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Sample records for regulate vaccinia virus

  1. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  2. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Smallpox was eradicated more than 25 years ago, but live viruses used in vaccines may have survived to cause animal and human illness today. Dr. Inger Damon, Acting Branch Chief of the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, discusses efforts to determine origins and spread of vaccinia viruses in Brazil.

  3. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-07-30

    Smallpox was eradicated more than 25 years ago, but live viruses used in vaccines may have survived to cause animal and human illness today. Dr. Inger Damon, Acting Branch Chief of the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, discusses efforts to determine origins and spread of vaccinia viruses in Brazil.  Created: 7/30/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2007.

  4. Vaccinia Virus Infections in a Martial Arts Gym

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses an outbreak of vaccinia virus in Maryland in 2008. Christine Hughes, a health scientist with the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, and co-author of a paper in the April 2011 issue of CDC's journal, discusses vaccinia virus infections in a martial arts gym.

  5. Plasmodium knowlesi Sporozoite Antigen: Expression by Infectious Recombinant Vaccinia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Godson, G. Nigel; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.; Barnwell, John; Moss, Bernard

    1984-04-01

    The gene coding for the circumsporozoite antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a defined vaccinia virus promoter. Cells infected with the recombinant virus synthesized polypeptides of 53,000 to 56,000 daltons that reacted with monoclonal antibody against the repeating epitope of the malaria protein. Furthermore, rabbits vaccinated with the recombinant virus produced antibodies that bound specifically to sporozoites. These data provide evidence for expression of a cloned malaria gene in mammalian cells and illustrate the potential of vaccinia virus recombinants as live malaria vaccines.

  6. Vaccinia Virus Infections in a Martial Arts Gym

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses an outbreak of vaccinia virus in Maryland in 2008. Christine Hughes, a health scientist with the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, and co-author of a paper in the April 2011 issue of CDC's journal, discusses vaccinia virus infections in a martial arts gym.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2011.

  7. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meseda, Clement A.; Srinivasan, Kumar; Wise, Jasen; Catalano, Jennifer; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection

  8. Immunodomination during peripheral vaccinia virus infection.

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    Leon C W Lin

    Full Text Available Immunodominance is a fundamental property of CD8(+ T cell responses to viruses and vaccines. It had been observed that route of administration alters immunodominance after vaccinia virus (VACV infection, but only a few epitopes were examined and no mechanism was provided. We re-visited this issue, examining a panel of 15 VACV epitopes and four routes, namely intradermal (i.d., subcutaneous (s.c., intraperitoneal (i.p. and intravenous (i.v. injection. We found that immunodominance is sharpened following peripheral routes of infection (i.d. and s.c. compared with those that allow systemic virus dissemination (i.p. and i.v.. This increased immunodominance was demonstrated with native epitopes of VACV and with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B when expressed from VACV. Responses to some subdominant epitopes were altered by as much as fourfold. Tracking of virus, examination of priming sites, and experiments restricting virus spread showed that priming of CD8(+ T cells in the spleen was necessary, but not sufficient to broaden responses. Further, we directly demonstrated that immunodomination occurs more readily when priming is mainly in lymph nodes. Finally, we were able to reduce immunodominance after i.d., but not i.p. infection, using a VACV expressing the costimulators CD80 (B7-1 and CD86 (B7-2, which is notable because VACV-based vaccines incorporating these molecules are in clinical trials. Taken together, our data indicate that resources for CD8(+ T cell priming are limiting in local draining lymph nodes, leading to greater immunodomination. Further, we provide evidence that costimulation can be a limiting factor that contributes to immunodomination. These results shed light on a possible mechanism of immunodomination and highlight the need to consider multiple epitopes across the spectrum of immunogenicities in studies aimed at understanding CD8(+ T cell immunity to viruses.

  9. Resistance to Two Heterologous Neurotropic Oncolytic Viruses, Semliki Forest Virus and Vaccinia Virus, in Experimental Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Lemay, Chantal; De Silva, Naomi; Diallo, Jean-Simon; Cox, Julie; Becker, Michelle; Choi, Youngmin; Ananth, Abhirami; Sellers, Clara; Breton, Sophie; Roy, Dominic; Falls, Theresa; Brun, Jan; Hemminki, Akseli; Hinkkanen, Ari; Bell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuated Semliki Forest virus (SFV) may be suitable for targeting malignant glioma due to its natural neurotropism, but its replication in brain tumor cells may be restricted by innate antiviral defenses. We attempted to facilitate SFV replication in glioma cells by combining it with vaccinia virus, which is capable of antagonizing such defenses. Surprisingly, we found parenchymal mouse brain tumors to be refractory to both viruses. Also, vaccinia virus appears to be sensitive to SFV-induced antiviral interference. PMID:23221568

  10. Susceptibility of different leukocyte cell types to Vaccinia virus infection

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    Sánchez-Puig Juana M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family Poxviridae, was used extensively in the past as the Smallpox vaccine, and is currently considered as a candidate vector for new recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus has a wide host range, and is known to infect cultures of a variety of cell lines of mammalian origin. However, little is known about the virus tropism in human leukocyte populations. We report here that various cell types within leukocyte populations have widely different susceptibility to infection with vaccinia virus. Results We have investigated the ability of vaccinia virus to infect human PBLs by using virus recombinants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, and monoclonal antibodies specific for PBL subpopulations. Flow cytometry allowed the identification of infected cells within the PBL mixture 1–5 hours after infection. Antibody labeling revealed that different cell populations had very different infection rates. Monocytes showed the highest percentage of infected cells, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast to those cell types, the rate of infection of T lymphocytes was low. Comparison of vaccinia virus strains WR and MVA showed that both strains infected efficiently the monocyte population, although producing different expression levels. Our results suggest that MVA was less efficient than WR in infecting NK cells and B lymphocytes. Overall, both WR and MVA consistently showed a strong preference for the infection of non-T cells. Conclusions When infecting fresh human PBL preparations, vaccinia virus showed a strong bias towards the infection of monocytes, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast, very poor infection of T lymphocytes was detected. These finding may have important implications both in our understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of improved smallpox vaccines.

  11. Vaccinia virus vectors: new strategies for producing recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, D E

    1990-01-01

    The development and continued refinement of techniques for the efficient insertion and expression of heterologous DNA sequences from within the genomic context of infectious vaccinia virus recombinants are among the most promising current approaches towards effective immunoprophylaxis against a variety of protozoan, viral, and bacterial human pathogens. Because of its medical relevance, this area is the subject of intense research interest and has evolved rapidly during the past several years. This review (i) provides an updated overview of the technology that exists for assembling recombinant vaccinia virus strains, (ii) discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, (iii) outlines the areas of outgoing research directed towards overcoming the limitations of current techniques, and (iv) provides some insight (i.e., speculation) about probable future refinements in the use of vaccinia virus as a vector. PMID:2187593

  12. Vaccinia virus as a subhelper for AAV replication and packaging

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    Andrea R Moore

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV has been widely used as a gene therapy vector to treat a variety of disorders. While these vectors are increasingly popular and successful in the clinic, there is still much to learn about the viruses. Understanding the biology of these viruses is essential in engineering better vectors and generating vectors more efficiently for large-scale use. AAV requires a helper for production and replication making this aspect of the viral life cycle crucial. Vaccinia virus (VV has been widely cited as a helper virus for AAV. However, to date, there are no detailed analyses of its helper function. Here, the helper role of VV was studied in detail. In contrast to common belief, we demonstrated that VV was not a sufficient helper virus for AAV replication. Vaccinia failed to produce rAAV and activate AAV promoters. While this virus could not support rAAV production, Vaccinia could initiate AAV replication and packaging when AAV promoter activation is not necessary. This activity is due to the ability of Vaccinia-driven Rep78 to transcribe in the cytoplasm and subsequently translate in the nucleus and undergo typical functions in the AAV life cycle. As such, VV is subhelper for AAV compared to complete helper functions of adenovirus.

  13. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); G. van Amerongen (Geert); I. Kondova (Ivanela); R.F. van Lavieren (Rob); F.H. Pistoor (Frank); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard); B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben); L. Mateo (Luis); P.J. Chaplin (Paul); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe use of classical smallpox vaccines based on vaccinia virus (VV) is associated with severe complications in both naive and immune individuals. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated replication-deficient strain of VV, has been proven to be safe in humans and

  14. Hydroxyurea-resistant vaccinia virus: overproduction of ribonucleotide reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabaugh, M.B.; Mathews, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated passage of vaccinia virus in increasing concentrations of hydroxyurea followed by plaque purification resulted in the isolation of variants capable of growth in 5 mM hydroxyurea, a drug concentration which inhibited the reproduction of wild-type vaccinia virus 1000-fold. Analyses of viral protein synthesis by using [ 35 S]methionine pulse-labeling at intervals throughout the infection cycle revealed that all isolates overproduced a 34,000-molecular-weight (MW) early polypeptide. Measurement of ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity after infection indicated that 4- to 10-fold more activity was induced by hydroxyurea-resistant viruses than by the wild-type virus. A two-step partial purification resulted in a substantial enrichment for the 34,000-MW protein from extracts of wild-type and hydroxyurea-resistant-virus-infected, but not mock-infected, cells. In the presence of the drug, the isolates incorporated [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA earlier and a rate substantially greater than that of the wild type, although the onset of DNA synthesis was delayed in both cases. The drug resistance trait was markedly unstable in all isolates. In the absence of selective pressure, plaque-purified isolated readily segregated progeny that displayed a wide range of resistance phenotypes. The results of this study indicate that vaccinia virus encodes a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase which is 34,000-MW early protein whose overproduction confers hydroxyurea resistance on reproducing viruses

  15. Mapping the active site of vaccinia virus RNA triphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Chunling; Shuman, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    The RNA triphosphatase component of vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme (the product of the viral D1 gene) belongs to a family of metal-dependent phosphohydrolases that includes the RNA triphosphatases of fungi, protozoa, Chlorella virus, and baculoviruses. The family is defined by two glutamate-containing motifs (A and C) that form the metal-binding site. Most of the family members resemble the fungal and Chlorella virus enzymes, which have a complex active site located within the hydrophilic interior of a topologically closed eight-stranded β barrel (the so-called ''triphosphate tunnel''). Here we queried whether vaccinia virus capping enzyme is a member of the tunnel subfamily, via mutational mapping of amino acids required for vaccinia triphosphatase activity. We identified four new essential side chains in vaccinia D1 via alanine scanning and illuminated structure-activity relationships by conservative substitutions. Our results, together with previous mutational data, highlight a constellation of six acidic and three basic amino acids that likely compose the vaccinia triphosphatase active site (Glu37, Glu39, Arg77, Lys107, Glu126, Asp159, Lys161, Glu192, and Glu194). These nine essential residues are conserved in all vertebrate and invertebrate poxvirus RNA capping enzymes. We discerned no pattern of clustering of the catalytic residues of the poxvirus triphosphatase that would suggest structural similarity to the tunnel proteins (exclusive of motifs A and C). We infer that the poxvirus triphosphatases are a distinct lineage within the metal-dependent RNA triphosphatase family. Their unique active site, which is completely different from that of the host cell's capping enzyme, recommends the poxvirus RNA triphosphatase as a molecular target for antipoxviral drug discovery

  16. Early death after feline infectious peritonitis virus challenge due to recombinant vaccinia virus immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennema, H; de Groot, R J; Harbour, D A; Dalderup, M; Gruffydd-Jones, T; Horzinek, M C; Spaan, W J

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding the fusogenic spike protein of the coronavirus causing feline infectious peritonitis was recombined into the genome of vaccinia virus. The recombinant induced spike-protein-specific, in vitro neutralizing antibodies in mice. When kittens were immunized with the recombinant, low titers of neutralizing antibodies were obtained. After challenge with feline infectious peritonitis virus, these animals succumbed earlier than did the control group immunized with wild-type vaccinia virus (early death syndrome). Images PMID:2154621

  17. Clinical signs, diagnosis, and case reports of Vaccinia virus infections

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    Daniela Carla Medeiros Silva

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus is responsible for a zoonosis that usually affects cattle and human beings in Brazil. The initial clinical signs of the infection are focal red skin areas, fever, and general symptoms similar to those of a cold. Then, pustules and ulcerated lesions surrounded by edema and erythema follow, as well as local lymphadenopathy that can last for weeks. Cure and healing of the lesions occur over several weeks, leaving a typical scar in the skin of people and animals affected. The infection definitive diagnosis is made through morphological characterization of the virus by use of electron microscopy, followed by PCR for specific viral genes. Since 1963, circulating orthopoxviruses in infectious outbreaks in several regions of Brazil have been reported. Later, the etiological agent of those infections was characterized as samples of Vaccinia virus. In addition, the widespread use of those viruses in research laboratories and mass vaccination of militaries have contributed to increase the cases of those infections worldwide. Thus, several epidemiological and clinical studies are required, as well as studies of viral immunology, public health, and economic impact, because little is known about those Vaccinia virus outbreaks in Brazil.

  18. Cytoplasmic ATR Activation Promotes Vaccinia Virus Genome Replication

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    Antonio Postigo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Consistent with this, pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of canonical ATR signaling suppresses genome replication. RPA and the sliding clamp PCNA interact with the viral polymerase E9 and are required for DNA replication. Moreover, the ATR activator TOPBP1 promotes genome replication and associates with the viral replisome component H5. Our study suggests that, in contrast to long-held beliefs, vaccinia recruits conserved components of the eukaryote DNA replication and repair machinery to amplify its genome in the host cytoplasm.

  19. Studies on the serological relationships between avian pox, sheep pox, goat pox and vaccinia viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, P. K.; Nilakantan, P. R.

    1970-01-01

    By using neutralization, complement fixation and immunogel-diffusion tests, it has been demonstrated that cross-reactions occur between various avian pox viruses and between sheep pox and goat pox viruses. No such reactions were demonstrated between avian pox viruses and vaccinia virus or between avian pox and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. Furthermore, no serological relationship was demonstrable between vaccinia virus and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. PMID:4989854

  20. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R.; Burton, Robyn-Lee; Schriewer, Jill; Evans, David H.; Buller, R. Mark; Barry, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus

  1. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R.; Burton, Robyn-Lee [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada); Schriewer, Jill [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Evans, David H. [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada); Buller, R. Mark [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Barry, Michele, E-mail: michele.barry@ualberta.ca [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus.

  2. Analysis of variola and vaccinia virus neutralization assays for smallpox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine M; Newman, Frances K; Davidson, Whitni B; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Holman, Robert C; Yan, Lihan; Frey, Sharon E; Belshe, Robert B; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K

    2012-07-01

    Possible smallpox reemergence drives research for third-generation vaccines that effectively neutralize variola virus. A comparison of neutralization assays using different substrates, variola and vaccinia (Dryvax and modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA]), showed significantly different 90% neutralization titers; Dryvax underestimated while MVA overestimated variola neutralization. Third-generation vaccines may rely upon neutralization as a correlate of protection.

  3. Protection of Mice from Lethal Vaccinia Virus Infection by Vaccinia Virus Protein Subunits with a CpG Adjuvant

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    Sarah Reeman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox vaccination carries a high risk of adverse events in recipients with a variety of contra-indications for live vaccines. Although alternative non-replicating vaccines have been described in the form of replication-deficient vaccine viruses, DNA vaccines, and subunit vaccines, these are less efficacious than replicating vaccines in animal models. DNA and subunit vaccines in particular have not been shown to give equivalent protection to the traditional replicating smallpox vaccine. We show here that combinations of the orthopoxvirus A27, A33, B5 and L1 proteins give differing levels of protection when administered in different combinations with different adjuvants. In particular, the combination of B5 and A27 proteins adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN gives a level of protection in mice that is equivalent to the Lister traditional vaccine in a lethal vaccinia virus challenge model.

  4. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric proteins of human immunodeficiency virus and gamma interferon are attenuated for nude mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Giavedoni, L D; Jones, L; Gardner, M B; Gibson, H L; Ng, C T; Barr, P J; Yilma, T

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a method for attenuating vaccinia virus recombinants by expressing a fusion protein of a lymphokine and an immunogen. Chimeric genes were constructed that coded for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and structural proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study, we describe the biological and immunological properties of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric genes of murine or human IFN-gamma with glycoprotein gp120, gag, and a fragment of gp41...

  5. Modulation of gene expression in a human cell line caused by poliovirus, vaccinia virus and interferon

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    Hoddevik Gunnar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project was initiated to describe the response of a human embryonic fibroblast cell line to the replication of two different viruses, and, more specifically, to look for candidate genes involved in viral defense. For this purpose, the cells were synchronously infected with poliovirus in the absence or presence of interferon-alpha, or with vaccinia virus, a virus that is not inhibited by interferon. By comparing the changes in transcriptosome due to these different challenges, it should be possible to suggest genes that might be involved in defense. Results The viral titers were sufficient to yield productive infection in a majority of the cells. The cells were harvested in triplicate at various time-points, and the transcriptosome compared with mock infected cells using oligo-based, global 35 k microarrays. While there was very limited similarities in the response to the different viruses, a large proportion of the genes up-regulated by interferon-alpha were also up-regulated by poliovirus. Interferon-alpha inhibited poliovirus replication, but there were no signs of any interferons being induced by poliovirus. The observations suggest that the cells do launch an antiviral response to poliovirus in the absence of interferon. Analyses of the data led to a list of candidate antiviral genes. Functional information was limited, or absent, for most of the candidate genes. Conclusion The data are relevant for our understanding of how the cells respond to poliovirus and vaccinia virus infection. More annotations, and more microarray studies with related viruses, are required in order to narrow the list of putative defence-related genes.

  6. Intrafamilial Transmission of Vaccinia virus during a Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak in Brazil: A New Insight in Viral Transmission Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Oliveira, Graziele; Tavares Silva Fernandes, André; Lopes de Assis, Felipe; Augusto Alves, Pedro; Moreira Franco Luiz, Ana Paula; Barcelos Figueiredo, Leandra; Costa de Almeida, Cláudia Maria; Pires Ferreira Travassos, Carlos Eurico; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Santos Abrahão, Jônatas; Geessien Kroon, Erna

    2014-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is an emerging zoonosis caused by the Vaccinia virus (VACV), genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV), Poxviridae family. In general, human cases are related to direct contact with sick cattle but there is a lack of information about human-to-human transmission of VACV during BV outbreaks. In this study, we epidemiologically and molecularly show a case of VACV transmission between humans in São Francisco de Itabapoana County, Rio de Janeiro state. Our group collected samples from the patients, a 49-year-old patient and his son. Our results showed that patients had developed anti-OPV IgG or IgM antibodies and presented neutralizing antibodies against OPV. The VACV isolates displayed high identity (99.9%) and were grouped in the same phylogenetic tree branch. Our data indicate that human-to-human VACV transmission occurred during a BV outbreak, raising new questions about the risk factors of the VACV transmission chain. PMID:24615135

  7. Molecular genetic analysis of a vaccinia virus gene with an essential role in DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The poxvirus, vaccinia, is large DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasma of the host cell. The virus is believed to encode most or all of the functions required for the temporally regulated transcription and replication of its 186 kilobase genome. Physical and genetic autonomy from the host make vaccinia a useful eukaryotic organism in which to study replication genes and proteins, using a combination of biochemical and genetic techniques. Essential viral functions for replication are identified by conditional lethal mutants that fail to synthesize DNA at the non-permissive temperatures. One such group contains the non-complementing alleles ts17, ts24, ts69 (WR strain). Studies were undertaken to define the phenotype of ts mutants, and to identify and characterize the affected gene and protein. Mutant infection was essentially normal at 32 degree C, but at 39 degree C the mutants did not incorporate 3 H-thymidine into nascent viral DNA or synthesize late viral proteins. If mutant cultures were shifted to non-permissive conditions at the height of replication, DNA synthesis was halted rapidly, implying that the mutants are defective in DNA elongation. The gene affected in the WR mutants and in ts6389, a DNA-minus mutant of the IHD strain, was mapped by marker rescue and corresponds to open reading frame 5 (orfD5) of the viral HindIII D fragment

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: vaccinia virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term vaccinia virus 名詞 一般 * * * * ワクシニ...アウイルス ワクシニアウイルス ワクシニアウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906001583798830 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 vaccinia virus

  9. Can vaccinia virus be replaced by MVA virus for testing virucidal activity of chemical disinfectants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV is a test virus in the DVV/RKI guidelines as representative of the stable enveloped viruses. Since the potential risk of laboratory-acquired infections with VACV persists and since the adverse effects of vaccination with VACV are described, the replacement of VACV by the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA was studied by testing the activity of different chemical biocides in three German laboratories. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides (peracetic acid, aldehydes and alcohols were tested in a quantitative suspension test according to the DVV/RKI guideline. All tests were performed with a protein load of 10% fetal calf serum with both viruses in parallel using different concentrations and contact times. Residual virus was determined by endpoint dilution method. Results The chemical biocides exhibited similar virucidal activity against VACV and MVA. In three cases intra-laboratory differences were determined between VACV and MVA - 40% (v/v ethanol and 30% (v/v isopropanol are more active against MVA, whereas MVA seems more stable than VACV when testing with 0.05% glutardialdehyde. Test accuracy across the three participating laboratories was high. Remarkably inter-laboratory differences in the reduction factor were only observed in two cases. Conclusions Our data provide valuable information for the replacement of VACV by MVA for testing chemical biocides and disinfectants. Because MVA does not replicate in humans this would eliminate the potential risk of inadvertent inoculation with vaccinia virus and disease in non-vaccinated laboratory workers.

  10. Increased ATP generation in the host cell is required for efficient vaccinia virus production

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    Hsu Che-Fang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To search for cellular genes up-regulated by vaccinia virus (VV infection, differential display-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ddRT-PCR assays were used to examine the expression of mRNAs from mock-infected and VV-infected HeLa cells. Two mitochondrial genes for proteins that are part of the electron transport chain that generates ATP, ND4 and CO II, were up-regulated after VV infection. Up-regulation of ND4 level by VV infection was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. Up-regulation of ND4 was reduced by the MAPK inhibitor, apigenin, which has been demonstrated elsewhere to inhibit VV replication. The induction of ND4 expression occurred after viral DNA replication since ara C, an inhibitor of poxviral DNA replication, could block this induction. ATP production was increased in the host cells after VV infection. Moreover, 4.5 μM oligomycin, an inhibitor of ATP production, reduced the ATP level 13 hr after virus infection to that of mock-infected cells and inhibited viral protein expression and virus production, suggesting that increased ATP production is required for efficient VV production. Our results further suggest that induction of ND4 expression is through a Bcl-2 independent pathway.

  11. Use of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing interferon gamma for post-exposure protection against vaccinia and ectromelia viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A Holechek

    Full Text Available Post-exposure vaccination with vaccinia virus (VACV has been suggested to be effective in minimizing death if administered within four days of smallpox exposure. While there is anecdotal evidence for efficacy of post-exposure vaccination this has not been definitively studied in humans. In this study, we analyzed post-exposure prophylaxis using several attenuated recombinant VACV in a mouse model. A recombinant VACV expressing murine interferon gamma (IFN-γ was most effective for post-exposure protection of mice infected with VACV and ectromelia virus (ECTV. Untreated animals infected with VACV exhibited severe weight loss and morbidity leading to 100% mortality by 8 to 10 days post-infection. Animals treated one day post-infection had milder symptoms, decreased weight loss and morbidity, and 100% survival. Treatment on days 2 or 3 post-infection resulted in 40% and 20% survival, respectively. Similar results were seen in ECTV-infected mice. Despite the differences in survival rates in the VACV model, the viral load was similar in both treated and untreated mice while treated mice displayed a high level of IFN-γ in the serum. These results suggest that protection provided by IFN-γ expressed by VACV may be mediated by its immunoregulatory activities rather than its antiviral effects. These results highlight the importance of IFN-γ as a modulator of the immune response for post-exposure prophylaxis and could be used potentially as another post-exposure prophylaxis tool to prevent morbidity following infection with smallpox and other orthopoxviruses.

  12. Relationship between RNA polymerase II and efficiency of vaccinia virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilton, S.; Dales, S.

    1989-01-01

    It is clear from previous studies that host transcriptase or RNA polymerase II (pol II) has a role in poxvirus replication. To elucidate the participation of this enzyme further, in this study the authors examined several parameters related to pol II during the cycle of vaccinia virus infection in L-strain fibroblasts, HeLa cells, and L 6 H 9 rat myoblasts. Nucleocytoplasmic transposition of pol II into virus factories and virions was assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting by using anti-pol II immunoglobulin G. RNA polymerase activities were compared in nuclear extracts containing cured enzyme preparations. Rates of translation into cellular or viral polypeptides were ascertained by labeling with [ 35 S]methionine. In L and HeLa cells, which produced vaccinia virus more abundantly, the rate of RNA polymerase and translation in controls and following infection were higher than in myoblasts. The data on synthesis and virus formation could be correlated with observations on transmigration of pol II, which was more efficient and complete in L and HeLa cells. The stimulus for pol II to leave the nucleus required the expression of both early and late viral functions. On the basis of current and past information, the authors suggest that mobilization of pol II depends on the efficiency of vaccinia virus replication and furthermore that control over vaccinia virus production by the host is related to the content or availability (or both) of pol II in different cell types

  13. Mutations Conferring Resistance to Viral DNA Polymerase Inhibitors in Camelpox Virus Give Different Drug-Susceptibility Profiles in Vaccinia Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duraffour, S.; Andrei, G.; Topalis, D.; Krečmerová, Marcela; Crance, J. M.; Garin, D.; Snoeck, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 13 (2012), s. 7310-7325 ISSN 0022-538X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : camelpox virus * CMLV * vaccinia virus VACV * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * HPMPDAP * cidofovir * drug resistance Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.076, year: 2012

  14. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara candidate vaccines delivering West Nile virus envelope antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volz, Asisa; Lim, Stephanie; Kaserer, Martina; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) cycles between insects and wild birds, and is transmitted via mosquito vectors to horses and humans, potentially causing severe neuroinvasive disease. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an advanced viral vector for developing new recombinant vaccines against infectious

  15. Differential antigen requirements for protection against systemic and intranasal vaccinia virus challenges in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufman, David R.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Holterman, Lennart; Ewald, Bonnie A.; Denholtz, Matthew; Devoy, Colleen; Giri, Ayush; Grandpre, Lauren E.; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Franchini, Genoveffa; Seaman, Michael S.; Havenga, Menzo J. E.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a subunit vaccine for smallpox represents a potential strategy to avoid the safety concerns associated with replication-competent vaccinia virus. Preclinical studies to date with subunit smallpox vaccine candidates, however, have been limited by incomplete information regarding

  16. Attenuation of vaccinia virus by the expression of human Flt3 ligand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žurková, K.; Hainz, P.; Kryštofová, J.; Kutinová, L.; Šanda, Miloslav; Němečková, Š.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2010), 109/1-109/15 ISSN 1743-422X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : vaccinia virus * antibodies * virulence Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.546, year: 2010

  17. Sensitization with vaccinia virus encoding H5N1 hemagglutinin restores immune potential against H5N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Fumihiko; Itoh, Yasushi; Ikejiri, Ai; Kitabatake, Masahiro; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Munekata, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Hayashi, Yukiko; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Nakayama, Misako; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-11-28

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) virus causes elevated mortality compared with seasonal influenza viruses like H1N1 pandemic influenza (H1N1 pdm) virus. We identified a mechanism associated with the severe symptoms seen with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. H5N1 HPAI virus infection induced a decrease of dendritic cell number in the splenic extrafollicular T-cell zone and impaired formation of the outer layers of B-cell follicles, resulting in insufficient levels of antibody production after infection. However, in animals vaccinated with a live recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the H5 hemagglutinin, infection with H5N1 HPAI virus induced parafollicular dendritic cell accumulation and efficient antibody production. These results indicate that a recombinant vaccinia encoding H5 hemagglutinin gene does not impair dendritic cell recruitment and can be a useful vaccine candidate.

  18. Permissivity of the NCI-60 cancer cell lines to oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascierto, Maria Libera; Bedognetti, Davide; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Rossano, Fabio; Ascierto, Paolo A; Stroncek, David F; Restifo, Nicholas P; Wang, Ena; Szalay, Aladar A; Marincola, Francesco M; Worschech, Andrea; Yu, Zhiya; Adams, Sharon; Reinboth, Jennifer; Chen, Nanhai G; Pos, Zoltan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Di Pasquale, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy represents an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. We previously described GLV-1h68, a modified Vaccinia Virus with exclusive tropism for tumor cells, and we observed a cell line-specific relationship between the ability of GLV-1h68 to replicate in vitro and its ability to colonize and eliminate tumor in vivo. In the current study we surveyed the in vitro permissivity to GLV-1h68 replication of the NCI-60 panel of cell lines. Selected cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain. In order to identify correlates of permissity to viral infection, we measured transcriptional profiles of the cell lines prior infection. We observed highly heterogeneous permissivity to VACV infection amongst the cell lines. The heterogeneity of permissivity was independent of tissue with the exception of B cell derivation. Cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain and a significant correlation was found suggesting a common permissive phenotype. While no clear transcriptional pattern could be identified as predictor of permissivity to infection, some associations were observed suggesting multifactorial basis permissivity to viral infection. Our findings have implications for the design of oncolytic therapies for cancer and offer insights into the nature of permissivity of tumor cells to viral infection

  19. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus ankara efficiently induces virus-neutralizing antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Song (Fei); R. Fux (Robert); L.B.V. Provacia (Lisette); A. Volz (Asisa); M. Eickmann; S. Becker (Stephan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); G. Suttera (Gerd)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic

  20. Dominant negative selection of vaccinia virus using a thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase fusion gene and the prodrug azidothymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, Georg W.; Mayrhofer, Josef; Gritschenberger, Werner; Falkner, Falko G.

    2005-01-01

    The Escherichia coli thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase (tk/tmk) fusion gene encodes an enzyme that efficiently converts the prodrug 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) into its toxic triphosphate derivative, a substance which stops DNA chain elongation. Integration of this marker gene into vaccinia virus that normally is not inhibited by AZT allowed the establishment of a powerful selection procedure for recombinant viruses. In contrast to the conventional vaccinia thymidine kinase (tk) selection that is performed in tk-negative cell lines, AZT selection can be performed in normal (tk-positive) cell lines. The technique is especially useful for the generation of replication-deficient vaccinia viruses and may also be used for gene knock-out studies of essential vaccinia genes

  1. Host range restriction of vaccinia virus in Chinese hamster ovary cells: relationship to shutoff of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drillien, R.; Spehner, D.; Kirn, A.

    1978-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were found to be nonpermissive for vaccinia virus. Although early virus-induced events occurred in these cells (RNA and polypeptide synthesis), subsequent events appeared to be prevented by a very rapid and nonselective shutoff of protein synthesis. Within less than 2 h after infection, both host and viral protein syntheses were arrested. At low multiplicities of infection, inhibition of RNA synthesis with cordycepin resulted in failure of the virus to block protein synthesis. Moreover, infection of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide prevented the immediate onset of shutoff after reversal of cycloheximide. Inactivation of virus particles by uv irradiation also impaired the capacity of the virus to inhibit protein synthesis. These results suggested that an early vaccinia virus-coded product was implicated in the shutoff of protein synthesis. Either the nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary cells were more sensitive to this inhibition than permissive cells, or a regulatory control of the vaccinia shutoff function was defective

  2. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus Vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, Eva; Larraga, Vicente; Esteban, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis. Los vectores de la invención contienen secuencias codificantes de la proteína LACK, preferentemente insertadas en el locus de hemaglutinina del virus y bajo el control de un promotor que permite su expresión a lo largo del ciclo de infección del virus. Son vectores seguros, estables, que dan lugar a una potente respuesta inmune que confiere protección frente a la leishmaniasis,...

  3. Modified vaccinia virus ankara recombinants are as potent as vaccinia recombinants in diversified prime and boost vaccine regimens to elicit therapeutic antitumor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James W; Poole, Diane J; Aarts, Wilhelmina M; Gómez Yafal, Alicia; Gritz, Linda; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2003-11-15

    Cancer vaccine regimens use various strategies to enhance immune responses to specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including the increasing use of recombinant poxviruses [vaccinia (rV) and fowlpox (rF)] for delivery of the TAA to the immune system. However, the use of replication competent vectors with the potential of adverse reactions have made attenuation a priority for next-generation vaccine strategies. Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a replication defective form of vaccinia virus. Here, we investigated the use of MVA encoding a tumor antigen gene, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in addition to multiple costimulatory molecules (B7-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 designated TRICOM). Vaccination of mice with MVA-CEA/TRICOM induced potent CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses specific for CEA. MVA-CEA/TRICOM could be administered twice in vaccinia naïve mice and only a single time in vaccinia-immune mice before being inhibited by antivector-immune responses. The use of MVA-CEA/TRICOM in a diversified prime and boost vaccine regimen with rF-CEA/TRICOM, however, induced significantly greater levels of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses specific for CEA than that seen with rV-CEA/TRICOM prime and rF-CEA/TRICOM boost. In a self-antigen tumor model, the diversified MVA-CEA/TRICOM/rF-CEA/ TRICOM vaccination regimen resulted in a significant therapeutic antitumor response as measured by increased survival, when compared with the diversified prime and boost regimen, rV-CEA/TRICOM/rF-CEA/TRICOM. The studies reported here demonstrate that MVA, when used as a prime in a diversified vaccination, is clearly comparable with the regimen using the recombinant vaccinia in both the induction of cellular immune responses specific for the "self"-TAA transgene and in antitumor activity.

  4. Characterization of a new Vaccinia virus isolate reveals the C23L gene as a putative genetic marker for autochthonous Group 1 Brazilian Vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe L Assis

    Full Text Available Since 1999, several Vaccinia virus (VACV isolates, the etiological agents of bovine vaccinia (BV, have been frequently isolated and characterized with various biological and molecular methods. The results from these approaches have grouped these VACV isolates into two different clusters. This dichotomy has elicited debates surrounding the origin of the Brazilian VACV and its epidemiological significance. To ascertain vital information to settle these debates, we and other research groups have made efforts to identify molecular markers to discriminate VACV from other viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV and other VACV-BR groups. In this way, some genes have been identified as useful markers to discriminate between the VACV-BR groups. However, new markers are needed to infer ancestry and to correlate each sample or group with its unique epidemiological and biological features. The aims of this work were to characterize a new VACV isolate (VACV DMTV-2005 molecularly and biologically using conserved and non-conserved gene analyses for phylogenetic inference and to search for new genes that would elucidate the VACV-BR dichotomy. The VACV DMTV-2005 isolate reported in this study is biologically and phylogenetically clustered with other strains of Group 1 VACV-BR, the most prevalent VACV group that was isolated during the bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. Sequence analysis of C23L, the gene that encodes for the CC-chemokine-binding protein, revealed a ten-nucleotide deletion, which is a new Group 1 Brazilian VACV genetic marker. This deletion in the C23L open reading frame produces a premature stop-codon that is shared by all Group 1 VACV-BR strains and may also reflect the VACV-BR dichotomy; the deletion can also be considered to be a putative genetic marker for non-virulent Brazilian VACV isolates and may be used for the detection and molecular characterization of new isolates.

  5. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, A; Sutter, G

    2017-01-01

    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. As a biologically well-characterized mutant virus, MVA facilitates fundamental research to elucidate the functions of poxvirus host-interaction factors. As extremely safe viral vectors MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective in various preclinical infection models. Multiple recombinant MVA currently undergo clinical testing for vaccination against human immunodeficiency viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Plasmodium falciparum. The versatility of the MVA vector vaccine platform is readily demonstrated by the swift development of experimental vaccines for immunization against emerging infections such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Recent advances include promising results from the clinical testing of recombinant MVA-producing antigens of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 or Ebola virus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about MVA as a unique strain of vaccinia virus, and discusses the prospects of exploiting this virus as research tool in poxvirus biology or as safe viral vector vaccine to challenge existing and future bottlenecks in vaccinology. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: Vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qing; Yang Lin; Zhu Weijun; Liu Li; Wang Haibo; Yu Wenbo; Xiao Genfu; Tien Po; Zhang Linqi; Chen Zhiwei

    2005-01-01

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens

  7. Functional characterization of the vaccinia virus I5 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanitsa Eleni S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The I5L gene is one of ~90 genes that are conserved throughout the chordopoxvirus family, and hence are presumed to play vital roles in the poxvirus life cycle. Previous work had indicated that the VP13 protein, a component of the virion membrane, was encoded by the I5L gene, but no additional studies had been reported. Using a recombinant virus that encodes an I5 protein fused to a V5 epitope tag at the endogenous locus (vI5V5, we show here that the I5 protein is expressed as a post-replicative gene and that the ~9 kDa protein does not appear to be phosphorylated in vivo. I5 does not appear to traffic to any cellular organelle, but ultrastructural and biochemical analyses indicate that I5 is associated with the membranous components of assembling and mature virions. Intact virions can be labeled with anti-V5 antibody as assessed by immunoelectron microscopy, indicating that the C' terminus of the protein is exposed on the virion surface. Using a recombinant virus which encodes only a TET-regulated copy of the I5V5 gene (vΔindI5V5, or one in which the I5 locus has been deleted (vΔI5, we also show that I5 is dispensable for replication in tissue culture. Neither plaque size nor the viral yield produced in BSC40 cells or primary human fibroblasts are affected by the absence of I5 expression.

  8. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-01-01

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells

  9. Preclinical evaluation of oncolytic vaccinia virus for therapy of canine soft tissue sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    Full Text Available Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV strains is one promising new strategy for canine cancer therapy. In this study we describe the establishment of an in vivo model of canine soft tissue sarcoma (CSTS using the new isolated cell line STSA-1 and the analysis of the virus-mediated oncolytic and immunological effects of two different Lister VACV LIVP1.1.1 and GLV-1h68 strains against CSTS. Cell culture data demonstrated that both tested VACV strains efficiently infected and destroyed cells of the canine soft tissue sarcoma line STSA-1. In addition, in our new canine sarcoma tumor xenograft mouse model, systemic administration of LIVP1.1.1 or GLV-1h68 viruses led to significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to control mice. Furthermore, LIVP1.1.1 mediated therapy resulted in almost complete tumor regression and resulted in long-term survival of sarcoma-bearing mice. The replication of the tested VACV strains in tumor tissues led to strong oncolytic effects accompanied by an intense intratumoral infiltration of host immune cells, mainly neutrophils. These findings suggest that the direct viral oncolysis of tumor cells and the virus-dependent activation of tumor-associated host immune cells could be crucial parts of anti-tumor mechanism in STSA-1 xenografts. In summary, the data showed that both tested vaccinia virus strains and especially LIVP1.1.1 have great potential for effective treatment of CSTS.

  10. Intracellular Transport of Vaccinia Virus in HeLa Cells Requires WASH-VPEF/FAM21-Retromer Complexes and Recycling Molecules Rab11 and Rab22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Chu, Li-Wei; Lo, Yung-Tsun; Lee, Sue-Ping; Chen, Tzu-Jung; Huang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae, infects a wide range of cell lines and animals. Vaccinia mature virus particles of the WR strain reportedly enter HeLa cells through fluid-phase endocytosis. However, the intracellular trafficking process of the vaccinia mature virus between cellular uptake and membrane fusion remains unknown. We used live imaging of single virus particles with a combination of various cellular vesicle markers, to track fluorescent vaccinia mature virus particle movement in cells. Furthermore, we performed functional interference assays to perturb distinct vesicle trafficking processes in order to delineate the specific route undertaken by vaccinia mature virus prior to membrane fusion and virus core uncoating in cells. Our results showed that vaccinia virus traffics to early endosomes, where recycling endosome markers Rab11 and Rab22 are recruited to participate in subsequent virus trafficking prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identified WASH-VPEF/FAM21-retromer complexes that mediate endosome fission and sorting of virus-containing vesicles prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia mature virions of the WR strain enter HeLa cells through fluid phase endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that virus-containing vesicles are internalized into phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate positive macropinosomes, which are then fused with Rab5-positive early endosomes. However, the subsequent process of sorting the virion-containing vesicles prior to membrane fusion remains unclear. We dissected the intracellular trafficking pathway of vaccinia mature virions in cells up to virus core uncoating in cytoplasm. We show that vaccinia mature virions first travel to early endosomes. Subsequent trafficking events require the important endosome-tethered protein VPEF/FAM21, which recruits WASH and retromer protein complexes to the endosome. There, the complex

  11. Cambios en virus vaccinia durante la síntesis de RNA in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Enrique Ospina

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaciones al microscopio electrónico de virus vaccinia previamente incubados en una mezcla para la reacción de RNA polimerasa in vitro, demuestran características alteraciones morfológicas en los virus. Estructuras similares a vesículas y ocasionalmente túbulos se formaron a partir de la membrana externa del virus. Uno de los sustituyentes de la reacción de RNA polimerasa in vitro, mercaptoetanol 0.007M, es el causante de esta alteración. El cambio morfológico se acompaña de pérdida de la infectividad viral. La presencia de grupos sulfhidrilo en la mezcla de la reacción enzimática es esencial para la ocurrencia de la síntesis de RNA de vaccinia in vitro. Esta condición no se pudo sustituir por choque térmico a 70C. ni por digestión parcial del virus por tripsina. Una gran variedad de compuestos con grupos sulfhidrilo pueden reemplazar el mercaptoetanol con efectividad variable. El más activo de ellos fué el ditiotreitol. Un período de latencia de 8 minutos ocurre entre la adición de vaccinia a la mezcla completa para la reacción de RNA polimerasa y la detección de síntesis de RNA. Los datos recolectados sugieren que cambios dependientes del mercaptoetanol ocurren durante este período.

  12. Improved protection conferred by vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus that incorporates a foreign antigen into the extracellular enveloped virion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Heesun; Mustafa, Waleed; Speirs, Kendra; Abdool, Asha J.; Paterson, Yvonne; Isaacs, Stuart N.

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant poxviruses have shown promise as vaccine vectors. We hypothesized that improved cellular immune responses could be developed to a foreign antigen by incorporating it as part of the extracellular enveloped virion (EEV). We therefore constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus that replaced the cytoplasmic domain of the B5R protein with a test antigen, HIV-1 Gag. Mice immunized with the virus expressing Gag fused to B5R had significantly better primary CD4 T-cell responses than recombinant virus expressing HIV-Gag from the TK-locus. The CD8 T-cell responses were less different between the two groups. Importantly, although we saw differences in the immune response to the test antigen, the vaccinia virus-specific immune responses were similar with both constructs. When groups of vaccinated mice were challenged 30 days later with a recombinant Listeria monocytogenes that expresses HIV-Gag, mice inoculated with the virus that expresses the B5R-Gag fusion protein had lower colony counts of Listeria in the liver and spleen than mice vaccinated with the standard recombinant. Thus, vaccinia virus expressing foreign antigen incorporated into EEV may be a better vaccine strategy than standard recombinant vaccinia virus

  13. Thy1+ NK [corrected] cells from vaccinia virus-primed mice confer protection against vaccinia virus challenge in the absence of adaptive lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey O Gillard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available While immunological memory has long been considered the province of T- and B-lymphocytes, it has recently been reported that innate cell populations are capable of mediating memory responses. We now show that an innate memory immune response is generated in mice following infection with vaccinia virus, a poxvirus for which no cognate germline-encoded receptor has been identified. This immune response results in viral clearance in the absence of classical adaptive T and B lymphocyte populations, and is mediated by a Thy1(+ subset of natural killer (NK cells. We demonstrate that immune protection against infection from a lethal dose of virus can be adoptively transferred with memory hepatic Thy1(+ NK cells that were primed with live virus. Our results also indicate that, like classical immunological memory, stronger innate memory responses form in response to priming with live virus than a highly attenuated vector. These results demonstrate that a defined innate memory cell population alone can provide host protection against a lethal systemic infection through viral clearance.

  14. Effect of Interferon, Polyacrylic Acid, and Polymethacrylic Acid on Tail Lesions in Mice Infected with Vaccinia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, E.; De Somer, P.

    1968-01-01

    Intravenous inoculation of mice with vaccinia virus produced characteristic lesions of the tail surface which were suppressed by intraperitoneal administration of interferon and polyacrylic acid (PAA). Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) stimulated the formation of vaccinia virus lesions. For full activity, both interferon and PAA must be given prior to infection. PAA was still significantly effective at small dose levels (3 mg/kg) and achieved protection for at least 4 weeks. Protection increased with increasing molecular weight of the polymer. The mode of action of PAA is discussed. PMID:5676405

  15. Long-lasting stability of vaccinia virus (orthopoxvirus) in food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essbauer, S; Meyer, H; Porsch-Ozcürümez, M; Pfeffer, M

    2007-01-01

    Poxviruses are known to remain infectious in the scabs of patients for months to years. The aim of this study was to investigate viral stability in storm water, food or gauze spiked with vaccinia virus strain Munich 1 (VACV M1). Storm water, storm water supplemented with either fetal calf serum (FCS) or potting soil was stored at two different temperatures (refrigerator, room temperature; 4 degrees C/25 degrees C). In addition, we analysed the viability of VACV M1 on the surface of bread, salad, sausages and gauze bandages stored at 4 degrees C. Samples were titrated in MA 104 cells and the presence of viral DNA was demonstrated by orthopoxvirus-specific PCRs. After 2 weeks, reisolation of VACV M1 from all kinds of food, bandage and water samples except for storm water supplemented with potting soil was possible. Viral DNA was detected in almost all samples by PCR. Prolonged experiments with VACV M1-spiked storm water and storm water supplemented with FCS revealed that samples kept at 4.5 degrees C are infectious for up to 166 days. Our data demonstrate that VACV M1 has a longlasting stability in water and food. The results obtained during this study should be taken into account for risk assessment calculations for poxvirus transmission. Implying that variola virus and vaccinia virus behave in a similar way, our data call for sophisticated countermeasures in cases of a variola release in biological warfare.

  16. Review of Vaccinia Virus and Baculovirus Viability Versus Virucides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    25 6.4 Lignin ......................................................................................... 25 6.5...a lower pH (4.83 - 5.22), the virus rapidly inactivated over a month (Tomas et al., 1973). 16 The effects of alkalis on baculoviruses are important...of antioxidant and oxidative enzymes on UV inactivation by inhibiting the generation of highly reactive free radicals within HzSNPV. Water suspensions

  17. Inhibition of Vaccinia virus entry by a broad spectrum antiviral peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, S.E.; Jones, J.C.; Schultz-Cherry, S.; Brandt, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the possible use of Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, as a weapon for bioterrorism have led to renewed efforts to identify new antivirals against orthopoxviruses. We identified a peptide, EB, which inhibited infection by Vaccinia virus with an EC 50 of 15 μM. A control peptide, EBX, identical in composition to EB but differing in sequence, was inactive (EC 50 > 200 μM), indicating sequence specificity. The inhibition was reversed upon removal of the peptide, and EB treatment had no effect on the physical integrity of virus particles as determined by electron microscopy. Viral adsorption was unaffected by the presence of EB, and the addition of EB post-entry had no effect on viral titers or on early gene expression. The addition of EB post-adsorption resulted in the inhibition of β-galactosidase expression from an early viral promoter with an EC 50 of 45 μM. A significant reduction in virus entry was detected in the presence of the peptide when the number of viral cores released into the cytoplasm was quantified. Electron microscopy indicated that 88% of the virions remained on the surface of cells in the presence of EB, compared to 37% in the control (p < 0.001). EB also blocked fusion-from-within, suggesting that virus infection is inhibited at the fusion step. Analysis of EB derivatives suggested that peptide length may be important for the activity of EB. The EB peptide is, to our knowledge, the first known small molecule inhibitor of Vaccinia virus entry.

  18. Microbiota is an essential element for mice to initiate a protective immunity against Vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maurício T; Andrade, Ana C S P; Oliveira, Graziele P; Calixto, Rafael S; Oliveira, Danilo B; Souza, Éricka L S; Trindade, Giliane S; Nicoli, Jacques R; Kroon, Erna G; Martins, Flaviano S; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2016-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates harbors one of the most complex ecosystems known in microbial ecology and this indigenous microbiota almost always has a profound influence on host-parasite relationships, which can enhance or reduce the pathology of the infection. In this context, the impact of the microbiota during the infection of several viral groups remains poorly studied, including the family Poxviridae. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of this family and is the causative agent of bovine vaccinia, responsible for outbreaks that affect bovines and humans. To determine the influence of the microbiota in the development of the disease caused by VACV, a comparative study using a murine model was performed. Germ-free and conventional, 6- to 7-week-old Swiss NIH mice were infected by tail scarification and intranasally with VACV. Moreover, immunosuppression and microbiota reposition were performed, to establish the interactions among the host's immune system, microbiota and VACV. The data demonstrate that the microbiota is essential for the effective immune response of mice against VACV in intranasal inoculation and to control the virus at the primary site of infection. Furthermore, this study is the first to show that Swiss conventional mice are refractory to the intranasal infection of VACV. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Viral exploitation of the MEK/ERK pathway - A tale of vaccinia virus and other viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjardim, Cláudio A

    2017-07-01

    The VACV replication cycle is remarkable in the sense that it is performed entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment of vertebrate cells, due to its capability to encode enzymes required either for regulating the macromolecular precursor pool or the biosynthetic processes. Although remarkable, this gene repertoire is not sufficient to confer the status of a free-living microorganism to the virus, and, consequently, the virus relies heavily on the host to successfully generate its progeny. During the complex virus-host interaction, viruses must deal not only with the host pathways to accomplish their temporal demands but also with pathways that counteract viral infection, including the inflammatory, innate and acquired immune responses. This review focuses on VACV and other DNA or RNA viruses that stimulate the MEK (MAPK - Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase)/ERK- Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase) pathway as part of their replication cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of DAI by an oncolytic vaccinia virus boosts the immunogenicity of the virus and enhances antitumor immunity

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    Mari Hirvinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In oncolytic virotherapy, the ability of the virus to activate the immune system is a key attribute with regard to long-term antitumor effects. Vaccinia viruses bear one of the strongest oncolytic activities among all oncolytic viruses. However, its capacity for stimulation of antitumor immunity is not optimal, mainly due to its immunosuppressive nature. To overcome this problem, we developed an oncolytic VV that expresses intracellular pattern recognition receptor DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI to boost the innate immune system and to activate adaptive immune cells in the tumor. We showed that infection with DAI-expressing VV increases expression of several genes related to important immunological pathways. Treatment with DAI-armed VV resulted in significant reduction in the size of syngeneic melanoma tumors in mice. When the mice were rechallenged with the same tumor, DAI-VV-treated mice completely rejected growth of the new tumor, which indicates immunity established against the tumor. We also showed enhanced control of growth of human melanoma tumors and elevated levels of human T-cells in DAI-VV-treated mice humanized with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We conclude that expression of DAI by an oncolytic VV is a promising way to amplify the vaccine potency of an oncolytic vaccinia virus to trigger the innate—and eventually the long-lasting adaptive immunity against cancer.

  1. Multisubunit DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases from Vaccinia Virus and Other Nucleocytoplasmic Large-DNA Viruses: Impressions from the Age of Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakhanyan, Yeva; Gershon, Paul D

    2017-09-01

    The past 17 years have been marked by a revolution in our understanding of cellular multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (MSDDRPs) at the structural level. A parallel development over the past 15 years has been the emerging story of the giant viruses, which encode MSDDRPs. Here we link the two in an attempt to understand the specialization of multisubunit RNA polymerases in the domain of life encompassing the large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses (NCLDV), a superclade that includes the giant viruses and the biochemically well-characterized poxvirus vaccinia virus. The first half of this review surveys the recently determined structural biology of cellular RNA polymerases for a microbiology readership. The second half discusses a reannotation of MSDDRP subunits from NCLDV families and the apparent specialization of these enzymes by virus family and by subunit with regard to subunit or domain loss, subunit dissociability, endogenous control of polymerase arrest, and the elimination/customization of regulatory interactions that would confer higher-order cellular control. Some themes are apparent in linking subunit function to structure in the viral world: as with cellular RNA polymerases I and III and unlike cellular RNA polymerase II, the viral enzymes seem to opt for speed and processivity and seem to have eliminated domains associated with higher-order regulation. The adoption/loss of viral RNA polymerase proofreading functions may have played a part in matching intrinsic mutability to genome size. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Effect of the deletion of genes encoding proteins of the extracellular virion form of vaccinia virus on vaccine immunogenicity and protective effectiveness in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available Antibodies to both infectious forms of vaccinia virus, the mature virion (MV and the enveloped virion (EV, as well as cell-mediated immune response appear to be important for protection against smallpox. EV virus particles, although more labile and less numerous than MV, are important for dissemination and spread of virus in infected hosts and thus important in virus pathogenesis. The importance of the EV A33 and B5 proteins for vaccine induced immunity and protection in a murine intranasal challenge model was evaluated by deletion of both the A33R and B5R genes in a vaccine-derived strain of vaccinia virus. Deletion of either A33R or B5R resulted in viruses with a small plaque phenotype and reduced virus yields, as reported previously, whereas deletion of both EV protein-encoding genes resulted in a virus that formed small infection foci that were detectable and quantifiable only by immunostaining and an even more dramatic decrease in total virus yield in cell culture. Deletion of B5R, either as a single gene knockout or in the double EV gene knockout virus, resulted in a loss of EV neutralizing activity, but all EV gene knockout viruses still induced a robust neutralizing activity against the vaccinia MV form of the virus. The effect of elimination of A33 and/or B5 on the protection afforded by vaccination was evaluated by intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of either vaccinia virus WR or IHD-J, a strain of vaccinia virus that produces relatively higher amounts of EV virus. The results from multiple experiments, using a range of vaccination doses and virus challenge doses, and using mortality, morbidity, and virus dissemination as endpoints, indicate that the absence of A33 and B5 have little effect on the ability of a vaccinia vaccine virus to provide protection against a lethal intranasal challenge in a mouse model.

  3. Myxoma and vaccinia viruses exploit different mechanisms to enter and infect human cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Bartee, Eric; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Barrett, John W.; McFadden, Grant

    2010-01-01

    Myxoma (MYXV) and vaccinia (VACV) viruses have recently emerged as potential oncolytic agents that can infect and kill different human cancer cells. Although both are structurally similar, it is unknown whether the pathway(s) used by these poxviruses to enter and cause oncolysis in cancer cells are mechanistically similar. Here, we compared the entry of MYXV and VACV-WR into various human cancer cells and observed significant differences: 1 - low-pH treatment accelerates fusion-mediated entry of VACV but not MYXV, 2 - the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits entry of VACV, but not MYXV, 3 - knockdown of PAK1 revealed that it is required for a late stage event downstream of MYXV entry into cancer cells, whereas PAK1 is required for VACV entry into the same target cells. These results suggest that VACV and MYXV exploit different mechanisms to enter into human cancer cells, thus providing some rationale for their divergent cancer cell tropisms.

  4. Reverse genetics of SARS-related coronavirus using vaccinia virus-based recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd H E van den Worm

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV that emerged in 2002 to become a global health concern. Although the original outbreak was controlled by classical public health measures, there is a real risk that another SARS-CoV could re-emerge from its natural reservoir, either in its original form or as a more virulent or pathogenic strain; in which case, the virus would be difficult to control in the absence of any effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. Using the well-studied SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849, we developed a vaccinia virus-based SARS-CoV reverse genetic system that is both robust and biosafe. The SARS-CoV genome was cloned in separate vaccinia virus vectors, (vSARS-CoV-5prime and vSARS-CoV-3prime as two cDNAs that were subsequently ligated to create a genome-length SARS-CoV cDNA template for in vitro transcription of SARS-CoV infectious RNA transcripts. Transfection of the RNA transcripts into permissive cells led to the recovery of infectious virus (recSARS-CoV. Characterization of the plaques produced by recSARS-CoV showed that they were similar in size to the parental SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849 but smaller than the SARS-CoV isolate Frankfurt-1. Comparative analysis of replication kinetics showed that the kinetics of recSARS-CoV replication are similar to those of SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1, although the titers of virus released into the culture supernatant are approximately 10-fold less. The reverse genetic system was finally used to generate a recSARS-CoV reporter virus expressing Renilla luciferase in order to facilitate the analysis of SARS-CoV gene expression in human dendritic cells (hDCs. In parallel, a Renilla luciferase gene was also inserted into the genome of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. Using this approach, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV is not able to mediate efficient heterologous gene expression in hDCs.

  5. [Experiments on disinfection of vaccinia virus embedded in scabs and/or at the hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümann, K; Grossgebauer, K

    1977-01-01

    Vaccinia viruses embedded in rabbit dermal scabs were subjected to physical and chemical disinfection procedures. Scabs were suspended in vitro without saline or in physiological saline, and left for 1 hour at 70 to 90 degrees C. A complete inactivation was achived only in those scab samples which had been incubated at 90 degrees C for 1 hour and suspended in physiological saline. Scabs which had been placed in a disinfecting apparatus (Vacudes 4000) filled with mattrasses consistently proved to be free of infectious vaccinia viruses in each of the chosen programs. In addition scabs were subjected to disinfection by means of chemical disinfecting agents. The scabs had been placed in a chemical disinfecting suspension and left there for 90 minutes. Complete disinfection was obtained with glutaraldehyde 2%, formaldehyde 2%, Lysoformin 2% or 3%, phenol 5% and chloramine T 2%. Complete disinfection was likewise achieved after 3 hours treatment with some alchohols (ethylalcohol 80%, isopropylalcohol 7%, n-propylalcohol 60%), Amocid 5% and formaldehyde 1%.0.5% formaldehyde caused complete disinfection when applied for 6 hours. The only exception was a Quat which did not disinfect fully even after 18 hours application. Concerning the tests to disinfect the hands complete disinfection occurs when using chloramine T (1.5%) or isopropylalcohol (70%) in 2 to 5 minutes. Further tests were performed with scabs which were placed in sick rooms that were terminally disinfected with formaline vapor. It could be confirmed that the usual terminal disinfection with formaldehyde vapor was unable to completely disinfect the scabs. It is necessary to double the amount of formaldehyde (10 g formaldehyde per cubic metre of space) and prolong the period of treatment to 24 hours to achieve a greater degree of disinfection rate.

  6. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoliina Autio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification.

  7. Isolation and identification of compounds from Kalanchoe pinnata having human alphaherpesvirus and vaccinia virus antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Matthew; Lane, Kyle; Greer, Mary; Cates, Rex; Burt, Scott; Andrus, Merritt; Zou, Jiping; Rogers, Paul; Hansen, Marc D H; Burgado, Jillybeth; Panayampalli, Subbian Satheshkumar; Day, Craig W; Smee, Donald F; Johnson, Brent F

    2017-12-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) is a succulent plant that is known for its traditional antivirus and antibacterial usage. This work examines two compounds identified from the K. pinnata plant for their antivirus activity against human alphaherpesvirus (HHV) 1 and 2 and vaccinia virus (VACV). Compounds KPB-100 and KPB-200 were isolated using HPLC and were identified using NMR and MS. Both compounds were tested in plaque reduction assay of HHV-2 wild type (WT) and VACV. Both compounds were then tested in virus spread inhibition and virus yield reduction (VYR) assays of VACV. KPB-100 was further tested in viral cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay of HHV-2 TK-mutant and VYR assay of HHV-1 WT. KPB-100 and KPB-200 inhibited HHV-2 at IC 50 values of 2.5 and 2.9 μg/mL, respectively, and VACV at IC 50 values of 3.1 and 7.4 μg/mL, respectively, in plaque reduction assays. In virus spread inhibition assay of VACV KPB-100 and KPB-200 yielded IC 50 values of 1.63 and 13.2 μg/mL, respectively, and KPB-100 showed a nearly 2-log reduction in virus in VYR assay of VACV at 20 μg/mL. Finally, KPB-100 inhibited HHV-2 TK- at an IC 50 value of 4.5 μg/mL in CPE inhibition assay and HHV-1 at an IC 90 of 3.0 μg/mL in VYR assay. Both compounds are promising targets for synthetic optimization and in vivo study. KPB-100 in particular showed strong inhibition of all viruses tested.

  8. Silk-elastin-like protein polymer matrix for intraoperative delivery of an oncolytic vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel L; Li, Pingdong; Chen, Chun-Hao; Wong, Danni; Yu, Zhenkun; Chen, Nanhai G; Yu, Yong A; Szalay, Aladar A; Cappello, Joseph; Fong, Yuman; Wong, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Oncolytic viral efficacy may be limited by the penetration of the virus into tumors. This may be enhanced by intraoperative application of virus immediately after surgical resection. Oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 was delivered in silk-elastin-like protein polymer (SELP) in vitro and in vivo in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line 8505c in nude mice. GLV-1h68 in SELP infected and lysed anaplastic thyroid cancer cells in vitro equally as effectively as in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and at 1 week retains a thousand fold greater infectious plaque-forming units. In surgical resection models of residual tumor, GLV-1h68 in SELP improves tumor control and shows increased viral β-galactosidase expression as compared to PBS. The use of SELP matrix for intraoperative oncolytic viral delivery protects infectious viral particles from degradation, facilitates sustained viral delivery and transgene expression, and improves tumor control. Such optimization of methods of oncolytic viral delivery may enhance therapeutic outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. RAB1A promotes Vaccinia virus replication by facilitating the production of intracellular enveloped virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Featherstone, Rebecca J.; Reynolds, Danielle K.; Brown, Helen K. [The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland (United Kingdom); James, John; Prescott, Alan [Division of Cell Signalling and Immunology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Haga, Ismar R. [The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland (United Kingdom); Beard, Philippa M., E-mail: pip.beard@roslin.ed.ac.uk [The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle that exploits numerous cellular proteins. This work characterises the role of a proviral cellular protein, the small GTPase RAB1A, in VACV replication. Using siRNA, we identified RAB1A as required for the production of extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs), but not intracellular mature virions (IMVs). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy further refined the role of RAB1A as facilitating the wrapping of IMVs to become intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). This is consistent with the known function of RAB1A in maintenance of ER to Golgi transport. VACV can therefore be added to the growing list of viruses which require RAB1A for optimal replication, highlighting this protein as a broadly proviral host factor. - Highlights: • Characterisation of the role of the small GTPase RAB1A in VACV replication. • RAB1A is not required for production of the primary virion form (IMV). • RAB1A is required for production of processed virion forms (IEVs, CEVs and EEVs). • Consistent with known role of RAB1A in ER to Golgi transport.

