstration Area in Phelps Township, North Bay, Ontario-2004 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Deugo; Andrée Morneault; Dianne Othmer; Megan Smith; Al Stinson; Murray Woods; Ian Kovacs; Ian Aho; Bill Parker; Rob Baker; Marinus Verwey; Guylaine Thauvette; Don Willis; Jeff Dech

    2006-01-01

    In July 2004, a large stand of red oak (Quercus rubra) was harvested in Phelps Township, North Bay District, North Bay, Ontario using the uniform shelterwood system. Most of the stand was harvested to retain 40 percent crown closure, while a very small portion was harvested to retain 70 percent crown closure. During tree marking, an active Northern...

  16. Genomic characterisation of Almpiwar virus, Harrison Dam virus and Walkabout Creek virus; three novel rhabdoviruses from northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane McAllister

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdoviridae represent a diverse group of viruses with the potential to cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Currently there are nine genera in the family; however a large number of rhabdoviruses remain unassigned. Here we characterise three novel rhabdoviruses genomes. Almpiwar virus (ALMV, isolated from skinks in northern Queensland, is the first completely sequenced rhabdovirus from squamates, with serological studies indicating multiple animal host species. Harrison Dam virus (HARDV and Walkabout Creek virus (WACV were isolated from mosquitoes in the Northern Territory and biting midges in southern Queensland respectively and their vertebrate hosts remain unknown. Serological cross-neutralisation tests with other Australian rhabdoviruses indicate that ALMV, WACV and HARDV are distinct viruses with little antigenic cross-reactivity. Next-generation sequencing revealed that all viruses encode the core proteins common to rhabdoviruses (N, P, M, G and L, plus additional ORFs between the M and G genes. HARDV also contains a small ORF between the G and L genes. Phylogenetic analysis of N and L proteins suggests that HARDV and WACV share a common lineage with the tupaviruses and Sandjimba group, whereas ALMV is a distinct and divergent virus showing no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except the recently characterised Niahka virus (NIAV.

  17. Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Qian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59. About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM, and almost all prescriptions (98.07% contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the

  18. [Investigation on current situation of malaria blood examinations in township-level hospitals of Nantong City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui-Sheng, Ding; Cai-Qun, Cao; Ping, Miao; Mei-Fang, Gu; Xiao-Bin, Cao

    2016-11-18

    To understand the quality of malaria blood examinations in township-level hospitals, so as to provide the evidence for continuing the malaria blood examinations in the stage of post-malaria elimination. A total of 64 township hospitals were investigated and 640 negative malaria blood slides were scored individually according to 10 indicators in "Malaria Elimination Technical Scheme" in 2013 and 2014. The single and multiple indicators were calculated, and the work of blood examinations and situation of technicians were investigated. The data of malaria blood examinations and patient discovery in township hospitals of Nantong City were collected and analyzed during the period of 2011-2014. For the single indicator, 29.5% of the thick blood films did not reach the standard, and 35.8% of thin blood films did not reach the standard. For the multiple indicators, blood slides with more than 4 indicators below the standard (poor quality) accounted for 32.5%. From malaria blood examinations and malaria situation, the number of slides was 194 635 during the period of 2011-2014, and there were no local vivax malaria casesin 4 consecutive years from 2011 to 2014, and local malaria has been effectively controlled in Nantong City. For health facilities where malaria patients initially presented, the township and village level accounted for 16.3%, and county and higher level accounted for 83.7%. The quality of malaria blood examinations in township level hospitals of Nantong City is not high and the microscopic examination has a relatively low efficiency in the discovery of malaria cases. A new model for malaria blood examinations needs to be further explored.

  19. Micro-enterprise predicament in township economic development: Evidence from Ivory Park and Tembisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Charman

    2017-05-01

    Aim: In response to the developmental need to stimulate micro-enterprise growth in South African townships, the paper poses the question: what approaches are most likely to have a positive impact on township businesses, given current micro-enterprise dynamics? Setting: Primary research was undertaken in two neighbouring townships in Gauteng province, in Ivory Park and Tembisa. Methods: The data comprises a geospatial census of enterprise activities, a survey of select firms and qualitative interviews with business owners. The research utilised a small-area census approach to obtain data on business activities within an area of approximately 2km2 in each site. The census enumerated 2509 micro-enterprises in Ivory Park and 1722 micro-enterprises in Tembisa. Firm interviews were conducted with business owners in four sectors: grocery retail, liquor retail, hair care and early childhood development centres. Results: The business census identifies a strong similarity in the structure of the townships’ informal micro-entrepreneurship despite the considerable differences in the socio-economic status of the respective case sites. The enterprise survey highlights the resource constraints of township businesses and thinness of local markets. Interviews with entrepreneurs reveal four main pathways through which individuals enter into self-employment with the most dynamic enterprises established by inward investing entrepreneurs. Spatial considerations exert an influence on the position of enterprise sectors, whilst access to land and business infrastructure are notable constraints. Conclusion: Reflecting on the evidence, the paper concludes with making a call for a more low-geared development approach, focusing on lessening the legal, institutional and regulatory obstacles to enterprise growth as a first step. Municipalities have an important role in liberalising the spaces and places where township informal enterprises can and should be permitted to trade as well as

  20. National uranium resource evaluation. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Harrison Bay NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Minor, M.M.; McInteer, C.; Hansel, J.N.; Broxton, D.E.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Harrison Bay NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  1. Paddys Run Streambank Stabilization Project at the Fernald Preserve, Harrison, OH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Legacy Management; Hertel, Bill [Navarro Research and Engineering; Homer, John [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-01

    The Fernald Preserve is a former uranium-processing plant that underwent extensive remediation pursuant to CERCLA and is now managed by the US DOE Office of Legacy Management. While remediation of buildings and soil contamination was completed in 2006, aquifer remediation is ongoing. Paddys Run is a second-order stream that runs to the south along the western side of the Fernald Preserve. The Paddys Run watershed encompasses nearly 41 km2 (16 mi2), including most of the Fernald site. Field personnel conducting routine site inspections in March 2014 observed that Paddys Run was migrating east via bank erosion into the “Pit 3 Swale,” an area of known surface-water contamination. The soil there was certified pursuant to site regulatory agreements and meets all final remediation levels. However, weekly surface-water monitoring is conducted from two puddles within the swale area, when water that exceeds the final remediation levels is present. Paddys Run had migrated east approximately 4 m (13 ft) in 2 years and was approximately 29 m (95 ft) from the sample location. This rapid migration threatened existing conditions that allowed for continued monitoring of the swale area and also threatened Paddys Run water quality. Therefore, DOE and regulators determined that the east bank of Paddys Run required stabilization. This was accomplished with a design that included the following components: relocation of approximately 145 m (475 ft) of streambed 9 m (30 ft) west, installation of a rock toe along the east bank, installation of two cross-vane in-stream grade-control structures, stabilization of a portion of the east bank using soil encapsulated lifts, and regrading, seeding, and planting within remaining disturbed areas. In an effort to take advantage of low-flow conditions in Paddys Run, construction was initiated in September 2014. Weather delays and subsurface flow within the Paddys Run streambed resulted in an interim shutdown of the project area in December 2014

  2. Developing a sustainable community tourism strategy for townships : the case of Soshanguve / Paul Nkemngu Acha-Anyi

    OpenAIRE

    Acha-Anyi, Paul Nkemngu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a sustainable tourism strategy for the Soshanguve Township. The motivation for this study arose out of the acute developmental challenges facing many township communities in South Africa, mainly due to the absence of economic opportunities. This results in a high unemployment rate, poverty and an elevated number of crime incidences. A sustainable community tourism strategy could alleviate this situation by availing itself of the opportunities presented by ...

  3. Living in the townships: An appraisal of Pentecostal social ministry in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Molobi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an appraisal of the social ministry of Pentecostal churches through fellowship, healing and livelihood creation in the township communities of the city of Tshwane. In meeting this aim the discussion advances a thesis of these churches as agents of social support and survival of the downcast. In particular, the article attempts to show how these churches exert themselves towards establishing not only moral responsibility, but also a context where the weakest and the least privileged can learn how to survive. The squatter camp people are unique with the special challenges requiring distinctive consideration. Pentecostal churches believe that the lost people matter to God and are of importance to their congregations as well. The backyard Bible study ministries and mutual cooperation strategies are employed for mutual support. Making use of the existing empirical research data and available literature will show how Pentecostal churches in the townships support the laity and community in times of need.

  4. Non-directive play therapy with aggressive children in a Black township : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M. Ed. In South Africa many people have been directly or indirectly involved in criminal and/or violent acts either as victims or as perpetrators. Research has shown that violence in its various forms, be it political, criminal or domestic, is endemic in South Africa (Stravou, 1993; Turton, Straker & Moosa, 1992). According to Gibson, Mogale and Friedler (1991:1), political violence, especially in South African townships, has been enacted between the ANC and Inkatha and this violence is re...

  5. Experiences on sea water reverse osmosis plant at Anuvijay township, Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, M.R.; Selvavinayagam, P.; Singaravelan, S.; Ramdoss, R.; Sundar, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Sea water reverse Osmosis plant SWRO of KKNPP is located at Anuvijay township, Chettikulam, Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu. The objective of SWRO is to produce 2400 M 3 of potable quality water per day. This plant consists of four streams, each having a capacity of 25 M 3 /hr. Each stream is having 9 pressure tube in parallel and each pressure tube has 6 polyamide spiral wound membrane in series. (author)

  6. Thermal characteristics of a residential house in a new township in Johor Bahru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Lee, Y. H.; Mohammad, S.; Shek, P. N.; Ma, C. K.

    2017-11-01

    As one of the densest population occurred in Johor Bahru, development of a new township become necessary in order to cater this growth. Rapid urbanization is a factor of degradation of environmental quality which may increase surrounded temperature through urban heat island (UHI) phenomena. Therefore, this paper is investigating thermal comfort for a new township, Bandar Dato Onn in Johor Bahru, in order to understand the thermal characteristics of a new township and for further mitigation of UHI phenomena. Surface temperature, ambient temperature and relative humidity have been collected from a terrace house of Bandar Dato Onn. Thermal characteristics with the features of time lag and decrement factors were discussed based on the collected data. The time lag of 5 to 8 hours and the decrement factors of 0.02 to 0.06 were recorded during a five-day measurement. It was concluded that human thermal comfort may not be achieved as the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system needed for bedroom and living room. Passive energy design is suggested to be included in the house in order to have human thermal comfort while reducing the electricity consumption towards sustainable future.

  7. The prospects of making small retail outlets in the Townships aggressively competitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malefane Johannes Lebusa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, township Small Retail Outlets were mostly established for survival and operated under a generally closed market system where the competition was not very strong. However, with the advent of democracy many people lost their formal income through retrenchments and out of desperation, many of these people opened Small Retail Outlets thus most of the existing and new entrants into the township market were unskilled or semiskilled labourers with little or no formal skills in business or entrepreneurship. Such efforts were rarely guided by any specific and informed strategy of identifying and exploiting a gap in the market. With the consolidation of the free market system under democracy, big brand businesses such as Shoprite Checkers and Small Retail Outlets of foreign nationals with different strategies entered and competed in this township market. With fewer formal skills in business and entrepreneurship, the owners of the Small Retail Outlets struggled to compete and thrive under these relatively new economic conditions. Given this situation, I conducted semi-structured interviews with fifteen of these traditional Small Retail Outlets to find out and better understand the challenges they face and the skills that might be needed to aggressively compete in this space. Based on these findings and understandings, I further examined these issues and suggest infusions of specific entrepreneurship skills that could develop their aggressive competitiveness. Keywords: entrepreneurship, competitiveness, small retail outlets, shopping complexes, innovation

  8. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    -relief and surface-classification data (sheet 3). Remote sensing datasets that were used to compile the maps include Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+), and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) data. In addition, a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Harrison Bay quadrangle, Alaska (Carter and Galloway, 1985, 2005) was used in conjunction with ETM+ and IFSAR data.

  9. 76 FR 51885 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Grassy Sound Channel, Middle Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    .... Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE.... Most vessel traffic consists of a few tugs and tows and recreational boaters. Vessels can use the Stone...

  10. 76 FR 49662 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Grassy Sound Channel, Middle Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    .... Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE.... Vessels can use the Stone Harbor Bridge across the Great Channel as an alternate route to Hereford Inlet...

  11. 77 FR 70372 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South Channel), Avon Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... authority under section 4(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision..., which guides the Coast Guard in complying with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (42...

  12. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  13. Stakeholders' participation in township tourism planning and development: the case of business managers in Soshanguve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acha-Anyi Paul Nkemngu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder theory advocates the inclusion and participation of relevant stakeholders in both community and business development. This necessitates a diligent planning process with the aim of working towards pre-determined objectives. Furthermore, the constructive participation of stakeholders in the development process can be said to depend on their understanding of the role they are expected to play. Therefore, the participation of business managers in tourism planning and development can be assessed based on their familiarity with both the general and personal business success factors in their operating environment. This paper assesses the contribution of tourism business operators in Soshanguve Township to tourism development in their community. The study undertakes a quantitative survey of 29 managers of tourism businesses on their perceptions on general business success factors and personal business success factors in Soshanguve Township. The results reveal discrepancies between what the managers perceive to be general business success factors in the community and the factors they consider to have contributed to their personal business success. The inference from the above is that business managers are not optimising on the business potential in their community based on the margin of difference between what they percieve to be the best industry success factors and the implementation of the same in their personal businesses. The study concludes with recommendations on how to breach the gap in order to maximise the contribution of businesses to tourism development in Soshanguve Township. Prime among these is the increase intervention by the local government in the coordination and training of businesses in the community.

  14. Ground-water levels in aquifers used for residential supply, Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Kraske, Kurt A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Campton Township Board of Trustees, measured water levels in the aquifers used for residential supply in Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois. Aquifers used for residential supply are the shallow and deep aquifers in the glacial drift, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravels; the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer, composed of dolomite and shale of the Alexandrian Series and the Maquoketa Group; the Galena-Platteville aquifer, composed of dolomite of the Platteville and Galena Groups; and the Ancell aquifer, composed of sandstones of the Glenwood Formation and the St. Peter Sanstone. Water-level altitudes in the shallow drift aquifers generally follow surface topography. Analysis of water-level data does not clearly indicate overutilization of these aquifers. Water-level altitudes in the deep drift aquifers decrease from west to east. Comparison of historical depth to water measurements with current (1995) measurements indicates large decreases in water levels in some areas. The deep drift aquifers may be overutilized at these locations. Water-level altitudes in the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer generally decrease from west to east. The potentiometric surface of the aquifer follows the bedrock-surface topography in some locations. Localized low water-level altitudes and large decreases in water levels indicate the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer is overutilized in several areas. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Galena- Platteville aquifer vary by more than 300 feet. Large decreases in water levels in wells finished in the Galena-Platteville aquifer indicate the Galena-Platteville and Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifers are overutilized in the northern part of the township. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Ancell aquifer are also highly variable. There is no indication that the Ancell aquifer is overutilized.

  15. Rural electrification program with renewable energy sources: An analysis of China’s Township Electrification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2012-01-01

    Given the fact that 1.4 billion people, over 20% of the world’s population, lack access to electricity, rural electrification remains a common challenge for many developing countries. The ‘Township Electrification Program’ launched by the Chinese government in 2002 is known as the world’s largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. This study gives an in-depth examination of the program implemented in two selected townships in remote of rural areas of western China. The results showed that the implementation of the program possessed a technical orientation (e.g., construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g., electricity tariff, households’ ability to pay electricity fees, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g., training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g., good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Even though electricity was provided by the solar PV power stations, households still relied on traditional energy sources, such as candles and dry cell batteries, due to the fact that electricity service was unreliable and electricity supply was not sufficient for households’ needs. - Highlights: ► China’s electrification rate has reached the level of OECD countries. ► Township Electrification Program is the world’s largest electrification program. ► The program possessed a technical orientation and underestimated other aspects. ► Households still relied on traditional energy, such as candles and batteries. ► Having electricity access did not mean that electricity was actually used.

  16. The story of a narrative: Teaching and assessing English writing in a township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Akinyeye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The new language curriculum in South Africa recommends that extended writing be taught through a combination of text-based (or genre and process approaches. This article reports on a study of the teaching and assessment of narrative writing in English as a first additional language (FAL at a time of curriculum change. The setting is a Cape Flats township school. In focusing on a story written by a Grade 9 learner and assessed by her teacher, the study sought evidence of the use of text-based and process approaches. The theoretical frame is informed by genre theory, which draws on Systemic Functional Linguistics and social constructivist approaches to language learning. A qualitative research paradigm was used. Data obtained for this case study included the learner’s writing, interviews with the teacher, and classroom observation. The study finds very little evidence of a scaffolded approach to the teaching and assessment of writing, and explores the constraints on the realisation of the curriculum cycle in English FAL. These relate to the teacher’s understanding of writing as well as to material conditions in township schools.

  17. Understanding teenage pregnancy in a post-apartheid South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi

    2010-05-01

    Although South Africa's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of early childbearing remain a concern. Most teenage pregnancies occur among poor black and coloured South Africans. The majority of these pregnancies are said to be unwanted and unplanned and the teenager's relationships, unstable. Becoming a mother during one's teenage years is perceived to be socially, economically and physically deleterious for the teenager and her baby. This paper presents ethnographic data collected over a five-year period in the South African township of Nyanga East in the Western Cape. It draws attention to the circumstances that surround teenage pregnancy and discusses reactions to teenage pregnancies in this community. Findings highlight that despite the negative perception of teenage pregnancy within the township, particular social and cultural circumstances provided fertile ground for its occurrence. Furthermore, the paper argues that in this particular community the management of a teenage pregnancy played a functional and critical role in maintaining and reproducing social norms and ideals regarding intergenerational relationships, which ultimately ensured that the rates of early childbearing remained high.

  18. Implementation of a "County-Township-Village" Allied HIV Prevention and Control Intervention in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p ratio of HIV infection during innovative intervention was 0.631 (95% confidence interval 0.549-0.726) compared with traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.

  19. Critical Failure Factors in Selling Shoplots towards Sustainability of New Township Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawil N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is to identify the critical factors of shop houses sale failure in Nilai New Township. The critical factors of sale failure of commercial property types, shop houses in new township need to be discover as reported by Valuation and Property Services Department (JPPH showed 5,931 units of shop houses in Malaysia is currently completed but remained unsold where Johor was recorded as the highest with unsold units followed by Negeri Sembilan. Thus Nilai New towship is chosen as research sample for unsold shop houses units due to its strategic location which is near to KLIA, International Sepang Circuit, educational instituitions and surrounded by housing scheme but yet still has numbers of unsold units. Data was gathered from survey question between developers, local authority, purchasers/tenant and local residents.. Generally, the factors of sale failure are economy, demography, politic, location and access, public and basic facilities, financial loan, physical of product, current stock of shop houses upon completion, future potential of subsale and rental, developer’s background, promotion and marketing, speculation and time.

  20. Betel Quid and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in a Periurban Township in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Ko-Ko; Ohnmar, Mya; Hlaing, Moh-Moh; Oo, Yin-Thet-Nu; Win, Swe-Swe; Htike, Maung-Maung-Than; Aye, Phyu-Phyu; Shwe, Sein; Htwe, Moe-Thida; Thein, Zaw-Moe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe betel quid chewing practice and compare oral potentially malignant disorders between chewers and non-chewers of betel quid among residents in Dagon Myothit (East) Township, Myanmar. The study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a representative sample of 542 adults aged 18 years and above in the township. The trained interviewers collected data using a pretested structured questionnaire. On-site oral examination was done for suspected oral lesions. The mean age of the respondents was 45 years and 59% were women. Fifty-two percent of the respondents were currently in the habit of chewing betel quids (72% of men and 39% of women). Among 284 current betel quid chewers, 240 (85%) chewed betel quids together with tobacco. Out of 284 current betel quid chewers, 24 (8.5%) were found to have oral potentially malignant disorders; out of 258 betel quid non-chewers, only 1 (0.4%) was found to have oral potentially malignant disorders. This highlights the growing importance of smokeless tobacco use as public health problem.

  1. When HIV is ordinary and diabetes new: remaking suffering in a South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Emily; Norris, Shane A

    2015-01-01

    Escalation of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among urban South African populations disproportionately afflicted by HIV/AIDS presents not only medical challenges but also new ways in which people understand and experience sickness. In Soweto, the psychological imprints of political violence of the Apartheid era and structural violence of HIV/AIDS have shaped social and health discourses. Yet, as NCDs increasingly become part of social and biomedical discussions in South African townships, new frames for elucidating sickness are emerging. This article employs the concept of syndemic suffering to critically examine how 27 women living with Type 2 diabetes in Soweto, a township adjacent to Johannesburg known for socio-economic mobility as well as inequality, experience and understand syndemic social and health problems. For example, women described how reconstructing families and raising grandchildren after losing children to AIDS was not only socially challenging but also affected how they ate, and how they accepted and managed their diabetes. Although previously diagnosed with diabetes, women illustrated how a myriad of social and health concerns shaped sickness. Many related diabetes treatment to shared AIDS nosologies, referring to diabetes as 'the same' or 'worse'. These narratives demonstrate how suffering weaves a social history where HIV becomes ordinary, and diabetes new.

  2. Exploring safety in township secondary schools in the Free State province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Masitsa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research overwhelmingly suggests that effective teaching and learning can occur only in a safe and secure school environment. However, despite the plethora of laws and acts protecting teachers and learners in South African schools, scores of them are still unsafe. This study examines the safety of teachers and learners in township secondary schools in the Free State province, South Africa. The sample of study consisted of 396 teachers who were randomly selected from 44 township secondary schools across the province. The sample completed a questionnaire based on the safety of teachers and learners in their schools. Prior to completion, the questionnaire was tested for reliability using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and it was found to have a reliability score of .885, indicating an acceptable reliability coefficient. The questionnaire was computer analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Primer Version 12. The results of the analysis revealed that both teachers and learners are not safe in their schools, either during or after school hours. The causes of a lack of safety in these schools reside within and without the schools, implying that learners are sometimes the culprits. The study concludes with recommendations on addressing the problem.

  3. The influence of township schools on the resilience of their learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Mampane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many learners living in townships require protection and resilience to overcome obstacles and adversities in their context of development. The literature on resilience indicates strongly that resilience is embedded systemically. In the absence of constructive and supportive conditions in the home environment, the school would logically appear to be the next resource in line to be tapped. We investigated the contribution of two South African township schools to the resilience of their middleadolescent learners. Case studies with focus groups of resilient and less-resilient Grade 9 learners were used, following the Interactive Qualitative Analysis method, to determine the participants' perceptions of how the school contributes to the degree and nature of their resilience. The influence of the school varied depending on the degree of the learners' resilience, but also depending on factors within the school itself, suggesting that schools play a distinctive and determining role. Contributions particularly highlighted included creation, or failure to create, a supportive teaching and learning environment with effective implementation of rules and educational policy to provide care and safety for its learners and develop them to reach their future goals. Resilient learners were more ready than less resilient learners to acknowledge and utilise these characteristics. All focus groups placed much emphasis on goal attainment, suggesting a strong relationship with resilience.

  4. Renewable Energy Use in Smallholder Farming Systems: A Case Study in Tafresh Township of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shabanali Fami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate use of renewable energy and materials in smallholder farming system of the Tafresh township of Iran. The population of the study consisted of 2,400 small farmers working in the smallholder farming systems of the area, in which 133 people were selected as sample using Cochran formula and simple random sampling technique. In order to gather the information, a questionnaire was developed for the study and validated by the judgment of the experts in agricultural development and extension. The reliability of the main scales of the questionnaire was examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 0.93, indicating the tool of study is reliable. The findings revealed that the majority of the respondents use renewable energy and materials directly in its traditional forms without enabling technologies, and they lack the access to renewable technologies to improve the efficiency of energy use. They preferred fossil energy for many activities due to its lower cost and ease of access. The overall conclusion is that there are potentials and capacities for using renewable energies and materials in the farming systems of the Tafresh township. The government has to support and encourage the adoption of renewable technologies and abandon fossil fuels wherever possible.

  5. Applying spatial clustering analysis to a township-level social vulnerability assessment in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yen Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of social vulnerability may vary according to the conditions and backgrounds of different locations, yet spatial clustering phenomena may exist when nearby spatial units exhibit similar characteristics. This study applied spatial autocorrelation statistics to analyze the spatial association of vulnerability among townships in Taiwan. The vulnerability was first assessed on the basis of a social vulnerability index that was constructed using Fuzzy Delphi and analytic hierarchy process methods. Subsequently, the corresponding indicator variables were applied to calculate standardized vulnerability assessment scores by using government data. According to the results of the vulnerability assessment in which T scores were normalized, the distribution of social vulnerabilities varied among the townships. The scores were further analyzed using spatial autocorrelation statistics for spatial clustering of vulnerability distribution. The Local G statistic identified 42 significant spatial association pockets, whereas the Global G statistic indicated no spatial phenomenon of clustering. This phenomenon was verified and explained by applying Moran's I statistics to examine the homogeneity and heterogeneity of spatial associations. Although both statistics were originally designed to identify the existence of spatial clustering, they serve diverse purposes, and the results can be compared to obtain additional insights into the distribution patterns of social vulnerability.

  6. 77 FR 57022 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation... across the Shark River (South Channel), at Avon Township, NJ. This deviation is necessary to facilitate stringer replacement on the Shark River railroad bridge. This temporary deviation will allow the...

  7. 78 FR 3836 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from... and the railroad bridge, mile 0.9 both of which are across the Shark River (South Channel), at Avon Township, NJ. This deviation is necessary to facilitate machinery replacement on the Shark River railroad...

  8. 76 FR 60357 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the golden nematode... infested areas. Surveys have shown that the fields in these two townships are free of golden nematode, and...

  9. Features Of The Legal Practices Application In The Decisions Of The Township Courts In Russia In The Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Dashkovskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the concept of legal custom as a source of law is researched. The role of legal customs in Russian Empire is shown. It is proved that during the Russian Empire period legal custom played an important role in the legal system, being one of the building blocks. Peculiarities of township courts activity are researched. Significance of legal customs for proceedings in the township courts is shown. For the importance of township courts in the Russian Empire played the fact that in their work they used existing among peasants customs and it was sanctioned by the authorities. Author stresses out that by recognizing custom, state thus authorizes current pattern of behavior in the society, a way of resolve conflicts that to the greatest extent are consistent with the understanding of justice by the society. To the legal custom, following features: custom is formed as a result of certain action frequent repetition; the source of the legal custom formation is a social consciousness; customs largely reflect the level of the society development at the particular stage; customs has quite a local character; customs reflect collective understanding on the fair nature of law. In the article two features which the judicial system of the Russian Empire had in the post-reform period: presence of class township courts as a class judiciary and application of legal customs to the township courts are noted. Combination of these two features allowed government to preserve patriarchal relations in the countryside. Such conservation, to some extent, was contrary to the liberal orientation of the "great reforms" of Alexander II, hindered development of the capitalist relations in the country, delaying implementation of the judicial reform principles.

  10. Challenging Pentecostal moralism: erotic geographies, religion and sexual practices among township youth in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Marian

    2011-06-01

    Research on constructions of sexuality in Pentecostalism often struggles with the fact that the research setting is defined ex ante in terms of church communities, which imposes upon ethnographic accounts the same limitations Pentecostal morality imposes upon church members' discourse. Taking young Pentecostals operating in a space that is not explicitly religious as the methodological entrance to the field, this paper explores negotiations over sexuality, intimate relationships and love among Xhosa-speaking township youth. It introduces the notion of erotic geographies to consider how possible influences of religious discourses on sexuality are refracted by alternative cultural orientations and material contexts. Findings suggest that premarital abstinence appears as a highly exceptional ideal for youth. Even among Pentecostal youth, notions of sexuality are largely severed from religiosity and faithfulness and romanticism are dominant ideals. Future research on Pentecostalism and sexuality should be less religious-centric and rooted more firmly in ethnographies of youth sexual cultures.

  11. FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN POLICESERVICEIN PREVENTION AND COMBATING OF SUBSTANCEABUSEIN A SOUTH AFRICAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Machethe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on the functional strategies and initiatives takenby SouthAfrican Police Service(SAPStowards prevention and combating of substanceabusein a South African Township. The study made useof mainly quantitative(survey methodto collect relevant data from 80participants who were selectedfrom the SAPS, local churches,Non-governmental organisations (NGOsandcommunity members.The findings of this study indicate an array of strategies inuse. Police regular conduct of stop and search in certain sectors than others,regular patrols, use of reliable volunteer informants (informants, secret detection,tracking and investigation, sharing of crime information tips and education ofpublic, and police partnership with civilorganisations were revealed as thesustaining strategies by the SAPS.Critical analysis of these strategies in the studyrevealed a mixed bag of functionality. Pragmaticsuggestions to improve on thelagging strategies were made by this study.

  12. ASSOCIATION OF FOOD SECURITY AND HOUSEHOLDDEMOGRAPHICS IN A SOUTH AFRICAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshediso Joseph Sekhampu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchshowsthatfoodinsecurityisone of the challengesthatpost-apartheidSouth Africafaces.Food securityindicators notethat South Africa as a countryhas an apparent state of sufficiency, while household indicators show greatdisparities between urban and rural households.Thepurpose of this study was toanalysethe food security status of households in the township of Kwakwatsi, FreeStateprovince. Data were collected through a household survey to determinetheassociationbetweenhousehold food security andthedemographic variables of ahousehold. Of the sampled households,51.1%were found to be food secureaccording tothe Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Logisticregression analysis revealedthatthere is a clear correlation betweenhouseholdsize, household income,andgender and marital status of the household headandhousehold food security.While household size,and the gender andmarital statusof the household head wereassociated withfoodinsecurity,an increase inhousehold income andtheage of thehouseholdheadwereassociated withfoodsecurity.The study offers trends in food security and can be used as a referencesource when addressing socio-economic challengesthatlow-incomehouseholdsin South African townshipsface.

