WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulate heat conservation

  1. Energy conservation. Purposeful regulation and control systems for gas infrared radiation heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsch, L [GoGaS Goch G.m.b.H. und Co., Dortmund (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    Gas infrared radiators have been in use for a long time for heating large halls of trade and industrial buildings as well as sport centers. The success of this heating system is based mainly on considerably reduced energy consumption as against convective heating systems. However, the biggest energy savings can be achieved when heating systems of this kind are equipped with regulation and control systems which are adapted to the way the rooms are used. Solutions to problems are described and information is given for planning.

  2. Regulation and energy conservation. The case of combined heat and power in the European Union. Situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, C.; Worrell, E.; Blok, K.; Velthuijsen, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    Policy measures to stimulate the proliferation of combined heat and power generation (CHP) have been motivated because of the energy efficiency potential. In this paper we investigate to what extent the penetration of CHP has taken place in the 12 member states of the European Union (EU-12). Also analyzed is the potential heat demand which can be covered by CHP, and the corresponding amount of capacity for each country. A short overview is given of the goals for CHP capacity for some of the EU-12 member states. We distinguish two different kinds of policy instruments: standard settings and economic instruments. Four different types of standard settings are given. We evaluate a specific standard setting which is applied in the Netherlands in the 1970's and early 1980's. The economic instruments are evaluated in terms of payback time. This payback period can be influenced by for instance an investment grant, tax on the emission of carbon dioxide, a raise of selling electricity to the public grid and lower the price for natural gas for CHP applications. Finally, we give some recommendations how EU policy may stimulate the application of CHP. In section 2 we describe the development of CHP from 1974 to 1990 in the EU-12 member states. and the intentions stated by the national governments. In section 3 we give an overview of the potential capacity of CHP. In section 4 we discuss the regulation instruments: standard settings and economical instruments. In section 5 we give some conclusions especially with regard to EU policy options. 23 refs

  3. Economic aspects of possible residential heating conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkowicz, M.; Szul, A. [Technical Univ., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents methods of evaluation of energy and economy related effects of different actions aimed at conservation in residential buildings. It identifies also the method of selecting the most effective way of distribution funds assigned to weatherization as well as necessary improvements to be implemented within the heating node and the internal heating system of the building. The analysis of data gathered for four 11-stories high residential buildings of {open_quotes}Zeran{close_quotes} type being subject of the Conservation Demonstrative Project, included a differentiated scope of weatherization efforts and various actions aimed at system upgrading. Basing upon the discussion of the split of heat losses in a building as well as the established energy savings for numerous options of upgrading works, the main problem has been defined. It consists in optimal distribution of financial means for the discussed measures if the total amount of funds assigned for modifications is defined. The method based upon the principle of relative increments has been suggested. The economical and energy specifications of the building and its components, required for this method have also been elaborated. The application of this method allowed to define the suggested optimal scope of actions within the entire fund assigned for the comprehensive weatherization.

  4. Evolutionarily conserved regulation of TOR signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Terunao; Maeda, Tatsuya

    2013-07-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that regulates cell growth in response to various environmental as well as intracellular cues through the formation of 2 distinct TOR complexes (TORC), TORC1 and TORC2. Dysregulation of TORC1 and TORC2 activity is closely associated with various diseases, including diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Over the past few years, new regulatory mechanisms of TORC1 and TORC2 activity have been elucidated. Furthermore, recent advances in the study of TOR inhibitors have revealed previously unrecognized cellular functions of TORC1. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of the evolutionarily conserved TOR signalling from upstream regulators to downstream events.

  5. 76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... included the HPBA membership directory, Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI.... Summary of the Proposed Rule II. History of the Energy Conservation Standards Rulemaking and Current... notice. DOE's rationale is presented in further detail immediately below. II. History of the Energy...

  6. Heat-conserving postures hinder escape: a thermoregulation–predation trade-off in wintering birds

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie M. Carr; Steven L. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Wintering birds may conserve body heat by adopting postures with minimal leg exposure or significant ptiloerection. However, maximally heat-conserving postures may hinder a bird's ability to escape attack, leading to a trade-off between predation risk and thermoregulation. Such a trade-off implies that birds should use the most heat-conserving postures only at very cold temperatures. Feeding in a relatively low-risk environment should also facilitate the use of such heat-conserving postures. ...

  7. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting and Availability... conservation standards for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps; the analytical framework..., Mailstop EE-2J, Public Meeting for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, EERE-2008-BT- STD...

  8. Conservation of gene co-regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, B.; Bork, P.; Huynen, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We raise some issues in detecting the conservation (or absence thereof) of co-regulation using gene order; how we think the variations in the cellular network in various species can be studied; and how to determine and interpret the higher order structure in networks of functional relations.

  9. Genomic dissection of conserved transcriptional regulation in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R Lickwar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium serves critical physiologic functions that are shared among all vertebrates. However, it is unknown how the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying these functions have changed over the course of vertebrate evolution. We generated genome-wide mRNA and accessible chromatin data from adult intestinal epithelial cells (IECs in zebrafish, stickleback, mouse, and human species to determine if conserved IEC functions are achieved through common transcriptional regulation. We found evidence for substantial common regulation and conservation of gene expression regionally along the length of the intestine from fish to mammals and identified a core set of genes comprising a vertebrate IEC signature. We also identified transcriptional start sites and other putative regulatory regions that are differentially accessible in IECs in all 4 species. Although these sites rarely showed sequence conservation from fish to mammals, surprisingly, they drove highly conserved IEC expression in a zebrafish reporter assay. Common putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBS found at these sites in multiple species indicate that sequence conservation alone is insufficient to identify much of the functionally conserved IEC regulatory information. Among the rare, highly sequence-conserved, IEC-specific regulatory regions, we discovered an ancient enhancer upstream from her6/HES1 that is active in a distinct population of Notch-positive cells in the intestinal epithelium. Together, these results show how combining accessible chromatin and mRNA datasets with TFBS prediction and in vivo reporter assays can reveal tissue-specific regulatory information conserved across 420 million years of vertebrate evolution. We define an IEC transcriptional regulatory network that is shared between fish and mammals and establish an experimental platform for studying how evolutionarily distilled regulatory information commonly controls IEC development

  10. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  11. Heat shock transcription factors regulate heat induced cell death in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-29

    Mar 29, 2007 ... Heat shock transcription factors regulate heat induced cell death in a rat ... the synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps) which is strictly regulated by ... The lack of Hsp synthesis in these cells was due to a failure in HSF1 DNA ...

  12. Conserved regulators of nucleolar size revealed by global phenotypic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumüller, Ralph A; Gross, Thomas; Samsonova, Anastasia A; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Buckner, Michael; Founk, Karen; Hu, Yanhui; Sharifpoor, Sara; Rosebrock, Adam P; Andrews, Brenda; Winston, Fred; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-08-20

    Regulation of cell growth is a fundamental process in development and disease that integrates a vast array of extra- and intracellular information. A central player in this process is RNA polymerase I (Pol I), which transcribes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in the nucleolus. Rapidly growing cancer cells are characterized by increased Pol I-mediated transcription and, consequently, nucleolar hypertrophy. To map the genetic network underlying the regulation of nucleolar size and of Pol I-mediated transcription, we performed comparative, genome-wide loss-of-function analyses of nucleolar size in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster coupled with mass spectrometry-based analyses of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter. With this approach, we identified a set of conserved and nonconserved molecular complexes that control nucleolar size. Furthermore, we characterized a direct role of the histone information regulator (HIR) complex in repressing rRNA transcription in yeast. Our study provides a full-genome, cross-species analysis of a nuclear subcompartment and shows that this approach can identify conserved molecular modules.

  13. Conserved Regulators of Nucleolar Size Revealed by Global Phenotypic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumüller, Ralph A.; Gross, Thomas; Samsonova, Anastasia A.; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Buckner, Michael; Founk, Karen; Hu, Yanhui; Sharifpoor, Sara; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Andrews, Brenda; Winston, Fred; Perrimon, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth is a fundamental process in development and disease that integrates a vast array of extra- and intracellular information. A central player in this process is RNA polymerase I (Pol I), which transcribes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in the nucleolus. Rapidly growing cancer cells are characterized by increased Pol I–mediated transcription and, consequently, nucleolar hypertrophy. To map the genetic network underlying the regulation of nucleolar size and of Pol I–mediated transcription, we performed comparative, genome-wide loss-of-function analyses of nucleolar size in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster coupled with mass spectrometry–based analyses of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter. With this approach, we identified a set of conserved and nonconserved molecular complexes that control nucleolar size. Furthermore, we characterized a direct role of the histone information regulator (HIR) complex in repressing rRNA transcription in yeast. Our study provides a full-genome, cross-species analysis of a nuclear subcompartment and shows that this approach can identify conserved molecular modules. PMID:23962978

  14. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2007-01-01

    While the transfer equations for moisture and heat in building components are currently undergoing standardisation, atmospheric boundary conditions, conservative modelling and numerical efficiency are not addressed. In a first part, this paper adds a comprehensive description of those boundary...

  15. 76 FR 71835 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ..., Public Meeting Transcript, No. 14 at pp. 94-95) The Air- conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration... realistic simulation of a wood burning fire in a wood burning fireplace, not to provide heat. (R.H. Peterson...