  10. Safety mechanism assisted by the repressor of tetracycline (SMART) vaccinia virus vectors for vaccines and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Patricia; Titong, Allison; Jones, Leslie A; Yilma, Tilahun D; Verardi, Paulo H

    2013-09-17

    Replication-competent viruses, such as Vaccinia virus (VACV), are powerful tools for the development of oncolytic viral therapies and elicit superior immune responses when used as vaccine and immunotherapeutic vectors. However, severe complications from uncontrolled viral replication can occur, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or in those with other predisposing conditions. VACVs constitutively expressing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) replicate in cell culture indistinguishably from control viruses; however, they replicate in vivo to low or undetectable levels, and are rapidly cleared even in immunodeficient animals. In an effort to develop safe and highly effective replication-competent VACV vectors, we established a system to inducibly express IFN-γ. Our SMART (safety mechanism assisted by the repressor of tetracycline) vectors are designed to express the tetracycline repressor under a constitutive VACV promoter and IFN-γ under engineered tetracycline-inducible promoters. Immunodeficient SCID mice inoculated with VACVs not expressing IFN-γ demonstrated severe weight loss, whereas those given VACVs expressing IFN-γ under constitutive VACV promoters showed no signs of infection. Most importantly, mice inoculated with a VACV expressing the IFN-γ gene under an inducible promoter remained healthy in the presence of doxycycline, but exhibited severe weight loss in the absence of doxycycline. In this study, we developed a safety mechanism for VACV based on the conditional expression of IFN-γ under a tightly controlled tetracycline-inducible VACV promoter for use in vaccines and oncolytic cancer therapies.

  11. Post-transcription cleavage generates the 3' end of F17R transcripts in vaccinia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Costa, Susan M.; Antczak, James B.; Pickup, David J.; Condit, Richard C.

    2004-01-01

    Most vaccinia virus intermediate and late mRNAs possess 3' ends that are extremely heterogeneous in sequence. However, late mRNAs encoding the cowpox A-type inclusion protein (ATI), the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase, and the late telomeric transcripts possess homogeneous 3' ends. In the case of the ATI mRNA, it has been shown that the homogeneous 3' end is generated by a post-transcriptional endoribonucleolytic cleavage event. We have determined that the F17R gene also produces homogeneous transcripts generated by a post-transcriptional cleavage event. Mapping of in vivo mRNA shows that the major 3' end of the F17R transcript maps 1262 nt downstream of the F17R translational start site. In vitro transcripts spanning the in vivo 3' end are cleaved in an in vitro reaction using extracts from virus infected cells, and the site of cleavage is the same both in vivo and in vitro. Cleavage is not observed using extract from cells infected in the presence of hydroxyurea; therefore, the cleavage factor is either virus-coded or virus-induced during the post-replicative phase of virus replication. The cis-acting sequence responsible for cleavage is orientation specific and the factor responsible for cleavage activity has biochemical properties similar to the factor required for cleavage of ATI transcripts. Partially purified cleavage factor generates cleavage products of expected size when either the ATI or F17R substrates are used in vitro, strongly suggesting that cleavage of both transcripts is mediated by the same factor

  12. Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus attenuate bupivacaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity in pregnant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Cui; Shiyuan Xu; Liang Wang; Hongyi Lei; Qingxiang Cai; Hongfei Zhang; Dongmei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can relieve pain and promote repair of nerve injury. The present study intraperitoneally injected extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus for 3 and 4 days prior to and following intrathecal injection of bupivacaine into pregnant rats. The pain threshold test after bupivacaine injection showed that the maximum possible effect of tail-flick latency peaked 1 day after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in the extract-pretreatment group, and gradually decreased, while the maximum possible effect in the bupivacaine group continued to increase after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine. Histological observation showed that after 4 days of intrathecal injection of bupivacaine, the number of shrunken, vacuolated, apoptotic and caspase-9-positive cells in the dorsal root ganglion in the extract-pretreatment group was significantly reduced compared with the bupivacaine group. These findings indicate that extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can attenuate neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in pregnant rats, possibly by inhibiting caspase-9 protein expression and suppressing nerve cell apoptosis.

  13. Analysis of canine herpesvirus gB, gC and gD expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, X; Kojima, A; Murata, T; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1997-01-01

    The genes encoding the canine herpesvirus (CHV) glycoprotein B (gB), gC and gD homologues have been reported already. However, products of these genes have not been identified yet. Previously, we have identified three CHV glycoproteins, gp 145/112, gp80 and gp47 using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). To determine which CHV glycoprotein corresponds to gB, gC or gD, the putative genes of gB, gC, and gD of CHV were inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus LC16mO strain under the control of the early-late promoter for the vaccinia virus 7.5-kilodalton polypeptide. We demonstrated here that gp145/112, gp80 and gp47 were the translation products of the CHV gB, gC and gD genes, respectively. The antigenic authenticity of recombinant gB, gC and gD were confirmed by a panel of MAbs specific for each glycoprotein produced in CHV-infected cells. Immunization of mice with these recombinants produced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against CHV. These results suggest that recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing CHV gB, gC and gD may be useful to develop a vaccine to control CHV infection.

  14. Stunned Silence: Gene Expression Programs in Human Cells Infected with Monkeypox or Vaccinia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubins, Kathleen H.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Relman, David A.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2011-01-01

    Poxviruses use an arsenal of molecular weapons to evade detection and disarm host immune responses. We used DNA microarrays to investigate the gene expression responses to infection by monkeypox virus (MPV), an emerging human pathogen, and Vaccinia virus (VAC), a widely used model and vaccine organism, in primary human macrophages, primary human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Even as the overwhelmingly infected cells approached their demise, with extensive cytopathic changes, their gene expression programs appeared almost oblivious to poxvirus infection. Although killed (gamma-irradiated) MPV potently induced a transcriptional program characteristic of the interferon response, no such response was observed during infection with either live MPV or VAC. Moreover, while the gene expression response of infected cells to stimulation with ionomycin plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), or poly (I-C) was largely unimpaired by infection with MPV, a cluster of pro-inflammatory genes were a notable exception. Poly(I-C) induction of genes involved in alerting the innate immune system to the infectious threat, including TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and beta, CCL5 and IL-6, were suppressed by infection with live MPV. Thus, MPV selectively inhibits expression of genes with critical roles in cell-signaling pathways that activate innate immune responses, as part of its strategy for stealthy infection. PMID:21267444

  15. Stunned silence: gene expression programs in human cells infected with monkeypox or vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen H Rubins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses use an arsenal of molecular weapons to evade detection and disarm host immune responses. We used DNA microarrays to investigate the gene expression responses to infection by monkeypox virus (MPV, an emerging human pathogen, and Vaccinia virus (VAC, a widely used model and vaccine organism, in primary human macrophages, primary human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Even as the overwhelmingly infected cells approached their demise, with extensive cytopathic changes, their gene expression programs appeared almost oblivious to poxvirus infection. Although killed (gamma-irradiated MPV potently induced a transcriptional program characteristic of the interferon response, no such response was observed during infection with either live MPV or VAC. Moreover, while the gene expression response of infected cells to stimulation with ionomycin plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, or poly (I-C was largely unimpaired by infection with MPV, a cluster of pro-inflammatory genes were a notable exception. Poly(I-C induction of genes involved in alerting the innate immune system to the infectious threat, including TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and beta, CCL5 and IL-6, were suppressed by infection with live MPV. Thus, MPV selectively inhibits expression of genes with critical roles in cell-signaling pathways that activate innate immune responses, as part of its strategy for stealthy infection.

  16. Comparative Immunogenicity in Rhesus Monkeys of DNA Plasmid, Recombinant Vaccinia Virus, and Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors Expressing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gag Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Casimiro, Danilo R.; Chen, Ling; Fu, Tong-Ming; Evans, Robert K.; Caulfield, Michael J.; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Tang, Aimin; Chen, Minchun; Huang, Lingyi; Harris, Virginia; Freed, Daniel C.; Wilson, Keith A.; Dubey, Sheri; Zhu, De-Min; Nawrocki, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Cellular immune responses, particularly those associated with CD3+ CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), play a primary role in controlling viral infection, including persistent infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Accordingly, recent HIV-1 vaccine research efforts have focused on establishing the optimal means of eliciting such antiviral CTL immune responses. We evaluated several DNA vaccine formulations, a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector, and a replication-defecti...

  17. Adverse Events Post Smallpox-Vaccination: Insights from Tail Scarification Infection in Mice with Vaccinia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bruno E. F.; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Trindade, Giliane; Keckler, M. Shannon; Karem, Kevin; Carroll, Darin; Campos, Marco A.; Vieira, Leda Q.; da Fonseca, Flávio G.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Damon, Inger K.; Kroon, Erna G.

    2011-01-01

    Adverse events upon smallpox vaccination with fully-replicative strains of Vaccinia virus (VACV) comprise an array of clinical manifestations that occur primarily in immunocompromised patients leading to significant host morbidity/mortality. The expansion of immune-suppressed populations and the possible release of Variola virus as a bioterrorist act have given rise to concerns over vaccination complications should more widespread vaccination be reinitiated. Our goal was to evaluate the components of the host immune system that are sufficient to prevent morbidity/mortality in a murine model of tail scarification, which mimics immunological and clinical features of smallpox vaccination in humans. Infection of C57BL/6 wild-type mice led to a strictly localized infection, with complete viral clearance by day 28 p.i. On the other hand, infection of T and B-cell deficient mice (Rag1 −/−) produced a severe disease, with uncontrolled viral replication at the inoculation site and dissemination to internal organs. Infection of B-cell deficient animals (µMT) produced no mortality. However, viral clearance in µMT animals was delayed compared to WT animals, with detectable viral titers in tail and internal organs late in infection. Treatment of Rag1 −/− with rabbit hyperimmune anti-vaccinia serum had a subtle effect on the morbidity/mortality of this strain, but it was effective in reduce viral titers in ovaries. Finally, NUDE athymic mice showed a similar outcome of infection as Rag1 −/−, and passive transfer of WT T cells to Rag1 −/− animals proved fully effective in preventing morbidity/mortality. These results strongly suggest that both T and B cells are important in the immune response to primary VACV infection in mice, and that T-cells are required to control the infection at the inoculation site and providing help for B-cells to produce antibodies, which help to prevent viral dissemination. These insights might prove helpful to better identify

  18. A loss of function analysis of host factors influencing Vaccinia virus replication by RNA interference.

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    Philippa M Beard

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV is a large, cytoplasmic, double-stranded DNA virus that requires complex interactions with host proteins in order to replicate. To explore these interactions a functional high throughput small interfering RNA (siRNA screen targeting 6719 druggable cellular genes was undertaken to identify host factors (HF influencing the replication and spread of an eGFP-tagged VACV. The experimental design incorporated a low multiplicity of infection, thereby enhancing detection of cellular proteins involved in cell-to-cell spread of VACV. The screen revealed 153 pro- and 149 anti-viral HFs that strongly influenced VACV replication. These HFs were investigated further by comparisons with transcriptional profiling data sets and HFs identified in RNAi screens of other viruses. In addition, functional and pathway analysis of the entire screen was carried out to highlight cellular mechanisms involved in VACV replication. This revealed, as anticipated, that many pro-viral HFs are involved in translation of mRNA and, unexpectedly, suggested that a range of proteins involved in cellular transcriptional processes and several DNA repair pathways possess anti-viral activity. Multiple components of the AMPK complex were found to act as pro-viral HFs, while several septins, a group of highly conserved GTP binding proteins with a role in sequestering intracellular bacteria, were identified as strong anti-viral VACV HFs. This screen has identified novel and previously unexplored roles for cellular factors in poxvirus replication. This advancement in our understanding of the VACV life cycle provides a reliable knowledge base for the improvement of poxvirus-based vaccine vectors and development of anti-viral theraputics.

  19. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

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    Qicheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1 viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1 and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs. ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector.

  20. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Feng, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Jing; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV) as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT) was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1) viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1) and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector.

  1. Attenuation and immunogenicity of host-range extended modified vaccinia virus Ankara recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Sharon; Wyatt, Linda S; Kastenmayer, Robin J; Moss, Bernard

    2013-09-23

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is being widely investigated as a safe smallpox vaccine and as an expression vector to produce vaccines against other infectious diseases and cancer. MVA was isolated following more than 500 passages in chick embryo fibroblasts and suffered several major deletions and numerous small mutations resulting in replication defects in human and most other mammalian cells as well as severe attenuation of pathogenicity. Due to the host range restriction, primary chick embryo fibroblasts are routinely used for production of MVA-based vaccines. While a replication defect undoubtedly contributes to safety of MVA, it is worth considering whether host range and attenuation are partially separable properties. Marker rescue transfection experiments resulted in the creation of recombinant MVAs with extended mammalian cell host range. Here, we characterize two host-range extended rMVAs and show that they (i) have acquired the ability to stably replicate in Vero cells, which are frequently used as a cell substrate for vaccine manufacture, (ii) are severely attenuated in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mouse strains following intranasal infection, (iii) are more pathogenic than MVA but less pathogenic than the ACAM2000 vaccine strain at high intracranial doses, (iv) do not form lesions upon tail scratch in mice in contrast to ACAM2000 and (v) induce protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses similar to MVA. The extended host range of rMVAs may be useful for vaccine production. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Mapping vaccinia virus DNA replication origins at nucleotide level by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevich, Tatiana G; Bruno, Daniel; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F; Wolf, Yuri I; Moss, Bernard

    2015-09-01

    Poxviruses reproduce in the host cytoplasm and encode most or all of the enzymes and factors needed for expression and synthesis of their double-stranded DNA genomes. Nevertheless, the mode of poxvirus DNA replication and the nature and location of the replication origins remain unknown. A current but unsubstantiated model posits only leading strand synthesis starting at a nick near one covalently closed end of the genome and continuing around the other end to generate a concatemer that is subsequently resolved into unit genomes. The existence of specific origins has been questioned because any plasmid can replicate in cells infected by vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus. We applied directional deep sequencing of short single-stranded DNA fragments enriched for RNA-primed nascent strands isolated from the cytoplasm of VACV-infected cells to pinpoint replication origins. The origins were identified as the switching points of the fragment directions, which correspond to the transition from continuous to discontinuous DNA synthesis. Origins containing a prominent initiation point mapped to a sequence within the hairpin loop at one end of the VACV genome and to the same sequence within the concatemeric junction of replication intermediates. These findings support a model for poxvirus genome replication that involves leading and lagging strand synthesis and is consistent with the requirements for primase and ligase activities as well as earlier electron microscopic and biochemical studies implicating a replication origin at the end of the VACV genome.

  3. Study of Vaccinia and Cowpox viruses' replication in Rac1-N17 dominant-negative cells

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    Ana Paula Carneiro Salgado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Interfering with cellular signal transduction pathways is a common strategy used by many viruses to create a propitious intracellular environment for an efficient replication. Our group has been studying cellular signalling pathways activated by the orthopoxviruses Vaccinia (VACV and Cowpox (CPXV and their significance to viral replication. In the present study our aim was to investigate whether the GTPase Rac1 was an upstream signal that led to the activation of MEK/ERK1/2, JNK1/2 or Akt pathways upon VACV or CPXV' infections. Therefore, we generated stable murine fibroblasts exhibiting negative dominance to Rac1-N17 to evaluate viral growth and the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Akt. Our results demonstrated that VACV replication, but not CPXV, was affected in dominant-negative (DN Rac1-N17 cell lines in which viral yield was reduced in about 10-fold. Viral late gene expression, but not early, was also reduced. Furthermore, our data showed that Akt phosphorylation was diminished upon VACV infection in DN Rac1-N17 cells, suggesting that Rac1 participates in the phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway leading to the activation of Akt. In conclusion, our results indicate that while Rac1 indeed plays a role in VACV biology, perhaps another GTPase may be involved in CPXV replication.

  4. ISG15 governs mitochondrial function in macrophages following vaccinia virus infection.

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    Sara Baldanta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 encodes one of the most abundant proteins induced by interferon, and its expression is associated with antiviral immunity. To identify protein components implicated in IFN and ISG15 signaling, we compared the proteomes of ISG15-/- and ISG15+/+ bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM after vaccinia virus (VACV infection. The results of this analysis revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS were pathways altered in ISG15-/- BMDM treated with IFN. Mitochondrial respiration, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS production was higher in ISG15+/+ BMDM than in ISG15-/- BMDM following IFN treatment, indicating the involvement of ISG15-dependent mechanisms. An additional consequence of ISG15 depletion was a significant change in macrophage polarization. Although infected ISG15-/- macrophages showed a robust proinflammatory cytokine expression pattern typical of an M1 phenotype, a clear blockade of nitric oxide (NO production and arginase-1 activation was detected. Accordingly, following IFN treatment, NO release was higher in ISG15+/+ macrophages than in ISG15-/- macrophages concomitant with a decrease in viral titer. Thus, ISG15-/- macrophages were permissive for VACV replication following IFN treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ISG15 governs the dynamic functionality of mitochondria, specifically, OXPHOS and mitophagy, broadening its physiological role as an antiviral agent.

  5. Hazard Characterization of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector: What Are the Knowledge Gaps?

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    Malachy I. Okeke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is the vector of choice for human and veterinary applications due to its strong safety profile and immunogenicity in vivo. The use of MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines against human and animal diseases must comply with regulatory requirements as they pertain to environmental risk assessment, particularly the characterization of potential adverse effects to humans, animals and the environment. MVA and recombinant MVA are widely believed to pose low or negligible risk to ecosystem health. However, key aspects of MVA biology require further research in order to provide data needed to evaluate the potential risks that may occur due to the use of MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines. The purpose of this paper is to identify knowledge gaps in the biology of MVA and recombinant MVA that are of relevance to its hazard characterization and discuss ongoing and future experiments aimed at providing data necessary to fill in the knowledge gaps. In addition, we presented arguments for the inclusion of uncertainty analysis and experimental investigation of verifiable worst-case scenarios in the environmental risk assessment of MVA and recombinant MVA. These will contribute to improved risk assessment of MVA and recombinant MVA vaccines.

  6. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

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    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

    2013-09-15

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function.

  7. High-affinity human leucocyte antigen class I binding variola-derived peptides induce CD4(+) T cell responses more than 30 years post-vaccinia virus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M.; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Lund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Interferon-gamma secreting T lymphocytes against pox virus-derived synthetic 9-mer peptides were tested by enzyme-linked immunospot in peripheral blood of individuals vaccinated with vaccinia virus more than 30 years ago. The peptides were characterized biochemically as high-affinity human leucoc...

  8. Use of Bioclimatic Factors to Determine Potential Niche of Vaccinia Virus, an Emerging and Zoonotic Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiner, C. A.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Emerging and understudied pathogens often lack information that most commonly used analytical tools require, such as negative controls or baseline data making public health control of emerging pathogens challenging. In lieu of opportunities to collect more data from larger outbreaks or formal epidemiological studies, new analytical strategies, merging case data with publically available datasets, can be used to understand transmission patterns and drivers of disease emergence. Zoonotic infections with Vaccinia virus (VACV) were first reported in Brazil in 1999, VACV is an emerging zoonotic Orthopoxvirus, which primarily infects dairy cattle and farmers in close contact with infected cows. Prospective studies of emerging pathogens could provide critical data that would inform public health planning and response to outbreaks. By using the location of 87-recorded outbreaks and publicly available bioclimatic data we demonstrate one such approach. Using an Ecological Niche Model (ENM), we identify the environmental conditions under which VACV outbreaks have occurred, and determine additional locations in two affected South American countries that may be susceptible to transmission. Further, we show how suitability for the virus responds to different levels of various environmental factors and highlight the most important climatic factors in determining its transmission. The final ENM predicted all areas where Brazilian outbreaks occurred, two out of five Colombian outbreaks and identified new regions within Brazil that are suitable for transmission based on bioclimatic factors. Further, the most important factors in determining transmission suitability are precipitation of the wettest quarter, annual precipitation, mean temperature of the coldest quarter and mean diurnal range. The analyses here provide a means by which to study patterns of an emerging infectious disease, and regions that are potentially at risk for it, in spite of the paucity of critical data. Policy

  9. Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein

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    Julien Perino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV (genus Orthopoxvirus, the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D, constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/- resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27.

  10. Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene: an oncolytic virus superior to dl1520 (ONYX-015) for human head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysome, James R; Wang, Pengju; Alusi, Ghassan; Briat, Arnaud; Gangeswaran, Rathi; Wang, Jiwei; Bhakta, Vipul; Fodor, Istvan; Lemoine, Nick R; Wang, Yaohe

    2011-09-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy represents a promising strategy for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with dl1520 (ONYX-015) the most widely used oncolytic adenovirus in clinical trials. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus as well as a vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene (VVhEA) as a novel therapy for HNSCC and to compare them with dl1520. The potency and replication of the Lister strain and VVhEA and the expression and function of the fusion protein were determined in human HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the efficacy of VVhEA was compared with dl1520 in vivo in a human HNSCC model. The Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus was more effective than the adenovirus against all HNSCC cell lines tested in vitro. Although the potency of VVhEA was attenuated in vitro, the expression and function of the endostatin-angiostatin fusion protein was confirmed in HNSCC models both in vitro and in vivo. This novel vaccinia virus (VVhEA) demonstrated superior antitumor potency in vivo compared with both dl1520 and the control vaccinia virus. This study suggests that the Lister strain vaccinia virus armed with an endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene may be a potential therapeutic agent for HNSCC.

  11. In vitro susceptibility to ST-246 and Cidofovir corroborates the phylogenetic separation of Brazilian Vaccinia virus into two clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Mariana A; Rodrigues, Nathália F S; de Oliveira, Danilo B; de Assis, Felipe L; Costa, Galileu B; Kroon, Erna G; Mota, Bruno E F

    2018-04-01

    The Orthopoxvirus (OPV) genus of the Poxviridae family contains several human pathogens, including Vaccinia virus (VACV), which have been implicating in outbreaks of a zoonotic disease called Bovine Vaccinia in Brazil. So far, no approved treatment exists for OPV infections, but ST-246 and Cidofovir (CDV) are now in clinical development. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of five strains of Brazilian VACV (Br-VACV) to ST-246 and Cidofovir. The susceptibility of these strains to both drugs was evaluated by plaque reduction assay, extracellular virus's quantification in the presence of ST-246 and one-step growth curve in cells treated with CDV. Besides that, the ORFs F13L and E9L were sequenced for searching of polymorphisms associated with drug resistance. The effective concentration of 50% (EC 50 ) from both drugs varies significantly for different strains (from 0.0054 to 0.051 μM for ST-246 and from 27.14 to 61.23 μM for CDV). ST-246 strongly inhibits the production of extracellular virus for all isolates in concentrations as low as 0.1 μM and it was observed a relevant decrease of progeny production for all Br-VACV after CDV treatment. Sequencing of the F13L and E9L ORFs showed that Br-VACV do not present the polymorphism(s) associated with resistance to ST-246 and CDV. Taken together, our results showed that ST-246 and CDV are effective against diverse, wild VACV strains and that the susceptibility of Br-VACV to these drugs mirrored the phylogenetic split of these isolates into two groups. Thus, both ST-246 and CDV are of great interest as compounds to treat individuals during Bovine Vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A complex of seven vaccinia virus proteins conserved in all chordopoxviruses is required for the association of membranes and viroplasm to form immature virions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szajner, Patricia; Jaffe, Howard; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Early events in vaccinia virus (VAC) morphogenesis, particularly the formation of viral membranes and their association with viroplasm, are poorly understood. Recently, we showed that repression of A30 or G7 expression results in the accumulation of normal viral membranes that form empty-looking immature virions (IV), which are separated from large masses of electron-dense viroplasm. In addition, A30 and G7 physically and functionally interact with each other and with the F10 protein kinase. To identify other proteins involved in early morphogenesis, proteins from cells that had been infected with vaccinia virus expressing an epitope-tagged copy of F10 were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography and analyzed by gel electrophoresis. In addition to F10, A30, and G7, viral proteins A15, D2, D3, and J1 were identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. Further evidence for the complex was obtained by immunopurification of proteins associated with epitope-tagged A15, D2, and D3. The previously unstudied A15, like other proteins in the complex, was expressed late in infection, associated with virus cores, and required for the stability and kinase activity of F10. Biochemical and electron microscopic analyses indicated that mutants in which A15 or D2 expression was regulated by the Escherichia coli lac operator system exhibited phenotypes characterized by the presence of large numbers of empty immature virions, similar to the results obtained with inducible A30 and G7 mutants. Empty immature virions were also seen by electron microscopy of cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of D2 or D3, though the numbers of membrane forms were reduced perhaps due to additional effects of high temperature

  13. Interaction between the G3 and L5 proteins of the vaccinia virus entry–fusion complex

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Cindy L.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex (EFC) consists of 10 to 12 proteins that are embedded in the viral membrane and individually required for fusion with the cell and entry of the core into the cytoplasm. The architecture of the EFC is unknown except for information regarding two pair-wise interactions: A28 with H2 and A16 with G9. Here we used a technique to destabilize the EFC by repressing the expression of individual components and identified a third pair-wise interaction: G3 with L5....

  14. Structure and function of A41, a vaccinia virus chemokine binding protein.

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    Mohammad W Bahar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus (VACV A41L gene encodes a secreted 30 kDa glycoprotein that is nonessential for virus replication but affects the host response to infection. The A41 protein shares sequence similarity with another VACV protein that binds CC chemokines (called vCKBP, or viral CC chemokine inhibitor, vCCI, and strains of VACV lacking the A41L gene induced stronger CD8+ T-cell responses than control viruses expressing A41. Using surface plasmon resonance, we screened 39 human and murine chemokines and identified CCL21, CCL25, CCL26 and CCL28 as A41 ligands, with Kds of between 8 nM and 118 nM. Nonetheless, A41 was ineffective at inhibiting chemotaxis induced by these chemokines, indicating it did not block the interaction of these chemokines with their receptors. However the interaction of A41 and chemokines was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by heparin, suggesting that A41 and heparin bind to overlapping sites on these chemokines. To better understand the mechanism of action of A41 its crystal structure was solved to 1.9 A resolution. The protein has a globular beta sandwich structure similar to that of the poxvirus vCCI family of proteins, but there are notable structural differences, particularly in surface loops and electrostatic charge distribution. Structural modelling suggests that the binding paradigm as defined for the vCCI-chemokine interaction is likely to be conserved between A41 and its chemokine partners. Additionally, sequence analysis of chemokines binding to A41 identified a signature for A41 binding. The biological and structural data suggest that A41 functions by forming moderately strong (nM interactions with certain chemokines, sufficient to interfere with chemokine-glycosaminoglycan interactions at the cell surface (microM-nM and thereby to destroy the chemokine concentration gradient, but not strong enough to disrupt the (pM chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions.

  15. Systemically administered DNA and fowlpox recombinants expressing four vaccinia virus genes although immunogenic do not protect mice against the highly pathogenic IHD-J vaccinia strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissa, Massimiliano; Pacchioni, Sole Maria; Zanotto, Carlo; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Illiano, Elena; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Broggi, Achille; Radaelli, Antonia

    2013-12-26

    The first-generation smallpox vaccine was based on live vaccinia virus (VV) and it successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. Therefore, it was not administered any more after 1980, as smallpox no longer existed as a natural infection. However, emerging threats by terrorist organisations has prompted new programmes for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains, which have been shown to cause rare but serious adverse events in immunocompromised patients. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that might also be used as bioweapons, and the increasing number of unvaccinated young people and AIDS-affected immunocompromised subjects, a safer and more effective smallpox vaccine is still required. New avipoxvirus-based vectors should improve the safety of conventional vaccines, and protect from newly emerging zoonotic orthopoxvirus diseases and from the threat of deliberate release of variola or monkeypox virus in a bioterrorist attack. In this study, DNA and fowlpox recombinants expressing the L1R, A27L, A33R and B5R genes were constructed and evaluated in a pre-clinical trial in mouse, following six prime/boost immunisation regimens, to compare their immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a challenge with the lethal VV IHD-J strain. Although higher numbers of VV-specific IFNγ-producing T lymphocytes were observed in the protected mice, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and the presence of neutralising antibodies did not always correlate with protection. In spite of previous successful results in mice, rabbits and monkeys, where SIV/HIV transgenes were expressed by the fowlpox vector, the immune response elicited by these recombinants was low, and most of the mice were not protected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic Smallpox Vaccine in Vaccinia-Naive and Experienced Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: An Open-Label, Controlled Clinical Phase II Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Stapleton, Jack; Frank, Ian; Hassler, Shawn; Goepfert, Paul A.; Barker, David; Wagner, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Virgin, Garth; Meyer, Thomas Peter; Müller, Jutta; Bädeker, Nicole; Grünert, Robert; Young, Philip; Rösch, Siegfried; Maclennan, Jane; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. First- and second-generation smallpox vaccines are contraindicated in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A new smallpox vaccine is needed to protect this population in the context of biodefense preparedness. The focus of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-deficient, highly attenuated smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) in HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Methods. An open-label, controlled Phase II trial was conducted at 36 centers in the United States and Puerto Rico for HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Subjects received 2 doses of MVA administered 4 weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings, and safety laboratories. Immune responses were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results. Five hundred seventy-nine subjects were vaccinated at least once and had data available for analysis. Rates of ELISA seropositivity were comparably high in vaccinia-naive healthy and HIV-infected subjects, whereas PRNT seropositivity rates were higher in healthy compared with HIV-infected subjects. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and well tolerated with no adverse impact on viral load or CD4 counts. There were no cases of myo-/pericarditis reported. Conclusions. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and immunogenic in subjects infected with HIV and represents a promising smallpox vaccine candidate for use in immunocompromised populations. PMID:26380340

  17. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis contributes significantly to establishment of a bioenergetically favorable environment for vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Greseth

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The poxvirus life cycle, although physically autonomous from the host nucleus, is nevertheless dependent upon cellular functions. A requirement for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis was implied by our previous demonstration that cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, impaired vaccinia virus production. Here we show that additional inhibitors of this pathway, TOFA and C75, reduce viral yield significantly, with partial rescue provided by exogenous palmitate, the pathway's end-product. Palmitate's major role during infection is not for phospholipid synthesis or protein palmitoylation. Instead, the mitochondrial import and β-oxidation of palmitate are essential, as shown by the impact of etomoxir and trimetazidine, which target these two processes respectively. Moreover, the impact of these inhibitors is exacerbated in the absence of exogenous glucose, which is otherwise dispensable for infection. In contrast to glucose, glutamine is essential for productive viral infection, providing intermediates that sustain the TCA cycle (anaplerosis. Cumulatively, these data suggest that productive infection requires the mitochondrial β-oxidation of palmitate which drives the TCA cycle and energy production. Additionally, infection causes a significant rise in the cellular oxygen consumption rate (ATP synthesis that is ablated by etomoxir. The biochemical progression of the vaccinia life cycle is not impaired in the presence of TOFA, C75, or etomoxir, although the levels of viral DNA and proteins synthesized are somewhat diminished. However, by reversibly arresting infections at the onset of morphogenesis, and then monitoring virus production after release of the block, we determined that virion assembly is highly sensitive to TOFA and C75. Electron microscopic analysis of cells released into C75 revealed fragmented aggregates of viroplasm which failed to be enclosed by developing virion membranes. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccinia

  18. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis contributes significantly to establishment of a bioenergetically favorable environment for vaccinia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greseth, Matthew D; Traktman, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The poxvirus life cycle, although physically autonomous from the host nucleus, is nevertheless dependent upon cellular functions. A requirement for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis was implied by our previous demonstration that cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, impaired vaccinia virus production. Here we show that additional inhibitors of this pathway, TOFA and C75, reduce viral yield significantly, with partial rescue provided by exogenous palmitate, the pathway's end-product. Palmitate's major role during infection is not for phospholipid synthesis or protein palmitoylation. Instead, the mitochondrial import and β-oxidation of palmitate are essential, as shown by the impact of etomoxir and trimetazidine, which target these two processes respectively. Moreover, the impact of these inhibitors is exacerbated in the absence of exogenous glucose, which is otherwise dispensable for infection. In contrast to glucose, glutamine is essential for productive viral infection, providing intermediates that sustain the TCA cycle (anaplerosis). Cumulatively, these data suggest that productive infection requires the mitochondrial β-oxidation of palmitate which drives the TCA cycle and energy production. Additionally, infection causes a significant rise in the cellular oxygen consumption rate (ATP synthesis) that is ablated by etomoxir. The biochemical progression of the vaccinia life cycle is not impaired in the presence of TOFA, C75, or etomoxir, although the levels of viral DNA and proteins synthesized are somewhat diminished. However, by reversibly arresting infections at the onset of morphogenesis, and then monitoring virus production after release of the block, we determined that virion assembly is highly sensitive to TOFA and C75. Electron microscopic analysis of cells released into C75 revealed fragmented aggregates of viroplasm which failed to be enclosed by developing virion membranes. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccinia infection, and in

  19. Unpolarized release of vaccinia virus and HIV antigen by colchicine treatment enhances intranasal HIV antigen expression and mucosal humoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available The induction of a strong mucosal immune response is essential to building successful HIV vaccines. Highly attenuated recombinant HIV vaccinia virus can be administered mucosally, but even high doses of immunization have been found unable to induce strong mucosal antibody responses. In order to solve this problem, we studied the interactions of recombinant HIV vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (rVTT-gagpol in mucosal epithelial cells (specifically Caco-2 cell layers and in BALB/c mice. We evaluated the impact of this virus on HIV antigen delivery and specific immune responses. The results demonstrated that rVTT-gagpol was able to infect Caco-2 cell layers and both the nasal and lung epithelia in BALB/c mice. The progeny viruses and expressed p24 were released mainly from apical surfaces. In BALB/c mice, the infection was limited to the respiratory system and was not observed in the blood. This showed that polarized distribution limited antigen delivery into the whole body and thus limited immune response. To see if this could be improved upon, we stimulated unpolarized budding of the virus and HIV antigens by treating both Caco-2 cells and BALB/c mice with colchicine. We found that, in BALB/c mice, the degree of infection and antigen expression in the epithelia went up. As a result, specific immune responses increased correspondingly. Together, these data suggest that polarized budding limits antigen delivery and immune responses, but unpolarized distribution can increase antigen expression and delivery and thus enhance specific immune responses. This conclusion can be used to optimize mucosal HIV vaccine strategies.

  20. Biophysical analysis of bacterial and viral systems. A shock tube study of bio-aerosols and a correlated AFM/nanosims investigation of vaccinia virus

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    Gates, Sean Damien [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The work presented herein is concerned with the development of biophysical methodology designed to address pertinent questions regarding the behavior and structure of select pathogenic agents. Two distinct studies are documented: a shock tube analysis of endospore-laden bio-aerosols and a correlated AFM/NanoSIMS study of the structure of vaccinia virus.

  1. Evaluation of radiation effects against C6 glioma in combination with vaccinia virus-p53 gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, D. S.; Andres, M. L.; Li, J.; Timiryasova, T.; Chen, B.; Fodor, I.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of recombinant vaccinia virus-p53 (rVV-p53) in combination with radiation therapy against the C6 rat glioma, a p53 deficient tumor that is relatively radioresistant. VV-LIVP, the parental virus (Lister strain), was used as a control. Localized treatment of subcutaneous C6 tumors in athymic mice with either rVV-p53 or VV-LIVP together with tumor irradiation resulted in low tumor incidence and significantly slower tumor progression compared to the agents given as single modalities. Assays of blood and spleen indicated that immune system activation may account, at least partly, for the enhance tumor inhibition seen with combined treatment. No overt signs of treatment-related toxicity were noted.

  2. Absence of vaccinia virus detection in a remote region of the Northern Amazon forests, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Lavergne, Anne; Darcissac, Edith; Lacoste, Vincent; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien; de Thoisy, Benoît; de Souza Trindade, Giliane

    2017-08-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) circulates in Brazil and other South America countries and is responsible for a zoonotic disease that usually affects dairy cattle and humans, causing economic losses and impacting animal and human health. Furthermore, it has been detected in wild areas in the Brazilian Amazon. To better understand the natural history of VACV, we investigated its circulation in wildlife from French Guiana, a remote region in the Northern Amazon forest. ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization tests were performed to detect anti-orthopoxvirus antibodies. Real-time and standard PCR targeting C11R, A56R and A26L were applied to detect VACV DNA in serum, saliva and tissue samples. No evidence of VACV infection was found in any of the samples tested. These findings provide additional information on the VACV epidemiological puzzle. The virus could nevertheless be circulating at low levels that were not detected in areas where no humans or cattle are present.

  3. Immunization of Pigs by DNA Prime and Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Boost To Identify and Rank African Swine Fever Virus Immunogenic and Protective Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancovich, James K; Chapman, Dave; Hansen, Debra T; Robida, Mark D; Loskutov, Andrey; Craciunescu, Felicia; Borovkov, Alex; Kibler, Karen; Goatley, Lynnette; King, Katherine; Netherton, Christopher L; Taylor, Geraldine; Jacobs, Bertram; Sykes, Kathryn; Dixon, Linda K

    2018-04-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs, with high socioeconomic impact. No vaccine is available, limiting options for control. Although live attenuated ASFV can induce up to 100% protection against lethal challenge, little is known of the antigens which induce this protective response. To identify additional ASFV immunogenic and potentially protective antigens, we cloned 47 viral genes in individual plasmids for gene vaccination and in recombinant vaccinia viruses. These antigens were selected to include proteins with different functions and timing of expression. Pools of up to 22 antigens were delivered by DNA prime and recombinant vaccinia virus boost to groups of pigs. Responses of immune lymphocytes from pigs to individual recombinant proteins and to ASFV were measured by interferon gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays to identify a subset of the antigens that consistently induced the highest responses. All 47 antigens were then delivered to pigs by DNA prime and recombinant vaccinia virus boost, and pigs were challenged with a lethal dose of ASFV isolate Georgia 2007/1. Although pigs developed clinical and pathological signs consistent with acute ASFV, viral genome levels were significantly reduced in blood and several lymph tissues in those pigs immunized with vectors expressing ASFV antigens compared with the levels in control pigs. IMPORTANCE The lack of a vaccine limits the options to control African swine fever. Advances have been made in the development of genetically modified live attenuated ASFV that can induce protection against challenge. However, there may be safety issues relating to the use of these in the field. There is little information about ASFV antigens that can induce a protective immune response against challenge. We carried out a large screen of 30% of ASFV antigens by delivering individual genes in different pools to pigs by DNA immunization prime and recombinant vaccinia

  4. A heterologous prime-boosting strategy with replicating Vaccinia virus vectors and plant-produced HIV-1 Gag/dgp41 virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meador, Lydia R. [Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Kessans, Sarah A. [Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Kibler, Karen V. [Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Pantaleo, Giuseppe [Division of Immunology and Allergy, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Swiss Vaccine Research Institute, Lausanne (Switzerland); Roderiguez, Mariano Esteban [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia – CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Blattman, Joseph N. [Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Jacobs, Bertram L., E-mail: bjacobs@asu.edu [Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Mor, Tsafrir S., E-mail: tsafrir.mor@asu.edu [Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Showing modest efficacy, the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine clinical trial utilized a non-replicating canarypox viral vector and a soluble gp120 protein boost. Here we built upon the RV144 strategy by developing a novel combination of a replicating, but highly-attenuated Vaccinia virus vector, NYVAC-KC, and plant-produced HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Both components contained the full-length Gag and a membrane anchored truncated gp41 presenting the membrane proximal external region with its conserved broadly neutralizing epitopes in the pre-fusion conformation. We tested different prime/boost combinations of these components in mice and showed that the group primed with NYVAC-KC and boosted with both the viral vectors and plant-produced VLPs have the most robust Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses, at 12.7% of CD8 T cells expressing IFN-γ in response to stimulation with five Gag epitopes. The same immunization group elicited the best systemic and mucosal antibody responses to Gag and dgp41 with a bias towards IgG1. - Highlights: • We devised a prime/boost anti HIV-1 vaccination strategy modeled after RV144. • We used plant-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of Gag and dgp41. • We used attenuated, replicating vaccinia virus vectors expressing the same antigens. • The immunogens elicited strong cellular and humoral immune responses.

  5. Live vaccinia-rabies virus recombinants, but not an inactivated rabies virus cell culture vaccine, protect B-lymphocyte-deficient A/WySnJ mice against rabies: considerations of recombinant defective poxviruses for rabies immunization of immunocompromised individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodmell, Donald L; Esposito, Joseph J; Ewalt, Larry C

    2004-09-03

    Presently, commercially available cell culture rabies vaccines for humans and animals consist of the five inactivated rabies virus proteins. The vaccines elicit a CD4+ helper T-cell response and a humoral B-cell response against the viral glycoprotein (G) resulting in the production of virus neutralizing antibody. Antibody against the viral nucleoprotein (N) is also present, but the mechanism(s) of its protection is unclear. HIV-infected individuals with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and individuals undergoing treatment with immunosuppressive drugs have an impaired neutralizing antibody response after pre- and post-exposure immunization with rabies cell culture vaccines. Here we show the efficacy of live vaccinia-rabies virus recombinants, but not a cell culture vaccine consisting of inactivated rabies virus, to elicit elevated levels of neutralizing antibody in B-lymphocyte deficient A/WySnJ mice. The cell culture vaccine also failed to protect the mice, whereas a single immunization of a vaccinia recombinant expressing the rabies virus G or co-expressing G and N equally protected the mice up to 18 months after vaccination. The data suggest that recombinant poxviruses expressing the rabies virus G, in particular replication defective poxviruses such as canarypox or MVA vaccinia virus that undergo abortive replication in non-avian cells, or the attenuated vaccinia virus NYVAC, should be evaluated as rabies vaccines in immunocompromised individuals.

  6. The 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase is essential and plays a role in promoting virus genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Don B; Evans, David H

    2009-05-01

    Poxviruses are subjected to extraordinarily high levels of genetic recombination during infection, although the enzymes catalyzing these reactions have never been identified. However, it is clear that virus-encoded DNA polymerases play some unknown yet critical role in virus recombination. Using a novel, antiviral-drug-based strategy to dissect recombination and replication reactions, we now show that the 3'-to-5' proofreading exonuclease activity of the viral DNA polymerase plays a key role in promoting recombination reactions. Linear DNA substrates were prepared containing the dCMP analog cidofovir (CDV) incorporated into the 3' ends of the molecules. The drug blocked the formation of concatemeric recombinant molecules in vitro in a process that was catalyzed by the proofreading activity of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase. Recombinant formation was also blocked when CDV-containing recombination substrates were transfected into cells infected with wild-type vaccinia virus. These inhibitory effects could be overcome if CDV-containing substrates were transfected into cells infected with CDV-resistant (CDV(r)) viruses, but only when resistance was linked to an A314T substitution mutation mapping within the 3'-to-5' exonuclease domain of the viral polymerase. Viruses encoding a CDV(r) mutation in the polymerase domain still exhibited a CDV-induced recombination deficiency. The A314T substitution also enhanced the enzyme's capacity to excise CDV molecules from the 3' ends of duplex DNA and to recombine these DNAs in vitro, as judged from experiments using purified mutant DNA polymerase. The 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity appears to be an essential virus function, and our results suggest that this might be because poxviruses use it to promote genetic exchange.

  7. Expression of the A56 and K2 proteins is sufficient to inhibit vaccinia virus entry and cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Timothy R; Moss, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Many animal viruses induce cells to fuse and form syncytia. For vaccinia virus, this phenomenon is associated with mutations affecting the A56 and K2 proteins, which form a multimer (A56/K2) on the surface of infected cells. Recent evidence that A56/K2 interacts with the entry/fusion complex (EFC) and that the EFC is necessary for syncytium formation furnishes a strong connection between virus entry and cell fusion. Among the important remaining questions are whether A56/K2 can prevent virus entry as well as cell-cell fusion and whether these two viral proteins are sufficient as well as necessary for this. To answer these questions, we transiently and stably expressed A56 and K2 in uninfected cells. Uninfected cells expressing A56 and K2 exhibited resistance to fusing with A56 mutant virus-infected cells, whereas expression of A56 or K2 alone induced little or no resistance, which fits with the need for both proteins to bind the EFC. Furthermore, transient or stable expression of A56/K2 interfered with virus entry and replication as determined by inhibition of early expression of a luciferase reporter gene, virus production, and plaque formation. The specificity of this effect was demonstrated by restoring entry after enzymatically removing a chimeric glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored A56/K2 or by binding a monoclonal antibody to A56. Importantly, the antibody disrupted the interaction between A56/K2 and the EFC without disrupting the A56-K2 interaction itself. Thus, we have shown that A56/K2 is sufficient to prevent virus entry and fusion as well as formation of syncytia through interaction with the EFC.

  8. Effect of Vaccinia virus infection on poly(ADP-ribose)synthesis and DNA metabolism in different cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topaloglou, A.; Ott, E.; Altmann, H. (Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf G.m.b.H. Inst. fuer Biologie); Zashukhina, G.D.; Sinelschikova, T.A. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Obshchej Genetiki)

    1983-07-14

    In Chang liver cells and rat spleen cells infected with Vaccinia virus, DNA synthesis, repair replication after UV irradiation and poly(ADP-ribose)(PAR) synthesis were determined. In the time post infection semiconservative DNA synthesis showed only a slight reduction. DNA repair replication was not very different from controls 4 hours p.i. but was enhanced 24 hours after infection compared to noninfected cells. PAR synthesis was also not changed very much 4 hours p.i. but was decreased significantly after 24 hours. The determination of radioactivity resulting from /sup 3/H-NAD, showed a marked reduction of PAR in the spacer region of chromatin 24 hours p.i., but in addition, PAR located in the core region, was reduced, too.

  9. Recombination-mediated genetic engineering of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G Cottingham

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The production, manipulation and rescue of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Vaccinia virus (VAC-BAC in order to expedite construction of expression vectors and mutagenesis of the genome has been described (Domi & Moss, 2002, PNAS99 12415-20. The genomic BAC clone was 'rescued' back to infectious virus using a Fowlpox virus helper to supply transcriptional machinery. We apply here a similar approach to the attenuated strain Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, now widely used as a safe non-replicating recombinant vaccine vector in mammals, including humans. Four apparently full-length, rescuable clones were obtained, which had indistinguishable immunogenicity in mice. One clone was shotgun sequenced and found to be identical to the parent. We employed GalK recombination-mediated genetic engineering (recombineering of MVA-BAC to delete five selected viral genes. Deletion of C12L, A44L, A46R or B7R did not significantly affect CD8(+ T cell immunogenicity in BALB/c mice, but deletion of B15R enhanced specific CD8(+ T cell responses to one of two endogenous viral epitopes (from the E2 and F2 proteins, in accordance with published work (Staib et al., 2005, J. Gen. Virol.86, 1997-2006. In addition, we found a higher frequency of triple-positive IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-2 secreting E3-specific CD8+ T-cells 8 weeks after vaccination with MVA lacking B15R. Furthermore, a recombinant vaccine capable of inducing CD8(+ T cells against an epitope from Plasmodium berghei was created using GalK counterselection to insert an antigen expression cassette lacking a tandem marker gene into the traditional thymidine kinase locus of MVA-BAC. MVA continues to feature prominently in clinical trials of recombinant vaccines against diseases such as HIV-AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate in proof-of-concept experiments that MVA-BAC recombineering is a viable route to more rapid and efficient generation of new candidate mutant and recombinant

  10. Improvement of In Vivo Expression of Genes Delivered by Self-Amplifying RNA Using Vaccinia Virus Immune Evasion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissert, Tim; Koste, Lars; Perkovic, Mario; Walzer, Kerstin C.; Erbar, Stephanie; Selmi, Abderraouf; Diken, Mustafa; Kreiter, Sebastian; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2017-01-01

    Among nucleic acid–based delivery platforms, self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vectors are of increasing interest for applications such as transient expression of recombinant proteins and vaccination. saRNA is safe and, due to its capability to amplify intracellularly, high protein levels can be produced from even minute amounts of transfected templates. However, it is an obstacle to full exploitation of this platform that saRNA induces a strong innate host immune response. In transfected cells, pattern recognition receptors sense double-stranded RNA intermediates and via activation of protein kinase R (PKR) and interferon signaling initiate host defense measures including a translational shutdown. To reduce pattern recognition receptor stimulation and unleash suppressed saRNA translation, this study co-delivered non-replicating mRNA encoding vaccinia virus immune evasion proteins E3, K3, and B18. It was shown that E3 is far superior to K3 or B18 as a highly potent blocker of PKR activation and of interferon (IFN)-β upregulation. B18, in contrast, is superior in controlling OAS1, a key IFN-inducible gene involved in viral RNA degradation. By combining all three vaccinia proteins, the study achieved significant suppression of PKR and IFN pathway activation in vitro and enhanced expression of saRNA-encoded genes of interest both in vitro and in vivo. This approach promises to overcome key hurdles of saRNA gene delivery. Its application may improve the bioavailability of the encoded protein, and reduce the effective dose and correspondingly the cost of goods of manufacture in the various fields where saRNA utilization is envisioned. PMID:28877647

  11. Prime/boost immunotherapy of HPV16-induced tumors with E7 protein delivered by Bordetella adenylate cyclase and modified vaccinia virus Ankara

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, J.; Stasíková, J.; Kutinová, L.; Mašín, Jiří; Hainz, P.; Šimšová, Marcela; Gabriel, P.; Šebo, Peter; Němečková, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2006), s. 39-46 ISSN 0340-7004 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5020311; GA ČR GA310/04/0004; GA MZd NR8004 Grant - others:GA MZd NC6570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : vaccine * hpv-e7 * vaccinia virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.313, year: 2006

  12. Human vaccinia-like virus outbreaks in São Paulo and Goiás States, Brazil: virus detection, isolation and identification Surtos de vírus Vaccinia-like nos Estados de São Paulo e Goiás, Brasil: detecção, isolamento e identificação viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Keico Nagasse-Sugahara

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Since October 2001, the Adolfo Lutz Institute has been receiving vesicular fluids and scab specimens of patients from Paraíba Valley region in the São Paulo and Minas Gerais States and from São Patricio Valley, in the Goiás State. Epidemiological data suggested that the outbreaks were caused by Cowpox virus or Vaccinia virus. Most of the patients are dairy milkers that had vesiculo-pustular lesions on the hands, arms, forearms, and some of them, on the face. Virus particles with orthopoxvirus morphology were detected by direct electron microscopy (DEM in samples of 49 (66.21% patients of a total of 74 analyzed. Viruses were isolated in Vero cell culture and on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of embryonated chicken eggs. Among 21 samples submitted to PCR using primers for hemagglutinin (HA gene, 19 were positive. Restriction digestion with TaqI resulted in four characteristic Vaccinia virus fragments. HA nucleotide sequences showed 99.9% similarity with Cantagalo virus, described as a strain of Vaccinia virus. The only difference observed was the substitution of one nucleotide in the position 616 leading to change in one amino acid of the protein in the position 206. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates clustered together with Cantagalo virus, other Vaccinia strains and Rabbitpox virus.A partir de outubro de 2001, o Instituto Adolfo Lutz tem recebido amostras de líquido vesicular e crostas de lesões de pele de pacientes das regiões do Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo e do Vale do São Patricio, Estado de Goiás. Os dados clínicos e epidemiológicos sugeriam que os surtos poderiam ser causados por Cowpox virus ou Vaccinia virus. A maioria dos pacientes era ordenhadores que tinham lesões vesicopustulares nas mãos, braços, antebraços e alguns na face. A análise por microscopia eletrônica direta (MED detectou partículas com morfologia de vírus do gênero Orthopoxvirus em amostras de 49 (66,21% pacientes dos 74

  13. RNA-Seq Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Type I Interferon Host Response upon Vaccinia Virus Infection of Mouse Cells

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    Bruno Hernáez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV encodes the soluble type I interferon (IFN binding protein B18 that is secreted from infected cells and also attaches to the cell surface, as an immunomodulatory strategy to inhibit the host IFN response. By using next generation sequencing technologies, we performed a detailed RNA-seq study to dissect at the transcriptional level the modulation of the IFN based host response by VACV and B18. Transcriptome profiling of L929 cells after incubation with purified recombinant B18 protein showed that attachment of B18 to the cell surface does not trigger cell signalling leading to transcriptional activation. Consistent with its ability to bind type I IFN, B18 completely inhibited the IFN-mediated modulation of host gene expression. Addition of UV-inactivated virus particles to cell cultures altered the expression of a set of 53 cellular genes, including genes involved in innate immunity. Differential gene expression analyses of cells infected with replication competent VACV identified the activation of a broad range of host genes involved in multiple cellular pathways. Interestingly, we did not detect an IFN-mediated response among the transcriptional changes induced by VACV, even after the addition of IFN to cells infected with a mutant VACV lacking B18. This is consistent with additional viral mechanisms acting at different levels to block IFN responses during VACV infection.

  14. Daily ingestion of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ST11 decreases Vaccinia virus dissemination and lethality in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Pereira Andrade, A C; Lima, M Teixeira; Oliveira, G Pereira; Calixto, R Silva; de Sales E Souza, É Lorenna; da Glória de Souza, D; de Almeida Leite, C M; Ferreira, J M Siqueira; Kroon, E G; de Oliveira, D Bretas; Dos Santos Martins, F; Abrahão, J S

    2017-02-07

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an important pathogen. Although studies have shown relationships between probiotics and viruses, the effect of probiotics on VACV infection is unknown. Therefore, this work aims to investigate the probiotics effects on VACV infection. Mice were divided into four groups, two non-infected groups, one receiving the probiotic, the other one not receiving it, and two groups infected intranasally with VACV Western Reserve (VACV-WR) receiving or not receiving the probiotic. Viral titres in organs and cytokine production in the lungs were analysed. Lung samples were also subjected to histological analysis. The intake of probiotic results in reduction in viral spread with a significant decrease of VACV titer on lung, liver and brain of treated group. In addition,treatment with the probiotic results in attenuated mice lung inflammation showing fewer lesions on histological findings and decreased lethality in mice infected with VACV. The ingestion of Lactobacillus paracasei ST11 (LPST11) after VACV infection resulted in 2/9 animal lethality compared with 4/9 in the VACV group. This is the first study on probiotics and VACV interactions, providing not only information about this interaction, but also proposing a model for future studies involving probiotics and other poxvirus.

  15. E3L and F1L Gene Functions Modulate the Protective Capacity of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Immunization in Murine Model of Human Smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asisa Volz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The highly attenuated Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA lacks most of the known vaccinia virus (VACV virulence and immune evasion genes. Today MVA can serve as a safety-tested next-generation smallpox vaccine. Yet, we still need to learn about regulatory gene functions preserved in the MVA genome, such as the apoptosis inhibitor genes F1L and E3L. Here, we tested MVA vaccine preparations on the basis of the deletion mutant viruses MVA-ΔF1L and MVA-ΔE3L for efficacy against ectromelia virus (ECTV challenge infections in mice. In non-permissive human tissue culture the MVA deletion mutant viruses produced reduced levels of the VACV envelope antigen B5. Upon mousepox challenge at three weeks after vaccination, MVA-ΔF1L and MVA-ΔE3L exhibited reduced protective capacity in comparison to wildtype MVA. Surprisingly, however, all vaccines proved equally protective against a lethal ECTV infection at two days after vaccination. Accordingly, the deletion mutant MVA vaccines induced high levels of virus-specific CD8+ T cells previously shown to be essential for rapidly protective MVA vaccination. These results suggest that inactivation of the anti-apoptotic genes F1L or E3L modulates the protective capacity of MVA vaccination most likely through the induction of distinct orthopoxvirus specific immunity in the absence of these viral regulatory proteins.

  16. Priming-boosting vaccination with recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin and a nonreplicating vaccinia virus recombinant leads to long-lasting and effective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ami, Yasushi; Izumi, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Someya, Kenji; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Horibata, Shigeo; Yoshino, Naoto; Sakai, Koji; Shinohara, Katsuaki; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Yamada, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Shudo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Honda, Mitsuo

    2005-10-01

    Virus-specific T-cell responses can limit immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and prevent disease progression and so could serve as the basis for an affordable, safe, and effective vaccine in humans. To assess their potential for a vaccine, we used Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-Tokyo and a replication-deficient vaccinia virus strain (DIs) as vectors to express full-length gag from simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) (rBCG-SIVgag and rDIsSIVgag). Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated with either rBCG-SIVgag dermally as a single modality or in combination with rDIsSIVgag intravenously. When cynomologus macaques were primed with rBCG-SIVgag and then boosted with rDIsSIVgag, high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) spot-forming cells specific for SIV Gag were induced. This combination regimen elicited effective protective immunity against mucosal challenge with pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus for the 1 year the macaques were under observation. Antigen-specific intracellular IFN-gamma activity was similarly induced in each of the macaques with the priming-boosting regimen. Other groups receiving the opposite combination or the single-modality vaccines were not effectively protected. These results suggest that a recombinant M. bovis BCG-based vector may have potential as an HIV/AIDS vaccine when administered in combination with a replication-deficient vaccinia virus DIs vector in a priming-boosting strategy.

  17. Imaging characteristics, tissue distribution, and spread of a novel oncolytic vaccinia virus carrying the human sodium iodide symporter.

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    Dana Haddad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oncolytic viruses show promise for treating cancer. However, to assess therapy and potential toxicity, a noninvasive imaging modality is needed. This study aims to determine the in vivo biodistribution, and imaging and timing characteristics of a vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, encoding the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS. METHODS: GLV-1h153 was modified from GLV-1h68 to encode the hNIS gene. Timing of cellular uptake of radioiodide (131I in human pancreatic carcinoma cells PANC-1 was assessed using radiouptake assays. Viral biodistribution was determined in nude mice bearing PANC-1 xenografts, and infection in tumors confirmed histologically and optically via Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP and bioluminescence. Timing characteristics of enhanced radiouptake in xenografts were assessed via (124I-positron emission tomography (PET. Detection of systemic administration of virus was investigated with both (124I-PET and 99m-technecium gamma-scintigraphy. RESULTS: GLV-1h153 successfully facilitated time-dependent intracellular uptake of (131I in PANC-1 cells with a maximum uptake at 24 hours postinfection (P<0.05. In vivo, biodistribution profiles revealed persistence of virus in tumors 5 weeks postinjection at 10(9 plaque-forming unit (PFU/gm tissue, with the virus mainly cleared from all other major organs. Tumor infection by GLV-1h153 was confirmed via optical imaging and histology. GLV-1h153 facilitated imaging virus replication in tumors via PET even at 8 hours post radiotracer injection, with a mean %ID/gm of 3.82 ± 0.46 (P<0.05 2 days after intratumoral administration of virus, confirmed via tissue radiouptake assays. One week post systemic administration, GLV-1h153-infected tumors were detected via (124I-PET and 99m-technecium-scintigraphy. CONCLUSION: GLV-1h153 is a promising oncolytic agent against pancreatic cancer with a promising biosafety profile. GLV-1h153 facilitated time-dependent hNIS-specific radiouptake in pancreatic

  18. Quantitative Analysis of MicroRNAs in Vaccinia virus Infection Reveals Diversity in Their Susceptibility to Modification and Suppression.

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    Amy H Buck

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV is a large cytoplasmic DNA virus that causes dramatic alterations to many cellular pathways including microRNA biogenesis. The virus encodes a poly(A polymerase which was previously shown to add poly(A tails to the 3' end of cellular miRNAs, resulting in their degradation by 24 hours post infection (hpi. Here we used small RNA sequencing to quantify the impact of VACV infection on cellular miRNAs in human cells at both early (6 h and late (24 h times post infection. A detailed quantitative analysis of individual miRNAs revealed marked diversity in the extent of their modification and relative change in abundance during infection. Some miRNAs became highly modified (e.g. miR-29a-3p, miR-27b-3p whereas others appeared resistant (e.g. miR-16-5p. Furthermore, miRNAs that were highly tailed at 6 hpi were not necessarily among the most reduced at 24 hpi. These results suggest that intrinsic features of human cellular miRNAs cause them to be differentially polyadenylated and altered in abundance during VACV infection. We also demonstrate that intermediate and late VACV gene expression are required for optimal repression of some miRNAs including miR-27-3p. Overall this work reveals complex and varied consequences of VACV infection on host miRNAs and identifies miRNAs which are largely resistant to VACV-induced polyadenylation and are therefore present at functional levels during the initial stages of infection and replication.