  13. Engineering feasibility analysis for in-situ stabilization of Burrell Township site residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The Burrell Township site, located in western Pennsylvania, received approximately 11,600 tons of radioactively-contaminated material in late 1956 and early 1957 from the Vitro Manufacturing Company's operations in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. WESTON was requested to conduct an engineering study to determine the feasibility of stabilizing the site in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) interim and proposed standards (45 FR 27366--27368, April 22, 1980, and 46 FR 2556--2563, January 9, 1981). The scope of this study is limited to those alternatives that can be implemented on the site and will not require removal and offsite disposal of radioactively-contaminated material. Four alternatives for control of the radioactive material at the Burrell site were considered and evaluated, as follows: 1. Site stabilization and closure. 2. Site control and containment. 3. Waste excavation and encapsulation. 4. Waste excavation, incineration, and encapsulation. 2 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs

  14. Evaluation of the Township Proper Carrying Capacity over Qinghai-Tibet plateau by CASA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengyong; Cao, Guangchao; Xue, Huaju; Jiang, Gang; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Jie; Chen, Kelong

    2018-01-01

    The existing study of proper carrying capacity (PCC) has mostly focused on province or county administrative units, which can only macroscopically master the quantitative characteristics of PCC, but could not effectively take some animal husbandry management measures that are pertinent and operational. At town-scale, this paper used CASA model to estimate the PCC in Mongolian Autonomous County of Henan, Qinghai province, China,with serious grassland degeneration that mainly caused by overgrazing. The results showed that the PCC throughout the County was 950,417 sheep unit. For the township, the PCC of Saierlong and Duosong were the largest (247,100 sheep unit) and the smallest (82,016 sheep unit) respectively. This study will provide reference data for developing sustainable development of town-scale pasture policies and also will help to evaluate the health status of the alpine grassland ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

  15. Results of the mobile gamma scanning activities in Wayne and Pequannock Townships, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.A.; Roberts, D.A.; Patania, V.P.; Foley, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    During the early 1980s the W. R. Grace site and the adjacent area were the focus of several radiological investigations. Radiological surveys revealed surface radionuclide concentrations greater than those acceptable under US Department of Energy (DOE) remedial action guidelines. In 1984, Congress assigned responsibility for cleanup of the W.R. Grace site to the Department of Energy. The property was redesignated as the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and in 1985 DOE began plans for survey/monitoring, and remedial action of nearby vicinity properties and the interim storage site. Evaluations of the radiological survey data in 1986 indicated radioactive contamination above current DOE guidelines at the off-site areas of parts of Township Park southwest of WISS, and parts of the Sheffield Brook area and railroad siding in Pequannock Township. Remedial action was conducted over several years of most of these areas and independent verification of remedial action was performed. A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a mobile radiological scanning survey of a stretch of public roadway in the immediate vicinity south of the WISS, extending northwest to the Pompton turnpike. A mobile gamma scanning van with an on-board computer system was used to identify at least 24 anomalous areas, some attributable to the naturally elevated levels in concrete, asphalt, and natural granite found in streets, driveways and landscaping materials in the area. Analyses of the biased soil samples taken in the ballpark also revealed slightly elevated thorium concentrations. However, soil concentration measurements when averaged over 100 m 2 fall below the limits prescribed by DOE radiological guidelines established for this site. The anomalies may result from a wide range of sources, such as ash, granite, and fertilizer as well as materials from the former Grace facility

  16. 'We go to the bush to prove that we are also men': traditional circumcision and masculinity in the accounts of men who have sex with men in township communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Ingrid; Clayton, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    In predominantly isiXhosa-speaking township communities in South Africa, men who have sex with men negotiate their identities and sexual practices alongside heteronormative cultural scripts of what it means to be a man. Such idealised notions of masculinity are predicated on the selective appropriation of cultural practices that preserve (heterosexual) male privilege and power. In this paper, we explore the identity work done by men who have sex with men, with particular reference to male circumcision as a cultural practice widely drawn on to inform and regulate normative masculinity. Through a narrative-discursive analysis of the accounts provided by men who have sex with men from township communities, we highlight how participants' dissident sexualities are constructed as compromising their masculine identities. Participating in cultural practices such as traditional circumcision aligns participants to the idealised forms of masculinity that afford men full citizenship in their communities. Study findings suggest that sexual dissidence is less troubling to participants than deviating from gendered markers of hegemonic masculinity, and point to ways in which marginalised men might have an interest in maintaining the dominant gendered order. We conclude with implications for research and programmatic work with gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

  17. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  18. (Re)visualizing Black lesbian lives, (trans)masculinity, and township space in the documentary work of Zanele Muholi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imma, Z'étoile

    2017-04-03

    This article explores the politics of representing Black queer and trans subjectivities in the recent documentary film and photography of South African lesbian visual activist Zanele Muholi. While Muholi's work has been most often been positioned as an artistic response to the hate-crimes and violence perpetuated against Black lesbians in South African townships, most notably acts of sexual violence known increasingly as corrective rape, I argue that Muholi's documentary texts trouble the spatial, gendered, and highly racialized articulations that make up an increasingly global corrective rape discourse. The article considers how her visual texts foreground and (re)visualize Black queer and trans gender experiences that relocate, challenge, collaborate with, and at times, perform, masculinity as means to subvert heterosexist and racist constructions of township space and the Black gendered body.

  19. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a South African township: insights from a resilience questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlalepule Ruth Mampane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township Schools (R-MATS that was used to survey 291 Grade 9 middle-adolescent learners from two black-only township secondary schools. The majority of respondents indicated an overall sense of contending with various stressors, especially the exposure to violence, and academic challenges. Respondents attributed their buoyancy to individual and environmental factors, such as self-confidence, an internal locus of control, a tough personality, commitment, being achievement-oriented, as well as positive identification of and access to social support.

  20. Challenges for the surgical capacity building of township hospitals among the Central China: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Yang, Jian; Wu, Yue; Pan, Zijin; He, Xiaoqun; Li, Boyang; Zhang, Liang

    2018-05-02

    China's rapid transition in healthcare service system has posed considerable challenges for the primary care system. Little is known regarding the capacity of township hospitals (THs) to deliver surgical care in rural China with over 600 million lives. We aimed to ascertain its current performance, barriers, and summary lessons for its re-building in central China. This study was conducted in four counties from two provinces in central China. The New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) claim data from two counties in Hubei province was analyzed to describe the current situation of surgical care provision. Based on previous studies, self-administered questionnaire was established to collect key indicators from 60 THs from 2011 to 2015, and social and economic statuses of the sampling townships were collected from the local statistical yearbook. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among seven key administrators in the THs that did not provide appendectomy care in 2015. Determinants of appendectomy care provision were examined using a negative binominal regression model. First, with the rapid increase in inpatient services provided by the THs, their proportion of surgical service provision has been nibbled by out-of-county facilities. Second, although DY achieved a stable performance, the total amount of appendectomy provided by the 60 THs decreased to 589 in 2015 from 1389 in 2011. Moreover, their proportion reduced to 26.77% in 2015 from 41.84% in 2012. Third, an increasing number of THs did not provide appendectomy in 2015, with the shortage of anesthesiologists and equipment as the most mentioned reasons (46.43%). Estimation results from the negative binomial model indicated that the annual average per capita disposable income and tightly integrated delivery networks (IDNs) negatively affected the amount of appendectomy provided by THs. By contrast, the probability of appendectomy provision by THs was increased by performance-related payment (PRP). Out

  1. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers’ worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory. Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%. One hundred and six (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%. While most (85.2% respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents’ suggested measures for controlling violence included “widening channels on medical dispute solutions,” “improving doctor-patient communication,” and “advocating for respect for medical workers via the media.” Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers’ worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.

  2. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Jiao, Mingli; Cui, Yu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Jinghua; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuchong; Zhao, Yanming; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers’ worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory). Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%). One hundred and six (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%). While most (85.2%) respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents’ suggested measures for controlling violence included “widening channels on medical dispute solutions,” “improving doctor-patient communication,” and “advocating for respect for medical workers via the media.” Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers’ worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals. PMID:27517949

  3. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Jiao, Mingli; Cui, Yu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Jinghua; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuchong; Zhao, Yanming; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2016-08-10

    Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers' worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory). Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%). One hundred and six (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%). While most (85.2%) respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents' suggested measures for controlling violence included "widening channels on medical dispute solutions," "improving doctor-patient communication," and "advocating for respect for medical workers via the media." Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers' worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.

  4. Are we teaching critical literacy? Reading practices in a township classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynis Lloyd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in educational provision in South Africa since 1994, the opportunities for learners from historically under-resourced schools to gain access to powerful English resources remain limited and unequal (Prinsloo 2012. In this article I will provide a detailed description of literacy practices in a township high school in Cape Town, specifically of the orientations to text that are made available to learners. I will draw on feminist poststructuralist theory, in which the subject is theorised as constructed and contested in language to construct difference. The analysis of classroom discourse and text-based tasks shows that the orientations to reading that were offered were characterised by a focus on the surface meaning of the texts and by an absence of critical engagement, despite the latter being required in the new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The analysis reveals how the power dynamics of our racialised past and dominant ideologies about gender, class and race continue to define teaching in our classrooms in ways that limit access to the English resources that learners in under-resourced schools need for academic success.

  5. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntswane, A M; van Rhyn, L

    2007-03-01

    This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155) of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.

  6. New energy vision in Iwaizumi Township area; 2000 nendo Iwaizumicho chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A new energy vision was established in the Iwaizumi Township area in Iwate Prefecture. The heat energy consumed by each household in Iwaizumi Town is 20.5 two-hundred-liter drums, while transportation (railways, buses, trucks and private cars) consumes 12.2 drums annually, and the electric energy field 4.7 drums annually. As the town as a whole, the ratio of utilization as heat energy is relatively high. Therefore, new energy introduction should be focused importantly on use of solar heat hot water supply device and high-level utilization of forestry fuels. The new energy introduction project includes introduction of bio-mass energy to produce heat energy and electric power using livestock excreta, cut woods, thinned woods, and kitchen refuses as the resources, structuring a new energy model for the 'Communication Land Iwaizumi', activation of the central urban area by introducing micro hydropower generation, assistance to proliferation of new energies to town-operated houses, households, and business entities, introduction of new energies into the disaster prevention center, schools, and insurance, medical and welfare facilities, introduction of clean energy automobiles, and uplift of consciousness of town people. (NEDO)

  7. A journey towards inclusive education; a case study from a 'township' in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rosemary; Prudhomme, Debbie; Bullen, Ann; Pitt, Catherine; Geiger, Martha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to relate part of the journey to appropriate education for two young children with physical disabilities in a low socio-economic peri-urban informal settlement - or 'township' - in South Africa. The part of the on-going journey described here spanned four-and-a-half years and included the two children, their families, their teachers, their community and a small team of rehabilitation professionals working for a non-profit organisation in the area. The rehabilitation professionals' goals were to provide support for the children, their families, their current special care centre and the school(s) they would attend in the future. The steps from the special care centre, to a mainstream early childhood development (ECD) centre for both of them, and then on to (a) a school for learners with special educational needs (LSEN) for one child and (b) a mainstream primary school for the other, are described. Challenges encountered on the way included parental fears, community attitudes and physical accessibility. Practical outcomes included different placements for the two children with implications and recommendations for prioritised parent involvement, individual approaches, interdisciplinary and community-based collaborations. Recommendations are given for clinical contexts, curricula and policy matters; for research and for scaling up such a programme through community workers.

  8. The Role of Rural Communities in Conservation of Rangelands in Mahneshan Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Karimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the action of rangeland-depended livestock holders regarding rangeland conservation, including protection and rehabilitation activities and to analyse relevant influencing factors, using a mixed method of survey and case study. The data were collected through analysing existing documents, focus groups, semi-structured and structured interviews using questionnaires submitted to 204 rural livestock holders in the Mahneshan Township. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results farmers’ knowledge regarding the role, importance and factors affecting rangeland degradation was relatively high, however they had a low level of knowledge and action about mechanical conservation techniques. The action of livestock holders in terms of biological conservation activities and grazing management showed a positive and signifincat corrletaion with variables such as implementing of rangeland projects, their interaction with external institutions, participating in extension training courses, education level and irrigated and rainfed agricultural land size. Moreover, based on a path analysis, 37% of the variance of the farmers’ actions regarding the rangeland conservation was explained by the variables such as rangeland rehabilitation actions, farmers’ conservation knowledge, farmers’ interaction with natural resources experts, beekeeping, and participating in extension training courses. Promotional and extension activities and farmers’ interaction with experts have a positive effect in enhancing farmers’ knowledge and actions for sustainable rangeland use and conservation.

  9. Information Sources Influencing Soil Testing Innovation Adoption by Grape Farmers in the Khorramdarreh Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Shirin Golbaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Testing soil  is recognized to be an important practice for sustainable use of nutrients, which has been introduced to Iranian grape farmers as an innovation for over a decade. Its adoption and utilization may be influenced by receiving information from different sources. This study is performed to introduce these information sources that may influence the adoption of soil testing innovation by grape farmers. Using a survey, a sample of 260 out of 3942 grape farmers of the Khorramdarreh Township was selected using a stratified sampling technique and data was collected by structured interviews using a questionnaire. The content and face validity of the questionnaire was discussed and reviewed by a panel of experts consisting of university staff and agricultural professionals. Its reliability was also assessed through a pilot study and its main constructs were approved to be reliable using the Cronbach’s alpha test (measures between 0.71 and 0.84. Less than half of the grape farmers conducted soil testing in their vineyards. A regression analysis showed that variables such as contact of the farmers with model grape producers, Poster Received, publications and listening to radio programs and farmers’ education have a significant positive impact on soil testing innovation adoption. Therefore, both interpersonal and mass media can have a positive effect on farmers to adopt this innovation.

  10. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ntswane

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155 of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.

  11. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS INFLUENCING BETEL NUT CHEWING AMONG ADULTS IN WEST INSEIN TOWNSHIP, YANGON, MYANMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Su Kyaw; Narksawat, Kulaya; Sillabutra, Jutatip

    2016-09-01

    Betel nut chewing can cause precancerous oral lesions and is common in Myanmar. We conducted a cross sectional study aimed to estimate prevalence and factors influencing betel nut chewing among 420 subjects aged ≥18 years in West Insein Township, Yangon, Myanmar in order to inform preventive health programs. The mean age of the study subjects was 45(±15) years. The overall prevalence of current betel nut chewing among study subjects was 55.2%. The mean age starting betel nut chewing was 29(±13) years, and the mean duration of chewing was 15(±13) years. The reasons given by study subjects for chewing betel nut included the addictive effect to betel nut, to release tension, to get rid of boredom and to stop smoking. Sixty-two point three percent of current betel nut chewers also chewed tobacco and 24.2% also smoked cigarettes. Factors significantly associated with betel nut chewing were male gender, current alcohol consumer, having no education or finishing primary or secondary school, having a low score regarding their attitude about the health effects of betel nut chewing, and having high score on interpersonal factors by family and peer pressure. Our results show a need to better educate the public about the health effects of betel nut chewing among the study population.

  12. Aedes larval indices and the occurrence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in urban community of Thanlyin Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thae’ Zar Chi Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban community of Thanlyin Township, Yangon Region during 2014 to determine Aedes larval indices and the occurrence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF within past one year. A total of 327 households and 1491 members were included in the study. Aedes larval indices detected in this study were 25.7% for house index, 15.5% for container index and 48.0% for Breteau index. The occurrence of DHF among households and family members were 2.1% (95% CI: 0.9%, 4.4% and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3%, 1.1%, respectively. The occurrence was highest among 5 to 14 years age-group. No case was reported among persons with equal or more than 60 years of age. Mortality and case fatality rates were 0% during study period. Larval positivity among households was significantly related to sufficiency of family income and number of water container they have. Surveillance and control procedures for both DHF and vector should be intensified in urban area. Awareness and participation of the community in prevention and control of DHF should also be raised. Socioeconomic status as well as proper water supply and storage should be improved in urban area.

  13. Information and communications technology adoption amongst township micro and small business: The case of Soweto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: This research determines to what extent ICT is adopted by MSBs in Soweto, and whether or not a positive correlation exists between the adoption rate of ICT and the financial and growth performance of the MSB itself. Method: A structured questionnaire was completed by 978 respondents to determine the extent of ICT adoption and for what ICT is used. This exploratory research provides new knowledge about the acceptance of ICT within township MSBs. Results: The results indicate that ICT is not used to the fullest by MSBs. Rather, it is used as a basic tool for doing business but it does not form an integral part of the business. This research provides insight into the usage and adoption of ICT and it opens the door for further cross-analysis research. Conclusion: Education and training are needed to ensure that MSBs use ICT to the fullest. MSBs embracing ICT can evolve from a survivalist SME to a more sustainable micro and small MSB.

  14. Assessment of CO2 emission reduction and identification of CDM potential in a township

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.; Aseri, Tarun Kumar; Jamuwa, Doraj Karnal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India); Bansal, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Mahila Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents the theoretical investigation of CDM opportunity in a township at Jaipur, India. The purpose of study is to identify and analyze the various opportunities viz., installation of solar water heater, energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners, and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers and thus achieve a considerable (65.7 %) reduction in GHG emissions. Out of the various opportunities considered, the retrofitting with solar water heater can be recommended for CDM. Though, the retrofitting with energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers claimed CO2 emission reduction of 104.84, 25.92, and 36.94 tons per annum, respectively, but the only opportunity which got through CDM was retrofitting with solar water heater claiming 115.70 tCO2 (100 %) emission reductions per annum which could result into net earnings of 115.70 CERs. The simple and discounted payback period for all four project activities are also calculated with and without CDM and tax benefits.

  15. Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in Orange Farm Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangile Bingma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate everyday life. A qualitative case study was conducted with nine male early high school leavers between the ages of 18 and 25, as well as 12 stakeholders involved in the Orange Farm Township, south of Johannesburg. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, document reviews, and observations. Narrative analysis revealed complications related to the notions of space and place of the potential participants and the researcher. In the first place, the difficulty was not in identifying participants, but in establishing rapport to the extent that they agreed to participate in the research. Assumptions about space and place gave rise to expectations that had to be managed, and consequently the researcher had to rethink the methodological choices. In particular, participants' perceived real social positions and their relation to different social spaces had to be negotiated. It is suggested that relatively novice researchers, researching male early high school leaving in familiar spaces, can mitigate complications of space, place and stigma during fieldwork by using multiple sources of data and strategic, flexible interviewing techniques.

  16. Socio-Economic Determinants of Poverty Amongst Female-Headed Households in a South African Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshediso Joseph Sekhampu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reported here used household level data toanalysedeterminants ofhousehold poverty amongst female-headed households in a South AfricanTownship of Bophelong. Poverty is defined and then measured for the sampledpopulation. A Logistic regression was estimated based on this data with theeconomic status (that is poor and non-poor as the dependent variable and a set ofdemographic variables as explanatory variables. The results show that householdsize, the age and employment status of theheadof householdsignificantly explainvariations in the likelihood of being poor.Household size was positivelyassociated with the probability of being poor, whereas the age and employmentstatus of the head of the household reduces the probability ofbeing in the poorcategory.It is of interest to note that the educational attainment of the householdhead is not important in reducing the chances of being a poor household.Information provided through this study is at household level and extends onexisting findings on poverty in South Africa bymodellingand determining thevarious socio-economic and demographic household level indicators responsiblefor female poverty.

  17. TOO SICK TO START: ENTREPRENEUR'S HEALTH AND BUSINESS ENTRY IN TOWNSHIPS AROUND DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Pereira, Nuno Sousa; Pauly, Mark V

    2010-01-01

    Unlike large firms with management teams, small businesses are usually run by one key person, the owner-entrepreneur, who bears almost all of the risks and makes almost all of the decisions related to the business. Because the owner-entrepreneur also embodies most of the firm-specific knowledge capital, health of the owner-entrepreneur is an important factor in the production process. Following a cohort of respondents in townships around Durban, South Africa, over a three-year period, we examined the relationship between an individual's physical health and the decision to start a business. Our results suggest that respondents who were recent business entrants were in better health than respondents who did not start new businesses. Moreover, respondents without a business at the beginning of the study who later opened businesses during the three-year study interval were significantly more likely to have better baseline health than those respondents who never started a new business. Hence, good health among entrepreneurs seems to be an important prerequisite to small business entry.

  18. HIV testing practices of South African township MSM in the era of expanded access to ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu

    2015-03-01

    While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing-of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment-requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men's HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20-39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed.

  19. Energy aspects of city districts and rural townships; Energieaspekte staedtischer und laendlicher Siedlungen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Arend, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Beaujean, K. [Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Schneider, S. [Planungsbuero Jud AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-01-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the energy consumption of various residential districts in cities and in rural townships. The analysis examines the consumption of primary energy by residential buildings, their supply and disposal infrastructures and that of traffic induced by settlements. Also, grey energy: consumption for the construction, renovation and demolition of buildings and infrastructures as well as the consumption of primary energy for the production and disposal of individual motor vehicle traffic and public transport is reviewed. Four Swiss case studies are dealt with including largely homogenous residential districts in Effretikon, Oetwil am See, Uster and the City of Zurich. The results of the analyses made are presented in graphical form. The authors quote the great potential for the reduction of the consumption of settlement-dependent primary energy that lies in the fields of energy-efficiency of buildings, mobility and power consumption. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive appendix.

  20. Factors influencing family planning practice among reproductive age married women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Myo Min; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Nanthamongkokchai, Sutham

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors that influence the family planning practice among married, reproductive age women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 284 married, reproductive age women using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through questionnaire interviews during February and March 2012 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. The proportion of families practicing family planning was 74.7%, contraceptive injection being the most commonly used method. The factors influencing family planning practice were attitude towards family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The women with a positive attitude toward family planning practiced family planning 3.7 times more than women who had a negative attitude. If family planning services were available for 24 hours, then women would practice 3.4 times more than if they were not available for 24 hours. When women got fair to good support from health workers, they practiced 15.0 times more on family planning and 4.3 times more who got fair to good support from partners and friends than women who got low support. The factors influencing family planning practice of married, reproductive age women were attitude toward family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The findings suggest that empowerment of health workers, training of volunteers, pharmacists and contraceptive drug providers, encouraging inter-spousal communication, and peer support, as well as an integrated approach to primary health care in order to target different populations to change women's attitudes on family planning, could increase family planning practice among Myanmar women.

  1. Efficiency and productivity measurement of rural township hospitals in China: a bootstrapping data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Cai, Miao; Tao, Hongbing; He, Zhifei; Lin, Xiaojun; Lin, Haifeng; Zuo, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Objective Township hospitals (THs) are important components of the three-tier rural healthcare system of China. However, the efficiency and productivity of THs have been questioned since the healthcare reform was implemented in 2009. The objective of this study is to analyse the efficiency and productivity changes in THs before and after the reform process. Setting and participants A total of 48 sample THs were selected from the Xiaogan Prefecture in Hubei Province from 2008 to 2014. Outcome measures First, bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) was performed to estimate the technical efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE) of the sample THs during the period. Second, the bootstrapping Malmquist productivity index was used to calculate the productivity changes over time. Results The average TE, PTE and SE of the sample THs over the 7-year period were 0.5147, 0.6373 and 0.7080, respectively. The average TE and PTE increased from 2008 to 2012 but declined considerably after 2012. In general, the sample THs experienced a negative shift in productivity from 2008 to 2014. The negative change was 2.14%, which was attributed to a 23.89% decrease in technological changes (TC). The sample THs experienced a positive productivity shift from 2008 to 2012 but experienced deterioration from 2012 to 2014. Conclusions There was considerable space for TE improvement in the sample THs since the average TE was relatively low. From 2008 to 2014, the sample THs experienced a decrease in productivity, and the adverse alteration in TC should be emphasised. In the context of healthcare reform, the factors that influence TE and productivity of THs are complex. Results suggest that numerous quantitative and qualitative studies are necessary to explore the reasons for the changes in TE and productivity. PMID:27836870

  2. How is their word knowledge growing? Exploring Grade 3 vocabulary in South African township schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Pretorius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report on a study that examined the active and receptive English vocabulary of two different groups of Grade 3 learners in South African township schools. The groups consisted of English Home Language (HL learners in the Western Cape and Xhosa HL and English First Additional Language (FAL learners in the Eastern Cape. The purpose was to document their different vocabulary trajectories during Grade 3. The Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey was used to measure the active vocabulary levels of 118 learners at the beginning and the end of the school year. Another 284 learners from the same eight Grade 3 classes participated in a receptive vocabulary test at the end of the year. This test assessed their knowledge of the 60 most frequent words that occur in South Africa Grade 4 English textbooks. Results showed that although the HL learners knew almost double the number of words their English FAL peers did, both groups of learners increased their active word knowledge through the year by about 9%. Regarding their receptive vocabulary, the English FAL learners on average only knew 27% of the most frequent words at the end of their Grade 3. No significant gender differences were found. Learners in both language groups who were above their grade age had significantly lower scores than their younger peers. This confirms findings that children who start school with weak language skills tend to stay weak. Finally, initial active vocabulary knowledge was found to be a strong predictor of vocabulary development during the school year.

  3. Tippvormis Harrison Ford / Harrison Ford ; toim. Robert Aps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ford, Harrison

    2008-01-01

    Näitleja järjekordse Indiana Jones'i filmi "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") väljatuleku eel. Sama ka Teleleht nr. 23, lk. 47 : ill

  4. Results of coalbed-methane drilling, Meadowfill Landfill, Harrison County, West Virginia: Chapter G.4 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Fedorko, Nick; Grady, William C.; Eble, Cortland F.; Schuller, William A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded drilling of a borehole (39.33889°N., 80.26542°W.) to evaluate the potential of enhanced coalbed-methane production from unminable Pennsylvanian coal beds at the Meadowfill Landfill near Bridgeport, Harrison County, W. Va. The drilling commenced on June 17, 2004, and was completed on July 1, 2004. The total depth of the borehole was 1,081 feet (ft) and contained 1,053.95 ft of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata, and 27.05 ft of Mississippian strata.

  5. Unintended costs and consequences of school closures implemented in preparation for Hurricane Isaac in Harrison County School District, Mississippi, August-September 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenlik Zheteyeva

    Full Text Available School closures, while an effective measure against the spread of disease during a pandemic, may carry unintended social and economic consequences for students and families. We evaluated these costs and consequences following a 4-day school closure in Mississippi's Harrison County School District (HCSD.In a survey of all households with students enrolled in HCSD, we collected information on difficulties related to the school closure, including interruption of employment and pay, loss of access to subsidized school meals, and arrangement of alternative childcare. We analyzed this information in the context of certain demographic characteristics of the survey respondents and households, such as race, level of education, and income. We also estimated the average number of lost work days and documented the childcare alternatives chosen by households affected by the school closure.We received 2,229 (28.4% completed surveys from an estimated 7,851 households eligible to participate. About half (1,082 [48.5%] of the households experienced at least some difficulty during the closure, primarily in three areas: uncertainty about duration of the closure, lost income, and the effort of arranging alternate childcare. Adults working outside the home, particularly the major wage earner in the household, were more likely to suffer lost income while schools were closed, an effect mitigated by paid leave benefits. Difficulty arranging childcare was reported most frequently by respondents with lower levels of education and households with younger children. Beyond the top three concerns expressed by households in HCSD, the survey also shed light on the issue of food insecurity when subsidized school meals are not available. Reported by 17.9% of households participating in the subsidized school lunch program, difficulty providing meals during the closure was associated with higher numbers of dependent children, selection of "other" as the race of the household

  6. TERRAIN, HARRISON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING, HARRISON COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. HYDRAULICS, HARRISON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  9. Indoor social networks in a South African township: potential contribution of location to tuberculosis transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Wood

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that in South Africa, with a generalized tuberculosis (TB epidemic, TB infection is predominantly acquired indoors and transmission potential is determined by the number and duration of social contacts made in locations that are conducive to TB transmission. We therefore quantified time spent and contacts met in indoor locations and public transport by residents of a South African township with a very high TB burden.A diary-based community social mixing survey was performed in 2010. Randomly selected participants (n = 571 prospectively recorded numbers of contacts and time spent in specified locations over 24-hour periods. To better characterize age-related social networks, participants were stratified into ten 5-year age strata and locations were classified into 11 types.Five location types (own-household, other-households, transport, crèche/school, and work contributed 97.2% of total indoor time and 80.4% of total indoor contacts. Median time spent indoors was 19.1 hours/day (IQR:14.3-22.7, which was consistent across age strata. Median daily contacts increased from 16 (IQR:9-40 in 0-4 year-olds to 40 (IQR:18-60 in 15-19 year-olds and declined to 18 (IQR:10-41 in ≥45 year-olds. Mean daily own-household contacts was 8.8 (95%CI:8.2-9.4, which decreased with increasing age. Mean crèche/school contacts increased from 6.2/day (95%CI:2.7-9.7 in 0-4 year-olds to 28.1/day (95%CI:8.1-48.1 in 15-19 year-olds. Mean transport contacts increased from 4.9/day (95%CI:1.6-8.2 in 0-4 year-olds to 25.5/day (95%CI:12.1-38.9 in 25-29 year-olds.A limited number of location types contributed the majority of indoor social contacts in this community. Increasing numbers of social contacts occurred throughout childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, predominantly in school and public transport. This rapid increase in non-home socialization parallels the increasing TB infection rates during childhood and young adulthood reported in this

  10. Public-health and individual approaches to antiretroviral therapy: township South Africa and Switzerland compared.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Keiser

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in resource-limited settings follows a public health approach, which is characterised by a limited number of regimens and the standardisation of clinical and laboratory monitoring. In industrialized countries doctors prescribe from the full range of available antiretroviral drugs, supported by resistance testing and frequent laboratory monitoring. We compared virologic response, changes to first-line regimens, and mortality in HIV-infected patients starting HAART in South Africa and Switzerland.We analysed data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and two HAART programmes in townships of Cape Town, South Africa. We included treatment-naïve patients aged 16 y or older who had started treatment with at least three drugs since 2001, and excluded intravenous drug users. Data from a total of 2,348 patients from South Africa and 1,016 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were analysed. Median baseline CD4+ T cell counts were 80 cells/mul in South Africa and 204 cells/mul in Switzerland. In South Africa, patients started with one of four first-line regimens, which was subsequently changed in 514 patients (22%. In Switzerland, 36 first-line regimens were used initially, and these were changed in 539 patients (53%. In most patients HIV-1 RNA was suppressed to 500 copies/ml or less within one year: 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] 95%-97% in South Africa and 96% (94%-97% in Switzerland, and 26% (22%-29% and 27% (24%-31%, respectively, developed viral rebound within two years. Mortality was higher in South Africa than in Switzerland during the first months of HAART: adjusted hazard ratios were 5.90 (95% CI 1.81-19.2 during months 1-3 and 1.77 (0.90-3.50 during months 4-24.Compared to the highly individualised approach in Switzerland, programmatic HAART in South Africa resulted in similar virologic outcomes, with relatively few changes to initial regimens. Further innovation and resources are

  11. The potential and reality of the solar water heater programme in South African townships: Lessons from the City of Tshwane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, Claire; Cherni, Judith A.; Mapako, Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    The South African solar water heater (SWH) programme is part of national policy to improve the country's electricity security, an innovative strategy to provide indigent households with free solar water heaters. The study assesses the effects of the government programme for poor townships on reduction of household electricity consumption, decline in energy poverty, and reduction in CO2 emissions; and estimates the impact of SWH on reducing electricity demand nationwide. It reports results from fieldwork carried out in the City of Tshwane to measure both quantitatively and qualitatively the success of the project's deployment in townships. Although households register average savings of 27% on their monthly electricity bills and off-peak electricity demand has reduced significantly in the area, a variety of problems prevented the project from attaining the desired level of impact. Difficulties encountered include technical faults with the heaters combined with nonavailability of maintenance; a rise in water consumption; lack of community engagement leading to apathy; and dearth of owner training leading to underuse. The gap between inflated estimates and real savings is discussed. Expanding the programme could generate jobs but significant challenges remain. - Highlights: • The government's aim of saving electricity and reducing utility bills partly achieved. • Savings of electricity are estimated at about 25% less than the potential saving. • Wrong assumption that peak time is only 1 h produced savings 5 times larger. • ESKOM & government overlooked providing Information on the SWH to the householders. • No maintenance led to abandonment by many or water leaking increasing utility bills.