  16. Heat demand profiles of energy conservation measures in buildings and their impact on a district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundström, Lukas; Wallin, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy savings impact on an low CO 2 emitting district heating system. • Heat profiles of eight building energy conservation measures. • Exhaust air heat pump, heat recovery ventilation, electricity savings etc. • Heat load weather normalisation with segmented multivariable linear regression. - Abstract: This study highlights the forthcoming problem with diminishing environmental benefits from heat demand reducing energy conservation measures (ECM) of buildings within district heating systems (DHS), as the supply side is becoming “greener” and more primary energy efficient. In this study heat demand profiles and annual electricity-to-heat factors of ECMs in buildings are computed and their impact on system efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of a Swedish biomass fuelled and combined heat and power utilising DHS are assessed. A weather normalising method for the DHS heat load is developed, combining segmented multivariable linear regressions with typical meteorological year weather data to enable the DHS model and the buildings model to work under the same weather conditions. Improving the buildings’ envelope insulation level and thereby levelling out the DHS heat load curve reduces greenhouse gas emissions and improves primary energy efficiency. Reducing household electricity use proves to be highly beneficial, partly because it increases heat demand, allowing for more cogeneration of electricity. However the other ECMs considered may cause increased greenhouse gas emissions, mainly because of their adverse impact on the cogeneration of electricity. If biomass fuels are considered as residuals, and thus assigned low primary energy factors, primary energy efficiency decreases when implementing ECMs that lower heat demand.

  17. ATF1 Modulates the Heat Shock Response by Regulating the Stress-Inducible Heat Shock Factor 1 Transcription Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takii, Ryosuke; Fujimoto, Mitsuaki; Tan, Ke; Takaki, Eiichi; Hayashida, Naoki; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Shirahige, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The heat shock response is an evolutionally conserved adaptive response to high temperatures that controls proteostasis capacity and is regulated mainly by an ancient heat shock factor (HSF). However, the regulation of target genes by the stress-inducible HSF1 transcription complex has not yet been examined in detail in mammalian cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that HSF1 interacted with members of the ATF1/CREB family involved in metabolic homeostasis and recruited them on the HSP70 promoter in response to heat shock. The HSF1 transcription complex, including the chromatin-remodeling factor BRG1 and lysine acetyltransferases p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP), was formed in a manner that was dependent on the phosphorylation of ATF1. ATF1-BRG1 promoted the establishment of an active chromatin state and HSP70 expression during heat shock, whereas ATF1-p300/CBP accelerated the shutdown of HSF1 DNA-binding activity during recovery from acute stress, possibly through the acetylation of HSF1. Furthermore, ATF1 markedly affected the resistance to heat shock. These results revealed the unanticipated complexity of the primitive heat shock response mechanism, which is connected to metabolic adaptation. PMID:25312646

  18. An analysis of heating and cooling conservation features in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    One purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship in commercial buildings between conservation investments, fuel prices, building occupancy and building characteristics for new buildings and for existing buildings. The data base is a nationwide survey of energy in commercial buildings conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in 1986. Some simple cross-tabulations indicate that conservation measures vary with building size, building age, type of building, and fuel used for building heating. Regression estimates of a conservation model indicate that the number of conservation features installed during construction is a positive function of the price of the heating fuel at the time of construction. Subsequent additions of conservation features are positively correlated with increases in heating fuel prices. Given the EIA projection of relatively stable future energy prices, the number of retrofits may not increase significantly. Also, energy efficiency in new buildings may not continue to increase relative to current new buildings. If fuel prices affect consumption via initial conservation investments, current fuel prices, marginal or average, are not the appropriate specification. The fuel price regression results indicate that conservation investments in new buildings are responsive to market signals. Retrofits are less responsive to market signals. The number of conservation features in a building is not statistically related to the type of occupancy (owner versus renter), which implies that conservation strategies are not impeded by the renting or leasing of buildings

  19. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters established under the Energy Policy and... U.S.C. 6293(e)(2)) The current energy conservation standards for direct heating equipment and pool... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2013-BT-TP-0004] RIN 1904-AC94 Energy...

  20. Conservation heating for a museum environment in a monumental building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuhaus, E.; Schellen, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    For the conservation of an important museum collection in a historic building a better controlled indoor climate may be necessary. One of the most important factors is controlling relative humidity. Museum collections often are part of the interior of a historic building. In most cases the

  1. Class IIa histone deacetylases are conserved regulators of circadian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Paul C M; O'Neill, John S; Dobrzycki, Tomasz; Calvert, Shaun; Lord, Emma C; McIntosh, Rebecca L L; Elliott, Christopher J H; Sweeney, Sean T; Hastings, Michael H; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2014-12-05

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the activity of many transcription factors to influence liver gluconeogenesis and the development of specialized cells, including muscle, neurons, and lymphocytes. Here, we describe a conserved role for class IIa HDACs in sustaining robust circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila and cellular rhythms in mammalian cells. In mouse fibroblasts, overexpression of HDAC5 severely disrupts transcriptional rhythms of core clock genes. HDAC5 overexpression decreases BMAL1 acetylation on Lys-537 and pharmacological inhibition of class IIa HDACs increases BMAL1 acetylation. Furthermore, we observe cyclical nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC5 in mouse fibroblasts that is characteristically circadian. Mutation of the Drosophila homolog HDAC4 impairs locomotor activity rhythms of flies and decreases period mRNA levels. RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 in Drosophila clock cells also dampens circadian function. Given that the localization of class IIa HDACs is signal-regulated and influenced by Ca(2+) and cAMP signals, our findings offer a mechanism by which extracellular stimuli that generate these signals can feed into the molecular clock machinery. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Solar wind heat flux regulation by the whistler instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.; Feldman, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper studies the role of the whistler instability in the regulation of the solar wind heat flux near 1 AU. A comparison of linear and second-order theory with experimental results provides strong evidence that the whistler may at times contribute to the limitation of this heat flux

  3. Conservation heating and energy efficiency at the National Trust. Theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blades, Nigel; Rice, Kirsty [The National Trust, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    The National Trust uses conservation heating as its main method of environmental control for the care of collections in historic houses. This paper presents work the National Trust is undertaking to understand the energy use of its conservation heating systems and to operate them as energy-efficiently as possible, in the light of the National Trust's 2020 energy targets which seek to reduce overall energy consumption across the organisation by 20 % and to shift to 50 % renewable energy sources. The energy demand of conservation heating systems is analysed using degree days; measured energy consumption data are presented; and the reductions in fuel cost and CO{sub 2} emissions achievable though switching from oil-fired to wood pellet fuel, demonstrated. (orig.)

  4. Energy conservation and conversion of electrical heating systems in detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund, (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    In this study, a Swedish house built in 1974, heated with resistance heaters was analysed. Different options for changing the heating system and electricity production were compared for this type of detached house, assuming coal-based electricity production as a reference. Changes in the fuel used, the electricity production technology, the end-use heating technology and the heat demand were analysed. The aim was to show how these different parts of the energy system interact and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of reducing CO{sub 2} emission and primary energy use by different combinations of changes. The results showed that the CO{sub 2} emission and primary energy use could be reduced by 95 and 70%, respectively, without increased heating costs in a national economic perspective. The choice of end-use heating system had a greater influence than the energy conservation measures on the parameters studied. The energy conservation measures were less cost-effective in combination with the more energy-efficient heating systems, although the fact that they reduced the heat demand, and thus also the investment cost of the new heating system, was taken into account. (Author)

  5. Energy conservation via heat transfer enhancement. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergles, A.E.; Junkhan, G.H.; Webb, R.L.

    1979-06-01

    This report for the first quarter of 1979 summarizes visits and contacts relative to the theory and practice of heat transfer enhancement. The Technical Literature File and Manufacturers' File were expanded, and the initial Patent Technology Information File was completed. Application studies on enhancement of waste heat recuperators and laminar internal flow heat transfer are described. A comprehensive bibliography on laminar flow enhancement is included. The Technology study on performance of internally finned tubes is complete. New data for the heat transfer and friction characteristics of internally finned tubes will be analyzed to develop rationally based correlations. An assessment of natural convection from rough surfaces was performed. Major effort was directed toward planning of the Research Workshop on Energy Conservation Through Enhanced Heat Transfer. The Workshop, scheduled for May 24 and May 25, 1979 in Chicago, will be co-sponsored by NSF.

  6. Restructuring and regulating district heating and cogeneration in transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In summer 2004, the World Energy Council published a Study on 'Regulating district heating and cogeneration in central and eastern Europe'2, prepared by representatives from eleven economies in transition and two Nordic countries. The Task Force analysed twelve regulatory issues, country-by-country, on all internationally comparable basis. Regulatory progress on the road to more efficient, profitable, competitive and service-oriented heat supplies was described. Common concerns were identified: the need for independence of the regulator from policy and industry, improved coordination between central and local regulators and between environmental and energy authorities, access to grids, and a 'fair' sharing of CHP benefits among heat and electricity generation. Looking forward, the Task Force advocated a continued dialogue between decision makers, regulators, regulated industries and customers on: 1)the internalisation of DH/CHP benefits; 2)the future reduction of the density of regulation; 3) Joint implementation; 4)the compensation for public service obligations; 5)the elimination of old debt and stranded investments; 6) DH/CHP taxation; 7)privatisation; 8)the integration of DH/CHP in urban planning. A concluding WEC workshop in Moscow in March 2004 addressed recommendations to policy makers('Moscow Statement'). (Author)

  7. Heat Shock Proteins in Tendinopathy: Novel Molecular Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal L. Millar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon disorders—tendinopathies—are the primary reason for musculoskeletal consultation in primary care and account for up to 30% of rheumatological consultations. Whilst the molecular pathophysiology of tendinopathy remains difficult to interpret the disease process involving repetitive stress, and cellular load provides important mechanistic insight into the area of heat shock proteins which spans many disease processes in the autoimmune community. Heat shock proteins, also called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, are rapidly released following nonprogrammed cell death, are key effectors of the innate immune system, and critically restore homeostasis by promoting the reconstruction of the effected tissue. Our investigations have highlighted a key role for HSPs in tendion disease which may ultimately affect tissue rescue mechanisms in tendon pathology. This paper aims to provide an overview of the biology of heat shock proteins in soft tissue and how these mediators may be important regulators of inflammatory mediators and matrix regulation in tendinopathy.