  19. Three-Year Durability of Immune Responses Induced by HIV-DNA and HIV-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara and Effect of a Late HIV-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Boost in Tanzanian Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Agricola; Munseri, Patricia J; Nilsson, Charlotta; Bakari, Muhammad; Aboud, Said; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Tecleab, Teghesti; Liakina, Valentina; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Robb, Merlin L; Earl, Patricia L; Moss, Bernard; Wahren, Britta; Mhalu, Fred; Ferrari, Guido; Sandstrom, Eric; Biberfeld, Gunnel

    2017-08-01

    We explored the duration of immune responses and the effect of a late third HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost in HIV-DNA primed and HIV-MVA boosted Tanzanian volunteers. Twenty volunteers who had previously received three HIV-DNA and two HIV-MVA immunizations were given a third HIV-MVA immunization 3 years after the second HIV-MVA boost. At the time of the third HIV-MVA, 90% of the vaccinees had antibodies to HIV-1 subtype C gp140 (median titer 200) and 85% to subtype B gp160 (median titer 100). The majority of vaccinees had detectable antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies, 70% against CRF01_AE virus-infected cells (median titer 239) and 84% against CRF01_AE gp120-coated cells (median titer 499). A high proportion (74%) of vaccinees had IFN-γ ELISpot responses, 63% to Gag and 42% to Env, 3 years after the second HIV-MVA boost. After the third HIV-MVA, there was an increase in Env-binding antibodies and ADCC-mediating antibodies relative to the response seen at the time of the third HIV-MVA vaccination, p < .0001 and p < .05, respectively. The frequency of IFN-γ ELISpot responses increased to 95% against Gag or Env and 90% to both Gag and Env, p = .064 and p = .002, respectively. In conclusion, the HIV-DNA prime/HIV-MVA boost regimen elicited potent antibody and cellular immune responses with remarkable durability, and a third HIV-MVA immunization significantly boosted both antibody and cellular immune responses relative to the levels detected at the time of the third HIV-MVA, but not to higher levels than after the second HIV-MVA.

  20. Recombinant Vaccinia Viruses Coding Transgenes of Apoptosis-Inducing Proteins Enhance Apoptosis But Not Immunogenicity of Infected Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Anastasiya; Richter, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Genetic modifications of the oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) improve selective tumor cell infection and death, as well as activation of antitumor immunity. We have engineered a double recombinant VV, coding human GM-CSF, and apoptosis-inducing protein apoptin (VV-GMCSF-Apo) for comparing with the earlier constructed double recombinant VV-GMCSF-Lact, coding another apoptosis-inducing protein, lactaptin, which activated different cell death pathways than apoptin. We showed that both these recombinant VVs more considerably activated a set of critical apoptosis markers in infected cells than the recombinant VV coding GM-CSF alone (VV-GMCSF-dGF): these were phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation, DNA fragmentation, and upregulation of proapoptotic protein BAX. However, only VV-GMCSF-Lact efficiently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential of infected cancer cells. Investigating immunogenic cell death markers in cancer cells infected with recombinant VVs, we demonstrated that all tested recombinant VVs were efficient in calreticulin and HSP70 externalization, decrease of cellular HMGB1, and ATP secretion. The comparison of antitumor activity against advanced MDA-MB-231 tumor revealed that both recombinants VV-GMCSF-Lact and VV-GMCSF-Apo efficiently delay tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that the composition of GM-CSF and apoptosis-inducing proteins in the VV genome is very efficient tool for specific killing of cancer cells and for activation of antitumor immunity. PMID:28951871

  1. Interaction between the G3 and L5 proteins of the vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, Cindy L.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex (EFC) consists of 10 to 12 proteins that are embedded in the viral membrane and individually required for fusion with the cell and entry of the core into the cytoplasm. The architecture of the EFC is unknown except for information regarding two pair-wise interactions: A28 with H2 and A16 with G9. Here we used a technique to destabilize the EFC by repressing the expression of individual components and identified a third pair-wise interaction: G3 with L5. These two proteins remained associated under several different EFC destabilization conditions and in each case were immunopurified together as demonstrated by Western blotting. Further evidence for the specific interaction of G3 and L5 was obtained by mass spectrometry. This interaction also occurred when G3 and L5 were expressed in uninfected cells, indicating that no other viral proteins were required. Thus, the present study extends our knowledge of the protein interactions important for EFC assembly and stability.

  2. Oral vaccination of wildlife using a vaccinia-rabies-glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine (RABORAL V-RG®): a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Joanne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Aubert, Michel; Brochier, Bernard; Cliquet, Florence; Hanlon, Cathleen A; King, Roni; Oertli, Ernest H; Rupprecht, Charles E; Schumacher, Caroline; Slate, Dennis; Yakobson, Boris; Wohlers, Anne; Lankau, Emily W

    2017-09-22

    RABORAL V-RG ® is an oral rabies vaccine bait that contains an attenuated ("modified-live") recombinant vaccinia virus vector vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene (V-RG). Approximately 250 million doses have been distributed globally since 1987 without any reports of adverse reactions in wildlife or domestic animals since the first licensed recombinant oral rabies vaccine (ORV) was released into the environment to immunize wildlife populations against rabies. V-RG is genetically stable, is not detected in the oral cavity beyond 48 h after ingestion, is not shed by vaccinates into the environment, and has been tested for thermostability under a range of laboratory and field conditions. Safety of V-RG has been evaluated in over 50 vertebrate species, including non-human primates, with no adverse effects observed regardless of route or dose. Immunogenicity and efficacy have been demonstrated under laboratory and field conditions in multiple target species (including fox, raccoon, coyote, skunk, raccoon dog, and jackal). The liquid vaccine is packaged inside edible baits (i.e., RABORAL V-RG, the vaccine-bait product) which are distributed into wildlife habitats for consumption by target species. Field application of RABORAL V-RG has contributed to the elimination of wildlife rabies from three European countries (Belgium, France and Luxembourg) and of the dog/coyote rabies virus variant from the United States of America (USA). An oral rabies vaccination program in west-central Texas has essentially eliminated the gray fox rabies virus variant from Texas with the last case reported in a cow during 2009. A long-term ORV barrier program in the USA using RABORAL V-RG is preventing substantial geographic expansion of the raccoon rabies virus variant. RABORAL V-RG has also been used to control wildlife rabies in Israel for more than a decade. This paper: (1) reviews the development and historical use of RABORAL V-RG; (2) highlights wildlife rabies control

  3. Antibodies to the A27 protein of vaccinia virus neutralize and protect against infection but represent a minor component of Dryvax vaccine--induced immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Manischewitz, Jody; Meseda, Clement A; Merchlinsky, Michael; Vassell, Russell A; Sirota, Lev; Berkower, Ira; Golding, Hana; Weiss, Carol D

    2007-10-01

    The smallpox vaccine Dryvax, which consists of replication-competent vaccinia virus, elicits antibodies that play a major role in protection. Several vaccinia proteins generate neutralizing antibodies, but their importance for protection is unknown. We investigated the potency of antibodies to the A27 protein of the mature virion in neutralization and protection experiments and the contributions of A27 antibodies to Dryvax-induced immunity. Using a recombinant A27 protein (rA27), we confirmed that A27 contains neutralizing determinants and that vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) derived from Dryvax recipients contains reactivity to A27. However, VIG neutralization was not significantly reduced when A27 antibodies were removed, and antibodies elicited by an rA27 enhanced the protection conferred by VIG in passive transfer experiments. These findings demonstrate that A27 antibodies do not represent the major fraction of neutralizing activity in VIG and suggest that immunity may be augmented by vaccines and immune globulins that include strong antibody responses to A27.

  4. Vaccinia Virus Immunomodulator A46: A Lipid and Protein-Binding Scaffold for Sequestering Host TIR-Domain Proteins.

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    Sofiya Fedosyuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus interferes with early events of the activation pathway of the transcriptional factor NF-kB by binding to numerous host TIR-domain containing adaptor proteins. We have previously determined the X-ray structure of the A46 C-terminal domain; however, the structure and function of the A46 N-terminal domain and its relationship to the C-terminal domain have remained unclear. Here, we biophysically characterize residues 1-83 of the N-terminal domain of A46 and present the X-ray structure at 1.55 Å. Crystallographic phases were obtained by a recently developed ab initio method entitled ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES that employs tertiary structure libraries extracted from the Protein Data Bank; data analysis revealed an all β-sheet structure. This is the first such structure solved by this method which should be applicable to any protein composed entirely of β-sheets. The A46(1-83 structure itself is a β-sandwich containing a co-purified molecule of myristic acid inside a hydrophobic pocket and represents a previously unknown lipid-binding fold. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of long-chain fatty acids in both N-terminal and full-length A46; mutation of the hydrophobic pocket reduced the lipid content. Using a combination of high resolution X-ray structures of the N- and C-terminal domains and SAXS analysis of full-length protein A46(1-240, we present here a structural model of A46 in a tetrameric assembly. Integrating affinity measurements and structural data, we propose how A46 simultaneously interferes with several TIR-domain containing proteins to inhibit NF-κB activation and postulate that A46 employs a bipartite binding arrangement to sequester the host immune adaptors TRAM and MyD88.

  5. Drosophila S2 cells are non-permissive for vaccinia virus DNA replication following entry via low pH-dependent endocytosis and early transcription.

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    Zain Bengali

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV, a member of the chordopox subfamily of the Poxviridae, abortively infects insect cells. We have investigated VACV infection of Drosophila S2 cells, which are useful for protein expression and genome-wide RNAi screening. Biochemical and electron microscopic analyses indicated that VACV entry into Drosophila S2 cells depended on the VACV multiprotein entry-fusion complex but appeared to occur exclusively by a low pH-dependent endocytic mechanism, in contrast to both neutral and low pH entry pathways used in mammalian cells. Deep RNA sequencing revealed that the entire VACV early transcriptome, comprising 118 open reading frames, was robustly expressed but neither intermediate nor late mRNAs were made. Nor was viral late protein synthesis or inhibition of host protein synthesis detected by pulse-labeling with radioactive amino acids. Some reduction in viral early proteins was noted by Western blotting. Nevertheless, synthesis of the multitude of early proteins needed for intermediate gene expression was demonstrated by transfection of a plasmid containing a reporter gene regulated by an intermediate promoter. In addition, expression of a reporter gene with a late promoter was achieved by cotransfection of intermediate genes encoding the late transcription factors. The requirement for transfection of DNA templates for intermediate and late gene expression indicated a defect in viral genome replication in VACV-infected S2 cells, which was confirmed by direct analysis. Furthermore, VACV-infected S2 cells did not support the replication of a transfected plasmid, which occurs in mammalian cells and is dependent on all known viral replication proteins, indicating a primary restriction of DNA synthesis.

  6. Expression of the ’Bacillus anthracis’ Protective Antigen Gene by Baculovirus and Vaccinia Virus Recombinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    procaryotic systems (12. 45). Certain eucaryotic ically cleaved by a trypsin-like proteas: ito produce a recep- viruses are currently being explored as...19847. Proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin bound to cellular recep- ACKN()WEIX;NMNTS tor%.. p. 111-112. In F. Fehrenbach et al. ifed.). Bacterial

  7. The Orf virus E3L homologue is able to complement deletion of the vaccinia virus E3L gene in vitro but not in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijaysri, Sangeetha; Talasela, Latha; Mercer, Andrew A.; Mcinnes, Colin J.; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Langland, Jeffrey O.

    2003-01-01

    Orf virus (OV), the prototypic parapoxvirus, is resistant to the effects of interferon (IFN) and this function of OV has been mapped to the OV20.0L gene. The protein product of this gene shares 31% amino acid identity to the E3L-encoded protein of vaccinia virus (VV) that is required for the broad host range and IFN-resistant phenotype of VV in cells in culture and for virulence of the virus in vivo. In this study we investigated whether the distantly related OV E3L homologue could complement the deletion of E3L in VV. The recombinant VV (VV/ORF-E3L) expressing the OV E3L homologue in place of VV E3L was indistinguishable from wt VV in its cell-culture phenotype. But VV/ORF-E3L was over a 1000-fold less pathogenic than wt VV (LD 50 > 5 x 10 6 PFU, compared to LD 50 of wtVV = 4 x 10 3 PFU) following intranasal infection of mice. While wt VV spread to the lungs and brain and replicated to high titers in the brain of infected mice, VV/ORF-E3L could not be detected in the lungs or brain following intranasal infection. VV/ORF-E3L was at least 100,000-fold less pathogenic than wt VV on intracranial injection. Domain swap experiments demonstrate that the difference in pathogenesis maps to the C-terminal domain of these proteins. This domain has been shown to be required for the dsRNA binding function of the VV E3L

  8. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian 'avian-like' H1N1 swine viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian "avian-like" (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. © 2013 The Authors Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mutagenic repair of double-stranded DNA breaks in vaccinia virus genomes requires cellular DNA ligase IV activity in the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteijn, Rutger David; Drexler, Ingo; Smith, Geoffrey L; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J

    2018-04-20

    Poxviruses comprise a group of large dsDNA viruses that include members relevant to human and animal health, such as variola virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus and vaccinia virus (VACV). Poxviruses are remarkable for their unique replication cycle, which is restricted to the cytoplasm of infected cells. The independence from the host nucleus requires poxviruses to encode most of the enzymes involved in DNA replication, transcription and processing. Here, we use the CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system to induce DNA damage to VACV (strain Western Reserve) genomes. We show that targeting CRISPR/Cas9 to essential viral genes limits virus replication efficiently. Although VACV is a strictly cytoplasmic pathogen, we observed extensive viral genome editing at the target site; this is reminiscent of a non-homologous end-joining DNA repair mechanism. This pathway was not dependent on the viral DNA ligase, but critically involved the cellular DNA ligase IV. Our data show that DNA ligase IV can act outside of the nucleus to allow repair of dsDNA breaks in poxvirus genomes. This pathway might contribute to the introduction of mutations within the genome of poxviruses and may thereby promote the evolution of these viruses.

  10. L1R, A27L, A33R and B5R vaccinia virus genes expressed by fowlpox recombinants as putative novel orthopoxvirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Sole Maria; Bissa, Massimiliano; Zanotto, Carlo; Morghen, Carlo De Giuli; Illiano, Elena; Radaelli, Antonia

    2013-04-11

    The traditional smallpox vaccine, administered by scarification, was discontinued in the general population from 1980, because of the absence of new smallpox cases. However, the development of an effective prophylactic vaccine against smallpox is still necessary, to protect from the threat of deliberate release of the variola virus for bioterrorism and from new zoonotic infections, and to improve the safety of the traditional vaccine. Preventive vaccination still remains the most effective control and new vectors have been developed to generate recombinant vaccines against smallpox that induce the same immunogenicity as the traditional one. As protective antibodies are mainly directed against the surface proteins of the two infectious forms of vaccinia, the intracellular mature virions and the extracellular virions, combined proteins from these viral forms can be used to better elicit a complete and protective immunity. Four novel viral recombinants were constructed based on the fowlpox genetic background, which independently express the vaccinia virus L1 and A27 proteins present on the mature virions, and the A33 and B5 proteins present on the extracellular virions. The correct expression of the transgenes was determined by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, the ability of the proteins expressed by the four novel FPL1R, FPA27L, FPA33R and FPB5R recombinants to be recognized by VV-specific hyperimmune mouse sera was demonstrated. By neutralisation assays, recombinant virus particles released by infected chick embryo fibroblasts were shown not be recognised by hyperimmune sera. This thus demonstrates that the L1R, A27L, A33R and B5R gene products are not inserted into the new viral progeny. Fowlpox virus replicates only in avian species, but it is permissive for entry and transgene expression in mammalian cells, while being immunologically non-cross-reactive with vaccinia virus. These recombinants might

  11. Effects of nasal or pulmonary delivered treatments with an adenovirus vectored interferon (mDEF201 on respiratory and systemic infections in mice caused by cowpox and vaccinia viruses.

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    Donald F Smee

    Full Text Available An adenovirus 5 vector encoding for mouse interferon alpha, subtype 5 (mDEF201 was evaluated for efficacy against lethal cowpox (Brighton strain and vaccinia (WR strain virus respiratory and systemic infections in mice. Two routes of mDEF201 administration were used, nasal sinus (5-µl and pulmonary (50-µl, to compare differences in efficacy, since the preferred treatment of humans would be in a relatively small volume delivered intranasally. Lower respiratory infections (LRI, upper respiratory infections (URI, and systemic infections were induced by 50-µl intranasal, 10-µl intranasal, and 100-µl intraperitoneal virus challenges, respectively. mDEF201 treatments were given prophylactically either 24 h (short term or 56d (long-term prior to virus challenge. Single nasal sinus treatments of 10(6 and 10(7 PFU/mouse of mDEF201 protected all mice from vaccinia-induced LRI mortality (comparable to published studies with pulmonary delivered mDEF201. Systemic vaccinia infections responded significantly better to nasal sinus delivered mDEF201 than to pulmonary treatments. Cowpox LRI infections responded to 10(7 mDEF201 treatments, but a 10(6 dose was only weakly protective. Cowpox URI infections were equally treatable by nasal sinus and pulmonary delivered mDEF201 at 10(7 PFU/mouse. Dose-responsive prophylaxis with mDEF201, given one time only 56 d prior to initiating a vaccinia virus LRI infection, was 100% protective from 10(5 to 10(7 PFU/mouse. Improvements in lung hemorrhage score and lung weight were evident, as were decreases in liver, lung, and spleen virus titers. Thus, mDEF201 was able to treat different vaccinia and cowpox virus infections using both nasal sinus and pulmonary treatment regimens, supporting its development for humans.

  12. Combination of intratumoral injections of vaccinia virus MVA expressing GM-CSF and immunization with DNA vaccine prolongs the survival of mice bearing HPV16 induced tumors with downregulated expression of MHC class I molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němečková, Š.; Šmahel, M.; Hainz, P.; Macková, J.; Zurková, K.; Gabriel, P.; Indrová, Marie; Kutinová, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2007), s. 326-333 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : vaccinia virus MVA expressing GM- CSF * DNA vaccine * HPV16 induced tumors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2007

  13. The primary immune response to Vaccinia virus vaccination includes cells with a distinct cytotoxic effector CD4 T-cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, C Mee Ling; van Bockel, David; Bailey, Michelle; Ip, Susanna; Xu, Yin; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Liu, Sue Min; Denyer, Gareth; Kaplan, Warren; Suzuki, Kazuo; Croft, Nathan; Purcell, Anthony; Tscharke, David; Cooper, David A; Kent, Stephen J; Zaunders, John J; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2016-10-17

    Smallpox was eradicated by a global program of inoculation with Vaccinia virus (VV). Robust VV-specific CD4 T-cell responses during primary infection are likely essential to controlling VV replication. Although there is increasing interest in cytolytic CD4 T-cells across many viral infections, the importance of these cells during acute VV infection is unclear. We undertook a detailed functional and genetic characterization of CD4 T-cells during acute VV-infection of humans. VV-specific T-cells were identified by up-regulation of activation markers directly ex vivo and through cytokine and co-stimulatory molecule expression. At day-13-post primary inoculation with VV, CD38highCD45RO+ CD4 T-cells were purified by cell sorting, RNA isolated and analysed by microarray. Differential expression of up-regulated genes in activated CD4 T-cells was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. We compared analyses of VV-specific CD4 T-cells to studies on 12 subjects with primary HIV infection (PHI). VV-specific T-cells lines were established from PBMCs collected post vaccination and checked for cytotoxicity potential. A median 11.9% CD4 T-cells were CD38highCD45RO+ at day-13 post-VV inoculation, compared to 3.0% prior and 10.4% during PHI. Activated CD4 T-cells had an up-regulation of genes related to cytolytic function, including granzymes K and A, perforin, granulysin, TIA-1, and Rab27a. No difference was seen between CD4 T-cell expression of perforin or TIA-1 to VV and PHI, however granzyme k was more dominant in the VV response. At 25:1 effector to target ratio, two VV-specific T-cell lines exhibited 62% and 30% cytotoxicity respectively and CD107a degranulation. We show for the first time that CD4 CTL are prominent in the early response to VV. Understanding the role of CD4 CTL in the generation of an effective anti-viral memory may help develop more effective vaccines for diseases such as HIV. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

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    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  15. Insertion of the human sodium iodide symporter to facilitate deep tissue imaging does not alter oncolytic or replication capability of a novel vaccinia virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittra Arjun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncolytic viruses show promise for treating cancer. However, to assess therapeutic efficacy and potential toxicity, a noninvasive imaging modality is needed. This study aimed to determine if insertion of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS cDNA as a marker for non-invasive imaging of virotherapy alters the replication and oncolytic capability of a novel vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153. Methods GLV-1h153 was modified from parental vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 to carry hNIS via homologous recombination. GLV-1h153 was tested against human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 for replication via viral plaque assays and flow cytometry. Expression and transportation of hNIS in infected cells was evaluated using Westernblot and immunofluorescence. Intracellular uptake of radioiodide was assessed using radiouptake assays. Viral cytotoxicity and tumor regression of treated PANC-1tumor xenografts in nude mice was also determined. Finally, tumor radiouptake in xenografts was assessed via positron emission tomography (PET utilizing carrier-free 124I radiotracer. Results GLV-1h153 infected, replicated within, and killed PANC-1 cells as efficiently as GLV-1h68. GLV-1h153 provided dose-dependent levels of hNIS expression in infected cells. Immunofluorescence detected transport of the protein to the cell membrane prior to cell lysis, enhancing hNIS-specific radiouptake (P In vivo, GLV-1h153 was as safe and effective as GLV-1h68 in regressing pancreatic cancer xenografts (P 124I-PET. Conclusion Insertion of the hNIS gene does not hinder replication or oncolytic capability of GLV-1h153, rendering this novel virus a promising new candidate for the noninvasive imaging and tracking of oncolytic viral therapy.

  16. A vaccinia virus recombinant transcribing an alphavirus replicon and expressing alphavirus structural proteins leads to packaging of alphavirus infectious single cycle particles.

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    Juana M Sánchez-Puig

    Full Text Available Poxviruses and Alphaviruses constitute two promising viral vectors that have been used extensively as expression systems, or as vehicles for vaccine purposes. Poxviruses, like vaccinia virus (VV are well-established vaccine vectors having large insertion capacity, excellent stability, and ease of administration. In turn, replicons derived from Alphaviruses like Semliki Forest virus (SFV are potent protein expression and immunization vectors but stocks are difficult to produce and maintain. In an attempt to demonstrate the use of a Poxvirus as a means for the delivery of small vaccine vectors, we have constructed and characterized VV/SFV hybrid vectors. A SFV replicon cDNA was inserted in the VV genome and placed under the control of a VV early promoter. The replicon, transcribed from the VV genome as an early transcript, was functional, and thus capable of initiating its own replication and transcription. Further, we constructed a VV recombinant additionally expressing the SFV structural proteins under the control of a vaccinia synthetic early/late promoter. Infection with this recombinant produced concurrent transcription of the replicon and expression of SFV structural proteins, and led to the generation of replicon-containing SFV particles that were released to the medium and were able to infect additional cells. This combined VV/SFV system in a single virus allows the use of VV as a SFV delivery vehicle in vivo. The combination of two vectors, and the possibility of generating in vivo single-cycle, replicon containing alphavirus particles, may open new strategies in vaccine development or in the design of oncolytic viruses.

  17. A vaccinia virus recombinant transcribing an alphavirus replicon and expressing alphavirus structural proteins leads to packaging of alphavirus infectious single cycle particles.

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    Sánchez-Puig, Juana M; Lorenzo, María M; Blasco, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Poxviruses and Alphaviruses constitute two promising viral vectors that have been used extensively as expression systems, or as vehicles for vaccine purposes. Poxviruses, like vaccinia virus (VV) are well-established vaccine vectors having large insertion capacity, excellent stability, and ease of administration. In turn, replicons derived from Alphaviruses like Semliki Forest virus (SFV) are potent protein expression and immunization vectors but stocks are difficult to produce and maintain. In an attempt to demonstrate the use of a Poxvirus as a means for the delivery of small vaccine vectors, we have constructed and characterized VV/SFV hybrid vectors. A SFV replicon cDNA was inserted in the VV genome and placed under the control of a VV early promoter. The replicon, transcribed from the VV genome as an early transcript, was functional, and thus capable of initiating its own replication and transcription. Further, we constructed a VV recombinant additionally expressing the SFV structural proteins under the control of a vaccinia synthetic early/late promoter. Infection with this recombinant produced concurrent transcription of the replicon and expression of SFV structural proteins, and led to the generation of replicon-containing SFV particles that were released to the medium and were able to infect additional cells. This combined VV/SFV system in a single virus allows the use of VV as a SFV delivery vehicle in vivo. The combination of two vectors, and the possibility of generating in vivo single-cycle, replicon containing alphavirus particles, may open new strategies in vaccine development or in the design of oncolytic viruses.

  18. Immunization with a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus suppresses viral protein levels in mouse liver.

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    Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kimura, Kiminori; Chiyo, Tomoko; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Tobita, Yoshimi; Tokunaga, Yuko; Yasui, Fumihiko; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Wakita, Takaji; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Mizuno, Kyosuke; Hayashi, Yukiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Matsushima, Kouji; Kohara, Michinori

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), is a global health problem. Using a mouse model of hepatitis C, we examined the therapeutic effects of a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) that encodes an HCV protein. We generated immunocompetent mice that each expressed multiple HCV proteins via a Cre/loxP switching system and established several distinct attenuated rVV strains. The HCV core protein was expressed consistently in the liver after polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid injection, and these mice showed chronic hepatitis C-related pathological findings (hepatocyte abnormalities, accumulation of glycogen, steatosis), liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunization with one rVV strain (rVV-N25), which encoded nonstructural HCV proteins, suppressed serum inflammatory cytokine levels and alleviated the symptoms of pathological chronic hepatitis C within 7 days after injection. Furthermore, HCV protein levels in liver tissue also decreased in a CD4 and CD8 T-cell-dependent manner. Consistent with these results, we showed that rVV-N25 immunization induced a robust CD8 T-cell immune response that was specific to the HCV nonstructural protein 2. We also demonstrated that the onset of chronic hepatitis in CN2-29((+/-))/MxCre((+/-)) mice was mainly attributable to inflammatory cytokines, (tumor necrosis factor) TNF-α and (interleukin) IL-6. Thus, our generated mice model should be useful for further investigation of the immunological processes associated with persistent expression of HCV proteins because these mice had not developed immune tolerance to the HCV antigen. In addition, we propose that rVV-N25 could be developed as an effective therapeutic vaccine.

  19. Immunization with a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus suppresses viral protein levels in mouse liver.

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    Satoshi Sekiguchi

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV, is a global health problem. Using a mouse model of hepatitis C, we examined the therapeutic effects of a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV that encodes an HCV protein. We generated immunocompetent mice that each expressed multiple HCV proteins via a Cre/loxP switching system and established several distinct attenuated rVV strains. The HCV core protein was expressed consistently in the liver after polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid injection, and these mice showed chronic hepatitis C-related pathological findings (hepatocyte abnormalities, accumulation of glycogen, steatosis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunization with one rVV strain (rVV-N25, which encoded nonstructural HCV proteins, suppressed serum inflammatory cytokine levels and alleviated the symptoms of pathological chronic hepatitis C within 7 days after injection. Furthermore, HCV protein levels in liver tissue also decreased in a CD4 and CD8 T-cell-dependent manner. Consistent with these results, we showed that rVV-N25 immunization induced a robust CD8 T-cell immune response that was specific to the HCV nonstructural protein 2. We also demonstrated that the onset of chronic hepatitis in CN2-29((+/-/MxCre((+/- mice was mainly attributable to inflammatory cytokines, (tumor necrosis factor TNF-α and (interleukin IL-6. Thus, our generated mice model should be useful for further investigation of the immunological processes associated with persistent expression of HCV proteins because these mice had not developed immune tolerance to the HCV antigen. In addition, we propose that rVV-N25 could be developed as an effective therapeutic vaccine.

  20. Rapid Generation of Multiple Loci-Engineered Marker-free Poxvirus and Characterization of a Clinical-Grade Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus

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    Zong Sheng Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant poxviruses, utilized as vaccine vectors and oncolytic viruses, often require manipulation at multiple genetic loci in the viral genome. It is essential for viral vectors to possess no adventitious mutations and no (antibiotic selection marker in the final product for human patients in order to comply with the guidance from the regulatory agencies. Rintoul et al. have previously developed a selectable and excisable marker (SEM system for the rapid generation of recombinant vaccinia virus. In the current study, we describe an improved methodology for rapid creation and selection of recombinant poxviruses with multiple genetic manipulations solely based on expression of a fluorescent protein and with no requirement for drug selection that can lead to cellular stress and the risk of adventitious mutations throughout the viral genome. Using this improved procedure combined with the SEM system, we have constructed multiple marker-free oncolytic poxviruses expressing different cytokines and other therapeutic genes. The high fidelity of inserted DNA sequences validates the utility of this improved procedure for generation of therapeutic viruses for human patients. We have created an oncolytic poxvirus expressing human chemokine CCL5, designated as vvDD-A34R-hCCL5, with manipulations at two genetic loci in a single virus. Finally, we have produced and purified this virus in clinical grade for its use in a phase I clinical trial and presented data on initial in vitro characterization of the virus.

  1. Transmission of vaccinia virus, possibly through sexual contact, to a woman at high risk for adverse complications.

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    Said, Maria A; Haile, Charles; Palabindala, Venkataraman; Barker, Naomi; Myers, Robert; Thompson, Ruth; Wilson, Lucy; Allan-Martinez, Frances; Montgomery, Jay; Monroe, Benjamin; Tack, Danielle; Reynolds, Mary; Damon, Inger; Blythe, David

    2013-12-01

    Severe adverse events, including eczema vaccinatum (EV), can result after smallpox vaccination. Persons at risk for EV include those with underlying dermatologic conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. We investigated a case of vaccinia infection, possibly acquired during sexual contact with a recently vaccinated military service member, in a female Maryland resident with atopic dermatitis. The U.S. Department of Defense's Vaccine Healthcare Centers Network (VHCN) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) worked in conjunction with the patient's physician and the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) to confirm the diagnosis, ensure treatment, and prevent further transmission. Specimens collected from the patient were tested at the DHMH laboratories and were positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction for nonvariola orthopoxvirus. Testing at the CDC verified the presence of vaccinia-specific DNA signatures. Continuing spread of the patient's lesions led to the administration of vaccinia immune globulin and strict infection control measures to prevent tertiary transmission to vulnerable family members, also with atopic dermatitis. VHCN contacted the service member to reinforce vaccination site care and hygiene. This case underscores the importance of prevaccination education for those receiving the smallpox vaccine to protect contacts at risk for developing severe adverse reactions. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. ACAM2000 clonal Vero cell culture vaccinia virus (New York City Board of Health strain)--a second-generation smallpox vaccine for biological defense.

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    Monath, Thomas P; Caldwell, Joseph R; Mundt, Wolfgang; Fusco, Joan; Johnson, Casey S; Buller, Mark; Liu, Jian; Gardner, Bridget; Downing, Greg; Blum, Paul S; Kemp, Tracy; Nichols, Richard; Weltzin, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The threat of smallpox as a biological weapon has spurred efforts to create stockpiles of vaccine for emergency preparedness. In lieu of preparing vaccine in animal skin (the original method), we cloned vaccinia virus (New York City Board of Health strain, Dryvax by plaque purification and amplified the clone in cell culture. The overarching goal was to produce a modern vaccine that was equivalent to the currently licensed Dryvax in its preclinical and clinical properties, and could thus reliably protect humans against smallpox. A variety of clones were evaluated, and many were unacceptably virulent in animal models. One clonal virus (ACAM1000) was selected and produced at clinical grade in MRC-5 human diploid cells. ACAM1000 was comparable to Dryvax in immunogenicity and protective activity but was less neurovirulent for mice and nonhuman primates. To meet requirements for large quantities of vaccine after the events of September 11th 2001, the ACAM1000 master virus seed was used to prepare vaccine (designated ACAM2000) at large scale in Vero cells under serum-free conditions. The genomes of ACAM1000 and ACAM2000 had identical nucleotide sequences, and the vaccines had comparable biological phenotypes. ACAM1000 and ACAM2000 were evaluated in three Phase 1 clinical trials. The vaccines produced major cutaneous reactions and evoked neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses in the vast majority of subjects and had a reactogenicity profile similar to that of Dryvax.

  3. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara triggers type I IFN production in murine conventional dendritic cells via a cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway.

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    Peihong Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is an attenuated poxvirus that has been engineered as a vaccine against infectious agents and cancers. Our goal is to understand how MVA modulates innate immunity in dendritic cells (DCs, which can provide insights to vaccine design. In this study, using murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, we assessed type I interferon (IFN gene induction and protein secretion in response to MVA infection. We report that MVA infection elicits the production of type I IFN in murine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs, but not in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. Transcription factors IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3 and IRF7, and the positive feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1 (IFN alpha/beta receptor 1, are required for the induction. MVA induction of type I IFN is fully dependent on STING (stimulator of IFN genes and the newly discovered cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase. MVA infection of cDCs triggers phosphorylation of TBK1 (Tank-binding kinase 1 and IRF3, which is abolished in the absence of cGAS and STING. Furthermore, intravenous delivery of MVA induces type I IFN in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking STING or IRF3. Treatment of cDCs with inhibitors of endosomal and lysosomal acidification or the lysosomal enzyme Cathepsin B attenuated MVA-induced type I IFN production, indicating that lysosomal enzymatic processing of virions is important for MVA sensing. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role of the cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway for type I IFN induction in cDCs by MVA. We present evidence that vaccinia virulence factors E3 and N1 inhibit the activation of IRF3 and the induction of IFNB gene in MVA-infected cDCs.

  4. Specific proteins synthesized during the viral lytic cycle in vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cells: analysis by high-resolution, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, L.; Bravo, R.

    1986-01-01

    The proteins synthesized in vaccinia-infected HeLa cells have been analyzed at different times after infection by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Vaccinia-infected cells present up to 198 polypeptides (138 acidic, isoelectric focusing; 60 basic, nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis) not detected in control cells. Cells infected in the presence of cycloheximide show 81 additional polypeptides after cycloheximide removal, resulting in a total estimate of 279 proteins induced after vaccinia infection. The glycoproteins made at various time postinfection were also analyzed. At least 13 proteins labeled with [ 3 H]glucosamine were detected in vaccinia-infected HeLa cells

  5. Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus I2 Protein Interrupts Virion Morphogenesis, Leading to Retention of the Scaffold Protein and Mislocalization of Membrane-Associated Entry Proteins.

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    Hyun, Seong-In; Weisberg, Andrea; Moss, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    The I2L open reading frame of vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a conserved 72-amino-acid protein with a putative C-terminal transmembrane domain. Previous studies with a tetracycline-inducible mutant demonstrated that I2-deficient virions are defective in cell entry. The purpose of the present study was to determine the step of replication or entry that is affected by loss of the I2 protein. Fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that I2 colocalized with a major membrane protein of immature and mature virions. We generated a cell line that constitutively expressed I2 and allowed construction of the VACV I2L deletion mutant vΔI2. As anticipated, vΔI2 was unable to replicate in cells that did not express I2. Unexpectedly, morphogenesis was interrupted at a stage after immature virion formation, resulting in the accumulation of dense spherical particles instead of brick-shaped mature virions with well-defined core structures. The abnormal particles retained the D13 scaffold protein of immature virions, were severely deficient in the transmembrane proteins that comprise the entry fusion complex (EFC), and had increased amounts of unprocessed membrane and core proteins. Total lysates of cells infected with vΔI2 also had diminished EFC proteins due to instability attributed to their hydrophobicity and failure to be inserted into viral membranes. A similar instability of EFC proteins had previously been found with unrelated mutants blocked earlier in morphogenesis that also accumulated viral membranes retaining the D13 scaffold. We concluded that I2 is required for virion morphogenesis, release of the D13 scaffold, and the association of EFC proteins with viral membranes. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses comprise a large family that infect vertebrates and invertebrates, cause disease in both in humans and in wild and domesticated animals, and are being engineered as vectors for vaccines and cancer therapy. In addition, investigations of poxviruses have provided insights into

  6. Mucosal immunization with PLGA-microencapsulated DNA primes a SIV-specific CTL response revealed by boosting with cognate recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Sally; Hanke, Tomas; Tinsley-Bown, Anne; Dennis, Mike; Dowall, Stuart; McMichael, Andrew; Cranage, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Systemically administered DNA encoding a recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) derived immunogen effectively primes a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in macaques. In this further pilot study we have evaluated mucosal delivery of DNA as an alternative priming strategy. Plasmid DNA, pTH.HW, encoding a multi-CTL epitope gene, was incorporated into poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles of less than 10 μm in diameter. Five intrarectal immunizations failed to stimulate a circulating vaccine-specific CTL response in 2 Mamu-A*01 + rhesus macaques. However, 1 week after intradermal immunization with a cognate modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine MVA.HW, CTL responses were detected in both animals that persisted until analysis postmortem, 12 weeks after the final boost. In contrast, a weaker and less durable response was seen in an animal vaccinated with the MVA construct alone. Analysis of lymphoid tissues revealed a disseminated CTL response in peripheral and regional lymph nodes but not the spleen of both mucosally primed animals

  7. Transient dominant host-range selection using Chinese hamster ovary cells to generate marker-free recombinant viral vectors from vaccinia virus.

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    Liu, Liang; Cooper, Tamara; Eldi, Preethi; Garcia-Valtanen, Pablo; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Howley, Paul M; Hayball, John D

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) are promising antigen-delivery systems for vaccine development that are also useful as research tools. Two common methods for selection during construction of rVACV clones are (i) co-insertion of drug resistance or reporter protein genes, which requires the use of additional selection drugs or detection methods, and (ii) dominant host-range selection. The latter uses VACV variants rendered replication-incompetent in host cell lines by the deletion of host-range genes. Replicative ability is restored by co-insertion of the host-range genes, providing for dominant selection of the recombinant viruses. Here, we describe a new method for the construction of rVACVs using the cowpox CP77 protein and unmodified VACV as the starting material. Our selection system will expand the range of tools available for positive selection of rVACV during vector construction, and it is substantially more high-fidelity than approaches based on selection for drug resistance.

  8. Vaccinia Virus Protein C6 Inhibits Type I IFN Signalling in the Nucleus and Binds to the Transactivation Domain of STAT2.

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    Jennifer H Stuart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The type I interferon (IFN response is a crucial innate immune signalling pathway required for defense against viral infection. Accordingly, the great majority of mammalian viruses possess means to inhibit this important host immune response. Here we show that vaccinia virus (VACV strain Western Reserve protein C6, is a dual function protein that inhibits the cellular response to type I IFNs in addition to its published function as an inhibitor of IRF-3 activation, thereby restricting type I IFN production from infected cells. Ectopic expression of C6 inhibits the induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs in response to IFNα treatment at both the mRNA and protein level. C6 inhibits the IFNα-induced Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT signalling pathway at a late stage, downstream of STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and binding of the interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3 complex to the interferon stimulated response element (ISRE. Mechanistically, C6 associates with the transactivation domain of STAT2 and this might explain how C6 inhibits the type I IFN signalling very late in the pathway. During virus infection C6 reduces ISRE-dependent gene expression despite the presence of the viral protein phosphatase VH1 that dephosphorylates STAT1 and STAT2. The ability of a cytoplasmic replicating virus to dampen the immune response within the nucleus, and the ability of viral immunomodulators such as C6 to inhibit multiple stages of the innate immune response by distinct mechanisms, emphasizes the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions and viral immune evasion.

  9. Vaccinia virus protein C6 is a virulence factor that binds TBK-1 adaptor proteins and inhibits activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

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    Leonie Unterholzner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs causes interferon-β (IFN-β induction, a key event in the anti-viral innate immune response, and also a target of viral immune evasion. Here the vaccinia virus (VACV protein C6 is identified as an inhibitor of PRR-induced IFN-β expression by a functional screen of select VACV open reading frames expressed individually in mammalian cells. C6 is a member of a family of Bcl-2-like poxvirus proteins, many of which have been shown to inhibit innate immune signalling pathways. PRRs activate both NF-κB and IFN regulatory factors (IRFs to activate the IFN-β promoter induction. Data presented here show that C6 inhibits IRF3 activation and translocation into the nucleus, but does not inhibit NF-κB activation. C6 inhibits IRF3 and IRF7 activation downstream of the kinases TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1 and IκB kinase-ε (IKKε, which phosphorylate and activate these IRFs. However, C6 does not inhibit TBK1- and IKKε-independent IRF7 activation or the induction of promoters by constitutively active forms of IRF3 or IRF7, indicating that C6 acts at the level of the TBK1/IKKε complex. Consistent with this notion, C6 immunoprecipitated with the TBK1 complex scaffold proteins TANK, SINTBAD and NAP1. C6 is expressed early during infection and is present in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutant viruses in which the C6L gene is deleted, or mutated so that the C6 protein is not expressed, replicated normally in cell culture but were attenuated in two in vivo models of infection compared to wild type and revertant controls. Thus C6 contributes to VACV virulence and might do so via the inhibition of PRR-induced activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

  10. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector Induces Specific Cellular and Humoral Responses in the Female Reproductive Tract, the Main HIV Portal of Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Romain; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Parenti, Matteo; Hocini, Hakim; Benjelloun, Fahd; Cannou, Claude; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Levy, Yves; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Le Grand, Roger; Menu, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    The female reproductive tract (FRT) is one of the major mucosal invasion sites for HIV-1. This site has been neglected in previous HIV-1 vaccine studies. Immune responses in the FRT after systemic vaccination remain to be characterized. Using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a vaccine model, we characterized specific immune responses in all compartments of the FRT of nonhuman primates after systemic vaccination. Memory T cells were preferentially found in the lower tract (vagina and cervix), whereas APCs and innate lymphoid cells were mainly located in the upper tract (uterus and fallopian tubes). This compartmentalization of immune cells in the FRT was supported by transcriptomic analyses and a correlation network. Polyfunctional MVA-specific CD8 + T cells were detected in the blood, lymph nodes, vagina, cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. Anti-MVA IgG and IgA were detected in cervicovaginal fluid after a second vaccine dose. Thus, systemic vaccination with an MVA vector elicits cellular and Ab responses in the FRT. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Vaccine efficacy against malaria by the combination of porcine parvovirus-like particles and vaccinia virus vectors expressing CS of Plasmodium.

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    Dolores Rodríguez

    Full Text Available With the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV-VLPs carrying the CD8(+ T cell epitope (SYVPSAEQI of the circumsporozoite (CS protein from Plasmodium yoelii fused to the PPV VP2 capsid protein (PPV-PYCS, and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. As a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-CS CD8(+ T cell response elicited by these hybrid PPV-VLPs in BALB/c mice after immunizations with the protein PPV-PYCS administered alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV vectors from the Western Reserve (WR and modified virus Ankara (MVA strains expressing the entire P. yoelii CS protein. The results of different immunization protocols showed that the combination of PPV-PYCS prime/poxvirus boost was highly immunogenic, inducing specific CD8+ T cell responses to CS resulting in 95% reduction in liver stage parasites two days following sporozoite challenge. In contrast, neither the administration of PPV-PYCS alone nor the immunization with the vectors given in the order poxvirus/VLPs was as effective. The immune profile induced by VLPs/MVA boost was associated with polyfunctional and effector memory CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the use of recombinant parvovirus PPV-PYCS particles as priming agents and poxvirus vectors, like MVA, as booster to enhance specific CD8+ T cell responses to Plasmodium antigens and to control infection. These observations are relevant in the design of T cell-inducing vaccines against malaria.

  12. Vaccine efficacy against malaria by the combination of porcine parvovirus-like particles and vaccinia virus vectors expressing CS of Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Dolores; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Rodríguez, Juan R; Vijayan, Aneesh; Gherardi, Magdalena; Rueda, Paloma; Casal, J Ignacio; Esteban, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    With the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV-VLPs) carrying the CD8(+) T cell epitope (SYVPSAEQI) of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein from Plasmodium yoelii fused to the PPV VP2 capsid protein (PPV-PYCS), and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. As a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-CS CD8(+) T cell response elicited by these hybrid PPV-VLPs in BALB/c mice after immunizations with the protein PPV-PYCS administered alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV) vectors from the Western Reserve (WR) and modified virus Ankara (MVA) strains expressing the entire P. yoelii CS protein. The results of different immunization protocols showed that the combination of PPV-PYCS prime/poxvirus boost was highly immunogenic, inducing specific CD8+ T cell responses to CS resulting in 95% reduction in liver stage parasites two days following sporozoite challenge. In contrast, neither the administration of PPV-PYCS alone nor the immunization with the vectors given in the order poxvirus/VLPs was as effective. The immune profile induced by VLPs/MVA boost was associated with polyfunctional and effector memory CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the use of recombinant parvovirus PPV-PYCS particles as priming agents and poxvirus vectors, like MVA, as booster to enhance specific CD8+ T cell responses to Plasmodium antigens and to control infection. These observations are relevant in the design of T cell-inducing vaccines against malaria.

  13. A recombinant modified vaccinia ankara vaccine encoding Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) target antigens: a phase I trial in UK patients with EBV-positive cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham S; Jia, Hui; Harrington, Kevin; Lee, Lip Wai; Turner, James; Ladell, Kristin; Price, David A; Tanday, Manjit; Matthews, Jen; Roberts, Claudia; Edwards, Ceri; McGuigan, Lesley; Hartley, Andrew; Wilson, Steve; Hui, Edwin P; Chan, Anthony T C; Rickinson, Alan B; Steven, Neil M

    2014-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. A phase I trial was conducted to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-EL across a range of doses. Sixteen patients in the United Kingdom (UK) with EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) received three intradermal vaccinations of MVA-EL at 3-weekly intervals at dose levels between 5 × 10(7) and 5 × 10(8) plaque-forming units (pfu). Blood samples were taken at screening, after each vaccine cycle, and during the post-vaccination period. T-cell responses were measured using IFNγ ELISpot assays with overlapping EBNA1/LMP2 peptide mixes or HLA-matched epitope peptides. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to characterize functionally responsive T-cell populations. Vaccination was generally well tolerated. Immunity increased after vaccination to at least one antigen in 8 of 14 patients (7/14, EBNA1; 6/14, LMP2), including recognition of epitopes that vary between EBV strains associated with different ethnic groups. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed that vaccination induced differentiation and functional diversification of responsive T-cell populations specific for EBNA1 and LMP2 within the CD4 and CD8 compartments, respectively. MVA-EL is safe and immunogenic across diverse ethnicities and thus suitable for use in trials against different EBV-positive cancers globally as well as in South-East Asia where NPC is most common. The highest dose (5 × 10(8) pfu) is recommended for investigation in current phase IB and II trials. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Outbreaks of vesicular disease caused by Vaccinia virus in dairy cattle from Goiás State, Brazil (2010-2012

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    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of vesicular and exanthematic disease by Vaccinia virus (VACV have been reported in dairy herds of several Brazilian regions, occasionally also affecting humans. The present article describes eight outbreaks of vesicular disease caused by VACV in dairy herds of six counties of Goiás state, Midwestern Brazil (2010-2012, involving a total of 122 cows, 12 calves and 11 people. Dairy cows (3 to 9 years old were affected in all cases and calves (2 to 9 months old were affected in five outbreaks, presenting oral lesions. The morbidity ranged between 8 and 100% in cows, and 1.5 to 31% in calves. In the cows, the clinical signs started with vesicles (2-7mm, painful and coalescent papules (3-8 mm, which resulted in ulcers (5-25mm and scabs in teats, and, occasionally, in the muzzle. The clinical course lasted from 16 to 26 days. The histopathology of bovine skin samples revealed superficial perivascular inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, macrophages and multifocal areas of acanthosis, spongiosis, hipergranulosis and parakeratotic or orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with adjacent focally extensive ulcers. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasm of the keratinocytes. PCR to vgf gene of Orthopoxvirus was positive in samples collected from all outbreaks, and in some cases, genomic VACV sequences were identified by nucleotide sequencing of the PCR amplicons. Infectious virus was isolated in cell culture from scabs from one outbreak. Antibodies to Orthopoxvirus were detected in at least 3 or 4 animals in most outbreaks, by ELISA (outbreaks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 or virus-neutralization (outbreak 6. Neutralizing titers ranging from 8 to 64 in outbreak 6. In all outbreaks, VACV infection was suspected based on the clinical and pathological findings and it was confirmed by laboratory tests. Upon the etiological confirmation, other agents associated with vesicular disease were discarded. In all outbreaks, at least

  15. Anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus through US guided injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Young; Park, Byeong Ho; Kang, Myong Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Choi, Jong Cheol; Choi, Sun Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Hwang, Tae Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) (Thymidine kinase (-)/GM-CSF (+)) that was administered as a US guided intratumoral injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 12 rabbits. US was performed at every week interval to detect hepatic mass after the implantation of VX2 carcinoma. The accurate tumor size and volume was evaluated with CT when the tumor was detected on US. US guided injection of rVV (10{sup 9} pfu/ml) was preformed in three rabbits, intravenous injection of the same dose of rVV was done in two rabbits and another seven rabbits that were without any treatment were selected as a control group. We evaluated the change of the hepatic tumor size and extrahepatic metastasis on serial CT. Tumor specimens were harvested from rabbits that were killed at 8 weeks after VX2 implantation. These tissues were histoimmuopathologically compared to each other (the virus injection group and the control group). The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with student t-tests. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the US guided injection group compared with the intravenous injection group or the control group ({rho} < 0.01). The intravenous injection group showed statistically significant tumor suppression compared to the control group ({rho} < 0.01) until 2 weeks after virus injection. Quantification of the pulmonary metastatic nodules was performed in view of both the number and volume. The average number or volume of the pulmonary metastatic nodules in the US injection group was much smaller than these in the control group. Histopathologically, the tumors of the US guided injection group showed less extensive necrosis than those of the control group. Immunohistochemically, the tumor of the US guided injection group showed more prominent infiltration of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) lymphocytes than did the tumors of the other group

  16. Improved survival in rhesus macaques immunized with modified vaccinia virus Ankara recombinants expressing simian immunodeficiency virus envelope correlates with reduction in memory CD4+ T-cell loss and higher titers of neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourmanov, Ilnour; Kuwata, Takeo; Goeken, Robert; Goldstein, Simoy; Iyengar, Ranjani; Buckler-White, Alicia; Lafont, Bernard; Hirsch, Vanessa M

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that immunization of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol and Env recombinants of the attenuated poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) provided protection from high viremia and AIDS following challenge with a pathogenic strain of SIV. Although all animals became infected, plasma viremia was significantly reduced in animals that received the MVA-SIV recombinant vaccines compared with animals that received nonrecombinant MVA. Most importantly, the reduction in viremia resulted in a significant increase in median and cumulative survival. Continued analysis of these animals over the subsequent 9 years has shown that they maintain a survival advantage, although all but two of the macaques have progressed to AIDS. Importantly, improved survival correlated with preservation of memory CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood. The greatest survival advantage was observed in macaques immunized with regimens containing SIV Env, and the titer of neutralizing antibodies to the challenge virus prior to or shortly following challenge correlated with preservation of CD4(+) T cells. These data are consistent with a role for neutralizing antibodies in nonsterilizing protection from high viremia and associated memory CD4(+) T-cell loss.

  17. Phase II trial of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus expressing 5T4 and high dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitcham Josephine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2 induces durable objective responses in a small cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC but the antigen(s responsible for tumor rejection are not known. 5T4 is a non-secreted membrane glycoprotein expressed on clear cell and papillary RCCs. A modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA encoding 5T4 was tested in combination with high-dose IL-2 to determine the safety, objective response rate and effect on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Methods 25 patients with metastatic RCC who qualified for IL-2 were eligible and received three immunizations every three weeks followed by IL-2 (600,000 IU/kg after the second and third vaccinations. Blood was collected for analysis of humoral, effector and regulatory T cell responses. Results There were no serious vaccine-related adverse events. While no objective responses were observed, three patients (12% were rendered disease-free after nephrectomy or resection of residual metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48% had stable disease which was associated with improved median overall survival compared to patients with progressive disease (not reached vs. 28 months, p = 0.0261. All patients developed 5T4-specific antibody responses and 13 patients had an increase in 5T4-specific T cell responses. Although the baseline frequency of Tregs was elevated in all patients, those with stable disease showed a trend toward increased effector CD8+ T cells and a decrease in Tregs. Conclusion Vaccination with MVA-5T4 did not improve objective response rates of IL-2 therapy but did result in stable disease associated with an increase in the ratio of 5T4-specific effector to regulatory T cells in selected patients. Trial registration number ISRCTN83977250

  18. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Vaccinia L1R Protein from Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    RECOMBINANT VACCINIA L1R PROTEIN FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the active component of the...the preparation of the recombinant VACV L1R protein fragment by denaturing , refolding, and purifying material expressed into inclusion bodies in...PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RECOMBINANT VACCINIA L1R PROTEIN FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI ECBC-TR-1370

  19. Immunogenicity of oncolytic vaccinia viruses JX-GFP and TG6002 in a human melanoma in vitro model: studying immunogenic cell death, dendritic cell maturation and interaction with cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available B Heinrich,1 J Klein,1 M Delic,1 K Goepfert,1 V Engel,1 L Geberzahn,1 M Lusky,2 P Erbs,2 X Preville,3 M Moehler1 1First Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 2Transgene SA, Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 3Amoneta Diagnostics, Huningue, France Abstract: Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging immunotherapeutic modality for cancer treatment. Oncolytic viruses with genetic modifications can further enhance the oncolytic effects on tumor cells and stimulate antitumor immunity. The oncolytic vaccinia viruses JX-594-GFP+/hGM-CSF (JX-GFP and TG6002 are genetically modified by secreting granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF or transforming 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC into 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. We compared their properties to kill tumor cells and induce an immunogenic type of cell death in a human melanoma cell model using SK29-MEL melanoma cells. Their influence on human immune cells, specifically regarding the activation of dendritic cells (DCs and the interaction with the autologous cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL clone, was investigated. Melanoma cells were infected with either JX-GFP or TG6002 alone or in combination with 5-FC and 5-FU. The influence of viral infection on cell viability followed a time- and multiplicity of infection dependent manner. Combination of virus treatment with 5-FU resulted in stronger reduction of cell viability. TG6002 in combination with 5-FC did not significantly strengthen the reduction of cell viability in this setting. Expression of calreticulin and high mobility group 1 protein (HMGB1, markers of immunogenic cell death (ICD, could be detected after viral infection. Accordingly, DC maturation was noted after viral oncolysis. DCs presented stronger expression of activation and maturation markers. The autologous CTL clone IVSB expressed the activation marker CD69, but viral treatment failed to enhance cytotoxicity marker. In summary, vaccinia viruses JX-GFP and TG6002 lyse

  20. A novel system for constructing a recombinant highly-attenuated vaccinia virus strain (LC16m8) expressing foreign genes and its application for the generation of LC16m8-based vaccines against herpes simplex virus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Natsumi; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Fujii, Hikaru; Shibamura, Miho; Inagaki, Takuya; Kato, Hirofumi; Egawa, Kazutaka; Harada, Shizuko; Yamada, Souichi; Takeyama, Haruko; Saijo, Masayuki

    2018-04-27

    A novel system was developed for generating a highly-attenuated vaccinia virus LC16m8 (m8, third generation smallpox vaccine) that expresses foreign genes. The innovations in this system are its excisable selection marker, specificity of the integration site of a gene of interest, and easy identification of clones with the fluorescent signal. Using this system, recombinant m8s, which expressed either herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein B (gB)-, gD-, or both gB and gD (gB+gD) were developed, and their efficacy was evaluated. First, the induction of a specific IgG against these HSV-2 glycoproteins in mice infected with each of these recombinant m8s was confirmed with an immunofluorescence assay. Next, mice pre-infected with each of the recombinant m8s were infected with HSV-2 at the lethal dose to examine the vaccine efficacy. The fatality rate in mice pre-infected with either of the recombinant gB+gD- or gD-expressing m8s significantly decreased in comparison with that of the control. The survival rate in both male and female mice pre-infected with either of the recombinant gB+gD- and gD-expressing m8s increased to 100 % and 60 %, respectively, while most of the control mice died. In summary, this new system might be applicable for generating a novel m8-based vaccine.

  1. Vectorization in an oncolytic vaccinia virus of an antibody, a Fab and a scFv against programmed cell death -1 (PD-1) allows their intratumoral delivery and an improved tumor-growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Patricia; Fend, Laetitia; Thioudellet, Christine; Geist, Michel; Sfrontato, Nathalie; Koerper, Véronique; Fahrner, Catherine; Schmitt, Doris; Gantzer, Murielle; Remy-Ziller, Christelle; Brandely, Renée; Villeval, Dominique; Rittner, Karola; Silvestre, Nathalie; Erbs, Philippe; Zitvogel, Laurence; Quéméneur, Eric; Préville, Xavier; Marchand, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    We report here the successful vectorization of a hamster monoclonal IgG (namely J43) recognizing the murine Programmed cell death-1 (mPD-1) in Western Reserve (WR) oncolytic vaccinia virus. Three forms of mPD-1 binders have been inserted into the virus: whole antibody (mAb), Fragment antigen-binding (Fab) or single-chain variable fragment (scFv). MAb, Fab and scFv were produced and assembled with the expected patterns in supernatants of cells infected by the recombinant viruses. The three purified mPD-1 binders were able to block the binding of mPD-1 ligand to mPD-1 in vitro . Moreover, mAb was detected in tumor and in serum of C57BL/6 mice when the recombinant WR-mAb was injected intratumorally (IT) in B16F10 and MCA 205 tumors. The concentration of circulating mAb detected after IT injection was up to 1,900-fold higher than the level obtained after a subcutaneous (SC) injection (i.e., without tumor) confirming the virus tropism for tumoral cells and/or microenvironment. Moreover, the overall tumoral accumulation of the mAb was higher and lasted longer after IT injection of WR-mAb1, than after IT administration of 10 µg of J43. The IT injection of viruses induced a massive infiltration of immune cells including activated lymphocytes (CD8 + and CD4 + ). Interestingly, in the MCA 205 tumor model, WR-mAb1 and WR-scFv induced a therapeutic control of tumor growth similar to unarmed WR combined to systemically administered J43 and superior to that obtained with an unarmed WR. These results pave the way for next generation of oncolytic vaccinia armed with immunomodulatory therapeutic proteins such as mAbs.

  2. In silico-accelerated identification of conserved and immunogenic variola/vaccinia T-cell epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moise, Leonard; McMurry, Julie A; Buus, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Epitopes shared by the vaccinia and variola viruses underlie the protective effect of vaccinia immunization against variola infection. We set out to identify a subset of cross-reactive epitopes using bioinformatics and immunological methods. Putative T-cell epitopes were computationally predicted...

  3. Diseño y construcción de vectores de transferencia para la obtención de virus vaccinia Ankara modificado (MVA recombinantes Design and construction of transfer vectors in order to obtain recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ferrer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El virus vaccinia Ankara modificado (MVA constituye un buen candidato para el desarrollo de vectores virales de expresión no replicativos porque no replica en la mayoría de las células de mamíferos. Para la producción de MVA recombinantes es fundamental disponer de vectores de transferencia que, por recombinación homóloga con el genoma viral, permitan introducir los genes de interés en regiones no esenciales para la replicación in vitro. En este trabajo se diseñaron y obtuvieron los vectores de transferencia denominados VT-MHA y VT-MTK que portan las regiones correspondientes a las posiciones 1-303 y 608-948 del gen MVA165R y 1-244 y 325-534 del gen MVA086R, respectivamente, las que flanquean un sitio de clonado múltiple para la inserción de los genes foráneos. En dichos vectores se clonaron los casetes para la expresión de los genes lac Z o uid A, y la actividad de las enzimas marcadoras b-galactosidasa y b-glucuronidasa se confirmó in situ. Además, utilizando el vector denominado VT-MTK-GUS, se obtuvieron y aislaron MVA recombinantes puros que portan y expresan el gen uid A. Los resultados obtenidos constituyen las herramientas básicas para establecer la metodología de obtención de MVA recombinantes, con el propósito de desarrollar localmente vectores virales no replicativos candidatos a vacunas.Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA constitutes a good candidate for the development of non-replicative expression viral vectors because it does not replicate in most of mammalian cells. It is essential, for the production of recombinant MVA, the availability of transfer vectors which allow the introduction of desired genes into non-essential regions for in vitro viral replication, by homologous recombination with the viral genome. In the present work, the transfer vectors named VT-MHA and VT-MTK were designed and obtained. They carried genomic regions corresponding to 1- 303 and 608-948 positions of the MVA165R gene and 1-244 and

  4. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inflammatory cells in the dermis of the skin at the vaccination or inoculation site. The diagnosis of PV may be... the mother that results from the placental transmission of the vaccinia virus during any time in the... membrane lesion containing an accumulation of white blood cells. (8) Recipient means a person to whom the...

  5. Oncolytic vaccinia therapy of squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yong A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68 as an oncolytic agent against a panel of six human head and neck SCC cell lines. Results All six cell lines supported viral transgene expression (β-galactosidase, green fluorescent protein, and luciferase as early as 6 hours after viral exposure. Efficient transgene expression and viral replication (>150-fold titer increase over 72 hrs were observed in four of the cell lines. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1, GLV-1h68 was highly cytotoxic to the four cell lines, resulting in ≥ 90% cytotoxicity over 6 days, and the remaining two cell lines exhibited >45% cytotoxicity. Even at a very low MOI of 0.01, three cell lines still demonstrated >60% cell death over 6 days. A single injection of GLV-1h68 (5 × 106 pfu intratumorally into MSKQLL2 xenografts in mice exhibited localized intratumoral luciferase activity peaking at days 2–4, with gradual resolution over 10 days and no evidence of spread to normal organs. Treated animals exhibited near-complete tumor regression over a 24-day period without any observed toxicity, while control animals demonstrated rapid tumor progression. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant oncolytic efficacy by an attenuated vaccinia virus for infecting and lysing head and neck SCC both in vitro and in vivo, and support its continued investigation in future clinical trials.

  6. Down-Regulation of p53 by Double-Stranded RNA Modulates the Antiviral Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Joao T.; Rebouillat, Dominique; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Murakami, Junko; Hill, Jason E.; Gudkov, Andrei; Silverman, Robert H.; Stark, George R.; Williams, Bryan R. G.

    2005-01-01

    p53 has been well characterized as a tumor suppressor gene, but its role in antiviral defense remains unclear. A recent report has demonstrated that p53 can be induced by interferons and is activated after vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. We observed that different nononcogenic viruses, including encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), induced down-regulation of p53 in infected cells. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and a mutant vaccinia virus la...