  12. Réécritures du mythe d’Orphée et enjeux esthétiques, philosophiques et formels dans The Mask of Orpheus de Harrison Birtwistle Aesthetic, Philosophical and Formal Questions Raised by the Rewritings of the Myth of Orpheus in Harrison Birtwistle’s The Mask of Orpheus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Héberlé

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Harrison Birtwistle’s rewriting of the myth of Orpheus in his opera The Mask of Orpheus (1986. Written on a libretto by Peter Zinovieff, The Mask of Orpheus is part of a long tradition of operas dealing with the famous Greek myth. Yet, the way it is tackled by Birtwistle and Zinovieff is very different from what was done in the past. They do not present the spectator with the key elements of the story in a linear way but simultaneously. Different versions of the myth are introduced and sometimes we are presented with contradictory versions at the same time to force us to be active and aware of the existence of different kinds of dualities. The simultaneous presentation of some events is also connected to the way Birtwistle and Zinovieff play with the notion of time in their opera. One of their aims is to show how memory functions. When you remember something the frontier between past and present is blurred and the remembrance of things past is part of an endless cycle where things are perpetually brought to life, a very important aspect of myths whose universal and timeless nature is thus emphasized. Rituals, like myths, are based on the idea of repetition as well as on the idea of returning to the origins. This is why the opera may be considered as a ritualistic piece of work; this is underlined by the omnipresence of the figure three—a ritual number—in the literary and musical structure of The Mask of Orpheus.

  13. Prescribing Patterns in Outpatient Clinics of Township Hospitals in China: A Comparative Study before and after the 2009 Health System Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Pan, Qingxia; Shan, Linghan; Liu, Chaojie; Gao, Lijun; Hao, Yanhua; Song, Jian; Ning, Ning; Cui, Yu; Li, Ye; Qi, Xinye; Liang, Chao; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Guoxiang

    2016-07-05

    China introduced a series of health reforms in 2009, including a national essential medicines policy and a medical insurance system for primary care institutions. This study aimed to determine the changing prescribing patterns associated with those reforms in township hospitals. A multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted to identify 29 township hospitals from six counties in three provinces. A total of 2899 prescriptions were collected from the participating township hospitals using a systematic random sampling strategy. Seven prescribing indicators were calculated and compared between 2008 and 2013, assessing use of medicines (antibiotics and adrenal corticosteroids) and polypharmacy, administration route of medicines (injections), and affordability of medicines. Significant changes in prescribing patterns were found. The average number of medicines and costs per-prescription dropped by about 50%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring antibiotics declined from 54% to 38%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring adrenal corticosteroid declined from 14% to 4%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring injections declined from 54% to 25%. Despite similar changing patterns, significant regional differences were observed. Significant changes in prescribing patterns are evident in township hospitals in China. Overprescription of antibiotics, injections and adrenal corticosteroids has been reduced. However, salient regional disparities still exist. Further studies are needed to determine potential shifts in the risk of the inappropriate use of medicines from primary care settings to metropolitan hospitals.

  14. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE - VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...

  15. Superfund Technology Evaluation Report: SITE Program Demonstration Test Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System at the Rose Township Demode Road Superfund Site Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System was evaluated during a series of seventeen test runs under varied operating conditions at the Demode Road Superfund Site located in Rose Township, Michigan. The tests sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the unit and the t...

  16. Teachers' Knowledge and Views on the Use of Learners' Socio-Cultural Background in Teaching Natural Sciences in Grade 9 Township Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavuru, Lydia; Ramnarain, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    This article explores teachers' knowledge and views on the role of learners' socio-cultural background when teaching Natural Sciences to Grade 9 learners at three South African township schools. Within a socio-cultural framework, the research investigated how teachers accommodate learners' cultural norms and values, religion and beliefs,…

  17. Facilitating access to English for Xhosa-speaking pupils in black township primary schools around Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Hibbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper results from a research project completed by the author in 1994 on the quality of language-learning environments in the Cape Town area . . Xhosa is now constitutionally enshrined as one of the eleven official languages of South Africa, and is the dominant language in Western Cape black townships. This paper questions the fruitfUlness of primary schools in black townships attempting to use English as the sole medium of instruction. The paper shows that in actual classroom situations the Ll (Xhosa is used as an aid to L2 (English medium instruction in the schools of Khayelitsha and Lagunya townships around Cape Town. The paper argues for the recognition and forther extension of such bilingual practices in primary schools to work towards more successfUl use of the L2 as the medium of instruction. It assesses the implications of such bilingual policy for classroom interaction and materials development. Hierdie artikel spruit voort uit 'n navorsingsprojek wat in 1994 deur die skrywer onderneem is in groter Kaapstad oor die kwaliteit van die omgewings waarbinne taal aange/eer word. Xhosa is volgens die konstitusie een van die elf amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika en is die oorheersende taal in die swart woonbuurte van die Wes-Kaap. In hierdie artikel word die waarde bevraagteken van die poging wat in die primere skole in die swart woonbuurte aangewend word om Engels as enigste medium van onderrig te gebruik. In die artikel word ook daarop gewys dat skole in Khayelitsha en Lagunya, twee swart woonbuurte naby Kaapstad, Xhosa (Tl gebruik as hulpmiddel by die onderrig deur medium van Engels (T2. Daar word aangevoer dat hierdie gebruik van tweetalige onderrig in primere skole erkenning behoort te kry en verder uitgebrei behoort te word sodat daar gestrewe kan word na 'n meer suksesvol/e gebruik van die tweede taal as onderrigmedium. 'n Waardebepaling van die implikasies van so 'ntweetalige beleid vir k/askamerinteraksie en die ontwikkeling van

  18. The Distribution of Road Salt in Private Drinking Water Wells in a Southeastern New York Suburban Township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Cunningham, Mary Ann; Curri, Neil; Findlay, Stuart E; Carroll, Sean M

    2018-05-01

    We used a GIS analysis of sodium and chloride concentrations in private water wells in a southeastern New York township to describe the pattern of distribution of road salt in aquifers tapped for drinking water. The primary source of road salt was sodium chloride, and sodium and chloride concentrations were significantly correlated ( = 0.80, road ( = 0.76, road had higher concentrations of chloride than wells that were higher than the nearest road, but this occurred only when the nearest road was >30 m from the wells ( road type (major or minor roads). Surface geology and hydrologic soil class had significant effects ( road salt contamination of groundwater is unevenly distributed and is affected by landscape factors that can be used to guide well testing and best management practices of deicing salt distribution. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Association between gallbladder stones and chronic hepatitis C: Ultrasonographic survey in a hepatitis C and B hyperendemic township in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Dai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder (GB stones have been associated with several metabolic factors and liver diseases. This community-based study aimed at investigating the prevalence rate of GB stones and its associated factors in a hepatitis B virus (HBV/hepatitis C virus (HCV-endemic township in southern Taiwan. A total of 1701 residents (689 males and 1012 females; mean age: 51.2 ± 16.0 years were enrolled in this prospectively designed screening project. Serum biochemistry tests, including testing for levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, and antibody to HCV (anti-HCV were conducted. In addition, a hepatobiliary ultrasonographic (US examination was also conducted. Of the 1701 residents, 243 (14.3% and 475 (27.9% were found to be positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively. Results of the US examination revealed the prevalence rate of GB stone and fatty liver to be 6.8% and 55.6%, respectively. Using univariate analyses we found that significantly higher proportions of the participants with GB stone were male, over 50 years of age, positive for anti-HCV (p = 0.001, p 50 year were identified as independent factors associated with the formation of GB stones. Anti-HCV was associated with GB stones in males but not in females in both univariate and multivariate analyses. GB stones were found to have a prevalence rate of 6.8% in this HCV/HBV hyperendemic township and are associated with higher mean age. A correlation between chronic hepatitis C and GB stones is observed only among males.

  20. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Doherty, Tanya; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfers (CTs) are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30). Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. At the 12-week visit, half (52%) of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327) of all children had received the CSG. In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery.

  1. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanga Zembe-Mkabile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cash transfers (CTs are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30. Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. Methods: This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. Results: At the 12-week visit, half (52% of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327 of all children had received the CSG. Conclusions: In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery.

  2. Wheat Farmer's Land Consolidation Attitude and Suitable Solutions from Their Viewpoints in (Case Study: Hashtrood Township Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shams

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper planning and implementation of sound programs and strategies is vital to  agricultural development. Recognizing current problems and strengths of any section is required in the first step. One of the most important problems in the Iranian agriculture sector is land fragmentation. The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to investigate wheat farmers’ attitude and land consolidation solutions from their viewpoints in the Hashtrood Township in year 2013. A group of experts from different majors confirmed the validity of the questionnaire used as our research tool and by conducting a pilot test and the Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be equal to 0.85 for attitude scale and 0.8 for solution scale, and hence its reliability was verified. The target population consisted of all of the wheat farmers in the Hashtrood Township in the East Azerbaijan province 186 of whom  were selected as samples from 15 villages based on Cochran’s sampling formula and the multi stage randomized sampling method. An analysis of the attitudes of wheat farmers revealed that 67.7 and 32.3 percent of them have unfavorable and neutral attitudes towards land consolidation. Also, there is a significant positive relationship between farming experience and their attitude in land consolidation, but there is a negative relationship between it and their total land segments.  Factor analysis of data revealed that four factors named as deterrent actions, cooperative-common actions, supportive-infrastructural actions and motivational extension actions explained 59.9% of land consolidation solutions by wheat farmers.

  3. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yunbo; Hu, Guijie; Chen, Qingyun; Peng, Hailun; Li, Kailan; Wei, Jinling; Yi, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs), the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs) starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33%) had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55%) had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  4. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Qing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs, the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. Methods: An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Results: Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33% had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55% had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Conclusion: Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  5. 76 FR 21092 - Notice of Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    .... 46. Anadarko E&P Company LP, Pad ID: Harry W Stryker Pad A, ABR- 201011044, Cogan House Township... Energy, LLC, Pad ID: Triana-Young Pad B, ABR-201012008, Hector Township, Potter County, Pa.; Consumptive...- 20100346, Harrison Township, Potter County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of up 4.000 mgd; Rescinded Date: December...

  6. Microbial, algal, and fungal strategies for manganese oxidation at a Shade Township coal mine, Somerset County, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.I.; Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Successful designs to eliminate Mn from mine discharge are necessary for both restoring abandoned mine lands and permitting the mining of high sulfur coal in the eastern United States. A passive in-line system that meets Mn discharge limits was built at the discharge from the former Shade Township coal mine in south central Pennsylvania. Qualitative research on monthly changes in the microbial and algal community that removes Mn is underway. Epilithic attachment of microorganisms was analyzed on artificial (glass microscope slides) and natural substrates (limestone thin sections) that were immersed in surface water for one month periods over 6 months. Organisms attached to both glass and limestone substrates. Limestone became coated with 34--86% more Mn that did glass surfaces. Light microscopy revealed 12 different strategies are being used by bacteria, cyan bacteria, diatoms, green algae, and fungi to oxidize Mn. the dominant method used by the epilithic community to oxidize Mn is coating of holdfasts by the iron bacterium, Liptothrix discophora, and the green alga, Ulothrix sp. Other methods for Mn removal by oxidation include coating of individual cells, filaments/sheaths/hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, and biofilms. The unplanned community at the site is multifaceted and extremely efficient in its Mn removal ability. Community interactions or complexity may play roles in the stability of the ecosystem and the efficiency of its Mn oxidizing ability

  7. Community perceptions of risk factors for interpersonal violence in townships in Cape Town, South Africa: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen

    2017-10-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.

  8. Guidelines for sustainable tourism planning in the township of San Francisco de Asis (Acandi Municipality, Choco, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan Carvajal, Carlos Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents important management guidelines for conducting a tourism planning process in the township of San Francisco de Asis, which were developed from the conceptual notion of sustainable tourism and participation of local people. This case considered the participatory research method, used ethnography techniques and implemented shops with the community. As a main result proposed the consolidation of four components, socio- political, socio- cultural, social- ecological and socio- economic; that must be managed in an integrated fashion to achieve real sustainable tourism in this territory. In the first component outlines an participatory process that must take place between the various stake holders; in the second considered strengthen the social tissue and valuing cultural traditions to adequately integrate tourism activities; the third proposes an integrated environmental conservation in the whole territory and as an obligation of all stake holders, including to tourists; finally, in the fourth component, recommend the creation of more opportunities and general welfare for the entire local population in order to prevent the growth of tourism segregated. As a general conclusion will projected that the implementation of these guidelines permitted advance, from the practical, in the development of a truly sustainable tourism that help improve the living conditions of local people and conserve valuable natural and cultural resources that exist in this territory.

  9. Report on a regional new energy vision establishment in Yatsuka Township; Yatsukamachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on establishing a new energy vision in Yatsuka Township in Shimane Prefecture. For the survey on available amount of natural energies (sunlight and wind), all-weather insolation required for solar energy power generation was analyzed by using the NEDO information, and wind was analyzed based on observations at Matsue Meteorological Observatory, Sakai-minato Observatory, and Nakaura Water Gate. In discussing the system, power generation amount in the Matsue area was estimated for the case when solar cells of single crystal silicon plus amorphous hybrid type HIP-H48B1 are used. For wind power generation, power generation amount was calculated from observation values derived at the Nakaura water gate when wind mills with diameters from 2 to 10 m are used. Furthermore, calculations were performed on power amount generated uniformly by using a hybrid system using solar energy power generation and wind power generation. As a result of the discussions, a plan was established to introduce the new energies by means of a solar and wind energy hybrid power generation system to the greenhouse 'Green Stellar' symbolizing the Japan's largest peony production, being capable of year-round peony cultivation. The system is planned to be introduced to the town office building and other public organizations sequentially according to annual programs. (NEDO)

  10. An investigation into the disciplinary methods used by teachers in a secondary township school in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numvula J. Serame

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The research that this article reports on investigated the incidence of learner discipline problems, the effect of them on teachers, the teachers’ methods of maintaining discipline and the effectiveness of those methods in one township, namely Jouberton in Klerksdorp, South Africa. The experiences of both teachers and learners were surveyed. It was found that discipline at the school is far from satisfactory and problems with discipline are more serious than the international norm indicates. These problems have a serious effect on a large part of the teachers’ family life, personal health, job satisfaction and morale. Whilst both teachers and learners commendably prefer the educationally sound preventive and positive methods of maintaining discipline, the application of these methods appears not to be effective: it seems as if teacher education falls short in the area of maintaining discipline, particularly regarding the successful application of proactive methods of maintaining discipline. Finally, the learners’ views on the maintenance of discipline are an alarming indictment of the principles of democracy, human rights and human dignity, and of rationality as a tool for conflict resolution. Recommendations are made for follow-up research with the objective of amelioration.

  11. Job satisfaction and its modeling among township health center employees: a quantitative study in poor rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun A; Wang, Qi; Lu, Zu X

    2010-05-10

    Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs), as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions. A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5%) among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers) of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007. The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied) to 100 (extremely satisfied) by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2), job competency (87.9) and teamwork (87.7), as compared with work reward (72.9) and working conditions (79.7). Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7) was higher than that in Anhui (75.5). Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward.

  12. Preparation of a flood-risk environmental index: case study of eight townships in Changhua County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Szu-Hsien

    2018-02-26

    To evaluate flood-prone areas, correlation analysis of flooding factors for the quantitative evaluation of hazard degree was determined to assist in further disaster prevention management. This study used flood-prone areas in 35 villages over eight townships (Changhua, Huatan, Yuanlin, Xiushui, Puyan, Hemei, Dacun, and Erlin) in Changhua County as research samples. Linear combination was used to evaluate flood-prone environmental indices, and an expert questionnaire was designed by using the analytic hierarchy process and the Delphi method to determine the weights of factors. These factors were then used to calculate the eigenvector of a pairwise comparison matrix to obtain the weights for the risk assessment criteria. Through collection of disaster cases, with particular focus on specifically protected areas where flooding has occurred or is likely to occur, public adaptation and response capabilities were evaluated by using an interview questionnaire that contains the items of perceived disaster risk, resource acquisition capability, adaptation capability, and environment understanding and disaster prevention education. Overlays in a geographic information system were used to analyze the flood-risk degree in villages and to construct a distribution map that contains flood-prone environment indices. The results can assist local governments in understanding the risk degree of various administrative areas to aid them in developing effective mitigation plans.

  13. Job satisfaction and its modeling among township health center employees: a quantitative study in poor rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zu X

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs, as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5% among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007. Results The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied to 100 (extremely satisfied by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2, job competency (87.9 and teamwork (87.7, as compared with work reward (72.9 and working conditions (79.7. Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7 was higher than that in Anhui (75.5. Conclusions Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward.

  14. Microbial, algal, and fungal strategies for manganese oxidation at a Shade Township coal mine, Somerset County, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.I.; Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.

    1999-07-01

    Successful designs to eliminate Mn from mine discharge are necessary for both restoring abandoned mine lands and permitting the mining of high sulfur coal in the eastern United States. A passive in-line system that meets Mn discharge limits was built at the discharge from the former Shade Township coal mine in south central Pennsylvania. Qualitative research on monthly changes in the microbial and algal community that removes Mn is underway. Epilithic attachment of microorganisms was analyzed on artificial (glass microscope slides) and natural substrates (limestone thin sections) that were immersed in surface water for one month periods over 6 months. Organisms attached to both glass and limestone substrates. Limestone became coated with 34--86% more Mn that did glass surfaces. Light microscopy revealed 12 different strategies are being used by bacteria, cyan bacteria, diatoms, green algae, and fungi to oxidize Mn. the dominant method used by the epilithic community to oxidize Mn is coating of holdfasts by the iron bacterium, Liptothrix discophora, and the green alga, Ulothrix sp. Other methods for Mn removal by oxidation include coating of individual cells, filaments/sheaths/hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, and biofilms. The unplanned community at the site is multifaceted and extremely efficient in its Mn removal ability. Community interactions or complexity may play roles in the stability of the ecosystem and the efficiency of its Mn oxidizing ability.

  15. Reading is FUNdamental: The effect of a reading programme on vocabulary development in a high poverty township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheepers, Ruth

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the vocabulary of grade 7 learners in a reading project currently underway at a school in Atteridgeville, a township on the outskirts of Pretoria. A library has been established at the school and teachers throughout the school attend workshops designed to heighten their awareness of the value of reading and the importance of vocabulary, and to provide them with strategies to facilitate the development of reading. This paper focuses on the vocabulary development of grade 7 learners – they are in the senior phase of primary school and will soon be entering high school where they will be faced with more academic vocabulary in context-reduced textbooks. Learners’ vocabulary was tested early in the year and then again towards the end to assess whether increased access to books and reading had had an effect on vocabulary growth. Results revealed that learners at the project school showed a lack of vocabulary, even at the end of the study period, not only in terms of academic words but also high frequency words. Extensive reading alone is clearly not enough – learners need explicit vocabulary instruction: in order to read successfully at high school level, learners need a working knowledge of academic vocabulary, and this knowledge is developed by reading – but learners cannot read successfully without an adequate basic high-frequency vocabulary.

  16. The roles of community health workers in management of non-communicable diseases in an urban township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungiswa P. Tsolekile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly being recognised as a crucial part of the health workforce in South Africa and other parts of the world. CHWs have taken on a variety of roles, including community empowerment, provision of services and linking communities with health facilities. Their roles are better understood in the areas of maternal and child health and infectious diseases (HIV infection, malaria and tuberculosis. Aim: This study seeks to explore the current roles of CHWs working with non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Setting: The study was conducted in an urban township in Cape Town, South Africa. Method: A qualitative naturalistic research design utilising observations and in-depth interviews with CHWs and their supervisors working in Khayelitsha was used. Results: CHWs have multiple roles in the care of NCDs. They act as health educators, advisors, rehabilitation workers and support group facilitators. They further screen for complications of illness and assist community members to navigate the health system. These roles are shaped both by expectations of the health system and in response to community needs. Conclusion: This study indicates the complexities of the roles of CHWs working with NCDs. Understanding the actual roles of CHWs provides insights into not only the competencies required to enable them to fulfil their daily functions, but also the type of training required to fill the present gaps.

  17. English reading and writing performance of Xitsonga-speaking Grade 7 learners in township schools: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyike, Tintswalo V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A clear preference for English as language of teaching and learning (LoLT is evident in most South African schools. However, discrepancies exist between language policy aims and educational outcomes with regard to the successful acquisition of English among English second language (ESL learners. Effective participation in all learning activities is closely linked to learners’ proficiency in the LoLT; poor English proficiency leads to underachievement across the curriculum. In the light of this, a case study as conducted to investigate the English reading and writing performance of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners in three selected township schools in the Tshwane metropolitan area, Gauteng Province. Firstly, a literature review was undertaken to explore the importance of reading and writing skills in the classroom with particular reference to the demands made on ESL learners. Following this, standardised tests were used to assess the learners’ English reading and writing performance. Findings indicated that learners performed poorly in both reading and writing; however, no significant relationship could be demonstrated between reading and writing, possibly due to the nature of the components of the test. The overall lack of reading and writing competence in English holds implications for learners’ academic achievement in all learning areas in situations in which English is used as the LoLT.

  18. TOO SICK TO START: ENTREPRENEUR’S HEALTH AND BUSINESS ENTRY IN TOWNSHIPS AROUND DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAO, LI-WEI; SZREK, HELENA; PEREIRA, NUNO SOUSA; PAULY, MARK V.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike large firms with management teams, small businesses are usually run by one key person, the owner-entrepreneur, who bears almost all of the risks and makes almost all of the decisions related to the business. Because the owner-entrepreneur also embodies most of the firm-specific knowledge capital, health of the owner-entrepreneur is an important factor in the production process. Following a cohort of respondents in townships around Durban, South Africa, over a three-year period, we examined the relationship between an individual’s physical health and the decision to start a business. Our results suggest that respondents who were recent business entrants were in better health than respondents who did not start new businesses. Moreover, respondents without a business at the beginning of the study who later opened businesses during the three-year study interval were significantly more likely to have better baseline health than those respondents who never started a new business. Hence, good health among entrepreneurs seems to be an important prerequisite to small business entry. PMID:21603114

  19. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = −0.372, p job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies. PMID:28846644

  20. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selekane A. Motadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting: The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim: The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods: The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0% of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0% of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%] of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion: Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  1. Perceived stigma among attendees of psychiatric and nonpsychiatric outpatients department in an industrial township: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Context: Stigma associated with psychiatric disorders and few somatic disorders such as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, tuberculosis and leprosy, adversely effects treatment seeking behavior, leads to concealment, and poor compliance with treatment. In busy outpatient departments (OPDs, the issue of stigma is likely to be overlooked. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study collecting data on an 8-item stigma scale from patients attending psychiatry and other OPDs of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in an industrial township. Information was collected by face to face interview from 400 patients attending psychiatry OPD and 401 patients attending other OPDs. Validations of the scale were done by face, content, and construct validity. Reliability was appraised by Cronbach′s alpha and Guttmann split-half coefficients. Significant differences in answers to the 8-item questionnaire were explored by Chi-square test for individual responses and Kruskal-Wallis test for difference in total stigma score. Results: Patients attending psychiatry OPD consistently gave responses indicating a greater degree of perceived stigma than those attending OPD for somatic disorders. This difference was almost 3-4 times more on most of the items (P < 0.001. Among somatic disorders, stigma was highest (even higher than psychiatric disorders among STDs, tuberculosis and leprosy patients among these and psychiatric disorders the score was almost 3 times more compared to other somatic disorders (P < 0.001. The scale demonstrated good face, content, and construct validity. Reliability was also very high with Cronbach′s alpha coefficient and Guttmann split-half reliability coefficient 0.932 and 0.901 indicating very good internal consistency of the 8-item scale. Conclusion: Stigma was higher among STD patients, tuberculosis, leprosy, and psychiatry patients as compared to patients suffering from somatic disorders. Assessment of

  2. Mapping the Distribution and Flora of the Weeds in Canola Fields of Gorgan Township by Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sahar jannati ataie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil seeds are the second world’s food supply after cereals. These crops are grown primarily for the oil contained in the seeds. The major world sources of edible seed oils are soybeans, sunflowers, canola, cotton and peanuts. Canola is one of the most important plants in the world that has great importance. The plant belongs to the Brassica genus, the botanical family that includes cauliflower and cabbages. Weeds are one of the major problems in canola production that reduce yield and its quality. In general, one of the most important factors in development of management plans is information about the weed’s flora and geographic distribution. Knowledge of weed flora enables one to use the required herbicide and formulate other suitable management strategies. It is also useful in exploiting abundant weeds as a cover crop or pasture and for other economic uses. The geographic information system has the proper use in weed science and management of agricultural information and their analysis. In this study, distribution and flora of the weeds in canola fields of Gorgan Township investigated by Geographic Information System. Material and Methods: Crop sampling was conducted during May and June 2014, in 58 canola fields in Gorgan Township (Golestan province and the weed species were sampled and detected using a W method and by specific formula of density, frequency, uniformity, and abundance of each weed species was calculated. Also, geographic coordinates of fields (latitude, altitude and elevation were determined by using GPS model Garmin map 60. After collecting data, in order to create a database of weed distribution, the data was transferred from GPS to ArcGIS 9/3.1 software. From all information obtained, consistently a database with location was created and after separation of data based on present or absence of weeds on fields, distribution maps were produced. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there are 35 weed

  3. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections and associated risk factors among drug users in southwestern China: a township-level ecological study incorporating spatial regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Biao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are major public health problems. Many studies have been performed to investigate the association between demographic and behavioral factors and HIV or HCV infection. However, some of the results of these studies have been in conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data of all entrants in the 11 national methadone clinics in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected from the national database. Several spatial regression models were used to analyze specific community characteristics associated with the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection at the township level. The study enrolled 6,417 adult patients. The prevalence of HIV infection, HCV infection and co-infection was 25.4%, 30.9%, and 11.0%, respectively. Prevalence exhibited stark geographical variations in the area studied. The four regression models showed Yi ethnicity to be associated with both the prevalence of HIV and of HIV/HCV co-infection. The male drug users in some northwestern counties had greater odds of being infected with HIV than female drug users, but the opposite was observed in some eastern counties. The 'being in drug rehabilitation variable was found to be positively associated with prevalence of HCV infection in some southern townships, however, it was found to be negatively associated with it in some northern townships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The spatial modeling creates better representations of data such that public health interventions must focus on areas with high frequency of HIV/HCV to prevent further transmission of both HIV and HCV.

  4. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-08-28

    Background : Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods : A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results : In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = -0.372, p stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions : Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies.

  5. Use of DNA Markers for Investigating Sources of Bacteria in Contaminated Ground Water: Wooster Township, Wayne County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, a public-health nuisance was declared by the Wayne County Board of Health in the Scenic Heights Drive-Batdorf Road area of Wooster Township, Wayne County, Ohio, because of concerns about the safety of water from local wells. Repeated sampling had detected the presence of fecal-indicator bacteria and elevated nitrate concentrations. In June 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA), collected and analyzed samples from some of the affected wells to help investigate the possibility of human-origin bacterial contamination. Water samples from 12 wells and 5 home sewage-treatment systems (HSTS) were collected. Bromide concentrations were determined in samples from the 12 wells. Samples from 5 of the 12 wells were analyzed for wastewater compounds. Total coliform, enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria concentrations were determined for samples from 8 of the 12 wells. In addition, two microbial source-tracking tools that employ DNA markers were used on samples from several wells and a composite sample of water from five septic tanks. The DNA markers from the Enterococcus faecium species and the order Bacteroidales are associated with specific sources, either human or ruminant sources. Bromide concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.18 milligrams per liter (mg/L). No wastewater compounds were detected at concentrations above the reporting limits. Samples from the 12 wells also were collected by Ohio EPA and analyzed for chloride and nitrate. Chloride concentrations ranged from 12.6 to 61.6 mg/L and nitrate concentrations ranged from 2.34 to 11.9 mg/L (as N). Total coliforms and enterococci were detected in samples from 8 wells, at concentrations from 2 to 200 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL) and 0.5 to 17 CFU/100 mL, respectively. E. coli were detected in samples from three of the eight wells, at concentrations of 1 or 2 CFU/100 mL. Tests for the human

  6. Impact of suburban residential development on water resources in the area of Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusillo, Thomas V.

    1981-01-01

    Surface-water and ground-water quality, streamflow, and data on ground-water levels in the upper Great Egg Harbor River basin in the vicinity of the Winslow Crossing residential development in Winslow Township are evaluated. The data include continuous streamflow at four sites, monthly stream water quality at seven sites, ground-water levels and periodic ground-water quality in four wells from 1972 through 1978. Pumpage from the Cohansey Sand in the study area was lower than anticipated because of a slowdown in construction. The average pumpage of 0.48 million gallons per day during 1978 had little effect on ground-water levels. Dissolved-solids concentrations were lower in a well upgradient from the urbanized area. Elevated levels of dissolved solids, specific conductance, chloride, nitrate, and phosphorus were found in the shallow ground water in the vicinity of the Winslow wastewater treatment plant because of effluent infiltration ponds. Nitrate was greatly reduced in October 1974 by a change in the treatment process, which increased denitrification. Phosphorus concentrations in the ground water remained elevated, however. Water from the most urbanized drainage basin was a magnesium bicarbonate type, while the less developed basins had sodium chloride sulfate type waters. Water from the two developed basins had higher median pH (7.1) compared with that of the other basins (5.6-6.3). Winslow Crossing?s development had only a slight effect on the quality of water in Great Egg Harbor River. The river receives point and non-point discharges upstream from Winslow Crossing, and the quality of the water generally improves as the river flows downstream. Streamflow and rainfall were slightly above normal. Unit hydrograph analysis of one basin showed an 80 percent increase in the peak discharge of a 60-minute unit hydrograph (from approximately 150 to 270 cubic feet per second) after the development of 14 percent of the basin. Installation of a stormwater detention basin

  7. Report for fiscal 1998 on a new energy vision establishment in Yonaguni Township; 1998 nendo Yonagunimachi shin energy vision sakutei hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Discussions were given and establishment was made on the new energy vision at Yonaguni Township in Okinawa Prefecture. The overall image of the new energy introduction vision at Yonaguni Township may be depicted by the wind power generation project to be implemented by the Development Public Corporation, by which megawatt-class wind power generation facilities will be built for effective utilization of the power by the whole island. Surplus electric power generated in a great amount in a certain season will be utilized for high value addition by electrifying agricultural works, expansion in production, (water pumping-up for irrigation, prawn cultivation, and sugar making factories), and melting and volume reducing of refuses. In addition, new type batteries for power storage with large capacity will be introduced to achieve stable power supply and introduce electric vehicles for official use and tourism business. Solar cells and small wind mills subject to stand-alone utilization will be arranged along sightseeing roads in the island, on tourism facilities and sightseeing infrastructural facilities. Careful considerations will be given on introduction and arrangement of the new energies for harmony with scenery of the island. Transmission wires related to the new energy utilization will be laid underground. (NEDO)

  8. Exploring the relationships among food insecurity, alcohol use, and sexual risk taking among men and women living in South African townships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria N; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C

    2014-08-01

    South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol's role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n = 1,137) and women (n = 458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women's alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates.