  8. Construction of a global pain systems network highlights phospholipid signaling as a regulator of heat nociception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gregory Neely

    Full Text Available The ability to perceive noxious stimuli is critical for an animal's survival in the face of environmental danger, and thus pain perception is likely to be under stringent evolutionary pressure. Using a neuronal-specific RNAi knock-down strategy in adult Drosophila, we recently completed a genome-wide functional annotation of heat nociception that allowed us to identify α2δ3 as a novel pain gene. Here we report construction of an evolutionary-conserved, system-level, global molecular pain network map. Our systems map is markedly enriched for multiple genes associated with human pain and predicts a plethora of novel candidate pain pathways. One central node of this pain network is phospholipid signaling, which has been implicated before in pain processing. To further investigate the role of phospholipid signaling in mammalian heat pain perception, we analysed the phenotype of PIP5Kα and PI3Kγ mutant mice. Intriguingly, both of these mice exhibit pronounced hypersensitivity to noxious heat and capsaicin-induced pain, which directly mapped through PI3Kγ kinase-dead knock-in mice to PI3Kγ lipid kinase activity. Using single primary sensory neuron recording, PI3Kγ function was mechanistically linked to a negative regulation of TRPV1 channel transduction. Our data provide a systems map for heat nociception and reinforces the extraordinary conservation of molecular mechanisms of nociception across different species.

  9. Construction of a Global Pain Systems Network Highlights Phospholipid Signaling as a Regulator of Heat Nociception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Norbert; Racz, Ildiko; Milinkeviciute, Giedre; Meixner, Arabella; Nayanala, Swetha; Griffin, Robert S.; Belfer, Inna; Dai, Feng; Smith, Shad; Diatchenko, Luda; Marengo, Stefano; Haubner, Bernhard J.; Novatchkova, Maria; Gibson, Dustin; Maixner, William; Pospisilik, J. Andrew; Hirsch, Emilio; Whishaw, Ian Q.; Zimmer, Andreas; Gupta, Vaijayanti; Sasaki, Junko; Kanaho, Yasunori; Sasaki, Takehiko; Kress, Michaela; Woolf, Clifford J.; Penninger, Josef M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to perceive noxious stimuli is critical for an animal's survival in the face of environmental danger, and thus pain perception is likely to be under stringent evolutionary pressure. Using a neuronal-specific RNAi knock-down strategy in adult Drosophila, we recently completed a genome-wide functional annotation of heat nociception that allowed us to identify α2δ3 as a novel pain gene. Here we report construction of an evolutionary-conserved, system-level, global molecular pain network map. Our systems map is markedly enriched for multiple genes associated with human pain and predicts a plethora of novel candidate pain pathways. One central node of this pain network is phospholipid signaling, which has been implicated before in pain processing. To further investigate the role of phospholipid signaling in mammalian heat pain perception, we analysed the phenotype of PIP5Kα and PI3Kγ mutant mice. Intriguingly, both of these mice exhibit pronounced hypersensitivity to noxious heat and capsaicin-induced pain, which directly mapped through PI3Kγ kinase-dead knock-in mice to PI3Kγ lipid kinase activity. Using single primary sensory neuron recording, PI3Kγ function was mechanistically linked to a negative regulation of TRPV1 channel transduction. Our data provide a systems map for heat nociception and reinforces the extraordinary conservation of molecular mechanisms of nociception across different species. PMID:23236288

  10. Mitochondrial regulation of cell death: a phylogenetically conserved control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galluzzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are fundamental for eukaryotic cells as they participate in critical catabolic and anabolic pathways. Moreover, mitochondria play a key role in the signal transduction cascades that precipitate many (but not all regulated variants of cellular demise. In this short review, we discuss the differential implication of mitochondria in the major forms of regulated cell death.

  11. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yao, E-mail: Yao.Fu@colorado.edu; Song, Jeong-Hoon, E-mail: JH.Song@colorado.edu

    2015-08-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging.

  12. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yao; Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging

  13. Application of the HN method to radiative heat transfer for a non-conservative slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, S.; Guelecyuez, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The H N method is used to calculate the partial fluxes relevant to radiative transfer in a plane parallel medium for linearly anisotropic scattering with specularly and diffusely reflecting boundaries. The solutions are obtained for the non-conservative case. The numerical values of the heat flux functions at the boundaries of the medium are calculated for the two source functions. The numerical results and the convergence of the H N method are compared with earlier results. (orig.)

  14. Hovering in the heat: effects of environmental temperature on heat regulation in foraging hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Langland, Kathleen M; Wethington, Susan M; Powers, Sean D; Graham, Catherine H; Tobalske, Bret W

    2017-12-01

    At high temperature (greater than 40°C) endotherms experience reduced passive heat dissipation (radiation, conduction and convection) and increased reliance on evaporative heat loss. High temperatures challenge flying birds due to heat produced by wing muscles. Hummingbirds depend on flight for foraging, yet inhabit hot regions. We used infrared thermography to explore how lower passive heat dissipation during flight impacts body-heat management in broad-billed ( Cynanthus latirostris , 3.0 g), black-chinned ( Archilochus alexandri , 3.0 g), Rivoli's ( Eugenes fulgens , 7.5 g) and blue-throated ( Lampornis clemenciae , 8.0 g) hummingbirds in southeastern Arizona and calliope hummingbirds ( Selasphorus calliope , 2.6 g) in Montana. Thermal gradients driving passive heat dissipation through eye, shoulder and feet dissipation areas are eliminated between 36 and 40°C. Thermal gradients persisted at higher temperatures in smaller species, possibly allowing them to inhabit warmer sites. All species experienced extended daytime periods lacking thermal gradients. Broad-billed hummingbirds lacking thermal gradients regulated the mean total-body surface temperature at approximately 38°C, suggesting behavioural thermoregulation. Blue-throated hummingbirds were inactive when lacking passive heat dissipation and hence might have the lowest temperature tolerance of the four species. Use of thermal refugia permitted hummingbirds to tolerate higher temperatures, but climate change could eliminate refugia, forcing distributional shifts in hummingbird populations.

  15. Does electricity (and heat) network regulation have anything to learn from fixed line telecoms regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the lessons from the recent history of telecoms deregulation for electricity (and by implication heat) network regulation. We do this in the context of Ofgem's RPI-X rate at 20 review of energy regulation in the UK, which considers whether RPI-X-based price regulation is fit for purpose after over 20 years of operation in energy networks. We examine the deregulation of fixed line telecoms in the UK and the lessons which it seems to suggest. We then apply the lessons to electricity networks in the context of a possible increase in distributed generation directly connected to local distribution networks. We conclude that there is the possibility of more parallels over time and suggest several implications of this for the regulation of electricity and heat networks. (author)

  16. The regulation of visitors conduction activity in the State System os Brazilian Conservation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alves Nascimento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond to conserving biodiversity, conservation units must promote public use in contact with nature, assisting in increasing the economic resource of the area, approximating the society to nature and promoting their sustainable use. In Brazil, there are rules of the Ministry of Environment and Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation that regulate the conduction of visitors in federal conservation units. Remains to know how the activity is regulated in other spheres of the National Conservation Units System. Therefore, this article purpose to identify the legal basis for the conduction of visitors in the state conservation units and their adherence to guidelines of the Ministry of Environment. The methodology consisted in documentary research and data survey of the legal basis, done through visits to websites and sending e-mails to state management agencies. Adherence to the guidelines of the regulations was done through the evaluation to fulfillment or not from them. Legal basis were found in 18.5% of federal units of Brazil, being that only Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro meet almost all of the guideline. The conclusion was that there is a long way to go forward as the creation of rules and procedures that simultaneously encourage visitation accompanied to qualified conductors and biodiversity conservation. It is recommended greater efforts of state management agencies for the development of these legal basis, promoting improvements in desenvolviment of the activity and awareness of society.

  17. Heat Shock Protein 90 regulates encystation in Entamoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetali eSingh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of debilitating diarrheal infection worldwide with high morbidity and mortality. Even though the clinical burden of this parasite is very high, this infection is categorized as a neglected disease. Parasite is transmitted through feco-oral route and exhibit two distinct stages namely – trophozoites and cysts. Mechanism and regulation of encystation is not clearly understood. Previous studies have established the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 in regulating stage transition in various protozoan parasites like Giardia, Plasmodium, Leishmania and Toxoplasma. Our study for the first time reports that Hsp90 plays a crucial role in life cycle of Entamoeba as well. We identify Hsp90 to be a negative regulator of encystation in Entamoeba. We also show that Hsp90 inhibition interferes with the process of phagocytosis in Entamoeba. Overall, we show that Hsp90 plays an important role in virulence and transmission of Entamoeba.