  7. Establishing elements of a synthetic biology platform for Vaccinia virus production: BioBrick™ design, serum-free virus production and microcarrier-based cultivation of CV-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuchang; Ruban, Ludmila; Wang, Yaohe; Zhou, Yuhong; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2017-02-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an established vector for vaccination and is beginning to prove effective as an oncolytic agent. Industrial production of VACV stands to benefit in future from advances made by synthetic biology in genome engineering and standardisation. The CV-1 cell line can be used for VACV propagation and has been used extensively with the CRISPR/Cas9 system for making precise edits of the VACV genome. Here we take first steps toward establishing a scalable synthetic biology platform for VACV production with CV-1 cells featuring standardised biological tools and serum free cell cultivation. We propose a new BioBrick™ plasmid backbone format for inserting transgenes into VACV. We then test the performance of CV-1 cells in propagation of a conventional recombinant Lister strain VACV, VACVL-15 RFP, in a serum-free process. CV-1 cells grown in 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS) Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were adapted to growth in OptiPRO and VP-SFM brands of serum-free media. Specific growth rates of 0.047 h -1 and 0.044 h -1 were observed for cells adapted to OptiPRO and VP-SFM respectively, compared to 0.035 h -1 in 5% FBS DMEM. Cells adapted to OptiPRO and to 5% FBS DMEM achieved recovery ratios of over 96%, an indication of their robustness to cryopreservation. Cells adapted to VP-SFM showed a recovery ratio of 82%. Virus productivity in static culture, measured as plaque forming units (PFU) per propagator cell, was 75 PFU/cell for cells in 5% FBS DMEM. VP-SFM and OptiPRO adaptation increased VACV production to 150 PFU/cell and 350 PFU/cell respectively. Boosted PFU/cell from OptiPRO-adapted cells persisted when 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium was observed during the infection step and when titre was measured using cells adapted to 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium. Finally, OptiPRO-adapted CV-1 cells were successfully cultivated using Cytodex-1 microcarriers to inform future scale up studies.

  8. Establishing elements of a synthetic biology platform for Vaccinia virus production: BioBrick™ design, serum-free virus production and microcarrier-based cultivation of CV-1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV is an established vector for vaccination and is beginning to prove effective as an oncolytic agent. Industrial production of VACV stands to benefit in future from advances made by synthetic biology in genome engineering and standardisation. The CV-1 cell line can be used for VACV propagation and has been used extensively with the CRISPR/Cas9 system for making precise edits of the VACV genome. Here we take first steps toward establishing a scalable synthetic biology platform for VACV production with CV-1 cells featuring standardised biological tools and serum free cell cultivation. We propose a new BioBrick™ plasmid backbone format for inserting transgenes into VACV. We then test the performance of CV-1 cells in propagation of a conventional recombinant Lister strain VACV, VACVL-15 RFP, in a serum-free process. CV-1 cells grown in 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM were adapted to growth in OptiPRO and VP-SFM brands of serum-free media. Specific growth rates of 0.047 h−1 and 0.044 h−1 were observed for cells adapted to OptiPRO and VP-SFM respectively, compared to 0.035 h−1 in 5% FBS DMEM. Cells adapted to OptiPRO and to 5% FBS DMEM achieved recovery ratios of over 96%, an indication of their robustness to cryopreservation. Cells adapted to VP-SFM showed a recovery ratio of 82%. Virus productivity in static culture, measured as plaque forming units (PFU per propagator cell, was 75 PFU/cell for cells in 5% FBS DMEM. VP-SFM and OptiPRO adaptation increased VACV production to 150 PFU/cell and 350 PFU/cell respectively. Boosted PFU/cell from OptiPRO-adapted cells persisted when 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium was observed during the infection step and when titre was measured using cells adapted to 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium. Finally, OptiPRO-adapted CV-1 cells were successfully cultivated using Cytodex-1 microcarriers to inform future scale up studies.

  9. Antigenicity of Leishmania-Activated C-Kinase Antigen (LACK in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Protective Effect of Prime-Boost Vaccination With pCI-neo-LACK Plus Attenuated LACK-Expressing Vaccinia Viruses in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania-activated C-kinase antigen (LACK is a highly conserved protein among Leishmania species and is considered a viable vaccine candidate for human leishmaniasis. In animal models, prime-boost vaccination with LACK-expressing plasmids plus attenuated vaccinia viruses (modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA] and mutant M65 expressing LACK, has been shown to protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Further, LACK demonstrated to induce the production of protective cytokines in patients with active CL or cured visceral leishmaniasis, as well as in asymptomatic individuals from endemic areas. However, whether LACK is capable to trigger cytokine release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients cured of CL due to Leishmania infantum (L. infantum or induce protection in L. infantum-infected hamsters [visceral leishmaniasis (VL model], has not yet been analyzed. The present work examines the ex vivo immunogenicity of LACK in cured VL and CL patients, and asymptomatic subjects from an L. infantum area. It also evaluates the vaccine potential of LACK against L. infantum infection in hamsters, in a protocol of priming with plasmid pCI-neo-LACK (DNA-LACK followed by a booster with the poxvirus vectors MVA-LACK or M65-LACK. LACK-stimulated PBMC from both asymptomatic and cured subjects responded by producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and granzyme B (Th1-type response. Further, 78% of PBMC samples that responded to soluble Leishmania antigen showed IFN-γ secretion following stimulation with LACK. In hamsters, the protocol of DNA-LACK prime/MVA-LACK or M65-LACK virus boost vaccination significantly reduced the amount of Leishmania DNA in the liver and bone marrow, with no differences recorded between the use of MVA or M65 virus vector options. In summary, the Th1-type and cytotoxic responses elicited by LACK in PBMC from human subjects infected with L. infantum, and the parasite protective effect of prime/boost vaccination in hamsters with DNA

  10. Safety and tolerability of conserved region vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus ankara administered to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-uninfected adults in a randomized, single-blind phase I trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma-Jo Hayton

    Full Text Available HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported.Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination.Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1 and predominantly transient (<48 hours. Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range of 633 (231-1533 post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern.These data demonstrate safety and good tolerability of the pSG2

  11. Pre-Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Experimental Vaccines Based on Non-Replicating Vaccinia Vectors against Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Birgit; Holzer, Georg W.; Joachimsthaler, Alexandra; Coulibaly, Sogue; Schwendinger, Michael; Crowe, Brian A.; Kreil, Thomas R.; Barrett, P. Noel; Falkner, Falko G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently existing yellow fever (YF) vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D). Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. Methodology/Principal Findings A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME) protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara and into the D4R-defective vaccinia virus. Candidate vaccines based on the recombinant vaccinia viruses were assessed for immunogenicity and protection in a mouse model and compared to the commercial YFV-17D vaccine. The recombinant live vaccines induced γ-interferon-secreting CD4- and functionally active CD8-T cells, and conferred full protection against lethal challenge already after a single low immunization dose of 105 TCID50. Surprisingly, pre-existing immunity against wild-type vaccinia virus did not negatively influence protection. Unlike the classical 17D vaccine, the vaccinia virus-based vaccines did not cause mortality following intracerebral administration in mice, demonstrating better safety profiles. Conclusions/Significance The non-replicating recombinant YF candidate live vaccines induced a broad immune response after single dose administration, were effective even in the presence of a pre-existing immunity against vaccinia virus and demonstrated an excellent safety profile in mice. PMID:21931732

  12. Pre-clinical efficacy and safety of experimental vaccines based on non-replicating vaccinia vectors against yellow fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schäfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently existing yellow fever (YF vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D. Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara and into the D4R-defective vaccinia virus. Candidate vaccines based on the recombinant vaccinia viruses were assessed for immunogenicity and protection in a mouse model and compared to the commercial YFV-17D vaccine. The recombinant live vaccines induced γ-interferon-secreting CD4- and functionally active CD8-T cells, and conferred full protection against lethal challenge already after a single low immunization dose of 10(5 TCID(50. Surprisingly, pre-existing immunity against wild-type vaccinia virus did not negatively influence protection. Unlike the classical 17D vaccine, the vaccinia virus-based vaccines did not cause mortality following intracerebral administration in mice, demonstrating better safety profiles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The non-replicating recombinant YF candidate live vaccines induced a broad immune response after single dose administration, were effective even in the presence of a pre-existing immunity against vaccinia virus and demonstrated an excellent safety profile in mice.

  13. Development of a novel, guinea pig-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and characterization of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored GP83 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Peter A; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-06-30

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, and for preclinical evaluation of vaccines. However, guinea pig models are limited by the lack of immunological reagents required for characterization and quantification of antigen-specific T cell responses. To address this deficiency, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for guinea pig interferon (IFN)-γ was developed to measure antigen/epitope-specific T cell responses to guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) vaccines. Using splenocytes harvested from animals vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the GPCMV GP83 (homolog of human CMV pp65 [gpUL83]) protein, we were able to enumerate and map antigen-specific responses, both in vaccinated as well as GPCMV-infected animals, using a panel of GP83-specific peptides. Several potential immunodominant GP83-specific peptides were identified, including one epitope, LGIVHFFDN, that was noted in all guinea pigs that had a detectable CD8+ response to GP83. Development of a guinea pig IFN-γ ELISPOT should be useful in characterization of additional T cell-specific responses to GPCMV, as well as other pathogens. This information in turn can help focus future experimental evaluation of immunization strategies, both for GPCMV as well as for other vaccine-preventable illnesses studied in the guinea pig model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clustered epitopes within the Gag-Pol fusion protein DNA vaccine enhance immune responses and protection against challenge with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing HIV-1 Gag and Pol antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Gzyl, Jaroslaw; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Kmieciak, Dariusz; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Kaneko, Yutaro; Srinivasan, Alagarsamy; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-01-01

    We have generated a codon-optimized hGagp17p24-Polp51 plasmid DNA expressing the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pol fusion protein that consists of clusters of highly conserved cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes presented by multiple MHC class I alleles. In the hGagp17p24-Polp51 construct, the ribosomal frameshift site had been deleted together with the potentially immunosuppressive Gag nucleocapsid (p15) as well as Pol protease (p10) and integrase (p31). Analyses of the magnitude and breadth of cellular responses demonstrated that immunization of HLA-A2/K b transgenic mice with the hGagp17p24-Polp51 construct induced 2- to 5-fold higher CD8 + T-cell responses to Gag p17-, p24-, and Pol reverse transcriptase (RT)-specific CTL epitopes than the full-length hGag-PolΔFsΔPr counterpart. The increases were correlated with higher protection against challenge with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVVs) expressing gag and pol gene products. Consistent with the profile of Gag- and Pol-specific CD8 + T cell responses, an elevated level of type 1 cytokine production was noted in p24- and RT-stimulated splenocyte cultures established from hGagp17p24-Polp51-immunized mice compared to responses induced with the hGag-PolΔFsΔPr vaccine. Sera of mice immunized with the hGagp17p24-Polp51 vaccine also exhibited an increased titer of p24- and RT-specific IgG2 antibody responses. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting the breadth of Gag- and Pol-specific immune responses

  15. Combined Cytolytic Effects of a Vaccinia Virus Encoding a Single Chain Trimer of MHC-I with a Tax-Epitope and Tax-Specific CTLs on HTLV-I-Infected Cells in a Rat Model

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    Takashi Ohashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult T cell leukemia (ATL is a malignant lymphoproliferative disease caused by human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I. To develop an effective therapy against the disease, we have examined the oncolytic ability of an attenuated vaccinia virus (VV, LC16m8Δ (m8Δ, and an HTLV-I Tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL line, 4O1/C8, against an HTLV-I-infected rat T cell line, FPM1. Our results demonstrated that m8Δ was able to replicate in and lyse tumorigenic FPM1 cells but was incompetent to injure 4O1/C8 cells, suggesting the preferential cytolytic activity toward tumor cells. To further enhance the cytolysis of HTLV-I-infected cells, we modified m8Δ and obtained m8Δ/RT1AlSCTax180L, which can express a single chain trimer (SCT of rat major histocompatibility complex class I with a Tax-epitope. Combined treatment with m8Δ/RT1AlSCTax180L and 4O1/C8 increased the cytolysis of FPM1V.EFGFP/8R cells, a CTL-resistant subclone of FPM1, compared with that using 4O1/C8 and m8Δ presenting an unrelated peptide, suggesting that the activation of 4O1/C8 by m8Δ/RT1AlSCTax180L further enhanced the killing of the tumorigenic HTLV-I-infected cells. Our results indicate that combined therapy of oncolytic VVs with SCTs and HTLV-I-specific CTLs may be effective for eradication of HTLV-I-infected cells, which evade from CTL lysis and potentially develop ATL.

  16. Cell- and virus-mediated regulation of the barrier-to-autointegration factor's phosphorylation state controls its DNA binding, dimerization, subcellular localization, and antipoxviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Augusta; Wicklund, April; Wiebe, Matthew S

    2014-05-01

    Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) is a DNA binding protein with multiple cellular functions, including the ability to act as a potent defense against vaccinia virus infection. This antiviral function involves BAF's ability to condense double-stranded DNA and subsequently prevent viral DNA replication. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that dynamic phosphorylation involving the vaccinia virus B1 kinase and cellular enzymes is likely a key regulator of multiple BAF functions; however, the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed how phosphorylation impacts BAF's DNA binding, subcellular localization, dimerization, and antipoxviral activity through the characterization of BAF phosphomimetic and unphosphorylatable mutants. Our studies demonstrate that increased phosphorylation enhances BAF's mobilization from the nucleus to the cytosol, while dephosphorylation restricts BAF to the nucleus. Phosphorylation also impairs both BAF's dimerization and its DNA binding activity. Furthermore, our studies of BAF's antiviral activity revealed that hyperphosphorylated BAF is unable to suppress viral DNA replication or virus production. Interestingly, the unphosphorylatable BAF mutant, which is capable of binding DNA but localizes predominantly to the nucleus, was also incapable of suppressing viral replication. Thus, both DNA binding and localization are important determinants of BAF's antiviral function. Finally, our examination of how phosphatases are involved in regulating BAF revealed that PP2A dephosphorylates BAF during vaccinia infection, thus counterbalancing the activity of the B1 kinase. Altogether, these data demonstrate that phosphoregulation of BAF by viral and cellular enzymes modulates this protein at multiple molecular levels, thus determining its effectiveness as an antiviral factor and likely other functions as well. The barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) contributes to cellular genomic integrity in multiple ways

  17. Functional properties of Virus-Encoded and Virus-Regulated 7TM Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2014-01-01

    During co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have developed several survival strategies that involve exploitation of 7TM receptors. These include virus-encoded 7TM receptors and ligands and viral regulation of endogenous receptors. Many functional properties have been ascribed to virus-exploited...

  18. L1R, A27L, A33R and B5R vaccinia virus genes expressed by fowlpox recombinants as putative novel orthopoxvirus vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Pacchioni, Sole Maria; Bissa, Massimiliano; Zanotto, Carlo; Morghen, Carlo De Giuli; Illiano, Elena; Radaelli, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional smallpox vaccine, administered by scarification, was discontinued in the general population from 1980, because of the absence of new smallpox cases. However, the development of an effective prophylactic vaccine against smallpox is still necessary, to protect from the threat of deliberate release of the variola virus for bioterrorism and from new zoonotic infections, and to improve the safety of the traditional vaccine. Preventive vaccination still remains the most e...

  19. Frequency of adverse events after vaccination with different vaccinia strains.

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    Mirjam Kretzschmar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large quantities of smallpox vaccine have been stockpiled to protect entire nations against a possible reintroduction of smallpox. Planning for an appropriate use of these stockpiled vaccines in response to a smallpox outbreak requires a rational assessment of the risks of vaccination-related adverse events, compared to the risk of contracting an infection. Although considerable effort has been made to understand the dynamics of smallpox transmission in modern societies, little attention has been paid to estimating the frequency of adverse events due to smallpox vaccination. Studies exploring the consequences of smallpox vaccination strategies have commonly used a frequency of approximately one death per million vaccinations, which is based on a study of vaccination with the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH strain of vaccinia virus. However, a multitude of historical studies of smallpox vaccination with other vaccinia strains suggest that there are strain-related differences in the frequency of adverse events after vaccination. Because many countries have stockpiled vaccine based on the Lister strain of vaccinia virus, a quantitative evaluation of the adverse effects of such vaccines is essential for emergency response planning. We conducted a systematic review and statistical analysis of historical data concerning vaccination against smallpox with different strains of vaccinia virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed historical vaccination data extracted from the literature. We extracted data on the frequency of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to vaccinia strain and age of vaccinees. Using a hierarchical Bayesian approach for meta-analysis, we estimated the expected frequencies of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to age at vaccination for smallpox vaccines based on the NYCBH and Lister vaccinia strains. We found large heterogeneity between findings from different studies and a time-period effect

  20. Safety and immunogenicity of a modified-vaccinia-virus-Ankara-based influenza A H5N1 vaccine: a randomised, double-blind phase 1/2a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Goeijenbier, Marco; Moesker, Fleur M; van den Dries, Lennert; Goeijenbier, Simone; De Gruyter, Heidi L M; Lehmann, Michael H; Mutsert, Gerrie de; van de Vijver, David A M C; Volz, Asisa; Fouchier, Ron A M; van Gorp, Eric C M; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Sutter, Gerd; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2014-12-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a promising viral vector platform for the development of an H5N1 influenza vaccine. Preclinical assessment of MVA-based H5N1 vaccines showed their immunogenicity and safety in different animal models. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the MVA-haemagglutinin-based H5N1 vaccine MVA-H5-sfMR in healthy individuals. In a single-centre, double-blind phase 1/2a study, young volunteers (aged 18-28 years) were randomly assigned with a computer-generated list in equal numbers to one of eight groups and were given one injection or two injections intramuscularly at an interval of 4 weeks of a standard dose (10(8) plaque forming units [pfu]) or a ten times lower dose (10(7) pfu) of the MVA-H5-sfMR (vector encoding the haemagglutinin gene of influenza A/Vietnam/1194/2004 virus [H5N1 subtype]) or MVA-F6-sfMR (empty vector) vaccine. Volunteers and physicians who examined and administered the vaccine were masked to vaccine assignment. Individuals who received the MVA-H5-sfMR vaccine were eligible for a booster immunisation 1 year after the first immunisation. Primary endpoint was safety. Secondary outcome was immunogenicity. The trial is registered with the Dutch Trial Register, number NTR3401. 79 of 80 individuals who were enrolled completed the study. No serious adverse events were identified. 11 individuals reported severe headache and lightheadedness, erythema nodosum, respiratory illness (accompanied by influenza-like symptoms), sore throat, or injection-site reaction. Most of the volunteers had one or more local (itch, pain, redness, and swelling) and systemic reactions (rise in body temperature, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, chills, malaise, and fatigue) after the first, second, and booster immunisations. Individuals who received the 10(7) dose had fewer systemic reactions. The MVA-H5-sfMR vaccine at 10(8) pfu induced significantly higher antibody responses after one and two immunisations than did 10(7) pfu when

  1. An Ultrasensitive Mechanism Regulates Influenza Virus-Induced Inflammation.

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    Jason E Shoemaker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses present major challenges to public health, evident by the 2009 influenza pandemic. Highly pathogenic influenza virus infections generally coincide with early, high levels of inflammatory cytokines that some studies have suggested may be regulated in a strain-dependent manner. However, a comprehensive characterization of the complex dynamics of the inflammatory response induced by virulent influenza strains is lacking. Here, we applied gene co-expression and nonlinear regression analysis to time-course, microarray data developed from influenza-infected mouse lung to create mathematical models of the host inflammatory response. We found that the dynamics of inflammation-associated gene expression are regulated by an ultrasensitive-like mechanism in which low levels of virus induce minimal gene expression but expression is strongly induced once a threshold virus titer is exceeded. Cytokine assays confirmed that the production of several key inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, exhibit ultrasensitive behavior. A systematic exploration of the pathways regulating the inflammatory-associated gene response suggests that the molecular origins of this ultrasensitive response mechanism lie within the branch of the Toll-like receptor pathway that regulates STAT1 phosphorylation. This study provides the first evidence of an ultrasensitive mechanism regulating influenza virus-induced inflammation in whole lungs and provides insight into how different virus strains can induce distinct temporal inflammation response profiles. The approach developed here should facilitate the construction of gene regulatory models of other infectious diseases.

  2. Innate immune response of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells to poxvirus infection is subverted by vaccinia E3 via its Z-DNA/RNA binding domain.

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    Hua Cao

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs play important roles in antiviral innate immunity by producing type I interferon (IFN. In this study, we assess the immune responses of primary human pDCs to two poxviruses, vaccinia and myxoma virus. Vaccinia, an orthopoxvirus, was used for immunization against smallpox, a contagious human disease with high mortality. Myxoma virus, a Leporipoxvirus, causes lethal disease in rabbits, but is non-pathogenic in humans. We report that myxoma virus infection of human pDCs induces IFN-α and TNF production, whereas vaccinia infection does not. Co-infection of pDCs with myxoma virus plus vaccinia blocks myxoma induction effects. We find that heat-inactivated vaccinia (Heat-VAC; by incubating the virus at 55°C for 1 h gains the ability to induce IFN-α and TNF in primary human pDCs. Induction of IFN-α in pDCs by myxoma virus or Heat-VAC is blocked by chloroquine, which inhibits endosomal acidification required for TLR7/9 signaling, and by inhibitors of cellular kinases PI3K and Akt. Using purified pDCs from genetic knockout mice, we demonstrate that Heat-VAC-induced type I IFN production in pDCs requires the endosomal RNA sensor TLR7 and its adaptor MyD88, transcription factor IRF7 and the type I IFN feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1. These results indicate that (i vaccinia virus, but not myxoma virus, expresses inhibitor(s of the poxvirus sensing pathway(s in pDCs; and (ii Heat-VAC infection fails to produce inhibitor(s but rather produces novel activator(s, likely viral RNA transcripts that are sensed by the TLR7/MyD88 pathway. Using vaccinia gene deletion mutants, we show that the Z-DNA/RNA binding domain at the N-terminus of the vaccinia immunomodulatory E3 protein is an antagonist of the innate immune response of human pDCs to poxvirus infection and TLR agonists. The myxoma virus ortholog of vaccinia E3 (M029 lacks the N-terminal Z-DNA/RNA binding domain, which might contribute to the immunostimulating

  3. Innate Immune Response of Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells to Poxvirus Infection Is Subverted by Vaccinia E3 via Its Z-DNA/RNA Binding Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peihong; Wang, Weiyi; Li, Hao; Yuan, Jianda; Wang, Fangjin; Fang, Chee-Mun; Pitha, Paula M; Liu, Jia; Condit, Richard C; McFadden, Grant; Merghoub, Taha; Houghton, Alan N; Young, James W; Shuman, Stewart; Deng, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play important roles in antiviral innate immunity by producing type I interferon (IFN). In this study, we assess the immune responses of primary human pDCs to two poxviruses, vaccinia and myxoma virus. Vaccinia, an orthopoxvirus, was used for immunization against smallpox, a contagious human disease with high mortality. Myxoma virus, a Leporipoxvirus, causes lethal disease in rabbits, but is non-pathogenic in humans. We report that myxoma virus infection of human pDCs induces IFN-α and TNF production, whereas vaccinia infection does not. Co-infection of pDCs with myxoma virus plus vaccinia blocks myxoma induction effects. We find that heat-inactivated vaccinia (Heat-VAC; by incubating the virus at 55°C for 1 h) gains the ability to induce IFN-α and TNF in primary human pDCs. Induction of IFN-α in pDCs by myxoma virus or Heat-VAC is blocked by chloroquine, which inhibits endosomal acidification required for TLR7/9 signaling, and by inhibitors of cellular kinases PI3K and Akt. Using purified pDCs from genetic knockout mice, we demonstrate that Heat-VAC-induced type I IFN production in pDCs requires the endosomal RNA sensor TLR7 and its adaptor MyD88, transcription factor IRF7 and the type I IFN feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1. These results indicate that (i) vaccinia virus, but not myxoma virus, expresses inhibitor(s) of the poxvirus sensing pathway(s) in pDCs; and (ii) Heat-VAC infection fails to produce inhibitor(s) but rather produces novel activator(s), likely viral RNA transcripts that are sensed by the TLR7/MyD88 pathway. Using vaccinia gene deletion mutants, we show that the Z-DNA/RNA binding domain at the N-terminus of the vaccinia immunomodulatory E3 protein is an antagonist of the innate immune response of human pDCs to poxvirus infection and TLR agonists. The myxoma virus ortholog of vaccinia E3 (M029) lacks the N-terminal Z-DNA/RNA binding domain, which might contribute to the immunostimulating properties of

  4. Guinea pigs experimentally infected with vaccinia virus replicate and shed, but do not transmit the virus Cobaias infectadas experimentalmente com vírus vaccínia replicam e excretam, porém não transmitem o vírus

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    Juliana Felipetto Cargnelutti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of vaccinia viruses (VACV associated with vesicular disease in cattle and humans in Southeast Brazil remains uncertain, yet the role of wild species in virus transmission has been suggested. This study investigated the susceptibility and transmission potential by guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus - phylogenetically close to an abundant Brazilian rodent (Cavia aperea - to two VACV strains (P1V and P2V isolated from an outbreak of cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil. Eight guinea pigs inoculated intranasally with P1V and P2V (10(6 TCID50.ml-1 did not develop clinical signs, but six animals shed virus in nasal secretions (day 1 to 9 post-inoculation - pi, developed viremia (between days 1 and 10 pi and seroconverted to VACV. In spite of virus replication and shedding, the virus was not transmitted to sentinel animals by direct or indirect contact (aerosols or through food and water contaminated with virus. These results demonstrate that, in spite of replicating and shedding the virus, guinea pigs do not transmit the virus upon experimental inoculation. This finding makes unlikely a possible participation of related species in VACV maintenance and transmission in nature.A origem dos vírus vaccínia (VACV, envolvidos em surtos de doença vesicular em bovinos e humanos no Sudeste do Brasil, permanece desconhecida, e a participação de espécies silvestres na manutenção e transmissão do vírus tem sido sugerida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a susceptibilidade e o potencial de transmissão por cobaias (Cavia porcellus - filogeneticamente relacionada a uma espécie de roedor, conhecido por preá (Cavia aperea, bastante abundante no país - a duas cepas de VACV (P1V e P2V isoladas de um surto de doença cutânea em equinos no Rio Grande do Sul. Oito cobaias inoculadas pela via intranasal com uma mistura das amostras P1V e P2V (10(6 DICC50.ml-1 não apresentaram sinais clínicos, porém seis animais excretaram o vírus nas

  5. Development and evaluation of single domain antibodies for vaccinia and the L1 antigen.

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    Scott A Walper

    Full Text Available There is ongoing interest to develop high affinity, thermal stable recognition elements to replace conventional antibodies in biothreat detection assays. As part of this effort, single domain antibodies that target vaccinia virus were developed. Two llamas were immunized with killed viral particles followed by boosts with the recombinant membrane protein, L1, to stimulate the immune response for envelope and membrane proteins of the virus. The variable domains of the induced heavy chain antibodies were selected from M13 phage display libraries developed from isolated RNA. Selection via biopanning on the L1 antigen produced single domain antibodies that were specific and had affinities ranging from 4×10(-9 M to 7.0×10(-10 M, as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Several showed good ability to refold after heat denaturation. These L1-binding single domain antibodies, however, failed to recognize the killed vaccinia antigen. Useful vaccinia binding single domain antibodies were isolated by a second selection using the killed virus as the target. The virus binding single domain antibodies were incorporated in sandwich assays as both capture and tracer using the MAGPIX system yielding limits of detection down to 4×10(5 pfu/ml, a four-fold improvement over the limit obtained using conventional antibodies. This work demonstrates the development of anti-vaccinia single domain antibodies and their incorporation into sandwich assays for viral detection. It also highlights the properties of high affinity and thermal stability that are hallmarks of single domain antibodies.

  6. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations.

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    Bonnie M Slike

    Full Text Available Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb responses to vaccinia waned after 5-10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT of 250 to baseline (30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112-3234. This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program.

  7. Comparative Proteomics of Human Monkeypox and Vaccinia Intracellular Mature and Extracellular Enveloped Virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manes, Nathan P.; Estep, Ryan D.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Clauss, Therese RW; Monroe, Matthew E.; Du, Xiuxia; Adkins, Joshua N.; Wong, Scott; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-03-07

    Orthopoxviruses are the largest and most complex of the animal viruses. In response to the recent emergence of monkeypox in Africa and the threat of smallpox bioterrorism, virulent (monkeypox virus) and benign (vaccinia virus) orthopoxviruses were proteomically compared with the goal of identifying proteins required for pathogenesis. Orthopoxviruses were grown in HeLa cells to two different viral forms (intracellular mature virus and extracellular enveloped virus), purified by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, denatured using RapiGest™ surfactant, and digested with trypsin. Unfractionated samples and strong cation exchange HPLC fractions were analyzed by reversed-phase LC-MS/MS, and analyses of the MS/MS spectra using SEQUEST® and X! Tandem resulted in the identification of hundreds of monkeypox, vaccinia, and copurified host proteins. The unfractionated samples were additionally analyzed by LC-MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap™, and the accurate mass and elution time tag approach was used to perform quantitative comparisons. Possible pathophysiological roles of differentially expressed orthopoxvirus genes are discussed.

  8. Molecular network, pathway, and functional analysis of time-dependent gene changes associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility to oncolytic vaccinia virotherapy

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    Dana Haddad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study reveals the ability to assess time-dependent changes in gene expression patterns in pancreatic cancer cells associated with infection and susceptibility to vaccinia viruses. This suggests that molecular assays may be useful to develop safer and more efficacious oncolyticvirotherapies and support the idea that these treatments may target pathways implicated in pancreatic cancer resistance to conventional therapies.

  9. Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era

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    Poliana de Oliveira Figueiredo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV. We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132 with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated individuals raises questions about the protection of smallpox vaccine years after vaccination and reinforces the need for surveillance of Orthopoxvirus in Brazilian populations without evidence of previous outbreaks.

  10. Fine structure of the vaccinia virion determined by controlled degradation and immunolocalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussatche, Nissin; Condit, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The vaccinia virion is a membraned, slightly flattened, barrel-shaped particle, with a complex internal structure featuring a biconcave core flanked by lateral bodies. Although the architecture of the purified mature virion has been intensely characterized by electron microscopy, the distribution of the proteins within the virion has been examined primarily using biochemical procedures. Thus, it has been shown that non-ionic and ionic detergents combined or not with a sulfhydryl reagent can be used to disrupt virions and, to a limited degree, separate the constituent proteins in different fractions. Applying a controlled degradation technique to virions adsorbed on EM grids, we were able to immuno-localize viral proteins within the virion particle. Our results show after NP40 and DTT treatment, membrane proteins are removed from the virion surface revealing proteins that are associated with the lateral bodies and the outer layer of the core wall. Combined treatment using high salt and high DTT removed lateral body proteins and exposed proteins of the internal core wall. Cores treated with proteases could be disrupted and the internal components were exposed. Cts8, a mutant in the A3 protein, produces aberrant virus that, when treated with NP-40 and DTT, releases to the exterior the virus DNA associated with other internal core proteins. With these results, we are able to propose a model for the structure the vaccinia virion

  11. ATP-independent DNA synthesis in Vaccinia-infected L cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, N.A.; Kauff, R.A.; Sikorski, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    Mouse L cells can be made permeable to exogenous nucleotides by a cold shock in 0.01 M Tris . HCl pH 7.8, 0.25 M sucrose, 1 mM EDTA, 30 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and 4 mM MgCl 2 . DNA synthesis in permeabilized L cells requires ATP whereas DNA synthesis in permeabilized L cells that are infected with Vaccinia virus is ATP-independent. Permeabilized L cells that are infected with ultraviolet-irradiated virus show a marked suppression of DNA synthesis which is not corrected by an excess of deoxynucleoside triphosphates and ATP. The ATP-dependent and ATP-independent processes of DNA synthesis are inhibited to the same extent by Mal-Net, pHMB, ara CTP and phosphonoacetate. Concentrations of daunorubicin and cytembena, which cause marked inhibition of the ATP-dependent enzymes, only cause partial inhibition of the ATP-independent enzymes. (Auth.)

  12. DNA Tumor Virus Regulation of Host DNA Methylation and Its Implications for Immune Evasion and Oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss-Duerkop, Sharon K; Westrich, Joseph A; Pyeon, Dohun

    2018-02-13

    Viruses have evolved various mechanisms to evade host immunity and ensure efficient viral replication and persistence. Several DNA tumor viruses modulate host DNA methyltransferases for epigenetic dysregulation of immune-related gene expression in host cells. The host immune responses suppressed by virus-induced aberrant DNA methylation are also frequently involved in antitumor immune responses. Here, we describe viral mechanisms and virus-host interactions by which DNA tumor viruses regulate host DNA methylation to evade antiviral immunity, which may contribute to the generation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment during cancer development. Recent trials of immunotherapies have shown promising results to treat multiple cancers; however, a significant number of non-responders necessitate identifying additional targets for cancer immunotherapies. Thus, understanding immune evasion mechanisms of cancer-causing viruses may provide great insights for reversing immune suppression to prevent and treat associated cancers.

  13. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses

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    Asako eUchiyama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010. To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV, which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP, Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread.

  14. Transforming growth factor alpha, Shope fibroma growth factor, and vaccinia growth factor can replace myxoma growth factor in the induction of myxomatosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenorth, A; Nation, N; Graham, K; McFadden, G

    1993-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) homologues encoded by vaccinia virus, myxoma virus, and malignant rabbit fibroma virus have been shown to contribute to the pathogenicity of virus infection upon inoculation of susceptible hosts. However, since the primary structures of these growth factors and the disease profiles induced by different poxvirus genera vary substantially, the degree to which the various EGF homologues perform similar roles in viral pathogenesis remains unclear. In order to determine whether different EGF-like growth factors can perform qualitatively similar functions in the induction of myxomatosis in rabbits, we created recombinant myxoma virus variants in which the native growth factor, myxoma growth factor (MGF), was disrupted and replaced with either vaccinia virus growth factor, Shope fibroma growth factor, or rat transforming growth factor alpha. Unlike the control virus containing an inactivated MGF gene, which caused marked attenuation of the disease syndrome and substantially less proliferation of the epithelial cell layers in the conjunctiva and respiratory tract, the recombinant myxoma virus strains expressing heterologous growth factors produced infections which were both clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from wild-type myxomatosis. We conclude that these poxviral and cellular EGF-like growth factors, which are diverse with respect to primary structure and origin, have similar biological functions in the context of myxoma virus pathogenesis and are mitogenic for the same target cells.

  15. Roles and regulation of Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooykaas, M.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are posttranscriptional gene regulators that play important roles in many cellular processes. These short non-coding RNA molecules regulate gene expression by binding to complementary target mRNAs, thereby inducing RNA destabilization and inhibition of translation. Several DNA viruses

  16. DNA Tumor Virus Regulation of Host DNA Methylation and Its Implications for Immune Evasion and Oncogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K. Kuss-Duerkop

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Viruses have evolved various mechanisms to evade host immunity and ensure efficient viral replication and persistence. Several DNA tumor viruses modulate host DNA methyltransferases for epigenetic dysregulation of immune-related gene expression in host cells. The host immune responses suppressed by virus-induced aberrant DNA methylation are also frequently involved in antitumor immune responses. Here, we describe viral mechanisms and virus–host interactions by which DNA tumor viruses regulate host DNA methylation to evade antiviral immunity, which may contribute to the generation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment during cancer development. Recent trials of immunotherapies have shown promising results to treat multiple cancers; however, a significant number of non-responders necessitate identifying additional targets for cancer immunotherapies. Thus, understanding immune evasion mechanisms of cancer-causing viruses may provide great insights for reversing immune suppression to prevent and treat associated cancers.

  17. Surveillance guidelines for smallpox vaccine (vaccinia) adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Christine; Vellozzi, Claudia; Mootrey, Gina T; Chapman, Louisa E; McCauley, Mary; Roper, Martha H; Damon, Inger; Swerdlow, David L

    2006-02-03

    CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration rely on state and local health departments, health-care providers, and the public to report the occurrence of adverse events after vaccination to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. With such data, trends can be accurately monitored, unusual occurrences of adverse events can be detected, and the safety of vaccination intervention activities can be evaluated. On January 24, 2003, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) implemented a preparedness program in which smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine was administered to federal, state, and local volunteers who might be first responders during a biologic terrorism event. As part of the DHHS Smallpox Preparedness and Response Program, CDC in consultation with experts, established surveillance case definitions for adverse events after smallpox vaccination. Adverse reactions after smallpox vaccination identified during the 1960s surveillance activities were classified on the basis of clinical description and included eczema vaccinatum; fetal vaccinia; generalized vaccinia; accidental autoinoculation, nonocular; ocular vaccinia; progressive vaccinia; erythema multiforme major; postvaccinial encephalitis or encephalomyelitis; and pyogenic infection of the vaccination site. This report provides uniform criteria used for the surveillance case definition and classification for these previously recognized adverse reactions used during the DHHS Smallpox Preparedness and Response Program. Inadvertent inoculation was changed to more precisely describe this event as inadvertent autoinoculation and contact transmission, nonocular and ocular vaccinia. Pyogenic infection also was renamed superinfection of the vaccination site or regional lymph nodes. Finally, case definitions were developed for a new cardiac adverse reaction (myo/pericarditis) and for a cardiac adverse event (dilated cardiomyopathy) and are included in this report. The smallpox vaccine surveillance case

  18. Long Non-Coding RNAs: Emerging and Versatile Regulators in Host–Virus Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Yu Meng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are a class of non-protein-coding RNA molecules, which are involved in various biological processes, including chromatin modification, cell differentiation, pre-mRNA transcription and splicing, protein translation, etc. During the last decade, increasing evidence has suggested the involvement of lncRNAs in both immune and antiviral responses as positive or negative regulators. The immunity-associated lncRNAs modulate diverse and multilayered immune checkpoints, including activation or repression of innate immune signaling components, such as interleukin (IL-8, IL-10, retinoic acid inducible gene I, toll-like receptors 1, 3, and 8, and interferon (IFN regulatory factor 7, transcriptional regulation of various IFN-stimulated genes, and initiation of the cell apoptosis pathways. Additionally, some virus-encoded lncRNAs facilitate viral replication through individually or synergistically inhibiting the host antiviral responses or regulating multiple steps of the virus life cycle. Moreover, some viruses are reported to hijack host-encoded lncRNAs to establish persistent infections. Based on these amazing discoveries, lncRNAs are an emerging hotspot in host–virus interactions. In this review, we summarized the current findings of the host- or virus-encoded lncRNAs and the underlying mechanisms, discussed their impacts on immune responses and viral replication, and highlighted their critical roles in host–virus interactions.

  19. TCR Down-Regulation Controls Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...... molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in virus...

  20. Factors influencing the vaccinia-specific cytotoxic response of thymocytes from normal and chimeric mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, P.C.; Schwartz, D.H.; Bennink, J.R.; Korngold, R.

    1981-01-01

    Following adoptive transfer into irradiated recipients, thymocytes can be induced to respond strongly to vaccinia virus. High levels of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity may be generated from thymus, but not from spleen, of 3-day-old mice. The capacity of thymocytes to differentiate into effector CTL tends to be lost with age. Some of this loss may reflect positive suppression: a single, low dose of cyclophosphamide allows the reemergence of responsiveness in at least one mouse strain. Thymocytes from [A leads to (A x B)F1] and [(A x B)F1 leads to A] chimeras show the response patterns that would by predicted from previous studies of lymph node and spleen cells. However, thymic function seems to be rapidly lost in the [A leads to (A x B)F1] Chimeras

  1. Smallpox virus plaque phenotypes: genetic, geographical and case fatality relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Smith, Scott K; Hughes, Christine M; Damon, Inger K

    2009-04-01

    Smallpox (infection with Orthopoxvirus variola) remains a feared illness more than 25 years after its eradication. Historically, case-fatality rates (CFRs) varied between outbreaks (<1 to approximately 40 %), the reasons for which are incompletely understood. The extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) form of orthopoxvirus progeny is hypothesized to disseminate infection. Investigations with the closely related Orthopoxvirus vaccinia have associated increased comet formation (EEV production) with increased mouse mortality (pathogenicity). Other vaccinia virus genetic manipulations which affect EEV production inconsistently support this association. However, antisera against vaccinia virus envelope protect mice from lethal challenge, further supporting a critical role for EEV in pathogenicity. Here, we show that the increased comet formation phenotypes of a diverse collection of variola viruses associate with strain phylogeny and geographical origin, but not with increased outbreak-related CFRs; within clades, there may be an association of plaque size with CFR. The mechanisms for variola virus pathogenicity probably involves multiple host and pathogen factors.

  2. Subclinical bovine vaccinia: An important risk factor in the epidemiology of this zoonosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Costa, Aristóteles Gomes; Fraiha, Ana Luiza Soares; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2017-10-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV) that mainly affects lactating cows and dairy farm milkers. The epidemiological role(s) of other cattle categories such as dry cows, bulls, and heifers in BV remains unclear. This study was performed to investigate VACV in affected dairy cattle herds and perifocal farms during an outbreak in Brazil. Crusts from lesions of cows' teats were collected from all farms with BV outbreaks. Milk, feces, blood, and serum were collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic lactating cows. Blood and serum were also sampled from other cattle categories (calves, heifers, dry cows, and bulls). The samples were tested for VACV by PCR, and to confirm VACV viability, VACV-positive samples were inoculated in BSC-40 cells and stained using immunoperoxidase. Neutralizing antibodies were investigated using plaque reduction neutralization test. Viral DNA was detected in milk, blood, and feces samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic dairy cows and in blood samples from other cattle categories on farms with and without confirmed BV outbreak. In affected farms, viable virus was identified in feces and milk samples from lactating cows and in blood samples from asymptomatic dry cows. Viable VACV was also identified in feces from lactating cows and one bull's blood sample from perifocal farms. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 81.6% of the herds affected by BV and in 53.8% of the herds on perifocal farms. The presented data indicate a potential source of viral dissemination, which contributes to the persistence and spread of VACV in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The miR-1000-p53 pathway regulates apoptosis and virus infection in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Ju, Chenyu; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2015-10-01

    The p53 protein plays an important role in apoptosis which is involved in the immunity of animals. However, effects of the miRNA-mediated regulation of p53 expression on apoptosis and virus infection are not extensively investigated. To address this issue, the miRNA-mediated p53-dependent apoptotic pathway was explored in this study. The results indicated that p53 could regulate the apoptotic activity of Marsupenaeus japonicas shrimp and influence the infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The further data presented that miR-1000 could target the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of p53 gene. The results of in vivo experiments showed that the miR-1000 overexpression led to significant decreases of shrimp apoptotic activity and the capacity of WSSV infection, while the miR-1000 silencing resulted in significant increases of apoptotic activity and virus infection, indicating that miR-1000 took great effects on apoptosis and virus infection by targeting p53. Therefore, our study revealed a novel mechanism that the miR-1000-p53 pathway regulated apoptosis and virus infection in shrimp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immune regulation in chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Nielsen, Nick Schou

    2016-01-01

    The immunological result of infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends on the delicate balance between a vigorous immune response that may clear the infection, but with a risk of unspecific inflammation and, or a less inflammatory response that leads to chronic infection. In general, exhaustion...... and impairment of cytotoxic function of HCV-specific T cells and NK cells are found in patients with chronic HCV infection. In contrast, an increase in immune regulatory functions is found primarily in form of increased IL-10 production possibly due to increased level and function of anti-inflammatory Tregs...

  5. Gammaherpesvirus-driven plasma cell differentiation regulates virus reactivation from latently infected B lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Liang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gammaherpesviruses chronically infect their host and are tightly associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases and lymphomas, as well as several other types of cancer. Mechanisms involved in maintaining chronic gammaherpesvirus infections are poorly understood and, in particular, little is known about the mechanisms involved in controlling gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latently infected B cells in vivo. Recent evidence has linked plasma cell differentiation with reactivation of the human gammaherpesviruses EBV and KSHV through induction of the immediate-early viral transcriptional activators by the plasma cell-specific transcription factor XBP-1s. We now extend those findings to document a role for a gammaherpesvirus gene product in regulating plasma cell differentiation and thus virus reactivation. We have previously shown that the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 gene product M2 is dispensable for virus replication in permissive cells, but plays a critical role in virus reactivation from latently infected B cells. Here we show that in mice infected with wild type MHV68, virus infected plasma cells (ca. 8% of virus infected splenocytes at the peak of viral latency account for the majority of reactivation observed upon explant of splenocytes. In contrast, there is an absence of virus infected plasma cells at the peak of latency in mice infected with a M2 null MHV68. Furthermore, we show that the M2 protein can drive plasma cell differentiation in a B lymphoma cell line in the absence of any other MHV68 gene products. Thus, the role of M2 in MHV68 reactivation can be attributed to its ability to manipulate plasma cell differentiation, providing a novel viral strategy to regulate gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latently infected B cells. We postulate that M2 represents a new class of herpesvirus gene products (reactivation conditioners that do not directly participate in virus replication, but rather facilitate virus

  6. Calcium Regulation of Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Budding: Mechanistic Implications for Host-Oriented Therapeutic Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziying Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever viruses, including the filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg and arenaviruses (Lassa and Junín viruses, are serious human pathogens for which there are currently no FDA approved therapeutics or vaccines. Importantly, transmission of these viruses, and specifically late steps of budding, critically depend upon host cell machinery. Consequently, strategies which target these mechanisms represent potential targets for broad spectrum host oriented therapeutics. An important cellular signal implicated previously in EBOV budding is calcium. Indeed, host cell calcium signals are increasingly being recognized to play a role in steps of entry, replication, and transmission for a range of viruses, but if and how filoviruses and arenaviruses mobilize calcium and the precise stage of virus transmission regulated by calcium have not been defined. Here we demonstrate that expression of matrix proteins from both filoviruses and arenaviruses triggers an increase in host cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration by a mechanism that requires host Orai1 channels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Orai1 regulates both VLP and infectious filovirus and arenavirus production and spread. Notably, suppression of the protein that triggers Orai activation (Stromal Interaction Molecule 1, STIM1 and genetic inactivation or pharmacological blockade of Orai1 channels inhibits VLP and infectious virus egress. These findings are highly significant as they expand our understanding of host mechanisms that may broadly control enveloped RNA virus budding, and they establish Orai and STIM1 as novel targets for broad-spectrum host-oriented therapeutics to combat these emerging BSL-4 pathogens and potentially other enveloped RNA viruses that bud via similar mechanisms.

  7. Gammaherpesvirus-driven plasma cell differentiation regulates virus reactivation from latently infected B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaozhen; Collins, Christopher M; Mendel, Justin B; Iwakoshi, Neal N; Speck, Samuel H

    2009-11-01

    Gammaherpesviruses chronically infect their host and are tightly associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases and lymphomas, as well as several other types of cancer. Mechanisms involved in maintaining chronic gammaherpesvirus infections are poorly understood and, in particular, little is known about the mechanisms involved in controlling gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latently infected B cells in vivo. Recent evidence has linked plasma cell differentiation with reactivation of the human gammaherpesviruses EBV and KSHV through induction of the immediate-early viral transcriptional activators by the plasma cell-specific transcription factor XBP-1s. We now extend those findings to document a role for a gammaherpesvirus gene product in regulating plasma cell differentiation and thus virus reactivation. We have previously shown that the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) gene product M2 is dispensable for virus replication in permissive cells, but plays a critical role in virus reactivation from latently infected B cells. Here we show that in mice infected with wild type MHV68, virus infected plasma cells (ca. 8% of virus infected splenocytes at the peak of viral latency) account for the majority of reactivation observed upon explant of splenocytes. In contrast, there is an absence of virus infected plasma cells at the peak of latency in mice infected with a M2 null MHV68. Furthermore, we show that the M2 protein can drive plasma cell differentiation in a B lymphoma cell line in the absence of any other MHV68 gene products. Thus, the role of M2 in MHV68 reactivation can be attributed to its ability to manipulate plasma cell differentiation, providing a novel viral strategy to regulate gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latently infected B cells. We postulate that M2 represents a new class of herpesvirus gene products (reactivation conditioners) that do not directly participate in virus replication, but rather facilitate virus reactivation by

  8. TCR down-regulation controls virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...

  9. Ebola virus encodes a miR-155 analog to regulate importin-α5 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanwu; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Hongwen; Wang, Mingming; Gao, George Fu; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-10-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus caused more than 10,000 human deaths. Current knowledge of suitable drugs, clinical diagnostic biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of Ebola virus infection is either absent or insufficient. By screening stem-loop structures from the viral genomes of four virulence species, we identified a novel, putative viral microRNA precursor that is specifically expressed by the Ebola virus. The sequence of the microRNA precursor was further confirmed by mining the existing RNA-Seq database. Two putative mature microRNAs were predicted and subsequently validated in human cell lines. Combined with this prediction of the microRNA target, we identified importin-α5, which is a key regulator of interferon signaling following Ebola virus infection, as one putative target. We speculate that this microRNA could facilitate the evasion of the host immune system by the virus. Moreover, this microRNA might be a potential clinical therapeutic target or a diagnostic biomarker for Ebola virus.

  10. The potential application of a transcriptionally regulated oncolytic herpes simplex virus for human cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L; Fraefel, C; Sia, K C; Newman, J P; Mohamed-Bashir, S A; Ng, W H; Lam, P Y P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emerging studies have shown the potential benefit of arming oncolytic viruses with therapeutic genes. However, most of these therapeutic genes are placed under the regulation of ubiquitous viral promoters. Our goal is to generate a safer yet potent oncolytic herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) for cancer therapy. Methods: Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombineering, a cell cycle-regulatable luciferase transgene cassette was replaced with the infected cell protein 6 (ICP6) coding region (encoded for UL39 or large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase) of the HSV-1 genome. These recombinant viruses, YE-PC8, were further tested for its proliferation-dependent luciferase gene expression. Results: The ability of YE-PC8 to confer proliferation-dependent transgene expression was demonstrated by injecting similar amount of viruses into the tumour-bearing region of the brain and the contralateral normal brain parenchyma of the same mouse. The results showed enhanced levels of luciferase activities in the tumour region but not in the normal brain parenchyma. Similar findings were observed in YE-PC8-infected short-term human brain patient-derived glioma cells compared with normal human astrocytes. intratumoural injection of YE-PC8 viruses resulted in 77% and 80% of tumour regression in human glioma and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts, respectively. Conclusion: YE-PC8 viruses confer tumour selectivity in proliferating cells and may be developed further as a feasible approach to treat human cancers. PMID:24196790

  11. Uncoupled regulation of fibronectin and collagen synthesis in Rous sarcoma virus transformed avian tendon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, G.; Soo, W.J.; Bissell, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The regulation of fibronectin and procollagen synthesis has been investigated in normal and Rous sarcoma virus transformed primary avian tendon cells. These two proteins interact at the cell periphery and both are reportedly lost upon transformation. Whether their synthesis was coordinately regulated in Rous sarcoma virus-infected cells was thus examined. It was found that while the synthesis of both pro α 1 and pro α 2 peptides was reduced upon transformation, the synthesis of fibronectin was not altered. Nevertheless, long term radiolabeling demonstrated that fibronectin levels were reduced in transformed cells. It is concluded that the reduction in levels of these components at the surface is brought about by different mechanisms; collagen levels being regulated by procollagen synthesis and fibronectin levels by degradation and/or release into the culture medium. The possibility is discussed that fibronectin is lost from the cell periphery of primary avian tendon cells as a consequence of decreased levels of anchoring collagen molecules

  12. Regulation of Telomere Homeostasis during Epstein-Barr virus Infection and Immortalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamranvar, Siamak A; Masucci, Maria G

    2017-08-09

    The acquisition of unlimited proliferative potential is dependent on the activation of mechanisms for telomere maintenance, which counteracts telomere shortening and the consequent triggering of the DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. The capacity of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) to infect B-lymphocytes in vitro and transform the infected cells into autonomously proliferating immortal cell lines underlies the association of this human gamma-herpesvirus with a broad variety of lymphoid and epithelial cell malignancies. Current evidence suggests that both telomerase-dependent and -independent pathways of telomere elongation are activated in the infected cells during the early and late phases of virus-induced immortalization. Here we review the interaction of EBV with different components of the telomere maintenance machinery and the mechanisms by which the virus regulates telomere homeostasis in proliferating cells. We also discuss how these viral strategies may contribute to malignant transformation.

  13. Circadian transcription factor BMAL1 regulates innate immunity against select RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Tanmay; Dhar, Jayeeta; Patel, Sonal; Kondratov, Roman; Barik, Sailen

    2017-02-01

    BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as MOP3 or ARNT3) belongs to the family of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS domain-containing transcription factors, and is a key component of the molecular oscillator that generates circadian rhythms. Here, we report that BMAL1-deficient cells are significantly more susceptible to infection by two major respiratory viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family, namely RSV and PIV3. Embryonic fibroblasts from Bmal1 -/- mice produced nearly 10-fold more progeny virus than their wild type controls. These results were supported by animal studies whereby pulmonary infection of RSV produced a more severe disease and morbidity in Bmal1 -/- mice. These results show that BMAL1 can regulate cellular innate immunity against specific RNA viruses.

  14. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BM5 protein regulates progeny virus production and viral gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokusho, Ryuhei; Koh, Yoshikazu; Fujimoto, Masaru; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf5 (Bm5) is a core gene of lepidopteran baculoviruses and encodes the protein with the conserved amino acid residues (DUF3627) in its C-terminus. Here, we found that Bm5 disruption resulted in lower titers of budded viruses and fewer numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) in B. mori cultured cells and larvae, although viral genome replication was not affected. Bm5 disruption also caused aberrant expression of various viral genes at the very late stage of infection. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that BM5 localized to the nuclear membrane. We also found that DUF3627 is important for OB production, transcriptional regulation of viral genes, and subcellular localization of BM5. Compared with wild-type BmNPV infection, larval death was delayed when B. mori larvae were infected with Bm5 mutants. These results suggest that BM5 is involved in progeny virus production and regulation of viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. -- Highlights: •The role of BmNPV BM5 protein was examined in B. mori cultured cells and larvae. •BM5 contributes to efficient production of budded viruses and occlusion bodies. •BM5 regulates viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. •BM5 dominantly localizes to the nuclear membrane. •Bm5 mutant showed v-cath down-regulation and resulting delay of larval death.

  15. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BM5 protein regulates progeny virus production and viral gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Ryuhei, E-mail: kokusho@ss.ab.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Koh, Yoshikazu; Fujimoto, Masaru; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu, E-mail: katsuma@ss.ab.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2016-11-15

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf5 (Bm5) is a core gene of lepidopteran baculoviruses and encodes the protein with the conserved amino acid residues (DUF3627) in its C-terminus. Here, we found that Bm5 disruption resulted in lower titers of budded viruses and fewer numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) in B. mori cultured cells and larvae, although viral genome replication was not affected. Bm5 disruption also caused aberrant expression of various viral genes at the very late stage of infection. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that BM5 localized to the nuclear membrane. We also found that DUF3627 is important for OB production, transcriptional regulation of viral genes, and subcellular localization of BM5. Compared with wild-type BmNPV infection, larval death was delayed when B. mori larvae were infected with Bm5 mutants. These results suggest that BM5 is involved in progeny virus production and regulation of viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. -- Highlights: •The role of BmNPV BM5 protein was examined in B. mori cultured cells and larvae. •BM5 contributes to efficient production of budded viruses and occlusion bodies. •BM5 regulates viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. •BM5 dominantly localizes to the nuclear membrane. •Bm5 mutant showed v-cath down-regulation and resulting delay of larval death.

  16. Host Cell Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Regulates the Assembly and Budding of Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Emmanuel; Johnson, Kristen A; Fraser, Mark E; Scott, Jordan L; Soni, Smita P; Jones, Keaton R; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Tessier, Charles R; Stahelin, Robert V

    2015-09-01

    Lipid-enveloped viruses replicate and bud from the host cell where they acquire their lipid coat. Ebola virus, which buds from the plasma membrane of the host cell, causes viral hemorrhagic fever and has a high fatality rate. To date, little has been known about how budding and egress of Ebola virus are mediated at the plasma membrane. We have found that the lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) regulates the assembly of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40. VP40 binds PS-containing membranes with nanomolar affinity, and binding of PS regulates VP40 localization and oligomerization on the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Further, alteration of PS levels in mammalian cells inhibits assembly and egress of VP40. Notably, interactions of VP40 with the plasma membrane induced exposure of PS on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane at sites of egress, whereas PS is typically found only on the inner leaflet. Taking the data together, we present a model accounting for the role of plasma membrane PS in assembly of Ebola virus-like particles. The lipid-enveloped Ebola virus causes severe infection with a high mortality rate and currently lacks FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines. Ebola virus harbors just seven genes in its genome, and there is a critical requirement for acquisition of its lipid envelope from the plasma membrane of the human cell that it infects during the replication process. There is, however, a dearth of information available on the required contents of this envelope for egress and subsequent attachment and entry. Here we demonstrate that plasma membrane phosphatidylserine is critical for Ebola virus budding from the host cell plasma membrane. This report, to our knowledge, is the first to highlight the role of lipids in human cell membranes in the Ebola virus replication cycle and draws a clear link between selective binding and transport of a lipid across the membrane of the human cell and use of that lipid for subsequent viral entry. Copyright © 2015, American

  17. Genital Autoinoculation with Vaccinia: A Look at Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Julie R; Rollene, Nanette L; Gist, Richard S

    2018-05-01

    Smallpox, or vaccinia, has been eradicated worldwide as a disease; however, it may be weaponized and is thus a required immunization when military members deploy to certain parts of the world. We report two unusual cases of genital autoinoculation following smallpox vaccination. Both patients' lesions resolved without sequelae within 20 d. We advocate for thorough education on this potential vaccination adverse event. These cases highlight the importance of a broad differential diagnosis when dealing with vulvar lesions, particularly in our military population.

  18. Cyclophilin B is a functional regulator of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watashi, Koichi; Ishii, Naoto; Hijikata, Makoto; Inoue, Daisuke; Murata, Takayuki; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2005-07-01

    Viruses depend on host-derived factors for their efficient genome replication. Here, we demonstrate that a cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase), cyclophilin B (CyPB), is critical for the efficient replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. CyPB interacted with the HCV RNA polymerase NS5B to directly stimulate its RNA binding activity. Both the RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated reduction of endogenous CyPB expression and the induced loss of NS5B binding to CyPB decreased the levels of HCV replication. Thus, CyPB functions as a stimulatory regulator of NS5B in HCV replication machinery. This regulation mechanism for viral replication identifies CyPB as a target for antiviral therapeutic strategies.

  19. Weather Regulates Location, Timing, and Intensity of Dengue Virus Transmission between Humans and Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Karen M.; Haldeman, Kristin; Lehnig, Chris; Munayco, Cesar V.; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Yagui, Mart?n; Morrison, Amy C.; Lin, Chii-Dean; Scott, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is one of the most aggressively expanding mosquito-transmitted viruses. The human burden approaches 400 million infections annually. Complex transmission dynamics pose challenges for predicting location, timing, and magnitude of risk; thus, models are needed to guide prevention strategies and policy development locally and globally. Weather regulates transmission-potential via its effects on vector dynamics. An important gap in understanding risk and roadblock in model devel...

  20. Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Eloi R; Colpitts, Che C; Bach, Charlotte; Heydmann, Laura; Zona, Laetitia; Xiao, Fei; Thumann, Christine; Crouchet, Emilie; Gaudin, Raphaël; Sureau, Camille; Cosset, François-Loïc; McKeating, Jane A; Pessaux, Patrick; Hoshida, Yujin; Schuster, Catherine; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Baumert, Thomas F

    2016-10-25

    Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFITM3. In conclusion, our results uncover NTCP as a mediator of innate antiviral immune responses in the liver, and they establish a role for NTCP in the infection process of multiple viruses via distinct mechanisms. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for solute carriers in the regulation of innate antiviral responses, and they have potential implications for virus-host interactions and antiviral therapies. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi R. Verrier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, including IFITM3. In conclusion, our results uncover NTCP as a mediator of innate antiviral immune responses in the liver, and they establish a role for NTCP in the infection process of multiple viruses via distinct mechanisms. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for solute carriers in the regulation of innate antiviral responses, and they have potential implications for virus-host interactions and antiviral therapies.

  2. Applications of pox virus vectors to vaccination: an update.

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti, E

    1996-01-01

    Recombinant pox viruses have been generated for vaccination against heterologous pathogens. Amongst these, the following are notable examples. (i) The engineering of the Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus to express the rabies virus glycoprotein. When applied in baits, this recombinant has been shown to vaccinate the red fox in Europe and raccoons in the United States, stemming the spread of rabies virus infection in the wild. (ii) A fowlpox-based recombinant expressing the Newcastle disease...

  3. Vaccinia scars associated with improved survival among adults in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Lundsby Jensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In urban Guinea-Bissau, adults with a vaccinia scar had better survival but also a higher prevalence of HIV-2 infection. We therefore investigated the association between vaccinia scar and survival and HIV infection in a rural area of Guinea-Bissau. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In connection with a study of HIV in rural Guinea-Bissau, we assessed vaccinia and BCG scars in 193 HIV-1 or HIV-2 infected and 174 uninfected participants. Mortality was assessed after 2(1/2-3 years of follow-up. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, village, and HIV status. The prevalence of vaccinia scar was associated with age, village, and HIV-2 status but not with sex and schooling. Compared with individuals without any scar, individuals with a vaccinia scar had better survival (mortality rate ratio (MR = 0.22 (95% CI 0.08-0.61, the MR being 0.19 (95% CI 0.06-0.57 for women and 0.40 (95% CI 0.04-3.74 for men. Estimates were similar for HIV-2 infected and HIV-1 and HIV-2 uninfected individuals. The HIV-2 prevalence was higher among individuals with a vaccinia scar compared to individuals without a vaccinia scar (RR = 1.57 (95% CI 1.02-2.36. CONCLUSION: The present study supports the hypothesis that vaccinia vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on adult survival.