  9. Organizational barriers associated with the implementation of national essential medicines policy: A cross-sectional study of township hospitals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianping; Liu, Chaojie; Ferrier, J Adamm; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    This study identifies potential organizational barriers associated with the implementation of the Chinese National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) in rural primary health care institutions. We used a multistage sampling strategy to select 90 township hospitals from six provinces, two from each of eastern, middle, and western China. Data relating to eight core NEMP indicators and institutional characteristics were collected from January to September 2011, using a questionnaire. Prescription-associated indicators were calculated from 9000 outpatient prescriptions selected at random. We categorized the eight NEMP indicators using an exploratory factor analysis, and performed linear regressions to determine the association between the factor scores and institution-level characteristics. The results identified three main factors. Overall, low levels of expenditure of medicines (F1) and poor performance in rational use of medicines (F2) were evident. The availability of medicines (F3) varied significantly across both hospitals and regions. Factor scores had no significant relationship with hospital size (in terms of number of beds and health workers); however, they were associated with revenue and structure of the hospital, patient service load, and support for health workers. Regression analyses showed that public finance per health worker was negatively associated with the availability of medicines (p finance from local governments may reduce medicine stock lines of township hospitals and lead them to seek alternative sources of income, jeopardizing their capacity to meet the needs of local consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ‘They think that gays have money’: Gender identity and transactional sex among black men who have sex with men in four South African townships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Reddy, Vasu; Collier, Kate L.; Lane, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Transactional sex has not been studied much among men who have sex with men in Africa. Consequently, little is understood about attitudes towards the practice, the circumstances that give rise to it, or how transactional sex relationships are managed. We conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black men aged 20–44 from four low-resourced townships in Tshwane, South Africa. Transactional sex was a widely used strategy for initiating and sustaining relationships with regular and casual partners, and was motivated by both the need for subsistence and for consumption. Alcohol-based exchanges, in particular, provided men in the townships with a covert and safe platform to communicate erotic, sexual and romantic attraction to other men and bars and other drinking places were a popular venue for meeting potential sexual partners. The majority of ‘feminine-identifying’ men had engaged in transactional sex as the providers of money and material goods compared to men who identified as either ‘masculine’ or as ‘both masculine and feminine’. Surprisingly, however, this did not necessarily give them greater control in these relationships. Our study provides an initial foray into a complex socio-sexual phenomenon and suggests that gender identity is an important construct for understanding transactional sex relationships among men in Africa. PMID:25714033

  11. The Christian church’s role in the escalating mob justice system in our black townships – An African pastoral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Baloyi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the crimes in the South African black townships, mob justice has become a growing concern. Some questions that need to be asked are: Is our police force doing enough to protect the ordinary citizens of this country? If the situation continues, will all suspects be killed in the same manner or will there be a solution to change the situation? What is the impact of mob justice on the families of the victims and the witnesses of the brutal acts? How long are we going to live as a traumatised nation as a result of these violent acts? Is there any hope that our nation will ever have the peace it deserves in the context of democracy? This article intends to investigate the impact of the mob justice system and find out what the role of the Christian church should be in the midst of this escalating violence. This study aims to unveil the negative impact of mob justice on the lives of many township South Africans and giving pastoral-biblical suggestions of the church’s role in the elimination of this kind of brutality.

  12. Girls want money, boys want virgins: the materiality of love amongst South African township youth in the context of HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; Pattman, Rob

    2011-09-01

    How do young South Africans give meaning to love? In this paper we draw on findings from an interview study to examine the ways in which young Africans, aged 16 to 17 years in a poor township in KwaZulu-Natal province, express ideals of love and romance. Their claims to love we show are strategic advantages as they negotiate poverty and economic marginalisation. Girls' ideals of love are tied to their aspirations towards middle-class consumerism. Love becomes inseparable from the idealisation of men who provide. Upholding provider masculinity is a strategic means to claim money, fashionable clothes and prestige. Unlike girls, the boys' love investments were focused on farm girls from rural areas in South Africa. Farm girls were constructed as virgins with little investment in commodification. Farm girls are a strategic option through which boys' economic marginalisation experienced in the township girls is reconciled through an exalted masculinity. Love is produced by particular sets of economic and social circumstances through which gender inequalities are reproduced, and should be taken more seriously in working with young people to address gendered social environments and HIV risk.

  13. Determinants of and opportunities for continuing education among health care professionals in public health care institutions in Jimma township, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fentahun N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Netsanet Fentahun,1 Ashagre Molla21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Nursing, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: An effectively prepared and continually updated workforce of health professionals is essential to maintenance and improvement in patient care. The major goal of continuing education is to improve and promote quality care. Continuing education is also important to an organization's strategic plan because of its positive influence on the quality of care provided. The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of and opportunities for continuing education among health care professionals at public health facilities in Jimma township.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 319 health care professionals working in the public health facilities of Jimma township was conducted from January 10, 2012 to February 28, 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. First, descriptive analysis was done to describe the characteristics of the study participants. Finally logistic regression was then used to determine the independent predictors of continuing education.Results: Only 70 (25% of the study participants were participating in continuing education. As working experience increased, participation in continuing education did not steadily increase. The working hours per week were higher for diploma holders than for those with any other qualification. One hundred and fifty-three (71.8% participants mentioned lack of support from their current employer as the reason for not participating in continuing education. Health care professionals with a lack of support from management were 2.4 times more likely not to participate in advanced education. Health care professionals with lack of funding were 0.3 times less likely to participate in advanced education. Health care professionals with lack of resources other than financial were 2.2 times more likely not to participate in

  14. DCS Survey Submission for Harrison County, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. Public health assessment for crossley farm/Hereford groundwater, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD981740061. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes an illegal waste disposal site in east central Pennsylvania and its effect on groundwater in the area surrounding the site. The Crossley Farm (Hereford Groundwater) site is in the Huffs Church community of Hereford Township, Berks County. Illegal waste disposal activities reportedly occurred at the site from the mid-1960's to mid-1970's. About 250 residents live hydrogeological downgradient of the site (within two miles) and another 200 live within one-half mile upgradient of the site. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources has collected groundwater samples in 1983 and the EPA has collected samples in 1986. The estimated exposures are to substances (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in particular) in groundwater at concentrations that with long-term exposure can cause adverse health effects to the population

  16. PLSS Townships and Sections, This layer is kept up-to-date with the addition of new survey data, as the data comes in. We have all known data incorporated, but there still remains about 40% of the County that needs more work., Published in 2013, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 2013. This layer is kept up-to-date with the addition of new survey data, as the data comes in. We have all known...

  17. Perceived and actual cost of healthier foods versus their less healthy alternatives: a case study in a predominantly black urban township in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzigaba, M; Puoane, T

    2011-12-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the role played by the food retail characteristics in determining individuals' healthy food purchasing and consumption behaviors. The perceived costs of healthier food alternatives have been shown to contribute negatively to individual's food choices in developed societies. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in low to middle income countries particularly in Africa. This study explored health club member's experiences in buying healthier food options and compared their perceived cost of selected healthier and less healthy foods with actual market costs in a South African township. A cross-sectional study design using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The study was conducted in Khayelitsha, a township in the Western Cape Province in South Africa. Participants were 50 members of a health club, mostly female and above 50 years of age. The study was conducted in three phases. The first phase involved interviews with all 50 health club members. During the second phase ten purposively selected members participated in in-depth interviews based on their unhealthy food-purchasing and consumption patterns identified in the first phase. The third phase involved food price audits from supermarkets as well as convenient stores located in the study setting. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, while content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Most of the members were illiterate and unemployed, largely dependent on government grants. Qualitative findings showed that low household incomes, their inability to read and interpret nutritional information and personal food preferences contributed to Health club members' unhealthy food-purchasing behaviour. When objectively measured in local stores, the healthier food options proved to be more expensive than their less healthy equivalents. This was consistent with subjects' perceptions about the relative cost

  18. Local knowledge of the link between tuberculosis and HIV-1/AIDS among the Turkana of Lodwar township: implications for tuberculosis and HIV-1/AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, John Arianda

    2008-01-01

    This article is extracted from a doctoral thesis that was supported by a research grant from the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC)'s Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health Training Award, the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Northern Ireland's Emslie Horniman Scholarship Fund and McGill University, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research's Humanities and Social Sciences Research Award. This study used a broad theoretical framework encompassing an ecosystem approach to HIV-1/AIDS that partly investigated the nexus between local knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-1/AIDS. According to the Turkana of Lodwar township, Kenya, HIV-1/AIDS and TB are largely contagious and are attributed to impersonal and natural causes. In addition, in line with biomedical knowledge, the Turkana's local knowledge emphasises a conceptual link between TB and HIV-1/AIDS. The study also demonstrates that factors of the ecosystem such as kaada, poverty, widow inheritance, migration and other socio-cultural practices play an influential role in the vulnerability of the Turkana to the contraction and transmission of both TB and HIV-1/AIDS. The article posits an integrated approach to the prevention of TB and HIV-1 and to the management of AIDS and TB.

  19. Risk Factors of Pesticide Poisoning and Pesticide Users’ Cholinesterase Levels in Cotton Production Areas: Glazoué and Savè Townships, in Central Republic of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikkey, Hinson Antoine; Fidel, Dossou; Pazou Elisabeth, Yehouenou; Hilaire, Hountikpo; Hervé, Lawin; Badirou, Aguèmon; Alain, Koudafoke; Parfait, Houngbégnon; Fabien, Gounongbé; Benjamin, Fayomi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc.) with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Results: Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure (P = .002) for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance. PMID:28469452

  20. Risk Factors of Pesticide Poisoning and Pesticide Users' Cholinesterase Levels in Cotton Production Areas: Glazoué and Savè Townships, in Central Republic of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikkey, Hinson Antoine; Fidel, Dossou; Elisabeth, Yehouenou Pazou; Hilaire, Hountikpo; Hervé, Lawin; Badirou, Aguèmon; Alain, Koudafoke; Parfait, Houngbégnon; Fabien, Gounongbé; Benjamin, Fayomi

    2017-01-01

    To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc.) with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure ( P = .002) for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance.

  1. Formerly utilized MED/AEC Sites Remedial Action Program. Radiological survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad Landfill Site, Burrell Township, Pennsylvnia. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    A radiological survey was conducted at the Pennsylvania Railroad Landfill Site in Burrell Township, Pennsylvania. In 1956 and 1957, approximately 11,600 tons of radioactive material was dumped at this site and was apparently scattered over an area of loss than 10 acres. The survey included measurement of the following: external gamma radiation at 1 m above the surface and at the surface throughout the site; beta--gamma dose rates at 1 cm from the surface throughout the site; concentrations of 226 Ra and 238 U in surface and subsurface soil on the site; concentrations of 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, and 238 U in subsurface water on the site and in surface water on and near the site; and the extent of atmospheric transport of 222 Rn and progeny from the site. The general location of the residues transported to the site, except possibly small, scattered quantities of materials, was determined from the survey. In some areas on the site, beta--gamma dose rates of 1 cm from the surface were above pertinent guidelines.Analyses of sediment from water samples taken from drainage areas near the site indicate that some radioactive material is being carried from the site by surface run-off. Results of this survey indicate that there is no significant atmospheric transport of 222 Rn from the site

  2. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Cassadaga Creek Tributary Crossing, Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. Topical report, August 1992--November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 3-4, 1992, at the Cassadaga wetlands crossing in Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. The pipeline at this site was installed during February and March 1981. After completion of pipeline installation, the ROW was fertilized, mulched, and seeded with annual ryegrass. Two adjacent sites were surveyed in this study: a forested wetland and an emergent wetlands Eleven years after pipeline installation, the ROW at both sites supported diverse vegetative communities. Although devoid of large woody species, the ROW within the forested wetland had a dense vegetative cover. The ROW within the emergent wetland had a slightly less dense and more diverse vegetative community compared with that in the adjacent natural areas (NAs). The ROW within the emergent wetland also had a large number of introduced species that were not present in the adjacent NAs. The ROW, with its emergent marsh plant community, provided habitat diversity within the forested wetlands Because the ROW contained species not found within the adjacent NAs, overall species diversity was increased.

  3. A Household Level Analysis of Water Sanitation Associated with Gastrointestinal Disease in an Urban Slum Setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Ni Hlaing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the prevalence of water sanitation at the household level against gastrointestinal disease occurrence in the urban slum setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar, using cross-sectional study design techniques. A total of 364 household respondents were interviewed face to face by well-trained research assistants using structured questionnaires. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between independent and dependent variables. Results showed that the source of household water (OR: 13.58, 95% CI: 6.90-26.74, and the types of drinking water (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 0.92-3.71, were significantly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value<0.05. After adjustment for confounding factors, this study found that occupation (AOR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.25-5.54, employment status (AOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-5.01, type of household toilet (AOR: 8.66, 95% CI: 4.03-18.60, sources of household water (AOR: 6.56, 95% CI: 2.86-15.08, and the method of vector control (AOR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.37-7.30 were all significantly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value<0.05. Health education and appropriate technology for household water, sanitary latrines, environmental sanitation and waste disposal, and the implementation of policies focusing on systematic water management are therefore urgently required to control the spread of waterborne diseases.

  4. Risk Factors of Pesticide Poisoning and Pesticide Users’ Cholinesterase Levels in Cotton Production Areas: Glazoué and Savè Townships, in Central Republic of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinson Antoine Vikkey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc. with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Results: Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure ( P = .002 for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance.

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Woodland Township Route 72 site, Burlington County, New Jersey (first remedial action), May 16, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The 12-acre Woodland Route 72 Dump site is an abandoned hazardous waste dump in Woodland Township, Burlington County, New Jersey. The site is being remediated concurrently with another abandoned dump. Several chemical manufacturing firms dumped chemicals and other wastes into trenches and lagoons or burned the waste at the sites from the early 1950s to 1962. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the surface soil, sediment, sludge, debris, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, TCE and xylenes; organics including PAHs, pesticides, and phenols; radionuclides (e.g., uranium and thorium series); and metals including lead and chromium. The selected remedial action for the site includes excavation, further characterization, and offsite disposal at a permitted facility of 54,000 cubic yards (total from both sites) of contaminated surface soil, sludges, debris and sediment; offsite disposal of 19 cubic yards (total from both sites) of radiologically contaminated surface materials including a drum of radioactive pellets; ground water pumping and treatment with treatment to be determined during design. The total estimated present worth cost for the concurrent remedial actions at the Route 72 and Route 532 sites is $142,200,000

  6. Harrison Ford : opjat skripit potertoje sedlo... / Harrison Ford ; interv. Barbara Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ford, Harrison

    2008-01-01

    Näitleja järjekordse (arvult neljanda, 19-aastase vaheaja järel!) Indiana Jones'i filmi "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") väljatuleku eel. Väljaandest Famous

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms mediate the relationship between traumatic experiences and drinking behavior among women attending alcohol-serving venues in a South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Ranby, Krista W; Meade, Christina S; Sikkema, Kathleen J; MacFarlane, Jessica C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C

    2012-07-01

    South Africa has high rates of traumatic experiences and alcohol abuse or dependence, especially among women. Traumatic experiences often result in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD has been associated with hazardous drinking. This article examines the relationship between traumatic events and hazardous drinking among women who patronized alcohol-serving venues in South Africa and examines PTSD as a mediator of this relationship. A total of 560 women were recruited from a Cape Town township. They completed a computerized assessment that included alcohol consumption, history of traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. Mediation analysis examined whether PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between the number of traumatic event categories experienced (range: 0-7) and drinking behavior. The mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score in the sample was 12.15 (range: 0-34, SD = 7.3), with 70.9% reaching criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT > 8). The mean PTSD score was 36.32 (range: 17-85, SD = 16.3),with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version ≥ 50). Endorsement of traumatic experiences was high, including adult emotional (51.8%), physical (49.6%), and sexual (26.3%) abuse; childhood physical (35.0%) and sexual (25.9%) abuse; and other types of trauma (83%). All categories of traumatic experiences, except the "other" category, were associated with hazardous drinking. PTSD symptoms mediated 46% of the relationship between the number of traumatic categories experienced and drinking behavior. Women reported high rates of hazardous drinking and high levels of PTSD symptoms, and most had some history of traumatic events. There was a strong relationship between traumatic exposure and drinking levels, which was largely mediated by PTSD symptoms. Substance use interventions should address histories of trauma in this population, where alcohol may be

  8. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had community belonging, and resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Pcommunity belonging and social participation varied as a function of resilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Pcommunity belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Management of groundwater in farmed pond area using risk-based regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun-Ying; Liao, Chiao-Miao; Lin, Kao-Hung; Lee, Cheng-Haw

    2014-09-01

    Blackfoot disease (BFD) had occurred seriously in the Yichu, Hsuehchia, Putai, and Peimen townships of Chia-Nan District of Taiwan in the early days. These four townships are the districts of fishpond cultivation domestically in Taiwan. Groundwater becomes the main water supply because of short income in surface water. The problems of over pumping in groundwater may not only result in land subsidence and seawater intrusion but also be harmful to the health of human giving rise to the bioaccumulation via food chain in groundwater with arsenic (As). This research uses sequential indicator simulation (SIS) to characterize the spatial arsenic distribution in groundwater in the four townships. Risk assessment is applied to explore the dilution ratio (DR) of groundwater utilization, which is defined as the ratio showing the volume of groundwater utilization compared to pond water, for fish farming in the range of target cancer risk (TR) especially on the magnitude of 10(-4)~10(-6). Our study results reveal that the 50th percentile of groundwater DRs served as a regulation standard can be used to perform fish farm groundwater management for a TR of 10(-6). For a TR of 5 × 10(-6), we suggest using the 75th percentile of DR for groundwater management. For a TR of 10(-5), we suggest using the 95th percentile of the DR standard for performing groundwater management in fish farm areas. For the TR of exceeding 5 × 10(-5), we do not suggest establishing groundwater management standards under these risk standards. Based on the research results, we suggest that establishing a TR at 10(-5) and using the 95th percentile of DR are best for groundwater management in fish farm areas.

  10. Regulating the Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Les Township tours au KwaZulu-Natal (Afrique du Sud : d’une réappropriation historique et identitaire à l’avènement d’un socio-tourisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Folio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Des processus de réappropriation identitaire et historique, à finalité économique, sont à l’œuvre à l’heure actuelle en Afrique du Sud. Un type de tourisme au caractère authentique et interactif connaît notamment un certain engouement : les Township tours. Il assume un épisode médiatisé de l’histoire du pays, soit l’apartheid urbain, en tentant d’inverser l’image répulsive qui lui est associée. L’attirance pour les townships se nourrit d’un désir de compréhension de la ségrégation raciale institutionnalisée et de la mise à bas d’une politique inique. Paradoxalement, la réputation de dangerosité, de pauvreté et « d’informalité » accolée à ces quartiers noirs semble aussi agir comme un produit d’appel. A travers l’exemple de la province du KwaZulu-Natal, il sera vu que cette activité socio-touristique s’oriente à présent vers un multiculturalisme prudent, porté par des icônes (internationales, avec en toile de fond les velléités de développement local.Processes of identity and historical appropriation, rooted in economic purpose, are today arising in South Africa. A tourism activity, based on authenticity and interaction, becomes particularly popular: the Township tours. It assumes an episode of the country history, i.e. urban segregation, which was given a lot of media coverage. In the meantime, it tries to invert the repulsive image that is commonly associated with apartheid. The attraction for township areas has to be linked to the wish of understanding the institutionalized racial discrimination in South Africa, as well as its pacific end. Paradoxically, the reputation of dangerousness, poverty and informality of those former black urban areas seems to act as a loss leader. Through the example of the province of KwaZulu-Natal, it will be seen that this new socio-tourist activity is now playing a multiculturalism card carried by popular icons, with the local development target in

  12. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  13. Relationship power, communication, and violence among couples: results of a cluster-randomized HIV prevention study in a South African township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnis AM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra M Minnis,1,2 Irene A Doherty,1,3 Tracy L Kline,1 William A Zule,1 Bronwyn Myers,4,5 Tara Carney,4 Wendee M Wechsberg1,3,6,7 1RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, 5Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 6North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 7Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Background: Inequitable gender-based power in relationships and intimate partner violence contribute to persistently high rates of HIV infection among South African women. We examined the effects of two group-based HIV prevention interventions that engaged men and their female partners together in a couples intervention (Couples Health CoOp [CHC] and a gender-separate intervention (Men’s Health CoOp/Women’s Health CoOp [MHC/WHC] on women’s reports of power, communication, and conflict in relationships. Methods: The cluster-randomized field experiment included heterosexual couples from a high-density South African township in which neighborhoods were randomized to one of the intervention arms or a control arm that received the WHC only. Participants completed in-person study visits at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We examined group differences using one-way analysis of variance and multivariable regression models.Results: Of the 290 couples enrolled, 255 women remained in the same partnership over 6 months. Following the intervention, women in the CHC arm compared with those in the WHC arm were more likely to report an increase in relationship control (ß=0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 1.83, P=0.045 and gender norms supporting female autonomy in relationships (ß=0.99, 95% CI: 0.07, 1.91, P=0.035. Women in the MHC/WHC arm were more likely to report increases

  14. 社会主义新农村建设与乡镇政府职能转变%New Socialist Countryside and Townships in the Transformation of Government Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连儒来

    2011-01-01

    Fifth plenary session of the proposed the construction socialism new countryside important strategic decision. The township government as the most grassroots power organizations and its role play and socialistic new countryside construction to achieve the goal of joys and sorrows is relevant, relates directly to the rural stability and development. As the reform of rural taxes, rural China has entered the era of tax, the traditional villages and towns after the function of the government has not adapt to the needs of the development of the situation. 2008 former township organization reform and not radically solve this problem, we must conform to the new rural construction of the new situation and new tasks reorientation its functions, change the government function, form honesty and high efficiency, transparency, behavior standards, the agency streamlined a service -oriented township governments.%党的十六届五中全会提出了建设社会主义新农村的重大战略决策。乡镇政府作为最基层政权组织,其职能作用的发挥与社会主义新农村建设目标的实现休戚相关,直接关系到农村的稳定和发展。随着农村税费改革,中国农村已进入后农业税时代,传统乡镇政府的职能已经不适应形势发展的需要。2008年以前的乡镇机构改革并没有从根本上解决这个问题,我们必须顺应新农村建设的新形势、新任务,对其职能进行重新定位,转变乡镇政府职能,建立廉洁高效、公开透明、行为规范、机构精简的服务型的乡镇政府。

  15. Changes in Groundwater Flow and Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations at the Fischer and Porter Superfund Site, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    The 38-acre Fischer and Porter Company Superfund Site is in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa. Historically, as part of the manufacturing process, trichloroethylene (TCE) degreasers were used for parts cleaning. In 1979, the Bucks County Health Department detected TCE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water from the Fischer and Porter on-site supply wells and nearby public-supply wells. The Fischer and Porter Site was designated as a Superfund Site and placed on the National Priorities List in September 1983. A 1984 Record of Decision for the site required the Fischer and Porter Company to pump and treat groundwater contaminated by VOCs from three on-site wells at a combined rate of 75 gallons per minute to contain groundwater contamination on the property. Additionally, the Record of Decision recognized the need for treatment of the water from two nearby privately owned supply wells operated by the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association. In 2004, the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association sold its water distribution system, and both wells were taken out of service. The report describes changes in groundwater levels and contaminant concentrations and migration caused by the shutdown of the Warminster Heights supply wells and presents a delineation of the off-site groundwater-contamination plume. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted this study (2006-09) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The Fischer and Porter Site and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Stockton Formation of Late Triassic age. The rocks are chiefly interbedded arkosic sandstone and siltstone. The Stockton aquifer system is comprised of a series of gently dipping lithologic units with different hydraulic properties. A three-dimensional lithostratigraphic model was developed for the site on the basis of rock cores and borehole geophysical logs. The model was simplified by combining individual lithologic

  16. Radiation regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braithwaite, J.; Grabosky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Alfalfa Production and Prediction of Emissions using Multi-Layer Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in Bukan Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Ghaderpour

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural productions has been identified as a major contributor to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG on a global scale with about 14% of global net CO2 emissions coming from agriculture. Identification and assessment of environmental impact in the production system will be leading to achieve the goals of sustainable development, which would be achieved by life cycle assessment. To find the relationship between inputs and outputs of a production process, artificial intelligence (AI has drawn more attention rather than mathematical models to find the relationships between input and output variables by training, and produce results without any prior assumptions. The aims of this study were to life cycle assessment (LCA of Alfalfa production flow and prediction of GWP (global warming potential per ha produced alfalfa (kg CO2 eq.(ha alfalfa-1 with respect to inputs using ANFIS. Materials and Methods The sample size was calculated by using the Cochran method, to be equals 75, then the data were collected from 75 alfalfa farms in Bukan Township in Western Azerbaijan province using face to face questionnaire method. Functional unit and system boundary were determined one hectare of alfalfa and the farm gate, respectively. Inventory data in this study was three parts, included: consumed inputs in the alfalfa production, farm direct emissions from crop production and indirect emissions related to inputs processing stage. Direct Emissions from alfalfa cultivation include emissions to air, water and soil from the field. Data for the production of used inputs and calculation of direct emission were taken from the EcoInvent®3.0 database available in simapro8.2.3.0 software and World Food LCA Database (WFLD. Primary data along with calculated direct emissions were imported into and analyzed with the SimaPro8.2.3.0 software. The impact-evaluation method used was the CML-IA baseline V3.02 / World 2000. Damage assessment is a relatively new step

  18. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  19. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brazil: I. families Annonaceae and Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies in the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" SubProject, for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Thirty nine (39 species distributed into 15 genera were identified for the family Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida. Of these, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries and Xylopia L. stood out on account of their species diversity, the former two were represented by eight and six species

  20. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HARRISON COUNTY, KY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  1. 1 PERSPECTIVES In Memoriam: Richard (Rick) G. Harrison ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-05-06

    May 6, 2016 ... 2016, but the impact of his work will not soon be lost for the people with ... through the creation of unnecessary jargon by stating, “…old ... extremely limited direct observations to infer his love of family, but I am going to risk.

  2. The Lithuanians : a 1930s perspective / E. J. Harrison

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Harrison, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Katkend Suurbritannia asekonsulina 1930ndatel aastatel Leedus töötanud E. J. Harrisoni raamatust "Lithuania : Past and Present". London, 1939. Katkend kirjeldab leedulaste rahvuslikku psüühikat, religioossust, kombeid ja ebausku

  3. 1 PERSPECTIVES In Memoriam: Richard (Rick) G. Harrison ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-05-06

    May 6, 2016 ... 2016, but the impact of his work will not soon be lost for the people with ... benefit for our research program was that Rick's careful synthesis of the literature in this ... in his sphere of influence, and his obvious love for family.

  4. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HARRISON COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  5. Guidelines for sustainable tourism planning in the township of San Francisco de Asis (Acandi Municipality, Choco, Colombia); Lineamientos para la planeacion del turismo sostenible en el corregimiento de San Francisco de Asis (Municipio de Acandi, Choco, Colombia).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldan Carvajal, Carlos Daniel

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents important management guidelines for conducting a tourism planning process in the township of San Francisco de Asis, which were developed from the conceptual notion of sustainable tourism and participation of local people. This case considered the participatory research method, used ethnography techniques and implemented shops with the community. As a main result proposed the consolidation of four components, socio- political, socio- cultural, social- ecological and socio- economic; that must be managed in an integrated fashion to achieve real sustainable tourism in this territory. In the first component outlines an participatory process that must take place between the various stake holders; in the second considered strengthen the social tissue and valuing cultural traditions to adequately integrate tourism activities; the third proposes an integrated environmental conservation in the whole territory and as an obligation of all stake holders, including to tourists; finally, in the fourth component, recommend the creation of more opportunities and general welfare for the entire local population in order to prevent the growth of tourism segregated. As a general conclusion will projected that the implementation of these guidelines permitted advance, from the practical, in the development of a truly sustainable tourism that help improve the living conditions of local people and conserve valuable natural and cultural resources that exist in this territory.

  6. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  7. Fisheries regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Frost, Hans Staby; Abildtrup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Economists normally claim that a stock externality arises within fisheries because each individual fisherman does not take the effect on stock size into account when making harvest decisions. Due to the stock externality, it is commonly argued that fisheries regulation is necessary, but regulatory...... decisions are complicated by a tremendous amount of uncertainty and asymmetric information. This paper provides an overview of selected parts of the literature on the regulation of fisheries under uncertainty and asymmetric information, and possible areas for future research are identified. Specifically...

  8. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  9. Regulating Internalities

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Allcott, Hunt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for regulating internalities. Using a simple economic model, we provide four principles for designing and evaluating behaviorally-motivated policy. We then outline rules for determining which contexts reliably reflect true preferences and discuss empirical strategies for measuring internalities. As a case study, we focus on energy efficiency policy, including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and appliance and lighting energy efficiency standards.