  18. Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect antiherbivore defense

    OpenAIRE

    Huffaker, Alisa; Pearce, Gregory; Veyrat, Nathalie; Erb, Matthias; Turlings, Ted C. J.; Sartor, Ryan; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P.; Vaughan, Martha M.; Alborn, Hans T.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Schmelz, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Insect-induced defenses occur in nearly all plants and are regulated by conserved signaling pathways. As the first described plant peptide signal, systemin regulates antiherbivore defenses in the Solanaceae, but in other plant families, peptides with analogous activity have remained elusive. In the current study, we demonstrate that a member of the maize (Zea mays) plant elicitor peptide (Pep) family, ZmPep3, regulates responses against herbivores. Consistent with being a signal, expression o...

  19. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  20. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  1. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  2. Energy conservation in flame-heated hearth furnaces in aluminium foundries. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, R

    1981-01-01

    There are two fields for energy saving: The aluminium foundries obtain the electrolytic metal in liquid form and therefore also excessive heat. This must be used. The furnaces must be designed and operated so that they use as little energy as possible. Both subjects are investigated by considering 59 existing plants in Europe. They are compared regarding energy consumption and heat balance. A series of possibilities for improved use of fuel, such as improvement of the burner setting, automatic regulation of excess air and use of combustion with enriched oxygen supply are given.

  3. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-02-05

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  4. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Ng, Kim Choon; Thuw, Kyaw; Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  5. Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation: can cooling strategies reduce water consumption in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are at the forefront of climate mitigation and adaptation efforts given their high concentration of people, industry, and infrastructure. Many cities globally are seeking strategies to counter the consequences of both a hotter and drier climate. While urban heat mitigation strategies have been shown to have beneficial effects on health, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions, their implications for water conservation have not been widely examined. Here we show that broad implementation of cool roofs, an urban heat mitigation strategy, not only results in significant cooling of air temperature, but also meaningfully decreases outdoor water consumption by reducing evaporative and irrigation water demands. Based on a suite of satellite-supported, multiyear regional climate simulations, we find that cool roof adoption has the potential to reduce outdoor water consumption across the major metropolitan areas in California by up to 9%. Irrigation water savings per capita, induced by cool roofs, range from 1.8 to 15.4 gallons per day across 18 counties examined. Total water savings in Los Angeles county alone is about 83 million gallons per day. While this effect is robust across the 15 years examined (2001-2015), including both drought and non-drought years, we find that cool roofs are most effective during the hottest days of the year, indicating that they could play an even greater role in reducing outdoor water use in a hotter future climate. We further show that this synergistic relationship between heat mitigation and water conservation is asymmetrical - policies that encourage direct reductions in irrigation water use can lead to substantial regional warming, potentially conflicting with heat mitigation efforts designed to counter the effects of the projected warming climate.

  6. Price-structure of electricity and district-heating. A background study for energy conservation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present report deals with the pricing and price-structure of electricity and district-heating with their effects on energy saving. It constitutes part of the groundwork for the new Government Energy Conservation Programme. The report describes principles for the pricing of electricity and district-heating in Finland, and gives some examples of tariffs in foreign countries, which are interesting from the point of view of energy saving. Different utilities apply quite similar pricing principles but there are big differences in price levels between the utilities. The difference in consumer prices can be almost 100 % in the case of electricity and over 150 % as concerns district-heating. The change in retail prices in the last ten years has not had a big general impact on the consumption of electricity or on energy saving. On the other hand, when the price increases of individual utilities are studied, the impact on energy saving at least in the short term can be seen. It seems that an increase of the fixed charges in relation to energy rates has been as a general trend after 1990. To promote energy saving the changing energy rates should be given special emphasis in determining electricity and district-heating tariffs. The opening of the electricity market means that the electricity suppliers face a new situation also when pricing their products. Customers and their expectations will play an increasingly role. (orig.)

  7. 1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yunyun; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen; Liu, Sha

    2015-01-01

    Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an

  8. 1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Liu, Sha; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-01

    Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an

  9. Gene co-regulation is highly conserved in the evolution of eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, B.; Noort, V. van; Huynen, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Differences between species have been suggested to largely reside in the network of connections among the genes. Nevertheless, the rate at which these connections evolve has not been properly quantified. Here, we measure the extent to which co-regulation between pairs of genes is conserved over

  10. A review of building energy regulation and policy for energy conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, hfs raised concerns over problems of energy supply and exhaustion of energy resources. Most of the developed countries are implementing building energy regulations such as energy standards, codes etc., to reduce building energy consumption. The position of developing countries with respect to energy regulations implementation and enforcement is either poorly documented or not documented at all. In addition, there is a lack of consistent data, which makes it difficult to understand the underlying changes that affect energy regulation implementation in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the progress of building energy regulations in developing countries and its implication for energy conservation and efficiency. The present status of building energy regulations in 60 developing countries around the world was analysed through a survey of building energy regulations using online survey. The study revealed the present progress made on building energy regulations in relation to implementation, development and compliance; at the same time the study recommends possible solutions to the barriers facing building energy regulation implementation in the developing world. - Research Highlights: →Progress and implications of energy regulations in developing countries. →Investigation assessed the progress made on energy regulations using online survey. →Energy regulation activities is progressively increasing in developing countries. →The study identified 25 developing countries without energy regulatory standards. →The study shows relationship between energy regulation and energy consumption.

  11. Heat pipe based cold energy storage systems for datacenter energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Mashiko, Koichi; Nguyen, Thang

    2011-01-01

    system concept. -- Highlights: → The paper presents novel concept for datacenter thermal management using heat-pipe based energy conservation system utilizing cold ambient energy. → Two type of system: ice storage and cold water storage has been identified and discussed. → Ice storage or two-phase system can provide long term storage and can be used as datacenter emergency support system. → Cold water or single-phase system can be employed as precooler for coolant before it is cooled by electrical chiller. → These two types of storage approaches can help to minimize chiller electrical load thus saving electricity and associated cost.

  12. Guidelines and incentives for conservation development in local land-use regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah E; Hilty, Jodi A; Theobald, David M

    2014-02-01

    Effective conservation of biological diversity on private lands will require changes in land-use policy and development practice. Conservation development (CD) is an alternative form of residential development in which homes are built on smaller lots and clustered together and the remainder of the property is permanently protected for conservation purposes. We assessed the degree to which CD is permitted and encouraged by local land-use regulations in 414 counties in the western United States. Thirty-two percent of local planning jurisdictions have adopted CD ordinances, mostly within the past 10 years. CD ordinances were adopted in counties with human population densities that were 3.0 times greater and in counties with 2.5 times more land use at urban, suburban, and exurban densities than counties without CD ordinances. Despite strong economic incentives for CD (e.g., density bonuses, which allow for a mean of 66% more homes to be built per subdivision area), several issues may limit the effectiveness of CD for biological diversity conservation. Although most CD ordinances required a greater proportion of the site area be protected than in a typical residential development, just 13% (n = 17) of the ordinances required an ecological site analysis to identify and map features that should be protected. Few CD ordinances provided guidelines regarding the design and configuration of the protected lands, including specifying a minimum size for protected land parcels or encouraging contiguity with other protected lands within or near to the site. Eight percent (n =11) of CD ordinances encouraged consultation with a biological expert or compliance with a conservation plan. We recommend that conservation scientists help to improve the effectiveness of CD by educating planning staff and government officials regarding biological diversity conservation, volunteering for their local planning boards, or consulting on development reviews. © 2013 Society for Conservation

  13. [Regulation of heat shock gene expression in response to stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuz, D G

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) genes, or stress genes, code for a number of proteins that collectively form the most ancient and universal stress defense system. The system determines the cell capability of adaptation to various adverse factors and performs a variety of auxiliary functions in normal physiological conditions. Common stress factors, such as higher temperatures, hypoxia, heavy metals, and others, suppress transcription and translation for the majority of genes, while HS genes are upregulated. Transcription of HS genes is controlled by transcription factors of the HS factor (HSF) family. Certain HSFs are activated on exposure to higher temperatures or other adverse factors to ensure stress-induced HS gene expression, while other HSFs are specifically activated at particular developmental stages. The regulation of the main mammalian stress-inducible factor HSF1 and Drosophila melanogaster HSF includes many components, such as a variety of early warning signals indicative of abnormal cell activity (e.g., increases in intracellular ceramide, cytosolic calcium ions, or partly denatured proteins); protein kinases, which phosphorylate HSFs at various Ser residues; acetyltransferases; and regulatory proteins, such as SUMO and HSBP1. Transcription factors other than HSFs are also involved in activating HS gene transcription; the set includes D. melanogaster GAF, mammalian Sp1 and NF-Y, and other factors. Transcription of several stress genes coding for molecular chaperones of the glucose-regulated protein (GRP) family is predominantly regulated by another stress-detecting system, which is known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) system and is activated in response to massive protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial matrix. A translational fine tuning of HS protein expression occurs via changing the phosphorylation status of several proteins involved in translation initiation. In addition, specific signal sequences in the 5'-UTRs of some HS

  14. Emotion regulation as the foundation of political attitudes: does reappraisal decrease support for conservative policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooa Julia Lee

    Full Text Available Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy--reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes.