  4. Down-Regulation of p53 by Double-Stranded RNA Modulates the Antiviral Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joao T.; Rebouillat, Dominique; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Murakami, Junko; Hill, Jason E.; Gudkov, Andrei; Silverman, Robert H.; Stark, George R.; Williams, Bryan R. G.

    2005-01-01

    p53 has been well characterized as a tumor suppressor gene, but its role in antiviral defense remains unclear. A recent report has demonstrated that p53 can be induced by interferons and is activated after vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. We observed that different nononcogenic viruses, including encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), induced down-regulation of p53 in infected cells. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and a mutant vaccinia virus lacking the dsRNA binding protein E3L can also induce this effect, indicating that dsRNA formed during viral infection is likely the trigger for down-regulation of p53. The mechanism of down-regulation of p53 by dsRNA relies on translation inhibition mediated by the PKR and RNase L pathways. In the absence of p53, the replication of both EMCV and HPIV3 was retarded, whereas, conversely, VSV replication was enhanced. Cell cycle analysis indicated that wild-type (WT) but not p53 knockout (KO) fibroblasts undergo an early-G1 arrest following dsRNA treatment. Moreover, in WT cells the onset of dsRNA-induced apoptosis begins after p53 levels are down-regulated, whereas p53 KO cells, which lack the early-G1 arrest, rapidly undergo apoptosis. Hence, our data suggest that the down-regulation of p53 facilitates apoptosis, thereby limiting viral replication. PMID:16103161

  5. Palmitoylation of Sindbis Virus TF Protein Regulates Its Plasma Membrane Localization and Subsequent Incorporation into Virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jolene; Renzi, Emily C; Arnold, Randy J; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

    2017-02-01

    Palmitoylation is a reversible, posttranslational modification that helps target proteins to cellular membranes. The alphavirus small membrane proteins 6K and TF have been reported to be palmitoylated and to positively regulate budding. 6K and TF are isoforms that are identical in their N termini but unique in their C termini due to a -1 ribosomal frameshift during translation. In this study, we used cysteine (Cys) mutants to test differential palmitoylation of the Sindbis virus 6K and TF proteins. We modularly mutated the five Cys residues in the identical N termini of 6K and TF, the four additional Cys residues in TF's unique C terminus, or all nine Cys residues in TF. Using these mutants, we determined that TF palmitoylation occurs primarily in the N terminus. In contrast, 6K is not palmitoylated, even on these shared residues. In the C-terminal Cys mutant, TF protein levels increase both in the cell and in the released virion compared to the wild type. In viruses with the N-terminal Cys residues mutated, TF is much less efficiently localized to the plasma membrane, and it is not incorporated into the virion. The three Cys mutants have minor defects in cell culture growth but a high incidence of abnormal particle morphologies compared to the wild-type virus as determined by transmission electron microscopy. We propose a model where the C terminus of TF modulates the palmitoylation of TF at the N terminus, and palmitoylated TF is preferentially trafficked to the plasma membrane for virus budding. Alphaviruses are a reemerging viral cause of arthritogenic disease. Recently, the small 6K and TF proteins of alphaviruses were shown to contribute to virulence in vivo Nevertheless, a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which either protein acts to promote virus infection is missing. The TF protein is a component of budded virions, and optimal levels of TF correlate positively with wild-type-like particle morphology. In this study, we show that the

  6. MicroRNA regulation of human protease genes essential for influenza virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Meliopoulos

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics threatening the health of millions of people each year. Vaccination is an effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality, and in the absence of drug resistance, the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis is comparable to that of vaccines. However, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has emphasized the need for new drug targets. Knowledge of the host cell components required for influenza replication has been an area targeted for disease intervention. In this study, the human protease genes required for influenza virus replication were determined and validated using RNA interference approaches. The genes validated as critical for influenza virus replication were ADAMTS7, CPE, DPP3, MST1, and PRSS12, and pathway analysis showed these genes were in global host cell pathways governing inflammation (NF-κB, cAMP/calcium signaling (CRE/CREB, and apoptosis. Analyses of host microRNAs predicted to govern expression of these genes showed that eight miRNAs regulated gene expression during virus replication. These findings identify unique host genes and microRNAs important for influenza replication providing potential new targets for disease intervention strategies.

  7. MicroRNA regulation of human protease genes essential for influenza virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Andersen, Lauren E; Brooks, Paula; Yan, Xiuzhen; Bakre, Abhijeet; Coleman, J Keegan; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics threatening the health of millions of people each year. Vaccination is an effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality, and in the absence of drug resistance, the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis is comparable to that of vaccines. However, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has emphasized the need for new drug targets. Knowledge of the host cell components required for influenza replication has been an area targeted for disease intervention. In this study, the human protease genes required for influenza virus replication were determined and validated using RNA interference approaches. The genes validated as critical for influenza virus replication were ADAMTS7, CPE, DPP3, MST1, and PRSS12, and pathway analysis showed these genes were in global host cell pathways governing inflammation (NF-κB), cAMP/calcium signaling (CRE/CREB), and apoptosis. Analyses of host microRNAs predicted to govern expression of these genes showed that eight miRNAs regulated gene expression during virus replication. These findings identify unique host genes and microRNAs important for influenza replication providing potential new targets for disease intervention strategies.

  8. Bovine Vaccinia in dairy cattle and suspicion of vesicular disease on milkers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Garcia da Silva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine vaccinia (BV is a vesicular disease induced by the Vaccinia virus (VACV that affects milk production and is an occupational zoonosis. This research had the following objectives: (i detection of VACV by qPCR in cattle with clinical suspicion of vesicular disease; (ii symptoms characterization in animals and milkers with clinical suspicion of the disease and virus detection in humans; and (iii identification of risk factors for infections of VACV in herds from several Brazilian states. A total of 471 bovine epithelial samples from dairy farms, in 15 Brazilian states, were evaluated between 2007 and 2012. The samples were tested by quantitative PCR (qPCR using SYBR Green® reagents, validated with a lower limit of detection of 100 TCID50/50µL (1.7x100 viral particles, and 45.1% of VACV positive samples were detected. Using official forms for epidemiological investigation (FORM-IN, the risk factors for VACV infections in cattle were determined to be farms with a lack of technological facilities (P=0.029 and the presence of rodents (P=0.001. There was an effect of seasonality in cattle with a higher occurrence of BV during the dry season. A total of 420 epidemiological questionnaires were applied at public health care centers, where 100% of the milkers had vesicular lesions on their hands (98.1% and on their arms (6.9%. The most frequent clinical symptoms in humans were: local swelling (74.2%, headache (20.7%, fever (10.4% and inguinal lymphadenopathy (74.2%. Only 19.98% of milkers aged between 39 and 58 years were seroreactive to VACV and were immunized with the human anti-smallpox vaccine. There was an increase in the frequency of BV in older individuals due to their natural decrease in specific immunity. It has been shown that the implementation of zootechnical management techniques and health planning are important for the prevention of BV in animals and humans.

  9. The Ebola virus VP35 protein is a suppressor of RNA silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Haasnoot

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available RNA silencing or interference (RNAi is a gene regulation mechanism in eukaryotes that controls cell differentiation and developmental processes via expression of microRNAs. RNAi also serves as an innate antiviral defence response in plants, nematodes, and insects. This antiviral response is triggered by virus-specific double-stranded RNA molecules (dsRNAs that are produced during infection. To overcome antiviral RNAi responses, many plant and insect viruses encode RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs that enable them to replicate at higher titers. Recently, several human viruses were shown to encode RSSs, suggesting that RNAi also serves as an innate defence response in mammals. Here, we demonstrate that the Ebola virus VP35 protein is a suppressor of RNAi in mammalian cells and that its RSS activity is functionally equivalent to that of the HIV-1 Tat protein. We show that VP35 can replace HIV-1 Tat and thereby support the replication of a Tat-minus HIV-1 variant. The VP35 dsRNA-binding domain is required for this RSS activity. Vaccinia virus E3L protein and influenza A virus NS1 protein are also capable of replacing the HIV-1 Tat RSS function. These findings support the hypothesis that RNAi is part of the innate antiviral response in mammalian cells. Moreover, the results indicate that RSSs play a critical role in mammalian virus replication.

  10. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France); Chapuis, Sophie [Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Laboratoire propre du CNRS conventionné avec l’Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France); Revers, Frédéric [INRA, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 1332 de Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon (France); Ziegler-Graff, Véronique [Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Laboratoire propre du CNRS conventionné avec l’Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Brault, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.brault@colmar.inra.fr [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France)

    2015-12-15

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74 kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. - Highlights: • The C-terminal domain of TuYV-RT is required for long-distance movement. • CIPK7 from Arabidopsis interacts with RT{sub Cter} in yeast and in plants. • CIPK7 overexpression increases virus titer locally but not virus systemic movement. • CIPK7 localizes to plasmodesmata. • CIPK7 could be a defense protein regulating virus export.

  11. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Chapuis, Sophie; Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique; Revers, Frédéric; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74 kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RT_C_t_e_r) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RT_C_t_e_r. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. - Highlights: • The C-terminal domain of TuYV-RT is required for long-distance movement. • CIPK7 from Arabidopsis interacts with RT_C_t_e_r in yeast and in plants. • CIPK7 overexpression increases virus titer locally but not virus systemic movement. • CIPK7 localizes to plasmodesmata. • CIPK7 could be a defense protein regulating virus export.

  12. Competition between virus-derived and endogenous small RNAs regulates gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkies, Peter; Ashe, Alyson; Le Pen, Jérémie; McKie, Mikel A; Miska, Eric A

    2013-08-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses encompass more than one-third of known virus genera and include many medically and agriculturally relevant human, animal, and plant pathogens. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its natural pathogen, the positive-strand RNA virus Orsay, have recently emerged as a new animal model to understand the mechanisms and evolution of innate immune responses. In particular, the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is required for C. elegans resistance to viral infection. Here we report the first genome-wide analyses of gene expression upon viral infection in C. elegans. Using the laboratory strain N2, we identify a novel C. elegans innate immune response specific to viral infection. A subset of these changes is driven by the RNAi response to the virus, which redirects the Argonaute protein RDE-1 from its endogenous small RNA cofactors, leading to loss of repression of endogenous RDE-1 targets. Additionally, we show that a C. elegans wild isolate, JU1580, has a distinct gene expression signature in response to viral infection. This is associated with a reduction in microRNA (miRNA) levels and an up-regulation of their target genes. Intriguingly, alterations in miRNA levels upon JU1580 infection are associated with a transformation of the antiviral transcriptional response into an antibacterial-like response. Together our data support a model whereby antiviral RNAi competes with endogenous small RNA pathways, causing widespread transcriptional changes. This provides an elegant mechanism for C. elegans to orchestrate its antiviral response, which may have significance for the relationship between small RNA pathways and immune regulation in other organisms.

  13. Optical detection and virotherapy of live metastatic tumor cells in body fluids with vaccinia strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqiang Wang

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumor cells in body fluids are important targets for treatment, and critical surrogate markers for evaluating cancer prognosis and therapeutic response. Here we report, for the first time, that live metastatic tumor cells in blood samples from mice bearing human tumor xenografts and in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with cancer were successfully detected using a tumor cell-specific recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV. In contrast to the FDA-approved CellSearch system, VACV detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs in a cancer biomarker-independent manner, thus, free of any bias related to the use of antibodies, and can be potentially a universal system for detection of live CTCs of any tumor type, not limited to CTCs of epithelial origin. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that VACV was effective in preventing and reducing circulating tumor cells in mice bearing human tumor xenografts. Importantly, a single intra-peritoneal delivery of VACV resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of tumor cells in the ascitic fluid from a patient with gastric cancer. Taken together, these results suggest VACV to be a useful tool for quantitative detection of live tumor cells in liquid biopsies as well as a potentially effective treatment for reducing or eliminating live tumor cells in body fluids of patients with metastatic disease.

  14. Regulation of hepatitis B virus ENI enhancer activity by hepatocyte-enriched transcription factor HNF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Hieng, S; Qian, X; Costa, R; Ou, J H

    1994-11-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) ENI enhancer can activate the expression of HBV and non-HBV genes in a liver-specific manner. By performing the electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, we demonstrated that the three related, liver-enriched, transcription factors, HNF3 alpha, HNF3 beta, and HNF3 gamma could all bind to the 2c site of HBV ENI enhancer. Mutations introduced in the 2c site to abolish the binding by HNF3 reduced the enhancer activity approximately 15-fold. Moreover, expression of HNF3 antisense sequences to suppress the expression of HNF3 in Huh-7 hepatoma cells led to reduction of the ENI enhancer activity. These results indicate that HNF3 positively regulates the ENI enhancer activity and this regulation is most likely mediated through the 2c site. The requirement of HNF3 for the ENI enhancer activity could explain the liver specificity of this enhancer element.

  15. Bluetongue virus non-structural protein 1 is a positive regulator of viral protein synthesis

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    Boyce Mark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bluetongue virus (BTV is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA virus of the Reoviridae family, which encodes its genes in ten linear dsRNA segments. BTV mRNAs are synthesised by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp as exact plus sense copies of the genome segments. Infection of mammalian cells with BTV rapidly replaces cellular protein synthesis with viral protein synthesis, but the regulation of viral gene expression in the Orbivirus genus has not been investigated. Results Using an mRNA reporter system based on genome segment 10 of BTV fused with GFP we identify the protein characteristic of this genus, non-structural protein 1 (NS1 as sufficient to upregulate translation. The wider applicability of this phenomenon among the viral genes is demonstrated using the untranslated regions (UTRs of BTV genome segments flanking the quantifiable Renilla luciferase ORF in chimeric mRNAs. The UTRs of viral mRNAs are shown to be determinants of the amount of protein synthesised, with the pre-expression of NS1 increasing the quantity in each case. The increased expression induced by pre-expression of NS1 is confirmed in virus infected cells by generating a replicating virus which expresses the reporter fused with genome segment 10, using reverse genetics. Moreover, NS1-mediated upregulation of expression is restricted to mRNAs which lack the cellular 3′ poly(A sequence identifying the 3′ end as a necessary determinant in specifically increasing the translation of viral mRNA in the presence of cellular mRNA. Conclusions NS1 is identified as a positive regulator of viral protein synthesis. We propose a model of translational regulation where NS1 upregulates the synthesis of viral proteins, including itself, and creates a positive feedback loop of NS1 expression, which rapidly increases the expression of all the viral proteins. The efficient translation of viral reporter mRNAs among cellular mRNAs can account for the observed

  16. Bluetongue virus non-structural protein 1 is a positive regulator of viral protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Mark; Celma, Cristina C P; Roy, Polly

    2012-08-29

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the Reoviridae family, which encodes its genes in ten linear dsRNA segments. BTV mRNAs are synthesised by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) as exact plus sense copies of the genome segments. Infection of mammalian cells with BTV rapidly replaces cellular protein synthesis with viral protein synthesis, but the regulation of viral gene expression in the Orbivirus genus has not been investigated. Using an mRNA reporter system based on genome segment 10 of BTV fused with GFP we identify the protein characteristic of this genus, non-structural protein 1 (NS1) as sufficient to upregulate translation. The wider applicability of this phenomenon among the viral genes is demonstrated using the untranslated regions (UTRs) of BTV genome segments flanking the quantifiable Renilla luciferase ORF in chimeric mRNAs. The UTRs of viral mRNAs are shown to be determinants of the amount of protein synthesised, with the pre-expression of NS1 increasing the quantity in each case. The increased expression induced by pre-expression of NS1 is confirmed in virus infected cells by generating a replicating virus which expresses the reporter fused with genome segment 10, using reverse genetics. Moreover, NS1-mediated upregulation of expression is restricted to mRNAs which lack the cellular 3' poly(A) sequence identifying the 3' end as a necessary determinant in specifically increasing the translation of viral mRNA in the presence of cellular mRNA. NS1 is identified as a positive regulator of viral protein synthesis. We propose a model of translational regulation where NS1 upregulates the synthesis of viral proteins, including itself, and creates a positive feedback loop of NS1 expression, which rapidly increases the expression of all the viral proteins. The efficient translation of viral reporter mRNAs among cellular mRNAs can account for the observed replacement of cellular protein synthesis with viral protein

  17. Transcription of minute virus of mice, an autonomous parvovirus, may be regulated by attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Asher, E.; Aloni, Y.

    1984-01-01

    To characterize the transcriptional organization and regulation of minute virus of mice, an autonomous parvovirus, viral transcriptional complexes were isolated and cleaved with restriction enzymes. The in vivo preinitiated nascent RNA was elongated in vitro in the presence of [alpha- 32 P]UTP to generate runoff transcripts. The lengths of the runoff transcripts were analyzed by gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. On the basis of the map locations of the restriction sites and the lengths of the runoff transcripts, the in vivo initiation sites were determined. Two major initiation sites having similar activities were thus identified at residues 201 +/- 5 and 2005 +/- 5; both of them were preceded by a TATAA sequence. When uncleaved viral transcriptional complexes or isolated nuclei were incubated in vitro in the presence of [alpha- 32 P]UTP or [alpha- 32 P]CTP, they synthesized labeled RNA that, as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, contained a major band of 142 nucleotides. The RNA of the major band was mapped between the initiation site at residue 201 +/- 5 and residue 342. We noticed the potential of forming two mutually exclusive stem-and-loop structures in the 142-nucleotide RNA; one of them is followed by a string of uridylic acid residues typical of a procaryotic transcription termination signal. We propose that, as in the transcription of simian virus 40, RNA transcription in minute virus of mice may be regulated by attenuation and may involve eucaryotic polymerase B, which can respond to a transcription termination signal similar to that of the procaryotic polymerase

  18. An update: Epstein-Barr virus and immune evasion via microRNA regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lielian; Yue, Wenxin; Du, Shujuan; Xin, Shuyu; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Lingzhi; Li, Guiyuan; Lu, Jianhong

    2017-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that ubiquitously establishes life-long persistence in humans. To ensure its survival and maintain its B cell transformation function, EBV has developed powerful strategies to evade host immune responses. Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are powerful regulators of the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In this review, we summarize current progress on how EBV utilizes miRNAs for immune evasion. EBV encodes miRNAs targeting both viral and host genes involved in the immune response. The miRNAs are found in two gene clusters, and recent studies have demonstrated that lack of these clusters increases the CD4 + and CD8 + T cell response of infected cells. These reports strongly indicate that EBV miRNAs are critical for immune evasion. In addition, EBV is able to dysregulate the expression of a variety of host miRNAs, which influence multiple immune-related molecules and signaling pathways. The transport via exosomes of EBV-regulated miRNAs and viral proteins contributes to the construction and modification of the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. During EBV immune evasion, viral proteins, immune cells, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and pro-apoptosis molecules are involved. Our increasing knowledge of the role of miRNAs in immune evasion will improve the understanding of EBV persistence and help to develop new treatments for EBV-associated cancers and other diseases.

  19. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Chapuis, Sophie; Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique; Revers, Frédéric; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RTCter) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RTCter. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of feline immunodeficiency virus infection after immunization with envelope glycoprotein subunit vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); E.J. Tijhaar (Edwin); R.C. Huisman (Robin); W. Huisman (Willem); A. de Ronde; I.H. Darby; M.J. Francis; G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCats were immunized three times with different recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) candidate vaccines. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)-expressed envelope glycoprotein with (vGR657) or without (vGR657 x 15) the cleavage site and an FIV envelope bacterial fusion protein

  1. The Role of Epigenetic Regulation in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Jun; Iizasa, Hisashi; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Nakamura, Munetaka; Saito, Mari; Sasaki, Sho; Shimokuri, Kanami; Yanagihara, Masashi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-07-25

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC), all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. The expression of latent EBV genes is strictly regulated through the methylation of EBV DNA. The methylation of viral DNA regulates the type of EBV latency, and methylation of the tumor suppressor genes is a key abnormality in EBVaGC. The methylation frequencies of several tumor suppressor genes and cell adhesion molecules are significantly higher in EBVaGC than in control cases. EBV-derived microRNAs repress translation from viral and host mRNAs. EBV regulates the expression of non-coding RNA in gastric carcinoma. With regard to the clinical application of demethylating agents against EBVaGC, we investigated the effects of decitabine against the EBVaGC cell lines. Decitabine inhibited the cell growth of EBVaGC cells. The promoter regions of p73 and Runt-related transcription factor 3(RUNX3) were demethylated, and their expression was upregulated by the treatment. We review the role of epigenetic regulation in the development and maintenance of EBVaGC and discuss the therapeutic application of DNA demethylating agents for EBVaGC.

  2. Vaccinia scars associated with better survival for adults. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Gustafson, Per; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin

    2006-01-01

    Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality....

  3. One more piece in the VACV ecological puzzle: could peridomestic rodents be the link between wildlife and bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Jônatas S; Guedes, Maria Isabel M; Trindade, Giliane S; Fonseca, Flávio G; Campos, Rafael K; Mota, Bruno F; Lobato, Zélia I P; Silva-Fernandes, André T; Rodrigues, Gisele O L; Lima, Larissa S; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Kroon, Erna G

    2009-10-19

    Despite the fact that smallpox eradication was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980, other poxviruses have emerged and re-emerged, with significant public health and economic impacts. Vaccinia virus (VACV), a poxvirus used during the WHO smallpox vaccination campaign, has been involved in zoonotic infections in Brazilian rural areas (Bovine Vaccinia outbreaks - BV), affecting dairy cattle and milkers. Little is known about VACV's natural hosts and its epidemiological and ecological characteristics. Although VACV was isolated and/or serologically detected in Brazilian wild animals, the link between wildlife and farms has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we describe for the first time, to our knowledge, the isolation of a VACV (Mariana virus - MARV) from a mouse during a BV outbreak. Genetic data, in association with biological assays, showed that this isolate was the same etiological agent causing exanthematic lesions observed in the cattle and human inhabitants of a particular BV-affected area. Phylogenetic analysis grouped MARV with other VACV isolated during BV outbreaks. These data provide new biological and epidemiological information on VACV and lead to an interesting question: could peridomestic rodents be the link between wildlife and BV outbreaks?

  4. Signals Involved in Regulation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Genome Translation and Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Niepmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV preferentially replicates in the human liver and frequently causes chronic infection, often leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. HCV is an enveloped virus classified in the genus Hepacivirus in the family Flaviviridae and has a single-stranded RNA genome of positive orientation. The HCV RNA genome is translated and replicated in the cytoplasm. Translation is controlled by the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES in the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR, while also downstream elements like the cis-replication element (CRE in the coding region and the 3′ UTR are involved in translation regulation. The cis-elements controlling replication of the viral RNA genome are located mainly in the 5′- and 3′-UTRs at the genome ends but also in the protein coding region, and in part these signals overlap with the signals controlling RNA translation. Many long-range RNA–RNA interactions (LRIs are predicted between different regions of the HCV RNA genome, and several such LRIs are actually involved in HCV translation and replication regulation. A number of RNA cis-elements recruit cellular RNA-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of HCV translation and replication. In addition, the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122 binds to two target sites at the 5′ end of the viral RNA genome as well as to at least three additional target sites in the coding region and the 3′ UTR. It is involved in the regulation of HCV RNA stability, translation and replication, thereby largely contributing to the hepatotropism of HCV. However, we are still far from completely understanding all interactions that regulate HCV RNA genome translation, stability, replication and encapsidation. In particular, many conclusions on the function of cis-elements in HCV replication have been obtained using full-length HCV genomes or near-full-length replicon systems. These include both genome ends, making it difficult to decide if a cis-element in

  5. Signals Involved in Regulation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Genome Translation and Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepmann, Michael; Shalamova, Lyudmila A; Gerresheim, Gesche K; Rossbach, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) preferentially replicates in the human liver and frequently causes chronic infection, often leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. HCV is an enveloped virus classified in the genus Hepacivirus in the family Flaviviridae and has a single-stranded RNA genome of positive orientation. The HCV RNA genome is translated and replicated in the cytoplasm. Translation is controlled by the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), while also downstream elements like the cis -replication element (CRE) in the coding region and the 3' UTR are involved in translation regulation. The cis -elements controlling replication of the viral RNA genome are located mainly in the 5'- and 3'-UTRs at the genome ends but also in the protein coding region, and in part these signals overlap with the signals controlling RNA translation. Many long-range RNA-RNA interactions (LRIs) are predicted between different regions of the HCV RNA genome, and several such LRIs are actually involved in HCV translation and replication regulation. A number of RNA cis -elements recruit cellular RNA-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of HCV translation and replication. In addition, the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) binds to two target sites at the 5' end of the viral RNA genome as well as to at least three additional target sites in the coding region and the 3' UTR. It is involved in the regulation of HCV RNA stability, translation and replication, thereby largely contributing to the hepatotropism of HCV. However, we are still far from completely understanding all interactions that regulate HCV RNA genome translation, stability, replication and encapsidation. In particular, many conclusions on the function of cis -elements in HCV replication have been obtained using full-length HCV genomes or near-full-length replicon systems. These include both genome ends, making it difficult to decide if a cis -element in question acts on HCV

  6. Research advances in microRNAs in regulating hepatitis C virus replication and antiviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Xianghua

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is one of the most common causes of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small, non-coding RNA, are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes in human bodies. The mechanism by which miRNAs regulate HCV replication is described, and the effects of liver-specific microRNA-122 antagonists on hepatitis C antiviral therapy are discussed. Our study indicates that miRNAs play an important regulatory role in HCV expression. Targeting miRNAs may be a potential therapeutic approach for treating HCV infection, but further studies are still in need.

  7. Development and Regulation of Novel Influenza Virus Vaccines: A United States Young Scientist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender

    2018-04-27

    Vaccination against influenza is the most effective approach for reducing influenza morbidity and mortality. However, influenza vaccines are unique among all licensed vaccines as they are updated and administered annually to antigenically match the vaccine strains and currently circulating influenza strains. Vaccine efficacy of each selected influenza virus vaccine varies depending on the antigenic match between circulating strains and vaccine strains, as well as the age and health status of the vaccine recipient. Low vaccine effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines in recent years provides an impetus to improve current seasonal influenza vaccines, and for development of next-generation influenza vaccines that can provide broader, long-lasting protection against both matching and antigenically diverse influenza strains. This review discusses a perspective on some of the issues and formidable challenges facing the development and regulation of the next-generation influenza vaccines.

  8. Acid Stability of the Hemagglutinin Protein Regulates H5N1 Influenza Virus Pathogenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Rebecca M.; Zaraket, Hassan; Reddivari, Muralidhar; Heath, Richard J.; White, Stephen W.; Russell, Charles J. (Tennessee-HSC); (SJCH)

    2012-12-10

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype continue to threaten agriculture and human health. Here, we use biochemistry and x-ray crystallography to reveal how amino-acid variations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein contribute to the pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza virus in chickens. HA proteins from highly pathogenic (HP) A/chicken/Hong Kong/YU562/2001 and moderately pathogenic (MP) A/goose/Hong Kong/437-10/1999 isolates of H5N1 were found to be expressed and cleaved in similar amounts, and both proteins had similar receptor-binding properties. However, amino-acid variations at positions 104 and 115 in the vestigial esterase sub-domain of the HA1 receptor-binding domain (RBD) were found to modulate the pH of HA activation such that the HP and MP HA proteins are activated for membrane fusion at pH 5.7 and 5.3, respectively. In general, an increase in H5N1 pathogenicity in chickens was found to correlate with an increase in the pH of HA activation for mutant and chimeric HA proteins in the observed range of pH 5.2 to 6.0. We determined a crystal structure of the MP HA protein at 2.50 {angstrom} resolution and two structures of HP HA at 2.95 and 3.10 {angstrom} resolution. Residues 104 and 115 that modulate the acid stability of the HA protein are situated at the N- and C-termini of the 110-helix in the vestigial esterase sub-domain, which interacts with the B loop of the HA2 stalk domain. Interactions between the 110-helix and the stalk domain appear to be important in regulating HA protein acid stability, which in turn modulates influenza virus replication and pathogenesis. Overall, an optimal activation pH of the HA protein is found to be necessary for high pathogenicity by H5N1 influenza virus in avian species.

  9. Stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 is associated with hepatitis C virus replication complex and regulates viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, LN; Lim, YS; Pham, Long

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle is tightly regulated by lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have recently screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet...

  10. Smallpox virus resequencing GeneChips can also rapidly ascertain species status for some zoonotic non-variola orthopoxviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Irshad M; Sammons, Scott A; Wohlhueter, Robert M

    2008-04-01

    We recently developed a set of seven resequencing GeneChips for the rapid sequencing of Variola virus strains in the WHO Repository of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this study, we attempted to hybridize these GeneChips with some known non-Variola orthopoxvirus isolates, including monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, for rapid detection.

  11. Nuclear sensing of viral DNA, epigenetic regulation of herpes simplex virus infection, and innate immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. HSV viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. - Highlights: • HSV lytic and latent gene expression is regulated differentially by epigenetic processes. • The sensors of foreign DNA have not been defined fully. • IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to sense viral DNA in HSV-infected cells. • IFI16 plays a role in both innate sensing of HSV DNA and in restricting its expression

  12. Nuclear sensing of viral DNA, epigenetic regulation of herpes simplex virus infection, and innate immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipe, David M., E-mail: david_knipe@hms.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. HSV viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. - Highlights: • HSV lytic and latent gene expression is regulated differentially by epigenetic processes. • The sensors of foreign DNA have not been defined fully. • IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to sense viral DNA in HSV-infected cells. • IFI16 plays a role in both innate sensing of HSV DNA and in restricting its expression.

  13. Complex Virus-Host Interactions Involved in the Regulation of Classical Swine Fever Virus Replication: A Minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su; Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Qian; Naveed Anwar, Muhammad; Yu, Shaoxiong; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2017-07-05

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs in many countries. Viruses are small intracellular parasites and thus rely on the cellular factors for replication. Fundamental aspects of CSFV-host interactions have been well described, such as factors contributing to viral attachment, modulation of genomic replication and translation, antagonism of innate immunity, and inhibition of cell apoptosis. However, those host factors that participate in the viral entry, assembly, and release largely remain to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the virus-host interactions involved in the life cycle of CSFV and analyze the potential mechanisms of viral entry, assembly, and release. We conclude with future perspectives and highlight areas that require further understanding.

  14. Hepatitis C virus core protein regulates p300/CBP co-activation function. Possible role in the regulation of NF-AT1 transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Gonzalo, Marta; Benedicto, Ignacio; Carretero, Marta; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Alejandra; Moreno-Otero, Ricardo; Lai, Michael M.C.; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core is a viral structural protein; it also participates in some cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation. However, the mechanisms of core-mediated transcriptional regulation remain poorly understood. Oncogenic virus proteins often target p300/CBP, a known co-activator of a wide variety of transcription factors, to regulate the expression of cellular and viral genes. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that HCV core protein interacts with p300/CBP and enhances both its acetyl-transferase and transcriptional activities. In addition, we demonstrate that nuclear core protein activates the NH 2 -terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) of NF-AT1 in a p300/CBP-dependent manner. We propose a model in which core protein regulates the co-activation function of p300/CBP and activates NF-AT1, and probably other p300/CBP-regulated transcription factors, by a novel mechanism involving the regulation of the acetylation state of histones and/or components of the transcriptional machinery

  15. Non-MHC genes influence virus clearance through regulation of the antiviral T-cell response: correlation between virus clearance and Tc and Td activity in segregating backcross progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1994-01-01

    ) was followed by measurement of footpad swelling. Ten days after virus inoculation, the animals were sacrificed and spleen virus titer together with splenic Tc activity was measured. With regard to all three parameters a continuous distribution was observed in this backcross population. However, using cutoff...... values based on parental and F1 animals tested in parallel, 11/30 animals were assigned Tc responders, 23/30 DTH responders and 10/30 cleared virus with maximal efficiency. Comparison of responder status with regard to the different parameters revealed a strong correlation between Tc responsiveness...... and the ability to clear virus. Amongst Tc low responders a correlation between DTH reactivity and virus clearance was observed. Taken together, these results indicate that non-MHC genes affect virus clearance through regulation of the antiviral T-cell response, especially the virus-specific Tc response. However...

  16. Luteolin suppresses cancer cell proliferation by targeting vaccinia-related kinase 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Seul Kim

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled proliferation, a major feature of cancer cells, is often triggered by the malfunction of cell cycle regulators such as protein kinases. Recently, cell cycle-related protein kinases have become attractive targets for anti-cancer therapy, because they play fundamental roles in cellular proliferation. However, the protein kinase-targeted drugs that have been developed so far do not show impressive clinical results and also display severe side effects; therefore, there is undoubtedly a need to investigate new drugs targeting other protein kinases that are critical in cell cycle progression. Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1 is a mitotic kinase that functions in cell cycle regulation by phosphorylating cell cycle-related substrates such as barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF, histone H3, and the cAMP response element (CRE-binding protein (CREB. In our study, we identified luteolin as the inhibitor of VRK1 by screening a small-molecule natural compound library. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of luteolin as a VRK1-targeted inhibitor for developing an effective anti-cancer strategy. We confirmed that luteolin significantly reduces VRK1-mediated phosphorylation of the cell cycle-related substrates BAF and histone H3, and directly interacts with the catalytic domain of VRK1. In addition, luteolin regulates cell cycle progression by modulating VRK1 activity, leading to the suppression of cancer cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Therefore, our study suggests that luteolin-induced VRK1 inhibition may contribute to establish a novel cell cycle-targeted strategy for anti-cancer therapy.

  17. Characterization of herpes simplex virus 2 primary microRNA Transcript regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuang; Bosch-Marce, Marta; Patel, Amita; Margolis, Todd P; Krause, Philip R

    2015-05-01

    In order to understand factors that may influence latency-associated transcription and latency-associated transcript (LAT) phenotypes, we studied the expression of the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) LAT-associated microRNAs (miRNAs). We mapped the transcription initiation sites of all three primary miRNA transcripts and identified the ICP4-binding sequences at the transcription initiation sites of both HSV-2 LAT (pri-miRNA for miR-I and miR-II, which target ICP34.5, and miR-III, which targets ICP0) and L/ST (a pri-miRNA for miR-I and miR-II) but not at that of the primary miR-H6 (for which the target is unknown). We confirmed activity of the putative HSV-2 L/ST promoter and found that ICP4 trans-activates the L/ST promoter when the ICP4-binding site at its transcription initiation site is mutated, suggesting that ICP4 may play a dual role in regulating transcription of L/ST and, consequently, of miR-I and miR-II. LAT exon 1 (containing LAT enhancer sequences), together with the LAT promoter region, comprises a bidirectional promoter required for the expression of both LAT-encoded miRNAs and miR-H6 in latently infected mouse ganglia. The ability of ICP4 to suppress ICP34.5-targeting miRNAs and to activate lytic viral genes suggests that ICP4 could play a key role in the switch between latency and reactivation. The HSV-2 LAT and viral miRNAs expressed in the LAT region are the most abundant viral transcripts during HSV latency. The balance between the expression of LAT and LAT-associated miRNAs and the expression of lytic viral transcripts from the opposite strand appears to influence whether individual HSV-infected neurons will be latently or productively infected. The outcome of neuronal infection may thus depend on regulation of gene expression of the corresponding primary miRNAs. In the present study, we characterize promoter sequences responsible for miRNA expression, including identification of the primary miRNA 5' ends and evaluation of ICP4 response. These

  18. Dengue virus-induced regulation of the host cell translational machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.A. Villas-Bôas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DV-induced changes in the host cell protein synthesis machinery are not well understood. We investigated the transcriptional changes related to initiation of protein synthesis. The human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, was infected with DV serotype 2 for 1 h at a multiplicity of infection of one. RNA was extracted after 6, 24 and 48 h. Microarray results showed that 36.5% of the translation factors related to initiation of protein synthesis had significant differential expression (Z-score ≥ ±2.0. Confirmation was obtained by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Of the genes involved in the activation of mRNA for cap-dependent translation (eIF4 factors, eIF4A, eIF4G1 and eIF4B were up-regulated while the negative regulator of translation eIF4E-BP3 was down-regulated. This activation was transient since at 24 h post-infection levels were not significantly different from control cells. However, at 48 h post-infection, eIF4A, eIF4E, eIF4G1, eIF4G3, eIF4B, and eIF4E-BP3 were down-regulated, suggesting that cap-dependent translation could be inhibited during the progression of infection. To test this hypothesis, phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1, which induce cap-dependent protein synthesis, was assayed. Both proteins remained phosphorylated when assayed at 6 h after infection, while infection induced dephosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1 at 24 and 48 h of infection, respectively. Taken together, these results provide biological evidence suggesting that in HepG2 cells DV sustains activation of the cap-dependent machinery at early stages of infection, but progression of infection switches protein synthesis to a cap-independent process.

  19. Phosphorylation regulates human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Rex function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Michael

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a pathogenic complex deltaretrovirus, which is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. In addition to the structural and enzymatic viral gene products, HTLV-1 encodes the positive regulatory proteins Tax and Rex along with viral accessory proteins. Tax and Rex proteins orchestrate the timely expression of viral genes important in viral replication and cellular transformation. Rex is a nucleolar-localizing shuttling protein that acts post-transcriptionally by binding and facilitating the export of the unspliced and incompletely spliced viral mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HTLV-1 Rex (Rex-1 is a phosphoprotein and general protein kinase inhibition correlates with reduced function. Therefore, it has been proposed that Rex-1 function may be regulated through site-specific phosphorylation. Results We conducted a phosphoryl mapping of Rex-1 over-expressed in transfected 293 T cells using a combination of affinity purification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We achieved 100% physical coverage of the Rex-1 polypeptide and identified five novel phosphorylation sites at Thr-22, Ser-36, Thr-37, Ser-97, and Ser-106. We also confirmed evidence of two previously identified residues, Ser-70 and Thr-174, but found no evidence of phosphorylation at Ser-177. The functional significance of these phosphorylation events was evaluated using a Rex reporter assay and site-directed mutational analysis. Our results indicate that phosphorylation at Ser-97 and Thr-174 is critical for Rex-1 function. Conclusion We have mapped completely the site-specific phosphorylation of Rex-1 identifying a total of seven residues; Thr-22, Ser-36, Thr-37, Ser-70, Ser-97, Ser-106, and Thr-174. Overall, this work is the first to completely map the phosphorylation sites in Rex-1 and provides important insight into

  20. Shrimp miRNAs regulate innate immune response against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkascholkul, Napol; Somboonviwat, Kulwadee; Asakawa, Shuichi; Hirono, Ikuo; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs of RNA interference pathways that regulate gene expression through partial complementary base-pairing to target mRNAs. In this study, miRNAs that are expressed in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected Penaeus monodon, were identified using next generation sequencing. Forty-six miRNA homologs were identified from WSSV-infected shrimp hemocyte. Stem-loop real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that 11 out of 16 selected miRNAs were differentially expressed upon WSSV infection. Of those, pmo-miR-315 and pmo-miR-750 were highly responsive miRNAs. miRNA target prediction revealed that the miRNAs were targeted at 5'UTR, ORF, and 3'UTR of several immune-related genes such as genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, signaling transduction proteins, heat shock proteins, oxidative stress proteins, proteinases or proteinase inhibitors, proteins in blood clotting system, apoptosis-related proteins, proteins in prophenoloxidase system, pattern recognition proteins and other immune molecules. The highly conserved miRNA homolog, pmo-bantam, was characterized for its function in shrimp. The pmo-bantam was predicted to target the 3'UTR of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KuSPI). Binding of pmo-bantam to the target sequence of KuSPI gene was analyzed by luciferase reporter assay. Correlation of pmo-bantam and KuSPI expression was observed in lymphoid organ of WSSV-infected shrimp. These results implied that miRNAs might play roles as immune gene regulators in shrimp antiviral response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Saponin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Propagation by Up-regulating Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Min; Min, Saehong; Son, Kidong; Lee, Han Sol; Park, Eun Mee; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Tran, Huong T. L.; Lim, Yun-Sook; Hwang, Soon B.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-tumorigenic and antiviral activities. To investigate whether saponin has anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity, we examined the effect of saponin on HCV replication. HCV replication was efficiently inhibited at a concentration of 10 µg/ml of saponin in cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Inhibitory effect of saponin on HCV replication was verified by quantitative real-time PCR, reporter assay, and immunoblot analysis. In addition, saponin potentiated IFN-α-induced anti-HCV activity. Moreover, saponin exerted antiviral activity even in IFN-α resistant mutant HCVcc-infected cells. To investigate how cellular genes were regulated by saponin, we performed microarray analysis using HCVcc-infected cells. We demonstrated that suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) protein level was distinctively increased by saponin, which in turn resulted in inhibition of HCV replication. We further showed that silencing of SOCS2 resurrected HCV replication and overexpression of SOCS2 suppressed HCV replication. These data imply that saponin inhibits HCV replication via SOCS2 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that saponin may be a potent therapeutic agent for HCV patients. PMID:22745742

  2. The herpes simplex virus 1 U{sub S}3 regulates phospholipid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de [Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute for Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias; Tobler, Kurt [Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear and Golgi membranes for envelopment by phospholipid bilayers. In the absence of U{sub S}3, nuclear membranes form multiple folds harboring virions that suggests disturbance in membrane turnover. Therefore, we investigated phospholipid metabolism in cells infected with the U{sub S}3 deletion mutant R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), and quantified membranes involved in viral envelopment. We report that (i) [{sup 3}H]-choline incorporation into nuclear membranes and cytoplasmic membranes was enhanced peaking at 12 or 20 h post inoculation with wild type HSV-1 and R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), respectively, (ii) the surface area of nuclear membranes increased until 24 h of R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection forming folds that equaled {approx}45% of the nuclear surface, (iii) the surface area of viral envelopes between nuclear membranes equaled {approx}2400 R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) virions per cell, and (iv) during R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection, the Golgi complex expanded dramatically. The data indicate that U{sub S}3 plays a significant role in regulation of membrane biosynthesis.

  3. Glutamic Acid Residues in HIV-1 p6 Regulate Virus Budding and Membrane Association of Gag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Melanie; Setz, Christian; Hahn, Friedrich; Matthaei, Alina; Fraedrich, Kirsten; Rauch, Pia; Henklein, Petra; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2016-04-25

    The HIV-1 Gag p6 protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of its two late (L-) domains, which recruit Tsg101 and ALIX, components of the ESCRT system. Even though p6 consists of only 52 amino acids, it is encoded by one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and undergoes various posttranslational modifications including sumoylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. In addition, it mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into budding virions. Despite its small size, p6 exhibits an unusually high charge density. In this study, we show that mutation of the conserved glutamic acids within p6 increases the membrane association of Pr55 Gag followed by enhanced polyubiquitination and MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag-derived epitopes, possibly due to prolonged exposure to membrane bound E3 ligases. The replication capacity of the total glutamic acid mutant E0A was almost completely impaired, which was accompanied by defective virus release that could not be rescued by ALIX overexpression. Altogether, our data indicate that the glutamic acids within p6 contribute to the late steps of viral replication and may contribute to the interaction of Gag with the plasma membrane.

  4. In Vivo Regulation of Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Peroxisome Proliferators†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Luca G.; Eggers, Carrie M.; Raney, Anneke K.; Chi, Susan Y.; Peters, Jeffrey M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; McLachlan, Alan

    1999-01-01

    The role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in regulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription and replication in vivo was investigated in an HBV transgenic mouse model. Treatment of HBV transgenic mice with the peroxisome proliferators Wy-14,643 and clofibric acid resulted in a less than twofold increase in HBV transcription rates and steady-state levels of HBV RNAs in the livers of these mice. In male mice, this increase in transcription was associated with a 2- to 3-fold increase in replication intermediates, whereas in female mice it was associated with a 7- to 14-fold increase in replication intermediates. The observed increases in transcription and replication were dependent on PPARα. HBV transgenic mice lacking this nuclear hormone receptor showed similar levels of HBV transcripts and replication intermediates as untreated HBV transgenic mice expressing PPARα but failed to demonstrate alterations in either RNA or DNA synthesis in response to peroxisome proliferators. Therefore, it appears that very modest alterations in transcription can, under certain circumstances, result in relatively large increases in HBV replication in HBV transgenic mice. PMID:10559356

  5. The metabolic sensors FXRα, PGC-1α, and SIRT1 cooperatively regulate hepatitis B virus transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtil, Claire; Enache, Liviu S; Radreau, Pauline; Dron, Anne-Gaëlle; Scholtès, Caroline; Deloire, Alexandre; Roche, Didier; Lotteau, Vincent; André, Patrice; Ramière, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome transcription is highly dependent on liver-enriched, metabolic nuclear receptors (NRs). Among others, NR farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα) enhances HBV core promoter activity and pregenomic RNA synthesis. Interestingly, two food-withdrawal-induced FXRα modulators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and deacetylase SIRT1, have been found to be associated with HBV genomes ex vivo. Whereas PGC-1α induction was shown to increase HBV replication, the effect of SIRT1 on HBV transcription remains unknown. Here, we showed that, in hepatocarcinoma-derived Huh-7 cells, combined activation of FXRα by GW4064 and SIRT1 by activator 3 increased HBV core promoter-controlled luciferase expression by 25-fold, compared with a 10-fold increase with GW4064 alone. Using cell lines differentially expressing FXRα in overexpression and silencing experiments, we demonstrated that SIRT1 activated the core promoter in an FXRα- and PGC-1α-dependent manner. Maximal activation (>150-fold) was observed in FXRα- and PGC-1α-overexpressing Huh-7 cells treated with FXRα and SIRT1 activators. Similarly, in cells transfected with full-length HBV genomes, maximal induction (3.5-fold) of core promoter-controlled synthesis of 3.5-kb RNA was observed in the same conditions of transfection and treatments. Thus, we identified a subnetwork of metabolic factors regulating HBV replication, strengthening the hypothesis that transcription of HBV and metabolic genes is similarly controlled.

  6. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates herpes simplex virus replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jungeun; Shin, Bongjin; Park, Eui-Soon; Yang, Sujeong; Choi, Seunga [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Misun [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Jaerang, E-mail: jrrho@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); GRAST, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is involved in viral infection and replication through the modulation of diverse cellular processes including RNA metabolism, cytokine signaling, and subcellular localization. It has been suggested previously that the protein arginine methylation of the RGG-box of ICP27 is required for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) viral replication and gene expression in vivo. However, a cellular mediator for this process has not yet been identified. In our current study, we show that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a cellular mediator of the arginine methylation of ICP27 RGG-box. We generated arginine substitution mutants in this domain and examined which arginine residues are required for methylation by PRMT1. R138, R148 and R150 were found to be the major sites of this methylation but additional arginine residues serving as minor methylation sites are still required to sustain the fully methylated form of ICP27 RGG. We also demonstrate that the nuclear foci-like structure formation, SRPK interactions, and RNA-binding activity of ICP27 are modulated by the arginine methylation of the ICP27 RGG-box. Furthermore, HSV-1 replication is inhibited by hypomethylation of this domain resulting from the use of general PRMT inhibitors or arginine mutations. Our data thus suggest that the PRMT1 plays a key role as a cellular regulator of HSV-1 replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation.

  7. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  8. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces formation of stress granules whose proteins regulate HCV RNA replication and virus assembly and egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigorta, Urtzi; Heim, Markus H; Boyd, Bryan; Wieland, Stefan; Chisari, Francis V

    2012-10-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic structures that are induced in response to environmental stress, including viral infections. Here we report that hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers the appearance of SGs in a PKR- and interferon (IFN)-dependent manner. Moreover, we show an inverse correlation between the presence of stress granules and the induction of IFN-stimulated proteins, i.e., MxA and USP18, in HCV-infected cells despite high-level expression of the corresponding MxA and USP18 mRNAs, suggesting that interferon-stimulated gene translation is inhibited in stress granule-containing HCV-infected cells. Finally, in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown experiments, we found that the stress granule proteins T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1), TIA1-related protein (TIAR), and RasGAP-SH3 domain binding protein 1 (G3BP1) are required for efficient HCV RNA and protein accumulation at early time points in the infection and that G3BP1 and TIA-1 are required for intracellular and extracellular infectious virus production late in the infection, suggesting that they are required for virus assembly. In contrast, TIAR downregulation decreases extracellular infectious virus titers with little effect on intracellular RNA content or infectivity late in the infection, suggesting that it is required for infectious particle release. Collectively, these results illustrate that HCV exploits the stress granule machinery at least two ways: by inducing the formation of SGs by triggering PKR phosphorylation, thereby downregulating the translation of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes, and by co-opting SG proteins for its replication, assembly, and egress.

  9. [Behavior of Orf virus in permissive and nonpermissive systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, M; Czerny, C P; Schumm, M

    1995-04-01

    Dogs were immunized i.m. with attenuated poxvirus vaccines (vaccinia virus, Orf-virus) and a bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) vaccine. After intradermal (i.d.) application of the vaccine viruses a specific delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction of the skin occurred only with vaccinia virus. The i.d. application of Orf-virus caused a short-term, non-specific inflammatory reaction of the skin, even in dogs not immunized with Orf-virus. Out of 30 sera from Orf-virus immunized beagles (n = 4) only eight were found reactive to Orf-virus in a competition ELISA. Three sera from dogs not Orf-virus immunized but skin-tested with the virus contained low antibody titers. Using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) in flow cytometry, the existence of Orf-virus antigens was examined on the surface and in the cytoplasm of permissive (BFK and Vero)- and questionable permissive MDCK cells. The canine kidney MDCK cell line was found to be non-permissive for Orf-virus replication; the occurrence of an Orf-(ecthyma contagiosum) like disease in dogs is unlikely.

  10. New frontiers in oncolytic viruses: optimizing and selecting for virus strains with improved efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundstrom K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Lundstrom PanTherapeutics, Lutry, Switzerland Abstract: Oncolytic viruses have demonstrated selective replication and killing of tumor cells. Different types of oncolytic viruses – adenoviruses, alphaviruses, herpes simplex viruses, Newcastle disease viruses, rhabdoviruses, Coxsackie viruses, and vaccinia viruses – have been applied as either naturally occurring or engineered vectors. Numerous studies in animal-tumor models have demonstrated substantial tumor regression and prolonged survival rates. Moreover, clinical trials have confirmed good safety profiles and therapeutic efficacy for oncolytic viruses. Most encouragingly, the first cancer gene-therapy drug – Gendicine, based on oncolytic adenovirus type 5 – was approved in China. Likewise, a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus-based drug for the treatment of melanoma has been registered in the US and Europe as talimogene laherparepvec. Keywords: immunotherapy, viral vectors, clinical trials, drug approval

  11. Weather Regulates Location, Timing, and Intensity of Dengue Virus Transmission between Humans and Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen M; Haldeman, Kristin; Lehnig, Chris; Munayco, Cesar V; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Yagui, Martín; Morrison, Amy C; Lin, Chii-Dean; Scott, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most aggressively expanding mosquito-transmitted viruses. The human burden approaches 400 million infections annually. Complex transmission dynamics pose challenges for predicting location, timing, and magnitude of risk; thus, models are needed to guide prevention strategies and policy development locally and globally. Weather regulates transmission-potential via its effects on vector dynamics. An important gap in understanding risk and roadblock in model development is an empirical perspective clarifying how weather impacts transmission in diverse ecological settings. We sought to determine if location, timing, and potential-intensity of transmission are systematically defined by weather. We developed a high-resolution empirical profile of the local weather-disease connection across Peru, a country with considerable ecological diversity. Applying 2-dimensional weather-space that pairs temperature versus humidity, we mapped local transmission-potential in weather-space by week during 1994-2012. A binary classification-tree was developed to test whether weather data could classify 1828 Peruvian districts as positive/negative for transmission and into ranks of transmission-potential with respect to observed disease. We show that transmission-potential is regulated by temperature-humidity coupling, enabling epidemics in a limited area of weather-space. Duration within a specific temperature range defines transmission-potential that is amplified exponentially in higher humidity. Dengue-positive districts were identified by mean temperature >22°C for 7+ weeks and minimum temperature >14°C for 33+ weeks annually with 95% sensitivity and specificity. In elevated-risk locations, seasonal peak-incidence occurred when mean temperature was 26-29°C, coincident with humidity at its local maximum; highest incidence when humidity >80%. We profile transmission-potential in weather-space for temperature-humidity ranging 0-38°C and 5-100% at 1°C x 2

  12. Cauliflower mosaic virus protein P6 inhibits signaling responses to salicylic acid and regulates innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Love

    Full Text Available Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV encodes a multifunctional protein P6 that is required for translation of the 35S RNA and also acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate that P6 additionally acts as a pathogenicity effector of an unique and novel type, modifying NPR1 (a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA- and jasmonic acid (JA-dependent signaling and inhibiting SA-dependent defence responses We find that that transgene-mediated expression of P6 in Arabidopsis and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana has profound effects on defence signaling, suppressing expression of representative SA-responsive genes and increasing expression of representative JA-responsive genes. Relative to wild-type Arabidopsis P6-expressing transgenics had greatly reduced expression of PR-1 following SA-treatment, infection by CaMV or inoculation with an avirulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst. Similarly transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of P6 (including a mutant form defective in translational transactivation activity suppressed PR-1a transcript accumulation in response to Agrobacterium infiltration and following SA-treatment. As well as suppressing the expression of representative SA-regulated genes, P6-transgenic Arabidopsis showed greatly enhanced susceptibility to both virulent and avirulent Pst (titres elevated 10 to 30-fold compared to non-transgenic controls but reduced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Necrosis following SA-treatment or inoculation with avirulent Pst was reduced and delayed in P6-transgenics. NPR1 an important regulator of SA/JA crosstalk, was more highly expressed in the presence of P6 and introduction of the P6 transgene into a transgenic line expressing an NPR1:GFP fusion resulted in greatly increased fluorescence in nuclei even in the absence of SA. Thus in the presence of P6 an inactive form of NPR1 is mislocalized in the nucleus even in uninduced plants

  13. Weather Regulates Location, Timing, and Intensity of Dengue Virus Transmission between Humans and Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Campbell

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most aggressively expanding mosquito-transmitted viruses. The human burden approaches 400 million infections annually. Complex transmission dynamics pose challenges for predicting location, timing, and magnitude of risk; thus, models are needed to guide prevention strategies and policy development locally and globally. Weather regulates transmission-potential via its effects on vector dynamics. An important gap in understanding risk and roadblock in model development is an empirical perspective clarifying how weather impacts transmission in diverse ecological settings. We sought to determine if location, timing, and potential-intensity of transmission are systematically defined by weather.We developed a high-resolution empirical profile of the local weather-disease connection across Peru, a country with considerable ecological diversity. Applying 2-dimensional weather-space that pairs temperature versus humidity, we mapped local transmission-potential in weather-space by week during 1994-2012. A binary classification-tree was developed to test whether weather data could classify 1828 Peruvian districts as positive/negative for transmission and into ranks of transmission-potential with respect to observed disease. We show that transmission-potential is regulated by temperature-humidity coupling, enabling epidemics in a limited area of weather-space. Duration within a specific temperature range defines transmission-potential that is amplified exponentially in higher humidity. Dengue-positive districts were identified by mean temperature >22°C for 7+ weeks and minimum temperature >14°C for 33+ weeks annually with 95% sensitivity and specificity. In elevated-risk locations, seasonal peak-incidence occurred when mean temperature was 26-29°C, coincident with humidity at its local maximum; highest incidence when humidity >80%. We profile transmission-potential in weather-space for temperature-humidity ranging 0-38°C and 5

  14. Generation of covalently closed circular DNA of hepatitis B viruses via intracellular recycling is regulated in a virus specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Köck

    Full Text Available Persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection requires covalently closed circular (cccDNA formation and amplification, which can occur via intracellular recycling of the viral polymerase-linked relaxed circular (rc DNA genomes present in virions. Here we reveal a fundamental difference between HBV and the related duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV in the recycling mechanism. Direct comparison of HBV and DHBV cccDNA amplification in cross-species transfection experiments showed that, in the same human cell background, DHBV but not HBV rcDNA converts efficiently into cccDNA. By characterizing the distinct forms of HBV and DHBV rcDNA accumulating in the cells we find that nuclear import, complete versus partial release from the capsid and complete versus partial removal of the covalently bound polymerase contribute to limiting HBV cccDNA formation; particularly, we identify genome region-selectively opened nuclear capsids as a putative novel HBV uncoating intermediate. However, the presence in the nucleus of around 40% of completely uncoated rcDNA that lacks most if not all of the covalently bound protein strongly suggests a major block further downstream that operates in the HBV but not DHBV recycling pathway. In summary, our results uncover an unexpected contribution of the virus to cccDNA formation that might help to better understand the persistence of HBV infection. Moreover, efficient DHBV cccDNA formation in human hepatoma cells should greatly facilitate experimental identification, and possibly inhibition, of the human cell factors involved in the process.

  15. The Annexin A1 Receptor FPR2 Regulates the Endosomal Export of Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryad Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2 is a novel promising target for the treatment of influenza. During viral infection, FPR2 is activated by annexinA1, which is present in the envelope of influenza viruses; this activation promotes virus replication. Here, we investigated whether blockage of FPR2 would affect the genome trafficking of influenza virus. We found that, upon infection and cell treatment with the specific FPR2 antagonist WRW4 or the anti-FPR2 monoclonal antibody, FN-1D6-AI, influenza viruses were blocked into endosomes. This effect was independent on the strain and was observed for H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. In addition, blocking FPR2signaling in alveolar lung A549 epithelial cells with the monoclonal anti-FPR2 antibody significantly inhibited virus replication. Altogether, these results show that FPR2signaling interferes with the endosomal trafficking of influenza viruses and provides, for the first time, the proof of concept that monoclonal antibodies directed against FPR2 inhibit virus replication. Antibodies-based therapeutics have emerged as attractive reagents in infectious diseases. Thus, this study suggests that the use of anti-FPR2 antibodies against influenza hold great promise for the future.

  16. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell production of IL-5 is regulated by NKT cells during influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Ann Gorski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory virus infections, such as influenza, typically induce a robust type I (pro-inflammatory cytokine immune response, however, the production of type 2 cytokines has been observed. Type 2 cytokine production during respiratory virus infection is linked to asthma exacerbation; however, type 2 cytokines may also be tissue protective. Interleukin (IL-5 is a prototypical type 2 cytokine that is essential for eosinophil maturation and egress out of the bone marrow. However, little is known about the cellular source and underlying cellular and molecular basis for the regulation of IL-5 production during respiratory virus infection. Using a mouse model of influenza virus infection, we found a robust transient release of IL-5 into infected airways along with a significant and progressive accumulation of eosinophils into the lungs, particularly during the recovery phase of infection, i.e. following virus clearance. The cellular source of the IL-5 was group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 infiltrating the infected lungs. Interestingly, the progressive accumulation of eosinophils following virus clearance is reflected in the rapid expansion of c-kit⁺ IL-5 producing ILC2. We further demonstrate that the enhanced capacity for IL-5 production by ILC2 during recovery is concomitant with the enhanced expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit, ST2, by ILC2. Lastly, we show that NKT cells, as well as alveolar macrophages (AM, are endogenous sources of IL-33 that enhance IL-5 production from ILC2. Collectively, these results reveal that c-kit⁺ ILC2 interaction with IL-33 producing NKT and AM leads to abundant production of IL-5 by ILC2 and accounts for the accumulation of eosinophils observed during the recovery phase of influenza infection.

  17. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA and Immune Regulation: How Do Classical and Non-Classical HLA Alleles Modulate Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B. Crux

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-B27/B57 CD8+ T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases. The focus of this review will be reexamining the role of classical and non-classical HLA alleles, including class Ia (HLA-A, -B, -C, class Ib (HLA-E, -F, -G, -H, and class II (HLA-DR, -DQ, -DM, and -DP in immune regulation and viral pathogenesis (e.g., HIV and HCV. To our knowledge, this is the very first review of its kind to comprehensively analyze the role of these molecules in immune regulation associated with chronic viral infections.

  18. Suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 are up-regulated in brain resident cells in response to virus induced inflammation of the CNS via at least two distinctive pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Fenger, Christina; Christensen, Jeanette Erbo

    2014-01-01

    underlie a virus induced up-regulation of SOCS in the CNS. We found that i.c. infection with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or yellow fever virus (YF) results in gradual up-regulation of SOCS1/3 mRNA expression peaking at day 7 post infection (p.i.). In the LCMV model, SOCS m...

  19. Curcumin inhibits hepatitis B virus infection by down-regulating cccDNA-bound histone acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Ke, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Hong-Xia; Ren, Pan; He, Yu-Lin; Hu, Pei; Ma, De-Qiang; Luo, Jie; Meng, Zhong-Ji

    2017-09-14

    To investigate the potential effect of curcumin on hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and the underlying mechanism. A HepG2.2.15 cell line stably transfected with HBV was treated with curcumin, and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg) expression levels were assessed by ELISA. Intracellular HBV DNA replication intermediates and cccDNA were detected by Southern blot and real-time PCR, respectively. The acetylation levels of histones H3 and H4 were measured by Western blot. H3/H4-bound cccDNA was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. The deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and sodium butyrate were used to study the mechanism of action for curcumin. Additionally, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting HBV were tested along with curcumin. Curcumin treatment led to time- and dose-dependent reductions in HBsAg and HBeAg expression and significant reductions in intracellular HBV DNA replication intermediates and HBV cccDNA. After treatment with 20 μmol/L curcumin for 2 d, HBsAg and cccDNA levels in HepG2.2.15 cells were reduced by up to 57.7% ( P curcumin, accompanied by reductions in H3- and H4-bound cccDNA. Furthermore, the deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and sodium butyrate could block the effects of curcumin. Additionally, transfection of siRNAs targeting HBV enhanced the inhibitory effects of curcumin. Curcumin inhibits HBV gene replication via down-regulation of cccDNA-bound histone acetylation and has the potential to be developed as a cccDNA-targeting antiviral agent for hepatitis B.