  10. Effects of natural phenomena on the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Plutonium Fabrication Plant at the Parks Township site, Leechburg, Pennsylvania. Docket No. 70-364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The proposed action is to issue a renewal to the full-term Special Nuclear Material License No. SNM-414 (Docket No. 70-364) authorizing the Nuclear Material Division of the Babcock and Wilcox Company (BandW) to operate nuclear-fuel-fabrication facilities located in Leechburg, Pennsylvania. The plutonium fuel facility is presently being used to fabricate fuel for the fast test reactor under construction at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. Implicit in Sections 70.22 and 70.23 of 10CFR70 is a requirement that existing plutonium fabrication plants be examined with the objective of improving, to the extent practicable, their abilities to withstand adverse natural phenomena without loss of capability to protect the public. In accordance with these regulations, an analysis was initiated of the effects of natural phenomena on the BandW Plutonium Fabrication Plant. Following completion of the analysis, a condensation was prepared of the effects of natural phenomena on the facility

  11. Co-occurrence of arseniasis and fluorosis due to indoor combustion of high fluorine and arsenic content coal in a rural township in northwest China: epidemiological and toxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo-fang; Shen, Jian-hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai (China); Gong, Shi-you [County Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Ziyang, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Cheng [Township Clinics of Haoping, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Ji-gang [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Golka, Klaus [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A large number of fluorosis and arseniasis cases appeared in a mountainous area in northwest China. The residents relied on local inferior coal (''bone coal'') of high fluorine and arsenic content for domestic heating and cooking. For deep-inside information about this rare case of co-endemia of fluorosis and arseniasis in the population in this special exposure scenario, a field investigation in one of the hyperendemic townships was conducted. The resident population registered (n = 27,713) was enrolled in the investigation. All cases were diagnosed and assigned to three symptom severity groups, that is severe, medium, and mild according to Chinese National Standard Criteria GB 16396-96 and to the technical guideline WS/T208-01 or WS/T211-01 issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Gender difference was analyzed by standardized incidence ratio. Age trend and severity trend were tested by {chi}{sup 2} analysis. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 56.7% of the residents. Over 95% of the diagnosed arseniasis cases were simultaneously diagnosed with fluorosis symptoms. Combined fluorosis-arseniasis represented 11.9% of the total fluorosis cases and 6.7% of the local population. No gender-related differences in the prevalence of skeletal, dental, or dermal symptoms inside all severity groups were detected. Symptom severity increased with age. The high frequency of superposition of arseniasis with fluorosis might be due to the fact that the local resident population has been exposed to very high levels of fluorine and arsenic via the same exposure route. (orig.)

  12. Women's knowledge and perception of male circumcision before and after its roll-out in the South African township of Orange Farm from community-based cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Maraux

    Full Text Available The roll-out of medical male circumcision (MC is progressing in Southern and Eastern Africa. Little is known about the effect of this roll-out on women. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions of women regarding MC in a setting before and after the roll-out. This study was conducted in the South African township of Orange Farm where MC prevalence among men increased from 17% to 53% in the period 2008-2010. Data from three community-based cross sectional surveys conducted in 2007, 2010 and 2012 among 1258, 1197 and 2583 adult women, respectively were studied. In 2012, among 2583 women, 73.7% reported a preference for circumcised partners, and 87.9% knew that circumcised men could become infected with HIV. A total of 95.8% preferred to have their male children circumcised. These three proportions increased significantly during the roll-out. In 2007, the corresponding values were 64.4%, 82.9% and 80.4%, respectively. Among 2581 women having had sexual intercourse with circumcised and uncircumcised men, a majority (55.8%, 1440/2581 agreed that it was easier for a circumcised man to use a condom, 20.5% (530/2581 disagreed; and 23.07 (611/2581 did not know. However, some women incorrectly stated that they were fully (32/2579; 1.2%; 95%CI: 0.9% to 1.7% or partially (233/2579; 9.0%; 95%CI: 8.0% to 10.2% protected when having unprotected sex with a circumcised HIV-positive partner. This study shows that the favorable perception of women and relatively correct knowledge regarding VMMC had increased during the roll-out of VMMC. When possible, women should participate in the promotion of VMMC although further effort should be made to improve their knowledge.

  13. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brasil - II: famílias Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae e Monimiaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil - II: families Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos (1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de obter-se amostras botânicas da área para estudos do Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas", com a finalidade de elaborar-se a Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas nesse período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Myristicaceae Br. R. foram identificadas 23 espécies e duas variedades, distribuídas em quatro gêneros. Destes, Iryanthera Warb. e Virola Aubl. destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo Iryanthera ulei Warb. e Virola calophylla (Spruce Warb. var. calophylla as espécies mais coletadas. A família Monimiaceae Juss. está representada apenas pelo gênero Mollinedia Ruiz & Pavón, pela espécie M. ovata Ruiz & Pavón; já a família Siparunaceae (A. DC. Schodde encontra-se representada pelo gênero Siparuna Aubl. com oito espécies, sendo S. cristata (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. a espécie mais coletada.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies on the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" Subproject for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Twenty three (23 species and two varieties, distributed in four genera were identified for family Myristicaceae Br. R. Of these Iryanthera Warb. and Virola Aubl. stood out on account of their species diversity

  14. Sequential Cross-Sectional Surveys in Orange Farm, a Township of South Africa, Revealed a Constant Low Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Uptake among Adults despite Demand Creation Campaigns and High Acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esaie Marshall

    Full Text Available WHO recommends a male circumcision (MC prevalence rate higher than 80% to have a substantial impact on the HIV-AIDS epidemic in Eastern and Southern Africa. Orange Farm, a township in South Africa, has a free-for-service voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC clinic in operation since 2008. Following an intense campaign from 2008 to 2010, MC prevalence rate increased to 55.4% (ANRS-12126. Ongoing and past VMMC campaigns focused on youths, through school talks, and adults at a community level. The main objective of the study was to assess the change in MC prevalence rate among adults aged 18-19 and 18-49 years in the past 5 years.A cross-sectional survey (ANRS-12285 was conducted among a random sample of 522 adult men in 2015. MC status and characteristics of participants were collected through a genital examination and a face-to-face questionnaire.MC prevalence rate among young adult men aged 18-19 years increased markedly from 61.2% (95%CI: 57.4% to 65.0% in 2010 to 87.5% (76.0% to 94.6% in 2015 (p<0.001. In the same period, among men aged 18-49 years, MC prevalence rate varied slightly from 55.4% (53.6% to 57.1% to 56.7% (52.4% to 60.9%. In 2015, 84.9% (79.2% to 89.5% of uncircumcised adult men reported that they were willing to be circumcised. However, we estimated that only 4.6% (11/237; 2.5% to 7.9% of the uncircumcised men underwent circumcision in 2015, despite 117/185 (63.2%; 95%CI: 56.1% to 69.9% who reported that they were definitely willing to become circumcised.In Orange Farm, VMMC campaigns were successful among the youth and led to a sufficiently high MC prevalence rate to have a substantial impact in the future on the HIV-AIDS epidemic. However, despite high acceptability and a free VMMC service, VMMC campaigns since 2010 have failed to increase MC prevalence rate among adults to above 80%. These campaigns should be revisited.

  15. The neurocysticercosis project in Atteridgeville - Mamelodi townships

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    not enhanced by the administration of contrast medium. (viable cysticerci); (il) hypodense or isodense lesions surrounded by oedema and ring-like or nodular en- hancement after the administration of contrast medium. (acute encephalitic phase ofparenchymal neurocysticer- cosis); and (iiz) diffuse brain swelling associated ...

  16. WALCOTT TOWNSHIP HYDRAULICS, RICHLAND COUNTY, ND, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. Geology of Cardiff and Faraday Townships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, D F

    1960-12-31

    The area described in this report lies at the centre of the Haliburton-Bancroft uranium district in Ontario, where prospecting and mining have been carried out for over 50 years. The report describes the area`s physiography, natural resources, general geology (Precambrian metasedimentary, plutonic, and granitic and syenitic rocks), structural geology, and economic geology. The latter section includes descriptions of occurrences, claims, mines, and mineral properties, including the principal uranium properties in the area.

  18. Hydrostratigraphy, soil/sediment chemistry, and water quality, Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, Puchack Well Field Superfund site and vicinity, Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey, 1997-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; Walker, Richard L.; Jacobsen, Eric; Jankowski, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Drinking-water supplies from the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system at the Puchack well field in Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey, have been contaminated by hexavalent chromium-the most toxic and mobile form-at concentrations exceeding the New Jersey maximum contaminant level of 100 micrograms per liter. Also, scattered but widespread instances of volatile organic compounds (primarily trichloroethylene) at concentrations that exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels in the area's ground water have been reported. Because inorganic and organic contaminants are present in the ground water underlying the Puchack well field, no water from there has been withdrawn for public supply since 1998, when the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) added the area that contains the Puchack well field to the National Priorities List. As part of the USEPA's investigation of the Puchack Well Field Superfund site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study during 1997-2001 to (1) refine previous interpretations of the hydrostratigraphic framework, hydraulic gradients, and local directions of ground-water flow; (2) describe the chemistry of soils and saturated aquifer sediments; and (3) document the quality of ground water in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the area. The four major water-bearing units of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system-the Upper aquifer (mostly unsaturated in the study area), the Middle aquifer, the Intermediate Sand (a local but important unit), and the Lower aquifer-are separated by confining units. The confining units contain areas of cut and fill, resulting in permeable zones that permit water to pass through them. Pumping from the Puchack well field during the past 3 decades resulted in downward hydraulic gradients that moved contaminants into the Lower aquifer, in which the production wells are finished, and caused ground water to flow northeast, locally. A comparison of current (1997

  19. Competition between bank regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.

  20. Regulating through leverage: Civil regulation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürst, K.

    2016-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study is to examine the efforts of Chinese NGOs to prevent and/or control industrial pollution risks and then use the findings of this research to study the nature of civil regulation in, and beyond, China’s authoritarian setting. It first argues that 'regulation through

  1. Atomic Energy Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the consolidated text of the Atomic Energy Control Regulations of 17 March 1960, with amendments to 27 August 1992. The Regulations cover the licensing of nuclear facilities, radiation sources, including uranium mining, radiation protection questions, etc. (NEA)

  2. Environmental regulation and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena

  3. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  4. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Genomics Research Intellectual Property Issues in Genetics Archive Online Bioethics Resources Privacy in Genomics Regulation of ... are not regulated, meaning that they go to market without any independent analysis to verify the claims ...

  5. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  6. Culture and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B

    2015-06-01

    While anthropological research has long emphasized cultural differences in whether emotions are viewed as beneficial versus harmful, psychological science has only recently begun to systematically examine those differences and their implications for emotion regulation and well-being. Underscoring the pervasive role of culture in people's emotions, we summarize research that has examined links between culture, emotion regulation, and well-being. Specifically, we focus on two questions. First, how does culture lead individuals to regulate their emotions? And second, how does culture modulate the link between emotion regulation and well-being? We finish by suggesting directions for future research to advance the study of culture and emotion regulation.

  7. Radiation Control Regulation 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Regulation (No. 434-1993) was made in pursuance of the Radiation Control Act 1990 and replaces the Active Substances Regulations 1959 repealed by the Act. It entered into force on 1 September 1993. The Regulation specifies that the technical radiation protection definitions have the same meaning as in the 1990 recommendations. The Regulation provides for the licensing of persons to use radioactive substances and radiation apparatus. It prescribes activities which may only be carried out by an accredited radiation expert and regulates the use of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances as well as the disposal and transport of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances. (NEA)

  8. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  9. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  10. Voltage regulator for generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K

    1989-01-17

    It is an object of this invention to provide a voltage regulator for a generator charging a battery, wherein even if the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator rises abnormally high, possible thermal breakage of the semiconductor elements constituting the voltage regulator can be avoided. A feature of this invention is that the semiconductor elements can be protected from thermal breakage, even at an abnormal ambient temperature rise at the voltage regulator for the battery charging generator, by controlling a maximum conduction ratio of a power transistor in the voltage regulator in accordance with the temperature at the voltage regulator. This is achieved through a switching device connected in series to the field coil of the generator and adapted to be controlled in accordance with an output voltage of the generator and the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator. 6 figs.

  11. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  12. The development of regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slokan Dusic, D.; Levstek, M.F.; Stritar, A.

    2003-01-01

    In October 2002, The Act on Protection Against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety which regulates all aspects of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety entered into force in Slovenia. The Slovenian government and its responsible ministries shall issue several governmental and ministerial regulations to support the above - mentioned act. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) which acts within the Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planing and Energy takes an active part in drafting the regulations which are defined in the act. Due to a very comprehensive and pretentious task, that is to be completed in a relatively short period of time, taking into consideration the involvement of stakeholders and all competent ministries, the SNSA within the Quality Management System developed a special procedure that insures the systematic approach to the preparation of regulations. The article will briefly represent the process that: defines the preparation, development, harmonisation, review, approval and issue of regulations and uniforms the format of developed regulations. (author)

  13. Regulating hedge funds.

    OpenAIRE

    Daníelsson, J.; Zigrand, JP.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the ever-increasing amounts under management and their unregulated and opaque nature, hedge funds have emerged as a key concern for policymakers. While until now, hedge funds have been left essentially unregulated, we are seeing increasing calls for regulation for both microprudential and macroprudential reasons. In our view, most calls for the regulation of hedge funds are based on a misperception of the effectiveness of financial regulations, perhaps coupled with a lack of understand...

  14. Regulating household financial advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F. Cummings

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews economic theory related to investment advice. This theory explains 1 why financial advisors need to be carefully regulated for the benefit of both the investment advice industry and for consumers, 2 why principles-based regulation (e.g., a fiduciary standard is more efficient than rules-based regulation, 3 why dual regulation of financial professionals providing investment or insurance advice is inefficient and inequitable policy, and 4 why the application of a universal and uniform fiduciary standard will be difficult to implement.

  15. The regulation of hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank

    Within hunting, wildlife populations are estimated to be too high in many countries which is assumed to be due to the market failure, that each hunter harvests too little compared to what the regulator wants. This may be due to the existing regulation which, among other things, requires knowledge...... by an individual, variable tax rate. The variable tax rate is, among other things, based on the difference in marginal value of the population between the hunter and the regulator. The paper shows that the population tax/subsidy secures a first-best optimum. Thus, the population tax is a good alternative...... to the existing regulation....

  16. Nuclear safety and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hho Jung

    2000-03-01

    This book contains 12 chapters, which are atom and radiation, nuclear reactor and kinds of nuclear power plant, safeguard actuation system and stability evaluation for rock foundation of nuclear power plant, nuclear safety and principle, safety analysis and classification of incident, probabilistic safety assessment and major incident, nuclear safety regulation, system of nuclear safety regulation, main function and subject of safety regulation in nuclear facilities, regulation of fuel cycle and a nuclear dump site, protection of radiation and, safety supervision and, safety supervision and measurement of environmental radioactivity.

  17. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.

    2005-01-01

    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  18. Soft Regulators, though judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geest, G.G.A.; Dari Mattiacci, G.

    Judges have a tendency to be more demanding than regulators. In the United States, a majority of the courts has adopted the rule that the unexcused violation of a statutory standard is negligence per se. However, the converse does not hold: compliance with regulation does not relieve the injurer of

  19. Mortgage market regulation: Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite several European Union (EU) initiatives, there is only limited pan-European mortgage market regulation. The EU strategy can be characterised as one of parallel liberalisation and consolidation. This article highlights the key differences in regulation among European mortgage markets.

  20. Regulation as Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Györy, Csaba

    This paper analyses the way regulatory agencies strategically use public ‘rhetoric’ and ‘management of appearance’ to strengthen their regulation. It reports a comparative study of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) which is the US federal securities regulator and the Danish Tax...... and Customs Administration (SKAT) which is the national tax regulator in Denmark. SEC operates in a US context where the agency fights to get trust, while SKAT operates in a context where high trust in public agencies is a basic condition. We argue, however, that despite the radically different institutional...... engage reflectively in image promotion which serves two purposes: establishing and maintaining legitimacy in a particular social and political environment and producing compliance. Further, we argue that this regulation is a form of ‘post-bureaucratic’ regulation in which compliance is achieved...

  1. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera....... Finally, we argue that, in Asia, governments act as a structuration mechanism which challenges the current understanding of CSR.......This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  2. Risk-informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In assessing safety for nuclear facilities, regulators have traditionally used a deterministic approach. New techniques for assessing nuclear or radiological risks make it possible for regulators to incorporate risk insights into their regulations. By 'risk-informing' the regulatory processes, independent bodies tasked with protecting the health and safety of the public can focus on those design and operational issues most important to safety. Such an approach is a move away from prescriptive regulations that were based on conservative engineering judgments toward regulations focused on issues that contribute significantly to safety. Despite the availability of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tools, organisations often struggle with how to best use this capability. Most international regulations are still based largely on deterministic analyses that were developed without the benefit of quantitative or measurable estimates of risk. PRA considers issues of risk in a more comprehensive manner by examining a wider spectrum of initiating events and their frequency, and considers the likelihood of events in a rigorous and comprehensive manner. In some countries, nuclear regulators are actively moving toward increasing the use of risk insights in a variety of strategic arenas, including risk-informed technical specifications (operating limits and conditions), in-service inspection and testing, programs, and assessment and enforcement actions. A risk-informed approach enhances the traditional deterministic approach by explicitly considering a broader range of safety challenges, focusing resources on the basis of risk significance, considering a broader range of counter measures to mitigate challenges, and explicitly identifying and quantifying uncertainties in analyses. (author)

  3. Epigenetic Regulation of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue expansion in obesity leads to changes in the expression of adipokines, adipocyte-specific hormones that can regulate whole body energy metabolism. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a mechanism by which cells can alter gene expression through the modifications of DNA and histones. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are intimately tied to energy metabolism due to their dependence on metabolic intermediates such as S-adenosylmethionine and acetyl-CoA. Altered expression of adipokines in obesity may be due to epigenetic changes. The goal of this review is to highlight current knowledge of epigenetic regulation of adipokines.

  4. The power of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Slides accompanying a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about regulations affecting the power industry were presented. Issues addressed included customer choice, incentive regulation changes (price-caps, revenue sharing and pricing flexibility), the reactions of Canadian industry to regulatory changes, and anticipated reactions of the financial markets to changes in regulations. The potential effects of competition and changes that will create competition were discussed. The level of readiness of Canadian financial, ownership and regulatory bodies was discussed. The needs and expectations of investors from a new regulatory regime were quesstimated. Possible alternatives to the present regulatory framework were suggested

  5. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  6. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation

  7. Benchmarking and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    . The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  8. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation.

  9. The regulation of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Druce, M; Bloom, S R

    2006-01-01

    The worsening global obesity epidemic, particularly the increase in childhood obesity, has prompted research into the mechanisms of appetite regulation. Complex pathways modulate energy balance, involving appetite centres in the hypothalamus and brain stem, and hormonal signals of energy status released by the gut and by the periphery. Better understanding of appetite regulation improves understanding of the aetiology of obesity. Manipulation of this homoeostatic system offers potentially use...

  10. Corruption, Institutions and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Breen; Robert Gillanders

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively aspects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is controlled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulat...

  11. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  12. Interpersonal emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain.

  13. Federal Aviation Regulations - National Aviation Regulations of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, O.; Bakiiev, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chinese Aerospace Engineering is currently developing cooperation with Russia on a wide-body airplane project that has directed the work towards better understanding of Russian airworthiness management system. The paper introduces national Aviation regulations of Russia, presents a comparison of them with worldwide recognized regulations, and highlights typical differences. They have been found to be: two general types of regulations used in Russia (Aviation Regulations and Federal Aviation Regulations), non-unified structure of regulations on Aircraft Operation management, various separate agencies responsible for regulation issuance instead of one national aviation authority, typical confusions in references. The paper also gives a list of effective Russian Regulations of both types.

  14. Nuclear regulation in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomain, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed. (author)

  15. Nuclear regulation in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomain, J.P. (Cincinnati Univ., OH, US. Coll. of Law)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed.

  16. To regulate or not to regulate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.; Wrixon, A. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In Hamlet famous soliloquy to be or not to be, he wrestles with the perennial human problem of choosing the right course of action in difficult circumstances. In recent years, we have witnessed a cast of thousands playing out a long-running scene that seems to echo Hamlet dilemma on a rather more prosaic level. When is it necessary to apply regulations to the control of exposure to ionizing radiation and when is regulatory control not warranted? This seemingly straightforward question has brought out the philosopher, ethician, lawyer, pragmatist, orator in simple radiation protection folk and has led to passionate debate on numerous occasions. This paper attempts an answer based on a review of recent developments. For deciding when to apply regulatory controls, several concepts have evolved over time, including exemption of practices and sources, exclusion of exposures and clearance of materials. These have different origins, purposes and characteristics. Exemption and clearance have often been associated with triviality of risk, while exclusion has been related to un-amenability of control. For each concept, criteria have been developed to assist the regulator in reaching a decision, but there has much disputation over numerical values. This paper briefly reviews and analyses recent developments and attempts to clarify the problem from first principles. The conclusion is that the underlying issue in each case is to determine when regulatory controls become unwarranted: that is, when the societal resources expended in applying them and complying with them would be disproportionate to any benefit they might bring. This is a natural extension of the principle of optimization of protection to the regulatory control of protection, in the context of exposure to radiation at very low levels. It also reflects common expectations of good governance: wise management of finite societal resources and avoidance of unwarranted controls on

  17. To regulate or not to regulate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.; Wrixon, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In Hamlet famous soliloquy to be or not to be, he wrestles with the perennial human problem of choosing the right course of action in difficult circumstances. In recent years, we have witnessed a cast of thousands playing out a long-running scene that seems to echo Hamlet dilemma on a rather more prosaic level. When is it necessary to apply regulations to the control of exposure to ionizing radiation and when is regulatory control not warranted? This seemingly straightforward question has brought out the philosopher, ethician, lawyer, pragmatist, orator in simple radiation protection folk and has led to passionate debate on numerous occasions. This paper attempts an answer based on a review of recent developments. For deciding when to apply regulatory controls, several concepts have evolved over time, including exemption of practices and sources, exclusion of exposures and clearance of materials. These have different origins, purposes and characteristics. Exemption and clearance have often been associated with triviality of risk, while exclusion has been related to un-amenability of control. For each concept, criteria have been developed to assist the regulator in reaching a decision, but there has much disputation over numerical values. This paper briefly reviews and analyses recent developments and attempts to clarify the problem from first principles. The conclusion is that the underlying issue in each case is to determine when regulatory controls become unwarranted: that is, when the societal resources expended in applying them and complying with them would be disproportionate to any benefit they might bring. This is a natural extension of the principle of optimization of protection to the regulatory control of protection, in the context of exposure to radiation at very low levels. It also reflects common expectations of good governance: wise management of finite societal resources and avoidance of unwarranted controls on

  18. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  19. Deciphering Transcriptional Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind

    The myriad of cells in the human body are all made from the same blueprint: the human genome. At the heart of this diversity lies the concept of gene regulation, the process in which it is decided which genes are used where and when. Genes do not function as on/off buttons, but more like a volume...... mostly near the start of the gene known as the promoter. This region contains patterns scattered in the DNA that the TFs can recognize and bind to. Such binding can prompt the assembly of the pre-initiation complex which ultimately leads to transcription of the gene. In order to achieve the regulation...... on what characterizes a hippocampus promoter. Pairing CAGE with TF binding site prediction we identi¿ed a likely key regulator of hippocampus. Finally, we developed a method for CAGE exploration. While the DeepCAGE library characterized a full 1.4 million transcription initiation events it did not capture...

  20. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  1. Natural Gas Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of Natural Gas. Natural gas Regulation clarifies and consolidates the legal and institutional framework for development of the industry through six principal elements: 1) Establishment of a vision of the industry. 2) Development of regulatory objectives. 3) Determination of relationships among industry participants. 4) Clear specification of the role of PEMEX in the industry. 5) Definition of the functions of the Regulatory authority. 6) Creation of a transition regime. In parallel with the development of the substantive legal framework, the law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) was also enacted by Congress in October 1995 to strength the institutional framework and implement the legal changes. This law defines the CRE as an agency of the Energy Ministry with technical, operational, and budgetary autonomy, and responsibility for implementing natural gas industry regulation. (Author)

  2. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  3. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FLUX REGULATION THROUGH HIERARCHICAL REGULATION ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, Karen; Rossell, Sergio; Bouwman, Jildau; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Jameson, D; Verma, M; Westerhoff, HV

    2011-01-01

    Regulation analysis is a methodology that quantifies to what extent a change in the flux through a metabolic pathway is regulated by either gene expression or metabolism. Two extensions to regulation analysis were developed over the past years: (i) the regulation of V(max) can be dissected into the

  4. Quantitative analysis of flux regulation through hierarchical regulation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eunen, K. van; Rossell, S.; Bouwman, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Bakker, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Regulation analysis is a methodology that quantifies to what extent a change in the flux through a metabolic pathway is regulated by either gene expression or metabolism. Two extensions to regulation analysis were developed over the past years: (i) the regulation of Vmax can be dissected into the

  5. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  6. Public regulators and CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The social licence to operate (SLO) concept is little developed in the academic literature so far. Deployment of the term was made by the United National (UN) Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and the UN ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework, which apply SLO as an argument...... for responsible business conduct, connecting to social expectations and bridging to public regulation. This UN guidance has had a significant bearing on how public regulators seek to influence business conduct beyond Human Rights to broader Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) concerns. Drawing on examples...

  7. Collaborative Tax Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article shows a new form of regulation within a tax administration where tax administrators abate tax evasion by nudging and motivating consumers to only purchase services from tax compliant businesses. This indirectly closes or forces tax evading businesses to change their practices, because...... stakeholders, i.e. the consumers, in the regulatory craft. The study is based on a qualitative methodology and draws on a unique case of regulation in the cleaning sector. This sector is at high risk of tax evasion and human exploitation of vulnerable workers operating in the informal economy. The article has...

  8. Public regulators and CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    of such public regulatory governance, this article explores and explains developments towards a juridification of CSR entailing efforts by public regulators to reach beyond jurisdictional and territorial limitations of conventional public law to address adverse effects of transnational economic activity. Through...... analysis of an expansion of law into the normative framing of what constitutes responsible business conduct, we demonstrate a process of juridification entailing a legal framing of social expectations of companies, a proliferation of law into the field of business ethics, and an increased regulation by law...

  9. Nuclear regulations and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.

    2001-01-01

    After an historical overview of the nuclear regulation system in Argentina a description is made of the country's Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) and of its regulation and control functions. Its organic structure is also outlined. A detailed report is given of the environmental monitoring activities in the sites of the operating Argentine nuclear power plants as well as those of the nuclear research centres. A special reference is made of the monitoring of the relevant uranium mining districts in Argentina. The radon determination in houses of several regions of the country is also mentioned

  10. Nuclear regulation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed

  11. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  12. Ketamine and international regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Yi-Lang; Hao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic commonly used in low-income countries and has recently been shown to be effective for treatment-resistant depression. However, the illicit manufacturing, trafficking, and nonmedical use of ketamine are increasing globally, and its illicit use poses major public health challenges in many countries. To review the nonmedical use of ketamine in selected countries and its regulatory control. We conducted a review of literature identified from searches of the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979-2016) and PubMed databases, supplemented by additional references identified by the authors. Special attention was given to the regulation of ketamine. Illicit manufacturing, trafficking, and use of ketamine appear to have begun on a large scale in several Asian nations, and it has subsequently spread to other regions. Regulations governing availability of ketamine vary across countries, but there is a clear trend toward tighter regulations. As nonmedical use of ketamine and its harmful consequences have worsened globally, stricter controls are necessary. Appropriate regulation of ketamine is important for international efforts to control ketamine's cross-border trafficking and its nonmedical use.

  13. Federal Gasoline Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to regulate fuels and fuel additives for use in mobile sources if such fuel, fuel additive or any emission products causes or contributes to air or water pollution that may endanger the public health or welfare.

  14. Emotion regulation during isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Šolcová, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012) ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : emotion regulation * isolation * Mars500 Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder

  16. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  17. Regulations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of the twenty fifth anniversary of the Dutch Society for Radiation Protection, a symposium was held about Regulations in Radiation Protection. The program consisted of six contributions of which four are included in this publication. The posters presented are published in NVS-nieuws, 1985, vol. 11(5). (G.J.P.)

  18. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Departmental Rules and The Safety Guides were issued by the NNSA in 1998. The NNSA performed the activities of propagation and implementation of nuclear safety regulations at QTNPP in order to improve the nuclear safety culture of operating organization and construct and contract organizations

  19. Regulation under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, Charles; Herrigel, Gary; Hull Kristensen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    generation of the implicated components or installations are updated accordingly. In this essay we develop these arguments and look closely at changes in the Norwegian offshore oil and gas industry and its regulator, the Petroleum Safety Authority to better understand the coevolution of vertically...

  20. Nondissipative optimum charge regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R.; Vitebsky, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum charge regulator provides constant level charge/discharge control of storage batteries. Basic power transfer and control is performed by solar panel coupled to battery through power switching circuit. Optimum controller senses battery current and modifies duty cycle of switching circuit to maximize current available to battery.

  1. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  2. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  3. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  4. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  5. Maintenance and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, R.

    1984-01-01

    Description of the main regulations concerning the processes tied with maintenance and in service supervision of the pressure vessels in classical or nuclear power plants or of their accessories (essentially in order to fix the time-table of the hydraulic test procedures and the inspection chronology [fr

  6. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 1. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins: A Historical Perspective on the Development of Concepts and Techniques. General Article Volume 22 Issue 1 January 2017 pp 37-50 ...

  7. Optimal Regulation of Lumpy Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, G.; Broer, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    When a monopolist has discretion over the timing of infrastructure investments, regulation of post-investment prices interferes with incentivizing socially optimal investment timing. In a model of regulated lumpy investment under uncertainty, we study regulation when the regulator can condition

  8. Efforts to Improve Efficiency of Extraction Well Operation at the Fernald Preserve, Harrison, Ohio – 16177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassmeyer, Cathy [Navarro Research and Engineering; Hooten, Gwen [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Hertel, Bill [Navarro Research and Engineering; Broberg, Ken [Nararro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-01

    The Fernald Preserve, a former uranium processing facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products during the Cold War, is located in southwest Ohio. The facility became a US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) site in November 2006, following completion of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental remediation and site restoration (with the exception of groundwater). When the site was turned over to LM, approximately 76.5 ha of the Great Miami Aquifer remained contaminated with uranium above the final remediation level of 30 μg/L. Here, uranium contamination is being removed from groundwater in the Great Miami Aquifer through a pump-and-treat operation, which is predicted to continue until 2033. Twenty extraction wells pump about 30 million liters per day. Operation of the system is impacted by iron in the groundwater that promotes iron fouling of the well pumps, motors, and screens. The design of the well field evolved over 21 years and reflected a conservative system that could respond to a wide range of pumping conditions. For instance, some of the extraction wells were sized with pumps and motors that would allow the well to pump up to 1890 L/min (500 gpm) if warranted. The added flexibility, though, came at the cost of operational efficiency. We describe the efforts that have been taken by LM since the Fernald site was transferred to LM to mitigate the operational impacts from the iron fouling aquifer conditions and improve the efficiency of the well-field operation. Variable-frequency drives were installed at six wells to replace flow control valves. Several wells with oversized pumps and motors were changed from 24-hour per day operation to 8-hour per day operation to allow the pumps to operate closer to their design flow rates. Pumps and motors were “right-sized” at many wells to improve pumping efficiency. The process used to rehabilitate (or clean) well screens was improved, and a process was developed to clean pumps without having to pull them from the well. To reduce pressure drops, improvements were also made to the configuration of the discharge piping. A new control system was installed for each well to allow local control and local tracking of energy used. The amount of energy used daily compared to number of gallons pumped provides a method to assess pump performance and determine when action is necessary to restore well pump efficiency. Additionally, the metrics being employed to help quantify well-field efficiency improvements are described, and the benefits achieved by proactively managing the pump-and-treat operation are presented.