  15. Emotion Regulation as the Foundation of Political Attitudes: Does Reappraisal Decrease Support for Conservative Policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Sohn, Yunkyu; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy – reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes. PMID:24367583

  16. Conservation of apple and pear juice concentrates. Synergic effect of heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupert, N.L.; Lescano, H.G.; Kotliar, N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper aims at assessing the feasibility for conserving apple and pear-juice concentrates through the synergic action of heat and radiation. The material was packed in sterile 100-μm polyethylene bags and, after the treatment was applied, the resulting fractions were stored under room temperature (25 0 C+-1 0 C). The temperature applied to the samples before irradiation was 50 0 C during 10 minutes and the doses were 100, 200, 300 and 400 krad. For such purposes, a 60 Co 165-krad/h source was used, located in a mobile irradiator. Periodical microbiological, chemical and organoleptic controls of the food were performed on both control and on irradiated samples, with or without heat. A single alterating microorganism was isolated from all the samples, which was featured as Saccharomyces rouxii. Adopting the temperature as an application variable and the absorbed dose as a constant, the above osmophilic yeast is considerably more sensitive to radiations when it is suspended in a 50% sucrose solution, after the latter was submitted to a 50 0 C temperature treatment. It has been proved that 72.5 krad are needed to attain the reduction of a logarithmic cycle in the Saccharomyces rouxii population irradiated at room temperature, while 36 krad are needed if the sample has been previously heated to 50 0 C for 10 minutes. An attempt was made to apply the synergism of such process to the juice concentrate. Below 50 0 C associated with 400 krad gamma radiation, a total inactivation took place in the Saccharomyces rouxii during the 150 days under analysis. Colour changes were detected in the concentrate; however, the acceptability features for consumption remained at a normal value (level 5) in a hedonic scale of 7 points. (author)

  17. CORECLUST: identification of the conserved CRM grammar together with prediction of gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulova, Anna A; Favorov, Alexander V; Sutormin, Roman A; Makeev, Vsevolod J; Mironov, Andrey A

    2012-07-01

    Identification of transcriptional regulatory regions and tracing their internal organization are important for understanding the eukaryotic cell machinery. Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) of higher eukaryotes are believed to possess a regulatory 'grammar', or preferred arrangement of binding sites, that is crucial for proper regulation and thus tends to be evolutionarily conserved. Here, we present a method CORECLUST (COnservative REgulatory CLUster STructure) that predicts CRMs based on a set of positional weight matrices. Given regulatory regions of orthologous and/or co-regulated genes, CORECLUST constructs a CRM model by revealing the conserved rules that describe the relative location of binding sites. The constructed model may be consequently used for the genome-wide prediction of similar CRMs, and thus detection of co-regulated genes, and for the investigation of the regulatory grammar of the system. Compared with related methods, CORECLUST shows better performance at identification of CRMs conferring muscle-specific gene expression in vertebrates and early-developmental CRMs in Drosophila.

  18. Interaction of regulation and innovation: Solar air heating collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, K.

    2012-01-01

    Solar Air Heating Collectors have still a very small share of 0.8% of the nominal installed capacity in the solar heating and cooling market (151.7 GWth) [1]. Although constituting a niche market, the potential of those kind of collectors to provide heat for industrial processes, processing food, room heating, air preheating, drying processes or air conditioning could be significant. However, the technical potentials of the various technological solutions are not easy to compare. Such a compa...

  19. Conserved properties of Drosophila Insomniac link sleep regulation and synaptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuling; Kellner, David A; Hatch, Hayden A M; Yumita, Tomohiro; Sanchez, Sandrine; Machold, Robert P; Frank, C Andrew; Stavropoulos, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Sleep is an ancient animal behavior that is regulated similarly in species ranging from flies to humans. Various genes that regulate sleep have been identified in invertebrates, but whether the functions of these genes are conserved in mammals remains poorly explored. Drosophila insomniac (inc) mutants exhibit severely shortened and fragmented sleep. Inc protein physically associates with the Cullin-3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase, and neuronal depletion of Inc or Cul3 strongly curtails sleep, suggesting that Inc is a Cul3 adaptor that directs the ubiquitination of neuronal substrates that impact sleep. Three proteins similar to Inc exist in vertebrates-KCTD2, KCTD5, and KCTD17-but are uncharacterized within the nervous system and their functional conservation with Inc has not been addressed. Here we show that Inc and its mouse orthologs exhibit striking biochemical and functional interchangeability within Cul3 complexes. Remarkably, KCTD2 and KCTD5 restore sleep to inc mutants, indicating that they can substitute for Inc in vivo and engage its neuronal targets relevant to sleep. Inc and its orthologs localize similarly within fly and mammalian neurons and can traffic to synapses, suggesting that their substrates may include synaptic proteins. Consistent with such a mechanism, inc mutants exhibit defects in synaptic structure and physiology, indicating that Inc is essential for both sleep and synaptic function. Our findings reveal that molecular functions of Inc are conserved through ~600 million years of evolution and support the hypothesis that Inc and its orthologs participate in an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitination pathway that links synaptic function and sleep regulation.

  20. End users heat energy savings using thermostat regulation valves radiators, v. 16(64)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, Emilija Misheva; Potsev, Eftim

    2008-01-01

    Billing the used heat energy offers the opportunity to motivate end users to use the heat energy rationally and to save the energy. Installing the thermostat valves on the radiators it is possible frequently to regulate the room temperature and to use the heat gains, obtaining comfortable climate in the apartments and saving the energy. Thermostat valves give the possibility to use the heat energy rationally and save the energy, and these way and users can regulate the heat energy consumption according to their own level of thermal comfort. (Author)

  1. End users heat energy savings using thermostat regulation valves radiators, v. 16(63)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, Emilija Misheva; Potsev, Eftim

    2008-01-01

    Billing the used heat energy offers the opportunity to motivate end users to use the heat energy rationally and to save the energy. Installing the thermostat valves on the radiators it is possible frequently to regulate the room temperature and to use the heat gains, obtaining comfortable climate in the apartments and saving the energy. Thermostat valves give the possibility to use the heat energy rationally and save the energy, and these way and users can regulate the heat energy consumption according to their own level of thermal comfort. (Author)

  2. Heat shock and plant leachates regulate seed germination of the endangered carnivorous plant Drosophyllum lusitanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gómez-González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In fire-prone ecosystems, many plant species have specialized mechanisms of seed dormancy that ensure a successful recruitment after fire. A well-documented mechanism is the germination stimulated by fire-related cues, such as heat shock and smoke. However, less is known about the role of inhibitory germination signals (e.g. allelopathy in regulating post-fire recruitment. Plant leachates derived from the unburned vegetation can enforce dormancy by means of allelopathic compounds, acting as a signal of unfavourable (highly competitive niche for germination in pyrophyte species. Here, we assessed the separate effects of heat shock and plant leachates on seed germination of Drosophyllum lusitanicum, an endangered carnivorous plant endemic to Mediterranean fire-prone heathlands. We performed a germination experiment in which seeds were subjected to three treatments: (1 5 min at 100 °C, (2 watering with plant leachate, and (3 control. Germination rate and seed viability was determined after 63 days. Heat shock stimulated seed germination in D. lusitanicum while plant leachates had inhibitory germination effects without reducing seed viability. Thus, both positive and negative signals could be involved in its successful post-fire recruitment. Fire would break seed dormancy and stimulate seed germination of D. lusitanicum through high temperatures, but also by eliminating allelochemical compounds from the soil. These results help to understand the population dynamics patterns found for D. lusitanicum in natural populations, and highlight the role of fire in the ecology and conservation of this endangered species. Seed dormancy imposed by plant-derived leachates as an adaptive mechanism should be considered more in fire ecology theory.

  3. Regulation of G-protein coupled receptor traffic by an evolutionary conserved hydrophobic signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelotti, Tim; Daunt, David; Shcherbakova, Olga G; Kobilka, Brian; Hurt, Carl M

    2010-04-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) expression of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is required for activation by extracellular ligands; however, mechanisms that regulate PM expression of GPCRs are poorly understood. For some GPCRs, such as alpha2c-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2c)-ARs), heterologous expression in non-native cells results in limited PM expression and extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention. Recently, ER export/retentions signals have been proposed to regulate cellular trafficking of several GPCRs. By utilizing a chimeric alpha(2a)/alpha(2c)-AR strategy, we identified an evolutionary conserved hydrophobic sequence (ALAAALAAAAA) in the extracellular amino terminal region that is responsible in part for alpha(2c)-AR subtype-specific trafficking. To our knowledge, this is the first luminal ER retention signal reported for a GPCR. Removal or disruption of the ER retention signal dramatically increased PM expression and decreased ER retention. Conversely, transplantation of this hydrophobic sequence into alpha(2a)-ARs reduced their PM expression and increased ER retention. This evolutionary conserved hydrophobic trafficking signal within alpha(2c)-ARs serves as a regulator of GPCR trafficking.

  4. Self-Regulating Freezable Heat Exchanger and Radiator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At present, both the astronaut's metabolic heat and that produced by the Portable Life Support System are rejected to space by a sublimator that consumes up to 8...