  20. Regulation of human T-lymphotropic virus type I latency and reactivation by HBZ and Rex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Philip

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I infection is largely latent in infected persons. How HTLV-1 establishes latency and reactivates is unclear. Here we show that most HTLV-1-infected HeLa cells become senescent. By contrast, when NF-κB activity is blocked, senescence is averted, and infected cells continue to divide and chronically produce viral proteins. A small population of infected NF-κB-normal HeLa cells expresses low but detectable levels of Tax and Rex, albeit not Gag or Env. In these "latently" infected cells, HTLV-1 LTR trans-activation by Tax persists, but NF-κB trans-activation is attenuated due to inhibition by HBZ, the HTLV-1 antisense protein. Furthermore, Gag-Pol mRNA localizes primarily in the nuclei of these cells. Importantly, HBZ was found to inhibit Rex-mediated export of intron-containing mRNAs. Over-expression of Rex or shRNA-mediated silencing of HBZ led to viral reactivation. Importantly, strong NF-κB inhibition also reactivates HTLV-1. Hence, during HTLV-1 infection, when Tax/Rex expression is robust and dominant over HBZ, productive infection ensues with expression of structural proteins and NF-κB hyper-activation, which induces senescence. When Tax/Rex expression is muted and HBZ is dominant, latent infection is established with expression of regulatory (Tax/Rex/HBZ but not structural proteins. HBZ maintains viral latency by down-regulating Tax-induced NF-κB activation and senescence, and by inhibiting Rex-mediated expression of viral structural proteins.

  1. A novel role for adiponectin in regulating the immune responses in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Clovis; Hampartzoumian, Taline; Lloyd, Andrew; Zekry, Amany

    2008-08-01

    Adipose tissue releases pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, including adiponectin, which elicit a broad range of metabolic and immunological effects. The study aim was to determine in subjects infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) the effects of total adiponectin and its high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight isoforms on HCV-specific immune responses. Serum levels of total adiponectin and its isoforms were determined by immunoassay. The ex vivo effect of adiponectin on the HCV-specific T-cell response was examined by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay cytokine assays. The role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in mediating the adiponectin effect on T cells was also evaluated. We found that serum levels of total and HMW adiponectin were significantly decreased in subjects with chronic HCV and increased body mass index (BMI) compared with HCV-infected lean subjects. The presence of an anti-HCV specific immune response was strongly associated with lower BMI (P = 0.004) and higher serum total (P = 0.01) and HMW (P = 0.02) adiponectin. In ex vivo assays, total adiponectin and the HMW adiponectin isoform enhanced HCV-specific IFN-gamma production (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Adiponectin-R1 receptors were expressed on T cells and monocytes. In depletion experiments, the IFN-gamma response to adiponectin was entirely dependent on the simultaneous presence of both CD4 and CD8 T cells, and to a lesser extent, natural killer cells. Selective inhibition of p38MAPK activity by SB203580 abrogated the IFN-gamma response to adiponectin, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inhibition by PD98059 did not affect the response. In chronic HCV, a reciprocal association exists between BMI, adiponectin, and the anti-HCV immune responses, emphasizing the important role played by adiposity in regulating the immune response in HCV infection.

  2. Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity — Clues for Treatments and Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Melchjorsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus–host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response.

  3. RNA epitranscriptomics: Regulation of infection of RNA and DNA viruses by N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Brandon; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2018-04-26

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) was discovered 4 decades ago. However, the functions of m 6 A and the cellular machinery that regulates its changes have just been revealed in the last few years. m 6 A is an abundant internal mRNA modification on cellular RNA and is implicated in diverse cellular functions. Recent works have demonstrated the presence of m 6 A in the genomes of RNA viruses and transcripts of a DNA virus with either a proviral or antiviral role. Here, we first summarize what is known about the m 6 A "writers," "erasers," "readers," and "antireaders" as well as the role of m 6 A in mRNA metabolism. We then review how the replications of numerous viruses are enhanced and restricted by m 6 A with emphasis on the oncogenic DNA virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), whose m 6 A epitranscriptome was recently mapped. In the context of KSHV, m 6 A and the reader protein YTHDF2 acts as an antiviral mechanism during viral lytic replication. During viral latency, KSHV alters m 6 A on genes that are implicated in cellular transformation and viral latency. Lastly, we discuss future studies that are important to further delineate the functions of m 6 A in KSHV latent and lytic replication and KSHV-induced oncogenesis. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Immunogenicity of recombinant feline infectious peritonitis virus spike protein in mice and kittens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Vennema, H.; Groot, R. de; Harbour, D.A.; Dalderup, M.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.; Spaan, W.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding the fusogenic spike protein of the coronavirus causing feline infectious peritonitis (FIVP) was recombined into the genome of vaccinia virus, strain WR. The recombinant induced spike protein specific, in vitro neutralizing antibodies in mkice. When kittens were immunized with the

  5. Small RNA profiling of influenza A virus-infected cells identifies miR-449b as a regulator of histone deacetylase 1 and interferon beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Buggele

    Full Text Available The mammalian antiviral response relies on the alteration of cellular gene expression, to induce the production of antiviral effectors and regulate their activities. Recent research has indicated that virus infections can induce the accumulation of cellular microRNA (miRNA species that influence the stability of host mRNAs and their protein products. To determine the potential for miRNA regulation of cellular responses to influenza A virus infection, small RNA profiling was carried out using next generation sequencing. Comparison of miRNA expression profiles in uninfected human A549 cells to cells infected with influenza A virus strains A/Udorn/72 and A/WSN/33, revealed virus-induced changes in miRNA abundance. Gene expression analysis identified mRNA targets for a cohort of highly inducible miRNAs linked to diverse cellular functions. Experiments demonstrate that the histone deacetylase, HDAC1, can be regulated by influenza-inducible miR-449b, resulting in altered mRNA and protein levels. Expression of miR-449b enhances virus and poly(I:C activation of the IFNβ promoter, a process known to be negatively regulated by HDAC1. These findings demonstrate miRNA induction by influenza A virus infection and elucidate an example of miRNA control of antiviral gene expression in human cells, defining a role for miR-449b in regulation of HDAC1 and antiviral cytokine signaling.

  6. AR-12 suppresses dengue virus replication by down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Chin; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chang, Po-Chun; Lu, Zi-Yi; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chang, Chih-Peng

    2017-06-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection has become a public health issue of worldwide concern and is a serious health problem in Taiwan, yet there are no approved effective antiviral drugs to treat DENV. The replication of DENV requires both viral and cellular factors. Targeting host factors may provide a potential antiviral strategy. It has been known that up-regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling and GRP78 by DENV infection supports its replication. AR-12, a celecoxib derivative with no inhibiting activity on cyclooxygenase, shows potent inhibitory activities on both PI3K/AKT signaling and GRP78 expression levels, and recently has been found to block the replication of several hemorrhagic fever viruses. However the efficacy of AR-12 in treating DENV infection is still unclear. Here, we provide evidence to show that AR-12 is able to suppress DENV replication before or after virus infection in cell culture and mice. The antiviral activities of AR-12 are positive against infection of the four different DENV serotypes. AR-12 significantly down-regulates the PI3K/AKT activity and GRP78 expression in DENV infected cells whereas AKT and GRP78 rescue are able to attenuate anti-DENV effect of AR-12. Using a DENV-infected suckling mice model, we further demonstrate that treatment of AR-12 before or after DENV infection reduces virus replication and mice mortality. In conclusion, we uncover the potential efficacy of AR-12 as a novel drug for treating dengue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stable Human Hepatoma Cell Lines for Efficient Regulated Expression of Nucleoside/Nucleotide Analog Resistant and Vaccine Escape Hepatitis B Virus Variants and Woolly Monkey Hepatitis B Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cheng

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV causes acute and chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Due to its error-prone replication via reverse transcription, HBV can rapidly evolve variants that escape vaccination and/or become resistant to CHB treatment with nucleoside/nucleotide analogs (NAs. This is particularly problematic for the first generation NAs lamivudine and adefovir. Though now superseded by more potent NAs, both are still widely used. Furthermore, resistance against the older NAs can contribute to cross-resistance against more advanced NAs. For lack of feasible HBV infection systems, the biology of such variants is not well understood. From the recent discovery of Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP as an HBV receptor new in vitro infection systems are emerging, yet access to the required large amounts of virions, in particular variants, remains a limiting factor. Stably HBV producing cell lines address both issues by allowing to study intracellular viral replication and as a permanent source of defined virions. Accordingly, we generated a panel of new tetracycline regulated TetOFF HepG2 hepatoma cell lines which produce six lamivudine and adefovir resistance-associated and two vaccine escape variants of HBV as well as the model virus woolly monkey HBV (WMHBV. The cell line-borne viruses reproduced the expected NA resistance profiles and all were equally sensitive against a non-NA drug. The new cell lines should be valuable to investigate under standardized conditions HBV resistance and cross-resistance. With titers of secreted virions reaching >3 x 10(7 viral genome equivalents per ml they should also facilitate exploitation of the new in vitro infection systems.

  8. Analysis of the highly diverse gene borders in Ebola virus reveals a distinct mechanism of transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauburger, Kristina; Boehmann, Yannik; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Hoenen, Thomas; Olejnik, Judith; Schümann, Michael; Ebihara, Hideki; Mühlberger, Elke

    2014-11-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses. The seven EBOV genes are separated by variable gene borders, including short (4- or 5-nucleotide) intergenic regions (IRs), a single long (144-nucleotide) IR, and gene overlaps, where the neighboring gene end and start signals share five conserved nucleotides. The unique structure of the gene overlaps and the presence of a single long IR are conserved among all filoviruses. Here, we sought to determine the impact of the EBOV gene borders during viral transcription. We show that readthrough mRNA synthesis occurs in EBOV-infected cells irrespective of the structure of the gene border, indicating that the gene overlaps do not promote recognition of the gene end signal. However, two consecutive gene end signals at the VP24 gene might improve termination at the VP24-L gene border, ensuring efficient L gene expression. We further demonstrate that the long IR is not essential for but regulates transcription reinitiation in a length-dependent but sequence-independent manner. Mutational analysis of bicistronic minigenomes and recombinant EBOVs showed no direct correlation between IR length and reinitiation rates but demonstrated that specific IR lengths not found naturally in filoviruses profoundly inhibit downstream gene expression. Intriguingly, although truncation of the 144-nucleotide-long IR to 5 nucleotides did not substantially affect EBOV transcription, it led to a significant reduction of viral growth. Our current understanding of EBOV transcription regulation is limited due to the requirement for high-containment conditions to study this highly pathogenic virus. EBOV is thought to share many mechanistic features with well-analyzed prototype nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses. A single polymerase entry site at the 3' end of the genome determines that transcription of the genes is mainly controlled by gene order and cis-acting signals found at the gene borders. Here, we examined

  9. The herpes simplex virus receptor nectin-1 is down-regulated after trans-interaction with glycoprotein D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, Katie M.; Milne, Richard S.B.; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Krummenacher, Claude

    2008-01-01

    During herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry, membrane fusion occurs either on the cell surface or after virus endocytosis. In both cases, binding of glycoprotein D (gD) to a receptor such as nectin-1 or HVEM is required. In this study, we co-cultured cells expressing gD with nectin-1 expressing cells to investigate the effects of gD on nectin-1 at cell contacts. After overnight co-cultures with gD expressing cells, there was a down-regulation of nectin-1 in B78H1-C10, SY5Y, A431 and HeLa cells, which HSV enters by endocytosis. In contrast, on Vero cells, which HSV enters at the plasma membrane, nectin-1 was not down-regulated. Further analysis of B78H1-derived cells showed that nectin-1 down-regulation corresponds to the ability of gD to bind nectin-1 and is achieved by internalization and low-pH-dependent degradation of nectin-1. Moreover, gD is necessary for virion internalization in B78H1 cells expressing nectin-1. These data suggest that the determinants of gD-mediated internalization of nectin-1 may direct HSV to an endocytic pathway during entry

  10. Activity, specificity, and probe design for the smallpox virus protease K7L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshin, Alexander E; Drag, Marcin; Gombosuren, Naran; Wei, Ge; Mikolajczyk, Jowita; Satterthwait, Arnold C; Strongin, Alex Y; Liddington, Robert C; Salvesen, Guy S

    2012-11-16

    The K7L gene product of the smallpox virus is a protease implicated in the maturation of viral proteins. K7L belongs to protease Clan CE, which includes distantly related cysteine proteases from eukaryotes, pathogenic bacteria, and viruses. Here, we describe its recombinant high level expression, biochemical mechanism, substrate preference, and regulation. Earlier studies inferred that the orthologous I7L vaccinia protease cleaves at an AG-X motif in six viral proteins. Our data for K7L suggest that the AG-X motif is necessary but not sufficient for optimal cleavage activity. Thus, K7L requires peptides extended into the P7 and P8 positions for efficient substrate cleavage. Catalytic activity of K7L is substantially enhanced by homodimerization, by the substrate protein P25K as well as by glycerol. RNA and DNA also enhance cleavage of the P25K protein but not of synthetic peptides, suggesting that nucleic acids augment the interaction of K7L with its protein substrate. Library-based peptide preference analyses enabled us to design an activity-based probe that covalently and selectively labels K7L in lysates of transfected and infected cells. Our study thus provides proof-of-concept for the design of inhibitors and probes that may contribute both to a better understanding of the role of K7L in the virus life cycle and the design of novel anti-virals.

  11. The Ebola Virus VP30-NP Interaction Is a Regulator of Viral RNA Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N Kirchdoerfer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP, a phosphoprotein (VP35 and a polymerase (L. However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays. We have found that the VP30 C-terminal domain interacts with a short peptide in the C-terminal region of NP. Further, we have solved crystal structures of the VP30-NP complex for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. These structures reveal that a conserved, proline-rich NP peptide binds a shallow hydrophobic cleft on the VP30 C-terminal domain. Structure-guided Ebola virus VP30 mutants have altered affinities for the NP peptide. Correlation of these VP30-NP affinities with the activity for each of these mutants in a cell-based mini-replicon assay suggests that the VP30-NP interaction plays both essential and inhibitory roles in Ebola virus RNA synthesis.

  12. The Ebola Virus VP30-NP Interaction Is a Regulator of Viral RNA Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Moyer, Crystal L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann (Scripps)

    2016-10-18

    Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays. We have found that the VP30 C-terminal domain interacts with a short peptide in the C-terminal region of NP. Further, we have solved crystal structures of the VP30-NP complex for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. These structures reveal that a conserved, proline-rich NP peptide binds a shallow hydrophobic cleft on the VP30 C-terminal domain. Structure-guided Ebola virus VP30 mutants have altered affinities for the NP peptide. Correlation of these VP30-NP affinities with the activity for each of these mutants in a cell-based mini-replicon assay suggests that the VP30-NP interaction plays both essential and inhibitory roles in Ebola virus RNA synthesis.

  13. Psoriasis herpeticum due to Varicella zoster virus: A Kaposi′s varicelliform eruption in erythrodermic psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi′s varicelliform eruption (KVE or eczema herpeticum is characterized by disseminated papulovesicular eruption caused by a number of viruses like Herpes simplex virus I and II, Coxsackie virus, and Vaccinia and Small pox viruses in patients with pre-existing skin disease. The occurrence of KVE with psoriasis has been reported recently as a new entity psoriasis herpeticum. The rare causation of psoriasis herpeticum due to Varicella zoster virus in a patient with underlying psoriasis is being reported for the first time.

  14. Ubiquitin-regulated nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of the Nipah virus matrix protein is important for viral budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao E Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Paramyxoviruses are known to replicate in the cytoplasm and bud from the plasma membrane. Matrix is the major structural protein in paramyxoviruses that mediates viral assembly and budding. Curiously, the matrix proteins of a few paramyxoviruses have been found in the nucleus, although the biological function associated with this nuclear localization remains obscure. We report here that the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of the Nipah virus matrix (NiV-M protein and associated post-translational modification play a critical role in matrix-mediated virus budding. Nipah virus (NiV is a highly pathogenic emerging paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans, and is classified as a Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4 pathogen. During live NiV infection, NiV-M was first detected in the nucleus at early stages of infection before subsequent localization to the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. Mutations in the putative bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS and the leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES found in NiV-M impaired its nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking and also abolished NiV-M budding. A highly conserved lysine residue in the NLS served dual functions: its positive charge was important for mediating nuclear import, and it was also a potential site for monoubiquitination which regulates nuclear export of the protein. Concordantly, overexpression of ubiquitin enhanced NiV-M budding whereas depletion of free ubiquitin in the cell (via proteasome inhibitors resulted in nuclear retention of NiV-M and blocked viral budding. Live Nipah virus budding was exquisitely sensitive to proteasome inhibitors: bortezomib, an FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor for treating multiple myeloma, reduced viral titers with an IC(50 of 2.7 nM, which is 100-fold less than the peak plasma concentration that can be achieved in humans. This opens up the possibility of using an "off-the-shelf" therapeutic against acute NiV infection.

  15. A riboswitch regulates RNA dimerization and packaging in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Marcel; Huthoff, Hendrik; Russell, Rodney; Liang, Chen; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    The genome of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), consists of two identical RNA strands that are packaged as noncovalently linked dimers. The core packaging and dimerization signals are located in the downstream part of the untranslated leader of HIV-1 RNA-the Psi

  16. A discontinuous RNA platform mediates RNA virus replication: building an integrated model for RNA-based regulation of viral processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodong Wu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus-strand RNA viruses contain RNA elements within their genomes that mediate a variety of fundamental viral processes. The traditional view of these elements is that of local RNA structures. This perspective, however, is changing due to increasing discoveries of functional viral RNA elements that are formed by long-range RNA-RNA interactions, often spanning thousands of nucleotides. The plus-strand RNA genomes of tombusviruses exemplify this concept by possessing different long-range RNA-RNA interactions that regulate both viral translation and transcription. Here we report that a third fundamental tombusvirus process, viral genome replication, requires a long-range RNA-based interaction spanning approximately 3000 nts. In vivo and in vitro analyses suggest that the discontinuous RNA platform formed by the interaction facilitates efficient assembly of the viral RNA replicase. This finding has allowed us to build an integrated model for the role of global RNA structure in regulating the reproduction of a eukaryotic RNA virus, and the insights gained have extended our understanding of the multifunctional nature of viral RNA genomes.

  17. tRNA-like structure regulates translation of Brome mosaic virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, Sharief; Rudinger-Thirion, Joëlle; Florentz, Catherine; Giegé, Richard; Pleij, Cornelis W A; Kraal, Barend

    2004-04-01

    For various groups of plant viruses, the genomic RNAs end with a tRNA-like structure (TLS) instead of the 3' poly(A) tail of common mRNAs. The actual function of these TLSs has long been enigmatic. Recently, however, it became clear that for turnip yellow mosaic virus, a tymovirus, the valylated TLS(TYMV) of the single genomic RNA functions as a bait for host ribosomes and directs them to the internal initiation site of translation (with N-terminal valine) of the second open reading frame for the polyprotein. This discovery prompted us to investigate whether the much larger TLSs of a different genus of viruses have a comparable function in translation. Brome mosaic virus (BMV), a bromovirus, has a tripartite RNA genome with a subgenomic RNA4 for coat protein expression. All four RNAs carry a highly conserved and bulky 3' TLS(BMV) (about 200 nucleotides) with determinants for tyrosylation. We discovered TLS(BMV)-catalyzed self-tyrosylation of the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase but could not clearly detect tyrosine incorporation into any virus-encoded protein. We established that BMV proteins do not need TLS(BMV) tyrosylation for their initiation. However, disruption of the TLSs strongly reduced the translation of genomic RNA1, RNA2, and less strongly, RNA3, whereas coat protein expression from RNA4 remained unaffected. This aberrant translation could be partially restored by providing the TLS(BMV) in trans. Intriguingly, a subdomain of the TLS(BMV) could even almost fully restore translation to the original pattern. We discuss here a model with a central and dominant role for the TLS(BMV) during the BMV infection cycle.

  18. The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) HBx Protein Activates AKT To Simultaneously Regulate HBV Replication and Hepatocyte Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a risk factor for developing liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBx is a multifunctional protein encoded by the HBV genome; HBx stimulates HBV replication and is thought to play an important role in the development of HBV-associated HCC. HBx can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway in some cell lines; however, whether HBx regulates PI3K/AKT signaling in normal hepatocytes has not been evaluated. In studies described here, we assessed HBx activation of PI3K/AKT signaling in an ex vivo model of cultured primary hepatocytes and determined how this HBx activity affects HBV replication. We report that HBx activates AKT in primary hepatocytes and that the activation of AKT decreases HBV replication and HBV mRNA and core protein levels. We show that the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a target of HBx-regulated AKT, and we link HNF4α to HBx-regulated AKT modulation of HBV transcription and replication. Although we and others have shown that HBx stimulates and is likely required for HBV replication, we now report that HBx also activates signals that can diminish the overall level of HBV replication. While this may seem counterintuitive, we show that an important effect of HBx activation of AKT is inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, our studies suggest that HBx balances HBV replication and cell survival by stimulating signaling pathways that enhance hepatocyte survival at the expense of higher levels of HBV replication. IMPORTANCE Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a common cause of the development of liver cancer. Regulation of cell signaling pathways by the HBV HBx protein is thought to influence the development of HBV-associated liver cancer. HBx stimulates, and may be essential for, HBV replication. We show that HBx activates AKT in hepatocytes to reduce HBV replication. While this seems contradictory to an

  19. Transcriptional Regulation in Ebola Virus: Effects of Gene Border Structure and Regulatory Elements on Gene Expression and Polymerase Scanning Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauburger, Kristina; Boehmann, Yannik; Krähling, Verena; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-02-15

    The highly pathogenic Ebola virus (EBOV) has a nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA genome containing seven genes. The viral genes either are separated by intergenic regions (IRs) of variable length or overlap. The structure of the EBOV gene overlaps is conserved throughout all filovirus genomes and is distinct from that of the overlaps found in other NNS RNA viruses. Here, we analyzed how diverse gene borders and noncoding regions surrounding the gene borders influence transcript levels and govern polymerase behavior during viral transcription. Transcription of overlapping genes in EBOV bicistronic minigenomes followed the stop-start mechanism, similar to that followed by IR-containing gene borders. When the gene overlaps were extended, the EBOV polymerase was able to scan the template in an upstream direction. This polymerase feature seems to be generally conserved among NNS RNA virus polymerases. Analysis of IR-containing gene borders showed that the IR sequence plays only a minor role in transcription regulation. Changes in IR length were generally well tolerated, but specific IR lengths led to a strong decrease in downstream gene expression. Correlation analysis revealed that these effects were largely independent of the surrounding gene borders. Each EBOV gene contains exceptionally long untranslated regions (UTRs) flanking the open reading frame. Our data suggest that the UTRs adjacent to the gene borders are the main regulators of transcript levels. A highly complex interplay between the different cis-acting elements to modulate transcription was revealed for specific combinations of IRs and UTRs, emphasizing the importance of the noncoding regions in EBOV gene expression control. Our data extend those from previous analyses investigating the implication of noncoding regions at the EBOV gene borders for gene expression control. We show that EBOV transcription is regulated in a highly complex yet not easily predictable manner by a set of interacting cis

  20. Down-regulation of MHC class I by the Marek's disease virus (MDV) UL49.5 gene product mildly affects virulence in a haplotype-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosinski, Keith W; Hunt, Henry D; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2010-09-30

    Marek's disease is a devastating neoplastic disease of chickens caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV). MDV down-regulates surface expression of MHC class I molecules, although the mechanism has remained elusive. MDV harbors a UL49.5 homolog that has been shown to down-regulate MHC class I expression in other Varicelloviruses. Using in vitro assays, we showed that MDV pUL49.5 down-regulates MHC class I directly and identified its cytoplasmic tail as essential for this function. In vivo, viruses lacking the cytoplasmic tail of pUL49.5 showed no differences in MD pathogenesis compared to revertant viruses in highly susceptible chickens of the B(19)B(19) MHC class I haplotype, while there was a mild reduction in pathogenic potential of the deletion viruses in chickens more resistant to MD pathogenesis (MHC:B(21)B(21)). We concluded that the pathogenic effect of MHC class I down-regulation mediated by pUL49.5 is small because virus immune evasion possibly requires more than one viral protein. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) regulates hypersensitive response and defense response upon Tobacco mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Un; Choi, La Mee; Lee, Gil-Je; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2012-12-01

    WRKY transcription factors regulate biotic, abiotic, and developmental processes. In terms of plant defense, WRKY factors have important roles as positive and negative regulators via transcriptional regulation or protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the characterization of the gene encoding Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) isolated from microarray analysis in the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-P(0)-inoculated hot pepper plants. CaWRKYd belongs to the WRKY IIa group, a very small clade in the WRKY subfamily, and WRKY IIa group has positive/negative regulatory roles in Arabidopsis and rice. CaWRKYd transcripts were induced by various plant defense-related hormone treatments and TMV-P(0) inoculation. Silencing of CaWRKYd affected TMV-P(0)-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) cell death and accumulation of TMV-P(0) coat protein in local and systemic leaves. Furthermore, expression of some pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and HR-related genes was reduced in the CaWRKYd-silenced plants compared with TRV2 vector control plants upon TMV-P(0) inoculation. CaWRKYd was confirmed to bind to the W-box. Thus CaWRKYd is a newly identified Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor that appears to be involved in TMV-P(0)-mediated HR cell death by regulating downstream gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets as a model for testing Morbillivirus vaccine strategies: NYVAC- and ALVAC-based CDV recombinants protect against symptomatic infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephensen, C B; Welter, J; Thaker, S R; Taylor, J; Tartaglia, J; Paoletti, E

    1997-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets causes an acute systemic disease involving multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, lymphoid system, and central nervous system (CNS). We have tested candidate CDV vaccines incorporating the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins in the highly attenuated NYVAC strain of vaccinia virus and in the ALVAC strain of canarypox virus, which does not productively replicate in mammalian hosts. Juvenile ferrets were vaccinated twice ...

  3. Saponin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Propagation by Up-regulating Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jihye; Lim, Seri; Kang, Sang-Min; Min, Saehong; Son, Kidong; Lee, Han Sol; Park, Eun Mee; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Tran, Huong T. L.; Lim, Yun-Sook; Hwang, Soon B.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-tumorigenic and antiviral activities. To investigate whether saponin has anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity, we examined the effect of saponin on HCV replication. HCV replication was efficiently inhibited at a concentration of 10 µg/ml of saponin in cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Inhibitory effect of saponin on HCV replication was verified by...

  4. Phosphorylation of human respiratory syncytial virus P protein at serine 54 regulates viral uncoating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Ana; Gonzalez-Armas, Juan C.; Villanueva, Nieves

    2008-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) structural P protein, phosphorylated at serine (S) and threonine (T) residues, is a co-factor of viral RNA polymerase. The phosphorylation of S54 is controlled by the coordinated action of two cellular enzymes: a lithium-sensitive kinase, probably glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3) β and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of lithium-sensitive kinase, soon after infection, blocks the viral growth cycle by inhibiting synthesis and/or accumulation of viral RNAs, proteins and extracellular particles. P protein phosphorylation at S54 is required to liberate viral ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) from M protein, during the uncoating process. Kinase inhibition, late in infection, produces a decrease in genomic RNA and infectious viral particles. LiCl, intranasally applied to mice infected with HRSV A2 strain, reduces the number of mice with virus in their lungs and the virus titre. Administration of LiCl to humans via aerosol should prevent HRSV infection, without secondary effects

  5. Transcriptional regulation of latent feline immunodeficiency virus in peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Luciw, Paul A; Murphy, Brian G

    2012-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the lentivirus of domestic cats responsible for feline AIDS, establishes a latent infection in peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells approximately eight months after experimental inoculation. In this study, cats experimentally infected with the FIV-C strain in the asymptomatic phase demonstrated an estimated viral load of 1 infected cell per approximately 10(3) CD4+ T-cells, with about 1 copy of viral DNA per cell. Approximately 1 in 10 proviral copies was capable of transcription in the asymptomatic phase. The latent FIV proviral promoter was associated with deacetylated, methylated histones, which is consistent with a condensed chromatin structure. In contrast, the transcriptionally active FIV promoter was associated with histone acetylation and demethylation. In addition, RNA polymerase II appeared to be paused on the latent viral promoter, and short promoter-proximal transcripts were detected. Our findings for the FIV promoter in infected cats are similar to results obtained in studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 latent proviruses in cell culture in vitro studies. Thus, the FIV/cat model may offer insights into in vivo mechanisms of HIV latency and provides a unique opportunity to test novel therapeutic interventions aimed at eradicating latent virus.

  6. Transcriptional Regulation of Latent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Murphy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, the lentivirus of domestic cats responsible for feline AIDS, establishes a latent infection in peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells approximately eight months after experimental inoculation. In this study, cats experimentally infected with the FIV-C strain in the asymptomatic phase demonstrated an estimated viral load of 1 infected cell per approximately 103 CD4+ T-cells, with about 1 copy of viral DNA per cell. Approximately 1 in 10 proviral copies was capable of transcription in the asymptomatic phase. The latent FIV proviral promoter was associated with deacetylated, methylated histones, which is consistent with a condensed chromatin structure. In contrast, the transcriptionally active FIV promoter was associated with histone acetylation and demethylation. In addition, RNA polymerase II appeared to be paused on the latent viral promoter, and short promoter-proximal transcripts were detected. Our findings for the FIV promoter in infected cats are similar to results obtained in studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 latent proviruses in cell culture in vitro studies. Thus, the FIV/cat model may offer insights into in vivo mechanisms of HIV latency and provides a unique opportunity to test novel therapeutic interventions aimed at eradicating latent virus.

  7. Immune regulation in Chandipura virus infection: characterization of CD4+ T regulatory cells from infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahir Prajakta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Back ground Chandipura virus produces acute infection in mice. During infection drastic reduction of CD4+, CD8+ and CD19 + cell was noticed. Depletion of lymphocytes also noticed in spleen. The reduction may be due to the regulatory mechanism of immune system to prevent the bystander host tissue injury. There are several mechanisms like generation of regulatory cells, activation induced cell death (ACID etc were indicated to control the activation and maintain cellular homeostasis. Role of regulatory cells in homeostasis has been described in several viral diseases. This study was undertaken to characterize CD4+T regulatory cells from the infected mice. Method In this study we purified the CD4+ T cells from Chandipura virus infected susceptible Balb/c mice. CD4+ T regulatory cells were identified by expression of cell surface markers CD25, CD127 and CTLA-4 and intracellular markers Foxp3, IL-10 and TGF-beta. Antigen specificity and ability to suppress the proliferation of other lymphocytes were studied in vitro by purified CD4+CD25+T regulatory cells from infected mice. The proliferation was calculated by proliferation module of Flow Jo software. Expression of death receptors on regulatory cells were studied by flowcytometer. Results The CD4+ T cells isolated from infected mice expressed characteristic markers of regulatory phenotype at all post infective hours tested. The CD4+ T regulatory cells were proliferated when stimulated with Chandipura virus antigen. The regulatory cells did not suppress the proliferation of splenocytes stimulated with anti CD3 antibody when co cultured with them. Interesting observation was, while purification of CD4+ T cells by negative selection, the population of cells negative for CD4 also co purified along with CD4+ T cell. Flow cytometry analysis and light microscopy revealed that CD4 negative cells were of different size and shape (atypical compared to the normal lymphocytes. Greater percentage of

  8. Vaccinia-based influenza vaccine overcomes previously induced immunodominance hierarchy for heterosubtypic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Yoon, Jungsoon; Kim, Yeon-Jung; Kang, Kyuho; Woo, Sunje; Jung, Dea-Im; Song, Man Ki; Kim, Eun-Ha; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Choi, Young Ki; Kim, Jihye; Lee, Jeewon; Yoon, Yeup; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Youn, Jin-Won

    2014-08-01

    Growing concerns about unpredictable influenza pandemics require a broadly protective vaccine against diverse influenza strains. One of the promising approaches was a T cell-based vaccine, but the narrow breadth of T-cell immunity due to the immunodominance hierarchy established by previous influenza infection and efficacy against only mild challenge condition are important hurdles to overcome. To model T-cell immunodominance hierarchy in humans in an experimental setting, influenza-primed C57BL/6 mice were chosen and boosted with a mixture of vaccinia recombinants, individually expressing consensus sequences from avian, swine, and human isolates of influenza internal proteins. As determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and polyfunctional cytokine secretion, the vaccinia recombinants of influenza expanded the breadth of T-cell responses to include subdominant and even minor epitopes. Vaccine groups were successfully protected against 100 LD50 challenges with PR/8/34 and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, which contained the identical dominant NP366 epitope. Interestingly, in challenge with pandemic A/Cal/04/2009 containing mutations in the dominant epitope, only the group vaccinated with rVV-NP + PA showed improved protection. Taken together, a vaccinia-based influenza vaccine expressing conserved internal proteins improved the breadth of influenza-specific T-cell immunity and provided heterosubtypic protection against immunologically close as well as distant influenza strains. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. HACE1 Negatively Regulates Virus-Triggered Type I IFN Signaling by Impeding the Formation of the MAVS-TRAF3 Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Ting Mao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During virus infection, the cascade signaling pathway that leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines is controlled at multiple levels to avoid detrimental overreaction. HACE1 has been characterized as an important tumor suppressor. Here, we identified HACE1 as an important negative regulator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling. Overexpression of HACE1 inhibited Sendai virus- or poly (I:C-induced signaling and resulted in reduced IFNB1 production and enhanced virus replication. Knockdown of HACE1 expression exhibited the opposite effects. Ubiquitin E3 ligase activity of the dead mutant HACE1/C876A had a comparable inhibitory function as WT HACE1, suggesting that the suppressive function of HACE1 on virus-induced signaling is independent of its E3 ligase activity. Further study indicated that HACE1 acted downstream of MAVS and upstream of TBK1. Mechanistic studies showed that HACE1 exerts its inhibitory role on virus-induced signaling by disrupting the MAVS-TRAF3 complex. Therefore, we uncovered a novel function of HACE1 in innate immunity regulation.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus-derived EBNA2 regulates STAT3 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muromoto, Ryuta; Ikeda, Osamu; Okabe, Kanako; Togi, Sumihito; Kamitani, Shinya; Fujimuro, Masahiro; Harada, Shizuko; Oritani, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latency protein EBNA2 is a nuclear transcriptional activator that is essential for EBV-induced cellular transformation. Here, we show that EBNA2 interacts with STAT3, a signal transducer for an interleukin-6 family cytokine, and enhances the transcriptional activity of STAT3 by influencing its DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, EBNA2 cooperatively acts on STAT3 activation with LMP1. These data demonstrate that EBNA2 acts as a transcriptional coactivator of STAT3.

  11. Dengue virus infection down-regulates differentiation markers in neuroblastoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Forero, Verónica; Alvear Gómez, Diana; Solano Orjuela, Oscar; Prada-Arismendy, Jeanette; Castellanos Parra, Jaime Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: cerca del 5% de los pacientes con dengue hemorrágico pueden presentar manifestaciones neurológicas; sin embargo, existe poca información sobre la infección directa por el virus dengue (DENV) en neuronas. Objetivo: determinar el papel del fenotipo neuronal en la infección por DENV en células de neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y inducidas o no a la diferenciación con ácido retinoico (AR). Materiales y métodos: células SH-SY5Y fueron inducidas con AR a diferenciarse e infectadas con DENV. Post...

  12. Regulation of Viral Replication, Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Responses by 17-AAG during Chikungunya Virus Infection in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas K. Nayak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection has re-emerged as a major public health concern due to its recent worldwide epidemics and lack of control measures. Although CHIKV is known to infect macrophages, regulation of CHIKV replication, apoptosis and immune responses towards macrophages are not well understood. Accordingly, the Raw264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, were infected with CHIKV and viral replication as well as new viral progeny release was assessed by flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Moreover, host immune modulation and apoptosis were studied through flow cytometry, Western blot and ELISA. Our current findings suggest that expression of CHIKV proteins were maximum at 8 hpi and the release of new viral progenies were remarkably increased around 12 hpi. The induction of Annexin V binding, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-8 in CHIKV infected macrophages suggests activation of apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF and IL-6 MHC-I/II and B7.2 (CD86 were also up-regulated during infection over time. Further, 17-AAG, a potential HSP90 inhibitor, was found to regulate CHIKV infection, apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine productions of host macrophages significantly. Hence, the present findings might bring new insight into the therapeutic implication in CHIKV disease biology.

  13. Regulation of Viral Replication, Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Responses by 17-AAG during Chikungunya Virus Infection in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Tapas K; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Laishram Pradeep K; Sahoo, Subhransu S; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2017-01-06

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has re-emerged as a major public health concern due to its recent worldwide epidemics and lack of control measures. Although CHIKV is known to infect macrophages, regulation of CHIKV replication, apoptosis and immune responses towards macrophages are not well understood. Accordingly, the Raw264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, were infected with CHIKV and viral replication as well as new viral progeny release was assessed by flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Moreover, host immune modulation and apoptosis were studied through flow cytometry, Western blot and ELISA. Our current findings suggest that expression of CHIKV proteins were maximum at 8 hpi and the release of new viral progenies were remarkably increased around 12 hpi. The induction of Annexin V binding, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-8 in CHIKV infected macrophages suggests activation of apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF and IL-6) MHC-I/II and B7.2 (CD86) were also up-regulated during infection over time. Further, 17-AAG, a potential HSP90 inhibitor, was found to regulate CHIKV infection, apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine productions of host macrophages significantly. Hence, the present findings might bring new insight into the therapeutic implication in CHIKV disease biology.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of an ectromelia virus glutaredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacik, John-Paul; Brigley, Angela M.; Channon, Lisa D.; Audette, Gerald F.; Hazes, Bart

    2005-01-01

    Ectromelia virus glutaredoxin has been crystallized in the presence of the reducing agent DTT. A diffraction data set has been collected and processed to 1.8 Å resolution. Ectromelia, vaccinia, smallpox and other closely related viruses of the orthopoxvirus genus encode a glutaredoxin gene that is not present in poxviruses outside of this genus. The vaccinia glutaredoxin O2L has been implicated as the reducing agent for ribonucleotide reductase and may thus play an important role in viral deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. As part of an effort to understand nucleotide metabolism by poxviruses, EVM053, the O2L ortholog of the ectromelia virus, has been crystallized. EVM053 crystallizes in space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 61.98, b = 67.57, c = 108.55 Å. Diffraction data have been processed to 1.8 Å resolution and a self-rotation function indicates that there are two molecules per asymmetric unit

  15. Position dependence of the rous sarcoma virus negative regulator of splicing element reflects proximity to a 5' splice site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuedi; McNally, Mark T.

    2003-01-01

    Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) requires incomplete splicing of its viral transcripts to maintain efficient replication. A splicing inhibitor element, the negative regulator of splicing (NRS), is located near the 5' end of the RNA but the significance of this positioning is not known. In a heterologous intron the NRS functions optimally when positioned close to the authentic 5' splice site. This observation led us to investigate the basis of the position dependence. Four explanations were put forth and stressed the role of three major elements involved in splicing, the 3' splice site, the 5' splice site, and the 5' end cap structure. NRS function was unrelated to its position relative to the 3' splice site or the cap structure and appeared to depend on its position relative to the authentic 5' splice site. We conclude that position dependence may reflect distance constraints necessary for competition of the NRS with the authentic 5' splice site for pairing with the 3' splice sites

  16. Vaccinia protein F12 has structural similarity to kinesin light chain and contains a motor binding motif required for virion export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W Morgan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV uses microtubules for export of virions to the cell surface and this process requires the viral protein F12. Here we show that F12 has structural similarity to kinesin light chain (KLC, a subunit of the kinesin-1 motor that binds cargo. F12 and KLC share similar size, pI, hydropathy and cargo-binding tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs. Moreover, molecular modeling of F12 TPRs upon the crystal structure of KLC2 TPRs showed a striking conservation of structure. We also identified multiple TPRs in VACV proteins E2 and A36. Data presented demonstrate that F12 is critical for recruitment of kinesin-1 to virions and that a conserved tryptophan and aspartic acid (WD motif, which is conserved in the kinesin-1-binding sequence (KBS of the neuronal protein calsyntenin/alcadein and several other cellular kinesin-1 binding proteins, is essential for kinesin-1 recruitment and virion transport. In contrast, mutation of WD motifs in protein A36 revealed they were not required for kinesin-1 recruitment or IEV transport. This report of a viral KLC-like protein containing a KBS that is conserved in several cellular proteins advances our understanding of how VACV recruits the kinesin motor to virions, and exemplifies how viruses use molecular mimicry of cellular components to their advantage.

  17. Transcription of hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA is regulated by CpG methylation during chronic infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Zhang

    Full Text Available The persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is maintained by the nuclear viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA, which serves as transcription template for viral mRNAs. Previous studies suggested that cccDNA contains methylation-prone CpG islands, and that the minichromosome structure of cccDNA is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation. However, the regulatory effect of each CpG island methylation on cccDNA activity remains elusive. In the present study, we analyzed the distribution of CpG methylation within cccDNA in patient samples and investigated the impact of CpG island methylation on cccDNA-driven virus replication. Our study revealed the following observations: 1 Bisulfite sequencing of cccDNA from chronic hepatitis B patients indicated that CpG island I was seldom methylated, 2 CpG island II methylation was correlated to the low level of serum HBV DNA in patients, and in vitro methylation studies confirmed that CpG island II methylation markedly reduced cccDNA transcription and subsequent viral core DNA replication, 3 CpG island III methylation was associated with low serum HBsAg titers, and 4 Furthermore, we found that HBV genotype, HBeAg positivity, and patient age and liver fibrosis stage were also relevant to cccDNA CpG methylation status. Therefore, we clearly demonstrated that the status of cccDNA methylation is connected to the biological behavior of HBV. Taken together, our study provides a complete profile of CpG island methylation within HBV cccDNA and new insights for the function of CpG methylation in regulating HBV cccDNA transcription.

  18. Positive regulation of humoral and innate immune responses induced by inactivated Avian Influenza Virus vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Fatma; Hassanin, Ola

    2015-12-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used for mammals and birds in a trial to eliminate the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) infection from the world. However and up till now the virus is still existed via modulation of its antigenic structure to evade the pressure of host immune responses. For a complete understanding of the immune responses following AI vaccination in chickens, the modulations of the chickens humoral immune responses and interferon-alpha signaling pathway, as a fundamental part of the innate immune responses, were investigated. In our study, we measured the humoral immune response using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. In addition, chicken interferon-alpha pathway components was measured at RNA levels using Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) following one dose of inactivated H5N1 influenza vaccine at 14 days of age. In this study, the protective levels of humoral antibody responses were observed at 14, 21 and 28 days following immunization with inactivated (Re-1/H5N1) AI vaccine. In the chicken spleen cells, up regulation in the chicken interferon-alpha pathway components (MX1 & IRF7) was existed as early as 48 h post vaccination and remained until 28 days post vaccination at the endogenous state. However, after the recall with ex-vivo stimulation, the up regulation was more pronounced in the transcriptional factor (IRF7) compared to the antiviral gene (MX1) at 28 days post vaccination. So far, from our results it appears that the inactivated H5N1 vaccine can trigger the chicken interferon-alpha signaling pathway as well as it can elicit protective humoral antibody responses.

  19. Crystal Structure of the Conserved Herpes Virus Fusion Regulator Complex gH–gL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdary, T.; Cairns, T; Atanasiu, D; Cohen, G; Eisenberg, R; Heldwein, E

    2010-01-01

    Herpesviruses, which cause many incurable diseases, infect cells by fusing viral and cellular membranes. Whereas most other enveloped viruses use a single viral catalyst called a fusogen, herpesviruses, inexplicably, require two conserved fusion-machinery components, gB and the heterodimer gH-gL, plus other nonconserved components. gB is a class III viral fusogen, but unlike other members of its class, it does not function alone. We determined the crystal structure of the gH ectodomain bound to gL from herpes simplex virus 2. gH-gL is an unusually tight complex with a unique architecture that, unexpectedly, does not resemble any known viral fusogen. Instead, we propose that gH-gL activates gB for fusion, possibly through direct binding. Formation of a gB-gH-gL complex is critical for fusion and is inhibited by a neutralizing antibody, making the gB-gH-gL interface a promising antiviral target.

  20. Crystal structure of the conserved herpes virus fusion regulator complex gH-gL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdary, Tirumala K; Cairns, Tina M; Atanasiu, Doina; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Heldwein, Ekaterina E [UPENN; (Tufts-MED)

    2010-09-13

    Herpesviruses, which cause many incurable diseases, infect cells by fusing viral and cellular membranes. Whereas most other enveloped viruses use a single viral catalyst called a fusogen, herpesviruses, inexplicably, require two conserved fusion-machinery components, gB and the heterodimer gH-gL, plus other nonconserved components. gB is a class III viral fusogen, but unlike other members of its class, it does not function alone. We determined the crystal structure of the gH ectodomain bound to gL from herpes simplex virus 2. gH-gL is an unusually tight complex with a unique architecture that, unexpectedly, does not resemble any known viral fusogen. Instead, we propose that gH-gL activates gB for fusion, possibly through direct binding. Formation of a gB-gH-gL complex is critical for fusion and is inhibited by a neutralizing antibody, making the gB-gH-gL interface a promising antiviral target.

  1. Hepatitis B virus X protein suppresses caveolin-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating DNA methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jun; Lu, Qian; Dong, Jiahong; Li, Xiaowu; Ma, Kuansheng; Cai, Lei

    2012-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms of caveolin-1 downregulation by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx). The DNA methylation status of the caveolin-1 promoter was examined by nested methylation-specific PCR of 33 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples. The SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell line was transfected with a recombinant HBx adenoviral vector, and the effects of HBx protein on caveolin-1 expression and promoter methylation were examined and confirmed by sequencing. A reporter gene containing the caveolin-1 promoter region was constructed, and the effects of HBx on the transcriptional activity of the promoter were also studied. Methylation of the caveolin-1 promoter was detected in 84.8% (28/33) of HBV-infected HCC samples. Expression of caveolin-1 was significantly downregulated (P = 0.022), and multiple CpG sites in the promoter region of caveolin-1 were methylated in SMMC-7721 cells after HBx transfection. Transfected HBx significantly suppressed caveolin-1 promoter activity (P = 0.001). HBx protein induces methylation of the caveolin-1 promoter region and suppresses its expression

  2. High content image based analysis identifies cell cycle inhibitors as regulators of Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Krishna P; Benko, Jacqueline G; Mudhasani, Rajini; Retterer, Cary; Tran, Julie P; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G

    2012-09-25

    Viruses modulate a number of host biological responses including the cell cycle to favor their replication. In this study, we developed a high-content imaging (HCI) assay to measure DNA content and identify different phases of the cell cycle. We then investigated the potential effects of cell cycle arrest on Ebola virus (EBOV) infection. Cells arrested in G1 phase by serum starvation or G1/S phase using aphidicolin or G2/M phase using nocodazole showed much reduced EBOV infection compared to the untreated control. Release of cells from serum starvation or aphidicolin block resulted in a time-dependent increase in the percentage of EBOV infected cells. The effect of EBOV infection on cell cycle progression was found to be cell-type dependent. Infection of asynchronous MCF-10A cells with EBOV resulted in a reduced number of cells in G2/M phase with concomitant increase of cells in G1 phase. However, these effects were not observed in HeLa or A549 cells. Together, our studies suggest that EBOV requires actively proliferating cells for efficient replication. Furthermore, multiplexing of HCI based assays to detect viral infection, cell cycle status and other phenotypic changes in a single cell population will provide useful information during screening campaigns using siRNA and small molecule therapeutics.

  3. High Content Image Based Analysis Identifies Cell Cycle Inhibitors as Regulators of Ebola Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Bavari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses modulate a number of host biological responses including the cell cycle to favor their replication. In this study, we developed a high-content imaging (HCI assay to measure DNA content and identify different phases of the cell cycle. We then investigated the potential effects of cell cycle arrest on Ebola virus (EBOV infection. Cells arrested in G1 phase by serum starvation or G1/S phase using aphidicolin or G2/M phase using nocodazole showed much reduced EBOV infection compared to the untreated control. Release of cells from serum starvation or aphidicolin block resulted in a time-dependent increase in the percentage of EBOV infected cells. The effect of EBOV infection on cell cycle progression was found to be cell-type dependent. Infection of asynchronous MCF-10A cells with EBOV resulted in a reduced number of cells in G2/M phase with concomitant increase of cells in G1 phase. However, these effects were not observed in HeLa or A549 cells. Together, our studies suggest that EBOV requires actively proliferating cells for efficient replication. Furthermore, multiplexing of HCI based assays to detect viral infection, cell cycle status and other phenotypic changes in a single cell population will provide useful information during screening campaigns using siRNA and small molecule therapeutics.

  4. Domain- and nucleotide-specific Rev response element regulation of feline immunodeficiency virus production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hong; Huisman, Willem; Ellestad, Kristofor K.; Phillips, Tom R.; Power, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Computational analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) RNA sequences indicated that common FIV strains contain a rev response element (RRE) defined by a long unbranched hairpin with 6 stem-loop sub-domains, termed stem-loop A (SLA). To examine the role of the RNA secondary structure of the RRE, mutational analyses were performed in both an infectious FIV molecular clone and a FIV CAT-RRE reporter system. These studies disclosed that the stems within SLA (SA1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) of the RRE were critical but SA6 was not essential for FIV replication and CAT expression. These studies also revealed that the secondary structure rather than an antisense protein (ASP) mediates virus expression and replication in vitro. In addition, a single synonymous mutation within the FIV-RRE, SA3/45, reduced viral reverse transcriptase activity and p24 expression after transfection but in addition also showed a marked reduction in viral expression and production following infection. PMID:20570310

  5. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  6. Dimerization Efficiency of Canine Distemper Virus Matrix Protein Regulates Membrane-Budding Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf, Fanny; Herren, Michael; Wyss, Marianne; Vidondo, Beatriz; Langedijk, Johannes P; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe

    2017-08-15

    Paramyxoviruses rely on the matrix (M) protein to orchestrate viral assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. Although the mechanistic details remain largely unknown, structural data suggested that M dimers and/or higher-order oligomers may facilitate membrane budding. To gain functional insights, we employed a structure-guided mutagenesis approach to investigate the role of canine distemper virus (CDV) M protein self-assembly in membrane-budding activity. Three six-alanine-block (6A-block) mutants with mutations located at strategic oligomeric positions were initially designed. While the first one includes residues potentially residing at the protomer-protomer interface, the other two display amino acids located within two distal surface-exposed α-helices proposed to be involved in dimer-dimer contacts. We further focused on the core of the dimeric interface by mutating asparagine 138 (N138) to several nonconservative amino acids. Cellular localization combined with dimerization and coimmunopurification assays, performed under various denaturing conditions, revealed that all 6A-block mutants were impaired in self-assembly and cell periphery accumulation. These phenotypes correlated with deficiencies in relocating CDV nucleocapsid proteins to the cell periphery and in virus-like particle (VLP) production. Conversely, all M-N138 mutants remained capable of self-assembly, though to various extents, which correlated with proper accumulation and redistribution of nucleocapsid proteins at the plasma membrane. However, membrane deformation and VLP assays indicated that the M-N138 variants exhibiting the most reduced dimerization propensity were also defective in triggering membrane remodeling and budding, despite proper plasma membrane accumulation. Overall, our data provide mechanistic evidence that the efficiency of CDV M dimerization/oligomerization governs both cell periphery localization and membrane-budding activity. IMPORTANCE Despite the availability of

  7. Vaccinia complement control protein: Multi-functional protein and a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    naturally occurring antagonist of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-18. Another strategy used by ... receptors or binding proteins for tumour necrosis factor. (TNF) ... immune regulators, such as the viral IL-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor ...

  8. Down-regulation of MHC Class I by the Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) UL49.5 Gene Product Mildly Affects Virulence in a Haplotype-specific Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease is a devastating neoplastic disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus 2 or Marek’s disease virus (MDV), which is characterized by massive visceral tumors, immune suppression, neurologic syndromes, and peracute deaths. It has been reported that MDV down-regulates surface expre...

  9. Expression of Brucella Antigens in Vaccinia Virus to Prevent Brucellosis in Humans: Protection Studies in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schurig, Gerhardt

    2000-01-01

    .... Based on our present studies and the finding that Brucella Cu/ZN SOD and L7/Ll2 proteins are protective antigens and that the presence of IL-12 is necessary at the moment of immunization, we conclude...

  10. The vaccinia virus DNA polymerase structure provides insights into the mode of processivity factor binding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarbouriech, N.; Ducournau, C.; Hutin, S.; Mas, P.J.; Man, Petr; Forest, E.; Hart, D.J.; Peyrefitte, Ch.N.; Burmeister, W.P.; Iseni, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, NOV 13 (2017), s. 1-12, č. článku 1455. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : PROTEIN SECONDARY STRUCTURE * CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE * GENETIC-CHARACTERIZATION Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  11. Differential Regulation of Interferon Responses by Ebola and Marburg Virus VP35 Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Megan R.; Liu, Gai; Mire, Chad E.; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Luthra, Priya; Yen, Benjamin; Shabman, Reed S.; Leung, Daisy W.; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Basler, Christopher F.

    2016-02-11

    Suppression of innate immune responses during filoviral infection contributes to disease severity. Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses each encode a VP35 protein that suppresses RIG-I-like receptor signaling and interferon-α/β (IFN-α/β) production by several mechanisms, including direct binding to double stranded RNA (dsRNA). Here, we demonstrate that in cell culture, MARV infection results in a greater upregulation of IFN responses as compared to EBOV infection. This correlates with differences in the efficiencies by which EBOV and MARV VP35s antagonize RIG-I signaling. Furthermore, structural and biochemical studies suggest that differential recognition of RNA elements by the respective VP35 C-terminal IFN inhibitory domain (IID) rather than affinity for RNA by the respective VP35s is critical for this observation. Our studies reveal functional differences in EBOV versus MARV VP35 RNA binding that result in unexpected differences in the host response to deadly viral pathogens.

  12. Investigation of radiation enhanced reactivation of cytoplasmic replicating human virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockstahler, L.E.; Haynes, K.F.; Stafford, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    When monolayers of CV-1 monkey kidney cells were exposed to ultraviolet (uv) radiation (0 to 200 erg/nm 2 ) or x rays (0 to 10 krads) before infection with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus, an increase in the infectivity of this nuclear replicating virus occurred as measured by plaque formation. These phenomena are known as uv (Weigle) reactivation (WR) and x-ray reactivation (x-ray R). In this study the presence of WR and x-ray R was examined in CV-1 cells infected with uv-irradiated vaccinia virus or poliovirus, both cytoplasmic replicating viruses. Little or no WR or x-ray R was observed for either of these viruses. These results suggest that WR and x-ray R in mammalian cells may be restricted to viruses which are synthesized in the cell nucleus

  13. Tight regulation of the Epstein-Barr virus setpoint: interindividual differences in Epstein-Barr virus DNA load are conserved after HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piriou, Erwan; van Dort, Karel; Otto, Sigrid; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; van Baarle, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Healthy individuals carry a constant number of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in the peripheral blood over time. Here, we show that interindividual differences in Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels are maintained after HIV infection, providing evidence for the existence of an individual Epstein-Barr

  14. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) LMP2A alters normal transcriptional regulation following B-cell receptor activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portis, Toni; Longnecker, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important mediator of viral latency in infected B-lymphocytes. LMP2A inhibits B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in vitro and allows for the survival of BCR-negative B cells in vivo. In this study, we compared gene transcription in BCR-activated B cells from non-transgenic and LMP2A Tg6 transgenic mice. We found that the transcriptional induction and down-regulation of many genes that normally occurs in B cells following BCR activation did not occur in B cells from LMP2A Tg6 transgenic mice. Furthermore, LMP2A induced the expression of various transcription factors and genes associated with DNA/RNA metabolism, which may allow for the altered transcriptional regulation observed in BCR-activated B cells from LMP2A Tg6 mice. These results suggest that LMP2A may inhibit the downstream effects of BCR signaling by directly or indirectly altering gene transcription to ensure EBV persistence in infected B cells

  15. TRIM30α Is a Negative-Feedback Regulator of the Intracellular DNA and DNA Virus-Triggered Response by Targeting STING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled immune responses to intracellular DNA have been shown to induce autoimmune diseases. Homeostasis regulation of immune responses to cytosolic DNA is critical for limiting the risk of autoimmunity and survival of the host. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 30α (TRIM30α was induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs. Knockdown or genetic ablation of TRIM30α augmented the type I IFNs and interleukin-6 response to intracellular DNA and DNA viruses. Trim30α-deficient mice were more resistant to infection by DNA viruses. Biochemical analyses showed that TRIM30α interacted with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING, which is a critical regulator of the DNA-sensing response. Overexpression of TRIM30α promoted the degradation of STING via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys275 through a proteasome-dependent pathway. These findings indicate that E3 ligase TRIM30α is an important negative-feedback regulator of innate immune responses to DNA viruses by targeting STING.

  16. A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression during Influenza Virus Infection

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    Anna H. Y. Law

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha production in PBMac when compared with H1N1 virus. H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. On the other hand, PP2A may not be the targets of H9N2/G1 in the upstream of p38MAPK signaling pathways since H1N1 also induced PP2A activation in primary macrophages. Our results may provide new insights into the control of cytokine dysregulation.

  17. The Mechanism of Synchronous Precise Regulation of Two Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Targets by a Viral MicroRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaodong; Ma, Tiantian; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), important factors in animal innate immunity, suppress the expressions of their target genes by binding to target mRNA’s 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs). However, the mechanism of synchronous regulation of multiple targets by a single miRNA remains unclear. In this study, the interaction between a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32) and its two viral targets (wsv459 and wsv322) was characterized in WSSV-infected shrimp. The outcomes indicated that WSSV-encoded miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32) significantly inhibited virus infection by simultaneously targeting wsv459 and wsv322. The silencing of wsv459 or wsv322 by siRNA led to significant decrease of WSSV copies in shrimp, showing that the two viral genes were required for WSSV infection. WSSV-miR-N32 could mediate 5′–3′ exonucleolytic digestion of its target mRNAs, which stopped at the sites of target mRNA 3′UTRs close to the sequence complementary to the miRNA seed sequence. The complementary bases (to the target mRNA sequence) of a miRNA 9th–18th non-seed sequence were essential for the miRNA targeting. Therefore, our findings presented novel insights into the mechanism of miRNA-mediated suppression of target gene expressions, which would be helpful for understanding the roles of miRNAs in innate immunity of invertebrate. PMID:29230209

  18. NF-κB Signaling Regulates Epstein–Barr Virus BamHI-Q-Driven EBNA1 Expression

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    Rob J. A. Verhoeven

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 is one of the few viral proteins expressed by EBV in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, most likely because of its essential role in maintaining the viral genome in EBV-infected cells. In NPC, EBNA1 expression is driven by the BamHI-Q promoter (Qp, which is regulated by both cellular and viral factors. We previously determined that the expression of another group of EBV transcripts, BamHI-A rightward transcripts (BARTs, is associated with constitutively activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB signaling in NPC cells. Here, we show that, like the EBV BART promoter, the EBV Qp also responds to NF-κB signaling. NF-κB p65, but not p50, can activate Qp in vitro, and NF-κB signaling regulates Qp-EBNA1 expression in NPC cells, as well as in other EBV-infected epithelial cells. The introduction of mutations in the putative NF-κB site reduced Qp activation by the NF-κB p65 subunit. Binding of p65 to Qp was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis, while electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs demonstrated that p50 can also bind to Qp. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling by the IκB kinase inhibitor PS-1145 resulted in the downregulation of Qp-EBNA1 expression in C666-1 NPC cells. Since EBNA1 has been reported to block p65 activation by inhibiting IKKα/β through an unknown mechanism, we suggest that, in NPC, NF-κB signaling and EBNA1 may form a regulatory loop which supports EBV latent gene expression, while also limiting NF-κB activity. These findings emphasize the role of NF-κB signaling in the regulation of EBV latency in EBV-associated tumors.