  9. Algebraic varieties in the Birkhoff strata of the Grassmannian Gr(2): Harrison cohomology and integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopelchenko, B G; Ortenzi, G

    2011-01-01

    The local properties of the families of algebraic subsets W g in the Birkhoff strata Σ 2g of Gr (2) containing the hyperelliptic curves of genus g are studied. It is shown that the tangent spaces T g for W g are isomorphic to the linear spaces of 2-coboundaries. Particular subsets in W g are described by the integrable dispersionless coupled KdV systems of hydrodynamical type defining a special class of 2-cocycles and 2-coboundaries in T g . It is demonstrated that the blows-ups of such 2-cocycles and 2-coboundaries and gradient catastrophes for associated integrable systems are interrelated. (paper)

  10. Kohalejõudmise kõrvaltee : graafikatriennaal / Lucy Harrison ; interv. Anneli Porri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Harrison, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Intervjuu Lucy Harrisoniga, kes esineb Tallinna XIII graafikatriennaalil tekstikogumikuga "Fantastilised linnad" ja kellel ilmus koostöös Christiane Baumgartneriga raamat "Detour", kus kunstnikud püüavad kahe turistidele mõeldud nõukogudeaegse linnagiidi abil ühitada seal antud kirjeldust Tallinna tegelikkusega

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HARRISON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  12. Markets, religion, regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Most recent scholarship on moral economies or religious markets argues for the compatibility of economies/markets and religious practices in particular national or regional contexts. However, over the last couple of decades or so religious markets have entered a new phase characterized by new forms...... of regulation, certification and standardization on a global scale. Building on research on global kosher (a Hebrew term meaning “fit” or “proper”), halal (an Arabic word that literally means “permissible” or “lawful”) and Hindu vegetarianism this paper argues that these economies or markets to a large extent...... are conditioned by and themselves condition forms of transnational governmentality, that is, new and often overlapping practices of government and grassroots politics. I explore religious economies and markets at three interrelated levels of the social scale: state and non-state regulation, the marketplace...

  13. Environmental considerations and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Methods used to control the radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle are described. This control is exercised through the application of a series of federal laws and regulations that are used as the basis for licensing nuclear facilities. The control is exercised more directly by the use of radwaste treatment equipment at the nuclear facilities to limit the release of radioactive materials. Federal laws and regulations are summarized and their applications in licensing actions are discussed. Radiological doses from materials released from licensed facilities are compared with doses from natural background. A series of cost/benefit engineering surveys are being made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radwaste systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model fuel cycle facilities and to determine the benefits in terms of reduction in dose commitment to individuals and populations in surrounding areas

  14. Transients: The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Speis, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to clarify the basis for the regulator's concerns for transient events. Transients are defined as both anticipated operational occurrences and postulated accidents. Recent operational experience, supplemented by improved probabilistic risk analysis methods, has demonstrated that non-LOCA transient events can be significant contributors to overall risk. Topics considered include lessons learned from events and issues, the regulations governing plant transients, multiple failures, different failure frequencies, operator errors, and public pressure. It is concluded that the formation of Owners Groups and Regulatory Response Groups within the owners groups are positive signs of the industry's concern for safety and responsible dealing with the issues affecting both the US NRC and the industry

  15. The regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrby, S.

    1997-01-01

    Recommendations on general safety objectives and good practices related to radioactive waste management are given by international organisations such as the OECD/NEA and the IAEA. Moreover, international conventions and other supranational legal instruments, such as EU directives, lay down requirements on the safe management of radioactive waste. The implementer of the system for waste management and disposal and the regulator will have different roles. The responsibility for the management and disposal of radioactive waste is with the implementer, who has taken over that responsibility from the generator of the waste. The regulator's responsibility is to define safety and radiation protection requirements, to issue guidance on safety assessment methodology and documentation, to review the implementer's safety assessments as a basis for licensing of waste management and disposal activities and facilities and to inspect and review construction and operation of nuclear facilities to ensure compliance with licensing conditions. (R.P.)

  16. Probiotics and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig

    resistance and blood lipid profile among others. Probiotics which are health promoting bacteria can potentially be used to affect the GM and thereby change metabolic outcomes of the host. Animal studies have shown associations between intake of probiotics and appetite regulation, but currently no human...... studies have investigated this effect. Supplementation with different probiotic strains have been shown to have an effect on blood lipid profiles in both animals and humans and the mechanisms behind have been studied in vitro and in rodents. The aim of the present thesis was to examine in an ex vivo...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human...

  17. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  18. German seismic regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    Rules and regulations for seismic design in Germany cover the following: seismic design of conventional buildings; and seismic design of nuclear facilities. Safety criteria for NPPs, accident guidelines, and guidelines for PWRs as well as safety standards are cited. Safety standards concerned with NPPs seismic design include basic principles, soil analysis, design of building structures, design of mechanical and electrical components, seismic instrumentation, and measures to be undertaken after the earthquake

  19. Regulation and the Marketplace

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Sunder; Michael Maier; Karim Jamal

    2004-01-01

    Under what conditions is government regulation better at protecting market participants than private, evolving, market-driven protections? An intriguing answer to that question emerges if we examine a relatively unregulated area of market participant protection: e-commerce privacy. In the United States, the privacy of participants engaged in e-commerce is largely unregulated by government; instead, many commercial websites contract with third parties to establish privacy protection codes and ...

  20. The regulation of hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a tax/subsidy on hunters based on game population. The tax/subsidy is the difference between actual and optimal population multiplied by an individual, variable tax rate. The tax rate is, among other things, based on the difference between the marginal value of the game popula...... population to the hunter and the regulator and differences in user costs of the population. The paper shows that the population tax/subsidy secures a first-best optimum....

  1. Human telomerase activity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtyla, Aneta; Gladych, Marta; Rubis, Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase has been recognized as a relevant factor distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells. Thus, it has become a very promising target for anticancer therapy. The cell proliferative potential can be limited by replication end problem, due to telomeres shortening, which is overcome in cancer cells by telomerase activity or by alternative telomeres lengthening (ALT) mechanism. However, this multisubunit enzymatic complex can be regulated at various levels, including expression control b...

  2. Improving CS regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Scheer, R.M.; Marasco, A.L.; Furey, R.

    1980-10-01

    President Carter issued Executive Order 12044 (3/28/78) that required all Federal agencies to distinguish between significant and insignificant regulations, and to determine whether a regulation will result in major impacts. This study gathered information on the impact of the order and the guidelines on the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) regulatory practices, investigated problems encountered by the CS staff when implementing the order and guidelines, and recommended solutions to resolve these problems. Major tasks accomplished and discussed are: (1) legislation, Executive Orders, and DOE Memoranda concerning Federal administrative procedures relevant to the development and analysis of regulations within CS reviewed; (2) relevant DOE Orders and Memoranda analyzed and key DOE and CS staff interviewed in order to accurately describe the current CS regulatory process; (3) DOE staff from the Office of the General Counsel, the Office of Policy and Evaluation, the Office of the Environment, and the Office of the Secretary interviewed to explore issues and problems encountered with current CS regulatory practices; (4) the regulatory processes at five other Federal agencies reviewed in order to see how other agencies have approached the regulatory process, dealt with specific regulatory problems, and responded to the Executive Order; and (5) based on the results of the preceding four tasks, recommendations for potential solutions to the CS regulatory problems developed. (MCW)

  3. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  4. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  5. Nuclear Safety Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Prah, M.

    2008-01-01

    Beside new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment ('Official Gazette' No. 15/08), from 2006 State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) adopted Ordinance on performing nuclear activities ('Official Gazette' No. 74/06) and Ordinance on special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety ('Official Gazette' No. 74/06), based on Nuclear Safety Act ('Official Gazette' No. 173/03). The Ordinance on performing nuclear activities regulates the procedure of notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, submitting the application for the issue of a licence to perform nuclear activities, and the procedure for issuing decisions on granting a licence to perform a nuclear activity. The Ordinance also regulates the content of the forms for notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, as well as of the application for the issue of a licence to perform the nuclear activity and the method of keeping the register of nuclear activities. According to the Nuclear Safety Act, nuclear activities are the production, processing, use, storage, disposal, transport, import, export, possession or other handling of nuclear material or specified equipment. The Ordinance on special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety regulates these mentioned conditions, whereas compliance is established by a decision passed by the SONS. Special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety are organizational, technical, technological conditions and established system of quality assurance. In 2007, State Office for Nuclear Safety finalized the text of new Ordinance on conditions for nuclear safety and protection with regard to the siting, design, construction, use and decommissioning of a facility in which a nuclear activity is

  6. New Nuclear Safety Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Prah, M.; Cizmek, A.

    2008-01-01

    Beside new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (Official Gazette No. 15/08), from 2006 State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) adopted Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (Official Gazette No. 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (Official Gazette No. 74/06), based on Nuclear Safety Act (Official Gazette No. 173/03). The Ordinance on performing nuclear activities regulates the procedure of announcing the intention to perform nuclear activity, submitting an application for the issue of a license to perform nuclear activity, and the procedure for adoption a decision on issuing a nuclear activity license. The Ordinance also regulates the contents of the application form for the announcement of the intention to perform nuclear activity, as well as of the application for the issue of a nuclear activity license and the method of keeping a nuclear activity register. The Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety regulates these mentioned conditions, whereas compliance is established by a decision passed by the SONS. Special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety are organizational, technical, technological conditions and established system of quality assurance. In 2007, SONS finalized the text of new Ordinance on nuclear safety and protection conditions for location, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of facility in which nuclear activity is performed. This Ordinance regulates nuclear safety and protection conditions for location, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of facility in which nuclear activity is performed. This Ordinance defines facilities in which nuclear activity is

  7. The international radioactive transportation regulations: A model for national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Rawl, R.R.

    1990-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6 (herein after denoted as the ''International Regulations'') serve as the model for the regulations for individual countries and international modal organizations controlling the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background and history of the International Regulations, the general principles behind the requirements of the International Regulations, the structure and general contents of the latest edition of the International Regulations, and the roles of various international bodies in the development and implementation of the International Regulations and the current status of regulatory and supportive document development at both the international and domestic level. This review will provide a basis for users and potential users to better understand the source and application of the International Regulations. 1 tab

  8. Regulations for ionizing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    General regulations and principles of radiation protection and safety are presented. In addition, the regulations for licensing and occupational and medical exposure as well as for safe transport of radioactive materials and wastes are given

  9. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  10. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  11. Regulated functions and integrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Gunčaga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Properties of functions defined on a bounded closed interval, weaker than continuity, have been considered by many mathematicians. Functions having both sides limits at each point are called regulated and were considered by J. Dieudonné [2], D. Fraňková [3] and others (see for example S. Banach [1], S. Saks [8]. The main class of functions we deal with consists of piece-wise constant ones. These functions play a fundamental role in the integration theory which had been developed by Igor Kluvanek (see Š. Tkacik [9]. We present an outline of this theory.

  12. Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    , the Water Framework Directive, pharmaceuticals regulation, and the Novel Foods Regulation. Current regulation of nanomaterials entail three overall challenges: 1) limitations in regard to terminology and definitions of key terms such as a “substance,” “novel food,” etc.; 2) safety assessment requirements...

  13. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-09-01

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  14. The Regulation of Street Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkour, John Boulard; Samuelsen, Helle; Yeboah, Eric Henry

    2017-01-01

    the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators of street-vended foods in Ghana and analyses the implication for their relationship with street food vendors. The paper reveals that regulators operate in a context of limited resources, leading to a general feeling of neglect. In coping, regulators adopt...

  15. A novel micromechanical flow regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Toor, M.W.; van Toor, M.W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Monsma, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new concept for a micromechanical flow regulator is presented. Regulation of the flow is achieved using variation of channel length instead of channel diameter. Several design concepts together with their application in fluidic systems are presented. A regulator for biomedical use, as a part of a

  16. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Lydia J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide LBNL personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Laboratory) policies and regulations by outlining normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory organizations. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in LBNL procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. RPM sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the LBNL organization responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which organization is responsible for a policy, please contact Requirements Manager Lydia Young or the RPM Editor.

  17. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Lydia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-30

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide Laboratory personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory policies and regulations by outlining the normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory departments. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in Laboratory procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. The sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the department responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which department should be called, please contact the Associate Laboratory Director of Operations.

  18. Strategisk compliance og regulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Denne artikel introducerer strategisk compliance og påpeger dens samspil med klassiske og nyere former for reguleringer i digital værdiskabelse. Konteksten er den digitale økonomi, som vokser frem imellem den materielle økonomis bærepiller: Virksomheder og markeder, men består af en helt ny...... materialitet, som er det digitale univers og dets modsvarighed i nye krav til compliance. Den nye materialitet stiller nye krav, hvad angår digitale processer og transaktioner. Klassisk regulering, som aktører ikke selv kan ændre, støder på egenregulering, hvor aktørerne selv opsætter regler for at skabe...... digital værdi. Dette kalder på strategisk compliance. Med digitalisering er strategisk compliance sat på dagsordnen i reguleringsdebatten. Vi hævder, at regulering og egenregulering kan komme til at virke komplementært i det post-industrielle, digitaliserede samfund....

  19. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1991-01-01

    During the last grant period, we have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint, and have, by several lines of evidence, deciphered the rate-limiting step of each pathway. We have at least partially purified and characterized the relevant enzymes of each pathway. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation depends upon the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally-regulated and very closely associated with senescence of the oil glands. Oil gland ontogeny has been characterized at the ultrastructural level. We have exploited foliar-applied bioregulators to delay gland senescence, and have developed tissue explant and cell culture systems to study several elusive aspects of catabolism. We have isolated pure gland cell clusters and localized monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism within these structures, and have used these preparations as starting materials for the purification to homogeneity of target regulatory'' enzymes. We have thus developed the necessary background knowledge, based on a firm understanding of enzymology, as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of monoterpene metabolism at the molecular level. Furthermore, we are now in a position to extend our systematic approach to other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15]-C[sub 30]) produced by oil glands.

  20. Circadian rhythms regulate amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Seon, Yoon Ji; Mourão, Marcio A; Schnell, Santiago; Kim, Doohak; Harada, Hidemitsu; Papagerakis, Silvana; Papagerakis, Petros

    2013-07-01

    Ameloblasts, the cells responsible for making enamel, modify their morphological features in response to specialized functions necessary for synchronized ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation. Secretory and maturation ameloblasts are characterized by the expression of stage-specific genes which follows strictly controlled repetitive patterns. Circadian rhythms are recognized as key regulators of the development and diseases of many tissues including bone. Our aim was to gain novel insights on the role of clock genes in enamel formation and to explore the potential links between circadian rhythms and amelogenesis. Our data shows definitive evidence that the main clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1 and Per2) oscillate in ameloblasts at regular circadian (24 h) intervals both at RNA and protein levels. This study also reveals that the two markers of ameloblast differentiation i.e. amelogenin (Amelx; a marker of secretory stage ameloblasts) and kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (Klk4, a marker of maturation stage ameloblasts) are downstream targets of clock genes. Both, Amelx and Klk4 show 24h oscillatory expression patterns and their expression levels are up-regulated after Bmal1 over-expression in HAT-7 ameloblast cells. Taken together, these data suggest that both the secretory and the maturation stages of amelogenesis might be under circadian control. Changes in clock gene expression patterns might result in significant alterations of enamel apposition and mineralization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of ATM induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.A.; Fang, Z.M.; Kearsley, J.H.; Lee, C.S.; Sarris, M.; De Murrell, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: ATM, the tumour suppressor protein mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia, is of pivotal importance in controlling the cells primary response to ionising radiation (IR) induced DNA damage. Mutations in ATM which reduce the level of the ATM protein and/or compromise ATM functions are known to give rise to radiosensitivity and defective cell cycle checkpoint control. In response to DNA damage ATM kinase is rapidly activated and initiates downstream signalling to cell cycle control molecules including p53. To investigate additional mechanisms of ATM control we have employed ATM antisense expression in cultured cells, western analyses and immunohistochemistry in situ. We report that ATM can be up-regulated up to 10-fold following exposure to low levels of ionising radiation. ATM radiation-induction was radiation dose dependent while the rapidity of the response indicates a post translational pathway. The concurrent time frames for the radiation-induction of ATM levels and the activation of ATM kinase activity appear to be complimentary in boosting ATM's protective response to IR induced DNA damage, especially in ATM 'low expressing' systems. We also provide the first report of ATM misregulation in 2 cancer patients, indicating that ATM is not only radio-protective but has possible implications in cancer, particularly breast cancer. These results have particular importance in defining the regulation of the ATM protein as an: adaptive radio-response; radio-prognostic market in tumours and normal tissue, and breast cancer marker

  2. Is self-regulation possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's increasingly prescriptive regulation of the nuclear industry can have deleterious effects, perhaps the most serious being the shift in responsibility for safety from the utility to the NRC. Several factors account for this type of regulation including the nature and structure of the nuclear industry, public opinion and bureaucratic incentives, and the nature of the technology itself. The opportunities to create heightened industry self-regulation (performance-based regulation) deserve further examination. The key to self-regulation is to structure incentives so that it is clearly within the nuclear utilities' interests to build and operate nuclear power facilities in the safest manner possible. 27 references

  3. Regulation as delegation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the conception of reverse delegation when the government acts a principal and an individual ndash an agent from the point of view of behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory. Methods statistical method sociological polling. Results In diverse areas ndash from retirement savings to consumer credit to prescription drug use to fuel economy and energy efficiency rules to tobacco consumption to food and beverage consumption ndash government makes decisions for us or endeavors to help us make better decisions thus serving as our agent. From the point of view of PrincipalAgent Theory and behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory a great deal of modern regulation can be helpfully evaluated as a hypothetical delegation. Shifting from personal decisions to public goods problems the authors view the idea of reverse delegation with the government as principal and the individuals as agents. They show that the essence of delegation changes depending on the context. The article describes conditions under which various approaches will make sense. Scientific novelty the paper is devoted to the foreign experience of regulation through delegation by the example of a country with developed market economy the USA. It shows the prospects of such approach in solving both the public and the private tasks. Application of PrincipalAgent Theory and behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory is viewed to distinguish between such types of hypothetical delegation as information default rules incentives precommitments mandates and prohibitions. The article considers the benefits and costs of delegation and circumstances in which one or another approach makes sense. Practical significance PrincipalAgent Theory is widely used in economics and political science and can serve as a convenient tool to consider the optimal scale and essence of the assistance rendered to us by the government as our agent. The paper is of interest for the Russian legal science as the institution of

  4. Current environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the Federal environmental statutes and implementation regulations is provided, including the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Endangered Species Act. Recent developments which may have a direct impact on waste repository siting and management activities include: final promulgation of National Emission Standards for hazardous Air Pollutants for radionuclides, the DOE-EPA memorandum of understanding which brings mixed radioactive and chemical waste under the requirements of RCRA, and the proposed designation of additional sole source aquifers

  5. Meat and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula Nana

    effects of new formulations of pork products. Different strategies can be applied to potentially enhance the satiating properties of pork. Processed meat products such as meatballs can serve as a matrix for the addition of fiber ingredients. Based on their high protein and fiber contents, high......-fibre meatballs could provide a dual mechanistic action that would lead to greater satiety. For whole muscles, cooking is known to induce structural, physical and chemical changes of the meat proteins, which in turn may affect protein digestibility and potentially affect satiety. The overall aim of this Ph......D thesis was to investigate the effects of fiber addition to meatballs and the effects of cooking methods of pork on appetite regulation. The PhD thesis is based on three human meal test studies and one analytical study related to the characteristics of fiber meat products. In paper I, the objective...

  6. From research to regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury-Herard, A.

    2000-01-01

    from the beginning of nuclear energy utilization, the necessity arose to take into account the knowledge progress in order to give the best scientific base possible to the regulation protecting workers and the public against the potentially injurious effects of ionizing radiations. These next years, the experts should make their benefit of numerous new results with the conjunction of ultra precise experimental irradiation techniques and to global approach of the genome. The United Nations scientific committee on effect of atomic radiation (U.N.S.C.E.A.R.) plays an essential part in the analysis and the synthesis of the most recent researches to evaluate more precisely, these effects, especially for low radiations doses. (N.C.)

  7. Higher regulators, algebraic

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Spencer J

    2000-01-01

    This book is the long-awaited publication of the famous Irvine lectures. Delivered in 1978 at the University of California at Irvine, these lectures turned out to be an entry point to several intimately-connected new branches of arithmetic algebraic geometry, such as regulators and special values of L-functions of algebraic varieties, explicit formulas for them in terms of polylogarithms, the theory of algebraic cycles, and eventually the general theory of mixed motives which unifies and underlies all of the above (and much more). In the 20 years since, the importance of Bloch's lectures has not diminished. A lucky group of people working in the above areas had the good fortune to possess a copy of old typewritten notes of these lectures. Now everyone can have their own copy of this classic work.

  8. NRC's license renewal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide for the continuity of the current generation of nuclear power plant operating licenses and at the same time ensure the health and safety of the public, and the quality of the environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a goal of developing and issuing regulations and regulatory guidance for license renewal in the early 1990s. This paper will discuss some of those activities underway to achieve this goal. More specifically, this paper will discuss the Commission's regulatory philosophy for license renewal and the two major license renewal rule makings currently underway. The first is the development of a new Part 54 to address procedural and technical requirements for license renewal; the second is a revision to existing Part 51 to exclude environmental issues and impacts from consideration during the license renewal process. (author)

  9. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  10. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1989-11-09

    Terpenoid oils, resins, and waxes from plants are important renewable resources. The objective of this project is to understand the regulation of terpenoid metabolism using the monoterpenes (C[sub 10]) as a model. The pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism have been established, and the relevant enzymes characterized. Developmental studies relating enzyme levels to terpene accumulation within the oil gland sites of synthesis, and work with bioregulators, indicate that monoterpene production is controlled by terpene cyclases, the enzymes catalyzing the first step of the monoterpene pathway. As the leaf oil glands mature, cyclase levels decline and monoterpene biosynthesis ceases. Yield then decreases as the monoterpenes undergo catabolism by a process involving conversion to a glycoside and transport from the leaf glands to the root. At this site, the terpenoid is oxidatively degraded to acetate that is recycled into other lipid metabolites. During the transition from terpene biosynthesis to catabolism, the oil glands undergo dramatic ultrastructural modification. Degradation of the producing cells results in mixing of previously compartmentized monoterpenes with the catabolic enzymes, ultimately leading to yield decline. This regulatory model is being applied to the formation of other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15] C[sub 20], C[sub 30], C[sub 40]) within the oil glands. Preliminary investigations on the formation of sesquiterpenes (C[sub 15]) suggest that the corresponding cyclases may play a lesser role in determining yield of these products, but that compartmentation effects are important. From these studies, a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of terpene metabolism is being constructed. Results from this project wail have important consequences for the yield and composition of terpenoid natural products that can be made available for industrial exploitation.

  11. Science Education in a South African Township: What Type of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on research conducted in a science class to determine how learners respond to a science module that relates to their social and cultural context. The theory of social constructivism framed this research; the notion that the social environment of children infl uences their learning provided the focus for the ...

  12. Boosting tourism in South Africa's townships | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-12

    Jul 12, 2011 ... ... to assess the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on small, ... Cape Town is fast becoming a premier tourist destination. ... Denise Biggs, a research manager in the department of Information Systems at ... The CMC is also planning to launch SmartCity, a database that advertizes ...

  13. Translanguaging in a township primary school: Policy and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While aware that they are transgressing the principal's language policy as well as knowing that their students are struggling with monoglossic examination requirements, teachers continue to translanguage for the pedagogic advantages this brings, despite the rigid, separatist language ideologies that inform school ...

  14. The experiences of AIDS orphans living in a township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalena van Rooyen

    2012-02-01

    Opsomming ‘n Uitdaging wat professionele gesondheidswerkers huidiglik oorweldig, is dienslewering aan VIGS weeskinders. Die doel van die studie was om die geleefde ervaring van kinders wat in dorpsgebiede woon en VIGS weeskinders geword het, te verken en te beskryf ten einde hul leefwêreld te verstaan. Hierdie inligting kan deur Primêre Gesondheidsorg Verpleegkundiges (PVGs, verwante beroepslui en vennote betrokke by die versorging van hierdie kinders, gebruik word as basis om versorging te beplan wat in die kinders se unieke behoeftes sal voorsien. ‘n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp met verkennende, beskrywende, kontekstuele en fenomologiese strategieë van ondersoek, is gebruik. Data is versamel deur middel van in-diepte onderhoude met ‘n doelbewus geselekteerde steekproef. Data is geanaliseer ooreenkomstig die stappe van kwalitatiewe data analise volgens Tesch (in Creswell 1994. Guba se model was gebruik om die betroubaarheid van data te bepaal. Twee hooftemas en hul subtemas is geïdentifiseer. Die eerste tema was dat kinders dramatiese veranderinge in hulle lewensomstandighede ervaar wanneer hulle VIGS weeskinders word. Die tweede tema wat na vore gekom het, was hoe die deelnemers die hoop om voort te gaan met die lewe, herontdek het. Aanbevelings, gebaseer op die bevindinge, is gemaak wat verpleegpraktyk, onderrig en navorsing sal rig.

  15. Determinants of obesity in an urban township of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to 54.3% among women, with a higher prevalence in the urban areas.2,6–10 .... Organization (WHO)31 categories of underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI ... logistic regression models gave adjusted odds ratios for each of the.

  16. Boosting tourism in South Africa's townships | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2003-11-17

    Nov 17, 2003 ... The key challenge facing tour operators and tourism officials is how best to ... who do not always have the skills to seek or manage information,” she says. ... South African tourist bodies and educational institutions, which have ...

  17. Characterisation of mobile data usage in township communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phokeer, A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ]. The authors used a mixed- method study by using the MySpeedTest application on Android devices, a survey and a semi-structured interview, from which they triangulated the data collected to present statistics. Chen et al. recently analysed the pricing... for the needs of the community. Figure 1. Cloudlet infrastructure III. PROCEDURES AND METHODS The idea is to investigate how much traffic is being generated for social media, VoIP communications, messaging, software updates, video streaming, etc. Mobile...

  18. Urban violence in Khayelitsha township, South Africa: Finding a way ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... "The critical challenge then is to develop interventions that build on ... with the South African-based Human Sciences Research Council. ... cities around the world struggle to improve security and living conditions for their peop.

  19. Ghetto fabulous': township space and the representation of post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... whereas Yizo Yizo 1 appears to treat working class black male violence and working ... at least insofar as it uncouples gender identity and gender performance. ... Keywords: Gender, Space, Black South African Youth, Masculinity, Violence, ...

  20. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  1. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...

  2. Modernizing African townships using TV white space networks: a case study of Mankweng township in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoroka, TM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ), photos (e.g. Facebook, Instagram), or short videos (like in Youtube). Thus, the amount of data (per one user) which has to be transferred using wireless network will be much less than in a case of e-surveillance or online video streaming. The main...

  3. Age discrimination: the new Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Sprack, John

    2006-01-01

    A summary of the principal changes introduced by the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 as they came into effect in England and Wales. Extracts from the Regulations follow the commentary. Article by John Sprack (Barrister, part-time Chairman of Employment Tribunals and author of Tottel's Guide to the Age Discrimination Regulations 2006) published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by ...

  4. Regulations for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Regulations for RA reactor operation are written in accordance with the legal regulations defined by the Law about radiation protection and related legal acts, as well as technical standards according to the IAEA recommendations. The contents of this book include: fundamental data about the reactor; legal regulations for reactor operation; organizational scheme for reactor operation; general and detailed instructions for operation, behaviour in the reactor building, performing experiments; operating rules for operation under steady state and accidental conditions [sr

  5. Banking regulation and market making

    OpenAIRE

    Cimon, David A.; Garriott, Corey

    2017-01-01

    We present a model of market makers subject to recent banking regulations: liquidity and capital constraints in the style of Basel III and a position limit in the style of the Volcker Rule. Regulation causes market makers to reduce their intermediation by refusing principal positions. However, it can improve the bid-ask spread because it induces new market makers to enter. Since market makers intermediate less, asset prices exhibit a liquidity premium. Costs of regulation can be assessed by m...

  6. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  7. Thermal flow regulator of refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinskij, S.I.; Savchenko, A.G.; Suplin, V.Z.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal flow regulator of refrigerant for helium flow-type temperature-controlled cryostats based on controlling the channel hydraulic resistance due to variation of the flow density and viscosity during liquid helium transformation into the gaseous state. Behind the regulator both two-phase flow and a heated gas can be produced. The regulator resolution is (7-15)x10 -4 l/mW of liquid helium

  8. Electricity regulation and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; Garcia-Quevedo, Jose; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Although the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth has been extensively analysed in the empirical literature, this framework has not been used to estimate the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Understanding this effect is essential for the assessment of regulatory policy. Specifically, we assess the effects of two major areas of regulation, rene...

  9. Epigenetic regulation in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Elaine M; Gibney, Eileen R

    2013-07-01

    Research suggests that 65% of variation in obesity is genetic. However, much of the known genetic associations have little known function and their effect size small, thus the gene-environment interaction, including epigenetic influences on gene expression, is suggested to be an important factor in the susceptibilty to obesity. This review will explore the potential of epigenetic markers to influence expression of genes associated with obesity. Epigenetic changes in utero are known to have direct implications on the phenotype of the offspring. More recently work has focused on how such epigenetic changes continue to regulate risk of obesity from infancy through to adulthood. Work has shown that, for example, hypomethylation of the MC4 gene causes an increase in expression, and has a direct impact on appetite and intake, and thus influences risk of obesity. Similar influences are also seen in other aspects of obesity including inflammation and adiposity. Maternal diet during foetal development has many epigenetic implications, which affect the offspring's risk factors for obesity during childhood and adulthood, and even in subsequent generations. Genes associated with risk of obesity, are susceptible to epigenetic mutations, which have subsequent effects on disease mechanisms, such as appetite and impaired glucose and insulin tolerance.