  5. Forkhead Box M1 Is Regulated by Heat Shock Factor 1 and Promotes Glioma Cells Survival under Heat Shock Stress*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bingbing; Gong, Aihua; Jing, Zhitao; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Sawaya, Raymond; Huang, Suyun

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a key transcription factor regulating multiple aspects of cell biology. Prior studies have shown that FoxM1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including brain tumor, and plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study we found that FoxM1 was up-regulated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) under heat shock stress condition in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of HSF1 with HSF1 siRNA or inhibition of HSF1 with a HSF1 inhibitor abrogated heat shock-induced expression of FoxM1. Genetic deletion of HSF1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cells also abolished heat shock stress-induced FoxM1 expression. Moreover, we showed that HSF1 directly bound to FoxM1 promoter and increased FoxM1 promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that FoxM1 was required for the G2-M phase progression through regulating Cdc2, Cdc20, and Cdc25B under a mild heat shock stress but enhanced cell survival under lethal heat shock stress condition. Finally, in human glioblastoma specimens, FoxM1 overexpression correlated with elevated HSF1 expression. Our results indicate that FoxM1 is regulated by HSF1 and is critical for HSF1-mediated heat shock response. We demonstrated a novel mechanism of stress resistance controlled by HSF1 and a new HSF-FoxM1 connection that mediates cellular thermotolerance. PMID:23192351

  6. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Doukakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90 compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95. Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  7. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  8. The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Akhund, M.A.; Brohi, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    In England, housing accounts for some 30% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations and UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that. 66% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. Whereas currently only 4% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 % of energy and produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings. (author)

  9. Differential regulation by heat stress of novel cytochrome P450 genes from the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to heat stress has been recognized as one of the major factors leading to the breakdown of the coral-alga symbiosis and coral bleaching. Here, we describe the presence of three new cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes from the reef-building coral endosymbiont Symbiodinium (type C3) and changes in their expression during exposure to severe and moderate heat stress conditions. Sequence analysis of the CYP C-terminal region and two conserved domains, the "PERF" and "heme-binding" domains, confirmed the separate identities of the CYP genes analyzed. In order to explore the effects of different heat stress scenarios, samples of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora were exposed to elevated temperatures incrementally over an 18-h period (rapid thermal stress) and over a 120-h period (gradual thermal stress). After 18 h of gradual heating and incubation at 26 degrees C, the Symbiodinium CYP mRNA pool was approximately 30% larger, while a further 6 degrees C increase to a temperature above the average sea temperature (29 degrees C after 72 h) resulted in a 2- to 4-fold increase in CYP expression. Both rapid heat stress and gradual heat stress at 32 degrees C resulted in 50% to 90% decreases in CYP gene transcript abundance. Consequently, the initial upregulation of expression of CYP genes at moderately elevated temperatures (26 degrees C and 29 degrees C) was followed by a decrease in expression under the greater thermal stress conditions at 32 degrees C. These findings indicate that in the coral-alga symbiosis under heat stress conditions there is production of chemical stressors and/or transcriptional factors that regulate the expression of genes, such as the genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are involved in the first line of an organism's chemical defense.

  10. Specific microRNAs Regulate Heat Stress Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehammer, Camilla; Podolska, Agnieszka; Mackowiak, Sebastian D

    2015-01-01

    have identified additional functions for already known players (mir-71 and mir-239) as well as identifying mir-80 and the mir-229 mir-64-66 cluster as important regulators of the heat stress response in C. elegans. These findings uncover an additional layer of complexity to the regulation of stress...... to heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans and show that a discrete subset of miRNAs is thermoregulated. Using in-depth phenotypic analyses of miRNA deletion mutant strains we reveal multiple developmental and post-developmental survival and behavioral functions for specific miRNAs during heat stress. We...

  11. Characterization of Bombyx mori mitochondrial transcription factor A, a conserved regulator of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitani, Megumi; Kondo, Mari; Kasashima, Katsumi; Endo, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Kaoru; Misawa, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Sezutsu, Hideki

    2017-04-15

    In the present study, we initially cloned and characterized a mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) homologue in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Bombyx mori TFAM (BmTFAM) localized to mitochondria in cultured silkworm and human cells, and co-localized with mtDNA nucleoids in human HeLa cells. In an immunoprecipitation analysis, BmTFAM was found to associate with human mtDNA in mitochondria, indicating its feature as a non-specific DNA-binding protein. In spite of the low identity between BmTFAM and human TFAM (26.5%), the expression of BmTFAM rescued mtDNA copy number reductions and enlarged mtDNA nucleoids in HeLa cells, which were induced by human Tfam knockdown. Thus, BmTFAM compensates for the function of human TFAM in HeLa cells, demonstrating that the mitochondrial function of TFAM is highly conserved between silkworms and humans. BmTfam mRNA was strongly expressed in early embryos. Through double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-based RNA interference (RNAi) in silkworm embryos, we found that the knockdown of BmTFAM reduced the amount of mtDNA and induced growth retardation at the larval stage. Collectively, these results demonstrate that BmTFAM is a highly conserved mtDNA regulator and may be a good candidate for investigating and modulating mtDNA metabolism in this model organism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wound-Induced Polyploidization: Regulation by Hippo and JNK Signaling and Conservation in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losick, Vicki P; Jun, Albert S; Spradling, Allan C

    2016-01-01

    Tissue integrity and homeostasis often rely on the proliferation of stem cells or differentiated cells to replace lost, aged, or damaged cells. Recently, we described an alternative source of cell replacement- the expansion of resident, non-dividing diploid cells by wound-induced polyploidization (WIP). Here we show that the magnitude of WIP is proportional to the extent of cell loss using a new semi-automated assay with single cell resolution. Hippo and JNK signaling regulate WIP; unexpectedly however, JNK signaling through AP-1 limits rather than stimulates the level of Yki activation and polyploidization in the Drosophila epidermis. We found that polyploidization also quantitatively compensates for cell loss in a mammalian tissue, mouse corneal endothelium, where increased cell death occurs with age in a mouse model of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD). Our results suggest that WIP is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic mechanism that maintains the size and synthetic capacity of adult tissues.

  13. A conserved Mediator–CDK8 kinase module association regulates Mediator–RNA polymerase II interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Sato, Shigeo; Tomomori-Sato, Chieri; Conaway, Ronald C.; Conaway, Joan W.; Asturias, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    The CDK8 kinase module (CKM) is a conserved, dissociable Mediator subcomplex whose component subunits were genetically linked to the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) and individually recognized as transcriptional repressors before Mediator was identified as a preeminent complex in eukaryotic transcription regulation. We used macromolecular electron microscopy and biochemistry to investigate the subunit organization, structure, and Mediator interaction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKM. We found that interaction of the CKM with Mediator’s Middle module interferes with CTD-dependent RNAPII binding to a previously unknown Middle module CTD-binding site targeted early on in a multi-step holoenzyme formation process. Taken together, our results reveal the basis for CKM repression, clarify the origin of the connection between CKM subunits and the CTD, and suggest that a combination of competitive interactions and conformational changes that facilitate holoenzyme formation underlie the Mediator mechanism. PMID:23563140

  14. A highly conserved amino acid in VP1 regulates maturation of enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xin Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in children, causing severe clinical outcomes and even death. Here, we report an important role of the highly conserved alanine residue at position 107 in the capsid protein VP1 (VP1A107 in the efficient replication of EV71. Substitutional mutations of VP1A107 significantly diminish viral growth kinetics without significant effect on viral entry, expression of viral genes and viral production. The results of mechanistic studies reveal that VP1A107 regulates the efficient cleavage of the VP0 precursor during EV71 assembly, which is required, in the next round of infection, for the transformation of the mature virion (160S into an intermediate or A-particle (135S, a key step of virus uncoating. Furthermore, the results of molecular dynamic simulations and hydrogen-bond networks analysis of VP1A107 suggest that flexibility of the VP1 BC loop or the region surrounding the VP1107 residue directly correlates with viral infectivity. It is possible that sufficient flexibility of the region surrounding the VP1107 residue favors VP0 conformational change that is required for the efficient cleavage of VP0 as well as subsequent viral uncoating and viral replication. Taken together, our data reveal the structural role of the highly conserved VP1A107 in regulating EV71 maturation. Characterization of this novel determinant of EV71 virulence would promote the study on pathogenesis of Enteroviruses.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEAT PUMP MARKET IN POLAND IN RELATION TO NEW LEGAL REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wachowicz-Pyzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump market in Poland is one of the most dynamically developing branches of renewable energy sources (RES. Installations using different types of low-temperature heat pumps are becoming more and more popular especially among owners of detached houses. The article presents the characteristics of the heat pump market in Poland in recent years. Most important changes introduced on 20 February 2015 in the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (Journal of Laws 2015 pos. 478, were discussed. Also future prospects associated with increased use of heat pumps installations in the face of new regulations were analyzed.

  16. Energy Conservation Analysis and Control of Hybrid Active Semiactive Suspension with Three Regulating Damping Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active suspension has not been popularized for high energy consumption. To address this issue, this paper introduces the concept of a new kind of suspension. The linear motor is considered to be integrated into an adjustable shock absorber to form the hybrid active semiactive suspension (HASAS. To realize the superiority of HASAS, its energy consumption and regeneration mechanisms are revealed. And the system controller which is composed of linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller, mode decision and switch controller, and the sliding mode control based thrust controller is developed. LQR controller is designed to maintain the suspension control objectives, while mode decision and switch controller decides the optimal damping level to tune motor thrust. The thrust controller ensures motor thrust tracking. An adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels to be used in HASAS is trial produced and tested to obtain its working characteristics. Finally, simulation analysis is made with the experimental three damping characteristics. The impacts of adjustable damping on the motor force and energy consumption are investigated. Simulation results demonstrate the advantages of HASAS in energy conservation with various suspension control objectives. Even self-powered active control and energy regenerated to the power source can be realized.