  19. Interaction between C/EBPβ and Tax down-regulates human T-cell leukemia virus type I transcription

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    Hivin, P.; Gaudray, G.; Devaux, C.; Mesnard, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax protein trans-activates viral transcription through three imperfect tandem repeats of a 21-bp sequence called Tax-responsive element (TxRE). Tax regulates transcription via direct interaction with some members of the activating transcription factor/CRE-binding protein (ATF/CREB) family including CREM, CREB, and CREB-2. By interacting with their ZIP domain, Tax stimulates the binding of these cellular factors to the CRE-like sequence present in the TxREs. Recent observations have shown that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) forms stable complexes on the CRE site in the presence of CREB-2. Given that C/EBPβ has also been found to interact with Tax, we analyzed the effects of C/EBPβ on viral Tax-dependent transcription. We show here that C/EBPβ represses viral transcription and that Tax is no more able to form a stable complex with CREB-2 on the TxRE site in the presence of C/EBPβ. We also analyzed the physical interactions between Tax and C/EBPβ and found that the central region of C/EBPβ, excluding its ZIP domain, is required for direct interaction with Tax. It is the first time that Tax is described to interact with a basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) factor without recognizing its ZIP domain. Although unexpected, this result explains why C/EBPβ would be unable to form a stable complex with Tax on the TxRE site and could then down-regulate viral transcription. Lastly, we found that C/EBPβ was able to inhibit Tax expression in vivo from an infectious HTLV-I molecular clone. In conclusion, we propose that during cell activation events, which stimulate the Tax synthesis, C/EBPβ may down-regulate the level of HTLV-I expression to escape the cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte response

  20. Regulation of adeno-associated virus DNA replication by the cellular TAF-I/set complex.

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    Pegoraro, Gianluca; Marcello, Alessandro; Myers, Michael P; Giacca, Mauro

    2006-07-01

    The Rep proteins of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are required for viral replication in the presence of adenovirus helper functions and as yet poorly characterized cellular factors. In an attempt to identify such factors, we purified Flag-Rep68-interacting proteins from human cell lysates. Several polypeptides were identified by mass spectrometry, among which was ANP32B, a member of the acidic nuclear protein 32 family which takes part in the formation of the template-activating factor I/Set oncoprotein (TAF-I/Set) complex. The N terminus of Rep was found to specifically bind the acidic domain of ANP32B; through this interaction, Rep was also able to recruit other members of the TAF-I/Set complex, including the ANP32A protein and the histone chaperone TAF-I/Set. Further experiments revealed that silencing of ANP32A and ANP32B inhibited AAV replication, while overexpression of all of the components of the TAF-I/Set complex increased de novo AAV DNA synthesis in permissive cells. Besides being the first indication that the TAF-I/Set complex participates in wild-type AAV replication, these findings have important implications for the generation of recombinant AAV vectors since overexpression of the TAF-I/Set components was found to markedly increase viral vector production.

  1. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I tax regulates the expression of the human lymphotoxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschachler, E; Böhnlein, E; Felzmann, S; Reitz, M S

    1993-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I)-infected T-cell lines constitutively produce high levels of lymphotoxin (LT). To analyze the mechanisms that lead to the expression of LT in HTLV-I-infected cell lines, we studied regulatory regions of the human LT promoter involved in the activation of the human LT gene. As determined by deletional analysis, sequences between +137 and -116 (relative to the transcription initiation site) are sufficient to direct expression of a reporter gene in the HTLV-I-infected cell line MT-2. Site-directed mutation of a of the single kappa B-like motif present in the LT promoter region (positions -99 to -89) completely abrogated LT promoter activity in MT-2 cells, suggesting that this site plays a critical role in the activation of the human LT gene. Transfection of LT constructs into HTLV-I-uninfected and -unstimulated Jurkat and U937 cell lines showed little to no activity of the LT promoter. Cotransfection of the same constructs with a tax expression plasmid into Jurkat cells led to detectable promoter activity, which could be significantly increased by stimulation of the cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Similarly, cotransfection of the LT promoter constructs and the tax expression plasmid into U937 cells led to significant promoter activity upon stimulation with PMA. These data suggest that HTLV-I tax is involved in the upregulation of LT gene expression in HTLV-I-infected cells.

  2. Exosome RNA Released by Hepatocytes Regulates Innate Immune Responses to Hepatitis B Virus Infection

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    Takahisa Kouwaki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infection. Hepatitis B virus (HBV persistently infects human hepatocytes and causes hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the innate immune response to HBV infection in vivo remains unclear. Using a tree shrew animal model, we showed that HBV infection induced hepatic interferon (IFN-γ expression during early infection. Our in vitro study demonstrated that hepatic NK cells produced IFN-γ in response to HBV only in the presence of hepatic F4/80+ cells. Moreover, extracellular vesicles released from HBV-infected hepatocytes contained viral nucleic acids and induced NKG2D ligand expression in macrophages by stimulating MyD88, TICAM-1, and MAVS-dependent pathways. In addition, depletion of exosomes from extracellular vesicles markedly reduced NKG2D ligand expression, suggesting the importance of exosomes for NK cell activation. In contrast, infection of hepatocytes with HBV increased immunoregulatory microRNA levels in extracellular vesicles and exosomes, which were transferred to macrophages, thereby suppressing IL-12p35 mRNA expression in macrophages to counteract the host innate immune response. IFN-γ increased the hepatic expression of DDX60 and augmented the DDX60-dependent degradation of cytoplasmic HBV RNA. Our results elucidated the crucial role of exosomes in antiviral innate immune response against HBV.

  3. Dengue Virus Infection Differentially Regulates Endothelial Barrier Function over Time through Type I Interferon Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Woda, Marcia; Ennis, Francis A.; Libraty, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The morbidity and mortality resulting from dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are largely caused by endothelial barrier dysfunction and a unique vascular leakage syndrome. The mechanisms that lead to the location and timing of vascular leakage in DHF are poorly understood. We hypothesized that direct viral effects on endothelial responsiveness to inflammatory and angiogenesis mediators can explain the DHF vascular leakage syndrome. Methods We used an in vitro model of human endothelium to study the combined effects of dengue virus (DENV) type 2 (DENV2) infection and inflammatory mediators on paracellular macromolecule permeability over time. Results Over the initial 72 h after infection, DENV2 suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–α–mediated hyperpermeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers. This suppressive effect was mediated by type I interferon (IFN). By 1 week, TNF-α stimulation of DENV2-infected HUVECs synergistically increased cell cycling, angiogenic changes, and macromolecule permeability. This late effect could be prevented by the addition of exogenous type I IFN. Conclusions DENV infection of primary human endothelial cells differentially modulates TNF-α–driven angiogenesis and hyperpermeability over time. Type I IFN plays a central role in this process. Our findings suggest a rational model for the DHF vascular leakage syndrome. PMID:19530939

  4. A pandemic influenza H1N1 live vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara is highly immunogenic and protects mice in active and passive immunizations.

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    Annett Hessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of novel influenza vaccines inducing a broad immune response is an important objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate live vaccines which induce both strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against the novel human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and to show protection in a lethal animal challenge model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose, the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1 strain (CA/07 were inserted into the replication-deficient modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus--a safe poxviral live vector--resulting in MVA-H1-Ca and MVA-N1-Ca vectors. These live vaccines, together with an inactivated whole virus vaccine, were assessed in a lung infection model using immune competent Balb/c mice, and in a lethal challenge model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice after passive serum transfer from immunized mice. Balb/c mice vaccinated with the MVA-H1-Ca virus or the inactivated vaccine were fully protected from lung infection after challenge with the influenza H1N1 wild-type strain, while the neuraminidase virus MVA-N1-Ca induced only partial protection. The live vaccines were already protective after a single dose and induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies and of interferon-gamma-secreting (IFN-gamma CD4- and CD8 T-cells in lungs and spleens. In the lungs, a rapid increase of HA-specific CD4- and CD8 T cells was observed in vaccinated mice shortly after challenge with influenza swine flu virus, which probably contributes to the strong inhibition of pulmonary viral replication observed. In addition, passive transfer of antisera raised in MVA-H1-Ca vaccinated immune-competent mice protected SCID mice from lethal challenge with the CA/07 wild-type virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The non-replicating MVA-based H1N1 live vaccines induce a broad protective immune response and are promising vaccine candidates for

  5. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

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    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  6. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  7. Control of mucosal virus infection by influenza nucleoprotein-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes

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    Couch Robert B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MHC class I-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL are thought to play a major role in clearing virus and promoting recovery from influenza infection and disease. This has been demonstrated for clearance of influenza virus from the lungs of infected mice. However, human influenza infection is primarily a respiratory mucosal infection involving the nasopharynx and tracheobronchial tree. The role of CD8+ CTL directed toward the influenza nucleoprotein (NP in defense against influenza virus infection at the respiratory mucosa was evaluated in two separate adoptive transfer experiments. Methods Influenza nucleoprotein (NP-specific CD8+ CTL were generated from splenocytes obtained from Balb/c mice previously primed with influenza A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1 infection or with influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1-derived NP plasmid DNA vaccine followed by infection with A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2 virus. After in vitro expansion by exposure to an influenza NP-vaccinia recombinant, highly purified CD8+ T cells exhibited significant lysis in vitro of P815 target cells infected with A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2 virus while the CD8- fraction (CD4+ T cells, B cells and macrophages had no CTL activity. Purified CD8+ and CD8- T cells (1 × 107 were injected intravenously or interperitoneally into naive mice four hours prior to intranasal challenge with A/HK/68 (H3N2 virus. Results The adoptively transferred NP-vaccinia-induced CD8+ T cells caused significant reduction of virus titers in both the lungs and nasal passages when compared to CD8- cells. Neither CD8+ nor CD8- T cells from cultures stimulated with HIV gp120-vaccinia recombinant reduced virus titers. Conclusion The present data demonstrate that influenza NP-specific CD8+ CTL can play a direct role in clearance of influenza virus from the upper respiratory mucosal surfaces.

  8. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) is decreased with viral infection and regulates pro-labour mediators OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Stella; Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2017-07-01

    Intrauterine infection caused by viral infection has been implicated to contribute to preterm birth. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) regulates inflammation in non-gestational tissues in response to viral infection. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of: (i) viral dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) on HAVCR2 expression; and (ii) HAVCR2 silencing by siRNA (siHAVCR2) in primary amnion and myometrial cells on poly(I:C)-induced inflammation. In human foetal membranes and myometrium, HAVCR2 mRNA and protein expression was decreased when exposed to poly(I:C). Treatment of primary amnion and myometrial cells with poly(I:C) significantly increased the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL1A, IL1B and IL6; the expression of chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2; the expression and secretion of adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1; and PTGS2 and PTGFR mRNA expression and the release of prostaglandin PGF 2α . This increase was significantly augmented in cells transfected with siHAVCR2. Furthermore, mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL4 and IL10 was significantly decreased. Collectively, our data suggest that HAVCR2 regulates cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins and cell adhesion molecules in the presence of viral infection. This suggests a potential for HAVCR2 activators as therapeutics for the management of preterm birth associated with viral infections. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Regulation of IFN regulatory factor 4 expression in human T cell leukemia virus-I-transformed T cells.

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    Sharma, Sonia; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Mamane, Yael; Genin, Pierre; Azimi, Nazli; Waldmann, Thomas; Hiscott, John

    2002-09-15

    IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-4 is a lymphoid/myeloid-restricted member of the IRF transcription factor family that plays an essential role in the homeostasis and function of mature lymphocytes. IRF-4 expression is tightly regulated in resting primary T cells and is transiently induced at the mRNA and protein levels after activation by Ag-mimetic stimuli such as TCR cross-linking or treatment with phorbol ester and calcium ionophore (PMA/ionomycin). However, IRF-4 is constitutively upregulated in human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infected T cells as a direct gene target for the HTLV-I Tax oncoprotein. In this study we demonstrate that chronic IRF-4 expression in HTLV-I-infected T lymphocytes is associated with a leukemic phenotype, and we examine the mechanisms by which continuous production of IRF-4 is achieved in HTLV-I-transformed T cells. IRF-4 expression in HTLV-1-infected cells is driven through activation of the NF-kappaB and NF-AT pathways, resulting in the binding of p50, p65, and c-Rel to the kappaB1 element and p50, c-Rel, and NF-ATp to the CD28RE element within the -617 to -209 region of the IRF-4 promoter. Furthermore, mutation of either the kappaB1 or CD28RE sites blocks Tax-mediated transactivation of the human IRF-4 promoter in T cells. These experiments constitute the first detailed analysis of human IRF-4 transcriptional regulation within the context of HTLV-I infection and transformation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

  10. A Novel Nuclear Trafficking Module Regulates the Nucleocytoplasmic Localization of the Rabies Virus Interferon Antagonist, P Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksayan, Sibil; Wiltzer, Linda; Rowe, Caitlin L.; Blondel, Danielle; Jans, David A.; Moseley, Gregory W.

    2012-01-01

    Regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins is central to cellular function and dysfunction during processes such as viral infection. Active protein trafficking into and out of the nucleus is dependent on the presence within cargo proteins of intrinsic specific modular signals for nuclear import (nuclear localization signals, NLSs) and export (nuclear export signals, NESs). Rabies virus (RabV) phospho (P) protein, which is largely responsible for antagonising the host anti-viral response, is expressed as five isoforms (P1–P5). The subcellular trafficking of these isoforms is thought to depend on a balance between the activities of a dominant N-terminal NES (N-NES) and a distinct C-terminal NLS (C-NLS). Specifically, the N-NES-containing isoforms P1 and P2 are cytoplasmic, whereas the shorter P3–P5 isoforms, which lack the N-NES, are believed to be nuclear through the activity of the C-NLS. Here, we show for the first time that RabV P contains an additional strong NLS in the N-terminal region (N-NLS), which, intriguingly, overlaps with the N-NES. This arrangement represents a novel nuclear trafficking module where the N-NLS is inactive in P1 but becomes activated in P3, concomitant with truncation of the N-NES, to become the principal targeting signal conferring nuclear accumulation. Understanding this unique switch arrangement of overlapping, co-regulated NES/NLS sequences is vital to delineating the critical role of RabV P protein in viral infection. PMID:22700958

  11. PRMT5: A novel regulator of Hepatitis B virus replication and an arginine methylase of HBV core.

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    Barbora Lubyova

    Full Text Available In mammals, protein arginine methyltransferase 5, PRMT5, is the main type II enzyme responsible for the majority of symmetric dimethylarginine formation in polypeptides. Recent study reported that PRMT5 restricts Hepatitis B virus (HBV replication through epigenetic repression of HBV DNA transcription and interference with encapsidation of pregenomic RNA. Here we demonstrate that PRMT5 interacts with the HBV core (HBc protein and dimethylates arginine residues within the arginine-rich domain (ARD of the carboxyl-terminus. ARD consists of four arginine rich subdomains, ARDI, ARDII, ARDIII and ARDIV. Mutation analysis of ARDs revealed that arginine methylation of HBc required the wild-type status of both ARDI and ARDII. Mass spectrometry analysis of HBc identified multiple potential ubiquitination, methylation and phosphorylation sites, out of which lysine K7 and arginines R150 (within ARDI and R156 (outside ARDs were shown to be modified by ubiquitination and methylation, respectively. The HBc symmetric dimethylation appeared to be linked to serine phosphorylation and nuclear import of HBc protein. Conversely, the monomethylated HBc retained in the cytoplasm. Thus, overexpression of PRMT5 led to increased nuclear accumulation of HBc, and vice versa, down-regulation of PRMT5 resulted in reduced levels of HBc in nuclei of transfected cells. In summary, we identified PRMT5 as a potent controller of HBc cell trafficking and function and described two novel types of HBc post-translational modifications (PTMs, arginine methylation and ubiquitination.

  12. Regulation of proliferation and functioning of transplanted cells by using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Mari; Kusamori, Kosuke; Oda, Chihiro; Miyazaki, Airi; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Nishikawa, Makiya; Yamamoto, Akira

    2018-04-10

    Though cell transplantation is becoming an attractive therapeutic method, uncontrolled cell proliferation or overexpression of cellular functions could cause adverse effects. These unfavorable outcomes could be avoided by regulating the proliferation or functioning of transplanted cells. In this study, we used a combination of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene, a suicide gene, and ganciclovir (GCV) to control the proliferation and functioning of insulin-secreting cells after transplantation in diabetic mice. Mouse pancreatic β cell line MIN6 cells were selected as insulin-secreting cells for transfection with the HSVtk gene to obtain MIN6/HSVtk cells. Proliferation of MIN6/HSVtk cells was suppressed by GCV in a concentration-dependent manner; 0.25 μg/mL GCV maintained a constant number of MIN6/HSVtk cells for at least 16 days. MIN6 or MIN6/HSVtk cells were then transplanted to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Mice transplanted with MIN6 cells exhibited hypoglycemia irrespective of GCV administration. In contrast, normal (around 150 mg/dL) blood glucose levels were maintained in mice transplanted with MIN6/HSVtk cells by a daily administration of 50 mg/kg of GCV. These results indicate that controlling the proliferation and functioning of HSVtk gene-expressing cells by GCV could greatly improve the usefulness and safety of cell-based therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of an animal model of progressive vaccinia in nu/nu mice and the use of bioluminescence imaging for assessment of the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies against vaccinial B5 and L1 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Marina; Thomas, Antonia; Meseda, Clement A; Cheung, Charles Y K; Diaz, Claudia G; Xiang, Yan; Crotty, Shane; Golding, Hana

    2017-08-01

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was used to follow dissemination of recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV) expressing luciferase (IHD-J-Luc) in BALB/c nu/nu mice treated post-challenge with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against L1 and B5 VACV proteins in a model of Progressive Vaccinia (PV). Areas Under the flux Curve (AUC) were calculated for viral loads in multiple organs in individual mice. Following scarification with 10 5  pfu, IHD-J-Luc VACV undergoes fast replication at the injection site and disseminates rapidly to the inguinal lymph nodes followed by spleen, liver, and axillary lymph nodes within 2-3 days and before primary lesions are visible at the site of scarification. Extension of survival in nude mice treated with a combination of anti-B5 and anti-L1 MAbs 24 h post challenge correlated with a significant reduction in viral load at the site of scarification and delayed systemic dissemination. Nude mice reconstituted with 10 4  T cells prior to challenge with IHD-J-Luc, and treated with MAbs post-challenge, survived infection, cleared the virus from all organs and scarification site, and developed anti-VACV IgG and VACV-specific polyfunctional CD8 + T cells that co-expressed the degranulation marker CD107a, and IFNγ and TNFα cytokines. All T cell reconstituted mice survived intranasal re-challenge with IHD-J-Luc (10 4  pfu) two months after the primary infection. Thus, using BLI to monitor VACV replication in a PV model, we showed that anti-VACV MAbs administered post challenge extended survival of nude mice and protected T cell reconstituted nude mice from lethality by reducing replication at the site of scarification and systemic dissemination of VACV. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Enhanced and sustained CD8+ T cell responses with an adenoviral vector-based hepatitis C virus vaccine encoding NS3 linked to the MHC class II chaperone protein invariant chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marianne; Holst, Peter Johannes; Bukh, Jens

    2011-01-01

    memory. Functionally, the AdIiNS3-vaccinated mice had a significantly increased cytotoxic capacity compared with the AdNS3 group. The AdIiNS3-induced CD8(+) T cells protected mice from infection with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HCV NS3 of heterologous 1b strains, and studies in knockout mice...

  15. Molecular and Cellular Dynamics in the Skin, the Lymph Nodes, and the Blood of the Immune Response to Intradermal Injection of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccine

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    Pierre Rosenbaum

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available New vaccine design approaches would be greatly facilitated by a better understanding of the early systemic changes, and those that occur at the site of injection, responsible for the installation of a durable and oriented protective response. We performed a detailed characterization of very early infection and host response events following the intradermal administration of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a live attenuated vaccine model in non-human primates. Integrated analysis of the data obtained from in vivo imaging, histology, flow cytometry, multiplex cytokine, and transcriptomic analysis using tools derived from systems biology, such as co-expression networks, showed a strong early local and systemic inflammatory response that peaked at 24 h, which was then progressively replaced by an adaptive response during the installation of the host response to the vaccine. Granulocytes, macrophages, and monocytoid cells were massively recruited during the local innate response in association with local productions of GM-CSF, IL-1β, MIP1α, MIP1β, and TNFα. We also observed a rapid and transient granulocyte recruitment and the release of IL-6 and IL-1RA, followed by a persistent phase involving inflammatory monocytes. This systemic inflammation was confirmed by molecular signatures, such as upregulations of IL-6 and TNF pathways and acute phase response signaling. Such comprehensive approaches improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal orchestration of vaccine-elicited immune response, in a live-attenuated vaccine model, and thus contribute to rational vaccine development.

  16. Hepatitis C virus core protein induces dysfunction of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell by down-regulation of silent information regulator 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Jie; Yu, Jian-Wu; Shi, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Shu, Meng-Ni; Chen, Mo-Yang

    2018-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a frequent feature of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Some evidence has suggested the potential role of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in organ fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HCV core protein on expression of SIRT1 of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) and function of LSEC. LSECs were co-cultured with HepG2 cells or HepG2 cells expressing HCV core protein and LSECs cultured alone were used as controls. After co-culture, the activity and expression levels of mRNA and protein of SIRT1 in LSEC were detected by a SIRT1 fluorometric assay kit, real time-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot, respectively. The levels of adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured by Western blot. Cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), CD14, and von Willebrand factor (vWf) of LSECs was performed by flow cytometry. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), adiponectin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the co-culture supernatant were measured. The co-culture supernatant was then used to cultivate LX-2 cells. The levels of α-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) protein in LX-2 cells were measured by Western blot. Compared with LSEC co-cultured with HepG2 cells group, in LSEC co-cultured with HepG2-core cells group, the activity and expression level of mRNA and protein of SIRT1 reduced; the level of adiponectin reduced and the expression level of AdipoR2 protein decreased; ROS levels increased; the expression level of eNOS, VEGF protein decreased; and the expression level of CD14 decreased; the expression level of vWf and CD31 increased; NO and SOD levels decreased; whereas ET-1 and MDA levels increased; the levels of ASMA and TGF-β1 protein in LX-2 cells increased. SIRT1 activator improved the above-mentioned changes

  17. Development and evaluation of recombinant MVA viruses expressing bohv-1 glycoprotein D

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, María Florencia

    2010-01-01

    El virus vaccinia Ankara modificado (MVA) es un virus altamente atenuado que se utiliza eficientemente como vector viral no replicativo para el desarrollo de nuevas vacunas. En este trabajo de Tesis se desarrolló un nuevo inmunógeno basado en MVA que expresa como antígeno de interés la glicoproteína D (versión secretada, gDs) del virus herpes bovino tipo I (BoHV-1), un agente infeccioso ampliamente distribuido en Argentina. Primeramente, se diseñó y construyó el vector de transferencia para o...

  18. Induction of cell-cell fusion by ectromelia virus is not inhibited by its fusion inhibitory complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Pinhas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectromelia virus, a member of the Orthopox genus, is the causative agent of the highly infectious mousepox disease. Previous studies have shown that different poxviruses induce cell-cell fusion which is manifested by the formation of multinucleated-giant cells (polykaryocytes. This phenomenon has been widely studied with vaccinia virus in conditions which require artificial acidification of the medium. Results We show that Ectromelia virus induces cell-cell fusion under neutral pH conditions and requires the presence of a sufficient amount of viral particles on the plasma membrane of infected cells. This could be achieved by infection with a replicating virus and its propagation in infected cells (fusion "from within" or by infection with a high amount of virus particles per cell (fusion "from without". Inhibition of virus maturation or inhibition of virus transport on microtubules towards the plasma membrane resulted in a complete inhibition of syncytia formation. We show that in contrast to vaccinia virus, Ectromelia virus induces cell-cell fusion irrespectively of its hemagglutination properties and cell-surface expression of the orthologs of the fusion inhibitory complex, A56 and K2. Additionally, cell-cell fusion was also detected in mice lungs following lethal respiratory infection. Conclusion Ectromelia virus induces spontaneous cell-cell fusion in-vitro and in-vivo although expressing an A56/K2 fusion inhibitory complex. This syncytia formation property cannot be attributed to the 37 amino acid deletion in ECTV A56.

  19. Genome-wide comparison of cowpox viruses reveals a new clade related to Variola virus.

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    Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski

    Full Text Available Zoonotic infections caused by several orthopoxviruses (OPV like monkeypox virus or vaccinia virus have a significant impact on human health. In Europe, the number of diagnosed infections with cowpox viruses (CPXV is increasing in animals as well as in humans. CPXV used to be enzootic in cattle; however, such infections were not being diagnosed over the last decades. Instead, individual cases of cowpox are being found in cats or exotic zoo animals that transmit the infection to humans. Both animals and humans reveal local exanthema on arms and legs or on the face. Although cowpox is generally regarded as a self-limiting disease, immunosuppressed patients can develop a lethal systemic disease resembling smallpox. To date, only limited information on the complex and, compared to other OPV, sparsely conserved CPXV genomes is available. Since CPXV displays the widest host range of all OPV known, it seems important to comprehend the genetic repertoire of CPXV which in turn may help elucidate specific mechanisms of CPXV pathogenesis and origin. Therefore, 22 genomes of independent CPXV strains from clinical cases, involving ten humans, four rats, two cats, two jaguarundis, one beaver, one elephant, one marah and one mongoose, were sequenced by using massive parallel pyrosequencing. The extensive phylogenetic analysis showed that the CPXV strains sequenced clearly cluster into several distinct clades, some of which are closely related to Vaccinia viruses while others represent different clades in a CPXV cluster. Particularly one CPXV clade is more closely related to Camelpox virus, Taterapox virus and Variola virus than to any other known OPV. These results support and extend recent data from other groups who postulate that CPXV does not form a monophyletic clade and should be divided into multiple lineages.

  20. Genome-wide RNAi Screening to Identify Host Factors That Modulate Oncolytic Virus Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Kristina J; Mahoney, Douglas J; Baird, Stephen D; Lefebvre, Charles A; Stojdl, David F

    2018-04-03

    High-throughput genome-wide RNAi (RNA interference) screening technology has been widely used for discovering host factors that impact virus replication. Here we present the application of this technology to uncovering host targets that specifically modulate the replication of Maraba virus, an oncolytic rhabdovirus, and vaccinia virus with the goal of enhancing therapy. While the protocol has been tested for use with oncolytic Maraba virus and oncolytic vaccinia virus, this approach is applicable to other oncolytic viruses and can also be utilized for identifying host targets that modulate virus replication in mammalian cells in general. This protocol describes the development and validation of an assay for high-throughput RNAi screening in mammalian cells, the key considerations and preparation steps important for conducting a primary high-throughput RNAi screen, and a step-by-step guide for conducting a primary high-throughput RNAi screen; in addition, it broadly outlines the methods for conducting secondary screen validation and tertiary validation studies. The benefit of high-throughput RNAi screening is that it allows one to catalogue, in an extensive and unbiased fashion, host factors that modulate any aspect of virus replication for which one can develop an in vitro assay such as infectivity, burst size, and cytotoxicity. It has the power to uncover biotherapeutic targets unforeseen based on current knowledge.

  1. Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity evaluation of ADMVA, a multigenic, modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 B'/C candidate vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Vasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted a Phase I dose-escalation trial of ADMVA, a Clade-B'/C-based HIV-1 candidate vaccine expressing env, gag, pol, nef, and tat in a modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector. Sequences were derived from a prevalent circulating HIV-1 recombinant form in Yunnan, China, an area of high HIV incidence. The objective was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ADMVA in human volunteers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ADMVA or placebo was administered intramuscularly at months 0, 1 and 6 to 50 healthy adult volunteers not at high risk for HIV-1. In each dosage group [1x10(7 (low, 5x10(7 (mid, or 2.5x10(8 pfu (high] volunteers were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to receive ADMVA or placebo in a double-blinded design. Subjects were followed for local and systemic reactogenicity, adverse events including cardiac adverse events, and clinical laboratory parameters. Study follow up was 18 months. Humoral immunogenicity was evaluated by anti-gp120 binding ELISA, immunoflourescent staining, and HIV-1 neutralization. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNgamma ELISpot assay and intracellular cytokine staining. Anti-vaccinia binding titers were measured by ELISA. ADMVA was generally well-tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events or cardiac adverse events. Local or systemic reactogenicity events were reported by 77% and 78% of volunteers, respectively. The majority of events were of mild intensity. The IFNgamma ELISpot response rate to any HIV antigen was 0/12 (0% in the placebo group, 3/12 (25% in the low dosage group, 6/12 (50% in the mid dosage group, and 8/13 (62% in the high dosage group. Responses were often multigenic and occasionally persisted up to one year post vaccination. Antibodies to gp120 were detected in 0/12 (0%, 8/13 (62%, 6/12 (50% and 10/13 (77% in the placebo, low, mid, and high dosage groups, respectively. Antibodies persisted up to 12 months after vaccination, with a trend toward agreement

  2. Shedding of Ebola Virus Surface Glycoprotein Is a Mechanism of Self-regulation of Cellular Cytotoxicity and Has a Direct Effect on Virus Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnik, Olga; Volchkova, Valentina A; Escudero-Perez, Beatriz; Lawrence, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Volchkov, Viktor E

    2015-10-01

    The surface glycoprotein (GP) is responsible for Ebola virus (EBOV) attachment and membrane fusion during virus entry. Surface expression of highly glycosylated GP causes marked cytotoxicity via masking of a wide range of cellular surface molecules, including integrins. Considerable amounts of surface GP are shed from virus-infected cells in a soluble truncated form by tumor necrosis factor α-converting enzyme. In this study, the role of GP shedding was investigated using a reverse genetics approach by comparing recombinant viruses possessing amino acid substitutions at the GP shedding site. Virus with an L635V substitution showed a substantial decrease in shedding, whereas a D637V substitution resulted in a striking increase in the release of shed GP. Variations in shedding efficacy correlated with observed differences in the amounts of shed GP in the medium, GP present in virus-infected cells, and GP present on virions. An increase in shedding appeared to be associated with a reduction in viral cytotoxicity, and, vice versa, the virus that shed less was more cytotoxic. An increase in shedding also resulted in a reduction in viral infectivity, whereas a decrease in shedding efficacy enhanced viral growth characteristics in vitro. Differences in shedding efficacy and, as a result, differences in the amount of mature GP available for incorporation into budding virions did not equate to differences in overall release of viral particles. Likewise, data suggest that the resulting differences in the amount of mature GP on the cell surface led to variations in the GP content of released particles and, as a consequence, in infectivity. In conclusion, fine-tuning of the levels of EBOV GP expressed at the surface of virus-infected cells via GP shedding plays an important role in EBOV replication by orchestrating the balance between optimal virion GP content and cytotoxicity caused by GP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious

  3. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Smallpox Vaccine (MVA-BN®) in 56-80-Year-Old Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard N; Hay, Christine M; Stapleton, Jack T; Marbury, Thomas C; Wagner, Eva; Kreitmeir, Eva; Röesch, Siegfried; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Young, Philip; Nichols, Richard; Meyer, Thomas P; Schmidt, Darja; Weigl, Josef; Virgin, Garth; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® is a live, highly attenuated, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. In this Phase II trial, the safety and immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® (MVA) was assessed in a 56-80 years old population. MVA with a virus titer of 1 x 108 TCID50/dose was administered via subcutaneous injection to 56-80 year old vaccinia-experienced subjects (N = 120). Subjects received either two injections of MVA (MM group) or one injection of Placebo and one injection of MVA (PM group) four weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events (AE), focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings and safety laboratories. Solicited AEs consisted of a set of pre-defined expected local reactions (erythema, swelling, pain, pruritus, and induration) and systemic symptoms (body temperature, headache, myalgia, nausea and fatigue) and were recorded on a memory aid for an 8-day period following each injection. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated in terms of humoral immune responses measured with a vaccinia-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) before and at different time points after vaccination. Vaccinations were well tolerated by all subjects. No serious adverse event related to MVA and no case of myopericarditis was reported. The overall incidence of unsolicited AEs was similar in both groups. For both groups immunogenicity responses two weeks after the final vaccination (i.e. Visit 4) were as follows: Seroconversion (SC) rates (doubling of titers from baseline) in vaccine specific antibody titers measured by ELISA were 83.3% in Group MM and 82.8% in Group PM (difference 0.6% with 95% exact CI [-13.8%, 15.0%]), and 90.0% for Group MM and 77.6% for Group PM measured by PRNT (difference 12.4% with 95% CI of [-1.1%, 27.0%]). Geometric mean titers (GMT) measured by ELISA two weeks after the final vaccination for Group

  4. Infection cycles of large DNA viruses: Emerging themes and underlying questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutsafi, Yael; Fridmann-Sirkis, Yael; Milrot, Elad; Hevroni, Liron; Minsky, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of giant DNA viruses and the recent realization that such viruses are diverse and abundant blurred the distinction between viruses and cells. These findings elicited lively debates on the nature and origin of viruses as well as on their potential roles in the evolution of cells. The following essay is, however, concerned with new insights into fundamental structural and physical aspects of viral replication that were derived from studies conducted on large DNA viruses. Specifically, the entirely cytoplasmic replication cycles of Mimivirus and Vaccinia are discussed in light of the highly limited trafficking of large macromolecules in the crowded cytoplasm of cells. The extensive spatiotemporal order revealed by cytoplasmic viral factories is described and contended to play an important role in promoting the efficiency of these ‘nuclear-like’ organelles. Generation of single-layered internal membrane sheets in Mimivirus and Vaccinia, which proceeds through a novel membrane biogenesis mechanism that enables continuous supply of lipids, is highlighted as an intriguing case study of self-assembly. Mimivirus genome encapsidation was shown to occur through a portal different from the ‘stargate’ portal that is used for genome release. Such a ‘division of labor’ is proposed to enhance the efficacy of translocation processes of very large viral genomes. Finally, open questions concerning the infection cycles of giant viruses to which future studies are likely to provide novel and exciting answers are discussed. - Highlights: • The discovery of giant DNA viruses blurs the distinction between viruses and cells. • Mimivirus and Vaccinia replicate exclusively in their host cytoplasm. • Mimivirus genome is delivered through a unique portal coined the Stargate. • Generation of Mimivirus internal membrane proceeds through a novel pathway

  5. Infection cycles of large DNA viruses: Emerging themes and underlying questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutsafi, Yael, E-mail: yael.mutsafi@weizmann.ac.il; Fridmann-Sirkis, Yael; Milrot, Elad; Hevroni, Liron; Minsky, Abraham, E-mail: avi.minsky@weizmann.ac.il

    2014-10-15

    The discovery of giant DNA viruses and the recent realization that such viruses are diverse and abundant blurred the distinction between viruses and cells. These findings elicited lively debates on the nature and origin of viruses as well as on their potential roles in the evolution of cells. The following essay is, however, concerned with new insights into fundamental structural and physical aspects of viral replication that were derived from studies conducted on large DNA viruses. Specifically, the entirely cytoplasmic replication cycles of Mimivirus and Vaccinia are discussed in light of the highly limited trafficking of large macromolecules in the crowded cytoplasm of cells. The extensive spatiotemporal order revealed by cytoplasmic viral factories is described and contended to play an important role in promoting the efficiency of these ‘nuclear-like’ organelles. Generation of single-layered internal membrane sheets in Mimivirus and Vaccinia, which proceeds through a novel membrane biogenesis mechanism that enables continuous supply of lipids, is highlighted as an intriguing case study of self-assembly. Mimivirus genome encapsidation was shown to occur through a portal different from the ‘stargate’ portal that is used for genome release. Such a ‘division of labor’ is proposed to enhance the efficacy of translocation processes of very large viral genomes. Finally, open questions concerning the infection cycles of giant viruses to which future studies are likely to provide novel and exciting answers are discussed. - Highlights: • The discovery of giant DNA viruses blurs the distinction between viruses and cells. • Mimivirus and Vaccinia replicate exclusively in their host cytoplasm. • Mimivirus genome is delivered through a unique portal coined the Stargate. • Generation of Mimivirus internal membrane proceeds through a novel pathway.

  6. Plasma membrane associated, virus-specific polypeptides required for the formation of target antigen complexes recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domber, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to define some of the poxvirus-specific target antigens which are synthesized in infected cells and recognized by vaccinia virus-specific CTLs (VV-CTLs). Since vaccinia virus infected, unmanipulated target cells express numerous virus-specific antigens on the plasma membrane, attempts were made to manipulate expression of the poxvirus genome after infection so that one or a few defined virus-specified antigens were expressed on the surface of infected cells. In vitro [ 51 Cr]-release assays determined that viral DNA synthesis and expression of late viral proteins were not necessary to form a target cell which was fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Under the conditions employed in these experiments, 90-120 minutes of viral protein synthesis were necessary to produce a competent cell for lysis by VV-CTLs. In order to further inhibit the expression of early viral proteins in infected cells, partially UV-inactivated vaccinia virus was employed to infect target cells. It was determined that L-cells infected with virus preparations which had been UV-irradiated for 90 seconds were fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Cells infected with 90 second UV-irr virus expressed 3 predominant, plasma membrane associated antigens of 36-37K, 27-28K, and 19-17K. These 3 viral antigens represent the predominant membrane-associated viral antigens available for interaction with class I, major histocompatibility antigens and hence are potential target antigens for VV-CTLs

  7. Identification and nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase gene of Shope fibroma virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, C.; McFadden, G.

    1986-01-01

    The thymidine kinase (TK) gene of Shope fibroma virus (SFV), a tumorigenic leporipoxvirus, was localized within the viral genome with degenerate oligonucleotide probes. These probes were constructed to two regions of high sequence conservation between the vaccinia virus TK gene and those of several known eucaryotic cellular TK genes, including human, mouse, hamster, and chicken TK genes. The oligonucleotide probes initially localized the SFV TK gene 50 kilobases (kb) from the right terminus of the 160-kb SFV genome within the 9.5-kb BamHI-HindIII fragment E. Fine-mapping analysis indicated that the TK Gene was within a 1.2-kb AvaI-HaeIII fragment, and DNA sequencing of this region revealed an open reading frame capable of encoding a polypeptide of 187 amino acids possessing considerable homology to the TK genes of the vaccinia, variola, and monkeypox orthopoxviruses and also to a variety of cellular TK genes. Homology matrix analysis and homology scores suggest that the SFV TK gene has diverged significantly from its counterpart members in the orthopoxvirus genus. Nevertheless, the presence of conserved upstream open reading frames on the 5' side of all of the poxvirus TK genes indicates a similarity of functional organization between the orthopoxviruses and leporipoxviruses. These data suggest a common ancestral origin for at least some of the unique internal regions of the leporipoxviruses and orthopoxviruses as exemplified by SFV and vaccinia virus, respectively

  8. HIV-1 infection induces changes in expression of cellular splicing factors that regulate alternative viral splicing and virus production in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purcell Damian FJ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages are important targets and long-lived reservoirs of HIV-1, which are not cleared of infection by currently available treatments. In the primary monocyte-derived macrophage model of infection, replication is initially productive followed by a decline in virion output over ensuing weeks, coincident with a decrease in the levels of the essential viral transactivator protein Tat. We investigated two possible mechanisms in macrophages for regulation of viral replication, which appears to be primarily regulated at the level of tat mRNA: 1 differential mRNA stability, used by cells and some viruses for the rapid regulation of gene expression and 2 control of HIV-1 alternative splicing, which is essential for optimal viral replication. Results Following termination of transcription at increasing times after infection in macrophages, we found that tat mRNA did indeed decay more rapidly than rev or nef mRNA, but with similar kinetics throughout infection. In addition, tat mRNA decayed at least as rapidly in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Expression of cellular splicing factors in uninfected and infected macrophage cultures from the same donor showed an inverse pattern over time between enhancing factors (members of the SR family of RNA binding proteins and inhibitory factors (members of the hnRNP family. While levels of the SR protein SC35 were greatly up-regulated in the first week or two after infection, hnRNPs of the A/B and H groups were down-regulated. Around the peak of virus production in each culture, SC35 expression declined to levels in uninfected cells or lower, while the hnRNPs increased to control levels or above. We also found evidence for increased cytoplasmic expression of SC35 following long-term infection. Conclusion While no evidence of differential regulation of tat mRNA decay was found in macrophages following HIV-1 infection, changes in the balance of cellular splicing factors which regulate alternative

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate Immunity via Interferon Beta and Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase.

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    Michael B Cheung

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV has been reported to infect human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs but the consequences are poorly understood. MSCs are present in nearly every organ including the nasal mucosa and the lung and play a role in regulating immune responses and mediating tissue repair. We sought to determine whether RSV infection of MSCs enhances their immune regulatory functions and contributes to RSV-associated lung disease. RSV was shown to replicate in human MSCs by fluorescence microscopy, plaque assay, and expression of RSV transcripts. RSV-infected MSCs showed differentially altered expression of cytokines and chemokines such as IL-1β, IL6, IL-8 and SDF-1 compared to epithelial cells. Notably, RSV-infected MSCs exhibited significantly increased expression of IFN-β (~100-fold and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO (~70-fold than in mock-infected MSCs. IDO was identified in cytosolic protein of infected cells by Western blots and enzymatic activity was detected by tryptophan catabolism assay. Treatment of PBMCs with culture supernatants from RSV-infected MSCs reduced their proliferation in a dose dependent manner. This effect on PBMC activation was reversed by treatment of MSCs with the IDO inhibitors 1-methyltryptophan and vitamin K3 during RSV infection, a result we confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of IDO in MSCs. Neutralizing IFN-β prevented IDO expression and activity. Treatment of MSCs with an endosomal TLR inhibitor, as well as a specific inhibitor of the TLR3/dsRNA complex, prevented IFN-β and IDO expression. Together, these results suggest that RSV infection of MSCs alters their immune regulatory function by upregulating IFN-β and IDO, affecting immune cell proliferation, which may account for the lack of protective RSV immunity and for chronicity of RSV-associated lung diseases such as asthma and COPD.

  10. Activation of cross-reactive mucosal T and B cell responses in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue in vitro by Modified Vaccinia Ankara-vectored influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Jennifer; Ahmed, Muhammed S; Sharma, Ravi; Upile, Navdeep; Beer, Helen; Achar, Priya; Puksuriwong, Suttida; Ferrara, Francesca; Temperton, Nigel; McNamara, Paul; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C; Zhang, Qibo

    2016-03-29

    Recent efforts have been focused on the development of vaccines that could induce broad immunity against influenza virus, either through T cell responses to conserved internal antigens or B cell response to cross-reactive haemagglutinin (HA). We studied the capacity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-vectored influenza vaccines to induce cross-reactive immunity to influenza virus in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in vitro. Adenotonsillar cells were isolated and stimulated with MVA vaccines expressing either conserved nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein 1 (M1) (MVA-NP-M1) or pandemic H1N1 HA (MVA-pdmH1HA). The MVA vaccine uptake and expression, and T and B cell responses were analyzed. MVA-vectored vaccines were highly efficient infecting NALT and vaccine antigens were highly expressed by B cells. MVA-NP-M1 elicited T cell response with greater numbers of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells and tissue-resident memory T cells than controls. MVA-pdmH1HA induced cross-reactive anti-HA antibodies to a number of influenza subtypes, in an age-dependent manner. The cross-reactive antibodies include anti-avian H5N1 and mainly target HA2 domain. MVA vaccines are efficient in infecting NALT and the vaccine antigen is highly expressed by B cells. MVA vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens induce cross-reactive T and B cell responses in human NALT in vitro, suggesting the potential as mucosal vaccines for broader immunity against influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A proteomic perspective of inbuilt viral protein regulation: pUL46 tegument protein is targeted for degradation by ICP0 during herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aaron E; Greco, Todd M; Döhner, Katinka; Sodeik, Beate; Cristea, Ileana M

    2013-11-01

    Much like the host cells they infect, viruses must also regulate their life cycles. Herpes simples virus type 1 (HSV-1), a prominent human pathogen, uses a promoter-rich genome in conjunction with multiple viral trans-activating factors. Following entry into host cells, the virion-associated outer tegument proteins pUL46 and pUL47 act to increase expression of viral immediate-early (α) genes, thereby helping initiate the infection life cycle. Because pUL46 has gone largely unstudied, we employed a hybrid mass spectrometry-based approach to determine how pUL46 exerts its functions during early stages of infection. For a spatio-temporal characterization of pUL46, time-lapse microscopy was performed in live cells to define its dynamic localization from 2 to 24 h postinfection. Next, pUL46-containing protein complexes were immunoaffinity purified during infection of human fibroblasts and analyzed by mass spectrometry to investigate virus-virus and virus-host interactions, as well as post-translational modifications. We demonstrated that pUL46 is heavily phosphorylated in at least 23 sites. One phosphorylation site matched the consensus 14-3-3 phospho-binding motif, consistent with our identification of 14-3-3 proteins and host and viral kinases as specific pUL46 interactions. Moreover, we determined that pUL46 specifically interacts with the viral E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0. We demonstrated that pUL46 is partially degraded in a proteasome-mediated manner during infection, and that the catalytic activity of ICP0 is responsible for this degradation. This is the first evidence of a viral protein being targeted for degradation by another viral protein during HSV-1 infection. Together, these data indicate that pUL46 levels are tightly controlled and important for the temporal regulation of viral gene expression throughout the virus life cycle. The concept of a structural virion protein, pUL46, performing nonstructural roles is likely to reflect a theme common to many viruses

  12. Human-like PB2 627K influenza virus polymerase activity is regulated by importin-α1 and -α7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hudjetz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses may cross species barriers and transmit to humans with the potential to cause pandemics. Interplay of human- (PB2 627K and avian-like (PB2 627E influenza polymerase complexes with unknown host factors have been postulated to play a key role in interspecies transmission. Here, we have identified human importin-α isoforms (α1 and α7 as positive regulators of human- but not avian-like polymerase activity. Human-like polymerase activity correlated with efficient recruitment of α1 and α7 to viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs without affecting subcellular localization. We also observed that human-like influenza virus growth was impaired in α1 and α7 downregulated human lung cells. Mice lacking α7 were less susceptible to human- but not avian-like influenza virus infection. Thus, α1 and α7 are positive regulators of human-like polymerase activity and pathogenicity beyond their role in nuclear transport.

  13. Two cis-acting elements responsible for posttranscriptional trans-regulation of gene expression of human T-cell leukemia virus type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiki, Motoharu; Inoue, Junichiro; Hidaka, Makoto; Yoshida, Mitsuaki

    1988-01-01

    The pX sequence of human T-cell leukemia virus type I codes for two nuclear proteins, p40 tax and p27 rex and a cytoplasmic protein, p21 X-III . p40 tax activates transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR), whereas p27 rex modulates posttranscriptional processing to accumulate gag and env mRNAs that retain intron sequences. In this paper, the authors identify two cis-acting sequence elements needed for regulation by p27 rex : a 5' splice signal and a specific sequence in the 3' LTR. These two sequence elements are sufficient for regulation by p27 rex ; expression of a cellular gene (metallothionein I) became sensitive to rex regulation when the LTR was inserted at the 3' end of this gene. The requirement for these two elements suggests and unusual regulatory mechanism of RNA processing in the nucleus

  14. The Role of B Cells for in Vivo T Cell Responses to a Friend Virus-Induced Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kirk R.; Klarnet, Jay P.; Gieni, Randall S.; Hayglass, Kent T.; Greenberg, Philip D.

    1990-08-01

    B cells can function as antigen-presenting cells and accessory cells for T cell responses. This study evaluated the role of B cells in the induction of protective T cell immunity to a Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced leukemia (FBL). B cell-deficient mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor-specific CD4^+ helper and CD8^+ cytotoxic T cell responses after priming with FBL or a recombinant vaccinia virus containing F-MuLV antigens. Moreover, these mice had diminished T cell responses to the vaccinia viral antigens. Tumor-primed T cells transferred into B cell-deficient mice effectively eradicated disseminated FBL. Thus, B cells appear necessary for efficient priming but not expression of tumor and viral T cell immunity.

  15. A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2013-07-25

    Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  16. Heat shock protein 90 positively regulates Chikungunya virus replication by stabilizing viral non-structural protein nsP2 during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high morbidity and socio-economic loss associated with the recent massive global outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV emphasize the need to understand the biology of the virus for developing effective antiviral therapies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, an attempt was made to understand the molecular mechanism involved in Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 mediated regulation of CHIKV infection in mammalian cells using CHIKV prototype strain (S 27 and Indian outbreak strain of 2006 (DRDE-06. Our results showed that Hsp90 is required at a very early stage of viral replication and Hsp90 inhibitor Geldanamycin (GA can abrogate new virus particle formation more effectively in the case of S 27 than that of DRDE-06. Further analysis revealed that CHIKV nsP2 protein level is specifically reduced by GA treatment as well as HSP90-siRNA transfection; however, viral RNA remains unaltered. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that nsP2 interacts with Hsp90 during infection; however this interaction is reduced in the presence of GA. In addition, our analysis on Hsp90 associated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway demonstrated that CHIKV infection stabilizes Raf1 and activates Hsp90 client protein Akt, which in turn phosphorylates mTOR. Subsequently, this phosphorylation leads to the activation of two important downstream effectors, S6K and 4EBP1, which may facilitate translation of viral as well as cellular mRNAs. Hence, the data suggests that CHIKV infection is regulated by Hsp90 associated Akt phosphorylation and DRDE-06 is more efficient than S 27 in enhancing the activation of host signaling molecules for its efficient replication and virus production. CONCLUSION: Hsp90 positively regulates Chikungunya virus replication by stabilizing CHIKV-nsP2 through its interaction during infection. The study highlights the possible molecular mechanism of GA mediated inhibition of CHIKV replication and differential effect of this drug on S 27 and DRDE-06

  17. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Martin; Es-Saad, Salwa; Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Fink, Karin; Pham, Tram; Raymond, Valérie-Ann; Audette, Karine; Guenier, Anne-Sophie; Duchaine, Jean; Servant, Marc; Bilodeau, Marc; Cohen, Eric; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Lamarre, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1) promoter following Sendai virus (SeV) infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR)-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1) upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  18. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baril

    Full Text Available To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1 promoter following Sendai virus (SeV infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptor (RLR-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1 upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  19. SIRT6 Acts as a Negative Regulator in Dengue Virus-Induced Inflammatory Response by Targeting the DNA Binding Domain of NF-κB p65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus causing human disease with variable severity. The production of massive inflammatory cytokines in dengue patients has been associated with dengue disease severity. However, the regulation of these inflammatory responses remains unclear. In this study, we report that SIRT6 is a negative regulator of innate immune responses during DENV infection. Silencing of Sirt6 enhances DENV-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Overexpression of SIRT6 inhibits RIG-I-like receptor (RLR and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 mediated NF-κB activation. The sirtuin core domain of SIRT6 is required for the inhibition of NF-κB p65 function. SIRT6 interacts with the DNA binding domain of p65 and competes with p65 to occupy the Il6 promoter during DENV infection. Collectively, our study demonstrates that SIRT6 negatively regulates DENV-induced inflammatory response via RLR and TLR3 signaling pathways.

  20. The Role of the MHV Receptor and Related Glycoproteins in Murine Hepatitis Virus Infection of Murine Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-13

    vaccinia virus-T7 RNA polymerase s y stem for e xpression of target genes . Mol . Cell . BioI . 7 : 2538-2544 . Gagneten , S ., Gout , 0 ., Dubois-Dalcq...glycoprotein. These results showed f or the first time that two murine CEA- related genes can be co-expressed in some cell lines from inbred mice...49 Southern Hybridization ................ . ............ 50 Subcloning of PCR Products and Gene Cloning ........ 51 Growth

  1. miR-146a negatively regulates the induction of proinflammatory cytokines in response to Japanese encephalitis virus infection in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Minnan; Du, Ganqin; Zhao, Jiegang; Du, Xiaowei

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidence confirms the involvement of virus infection and miRNA, such as miR-146a, in neuroinflammation-associated epilepsy. In the present study, we investigated the upregulation of miR-146a with RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization methods in a mice infection model of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and in vitro. Subsequently we investigated the involvement of miR-146a in modulating JEV-induced neuroinflammation. It was demonstrated that JEV infection promoted miR-146a production in BALB/c mice brain and in cultured mouse microglial C8-B4 cells, along with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β and IFN-α. We also found that miR-146a exerted negative regulatory effects upon IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β and IFN-α in C8-B4 cells. Accordingly, miR-146a downregulation with a miR-146a inhibitor promoted the upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β and IFN-α, whereas miR-146a upregulation with miR-146a mimics reduced the upregulation of these cytokines. Moreover, miR-146a exerted no regulation upon JEV growth in C8-B4 cells. In conclusion, JEV infection upregulated miR-146a and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, in mice brain and in cultured C8-B4 cells. Furthermore, miR-146a negatively regulated the production of JEV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, in virus growth independent fashion, identifying miR-146a as a negative feedback regulator in JEV-induced neuroinflammation, and possibly in epilepsy.

  2. Identification of adaptive mutations in the influenza A virus non-structural 1 gene that increase cytoplasmic localization and differentially regulate host gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Forbes

    Full Text Available The NS1 protein of influenza A virus (IAV is a multifunctional virulence factor. We have previously characterized gain-of-function mutations in the NS1 protein arising from the experimental adaptation of the human isolate A/Hong Kong/1/1968(H3N2 (HK to the mouse. The majority of these mouse adapted NS1 mutations were demonstrated to increase virulence, viral fitness, and interferon antagonism, but differ in binding to the post-transcriptional processing factor cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 (CPSF30. Because nuclear trafficking is a major genetic determinant of influenza virus host adaptation, we assessed subcellular localization and host gene expression of NS1 adaptive mutations. Recombinant HK viruses with adaptive mutations in the NS1 gene were assessed for NS1 protein subcellular localization in mouse and human cells using confocal microscopy and cellular fractionation. In human cells the HK wild-type (HK-wt virus NS1 protein partitioned equivalently between the cytoplasm and nucleus but was defective in cytoplasmic localization in mouse cells. Several adaptive mutations increased the proportion of NS1 in the cytoplasm of mouse cells with the greatest effects for mutations M106I and D125G. The host gene expression profile of the adaptive mutants was determined by microarray analysis of infected mouse cells to show either high or low extents of host-gene regulation (HGR or LGR phenotypes. While host genes were predominantly down regulated for the HGR group of mutants (D2N, V23A, F103L, M106I+L98S, L98S, M106V, and M106V+M124I, the LGR phenotype mutants (D125G, M106I, V180A, V226I, and R227K were characterized by a predominant up regulation of host genes. CPSF30 binding affinity of NS1 mutants did not predict effects on host gene expression. To our knowledge this is the first report of roles of adaptive NS1 mutations that impact intracellular localization and regulation of host gene expression.

  3. The p2 domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag regulates sequential proteolytic processing and is required to produce fully infectious virions.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, S C; Moody, M D; Wehbie, R S; Kaplan, A H; Nantermet, P V; Klein, C A; Swanstrom, R

    1994-01-01

    The proteolytic processing sites of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor are cleaved in a sequential manner by the viral protease. We investigated the factors that regulate sequential processing. When full-length Gag protein was digested with recombinant HIV-1 protease in vitro, four of the five major processing sites in Gag were cleaved at rates that differ by as much as 400-fold. Three of these four processing sites were cleaved independently of the others. The CA/p...

  4. Characteristics of siRNAs derived from Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in infected rice and their potential role in host gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donglin; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-02-10

    Virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs)-mediated RNA silencing plays important roles in interaction between plant viruses and their hosts. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a newly emerged devastating rice reovirus with ten dsRNA genomic segments. The characteristics of SRBSDV-derived siRNAs and their biological implications in SRBSDV-rice interaction remain unexplored. VsiRNAs profiling from SRBSDV-infected rice samples was done via small RNA deep sequencing. The putative rice targets of abundantly expressed vsiRNAs were bioinformatically predicted and subjected to functional annotation. Differential expression analysis of rice targets and RNA silencing components between infected and healthy samples was done using RT-qPCR. The vsiRNA was barely detectable at 14 days post infection (dpi) but abundantly present along with elevated expression level of the viral genome at 28 dpi. From the 28-dpi sample, 70,878 reads of 18 ~ 30-nt vsiRNAs were recognized (which mostly were 21-nt and 22-nt), covering 75 ~ 91% of the length of the ten genomic segments respectively. 86% of the vsiRNAs had a rice genes, including several types of host resistance or pathogenesis related genes encoding F-box/LRR proteins, receptor-like protein kinases, universal stress proteins, tobamovirus multiplication proteins, and RNA silencing components OsDCL2a and OsAGO17 respectively, some of which showed down regulation in infected plants in RT-qPCR. GO and KEGG classification showed that a majority of the predicted targets were related to cell parts and cellular processes and involved in carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and signal transduction. The silencing component genes OsDCL2a, OsDCL2b, OsDCL4, and OsAGO18 were down regulated, while OsAGO1d, OsAGO2, OsRDR1 and OsRDR6 were up regulated, significantly, upon SRBSDV infection. SRBSDV can regulate the expression of rice RNA silencing pathway components and the virus might compromise host defense and influence host

  5. Prospective surveillance for cardiac adverse events in healthy adults receiving modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Elizaga

    Full Text Available Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines.Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. 'Routine cardiac investigations' (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls, and 'Symptom-driven cardiac investigations' are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine.Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12% had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine.Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603 NCT00301184 NCT00428337.

  6. Prospective surveillance for cardiac adverse events in healthy adults receiving modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizaga, Marnie L; Vasan, Sandhya; Marovich, Mary A; Sato, Alicia H; Lawrence, Dale N; Chaitman, Bernard R; Frey, Sharon E; Keefer, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax) campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines. Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. 'Routine cardiac investigations' (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls), and 'Symptom-driven cardiac investigations' are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine. Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12%) had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine. Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603 NCT00301184 NCT00428337.

  7. Infection cycles of large DNA viruses: emerging themes and underlying questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsafi, Yael; Fridmann-Sirkis, Yael; Milrot, Elad; Hevroni, Liron; Minsky, Abraham

    2014-10-01

    The discovery of giant DNA viruses and the recent realization that such viruses are diverse and abundant blurred the distinction between viruses and cells. These findings elicited lively debates on the nature and origin of viruses as well as on their potential roles in the evolution of cells. The following essay is, however, concerned with new insights into fundamental structural and physical aspects of viral replication that were derived from studies conducted on large DNA viruses. Specifically, the entirely cytoplasmic replication cycles of Mimivirus and Vaccinia are discussed in light of the highly limited trafficking of large macromolecules in the crowded cytoplasm of cells. The extensive spatiotemporal order revealed by cytoplasmic viral factories is described and contended to play an important role in promoting the efficiency of these 'nuclear-like' organelles. Generation of single-layered internal membrane sheets in Mimivirus and Vaccinia, which proceeds through a novel membrane biogenesis mechanism that enables continuous supply of lipids, is highlighted as an intriguing case study of self-assembly. Mimivirus genome encapsidation was shown to occur through a portal different from the 'stargate' portal that is used for genome release. Such a 'division of labor' is proposed to enhance the efficacy of translocation processes of very large viral genomes. Finally, open questions concerning the infection cycles of giant viruses to which future studies are likely to provide novel and exciting answers are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inactivation of viruses in bubbling processes utilized for personal bioaerosol monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, I E; Safatov, A S; Borodulin, A I; Pyankov, O V; Petrishchenko, V A; Sergeev, A N; Agafonov, A P; Ignatiev, G M; Sergeev, A A; Agranovski, V

    2004-12-01

    A new personal bioaerosol sampler has recently been developed and evaluated for sampling of viable airborne bacteria and fungi under controlled laboratory conditions and in the field. The operational principle of the device is based on the passage of air through porous medium immersed in liquid. This process leads to the formation of bubbles within the filter as the carrier gas passes through and thus provides effective mechanisms for aerosol removal. As demonstrated in previous studies, the culturability of sampled bacterium and fungi remained high for the entire 8-h sampling period. The present study is the first step of the evaluation of the new sampler for monitoring of viable airborne viruses. It focuses on the investigation of the inactivation rate of viruses in the bubbling process during 4 h of continuous operation. Four microbes were used in this study, influenza, measles, mumps, and vaccinia viruses. It was found that the use of distilled water as the collection fluid was associated with a relatively high decay rate. A significant improvement was achieved by utilizing virus maintenance fluid prepared by using Hank's solution with appropriate additives. The survival rates of the influenza, measles, and mumps viruses were increased by 1.4 log, 0.83 log, and 0.82 log, respectively, after the first hour of operation compared to bubbling through the sterile water. The same trend was observed throughout the entire 4-h experiment. There was no significant difference observed only for the robust vaccinia virus.

  9. Regulation of H3K4me3 at Transcriptional Enhancers Characterizes Acquisition of Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell-Lineage-Specific Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan E. Russ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection triggers large-scale changes in the phenotype and function of T cells that are critical for immune clearance, yet the gene regulatory mechanisms that control these changes are largely unknown. Using ChIP-seq for specific histone post-translational modifications (PTMs, we mapped the dynamics of ∼25,000 putative CD8+ T cell transcriptional enhancers (TEs differentially utilized during virus-specific T cell differentiation. Interestingly, we identified a subset of dynamically regulated TEs that exhibited acquisition of a non-canonical (H3K4me3+ chromatin signature upon differentiation. This unique TE subset exhibited characteristics of poised enhancers in the naive CD8+ T cell subset and demonstrated enrichment for transcription factor binding motifs known to be important for virus-specific CD8+ T cell differentiation. These data provide insights into the establishment and maintenance of the gene transcription profiles that define each stage of virus-specific T cell differentiation.

  10. The role of the local microenvironment in regulating susceptibility and immune responses to sexually transmitted viruses in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushic, Charu

    2009-12-01

    Sexually transmitted viruses cause chronic infections that have serious long-term health consequences. Based on the evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies, women carry a disproportionately higher burden of sexually transmitted diseases. The reasons for this are not well understood and possibly relate to a variety of social, behavioral and economic factors. In addition to these factors there are biological reasons that contribute to the higher prevalence in women. In this context it is critical to focus on and understand the local microenvironment of the female genital tract, since the majority of viral infections in women occur by heterosexual transmission. The genital tract is also the target site for initiation and maintenance of protective immune responses that could prevent or eliminate viral infections. The epithelial cells of the genital tract provide the first line of defense against viral entry. The interactions between each sexually transmitted virus and the genital epithelium are distinct and determine the outcome of exposure. They are also influenced by a number of factors in the local genital milieu. Among these factors are the female sex hormones that regulate both the susceptibility as well as immune responses to viral infections in the genital tract. Better understanding of the interactions of viruses with the local environment in the female genital tract will lead to development of novel methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections as well as to enhance innate and adaptive immunity.