  10. Challenges in Regulating Ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiippana, P.

    2016-01-01

    Finland has recent experience in regulating design, construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Also decommissioning is topical as the research reactor will enter a decommissioning phase in the near future. From regulator’s point of view, the paper discusses potential challenges related to ageing management at the Finnish nuclear facilities throughout their lifetime. Based on the experience the most important decisions to ensure adequate provisions against adverse effects of various ageing phenomena and mechanisms are made much earlier than operation starts, namely during design, construction and manufacturing of systems, structures and components (SSC). Early consideration of ageing management resulting in good engineering including ageing-proof manufacturing and construction practices is of particular importance for new reactors. Elongated design lifetime of new reactors underlines the need of all available means to minimize progress of ageing beforehand and to create prerequisites for well-established condition monitoring and maintenance up to decommissioning. Furthermore, continuous research and development in order to understand various types of ageing and to detect degradation before SSC’s failure is expected as soon as a facility has been put in service. All these activities have to be supported by proper information and knowledge management in each phase of the facility’s life span. (author)

  11. [Ghrelin: beyond hunger regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milke García, Maria del Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Man ingests food to mitigate hunger (mediated by physiological and biochemical signals), satisfy appetite (subjective sensation) and because of psychosocial reasons. Satiation biomarkers (stop feeding) are gastric distention and hormones (CCK, GLP-1) and satiety biomarkers (induce feeding) are food-induced thermogenesis, body temperature, glycaemia and also hormones (insulin, leptin and ghrelin). Oxidative metabolism/body composition, tryptophan/serotonin and proinflammatory cytokines are also implicated on hunger physiology. At the present time, ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic with potential on hunger/body weight regulation. It is a neuropeptide (endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue) recently isolated from the oxyntic mucosa and synthesized mainly in the stomach. Its blood concentration depends on diet, hyperglucemia and adiposity/leptin. It is secreted 1-2 hours preprandially and its concentration decreases drastically during the postprandium. Ghrelin acts on the lateral hypothalamus and theoretically inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and antagonizes leptin. Ghrelin physiologically increases food intake and stimulates adipogenesis, gastrointestinal motility and gastric acid secretion, and has other hormonal and cardiovascular functions. Ghrelin blood concentration is reduced in massive obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome, acromegaly, hypogonadism, ageing, short bowel syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis; and increased in primary or secondary anorexia, starvation, chronic liver disease and celiac disease. Cerebral and peritoneal ghrelin administration (rats) and systemic administration (rats and healthy volunteers, cancer patients or patients on peritoneal dialysis) promotes food consumption and increases adiposity, of utmost importance in the treatment of patients with anorexia.

  12. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  13. Between regulation and independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2007-01-01

    This article stresses, first, on the differences between electricity and gas in terms of storability and place of production before introducing the gas sector and its reorganization and re-structuration in the framework of energy markets deregulation. Then, it presents the actions carried out by the commission of energy regulation (CRE) intended to improve the operation of the gas market: improvement of transparency, incitation to invest in transportation infrastructures, organisation of the downstream market and development of regional gas markets. Since July 1, 2007, the opening of gas market is juridically and technically complete. The role of CRE is also to inform the consumers and to warrant a non-discriminatory access to infrastructures in a context of sound competition. On this point, the new situation is satisfactory but improvements are needed to increase the offer. The future objectives of CRE is to maintain a climate favorable to investments, to implement stable and efficient conditions of access to infrastructures and, finally, to regularly work at the European scale for the building up of a domestic gas market synonymous of security of supplies, sustainable development and competitiveness. (J.S.)

  14. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  15. Personality and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Hayu Purnamaningsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emotions has many important functions in our life such as in relation of interpersonal communication, and health. In interpersonal communicative function aimed to signal to other information about internal state. Emotions manifests in specific cognitive, behavioural, and physiological reactions, thus closely related to health. There is wide variety of ways for individuals to regulate their emotion. In this regard, there are two kinds of emotion regulation strategy; first Antecedent-focused emotion regulation consisting of situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change and second, Response-focused emotion regulation consisting of suppression. The purpose of this research is to investigate personality factors relate with emotion regulation strategies. 339 students from Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada were participating in this study and given The Big Five Personality Factors (Ramdhani, 2012, adaptation, and the modified version of the Emotion Regulation Scale was used, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (John & Gross, 2004 which measure personality and emotion regulation respectively. Using multiple regression analysis, the study indicated that personality predicts emotion regulation strategies.

  16. Utility regulation and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Colin

    2002-03-01

    Contents: 1. The New Electricity Trading Arrangements in England and Wales: A Review - David Currie, 2. A Critique of Rail Regulation - Dieter Helm, 3. Moving to a Competitive Market in Water - Colin Robinson, 4. The New Gas Trading Arrangements - George Yarrow, 5. A Review of Privatization and Regulation Experience in Britain - Irwin M. Stelzer, 6. Converging Communications: Implications for Regulation - Mark Armstrong, 7. Opening European Electricity and Gas Markets - Graham Shuttleworth, 8. Concurrency or Convergence? Competition and Regulation Under the Competition Act 1998 - Tom Sharpe QC, 9. Ten Years of European Merger Control - Paul Seabright. (Author)

  17. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate ... other partners to implement these SDWA provisions. Regulated Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  18. Choosing to regulate: does choice enhance craving regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasser, Arian; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Pfeifer, Jennifer H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Goal-directed behavior and lifelong well-being often depend on the ability to control appetitive motivations, such as cravings. Cognitive reappraisal is an effective way to modulate emotional states, including cravings, but is often studied under explicit instruction to regulate. Despite the strong prediction from Self-Determination Theory that choice should enhance task engagement and regulation success, little is known empirically about whether and how regulation is different when participants choose (vs are told) to exert control. To investigate how choice affects neural activity and regulation success, participants reappraised their responses to images of personally-craved foods while undergoing functional neuroimaging. Participants were either instructed to view or reappraise (‘no-choice’) or chose freely to view or reappraise (‘yes-choice’). Choice increased activity in the frontoparietal control network. We expected this activity would be associated with increased task engagement, resulting in better regulation success. However, contrary to this prediction, choice slightly reduced regulation success. Follow-up multivariate functional neuroimaging analyses indicated that choice likely disrupted allocation of limited cognitive resources during reappraisal. While unexpected, these results highlight the importance of studying upstream processes such as regulation choice, as they may affect the ability to regulate cravings and other emotional states. PMID:29462475

  19. Post-translational regulation enables robust p53 regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Chen, Kai-Yuan; Sayed, Ali H; Hencey, Brandon; Shen, Xiling

    2013-08-30

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in DNA damage repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Due to its critical functions, the level of p53 is tightly regulated by a negative feedback mechanism to increase its tolerance towards fluctuations and disturbances. Interestingly, the p53 level is controlled by post-translational regulation rather than transcriptional regulation in this feedback mechanism. We analyzed the dynamics of this feedback to understand whether post-translational regulation provides any advantages over transcriptional regulation in regard to disturbance rejection. When a disturbance happens, even though negative feedback reduces the steady-state error, it can cause a system to become less stable and transiently overshoots, which may erroneously trigger downstream reactions. Therefore, the system needs to balance the trade-off between steady-state and transient errors. Feedback control and adaptive estimation theories revealed that post-translational regulation achieves a better trade-off than transcriptional regulation, contributing to a more steady level of p53 under the influence of noise and disturbances. Furthermore, post-translational regulation enables cells to respond more promptly to stress conditions with consistent amplitude. However, for better disturbance rejection, the p53- Mdm2 negative feedback has to pay a price of higher stochastic noise. Our analyses suggest that the p53-Mdm2 feedback favors regulatory mechanisms that provide the optimal trade-offs for dynamic control.

  20. Constructing regulation and regulating for energy efficient construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, Elizabeth [Lancaster University (United Kingdom). Centre for the Study of Environmental Change

    1998-07-01

    This project considers the process of formulating energy-related building regulation in the light of the revisions to Part L (Conservation of Fuel and Power) of the Building Regulations for England and Wales. Details are given of the main objectives of the research, namely, the examination of the roles of the UK government, local government and pressure groups in shaping energy efficiency standards, the impacts of environmental regulations, the limits of energy-related regulation, environmental regulation of the building sector, and the features of energy related building control. This control is compared with current practice in other European countries. The methodology of the project involving the review of governmental documents and interviews is described. (UK)

  1. Regulation of electricity prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihok, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper author deals with the regulation of electricity prices in the Slovak Republic. Author contests the social policy of the government through doped prices of electricity. Two thirds of electricity is generated in nuclear power plants in Slovakia. Hence, it is necessary to focus on the solution of problem of nuclear waste. In 2004 Ministry of Economy stated, that the deficit in nuclear fund, from which the country have to fully cover the costs of liquidation and final disposal of nuclear waste, is estimated in the amount of around 89 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 3.7 billion $). From it, so called historical deficit, which originated because of late foundation of fund, represents officially 15 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 0.62 billion $). In Slovakia exists the real risk, that by maintenance of present state by creation and draw of the fund, it will be possible to ensure only 39 per cent of financial sources necessary for full financial handling of the back part of nuclear energetic. Even though the Ministry of Economy in connection with privatisation of Slovenske elektrarne designed to decrease the transfers of operators of nuclear power plants into nuclear fund. In 2006 the Parliament decreased by the law the level of gains of the fund from sale of nuclear electricity (the second from two components of the gains of the fund) from 6.8 to 5.95 per cent from annual revenues. So the tax of forced reduction of the price of nuclear electricity will be represented by loading of the further generations

  2. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  3. The evolution of nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    1997-01-01

    The already not so young history of nuclear regulations shows patterns and specific causes that have characterized and influenced its own evolution as well as the industry itself. Today's regulation is facing relevant challenges with potential significant effects. The quest for higher regulatory efficiency brings up the increasing need to base future actions on firmly established strategies. (Author) 7 refs

  4. Gravity and body mass regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  5. Forhastet regulering af de store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke.......Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke....

  6. The Organization of Regulated Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos; Jeon, Doh-Shin; Menicucci, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the choice between vertical separation (VS) and vertical integration (VI) when two regulated firms produce complementary inputs with correlated costs and are protected by ex post break-even constraints. First, in the absence of collusion the regulator prefers VI (VS) for negative...

  7. Environmental regulation and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of ´dirty´ domestic industries, and as a result, ´pollution havens´ emerge in countries where environmental

  8. Regulating Pornography: A Public Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward sex and pornography by means of a telephone survey of Dane County, Wisconsin, adults. Describes survey questions about sexual attitudes, perceived effects of pornography, and pornography regulation. Concludes that adults who feel more strongly that pornography has negative effects are more opposed to its regulation. (SG)

  9. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Mali, Prashant G.; Esvelt, Kevin M.

    2016-02-23

    Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including introducing into the cell a first foreign nucleic acid encoding one or more RNAs complementary to DNA, wherein the DNA includes the target nucleic acid, introducing into the cell a second foreign nucleic acid encoding a nuclease-null Cas9 protein that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs, introducing into the cell a third foreign nucleic acid encoding a transcriptional regulator protein or domain, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein, and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain are expressed, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain co-localize to the DNA and wherein the transcriptional regulator protein or domain regulates expression of the target nucleic acid.

  10. REGULATION OF NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Muravyeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks into the diverse aspects of qualifications system regulation, designed for balancing the supply and demand in the labor and educational service markets. Both the objects and mechanisms of such regulation are described. Special attention is given to institutions, involved in regulation of qualifications, and their jurisdiction. Another emphasis is on the industry-related regulation of qualifications which proved to be effective both on the national and European level. Such structures were first established on the national levels to regulate the qualifications and ensure their comparability and compatibility, given the economic globalization and growing labor and academic mobility. The author points out the role of the ministries of education and labor in maintaining a steady qualifications system, and outlines the positive experience of Great Britain using the industry councils for continuing development of qualifications system.

  11. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  12. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan

    – ICT convergence regulation and multisector utility regulation. Whatever structure of next generation telecom regulation is adopted, all countries will need to pay much greater attention to the need for increased coordination of policy directions and regulatory activities both across the industries......Continuously expanding applications of information and communication technologies (ICT) are transforming local, national, regional and international economies into network economies, the foundation for information societies. They are being built upon expanded and upgraded national telecom networks...... to creating an environment to foster a massive expansion in the coverage and capabilities of the information infrastructure networks, with national telecom regulators as the key implementers of the policies of reform. The first phase of reform has focused on industry specific telecom policy and regulation...

  13. Regulation of GMOs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinliang

    2008-12-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are created by biotechnology to serve people with much benefit while may impose risks to ecological environment and human health and therefore need careful regulation. During the past two decades, GMOs have been well developed in China and so has their corresponding regulation. This paper reviews and comments the multiple aspects of mainly the agricultural GMOs, including their safety assessment, control measures, trade activities, import, labels, and GM food, which have been prescribed by the corresponding laws, regulations and administrative measures. It is held that till present a framework for regulation of agricultural GMOs and GM food has been established basically in China, while a more comprehensive system for regulation of all kinds of GMOs and all kinds of related activities is still needed at present and in the future.

  14. PPARγ regulates exocrine pancreas lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Hila; Naor, Ronny Peri-; Fogel, Chen; Ben-Harosh, Yael; Kadir, Rotem; Salem, Hagit; Birk, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol lipase EC 3.1.1.3) is an essential enzyme in hydrolysis of dietary fat. Dietary fat, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), regulate pancreatic lipase (PNLIP); however, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation is mostly unknown. As PUFA are known to regulate expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and as we identified in-silico putative PPARγ binding sites within the putative PNLIP promoter sequence, we hypothesized that PUFA regulation of PNLIP might be mediated by PPARγ. We used in silico bioinformatics tools, reporter luciferase assay, PPARγ agonists and antagonists, PPARγ overexpression in exocrine pancreas AR42J and primary cells to study PPARγ regulation of PNLIP. Using in silico bioinformatics tools we mapped PPARγ binding sites (PPRE) to the putative promoter region of PNLIP. Reporter luciferase assay in AR42J rat exocrine pancreas acinar cells transfected with various constructs of the putative PNLIP promoter showed that PNLIP transcription is significantly enhanced by PPARγ dose-dependently, reaching maximal levels with multi PPRE sites. This effect was significantly augmented in the presence of PPARγ agonists and reduced by PPARγ antagonists or mutagenesis abrogating PPRE sites. Over-expression of PPARγ significantly elevated PNLIP transcript and protein levels in AR42J cells and in primary pancreas cells. Moreover, PNLIP expression was up-regulated by PPARγ agonists (pioglitazone and 15dPGJ2) and significantly down-regulated by PPARγ antagonists in non-transfected rat exocrine pancreas AR42J cell line cells. PPARγ transcriptionally regulates PNLIP gene expression. This transcript regulation resolves part of the missing link between dietary PUFA direct regulation of PNLIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendin, P.

    2004-01-01

    Spanish experience holds a relatively important position in the field of the decommissioning of nuclear and radioactive facilities. Nuclear facilities are subject to a system of prior authorization by the competent authorities before they come into service and to subsequent regulation and control during their operating life. Nuclear and radioactive facilities that stop operating, for technical or financial reasons or because they are compelled to, remain subject to this regulatory control system as long as the competent authorities consider that their residual radioactivity represents a potential source of radiological hazard to the individuals affected or entails an unacceptable environmental risk. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is contemplated in Spain a further or an additional step of their life cycle in which, in principle, the whole regulatory framework in force during the previous stages - sitting, construction, commissioning, operation, etc. - remains applicable. The term decommissioning is used to delineate the final stage of the life of a definitely non-operational facility and also to introduce a new licensing regime and a new regulatory control scheme. In the regulatory context, the decommissioning of a facility is understood as a set of administrative and technical actions and processes whose purpose, once a facility has been withdrawn from service, is to release it from regulatory control and so to relieve the former licensee of its previous responsibilities relating to the facility's safety. With the increasing age of nuclear and radioactive facilities in service, and as the number of facilities reaching the end of their operating life rises, the administrative process required in order to decommissioning them safely has become a real challenge in all countries, especially in those like Spain with an old nuclear power programme. Let me first give you a quick overview of the Spanish regulatory decommissioning framework. Then I will try to

  16. Regulating chemicals: law, science, and the unbearable burdens of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Mandrioli, Daniele; Cranor, Carl F

    2015-03-18

    The challenges of regulating industrial chemicals remain unresolved in the United States. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 was the first legislation to extend coverage to the regulation of industrial chemicals, both existing and newly registered. However, decisions related to both law and science that were made in passing this law inevitably rendered it ineffectual. Attempts to fix these shortcomings have not been successful. In light of the European Union's passage of innovative principles and requirements for chemical regulation, it is no longer possible to deny the opportunity and need for reform in US law and practice.

  17. Ionising radiation: a guide to the Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Donald.

    1986-01-01

    The author explains the basic requirements on health and safety personnel in relation to the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The outline paper is presented under the following headings: Dose assessment, Interpretation and general regulations 1-5, Dose limitation regulations 6 and 7, Regulation of work - regulations 8-12, Dosimetry and medical surveillance - regulations 13-17, summary of records to be kept, entry to controlled areas, Control of radioactive substances -regulations 18-23, Monitoring of radiation regulation 24, Assessments and notifications - regulations 25-31, Safety of articles and equipment - regulations 32-34, Other guidance. (U.K.)

  18. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  19. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2011-01-01

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  20. Grandfather regulations, new source bias, and state air toxics regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, Arik

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses plant-level data from the Census of Manufactures and the variation in toxic air pollution regulations across states to measure the effects of laws that are more stringent for new sources of pollution than for existing sources (so-called 'grandfather' regulations). Of particular interest is the resulting 'new source bias' and its effects on capital vintage and investment. Two industries are examined: commercial printing, which has a local product market; and paint manufacturing, which has a more national market. In general, there seem to be no statistically significant differences in capital vintage or investment between plants in states that grandfather new sources of pollution, plants in states that have no air toxics regulations, and plants in states that regulate both new and existing sources

  1. Hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurov, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Modern state of the problem on hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations is considered. Concepts and principles of the regulation based on risk concept are presented according to ICRP 26 and 27. Two types of risk are designated: ''absolute'' and ''relative'' ones. The concept of acceptable risk on the basis of cost - benefit ratio is substantiated. Special attention is paid to the principle of accounting the complex of health signs, when determining radiation hazard. To determine the level of permissible risk and permissible dose to population the concept of ''inadmissibility of s-tatistically significant risk'' has been developed. Standards, regulating population doses in the USSR, which are valid nowadays, are considered

  2. Introduction to international radio regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicella, S M [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-12-15

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field.

  3. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field

  4. Nanometrology - challenges for health regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailton Carreteiro Damasceno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between metrology, nanotechnology and nanoscience and sanitary regulation is discussed from the point of view of its importance and the interrelationship between the themes for the development of products and services involving nanotech-nology. The discussion involves the main techniques for measuring dimensional, chemical and biological properties of materials, and presents some of the challenges for the future. Issues such as processes of standardization and regulation in Europe, U.S. and Brazil are also addressed, providing an overview of how these processes are related to sanitary regulation.

  5. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan; Melody, William H.

    2003-01-01

    This article critically examines the multiple rationales for telecom, IT, media convergence regulation, on the one hand, and multisector utility regulation, on the other, and the practical questions of implementation they pose, with a view to contributing to informed policy and regulatory decisions...... to the regulatory process such as scarcity of regulatory resources and safeguards for regulatory independence, are examined. It is concluded that ICT and media convergence issues are primarily about improving the efficiency of market economies, and how changes in regulation can facilitate this process. Multi...

  6. Molecular Regulation of Histamine Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is a critical mediator of IgE/mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis, a neurotransmitter and a regulator of gastric acid secretion. Histamine is a monoamine synthesized from the amino acid histidine through a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC, which removes carboxyl group from histidine. Despite the importance of histamine, transcriptional regulation of HDC gene expression in mammals is still poorly understood. In this review, we focus on discussing advances in the understanding of molecular regulation of mammalian histamine synthesis.

  7. Towards trust in regulation. Moving to a public value regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Catherine; Woodman, Bridget [Energy Policy Group, University of Exeter Cornwall Campus, Treliever Road, Penryn, TR10 9EZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The UK Government has committed itself to reducing its carbon dioxide emissions. The challenge of successfully achieving a transition to a sustainable energy system, in the context of the UK's largely privately owned energy industry, rests on the ability of policy makers to encourage and enable the necessary changes or innovation at all levels of the energy system. This paper argues that the UK's current, dominant political paradigm or framework (the regulatory state paradigm (RSP)) and within it, the role of the economic regulator, Ofgem acts as a fundamental block to this challenge. The current economic regulatory system is based on trust in the market, or on predicted (albeit theoretical) known outcomes. To expand our regulatory system to one which can deliver a sustainable energy system requires innovation in a certain direction (as opposed to any innovation). That is the antithesis of the current process of regulation. Trust is required that Ofgem, the economic regulator, will develop rules and incentives which deliver an agreed sustainable energy goal, which is 'trusted' to be the 'right' goal. This requires Ofgem moving away from ex-ante regulation to a type of regulation where all costs, benefits and outcomes cannot be known beforehand and where they cannot necessarily be quantifiable. This has, very provisionally, been called Public Value Regulation (PVR). (author)

  8. Attachment and Dyadic Regulation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-02-01

    Insecurely attached people have relatively unhappy and unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships depends on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to regulate the emotional and behavioral reactions of insecurely attached individuals, which promotes greater relationship satisfaction and security. We discuss attachment theory and interdependence dilemmas, and then explain how and why certain responses by partners assuage the cardinal concerns of insecure individuals in key interdependent situations. We then review recent studies illustrating how partners can successfully regulate the reactions of anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals, yielding more constructive interactions. We finish by considering how these regulation processes can create a more secure dyadic environment, which helps to improve relationships and attachment security across time.

  9. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular...

  10. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive...

  11. Comparison of some European regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyriadis, K [Germanisher Lloyd, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Fatigue calculations are an essential part in certification of a wind turbine. Manufacturers have to fulfill recommendations of several different regulations throughout Europe with the result that the design has often to be altered to satisfy them. In general three national (D/GL, NL, DK), and two international (GL, IEC) regulations are in use, with the IEC standard getting more importance with wind energy deploying to more in regions with no yet clearly defined national standards (India, Spain). The Germanischer Lloyd made calculations for wind turbines they are certifying and in one case we compared the resulting damages for different regulations and classes on a 600 kW, three bladed, stall regulated wind turbine. (EG) 18 refs.

  12. How should Bitcoin be regulated ?

    OpenAIRE

    SHCHERBAK, Sergii

    2014-01-01

    The lack of clarity about Bitcoin’s legal framework has meant that none of the regulators across the EU have yet achieved sufficient clarity in the legal treatment of Bitcoin and its stakeholders. This uncertainty poses a number of substantial risks to Bitcoin stakeholders and creates challenges for regulatory authorities. Therefore, there is a need for a clear strategy for Bitcoin’s regulation aiming to ensure the maximum possible balance between the interests of Bitcoin stakeholders longing...

  13. Money Laundering and its Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto E. Chong; Florencio López-de-Silanes

    2007-01-01

    The recent wave of terrorist attacks has increased the attention paid to money laundering activities. Using several methodologies, this paper investigates empirically the determinants of money laundering and its regulation in over 80 countries by assembling a cross-country dataset on proxies for money laundering and the prevalence of feeding activities. The paper additionally constructs specific money laundering regulation indices based on available information on laws and their mechanisms of...

  14. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-01-01

    Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regul...

  15. Regulation on control systems tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, J.; Navarro, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Requirements under regulation applicable to the testing of control systems and controlled equipments in the case of USA nuclear projects are examined. They are reviewed, in particular, the following standards and criteria: 10 Code of Federal Regulations 50, Appendix A, General Design Criteria 20 and 21; IEEE Standards 279 and 308; IEEE Standard 338; US Regulatory Guides 1.22 and 1.118.(J.E.de C.)

  16. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bonner, C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters analyzes the development of global liquidity standards, their objectives as well as their interaction with capital standards. The analysis suggests that regulating capital is associated with declinin...

  17. Civilsamfundets ABC: R for Regulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Lund, Anker Brink

    2016-01-01

    Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til R for Regulering.......Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til R for Regulering....

  18. 7 CFR 987.48 - Container regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container regulation. 987.48 Section 987.48... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Container Regulation § 987.48 Container regulation. Whenever the Committee deems it advisable to establish a container regulation for any variety of...

  19. Two new pollution regulations introduced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    A newly proposed regulation in Ontario will require the mandatory tracking of 358 airborne pollutants by the electricity sector as well as by other large industrial facilities such as iron and steel manufacturers and petroleum refiners. If passed, the regulation would make Ontario the first jurisdiction in the world to require monitoring and reporting of a full suite of major greenhouse gases, including smog and acid-rain causing emissions. The proposed regulation also provides for immediate public access to any reported information. Ontario residents can comment on the proposed regulation through the Environmental Bill of Rights registry. A new, more severe hazardous waste regulation will also take effect on March 31, 2001, whereby testing for 88 contaminants will be done according to a new standard called the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This new regulation also introduces a new 'derived from' rule which requires that a listed hazardous waste keep its classification until it can be demonstrated otherwise. Ontario's list of hazardous wastes has been updated to include 129 new chemicals and industrial processes. The Ontario Ministry has also adopted the Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone, as well as the Canada-wide Standards for mercury emissions from base metal smelters as well as from incineration of sewage sludge and municipal, medical, hazardous waste

  20. Regulation Development for Drinking Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explain what process and information underlies regulations including how the Safe Drinking Water Act applies to regulation development i.e. how does the drinking water law translate into regulations.

  1. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Sanders-Jackson

    Full Text Available Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition.Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies.A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%. The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support.This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue.Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public.

  2. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Mello, Susan; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition. Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies. A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement) versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%). The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support. This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue. Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices) may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public.

  3. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  4. Re-Framing Biotechnology Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Alison

    Biotechnology is about to spill the banks of federal regulation. New genetic engineering techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 promise revolutionary breakthroughs in medicine, agriculture, and public health—but those techniques would not be regulated under the terms of the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. This revolutionary moment in biotechnology offers an opportunity to correct the flaws in the framework, which was hastily patched together at the advent of the technology. The framework has never captured all relevant technologies, has never satisfied the public that risk is being effectively managed, and has never been accessible to small companies and publicly-funded labs that increasingly are positioned to make radical, life-saving innovations. This Article offers a proposal for new legislation that would reshape biotechnology regulation to better meet these goals. Key reforms include tying regulation to risk rather than technology category; consolidating agency review; capturing distinct regulatory expertise through inter-agency consultations; creating a clearinghouse to help guide applicants and disseminate information; setting up more comprehensive monitoring of environmental effects; and providing federal leadership to fill key data gaps and address socio-economic impacts.

  5. Progress toward risk informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    For the last several years, the NRC, with encouragement from the industry, has been moving in the direction of risk informed regulation. This is consistent with the regulatory principle of efficiency, formally adopted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1991, which requires that regulatory activities be consistent with the degree of risk reduction they achieve. Probabilistic risk analysis has become the tool of choice for selecting the best of several alternatives. Closely related to risk informed regulation is the development of performance based rules. Such rules focus on the end result to be achieved. They do not specify the process, but instead establish the goals to be reached and how the achievement of those goals is to be judged. The inspection and enforcement activity is based on whether or not the goals have been met. The author goes on to offer comments on the history of the development of this process and its probable development in the future. He also addresses some issues which must be resolved or at least acknowledged. The success of risk informed regulation ultimately depends on having sufficiently reliable data to allow quantification of regulatory alternatives in terms of relative risk. Perhaps the area of human reliability and organizational performance has the greatest potential for improvement in reactor safety. The ability to model human performance is significantly less developed that the ability to model mechanical or electrical systems. The move toward risk informed, performance based regulation provides an unusual, perhaps unique, opportunity to establish a more rational, more effective basis for regulation

  6. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets

  7. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda, E-mail: alakananda.basu@unthsc.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2011-06-09

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

  8. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets. PMID:24212825

  9. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Sridharan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

  10. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.

  11. 7 CFR 301.89-5 - Movement of regulated articles from regulated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of regulated articles from regulated areas. 301.89-5 Section 301.89-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... § 301.89-5 Movement of regulated articles from regulated areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved...

  12. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, G

    1988-07-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  13. Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Starks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps are evident too, with broadcasters providing online and on-demand services and newspapers developing electronic versions. Does this mean that media regulation policies must converge too?My argument is that they should, though only where historically different communications are now fulfilling a similar function, e.g. broadcaster online services and electronic versions of newspapers. Convergence requires a degree of harmonisation and, to this end, I advocate a review of UK broadcasting's 'due impartiality' requirement and of the UK's application of the public service concept. I also argue for independent self-regulation (rather than state-based regulation of non-public-service broadcasting journalism.

  14. Environmental Regulation and International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulatu, A. [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of 'dirty' domestic industries, and as a result, 'pollution havens' emerge in countries where environmental regulation is 'over-lax.' We examine the impact of pollution abatement and control costs on net exports in order to grasp this phenomenon. Theoretically, our analysis is related to a general equilibrium model of trade and pollution nesting the pollution haven motive for trade with the factor endowment motive. We analyze data on two-digit ISIC manufacturing industries during the period 1977-1992 in Germany, the Netherlands and the US, and show that trade patterns in 'dirty' commodities are jointly determined by relative factor endowments and environmental stringency differentials.

  15. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  16. Guidelines on Building Regulations 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thse guidelines clarify and intepret the provisions of the Building Regulations of 2008 (BR08). The Guidelines, which match BR08 in terms of organisation into Parts, are accompanied by the full text of the regulations and the explanatory notes issued by the Danish Enterprise and Construction...... Authority. The Guidelines refer the reader to sources such as relevant standards, instructions and other background material which provides more detailed information. The Guidelines cover the same ground as BR08, including building control regulations, layout, fitting out, structures, fire safety, indoor...... climate, energy consumotion and services. The Guidelines are aimed at all professionals involved in building projects, particularly building design consultants, contractors and municipal application officers....