  17. Conserved ABC Transport System Regulated by the General Stress Response Pathways of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrou, Julien; Willett, Jonathan W.; Czy; #380; , Daniel M.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Kim, Youngchang; Crosson, Sean (UC)

    2016-12-19

    ABSTRACT

    Brucella abortusσE1is an EcfG family sigma factor that regulates the transcription of dozens of genes in response to diverse stress conditions and is required for maintenance of chronic infection in a mouse model. A putative ATP-binding cassette transporter operon,bab1_0223-bab1_0226, is among the most highly activated gene sets in the σE1regulon. The proteins encoded by the operon resemble quaternary ammonium-compatible solute importers but are most similar in sequence to the broadly conserved YehZYXW system, which remains largely uncharacterized. Transcription ofyehZYXWis activated by the general stress sigma factor σSinEnterobacteriaceae, which suggests a functional role for this transport system in bacterial stress response across the classesAlphaproteobacteriaandGammaproteobacteria. We present evidence thatB. abortusYehZYXW does not function as an importer of known compatible solutes under physiological conditions and does not contribute to the virulence defect of a σE1-null strain. The solein vitrophenotype associated with genetic disruption of this putative transport system is reduced growth in the presence of high Li+ion concentrations. A crystal structure ofB. abortusYehZ revealed a class II periplasmic binding protein fold with significant structural homology toArchaeoglobus fulgidusProX, which binds glycine betaine. However, the structure

  18. Regulation as a political contest: the probability of conservation of a renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2017-01-01

    How do the levels of extreme positions of various interest groups influence the conservation policies in the context of a renewable resource conservation contest? To answer this question, a model is provided where conservation policy is determined as a contest between two opposing interest groups......: one in favor of conservation and another in favor of non-conservation. The levels of extreme positions for the conservationalists are determined by their demands about the severity of the conservation strategy that needs to be implemented. For the non-conservation group, the level of extreme position...... is determined by how large the current harvest of the resource should be. The main driver of the model is that resource conservation is realized only if the conservation group wins the contest, which again depends on the relative gain the two contenders receive when winning the contest. The paper derives...

  19. Regulation of Heat Exchange across the Hornbill Beak: Functional Similarities with Toucans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, T M F N; Martin, R O; Vink, T J F; McKechnie, A E; Cunningham, S J

    2016-01-01

    Beaks are increasingly recognised as important contributors to avian thermoregulation. Several studies supporting Allen's rule demonstrate how beak size is under strong selection related to latitude and/or air temperature (Ta). Moreover, active regulation of heat transfer from the beak has recently been demonstrated in a toucan (Ramphastos toco, Ramphastidae), with the large beak acting as an important contributor to heat dissipation. We hypothesised that hornbills (Bucerotidae) likewise use their large beaks for non-evaporative heat dissipation, and used thermal imaging to quantify heat exchange over a range of air temperatures in eighteen desert-living Southern Yellow-billed Hornbills (Tockus leucomelas). We found that hornbills dissipate heat via the beak at air temperatures between 30.7°C and 41.4°C. The difference between beak surface and environmental temperatures abruptly increased when air temperature was within ~10°C below body temperature, indicating active regulation of heat loss. Maximum observed heat loss via the beak was 19.9% of total non-evaporative heat loss across the body surface. Heat loss per unit surface area via the beak more than doubled at Ta > 30.7°C compared to Ta hornbills, and thus had a larger potential for heat loss at lower air temperatures. Respiratory cooling (panting) thresholds were also lower in toucans compared to hornbills. Both beak vasodilation and panting threshold temperatures are potentially explained by differences in acclimation to environmental conditions and in the efficiency of evaporative cooling under differing environmental conditions. We speculate that non-evaporative heat dissipation may be a particularly important mechanism for animals inhabiting humid regions, such as toucans, and less critical for animals residing in more arid conditions, such as Southern Yellow-billed Hornbills. Alternatively, differences in beak morphology and hardness enforced by different diets may affect the capacity of birds to use

  20. HSF1 and HSF3 cooperatively regulate the heat shock response in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takii, Ryosuke; Fujimoto, Mitsuaki; Matsuura, Yuki; Wu, Fangxu; Oshibe, Namiko; Takaki, Eiichi; Katiyar, Arpit; Akashi, Hiroshi; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado; Nakai, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Cells cope with temperature elevations, which cause protein misfolding, by expressing heat shock proteins (HSPs). This adaptive response is called the heat shock response (HSR), and it is regulated mainly by heat shock transcription factor (HSF). Among the four HSF family members in vertebrates, HSF1 is a master regulator of HSP expression during proteotoxic stress including heat shock in mammals, whereas HSF3 is required for the HSR in birds. To examine whether only one of the HSF family members possesses the potential to induce the HSR in vertebrate animals, we isolated cDNA clones encoding lizard and frog HSF genes. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree of vertebrate HSFs demonstrated that HSF3 in one species is unrelated with that in other species. We found that the DNA-binding activity of both HSF1 and HSF3 in lizard and frog cells was induced in response to heat shock. Unexpectedly, overexpression of lizard and frog HSF3 as well as HSF1 induced HSP70 expression in mouse cells during heat shock, indicating that the two factors have the potential to induce the HSR. Furthermore, knockdown of either HSF3 or HSF1 markedly reduced HSP70 induction in lizard cells and resistance to heat shock. These results demonstrated that HSF1 and HSF3 cooperatively regulate the HSR at least in lizards, and suggest complex mechanisms of the HSR in lizards as well as frogs.

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  2. Translation Initiation from Conserved Non-AUG Codons Provides Additional Layers of Regulation and Coding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo P. Ivanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa cpc-1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN4 are homologs specifying transcription activators that drive the transcriptional response to amino acid limitation. The cpc-1 mRNA contains two upstream open reading frames (uORFs in its >700-nucleotide (nt 5′ leader, and its expression is controlled at the level of translation in response to amino acid starvation. We used N. crassa cell extracts and obtained data indicating that cpc-1 uORF1 and uORF2 are functionally analogous to GCN4 uORF1 and uORF4, respectively, in controlling translation. We also found that the 5′ region upstream of the main coding sequence of the cpc-1 mRNA extends for more than 700 nucleotides without any in-frame stop codon. For 100 cpc-1 homologs from Pezizomycotina and from selected Basidiomycota, 5′ conserved extensions of the CPC1 reading frame are also observed. Multiple non-AUG near-cognate codons (NCCs in the CPC1 reading frame upstream of uORF2, some deeply conserved, could potentially initiate translation. At least four NCCs initiated translation in vitro. In vivo data were consistent with initiation at NCCs to produce N-terminally extended N. crassa CPC1 isoforms. The pivotal role played by CPC1, combined with its translational regulation by uORFs and NCC utilization, underscores the emerging significance of noncanonical initiation events in controlling gene expression.

  3. Heat Transport In The Streambed Of A Large Regulated River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, S.; Ferencz, S. B.; Neilson, B. T.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Dams affect over half of the Earth's large river systems. In large river systems, regulation such as hydropeaking may even have more obvious and profound effects than global warming. The downstream effects of dams are not limited only to the fluvial system, but also propagate into aquifers and hyporheic zones. Despite this, little is known about how dams affect downstream surface and subsurface temperatures. This study investigates surface and groundwater interactions in the thermal regime of a 5th order dam-regulated river on several spatial scales. Two transects of thermistors recorded temperature gradients in the riverbed over the course of several flood pulses at 5 minute intervals. One transect was perpendicular to the river flow spanning the 68 m from bank to bank with sensors spaced every 2.75 m at depths of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 m in the river bed. The second was parallel to the bank with 72 thermistors spaced every meter and at the same depths as the perpendicular transect. The cross channel transect had 5 piezometers installed at 0.5 m depth at regular intervals across half the channel with instruments collecting temperature, pressure and conductivity. Flood pulses reverse head gradients daily and cause the river to fluctuate between gaining and losing on hour timescales. When the stage increases, warmer surface water penetrates into the subsurface and during the receding limb, cooler groundwater upwells as the river returns to base flow conditions. The USGS flow modeling program 1DTempPro demonstrated that the infiltration rates did not match the large head gradients associated with dam regulated stage differences, and this effect is likely due to pore pressure increases or so-called poroelastic effects. Similar responses of pore pressure increases with diminishing infiltration has been observed in shallow salt marshes with quickly increasing head gradients.

  4. Macoilin, a conserved nervous system-specific ER membrane protein that regulates neuronal excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Arellano-Carbajal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequence comparisons have highlighted many novel gene families that are conserved across animal phyla but whose biological function is unknown. Here, we functionally characterize a member of one such family, the macoilins. Macoilins are characterized by several highly conserved predicted transmembrane domains towards the N-terminus and by coiled-coil regions C-terminally. They are found throughout Eumetazoa but not in other organisms. Mutants for the single Caenorhabditis elegans macoilin, maco-1, exhibit a constellation of behavioral phenotypes, including defects in aggregation, O₂ responses, and swimming. MACO-1 protein is expressed broadly and specifically in the nervous system and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum; it is excluded from dendrites and axons. Apart from subtle synapse defects, nervous system development appears wild-type in maco-1 mutants. However, maco-1 animals are resistant to the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb and sensitive to levamisole, suggesting pre-synaptic defects. Using in vivo imaging, we show that macoilin is required to evoke Ca²(+ transients, at least in some neurons: in maco-1 mutants the O₂-sensing neuron PQR is unable to generate a Ca²(+ response to a rise in O₂. By genetically disrupting neurotransmission, we show that pre-synaptic input is not necessary for PQR to respond to O₂, indicating that the response is mediated by cell-intrinsic sensory transduction and amplification. Disrupting the sodium leak channels NCA-1/NCA-2, or the N-,P/Q,R-type voltage-gated Ca²(+ channels, also fails to disrupt Ca²(+ responses in the PQR cell body to O₂ stimuli. By contrast, mutations in egl-19, which encodes the only Caenorhabditis elegans L-type voltage-gated Ca²(+ channel α1 subunit, recapitulate the Ca²(+ response defect we see in maco-1 mutants, although we do not see defects in localization of EGL-19. Together, our data suggest that macoilin acts in the ER to regulate assembly or