  11. The Translesion Polymerase Pol η Is Required for Efficient Epstein-Barr Virus Infectivity and Is Regulated by the Viral Deubiquitinating Enzyme BPLF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Ossie F; Pagano, Joseph S; Whitehurst, Christopher B

    2017-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and lytic replication are known to induce a cellular DNA damage response. We previously showed that the virally encoded BPLF1 protein interacts with and regulates several members of the translesion synthesis (TLS) pathway, a DNA damage tolerance pathway, and that these cellular factors enhance viral infectivity. BPLF1 is a late lytic cycle gene, but the protein is also packaged in the viral tegument, indicating that BPLF1 may function both early and late during infection. The BPLF1 protein expresses deubiquitinating activity that is strictly conserved across the Herpesviridae ; mutation of the active site cysteine results in a loss of enzymatic activity. Infection with an EBV BPLF1 knockout virus results in decreased EBV infectivity. Polymerase eta (Pol η), a specialized DNA repair polymerase, functions in TLS and allows for DNA replication complexes to bypass lesions in DNA. Here we report that BPLF1 interacts with Pol η and that Pol η protein levels are increased in the presence of functional BPLF1. BPLF1 promotes a nuclear relocalization of Pol η molecules which are focus-like in appearance, consistent with the localization observed when Pol η is recruited to sites of DNA damage. Knockdown of Pol η resulted in decreased production of infectious virus, and further, Pol η was found to bind to EBV DNA, suggesting that it may allow for bypass of damaged viral DNA during its replication. The results suggest a mechanism by which EBV recruits cellular repair factors, such as Pol η, to sites of viral DNA damage via BPLF1, thereby allowing for efficient viral DNA replication. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and infects approximately 90% of the world's population. It causes lymphomas in individuals with acquired and innate immune disorders and is strongly associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and

  12. Variations in resistance of viruses from different groups to chemico-physical decontamination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnel, H

    1979-01-01

    The resistance of a total of 13 different viruses to some important chemico-physical influences was studied under uniform experimental conditions. Stability in tape water, thermostability and sensitivity to anodic oxidation, gamma radiation, some virucidal substances and several commercial disinfectants were tested. In evaluating the results, an attempt is made to rank the viruses investigated according to their sensitivity. On average a bovine parvovirus, and also a reovirus and three enteroviruses, proved most stable. These were followed by infectious canine hepatitis (adenoviruses). Newcastle disease (paramyxoviruses) and vaccinia (poxviruses) demonstrating less resistance. In all the tests an orthomyxovirus (influenza A), a rhabdovirus (pseudorabies) and a togavirus (sindbis) proved to have relatively low resistance.

  13. Nucleoside Triphosphate Phosphohydrolase I (NPH I) Functions as a 5′ to 3′ Translocase in Transcription Termination of Vaccinia Early Genes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Ryan; Gollnick, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinia virus early genes are transcribed immediately upon infection. Nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase I (NPH I) is an essential component of the early gene transcription complex. NPH I hydrolyzes ATP to release transcripts during transcription termination. The ATPase activity of NPH I requires single-stranded (ss) DNA as a cofactor; however, the source of this cofactor within the transcription complex is not known. Based on available structures of transcription complexes it has been hypothesized that the ssDNA cofactor is obtained from the unpaired non-template strand within the transcription bubble. In vitro transcription on templates that lack portions of the non-template strand within the transcription bubble showed that the upstream portion of the transcription bubble is required for efficient NPH I-mediated transcript release. Complementarity between the template and non-template strands in this region is also required for NPH I-mediated transcript release. This observation complicates locating the source of the ssDNA cofactor within the transcription complex because removal of the non-template strand also disrupts transcription bubble reannealing. Prior studies have shown that ssRNA binds to NPH I, but it does not activate ATPase activity. Chimeric transcription templates with RNA in the non-template strand confirm that the source of the ssDNA cofactor for NPH I is the upstream portion of the non-template strand in the transcription bubble. Consistent with this conclusion we also show that isolated NPH I acts as a 5′ to 3′ translocase on single-stranded DNA. PMID:27189950

  14. Role of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in regulation of the balance between viral plus and minus strand RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Neeleman, L.; Bol, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    Replication of wild type RNA 3 of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) and mutants with frameshifts in the P3 or coat protein (CP) genes was studied in protoplasts from tobacco plants transformed with DNA copies of AIMV RNAs 1 and 2. Accumulation of viral plus and minus strand RNAs was monitored with

  15. Hepatitis C virus non-structural 5B protein interacts with cyclin A2 and regulates viral propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Long; Ngo, HT; Lim, YS

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) requires host cellular proteins for its own propagation. To identify the cellular factors necessary for HCV propagation, we have recently screened the small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting cell cycle genes using cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc...

  16. Nuclear translocation and regulation of intranuclear distribution of cytoplasmic poly(A-binding protein are distinct processes mediated by two Epstein Barr virus proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Park

    Full Text Available Many viruses target cytoplasmic polyA binding protein (PABPC to effect widespread inhibition of host gene expression, a process termed viral host-shutoff (vhs. During lytic replication of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV we observed that PABPC was efficiently translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Translocated PABPC was diffusely distributed but was excluded from viral replication compartments. Vhs during EBV infection is regulated by the viral alkaline nuclease, BGLF5. Transfection of BGLF5 alone into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells promoted translocation of PAPBC that was distributed in clumps in the nucleus. ZEBRA, a viral bZIP protein, performs essential functions in the lytic program of EBV, including activation or repression of downstream viral genes. ZEBRA is also an essential replication protein that binds to viral oriLyt and interacts with other viral replication proteins. We report that ZEBRA also functions as a regulator of vhs. ZEBRA translocated PABPC to the nucleus, controlled the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused global shutoff of host gene expression. Transfection of ZEBRA alone into 293 cells caused nuclear translocation of PABPC in the majority of cells in which ZEBRA was expressed. Co-transfection of ZEBRA with BGLF5 into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells rescued the diffuse intranuclear pattern of PABPC seen during lytic replication. ZEBRA mutants defective for DNA-binding were capable of regulating the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused PABPC to co-localize with ZEBRA. One ZEBRA mutant, Z(S186E, was deficient in translocation yet was capable of altering the intranuclear distribution of PABPC. Therefore ZEBRA-mediated nuclear translocation of PABPC and regulation of intranuclear PABPC distribution are distinct events. Using a click chemistry-based assay for new protein synthesis, we show that ZEBRA and BGLF5 each function as viral host shutoff factors.

  17. Resveratrol treatment reveals a novel role for HMGB1 in regulation of the type 1 interferon response in dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Nurhafiza; Chang, Chih-Peng; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Wu, Yan-Wei; Anderson, Robert; Wan, Shu-Wen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Ho, Tzong-Shiann; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2017-02-20

    Dengue is one of the most significant mosquito-borne virus diseases worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study sought to examine the antiviral activity of resveratrol (RESV), a phytoalexin secreted naturally by plants, against dengue virus (DENV) infection. Our data showed that RESV inhibits the translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a DNA binding protein that normally resides in the nucleus, into the cytoplasm and extracellular milieu. HMGB1 migrates out of the nucleus during DENV infection. This migration is inhibited by RESV treatment and is mediated by induction of Sirt1 which leads to the retention of HMGB1 in the nucleus and consequently helps in the increased production of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Nuclear HMGB1 was found to bind to the promoter region of the ISG and positively regulated the expression of ISG. The enhanced transcription of ISGs by nuclear HMGB1 thus contributes to the antiviral activity of RESV against DENV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that RESV antagonizes DENV replication and that nuclear HMGB1 plays a role in regulating ISG production.

  18. Investigating Viruses during the Transformation of Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Bernard

    2017-03-10

    This Reflections article describes my early work on viral enzymes and the discovery of mRNA capping, how my training in medicine and biochemistry merged as I evolved into a virologist, the development of viruses as vaccine vectors, and how scientific and technological developments during the 1970s and beyond set the stage for the interrogation of nearly every step in the reproductive cycle of vaccinia virus (VACV), a large DNA virus with about 200 genes. The reader may view this article as a work in progress, because I remain actively engaged in research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) notwithstanding 50 memorable years there. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. A replicating modified vaccinia tiantan strain expressing an avian-derived influenza H5N1 hemagglutinin induce broadly neutralizing antibodies and cross-clade protective immunity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Xiao

    Full Text Available To combat the possibility of a zoonotic H5N1 pandemic in a timely fashion, it is necessary to develop a vaccine that would confer protection against homologous and heterologous human H5N1 influenza viruses. Using a replicating modified vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (MVTT as a vaccine vector, we constructed MVTTHA-QH and MVTTHA-AH, which expresses the H5 gene of a goose-derived Qinghai strain A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 or human-derived Anhui Strain A/Anhui/1/2005. The immunogenicity profiles of both vaccine candidates were evaluated. Vaccination with MVTTHA-QH induced a significant level of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs against a homologous strain and a wide range of H5N1 pseudoviruses (clades 1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3.2, and 2.3.4. Neutralization tests (NT and Haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies inhibit the live autologous virus as well as a homologous A/Xingjiang/1/2006 and a heterologous A/Vietnam/1194/2004, representing two human isolates from clade 2.2 and clade 1, respectively. Importantly, mice vaccinated with intranasal MVTTHA-QH were completely protected from challenge with lethal dosages of A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 and the A/Viet Nam/1194/2004, respectively, but not control mice that received a mock MVTTS vaccine. However, MVTTHA-AH induced much lower levels of NT against its autologous strain. Our results suggest that it is feasible to use the H5 gene from A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 to construct an effective vaccine, when using MVTT as a vector, to prevent infections against homologous and genetically divergent human H5N1 influenza viruses.

  20. Hsp90 interacts specifically with viral RNA and differentially regulates replication initiation of Bamboo mosaic virus and associated satellite RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Host factors play crucial roles in the replication of plus-strand RNA viruses. In this report, a heat shock protein 90 homologue of Nicotiana benthamiana, NbHsp90, was identified in association with partially purified replicase complexes from BaMV-infected tissue, and shown to specifically interact with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR of BaMV genomic RNA, but not with the 3' UTR of BaMV-associated satellite RNA (satBaMV RNA or that of genomic RNA of other viruses, such as Potato virus X (PVX or Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Mutational analyses revealed that the interaction occurs between the middle domain of NbHsp90 and domain E of the BaMV 3' UTR. The knockdown or inhibition of NbHsp90 suppressed BaMV infectivity, but not that of satBaMV RNA, PVX, or CMV in N. benthamiana. Time-course analysis further revealed that the inhibitory effect of 17-AAG is significant only during the immediate early stages of BaMV replication. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays demonstrated the existence of an interaction between NbHsp90 and the BaMV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These results reveal a novel role for NbHsp90 in the selective enhancement of BaMV replication, most likely through direct interaction with the 3' UTR of BaMV RNA during the initiation of BaMV RNA replication.

  1. A virus-sensitive suppressor cell is involved in the regulation of human allospecific T cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muluk, S.C.; Bernstein, D.C.; Shearer, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro generation of allospecific CTL by human PBMC was enhanced 4- to 16-fold by sequential plastic and nylon wool adherence, which depleted the PBMC of macrophages and B cells. The enhanced CTL response was suppressed by adding back irradiated, unfractionated PBMC or adherent cells to the depleted cells. This finding suggests that the enhanced CTL response was not simply a consequence of enrichment of T cells, but was instead due to active suppression by radioresistant cells contained in the adherent fraction. Of note is the finding that, unlike the CTL response, the proliferative response to allostimulation was not affected by the removal of adherent cells. The suppressor function could be abrogated by preincubation of irradiated PBMC with influenza A virus before the coculture with depleted cells. Furthermore, costimulation of unfractionated PBMC with influenza A virus and allogeneic stimulators augmented allospecific CTL activity. Thus, in the adherent fraction of human PBMC, there appears to be a native suppressor population that can be functionally inactivated by virus. This result may account for the clinical observation of increased allograft rejection after certain viral infections

  2. Radiation enhanced reactivation of nuclear replicating mammalian viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockstahler, L.E.; Lytle, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    When CV-1 monkey kidney cells were UV-irradiated (0 to 18 J/m 2 ) or X-irradiated (0 to 10 krads) before infection with UV-irradiated simian adenovirus 7 (SA7) or simian virus 40 (SV40), increases in the infectivity of these nuclear replicating viruses as measured by plaque formation were observed. These radiation enhanced reactivations, UV enhanced reactivation (UVER) and X-ray enhanced reactivation (X-ray ER), occurred both when virus infection immediately followed irradiation of the cells (except for X-ray ER with SA7) and when virus infection was delayed until 3 to 5 days after cell irradiation. While there was little difference in the levels of reactivation of UV-irradiated SV40 between immediate and delayed infection, delayed infection resulted in higher levels of reactivation of SA7. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated Herpes simplex virus persisted for several days but did not increase. Thus, X-ray enhanced and UV enhanced reactivations of these mammalian viruses were relatively long-lived effects. Essentially no UVER or X-ray ER was found in CV-1 cells for either immediate or delayed infection with UV-irradiated vaccinia virus or poliovirus, both of which replicate in the cell cytoplasm. These results suggest UVER and X-ray ER in mammalian cells may be restricted to viruses which are replicated in the cell nucleus. (author)

  3. Tetraspanin CD63 Bridges Autophagic and Endosomal Processes To Regulate Exosomal Secretion and Intracellular Signaling of Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Stephanie N; Cheerathodi, Mujeeb R; Nkosi, Dingani; York, Sara B; Meckes, David G

    2018-03-01

    The tetraspanin protein CD63 has been recently described as a key factor in extracellular vesicle (EV) production and endosomal cargo sorting. In the context of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, CD63 is required for the efficient packaging of the major viral oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) into exosomes and other EV populations and acts as a negative regulator of LMP1 intracellular signaling. Accumulating evidence has also pointed to intersections of the endosomal and autophagy pathways in maintaining cellular secretory processes and as sites for viral assembly and replication. Indeed, LMP1 can activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to suppress host cell autophagy and facilitate cell growth and proliferation. Despite the growing recognition of cross talk between endosomes and autophagosomes and its relevance to viral infection, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms governing endosomal and autophagy convergence. Here, we demonstrate that CD63-dependent vesicle protein secretion directly opposes intracellular signaling activation downstream of LMP1, including mTOR-associated proteins. Conversely, disruption of normal autolysosomal processes increases LMP1 secretion and dampens signal transduction by the viral protein. Increases in mTOR activation following CD63 knockout are coincident with the development of serum-dependent autophagic vacuoles that are acidified in the presence of high LMP1 levels. Altogether, these findings suggest a key role of CD63 in regulating the interactions between endosomal and autophagy processes and limiting cellular signaling activity in both noninfected and virally infected cells. IMPORTANCE The close connection between extracellular vesicles and viruses is becoming rapidly and more widely appreciated. EBV, a human gamma herpesvirus that contributes to the progression of a multitude of lymphomas and carcinomas in immunocompromised or genetically susceptible populations, packages its major

  4. In vitro inhibition of monkeypox virus production and spread by Interferon-β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Sara C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orthopoxvirus genus contains numerous virus species that are capable of causing disease in humans, including variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and vaccinia virus (the prototypical member of the genus. Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that is endemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and is characterized by systemic lesion development and prominent lymphadenopathy. Like variola virus, monkeypox virus is a high priority pathogen for therapeutic development due to its potential to cause serious disease with significant health impacts after zoonotic, accidental, or deliberate introduction into a naïve population. Results The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of interferon-β (IFN-β for use against monkeypox virus. We found that treatment with human IFN-β results in a significant decrease in monkeypox virus production and spread in vitro. IFN-β substantially inhibited monkeypox virus when introduced 6-8 h post infection, revealing its potential for use as a therapeutic. IFN-β induced the expression of the antiviral protein MxA in infected cells, and constitutive expression of MxA was shown to inhibit monkeypox virus infection. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the successful inhibition of monkeypox virus using human IFN-β and suggest that IFN-β could potentially serve as a novel safe therapeutic for human monkeypox disease.

  5. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  6. In Vivo fitness associated with high virulence in a vertebrate virus is a complex trait regulated by host entry, replication, and shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between pathogen fitness and virulence is typically examined by quantifying only one or two pathogen fitness traits. More specifically, it is regularly assumed that within-host replication, as a precursor to transmission, is the driving force behind virulence. In reality, many traits contribute to pathogen fitness, and each trait could drive the evolution of virulence in different ways. Here, we independently quantified four viral infection cycle traits, namely, host entry, within-host replication, within-host coinfection fitness, and shedding, in vivo, in the vertebrate virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). We examined how each of these stages of the viral infection cycle contributes to the fitness of IHNV genotypes that differ in virulence in rainbow trout. This enabled us to determine how infection cycle fitness traits are independently associated with virulence. We found that viral fitness was independently regulated by each of the traits examined, with the largest impact on fitness being provided by within-host replication. Furthermore, the more virulent of the two genotypes of IHNV we used had advantages in all of the traits quantified. Our results are thus congruent with the assumption that virulence and within-host replication are correlated but suggest that infection cycle fitness is complex and that replication is not the only trait associated with virulence.

  7. Assembly of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 is regulated by latch-like properties of N and C terminal tails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie P Silva

    Full Text Available The matrix protein VP40 coordinates numerous functions in the viral life cycle of the Ebola virus. These range from the regulation of viral transcription to morphogenesis, packaging and budding of mature virions. Similar to the matrix proteins of other nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, VP40 proceeds through intermediate states of assembly (e.g. octamers but it remains unclear how these intermediates are coordinated with the various stages of the life cycle. In this study, we investigate the molecular basis of synchronization as governed by VP40. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to follow induced structural and conformational changes in VP40. Together with computational modeling, we demonstrate that both extreme N and C terminal tail regions stabilize the monomeric state through a direct association. The tails appear to function as a latch, released upon a specific molecular trigger such as RNA ligation. We propose that triggered release of the tails permits the coordination of late-stage events in the viral life cycle, at the inner membrane of the host cell. Specifically, N-tail release exposes the L-domain motifs PTAP/PPEY to the transport and budding complexes, whereas triggered C-tail release could improve association with the site of budding.

  8. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  10. Structural characterization of an intermolecular RNA–RNA interaction involved in the transcription regulation element of a bipartite plant virus

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Richard H.; Sit, Tim L.; Gracz, Hanna S.; Dolan, Michael A.; Townsend, Hannah L.; Liu, Guihua; Newman, Winnell H.; Agris, Paul F.; Lommel, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The 34-nucleotide trans-activator (TA) located within the RNA-2 of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus folds into a simple hairpin. The eight-nucleotide TA loop base pairs with eight complementary nucleotides in the TA binding sequence (TABS) of the capsid protein subgenomic promoter on RNA-1 and trans-activates subgenomic RNA synthesis. Short synthetic oligoribonucleotide mimics of the RNA-1 TABS and the RNA-2 TA form a weak 1:1 bimolecular complex in vitro with a Ka of 5.3 × 104 M–1. Ka determ...

  11. The Highly Conserved Proline at Position 438 in Pseudorabies Virus gH Is Important for Regulation of Membrane Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Christina; Klupp, Barbara G.; Fuchs, Walter; Gerhard, Marika; Backovic, Marija; Rey, Felix A.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion in herpesviruses requires viral glycoproteins (g) gB and gH/gL. While gB is considered the actual fusion protein but is nonfusogenic per se, the function of gH/gL remains enigmatic. Crystal structures for different gH homologs are strikingly similar despite only moderate amino acid sequence conservation. A highly conserved sequence motif comprises the residues serine-proline-cysteine corresponding to positions 437 to 439 in pseudorabies virus (PrV) gH. The PrV-gH structure sho...

  12. The regulated secretory pathway in CD4(+ T cells contributes to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 cell-to-cell spread at the virological synapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Jolly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct cell-cell spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 at the virological synapse (VS is an efficient mode of dissemination between CD4(+ T cells but the mechanisms by which HIV-1 proteins are directed towards intercellular contacts is unclear. We have used confocal microscopy and electron tomography coupled with functional virology and cell biology of primary CD4(+ T cells from normal individuals and patients with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome and report that the HIV-1 VS displays a regulated secretion phenotype that shares features with polarized secretion at the T cell immunological synapse (IS. Cell-cell contact at the VS re-orientates the microtubule organizing center (MTOC and organelles within the HIV-1-infected T cell towards the engaged target T cell, concomitant with polarization of viral proteins. Directed secretion of proteins at the T cell IS requires specialized organelles termed secretory lysosomes (SL and we show that the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env localizes with CTLA-4 and FasL in SL-related compartments and at the VS. Finally, CD4(+ T cells that are disabled for regulated secretion are less able to support productive cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread. We propose that HIV-1 hijacks the regulated secretory pathway of CD4(+ T cells to enhance its dissemination.

  13. Opposing regulation of PROX1 by interleukin-3 receptor and NOTCH directs differential host cell fate reprogramming by Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus.

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    Jaehyuk Yoo

    Full Text Available Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs are differentiated from blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs during embryogenesis and this physiological cell fate specification is controlled by PROX1, the master regulator for lymphatic development. When Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV infects host cells, it activates the otherwise silenced embryonic endothelial differentiation program and reprograms their cell fates. Interestingly, previous studies demonstrated that KSHV drives BECs to acquire a partial lymphatic phenotype by upregulating PROX1 (forward reprogramming, but stimulates LECs to regain some BEC-signature genes by downregulating PROX1 (reverse reprogramming. Despite the significance of this KSHV-induced bidirectional cell fate reprogramming in KS pathogenesis, its underlying molecular mechanism remains undefined. Here, we report that IL3 receptor alpha (IL3Rα and NOTCH play integral roles in the host cell type-specific regulation of PROX1 by KSHV. In BECs, KSHV upregulates IL3Rα and phosphorylates STAT5, which binds and activates the PROX1 promoter. In LECs, however, PROX1 was rather downregulated by KSHV-induced NOTCH signal via HEY1, which binds and represses the PROX1 promoter. Moreover, PROX1 was found to be required to maintain HEY1 expression in LECs, establishing a reciprocal regulation between PROX1 and HEY1. Upon co-activation of IL3Rα and NOTCH, PROX1 was upregulated in BECs, but downregulated in LECs. Together, our study provides the molecular mechanism underlying the cell type-specific endothelial fate reprogramming by KSHV.

  14. The cholesterol, fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis pathways regulated by site 1 protease (S1P) are required for efficient replication of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Shuzo; Uno, Yukiko; Kurosaki, Yohei; Yasuda, Jiro

    2018-06-12

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV), which has a high mortality rate. Currently, no licensed vaccines or therapeutic agents have been approved for use against SFTSV infection. Here, we report that the cholesterol, fatty acid, and triglyceride synthesis pathways regulated by S1P is involved in SFTSV replication, using CHO-K1 cell line (SRD-12B) that is deficient in site 1 protease (S1P) enzymatic activity, PF-429242, a small compound targeting S1P enzymatic activity, and Fenofibrate and Lovastatin, which inhibit triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis, respectively. These results enhance our understanding of the SFTSV replication mechanism and may contribute to the development of novel therapies for SFTSV infection. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Hepatitis B virus enhances cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity via a mechanism involving suppression of glucose-regulated protein of 78 Kda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Rui; Yang, HuiOu; Xiang, Qian; Jiang, Qing; He, Qi; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Huifen; Wang, Qiang; Ning, Qin; Li, Yiwu; Lei, Ping; Shen, Guanxin

    2016-07-25

    Cisplatin is a classical platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of many cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The application of cisplatin is significantly limited by its toxicity, which may be affected by various biological factors. Persistence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to HCC development and may be associated with higher incidence of severe hepatitis during chemotherapy. However, whether HBV alters the susceptibility of hepatocytes to cisplatin remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HBV transfection enhanced cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity via a mechanism involving suppression of glucose-regulated protein of 78 KDa (Grp78), a major stress-induced chaperone that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Silencing Grp78 gene increased the susceptibility of HepG2 to cisplatin by activating caspase-3. Grp78 expression was down-regulated by HBV infection both in vitro and in liver tissues of patients. We compared the cisplatin sensitivity of hepatoma cells either expressing (HepG2.2.15 cells) or not expressing the entire Hepatitis B Virus genome (HepG2). HepG2.2.15 cells showed increased sensitivity to cisplatin and a higher apoptosis rate. Overexpression of Grp78 counteracted the increase of sensitivity of HepG2.215 cells to cisplatin. Furthermore, we found that HBV disrupted Grp78 synthesis in response to cisplatin stimulation, which may trigger severe and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that can induce cellular apoptosis. Our findings provide new information into the effect of HBV in the modulation of Grp78 expression, and, consequently on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity during viral infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 p30 alters cell cycle G2 regulation of T lymphocytes to enhance cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Lee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is linked to a number of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13 and p30, whose roles are still being defined in the virus life cycle and in HTLV-1 virus-host cell interactions. Proviral clones of HTLV-1 with pX ORF-II mutations diminish the ability of the virus to maintain viral loads in vivo. p30 expressed exogenously differentially modulates CREB and Tax-responsive element-mediated transcription through its interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300 and while acting as a repressor of many genes including Tax, in part by blocking tax/rex RNA nuclear export, selectively enhances key gene pathways involved in T-cell signaling/activation. Results Herein, we analyzed the role of p30 in cell cycle regulation. Jurkat T-cells transduced with a p30 expressing lentivirus vector accumulated in the G2-M phase of cell cycle. We then analyzed key proteins involved in G2-M checkpoint activation. p30 expression in Jurkat T-cells resulted in an increase in phosphorylation at serine 216 of nuclear cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C, had enhanced checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1 serine 345 phosphorylation, reduced expression of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1, diminished phosphorylation of PLK1 at tyrosine 210 and reduced phosphorylation of Cdc25C at serine 198. Finally, primary human lymphocyte derived cell lines immortalized by a HTLV-1 proviral clone defective in p30 expression were more susceptible to camptothecin induced apoptosis. Collectively these data are consistent with a cell survival role of p30 against genotoxic insults to HTLV-1 infected lymphocytes. Conclusion Collectively, our data are the first to indicate that HTLV-1 p30 expression results in activation of the G2-M cell cycle checkpoint, events that would promote early viral spread and T

  17. Human T cell leukemia virus type I prevents cell surface expression of the T cell receptor through down-regulation of the CD3-gamma, -delta, -epsilon, and -zeta genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal Malefyt, R.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; de Vries, J. E.; Sancho, J.; Terhorst, C.; Alarcon, B.

    1990-01-01

    Infection and transformation by human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) up-regulates expression of several inducible genes including those coding for cytokines involved in the proliferation of normal and leukemic T cells. We demonstrate that HTLV-I can also shut off expression of the CD3-gamma,

  18. XMEN disease: a new primary immunodeficiency affecting Mg2+ regulation of immunity against Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Yen; Chaigne-Delalande, Benjamin; Su, Helen; Uzel, Gulbu; Matthews, Helen; Lenardo, Michael J

    2014-04-03

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that infects and persists in 95% of adults worldwide and has the potential to cause fatal disease, especially lymphoma, in immunocompromised hosts. Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to EBV-associated malignancies have provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune defense against EBV. We have recently characterized a novel PID now named "X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, EBV infection, and neoplasia" (XMEN) disease characterized by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1), chronic high-level EBV with increased EBV-infected B cells, and heightened susceptibility to EBV-associated lymphomas. The genetic etiology of XMEN disease has revealed an unexpected quantitative role for intracellular free magnesium in immune functions and has led to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the clinical presentation, genetic mutation spectrum, molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for this previously unrecognized disease.

  19. Virus-Like-Vaccines against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Schwerdtfeger, Melanie; Holst, Peter J

    2018-02-11

    Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have emerged as potent inducers of antibody and helper T cell responses, while replication-deficient viral vectors have yielded potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Here, we review the emerging concept of merging these two technologies into virus-like-vaccines (VLVs) for the targeting of HIV. Such vaccines are immunologically perceived as viruses, as they infect cells and produce VLPs in situ, but they only resemble viruses, as the replication defective vectors and VLPs cannot propagate an infection. The inherent safety of such a platform, despite robust particle production, is a distinct advantage over live-attenuated vaccines that must balance safety and immunogenicity. Previous studies have delivered VLVs encoded in modified Vaccinia Ankara vectors and we have developed the concept into a single-reading adenovirus-based technology capable of eliciting robust CD8⁺ and CD4⁺ T cells responses and trimer binding antibody responses. Such vaccines offer the potential to display the naturally produced immunogen directly and induce an integrated humoral and cellular immune response.

  20. Enhanced light microscopy visualization of virus particles from Zika virus to filamentous ebolaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G Daaboul

    Full Text Available Light microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus particles are too small to be visualized using standard visible light microscopy. Characterization of virus particles is typically performed using higher resolution approaches such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. These approaches require purification of virions away from their normal millieu, requiring significant levels of expertise, and can only enumerate small numbers of particles per field of view. Here, we utilize a visible light imaging approach called Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS that allows automated counting and sizing of thousands of individual virions. Virions are captured directly from complex solutions onto a silicon chip and then detected using a reflectance interference imaging modality. We show that the use of different imaging wavelengths allows the visualization of a multitude of virus particles. Using Violet/UV illumination, the SP-IRIS technique is able to detect individual flavivirus particles (~40 nm, while green light illumination is capable of identifying and discriminating between vesicular stomatitis virus and vaccinia virus (~360 nm. Strikingly, the technology allows the clear identification of filamentous infectious ebolavirus particles and virus-like particles. The ability to differentiate and quantify unlabeled virus particles extends the usefulness of traditional light microscopy and can be embodied in a straightforward benchtop approach allowing widespread applications ranging from rapid detection in biological fluids to analysis of virus-like particles for vaccine development and production.

  1. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  3. Recombination-mediated genetic engineering of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; Andersen, Rikke F; Spencer, Alexandra J

    2008-01-01

    -length, rescuable clones were obtained, which had indistinguishable immunogenicity in mice. One clone was shotgun sequenced and found to be identical to the parent. We employed GalK recombination-mediated genetic engineering (recombineering) of MVA-BAC to delete five selected viral genes. Deletion of C12L, A44L, A...

  4. Progress toward a universal H5N1 vaccine: a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara-expressing trivalent hemagglutinin vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mookkan Prabakaran

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of new sublineages of H5N1 influenza poses the greatest challenge in control of H5N1 infection by currently existing vaccines. To overcome this, an MVAtor vector expressing three H5HA antigens A/Vietnam/1203/04, A/Indonesia/669/06 and A/Anhui/01/05 (MVAtor-tri-HA vector was developed to elicit broad cross-protection against diverse clades by covering amino acid variations in the major neutralizing epitopes of HA among H5N1 subtypes.BALB/c mice and guinea pigs were immunized i.m. with 8×107 TCID50/animal of MVAtor-tri-HA vector. The immunogenicity and cross-protective immunity of the MVAtor-tri-HA vector was evaluated against diverse clades of H5N1 strains.The results showed that mice immunized with MVAtor-tri-HA vector induced robust cross-neutralizing immunity to diverse H5N1 clades. In addition, the MVAtor-tri-HA vector completely protected against 10 MLD50 of a divergent clade of H5N1 infection (clade 7. Importantly, the serological surveillance of post-vaccinated guinea pig sera demonstrated that MVAtor-tri-HA vector was able to elicit strong cross-clade neutralizing immunity against twenty different H5N1 strains from six clades that emerged between 1997 and 2012.The present findings revealed that incorporation of carefully selected HA genes from divergent H5N1 strains within a single vector could be an effective approach in developing a vaccine with broad coverage to prevent infection during a pandemic situation.

  5. Hepatitis C virus core protein expression leads to biphasic regulation of the p21 cdk inhibitor and modulation of hepatocyte cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hau; Mudryj, Maria; Guadalupe, Moraima; Dandekar, Satya

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Core protein is implicated in viral pathogenesis by the modulation of hepatocyte gene expression and function. To determine the effect of Core protein on the cell-cycle control of hepatocytes, a HepG2 cell line containing a Flag-tagged Core under the control of an inducible promoter was generated. Initial Core protein expression included the presence of unprocessed (191 aa) and processed (173 aa) forms of the Core proteins with the processed form becoming dominant later. Expression of the 191 aa form of Core protein corresponded to an increase in the expression of the p21, a decrease in cdk2-dependent kinase activity, and a decrease in the percentage of cells in S-phase along with an accumulation of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle. As the processed form accumulated, the p21 levels started to decline, suggesting that Core protein regulates p21 expression in a biphasic manner. These findings implicate Core protein in potentially modulating hepatocyte cell cycle differentially in the early stages of infection through biphasic regulation of p21 cdk kinase inhibitor

  6. The Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in West Africa: A Wake-up Call to Revitalize Implementation of the International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olu, Olushayo Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    The 2014/15 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the inherent weaknesses associated with the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR). In this perspective article, the lessons learnt from the outbreak are used to review the challenges impeding effective implementation of the IHR and to propose policy and strategic options for enhancing its application. While some progress has been achieved in implementing the IHR in several countries, numerous challenges continue to impede its effectiveness, especially in developing countries, such as those affected by the West Africa EVD outbreak. Political and economic sensitivities associated with reporting public health emergencies of international concern (PHEIC), inadequate resources (human and financial), and lack of technical know-how required for implementation of the IHR are weaknesses that continue to constrain the implementation of the regulations. In view of the complex sociopolitical, cultural, and public health dimensions of PHEICs, frameworks, such as the IHR, which have legal backing, seem to be the most effective and sustainable option for assuring timely detection, notification, and response to such events. Renewed efforts to strengthen national and global institutional frameworks for implementation of the IHR are therefore required. Improvements in transparency, commitment, and accountability of parties to the IHR, mainstreaming of the IHR into national public health governance structures, use of multidisciplinary approaches, and mobilization of the required resources for the implementation of the IHR are imperative.

  7. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Interacts with Nsp9 and Cellular DHX9 To Regulate Viral RNA Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Tian, Jiao; Nan, Hao; Tian, Mengmeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Xiaodong; Huang, Baicheng; Zhou, Enmin; Hiscox, Julian A; Chen, Hongying

    2016-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein is the main component of the viral capsid to encapsulate viral RNA, and it is also a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of host cell processes. Nonstructural protein 9 (Nsp9) is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that plays a critical role in viral RNA transcription and replication. In this study, we demonstrate that PRRSV N protein is bound to Nsp9 by protein-protein interaction and that the contacting surface on Nsp9 is located in the two predicted α-helixes formed by 48 residues at the C-terminal end of the protein. Mutagenesis analyses identified E646, E608, and E611 on Nsp9 and Q85 on the N protein as the pivotal residues participating in the N-Nsp9 interaction. By overexpressing the N protein binding fragment of Nsp9 in infected Marc-145 cells, the synthesis of viral RNAs, as well as the production of infectious progeny viruses, was dramatically inhibited, suggesting that Nsp9-N protein association is involved in the process of viral RNA production. In addition, we show that PRRSV N interacts with cellular RNA helicase DHX9 and redistributes the protein into the cytoplasm. Knockdown of DHX9 increased the ratio of short subgenomic mRNAs (sgmRNAs); in contrast, DHX9 overexpression benefited the synthesis of longer sgmRNAs and the viral genomic RNA (gRNA). These results imply that DHX9 is recruited by the N protein in PRRSV infection to regulate viral RNA synthesis. We postulate that N and DHX9 may act as antiattenuation factors for the continuous elongation of nascent transcript during negative-strand RNA synthesis. It is unclear whether the N protein of PRRSV is involved in regulation of the viral RNA production process. In this report, we demonstrate that the N protein of the arterivirus PRRSV participates in viral RNA replication and transcription through interacting with Nsp9 and its RdRp and recruiting cellular RNA helicase to promote the production of

  8. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de ankara (MVA), con deleción en el gen C6L, como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    García-Arriaza, J.; Gómez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención engloba dentro de los campos de la biología molecular y de la biotecnología. Especificamente se refiere a virus recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) que expresan los antigenos gp120 y Gag-Pol-Nef del virus de la inmunodeficienciahumana (VIH-1) de subtipo B (MVA-B), sobre los que see ha delecionado el gen de vaccinia C6L, y que han sido diseñados para utilizarse como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades.

  9. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA), con deleción en el gen C6L, como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    García-Arriaza, J.; Gómez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    La presente invención se engloba dentro de los campos de la biología molecular y de la biotecnología. Específicamente se refiere a virus recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) que expresan los antígenos gp120 y Gag-Pol-Nef del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH-1) de subtipo B (MVA-B), sobre los que se ha delecionado el gen de vaccinia C6L, y que han sido diseñados para utilizarse como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades.

  10. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or...

  11. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Heng; Guo, Wei; Long, Cong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jingchao; Sun, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression

  12. Importin α5 negatively regulates importin β1-mediated nuclear import of Newcastle disease virus matrix protein and viral replication and pathogenicity in chicken fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Haixu; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu; Xu, Houqiang; Hu, Yan; Deng, Shanshan; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2018-12-31

    The matrix (M) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is demonstrated to localize in the nucleus via intrinsic nuclear localization signal (NLS), but cellular proteins involved in the nuclear import of NDV M protein and the role of M's nuclear localization in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV remain unclear. In this study, importin β1 was screened to interact with NDV M protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. This interaction was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. In vitro binding studies indicated that the NLS region of M protein and the amino acids 336-433 of importin β1 that belonged to the RanGTP binding region were important for binding. Importantly, a recombinant virus with M/NLS mutation resulted in a pathotype change of NDV and attenuated viral replication and pathogenicity in chicken fibroblasts and SPF chickens. In agreement with the binding data, nuclear import of NDV M protein in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells required both importin β1 and RanGTP. Interestingly, importin α5 was verified to interact with M protein through binding importin β1. However, importin β1 or importin α5 depletion by siRNA resulted in different results, which showed the obviously cytoplasmic or nuclear accumulation of M protein and the remarkably decreased or increased replication ability and pathogenicity of NDV in chicken fibroblasts, respectively. Our findings therefore demonstrate for the first time the nuclear import mechanism of NDV M protein and the negative regulation role of importin α5 in importin β1-mediated nuclear import of M protein and the replication and pathogenicity of a paramyxovirus.

  13. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Heng [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Pathology and Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Long, Cong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jingchao [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Sun, Xiaoping, E-mail: xsun6@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression.

  14. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  15. NEMO binds ubiquitinated TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1 to regulate innate immune responses to RNA viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyan Wang

    Full Text Available RIG-I-like receptors (RLR are intracellular sensors utilized by nearly all cell types for recognition of viral RNA, initiation of antiviral defense, and induction of type I interferons (IFN. TBK1 is a critical kinase implicated in RLR-dependent IFN transcription. Posttranslational modification of TBK1 by K63-linked ubiquitin is required for RLR driven signaling. However, the TBK1 ubiquitin acceptor sites and the function of ubiquitinated TBK1 in the signaling cascade are unknown. We now show that TBK1 is ubiquitinated on residues K69, K154, and K372 in response to infection with RNA virus. The K69 and K154 residues are critical for innate antiviral responses and IFN production. Ubiquitinated TBK1 recruits the downstream adaptor NEMO through ubiquitin binding domains. The assembly of the NEMO/TBK1 complex on the mitochondrial protein MAVS leads to activation of TBK1 kinase activity and phosphorylation of the transcription factor, interferon response factor 3. The combined results refine current views of RLR signaling, define the role of TBK1 polyubiquitination, and detail the mechanisms involved in signalosome assembly.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus miR-BART20-5p regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting BAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoji; Choi, Hoyun; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2015-01-28

    Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BamHI A rightward transcript (BART) microRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed in EBV-associated tumors, the role of most BART miRNAs is unclear. In this study, we showed that Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) expression was significantly lower in EBV-infected AGS-EBV cells than in EBV-negative AGS cells and investigated whether BART miRNAs target BAD. Using bioinformatics analysis, five BART miRNAs showing seed match with the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of BAD were selected. Of these, only miR-BART20-5p reduced BAD expression when individually transfected into AGS cells. A luciferase assay revealed that miR-BART20-5p directly targets BAD. The expression of BAD mRNA and protein was decreased by miR-BART20-5p and increased by an inhibitor of miR-BART20-5p. PE-Annexin V staining and cell proliferation assays showed that miR-BART20-5p reduced apoptosis and enhanced cell growth. Furthermore, miR-BART20-5p increased chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil and docetaxel. Our data suggest that miR-BART20-5p contributes to tumorigenesis of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of BAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Insights into Antiviral Gene Regulation of Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, Infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, one of the major pathogens of Procambarus clarkii, has caused severe disruption to the aquaculture industry of P. clarkii in China. To reveal the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying WSSV infection, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed among WSSV-infected susceptible individuals (GS, viral resistant individuals (GR, and a non-infected control group (GC. A total of 61,349 unigenes were assembled from nine libraries. Subsequently, 515 and 1033 unigenes exhibited significant differential expression in sensitive and resistant crayfish individuals compared to the control group (GC. Many differentially expressed genes (e.g., C-type lectin 4, Peroxinectin, Prophenoloxidase, and Serine/threonine-protein kinase observed in GR and GS play critical roles in pathogen recognition and viral defense reactions after WSSV infection. Importantly, the glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate pathway was identified to play critical roles in defense to WSSV infection for resistant crayfish individuals by upregulating the chondroitin sulfate related genes for the synthesis of WSSV-sensitive, functional chondroitin sulfate chains containing E units. Numerous genes and the key pathways identified between resistant and susceptible P. clarkii individuals provide valuable insights regarding antiviral response mechanisms of decapoda species and may help to improve the selective breeding of P. clarkii WSSV-resistance.

  18. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant HBxΔ127 promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fabao [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); You, Xiaona [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Chi, Xiumei [Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Wang, Tao [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ye, Lihong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Niu, Junqi, E-mail: junqiniu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Relative to wild type HBx, HBX mutant HBxΔ127 strongly enhances cell proliferation. • Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 remarkably up-regulates miR-215 in hepatoma cells. • HBxΔ127-elevated miR-215 promotes cell proliferation via targeting PTPRT mRNA. - Abstract: The mutant of virus is a frequent event. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a vital role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the identification of potent mutant of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is significant. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene (termed HBxΔ127). Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhanced cell proliferation and migration in HCC. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism of HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells. Our data showed that both wild type HBx and HBxΔ127 could increase the expression of miR-215 in hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. However, HBxΔ127 was able to significantly increase miR-215 expression relative to wild type HBx in the cells. We identified that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T (PTPRT) was one of the target genes of miR-215 through targeting 3′UTR of PTPRT mRNA. In function, miR-215 was able to promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Meanwhile anti-miR-215 could partially abolish the enhancement of cell proliferation mediated by HBxΔ127 in vitro. Knockdown of PTPRT by siRNA could distinctly suppress the decrease of cell proliferation mediated by anti-miR-215 in HepG2-XΔ127/H7402-XΔ127 cells. Moreover, we found that anti-miR-215 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Collectively, relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhances proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of HBx mutant HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  19. Characterization of Elements Regulating the Nuclear-to-Cytoplasmic Translocation of ICP0 in Late Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Ha, Binh L; Zheng, Yi; Gu, Haidong

    2018-01-15

    Infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an immediate early protein containing a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. It targets several host factors for proteasomal degradation and subsequently activates viral expression. ICP0 has a nuclear localization sequence and functions in the nucleus early during infection. However, later in infection, ICP0 is found solely in the cytoplasm. The molecular mechanism and biological function of the ICP0 nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation are not well understood. In this study, we sought to characterize elements important for this translocation. We found that (i) in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HEL) cells, ICP0 C-terminal residues 741 to 775 were necessary but not sufficient for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation; (ii) the loss of ICP0 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, which led to defective viral replication in nonpermissive cells, also caused mutant ICP0 to be retained in the nucleus of HEL cells; (iii) in permissive U2OS cells, however, ICP0 lacking E3 ligase activity was translocated to the cytoplasm at a pace faster than that of wild-type ICP0, suggesting that nuclear retention of ICP0 occurs in an ICP0 E3 ligase-dependent manner; and (iv) the ICP0 C terminus and late viral proteins cooperate in order to overcome nuclear retention and stimulate ICP0 cytoplasmic translocation. Taken together, less ICP0 nuclear retention may contribute to the permissiveness of U2OS cells to HSV-1 in the absence of functional ICP0. IMPORTANCE A distinct characteristic for eukaryotes is the compartmentalization of cell metabolic pathways, which allows greater efficiency and specificity of cellular functions. ICP0 of HSV-1 is a multifunctional viral protein that travels through different compartments as infection progresses. Its main regulatory functions are carried out in the nucleus, but it is translocated to the cytoplasm late during HSV-1 infection. To understand the biological significance of cytoplasmic ICP0 in

  20. Interferon γ-inducible protein (IFI) 16 transcriptionally regulates type i interferons and other interferon-stimulated genes and controls the interferon response to both DNA and RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mikayla R; Sharma, Shruti; Atianand, Maninjay; Jensen, Søren B; Carpenter, Susan; Knipe, David M; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A

    2014-08-22

    The interferon γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) has recently been linked to the detection of nuclear and cytosolic DNA during infection with herpes simplex virus-1 and HIV. IFI16 binds dsDNA via HIN200 domains and activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator)-binding kinase-1 (TBK1)-dependent phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and transcription of type I interferons (IFNs) and related genes. To better understand the role of IFI16 in coordinating type I IFN gene regulation, we generated cell lines with stable knockdown of IFI16 and examined responses to DNA and RNA viruses as well as cyclic dinucleotides. As expected, stable knockdown of IFI16 led to a severely attenuated type I IFN response to DNA ligands and viruses. In contrast, expression of the NF-κB-regulated cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β was unaffected in IFI16 knockdown cells, suggesting that the role of IFI16 in sensing these triggers was unique to the type I IFN pathway. Surprisingly, we also found that knockdown of IFI16 led to a severe attenuation of IFN-α and the IFN-stimulated gene retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) in response to cyclic GMP-AMP, a second messenger produced by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) as well as RNA ligands and viruses. Analysis of IFI16 knockdown cells revealed compromised occupancy of RNA polymerase II on the IFN-α promoter in these cells, suggesting that transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is dependent on IFI16. These results indicate a broader role for IFI16 in the regulation of the type I IFN response to RNA and DNA viruses in antiviral immunity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Andrographolide exerts anti-hepatitis C virus activity by up-regulating haeme oxygenase-1 via the p38 MAPK/Nrf2 pathway in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ching; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Young, Kung-Chia; Sun, Hung-Yu; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Chen, Wei-Chun; Lin, Chun-Kuang; Wu, Yu-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity of andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone extracted from Andrographis paniculata, and to identify the signalling pathway involved in its antiviral action. Using HCV replicon and HCVcc infectious systems, we identified anti-HCV activity of andrographolide by measuring protein and RNA levels. A reporter activity assay was used to determine transcriptional regulation of anti-HCV agents. A specific inhibitor and short hairpin RNAs were used to investigate the mechanism responsible for the effect of andrographolide on HCV replication. In HCV replicon and HCVcc infectious systems, andrographolide time- and dose-dependently suppressed HCV replication. When combined with IFN-α, an inhibitor targeting HCV NS3/4A protease (telaprevir), or NS5B polymerase (PSI-7977), andrographolide exhibited a significant synergistic effect. Andrographolide up-regulated the expression of haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), leading to increased amounts of its metabolite biliverdin, which was found to suppress HCV replication by promoting the antiviral IFN responses and inhibiting NS3/4A protease activity. Significantly, these antiviral effects were attenuated by an HO-1-specific inhibitor or HO-1 gene knockdown, indicating that HO-1 contributed to the anti-HCV activity of andrographolide. Andrographolide activated p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which stimulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated HO-1 expression, and this was found to be associated with its anti-HCV activity. Our results demonstrate that andrographolide has the potential to control HCV replication and suggest that targeting the Nrf2-HO-1 signalling pathway might be a promising strategy for drug development. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. The p2 domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag regulates sequential proteolytic processing and is required to produce fully infectious virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, S C; Moody, M D; Wehbie, R S; Kaplan, A H; Nantermet, P V; Klein, C A; Swanstrom, R

    1994-12-01

    The proteolytic processing sites of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor are cleaved in a sequential manner by the viral protease. We investigated the factors that regulate sequential processing. When full-length Gag protein was digested with recombinant HIV-1 protease in vitro, four of the five major processing sites in Gag were cleaved at rates that differ by as much as 400-fold. Three of these four processing sites were cleaved independently of the others. The CA/p2 site, however, was cleaved approximately 20-fold faster when the adjacent downstream p2/NC site was blocked from cleavage or when the p2 domain of Gag was deleted. These results suggest that the presence of a C-terminal p2 tail on processing intermediates slows cleavage at the upstream CA/p2 site. We also found that lower pH selectively accelerated cleavage of the CA/p2 processing site in the full-length precursor and as a peptide primarily by a sequence-based mechanism rather than by a change in protein conformation. Deletion of the p2 domain of Gag results in released virions that are less infectious despite the presence of the processed final products of Gag. These findings suggest that the p2 domain of HIV-1 Gag regulates the rate of cleavage at the CA/p2 processing site during sequential processing in vitro and in infected cells and that p2 may function in the proper assembly of virions.

  3. A systems biology approach reveals that tissue tropism to West Nile virus is regulated by antiviral genes and innate immune cellular processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul S Suthar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The actions of the RIG-I like receptor (RLR and type I interferon (IFN signaling pathways are essential for a protective innate immune response against the emerging flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV. In mice lacking RLR or IFN signaling pathways, WNV exhibits enhanced tissue tropism, indicating that specific host factors of innate immune defense restrict WNV infection and dissemination in peripheral tissues. However, the immune mechanisms by which the RLR and IFN pathways coordinate and function to impart restriction of WNV infection are not well defined. Using a systems biology approach, we defined the host innate immune response signature and actions that restrict WNV tissue tropism. Transcriptional profiling and pathway modeling to compare WNV-infected permissive (spleen and nonpermissive (liver tissues showed high enrichment for inflammatory responses, including pattern recognition receptors and IFN signaling pathways, that define restriction of WNV replication in the liver. Assessment of infected livers from Mavs(-/- × Ifnar(-/- mice revealed the loss of expression of several key components within the natural killer (NK cell signaling pathway, including genes associated with NK cell activation, inflammatory cytokine production, and NK cell receptor signaling. In vivo analysis of hepatic immune cell infiltrates from WT mice demonstrated that WNV infection leads to an increase in NK cell numbers with enhanced proliferation, maturation, and effector action. In contrast, livers from Mavs(-/- × Ifnar(-/- infected mice displayed reduced immune cell infiltration, including a significant reduction in NK cell numbers. Analysis of cocultures of dendritic and NK cells revealed both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic roles for the RLR and IFN signaling pathways to regulate NK cell effector activity. Taken together, these observations reveal a complex innate immune signaling network, regulated by the RLR and IFN signaling pathways, that drives tissue

  4. Structural characterization of a novel full-length transcript promoter from Horseradish Latent Virus (HRLV) and its transcriptional regulation by multiple stress responsive transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahamed; Shrestha, Ankita; Bhuyan, Kashyap; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2018-01-01

    The promoter fragment described in this study can be employed for strong transgene expression under both biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Plant-infecting Caulimoviruses have evolved multiple regulatory mechanisms to address various environmental stimuli during the course of evolution. One such mechanism involves the retention of discrete stress responsive cis-elements which are required for their survival and host-specificity. Here we describe the characterization of a novel Caulimoviral promoter isolated from Horseradish Latent Virus (HRLV) and its regulation by multiple stress responsive Transcription factors (TFs) namely DREB1, AREB1 and TGA1a. The activity of full length transcript (Flt-) promoter from HRLV (- 677 to + 283) was investigated in both transient and transgenic assays where we identified H12 (- 427 to + 73) as the highest expressing fragment having ~ 2.5-fold stronger activity than the CaMV35S promoter. The H12 promoter was highly active and near-constitutive in the vegetative and reproductive parts of both Tobacco and Arabidopsis transgenic plants. Interestingly, H12 contains a distinct cluster of cis-elements like dehydration-responsive element (DRE-core; GCCGAC), an ABA-responsive element (ABRE; ACGTGTC) and as-1 element (TGACG) which are known to be induced by cold, drought and pathogen/SA respectively. The specific binding of DREB1, AREB1 and TGA1a to DRE, ABRE and as-1 elements respectively were confirmed by the gel-binding assays using H12 promoter-specific probes. Detailed mutational analysis of the H12 promoter suggested that the presence of DRE-core and as-1 element was indispensable for its activity which was further confirmed by the transactivation assays. Our studies imply that H12 could be a valuable genetic tool for regulated transgene expression under diverse environmental conditions.

  5. Cellular Hsp27 interacts with classical swine fever virus NS5A protein and negatively regulates viral replication by the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shifeng; Luo, Mingyang; Jiang, Shengnan; Liu, Jiayu; Ding, Chunying; Zhang, Qinghuan; Guo, Huancheng; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Changchun; Sun, Jinfu

    2018-05-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nonstructural protein NS5A is a multifunctional protein functioning in regulation of viral genome replication, protein translation and assembly by interaction with viral or host proteins. Here, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) has been identified as a novel binding partner of NS5A by using His tag "pull down" coupled with shotgun LC-MS/MS, with interaction of both proteins further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and laser confocal assays. In PK-15 cells, silencing of Hsp27 expression by siRNA enhanced CSFV replication, and upregulation of Hsp27 inhibited viral proliferation. Additionally, we have shown that overexpression of Hsp27 increased NF-κB signaling induced by TNFα. Blocking NF-κB signaling in PK-15 cells overexpressing Hsp27 by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) eliminated the inhibition of CSFV replication by Hsp27. These findings clearly demonstrate that the inhibition of CSFV replication by Hsp27 is mediated via the NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of p38 MAPK by feline infectious peritonitis virus regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Andrew D; Cohen, Rebecca D; Whittaker, Gary R

    2009-02-05

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an invariably fatal disease of cats caused by systemic infection with a feline coronavirus (FCoV) termed feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). The lethal pathology associated with FIP (granulomatous inflammation and T-cell lymphopenia) is thought to be mediated by aberrant modulation of the immune system due to infection of cells such as monocytes and macrophages. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines occurs in cats with FIP, and has been suggested to play a significant role in the disease process. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. Here we show that infection of primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells by FIPV WSU 79-1146 and FIPV-DF2 leads to rapid activation of the p38 MAPK pathway and that this activation regulates production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). FIPV-induced p38 MAPK activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production was inhibited by the pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors SB 203580 and SC 409 in a dose-dependent manner. FIPV-induced p38 MAPK activation was observed in primary feline blood-derived mononuclear cells individually purified from multiple SPF cats, as was the inhibition of TNF-alpha production by pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors.

  7. Gene-gun DNA vaccination aggravates respiratory syncytial virus-induced pneumonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Christina; Olszewska, Wieslawa; Stryhn, Anette

    2004-01-01

    elicited with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the complete RSV M2 protein, but stronger than those induced by a similar DNA construct without the beta2m gene. DNA vaccination led to enhanced pulmonary disease after RSV challenge, with increased weight loss and cell recruitment to the lung. Depletion......A CD8+ T-cell memory response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was generated by using a DNA vaccine construct encoding the dominant Kd-restricted epitope from the viral transcription anti-terminator protein M2 (M2(82-90)), linked covalently to human beta2-microglobulin (beta2m). Cutaneous gene...... of CD8+ T cells reduced, but did not abolish, enhancement of disease. Mice vaccinated with a construct encoding a class I-restricted lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus epitope and beta2m suffered more severe weight loss after RSV infection than unvaccinated RSV-infected mice, although RSV-specific CD8...

  8. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus multiplication by activated macrophages: a role for arginase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, P; Gell, P G; Rhodes, J; Newton, A

    1982-07-01

    Proteose-peptone-activated mouse macrophages can prevent productive infection by herpes simplex virus in neighboring cells in vitro whether or not those cells belong to the same animal species. The effect does not require contact between the macrophages and the infected cells, may be prevented by adding extra arginine to the medium, and may be reversed when extra arginine is added 24 h after the macrophages. Arginase activity was found both intracellularly and released from the macrophages. The extracellular enzyme is quite stable; 64% activity was found after 48 h of incubation at 37 degrees C in tissue culture medium. No evidence was found that the inefficiency of virus replication in macrophages was due to self-starvation by arginase. As might be predicted macrophages can, by the same mechanism, limit productive infection by vaccinia virus.

  9. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Up-Regulates AKR1C1 Expression Through Nuclear Factor-Y in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Ding, Shijia; Chen, Ke; Qin, Dongdong; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Sen; Sheng, Yanrui; Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Limin; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has long been recognized as an important transcriptional transactivator of several genes. Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), a member of the family of AKR1CS, is significantly increased in HBx-expressed cells. This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of HBx in regulating AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells and the role of AKR1C1 for HBV-induced HCC. RT-PCR was performed to detect AKR1C1 expression on mRNA level in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cell. The promoter activity of AKR1C1 was assayed by transient transfection and Dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The AKR1C1 promoter sequence was screened using the TFSEARCH database and the ALIBABA 2.0 software. The potential transcription factors binding sites were identified using 5' functional deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. In this study, we found that HBx promoted AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Knockdown of HBx inhibited AKR1C1 activation. The role of HBx expression in regulating the promoter activity of human AKR1C1 gene was analyzed. The 5'functional deletion analysis identified that the region between -128 and -88 was the minimal promoter region of HBx to activate AKR1C1 gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested that nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) plays an important role in this HBx-induced AKR1C1 activation. In HepG2.2.1.5 cell, HBx can promote AKR1C1 promoter activity and thus activates the basal transcription of AKR1C1 gene. This process is mediated by the transcription factor NF-Y. This study explored the mechanism for the regulation of HBV on AKR1C1 expression and has provided a new understanding of HBV-induced HCC.

  10. Estudo comparativo das inclusões do alastrim e da vacina no macaco (Macacus rhesus A comparison of the inclusion bodies of alastrim and vaccinia in the monkey (Macacus rhesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magarinos Torres

    1934-02-01

    Full Text Available Vesiculas e pustulas contendo numerosas inclusões citoplasmicas nas celulas epidermicas, foram regularmente produzidas no macaco (Macacus rhesus, quer com o virus do alastrim, quer com o da vacina, após inoculação endovenosa e sem previa escarificação. O virus do alastrim parece menos virulento para essa especie de macaco que o da vacina. Ao passo que 12 macacos rhesus injetados por via endovenosa com sete amostras diferentes de virus do alastrim, após apresentarem com regularidade um infecção experimental, sobreviveram e se conservaram em boa saúde, a injecção endovenosa do virus da vacina recentemente preparado (polpa bruta produziu a morte em 2, dentre 4 animais experimentados. 2. - Foram notadas diferenças pequenas, mas nitidas, na morfologia das inclusões do alastrim e da vacina, em material fixado no liquido de Helly, incluido em parafina e corado pela hematoxilina-eosina. Dizem elas respeito ao numero de inclusões encontradas em cada celula epidermica e às suas reações de coloração. 3. - As inclusões do alastrim, quando apresentam grandes dimensões, conservam-se unicas ou solitarias no citoplasma das celulas epidermicas do macaco rhesus, e coram-se em tonalidade que varia do azul escuro ao cinzento-azulado. Comtudo, em celulas que sofreram necrose, ou naquelas contendo 2 a 4 inclusões de pequenas dimensões, por vezes elas se mostram coradas em roseo. 4. - As inclusões da vacina, quando em faze adeantada de desenvolvimento, são multiplas nas celulas epidermicas do macaco rhesus e mostram, regularmente, uma policromatofilia caracteristica.1. - Vesicles and pustules containing numerous cytoplasmic inclusion bodies within the epidermal cells were regularly produced in monkeys (Macacus rhesus by intravenous inoculation either of alastrim virus or of recently prepared vaccine emulsion, no previous scarifications being required. Alastrim virus seems less virulent for this species of monkey than the virus of vaccinia is

  11. Coated microneedle arrays for transcutaneous delivery of live virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Anto; McGrath, Marie G; Carey, John B; Draper, Simon J; Hill, Adrian V S; O'Mahony, Conor; Crean, Abina M; Moore, Anne C

    2012-04-10

    Vaccines are sensitive biologics that require continuous refrigerated storage to maintain their viability. The vast majority of vaccines are also administered using needles and syringes. The need for cold chain storage and the significant logistics surrounding needle-and-syringe vaccination is constraining the success of immunization programs. Recombinant live viral vectors are a promising platform for the development of vaccines against a number of infectious diseases, however these viruses must retain infectivity to be effective. Microneedles offer an effective and painless method for delivery of vaccines directly into skin that in the future could provide solutions to current vaccination issues. Here we investigated methods of coating live recombinant adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors onto solid microneedle arrays. An effective spray-coating method, using conventional pharmaceutical processes, was developed, in tandem with suitable sugar-based formulations, which produces arrays with a unique coating of viable virus in a dry form around the shaft of each microneedle on the array. Administration of live virus-coated microneedle arrays successfully resulted in virus delivery, transcutaneous infection and induced an antibody or CD8(+) T cell response in mice that was comparable to that obtained by needle-and-syringe intradermal immunization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful vaccination with recombinant live viral vectored vaccines coated on microneedle delivery devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Coated microneedle arrays for transcutaneous delivery of live virus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Anto; McGrath, Marie G.; Carey, John B.; Draper, Simon J.; Hill, Adrian V.S.; O’Mahony, Conor; Crean, Abina M.; Moore, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are sensitive biologics that require continuous refrigerated storage to maintain their viability. The vast majority of vaccines are also administered using needles and syringes. The need for cold chain storage and the significant logistics surrounding needle-and-syringe vaccination is constraining the success of immunization programs. Recombinant live viral vectors are a promising platform for the development of vaccines against a number of infectious diseases, however these viruses must retain infectivity to be effective. Microneedles offer an effective