  17. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  18. Retooling for new environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is subject to regulations which require better management of emissions. This presentation discussed those regulations that dealt specifically with gasoline and diesel fuels and how they impact on vehicle emissions. The review showed that since 1975 the average fuel economy and improvements in tailpipe emissions for a light duty vehicle has increased significantly. Nitrogen oxide emissions were reduced by 94 per cent, carbon monoxide emissions were reduced by 96 per cent, and hydrocarbon emissions from tailpipes were reduced by 98 per cent. The phase-out of lead in fuel formulations, the controversy over the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT and a major study underway investigating the reduction of sulphur in gasoline, were also discussed. Future developments in regulations are likely to include capture of vapour emissions, mandatory inspection and maintenance programs, remote sensing of tailpipe emissions, and scrapping of old high emitting vehicles.5 figs

  19. Planned and proposed pipeline regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Research and Special Programs Administration administers the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (NGPSA) and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 (HLPSA). The RSPA issues and enforces design, construction, operation and maintenance regulations for natural gas pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper discusses a number of proposed and pending safety regulations and legislative initiatives currently being considered by the RSPA and the US Congress. Some new regulations have been enacted. The next few years will see a great deal of regulatory activity regarding natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines, much of it resulting from legislative requirements. The office of Pipeline Safety is currently conducting a study to streamline its operations. This study is analyzing the office's business, social and technical operations with the goal of improving overall efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job satisfaction to meet the challenges of the future

  20. Air pollution control regulation. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, K

    1975-05-01

    The Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control is reviewed. The fundamental ideology of pollution control, range of pollution control, environmental standards, and national policy concerning pollution control are discussed. The content of the Air Pollution Control Law is summarized. The purpose of the Air Pollution Control Law, a list of substances regulated by the law, the type of facilities regulated by the law, control standards, type of control means, and emission standards for flue gas (sulfur oxides, particulate matters, and toxic substances) are described. The environmental standard for each pollutant and the target date for achieving the environmental standard are also given. The list of cities where the 7-rank K value control regulation for SOx is enforced is given. The procedure for registration in compliance with the law is also described.

  1. Assessing self-regulation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vet, Emely; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Stok, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    intake and background characteristics. In study 3, the TESQ-E was administered twice within four weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability (n = 140). Study 4 was a cross-sectional survey (n = 93) that assessed the TESQ-E and related psychological constructs (e.g., motivation, autonomy, self-control). All...... general self-regulation and motivation measures. Conclusions: The TESQ-E provides a reliable and valid measure to assess six theory-based self-regulation strategies that adolescents may use to ensure their healthy eating....

  2. Supersymmetric regulators and supercurrent anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.; Poggio, E.C.; Schnitzer, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The supercurrent anomalies of the supercurrent deltasub(μ) of the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in Wess-Zumino gauge are computed using the supersymmetric dimensional regulator of Siegel. It is shown that γsub(μ)deltasup(μ) = 0 and deltasub(μ)deltasup(μ) unequal 0 in agreement with an earlier calculation based on the Adler-Rosenberg method. The problem of exhibiting the chiral anomaly and a regulator for local supersymmetry suggests that the interpretation of dimensional reduction in component language is incomplete. (orig.)

  3. Introduction to international radio regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzak, R

    2003-12-15

    These notes introduce the ITU Radio Regulations and related UN and WTO agreements that specify how terrestrial and satellite radio should be used in all countries over the planet. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on these regulations. The paper also discusses few problems related to the use of the radio frequencies and satellite orbits. The notes are extracted from a book under preparation, in which these issues are discussed in more detail. (author)

  4. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struzak, R.

    2003-01-01

    These notes introduce the ITU Radio Regulations and related UN and WTO agreements that specify how terrestrial and satellite radio should be used in all countries over the planet. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on these regulations. The paper also discusses few problems related to the use of the radio frequencies and satellite orbits. The notes are extracted from a book under preparation, in which these issues are discussed in more detail. (author)

  5. Government regulation of gambling business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepasyuk S.A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with the problems of modern gambling business in the Russian Federation, political and legal, civil and economic aspects of state politics development in the field of activities regulation. The Federal Law regulating the activity of gambling business has been analyzed. The author has offered some developments of gambling business in the Russian Federation in order to increase the revenues to the budgets of the regions; to increase the attractiveness of the Russian resorts; to create more job opportunities and to eradicate unemployment.

  6. Gas distribution regulations (Nova Scotia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-03

    A consolidation of Nova Scotia`s gas distribution regulations made under subsection 42(1) of the Gas Distribution Act S.N.S. 1997, c4 - O.I.C. 1998-576 (November 10, 1998), N.S. Reg. 86/98 are presented. The consolidation is issued for reference purposes only, and while it has no official sanction, it is considered useful in providing an interpretation of the regulation, explaining franchise evaluation, the granting of franchises, and exemptions from application requirements. 1 tab.

  7. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  8. Minsky and dynamic macroprudential regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kregel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of current debates about the proper form of prudential regulation and proposals for the imposition of liquidity and capital ratios, the paper examines Hyman Minsky’s work as a consultant to government agencies exploring financial regulatory reform in the 1960s. As the author explains, this often-overlooked early work, a precursor to Minsky’s “financial instability hypothesis”, serves as yet another useful guide to explaining why regulation and supervision in the lead-up to the 2008 financial crisis were flawed, and why the approach to reregulation after the crisis has been incomplete.

  9. Development of waste management regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnour, E.G.

    2012-04-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a by product of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. The purpose of this study is to develop regulations for radioactive waste management for low and intermediate radioactive level waste (LILW), and other purpose of regulations is to establish requirements with which all organizations must comply in Sudan from LILW in particular disused/spent sources, not including radioactive waste for milling and mining practices. The national regulations regarding the radioactive waste management, should prescribe the allocation of responsibilities and roles of the Country, the regulatory body, user/owner, waste management organization, including regulations on transport packaging of waste and applied a quality assurance programme, to ensure that radioactive waste management is done safely and securely. (author)

  10. Regulating and Combating Underground Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In combating and regulating underground banking, a choice can be made of roughly two models, the risk model and the assimilation model. The risk model comes down to a complete prohibition of underground banking combined with an active investigation and prosecution policy. In the assimilation model,

  11. Transcriptional regulation of hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Viscarra, Jose; Kim, Sun-Joong; Sul, Hei Sook

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acid and fat synthesis in the liver is a highly regulated metabolic pathway that is important for very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and thus energy distribution to other tissues. Having common features at their promoter regions, lipogenic genes are coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level. Transcription factors, such as upstream stimulatory factors (USFs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C (SREBP1C), liver X receptors (LXRs) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) have crucial roles in this process. Recently, insights have been gained into the signalling pathways that regulate these transcription factors. After feeding, high blood glucose and insulin levels activate lipogenic genes through several pathways, including the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and AKT-mTOR pathways. These pathways control the post-translational modifications of transcription factors and co-regulators, such as phosphorylation, acetylation or ubiquitylation, that affect their function, stability and/or localization. Dysregulation of lipogenesis can contribute to hepatosteatosis, which is associated with obesity and insulin resistance.

  12. Technical regulation of nondestructive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    It starts with the explanation of definition of nondestructive inspection and qualifications for a inspection. It lists the technical regulations of nondestructive inspections which are radiographic testing, ultrasonic flaw detecting test, liquid penetrant test, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current test visual inspection and leakage test.

  13. Immune regulation by microbiome metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang H

    2018-03-22

    Commensal microbes and the host immune system have been co-evolved for mutual regulation. Microbes regulate the host immune system, in part, by producing metabolites. A mounting body of evidence indicates that diverse microbial metabolites profoundly regulate the immune system via host receptors and other target molecules. Immune cells express metabolite-specific receptors such as P2X 7 , GPR41, GPR43, GPR109A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor precursor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), TGR5 and other molecular targets. Microbial metabolites and their receptors form an extensive array of signals to respond to changes in nutrition, health and immunological status. As a consequence, microbial metabolite signals contribute to nutrient harvest from diet, and regulate host metabolism and the immune system. Importantly, microbial metabolites bidirectionally function to promote both tolerance and immunity to effectively fight infection without developing inflammatory diseases. In pathogenic conditions, adverse effects of microbial metabolites have been observed as well. Key immune-regulatory functions of the metabolites, generated from carbohydrates, proteins and bile acids, are reviewed in this article. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  15. Lasp-1 regulates podosome function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Stölting

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells form a variety of adhesive structures to connect with their environment and to regulate cell motility. In contrast to classical focal adhesions, podosomes, highly dynamic structures of different cell types, are actively engaged in matrix remodelling and degradation. Podosomes are composed of an actin-rich core region surrounded by a ring-like structure containing signalling molecules, motor proteins as well as cytoskeleton-associated proteins. Lasp-1 is a ubiquitously expressed, actin-binding protein that is known to regulate cytoskeleton architecture and cell migration. This multidomain protein is predominantely present at focal adhesions, however, a second pool of Lasp-1 molecules is also found at lamellipodia and vesicle-like microdomains in the cytosol.In this report, we show that Lasp-1 is a novel component and regulator of podosomes. Immunofluorescence studies reveal a localization of Lasp-1 in the podosome ring structure, where it colocalizes with zyxin and vinculin. Life cell imaging experiments demonstrate that Lasp-1 is recruited in early steps of podosome assembly. A siRNA-mediated Lasp-1 knockdown in human macrophages affects podosome dynamics as well as their matrix degradation capacity. In summary, our data indicate that Lasp-1 is a novel component of podosomes and is involved in the regulation of podosomal function.

  16. Entry: direct control or regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Vorage, M.

    2009-01-01

    We model a setting in which citizens form coalitions to seek preferential entry to a given market. The lower entry the higher firm profits and political contributions, but the lower social welfare. Politicians choose to either control entry directly and be illegally bribed, or regulate entry using a

  17. Hard work in soft regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnen, Pernille; Hasle, Peter; Helbo Jespersen, Anne

    Certified occupational health and safety management (OHSM) systems have become a global instrument in the regulation of work environment. However, their actual impact on occupational health and safety – in particular on ‘softer’ psychosocial areas of the working environment – has been questioned...

  18. Epigenetic regulation of macrophage function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disorder with a key role for macrophages in all disease stages. Macrophages are involved as scavengers of lipids, regulate inflammation, attract other immune cells and contribute to the resolution of inflammation, fibrosis and plaque stability.

  19. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges

  20. Wave Dragon Buoyancy Regulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jens; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter, which was deployed offshore at Nissum Bredning in Denmark in 2003. The experience gained from operating Wave Dragon during 2003 and 2004 has shown that the buoyancy regulation system can be improved in a number of ways. This study describes the current...

  1. Some regulation aspects in dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the French regulation framework, operations linked to dismantling are controlled by an overall technical and legislative system applied to all the different stages of the facility (commissioning, etc.). Government control on facilities under dismantling is aimed at dismantling operation safety and security, and dismantling waste processing in order to ensure public and environmental protection

  2. Compliance with air quality regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, D.V.; Tackett, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the probable passage of Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, electric utilities throughout the United States are faced with numerous choices to comply with the new acid rain regulations, expected in 1991. The choice of a compliance plan is not a simple task. Every compliance option will be costly. At Ohio Edison, deliberations are quite naturally influenced by past compliance with air quality regulations. This paper discusses compliance with air quality regulations in the 1970's, clean coal technologies and advanced scrubbers, and compliance with air quality regulations in 1995 - 2000. The choice of a compliance strategy for many utilities will involve serving customer loads through some combination of scrubbers, clean coal technologies, fuel switching, fuel blending, redispatch of units, and emissions trading. Whatever the final choice, it must be economic while providing sufficient flexibility to accommodate the critical uncertainties of load growth, state regulatory treatment, markets for emission allowances, advancements in control technologies, additional federal requirements for air emissions, equipment outages and fuel supply disruptions.s

  3. Transport regulation for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed

  4. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters

  5. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context when banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk-taking driven by limited liability. When capital raising is costly, poorly

  6. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context where banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk taking driven by limited liability. Moreover, higher capital may have an unintended

  7. The New Brussels I Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnt Nielsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The most important amendments to the Brussels I Regulation adopted on 12 December 2012 are presented and discussed. The amendments concern: 1) arbitration, 2) external situations, 3) choice-of-court agreements, and 4) abolition of exequatur. Compared to the Commission's ambitions, only modest...

  8. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part 550...

  9. 76 FR 62630 - Information Security Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 32 CFR Part 1902 Information Security Regulations AGENCY: Central... information security regulations which have become outdated. The Executive Order upon which the regulations... CFR Part 1902 Information security regulations. PART 1902 [REMOVED AND RESERVED] Sec. 1902.13 [Removed...

  10. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  11. Self-regulation in securities markets

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper canvasses the trends in self-regulation and the role of self-regulation in securities markets in different parts of the world. The paper also describes the conditions in which self-regulation might be an effective element of securities markets regulation, particularly in emerging markets. Use of self-regulation and self-regulatory organizations is often recommended in emerging m...

  12. Connections or conflicts between nuclear regulations and other regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1976-01-01

    The potential for conflicts between nuclear and other regulations stems in large part from overlapping jurisdictional lines which reflect not only the basic governmental structure but the political realities as well. A completely logical pattern - with a clear differentiation of responsibilities assigned to the various departments and agencies involved - is assuredly a worthy goal, but one not often, if ever, achieved. Fortunately, innovative means for obviating or mitigating the conflicts can be and have been found. (Auth) [fr

  13. Targeted genome regulation via synthetic programmable transcriptional regulators

    KAUST Repository

    Piatek, Agnieszka Anna

    2016-04-19

    Regulation of gene transcription controls cellular functions and coordinates responses to developmental, physiological and environmental cues. Precise and efficient molecular tools are needed to characterize the functions of single and multiple genes in linear and interacting pathways in a native context. Modular DNA-binding domains from zinc fingers (ZFs) and transcriptional activator-like proteins (TALE) are amenable to bioengineering to bind DNA target sequences of interest. As a result, ZF and TALE proteins were used to develop synthetic programmable transcription factors. However, these systems are limited by the requirement to re-engineer proteins for each new target sequence. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated 9 (Cas9) genome editing tool was recently repurposed for targeted transcriptional regulation by inactivation of the nuclease activity of Cas9. Due to the facile engineering, simplicity, precision and amenability to library construction, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is poised to revolutionize the functional genomics field across diverse eukaryotic species. In this review, we discuss the development of synthetic customizable transcriptional regulators and provide insights into their current and potential applications, with special emphasis on plant systems, in characterization of gene functions, elucidation of molecular mechanisms and their biotechnological applications. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  14. Regulating danger on the highways: hours of service regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Daniel; Kryger, Meir

    2015-12-01

    Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers in place in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union are summarized and compared to facilitate the assessment of the effectiveness of such provisions in preventing fatigue and drowsiness among truck drivers. Current hours of service provisions governing commercial truck drivers were derived from governmental sources. The commercial truck driver hours of service provisions in the United States, Canada, and the European Union permit drivers to work 14 hours and those of Australia permit drivers to work 12 hours a day on a regular basis. The regulations do not state what a driver may do with time off. They are consistent with a driver being able to drive after 24 hours without sleep. They do not take into account circadian rhythm by linking driving or rest to time of day. Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers leave gaps--permitting drivers to work long hours on a regular basis, permitting driving after no sleep for 24 hours, and failing to take into account the importance of circadian rhythm, endangering the public safety and the truck drivers themselves. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.; Baker, K.; Olson, J.

    1991-02-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors incentive programs established by state regulators in order to obtain current information and to consider the potential safety effects of the incentive programs as applied to nuclear units. The current report is an update of NUREG/CR-5509, Incentive Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants by State Public Utility Commissions, published in December 1989. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulator and each utility with a minimum entitlement of 10%. The agreements, orders, and settlements from which each incentive program was implemented were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program. The programs currently in effect represent the adoption of an existing nuclear performance incentive program proposal and one new program. In addition, since 1989 a number of nuclear units have been included in one existing program; while one program was discontinued and another one concluded. 6 refs., 27 tabs

  16. Study on the Regulating Performance of Sliding Regulation-Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Peng, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Yulan; Zhu, Fangyao

    2018-01-01

    Using a proven reliable method of CFD to study the regulating performance of a sliding regulation valve with a conical spool and rugby body. The numerical simulation results indicate that no matter where the spool is located, the flow field always has a vortex at the center of the valve body; When the spool is at the origin, the vortex and resistance coefficient of the valve are the minimum; When the spool moves from the origin to the right (the opening of the valve becomes smaller) to reach a certain position later, vortex currents also begin to appear around the tube wall behind the orifice. In addition, the vortex increases as the throttling port decreases whereas the resistance coefficient of the valve ascends slowly with the increase of the deviation of the spool and the rise in series; This type of regulating valve has S type (slow at both ends, sensitive at the center) flow characteristics at the stroke, and is not affected by the size of Re.

  17. Dealing with duplicate regulations and conflicting jurisdictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    There are a number of situations where mixed wastes are regulated by dual regulations and regulators. This presentation attempts to show where such duplication exists and how it evolved historically through legislative actions. The presentation includes a discussion of strategies that have been used to deal with the problems that result from duplicate regulations and jurisdictional conflicts. The RCRA and AEA regulations are really more similar than dissimilar. There are significant issues that must be worked through with the regulators. It is most important to work with your regulators early in process. The following are suggestions for dealing with the regulators. (1) Know the regulations in advance of discussions. (2) Begin dialogue with the regulator(s) as early as possible and get to know the people you will be dealing with -- and let them know you. (3) Explain the technical/regulatory issues/problems that you face at your facility in sufficient detail that they are clearly understood, and work with the regulator(s) to reasonably address them in the language/requirements of the permit. (4) Always attempt to comply with the regulations first before going in with a variance request -- document your efforts, and be honest with your assessment of issues. (5) Don't be adversarial -- remember that the regulator has the same objectives as you do. 1 tab

  18. Frontiers of environmental regulation: environmental management systems: a regulator`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.J. [South Australian Dept. of Mines and Energy, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Leading edge companies throughout the world have embraced management systems to achieve optimal sustainable performance in the ever changing business environment of the 1990s. Given that the natural environment and environmental performance have become major issues affecting organizations, the need for integrating environmental management with all the other components of an organization`s overall management approach is now widely recognized. This paper is organized in five parts. The first explores recently released environmental standards, the interim environmental management systems (EMS) general guidelines standard AS/NZS ISO 14004 (Int) and identifies how this has dealt with the regulator/community/company interface. The second identifies company requirements for addressing environmental issues. The third, considers regulatory theory to identify current requirements for an effective regulatory system and how this can interface with a company`s EMS. These form the basis in the fourth section for identifying some opportunities which occur at the company/ regulator interface. The fifth and final section draws a number of conclusions about the current frontiers of environmental regulation. The coincidence of the requirements of a regulatory framework with the areas of interface between what is referred to in the draft International Standard for EMS as `Interested Parties`, the regulators and community, are identified. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 20 refs.

  19. 75 FR 10997 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations; Sudanese Sanctions Regulations; Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... specific license, or otherwise exempt, the exportation of such services and software from the United States... services and software. Paragraph (c) of each of these two sections provides that specific licenses may be... Iranian Transactions Regulations to authorize the exportation of certain services and software incident to...

  20. Information, Interests, and Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination of informa......This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination...... of information processing and interest group literatures, we develop hypotheses about regulatees' reliance upon and the influence of different sources of information. We test these hypotheses for Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental rules. Our findings show that information plays a role in bringing...

  1. Ligand-regulated peptide aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell A

    2009-01-01

    The peptide aptamer approach employs high-throughput selection to identify members of a randomized peptide library displayed from a scaffold protein by virtue of their interaction with a target molecule. Extending this approach, we have developed a peptide aptamer scaffold protein that can impart small-molecule control over the aptamer-target interaction. This ligand-regulated peptide (LiRP) scaffold, consisting of the protein domains FKBP12, FRB, and GST, binds to the cell-permeable small-molecule rapamycin and the binding of this molecule can prevent the interaction of the randomizable linker region connecting FKBP12 with FRB. Here we present a detailed protocol for the creation of a peptide aptamer plasmid library, selection of peptide aptamers using the LiRP scaffold in a yeast two-hybrid system, and the screening of those peptide aptamers for a ligand-regulated interaction.

  2. Electric Power Regulation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, J V [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The history of the electrical power sector in Mexico, the prominent role that government plays in the generation, transformation, distribution and supply of electrical power, and the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for this sector were summarized. The slow pace of the Mexican electricity sector in achieving cost efficiency through pricing policy was criticized, and the issue of regulation versus deregulation of the electricity sector was examined in the context of NAFTA, emphasizing the contradiction between the idea of international trade and a highly regulated industry. Revisions of the original constitutional article to exclude electrical power generation from governmental control and to allow market mechanisms and competition to lower costs and increase efficiency was recommended.It was considered a pre-condition to a stable balance between competition and energy efficient environmentally friendly practices.

  3. Decentralized method for utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh); Magat, W.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new institutional arrangement for regulating utilities is suggested that minimizes the costs of natural monopolies. A mixture of regulation and franchising, the plan draws on the advantages of each and eliminates many of the problems. The proposal allows utilities to set their own price on the basis of demand and marginal-cost projections. Subsidies are provided by the regulatory agency if there is a consumer surplus. The system encourages the utility to select a competitive price and to produce only the amount of service needed. Operating efficiency is encouraged by rewarding cost reductions and discouraging cost overstatement at the rate review. The regulatory agency would not need to take action to bring price and marginal costs into equality. The franchise sale can be made by competitive bidding, in which the bidders would capitalize part or all of the subsidy or the regulatory agency could recover the subsidy in a lump-sum tax on the utility.

  4. Regulating health: transcending disciplinary boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2013-03-01

    Health and health care problems can be addressed from multiple disciplinary perspectives. This raises challenges for how to do cross-disciplinary scholarship in ways that are still robust, rigorous and coherent. This paper sets out one particular approach to cross-cutting research--regulation--which has proved extremely fertile for scholars working in diverse fields, from coal mine safety to tax compliance. The first part of the paper considers how regulatory ideas might be applied to health and health care research in general. The second part goes on to sketch out how a regulation perspective on one specific area, illicit drug policy, can open up new directions for research. In conclusion, a future research agenda is outlined for regulatory scholarship on health and health care.

  5. Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Yoo, Seung Hee; Nakagawa, Sanae

    2008-06-01

    This article reports differences across 23 countries on 2 processes of emotion regulation--reappraisal and suppression. Cultural dimensions were correlated with country means on both and the relationship between them. Cultures that emphasized the maintenance of social order--that is, those that were long-term oriented and valued embeddedness and hierarchy--tended to have higher scores on suppression, and reappraisal and suppression tended to be positively correlated. In contrast, cultures that minimized the maintenance of social order and valued individual Affective Autonomy and Egalitarianism tended to have lower scores on Suppression, and Reappraisal and Suppression tended to be negatively correlated. Moreover, country-level emotion regulation was significantly correlated with country-level indices of both positive and negative adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Public regulation of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtheret, M.; Cormis, de

    1980-01-01

    The construction and operation of nuclear plants are subject to a complex system of governmental administration. The authors list the various governmental authorisations and rules applicable to these plants. In the first part, they describe the national regulations which relate specifically to nuclear plants, and emphasize the provisions which are intended to ensure the safety of the installations and the protection of the public against ionizing radiation. However, while the safety of nuclear plants is a major concern of the authorities, other interests are also protected. This is accomplished by various laws or regulations which apply to nuclear plants as well as other industrial installations. The duties which these texts, and the administrative practice based thereon, impose on Electricite de France are covered in the second part [fr

  7. Epigenetic microRNA Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complementary sequences in the 3’UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence suggests that certain miRNAs are enriched in the nucleus, and their t......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complementary sequences in the 3’UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence suggests that certain miRNAs are enriched in the nucleus...

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hee Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has been rapidly increasing worldwide over the last several decades and has become a major health problem in developed countries. The brain, especially the hypothalamus, plays a key role in the control of food intake by sensing metabolic signals from peripheral organs and modulating feeding behaviors. To accomplish these important roles, the hypothalamus communicates with other brain areas such as the brainstem and reward-related limbic pathways. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and pancreatic β-cell-derived insulin inform adiposity to the hypothalamus. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and oxyntomodulin transfer satiety signals to the brain and ghrelin relays hunger signals. The endocannabinoid system and nutrients are also involved in the physiological regulation of food intake. In this article, we briefly review physiological mechanisms of appetite regulation.

  9. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    the Danfoss refrigeration test centre. The complexities of modelling demand response are demonstrated through simulation. Simulations are conducted by placing the identified model in a direct-control demand response architecture, with power reference tracking using model predictive control. The energylimited......This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... nature of demand response from refrigeration is identified as the key consideration when considering participation in the regulating power market. It is demonstrated that by restricting the operating regions of the supermarket refrigeration system, a simple relationship can be found between the available...

  10. Epigenetic regulation of photoperiodic flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2010-01-01

    The cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, induced flowering in the non-vernalization-requiring plants Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Silene armeria and Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil) under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions, suggesting that the expression of photoperiodic flowering-related genes is regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The flowering state induced by DNA demethylation was not heritable. Changes in the genome-wide methylation state we...

  11. Insurance: Accounting, Regulation, Actuarial Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Tosetti; Thomas Behar; Michel Fromenteau; Stéphane Ménart

    2001-01-01

    We shall be examining the following topics: (i) basic frameworks for accounting and for statutory insurance rules; and (ii) actuarial principles of insurance; for both life and nonlife (i.e. casualty and property) insurance.Section 1 introduces insurance terminology, regarding what an operation must include in order to be an insurance operation (the legal, statistical, financial or economic aspects), and introduces the accounting and regulation frameworks and the two actuarial models of insur...

  12. Radiation Safety (Qualifications) Regulations 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These Regulations, promulgated pursuant to the provisions of the Radiation Safety Act, 1975-1979, require persons engaged in activities involving radiation to pass a radiation safety examination or to possess an approved qualification in radiation. The National Health and Medical Research Council is authorised to exempt persons from compliance with these requirements or, conversely, to impose such requirements on persons other than those designated. (NEA) [fr

  13. Illiquidity, insolvency, and banking regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a compact framework for banking regulation analysis in the presence of uncertainty between systemic liquidity and solvency shocks. Extending the work by Cao & Illing (2009a, b), it is shown that systemic liquidity shortage arises endogenously as part of the inferior mixed strategy equilibrium. The paper compares dierent traditional regulatory policies which intend to fix the ineciencies, and argues that the co-existence of illiquidity and insolvency problems adds extra ...

  14. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  15. Regulators of Tfh cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Motiram Jogdand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The follicular helper T (Tfh cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching and germinal center formation. The Tfh cells are characterized by the expression of CXCR5, ICOS, PD-1, Bcl-6, and IL-21. They are involved in clearing infections and are adversely linked with autoimmune diseases and also have a role in viral replication as well as clearance. Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin A, migration and positioning in the germinal center by CXCR5, surface receptors (ICOS/ICOSL, SAP/SLAM as well as transcription factor (Bcl-6, c-Maf, STAT3 signaling and repressor miR155. On the other hand Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7, surface receptor (PD-1, CTLA-4, transcription factors Blimp-1, STAT5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling and repressor miR 146a. Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the time of expression and disease specificity. Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh during viral infection. The mechanistic details of effector T cells conversion into Tfh are yet to be clear. To manipulate Tfh cells for therapeutic implication and or for effective vaccination strategies, it is important to know positive and negative regulators of Tfh generation. Hence, in this review we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin Ligase and miRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation.

  16. Regulation of eucaryotic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.; Ptashne, M.S

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a method of regulating the expression of a gene in a eucaryotic cell. The method consists of: providing in the eucaryotic cell, a peptide, derived from or substantially similar to a peptide of a procaryotic cell able to bind to DNA upstream from or within the gene, the amount of the peptide being sufficient to bind to the gene and thereby control expression of the gene.

  17. On self regulation and laughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

      Abstract: The paper addresses the new premises for being a professional in the increasing virtual reality of universities. The new premises are being exemplified with the expansion of the professional duties of the university scholar to extend beyond merely acting as a disseminator of knowledge...... that video streaming increases self regulation and laughter. The discussions are based on empirical material in relation to both video streamed teaching sessions and online discussions....

  18. Self-regulation: the need to succeed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry has long complained that it is over-regulated. Others - including the regulator - are now beginning to accept this complaint and acknowledge that perhaps the industry is over regulated and something should be done to provide relief. It is clear that regulation will not simply go away. The industry is perceived by some as one that cannot be trusted and must be closely regulated or serious health and safety consequences will result. Headlines claiming coverup of design deficiencies, allegations concerning construction problems, cheating on exams, mismanagement, intimidation of QA/QC personnel, etc., do little to dispel these concerns for the layman. This paper looks at two areas that must be considered in attempting to decrease the amount of regulator-imposed activities and increase self-regulation: 1) establish greater trust and confidence in the industry's ability to do a good job and be responsible for self-regulation; and 2) establish industry initiatives to regulate itself

  19. Circadian Regulation of Glutamate Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donají Chi-Castañeda

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available L-glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS. This neurotransmitter is essential for higher brain functions such as learning, cognition and memory. A tight regulation of extra-synaptic glutamate levels is needed to prevent a neurotoxic insult. Glutamate removal from the synaptic cleft is carried out by a family of sodium-dependent high-affinity transporters, collectively known as excitatory amino acid transporters. Dysfunction of glutamate transporters is generally involved in acute neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases, so characterizing and understanding the mechanisms that lead to the development of these disorders is an important goal in the design of novel treatments for the neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence indicates glutamate transporters are controlled by the circadian system in direct and indirect manners, so in this contribution we focus on the mechanisms of circadian regulation (transcriptional, translational, post-translational and post-transcriptional regulation of glutamate transport in neuronal and glial cells, and their consequence in brain function.

  20. Redox regulation of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2014-09-20

    We provide a conceptual framework for the interactions between the cellular redox signaling hub and the phytohormone signaling network that controls plant growth and development to maximize plant productivity under stress-free situations, while limiting growth and altering development on exposure to stress. Enhanced cellular oxidation plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and stress responses. Oxidative signals or cycles of oxidation and reduction are crucial for the alleviation of dormancy and quiescence, activating the cell cycle and triggering genetic and epigenetic control that underpin growth and differentiation responses to changing environmental conditions. The redox signaling hub interfaces directly with the phytohormone network in the synergistic control of growth and its modulation in response to environmental stress, but a few components have been identified. Accumulating evidence points to a complex interplay of phytohormone and redox controls that operate at multiple levels. For simplicity, we focus here on redox-dependent processes that control root growth and development and bud burst. The multiple roles of reactive oxygen species in the control of plant growth and development have been identified, but increasing emphasis should now be placed on the functions of redox-regulated proteins, along with the central roles of reductants such as NAD(P)H, thioredoxins, glutathione, glutaredoxins, peroxiredoxins, ascorbate, and reduced ferredoxin in the regulation of the genetic and epigenetic factors that modulate the growth and vigor of crop plants, particularly within an agricultural context.