  5. Pleiotropic Regulation of Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans by the Conserved Small Protein SprV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Hossain, Mohammad S; Biswas, Indranil

    2017-04-15

    Streptococcus mutans , an oral pathogen associated with dental caries, colonizes tooth surfaces as polymicrobial biofilms known as dental plaque. S. mutans expresses several virulence factors that allow the organism to tolerate environmental fluctuations and compete with other microorganisms. We recently identified a small hypothetical protein (90 amino acids) essential for the normal growth of the bacterium. Inactivation of the gene, SMU.2137, encoding this protein caused a significant growth defect and loss of various virulence-associated functions. An S. mutans strain lacking this gene was more sensitive to acid, temperature, osmotic, oxidative, and DNA damage-inducing stresses. In addition, we observed an altered protein profile and defects in biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, and natural competence development, possibly due to the fitness defect associated with SMU.2137 deletion. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that nearly 20% of the S. mutans genes were differentially expressed upon SMU.2137 deletion, thereby suggesting a pleiotropic effect. Therefore, we have renamed this hitherto uncharacterized gene as sprV ( s treptococcal p leiotropic r egulator of v irulence). The transcript levels of several relevant genes in the sprV mutant corroborated the phenotypes observed upon sprV deletion. Owing to its highly conserved nature, inactivation of the sprV ortholog in Streptococcus gordonii also resulted in poor growth and defective UV tolerance and competence development as in the case of S. mutans Our experiments suggest that SprV is functionally distinct from its homologs identified by structure and sequence homology. Nonetheless, our current work is aimed at understanding the importance of SprV in the S. mutans biology. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus mutans employs several virulence factors and stress resistance mechanisms to colonize tooth surfaces and cause dental caries. Bacterial pathogenesis is generally controlled by regulators of fitness that are

  6. Research and demonstration facilities for energy conservation and solar heating in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. O.; Godbey, L. C.; Davis, M. A.; Ezell, D. O.; Allen, W. H.

    1981-10-01

    The design, testing and evaluation of two prototype solar holes are discussed. The first prototype is a greenhouse-residence designed with 6-in. wall cavities (to increase insulation thickness), a 381 sq. ft. solar collector used primarily for space heating, and a greenhouse that was utilized as a solar collector for growing vegetables. The house does feature a domestic hot water preheating system and an electrical resistance back-up heating system. The second prototype is an earth-insulated house designed primarily to study the physical features of the house in relation to the soil around it and the thermal interaction between the soil and the house environment. This house features a high temperature air collector that is used for domestic water heating. A special effort was made to have adequate daylight in the solar-earth house. A special study was conducted on the geometric configuration of the rock storage and the methods of admitting air to the rock storage.

  7. Structural transitions in conserved, ordered Beclin 1 domains essential to regulating autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, Karen; Li, Yue; Mukhopadhyay, Shreya; Leuthner, Zoe; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Colbert, Christopher L.; Sinha, Sangita C. (NDSU); (IIT)

    2017-08-10

    Beclin 1 (BECN1) is a key regulator of autophagy, a critical catabolic homeostasis pathway that involves sequestration of selected cytoplasmic components by multilayered vesicles called autophagosomes, followed by lysosomal fusion and degradation. BECN1 is a core component of class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase complexes responsible for autophagosome nucleation. Without heterologous binding partners, BECN1 forms an antiparallel homodimer via its coiled-coil domain (CCD). However, the last 16 CCD residues, composing an “overlap helix” (OH), have been crystallized in two mutually exclusive states: either as part of the CCD or packed against the C-terminal β-α repeated, autophagy-specific domain (BARAD). Here, using CD spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and small-angle X-ray scattering, we show that in the homodimeric state, the OH transitions between these two different packing states, with the predominant state comprising the OH packed against the BARAD, contrary to expectations based on known BECN1 interactions with heterologous partners. We confirmed this observation by comparing the impact of mutating four residues that mediate packing of the OH against both the CCD and BARAD on structure and stability of the CCD, the OH+BARAD, and the two-domain CCD–BARAD. Last, we used cellular assays to demonstrate that mutation of these OH-interface residues abrogates starvation-induced up-regulation of autophagy but does not affect basal autophagy. In summary, we have identified a BECN1 helical region that transitions between packing as part of either one of two conserved domains (i.e. the CCD or the BARAD). Our findings have important implications for the relative stability of autophagy-inactive and autophagy-active BECN1 complexes.

  8. Energy conservation through heat recovery steam generators at Engro Chemical Pakistan Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Akbar, K.N.

    2002-01-01

    With the deregulation of the nitrogenous fertilizer industry in Pakistan in 1986, the scenario changed for major energy conservation projects. In addition the government also started escalating the prices of natural gas. At this point they reactivated their major energy conservations projects. The plant was designed prior to the energy crisis period at the point when energy consumption was not a very major consideration. As a result, many of the energy conserving features built into subsequent plants were not included. On the gas turbine side, several changes were required in order to allow that the installation of the HRSG's. The gas turbine had to be upgraded to allow air flow due to the increased back pressure following installation of the HRSG's. Also with the uprate, the gas turbine control system had to be upgraded. The off take ducks for the HRSGs also required a design modification on the gas turbine exhaust to allow for a flanged connection, and the silencers in the exhaust duct had to be removed. The savings of natural gas was as per projections. Presently, with auxiliary firing, the HRSG's are producing 140,000 pph of steam. Their site total gas consumption has reduced by 10.6% or approximately 4 to 4.4 million CFD. In addition, the HRGS's have also provided significant ease of operation and flexibility. Of the three offsite boilers, two have been shut down and only one is operational. (A.B.)

  9. A conserved SREBP-1/phosphatidylcholine feedback circuit regulates lipogenesis in metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Amy K; Jacobs, René L; Watts, Jennifer L; Rottiers, Veerle; Jiang, Karen; Finnegan, Deirdre M; Shioda, Toshi; Hansen, Malene; Yang, Fajun; Niebergall, Lorissa J; Vance, Dennis E; Tzoneva, Monika; Hart, Anne C; Näär, Anders M

    2011-11-11

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) activate genes involved in the synthesis and trafficking of cholesterol and other lipids and are critical for maintaining lipid homeostasis. Aberrant SREBP activity, however, can contribute to obesity, fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance, hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. Our studies identify a conserved regulatory circuit in which SREBP-1 controls genes in the one-carbon cycle, which produces the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). Methylation is critical for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC), a major membrane component, and we find that blocking SAMe or PC synthesis in C. elegans, mouse liver, and human cells causes elevated SREBP-1-dependent transcription and lipid droplet accumulation. Distinct from negative regulation of SREBP-2 by cholesterol, our data suggest a feedback mechanism whereby maturation of nuclear, transcriptionally active SREBP-1 is controlled by levels of PC. Thus, nutritional or genetic conditions limiting SAMe or PC production may activate SREBP-1, contributing to human metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Adane

    2013-01-01

    On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors.

  11. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  12. The effect of direct heating and cooling of heat regulation centers on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were done on 28 rabbits in which puncture instruments were left in the brain for 1-2 days until the calori-puncture hyperthermia had passed and the body temperature was again normal. The instrument remaining in the brain was then used as a galvanic electrode and a second fever was produced, this time due to the electrical stimulus. It was concluded that heat is a centrally acting antipyretic and that cold is a centrally acting stimulus which produces hyperpyrexia cold-induced fever.

  13. Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment (HTRE)-3 Container Storage Unit Resource Conservation Recovery Act closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spry, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the closure of the HTRE-3 Container Storage Unit under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The unit's location, size, history, and current status are described. The document also summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning efforts performed in 1983 and provides an estimate of,waste residues remaining in the HTRE-3 assembly. A risk evaluation was performed that demonstrates that the residue does not pose a hazard to public health or the environment. Based on the risk evaluation, it is proposed that the HTRE-3 Container Storage Unit be closed in its present condition, without further decontamination or removal activities

  14. Differential Regulation of Receptor Activation and Agonist Selectivity by Highly Conserved Tryptophans in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Site

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Dustin K.; Stokes, Clare; Horenstein, Nicole A.; Papke, Roger L.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown previously that a highly conserved Tyr in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligand-binding domain (LBD) (α7 Tyr188 or α4 Tyr195) differentially regulates the activity of acetylcholine (ACh) and the α7-selective agonist 3-(4-hydroxy,2-methoxybenzylidene)anabaseine (4OH-GTS-21) in α4β2 and α7 nAChR. In this study, we mutated two highly conserved LBD Trp residues in human α7 and α4β2 and expressed the receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes. α7 Re...

  15. What Can We Learn about Workplace Heat Stress Management from a Safety Regulator Complaints Database?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alana; Pisaniello, Dino; Varghese, Blesson; Rowett, Shelley; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Bi, Peng; Nitschke, Monika

    2018-03-06

    Heat exposure can be a health hazard for many Australian workers in both outdoor and indoor situations. With many heat-related incidents left unreported, it is often difficult to determine the underlying causal factors. This study aims to provide insights into perceptions of potentially unsafe or uncomfortably hot working conditions that can affect occupational health and safety using information provided by the public and workers to the safety regulator in South Australia (SafeWork SA). Details of complaints regarding heat exposure to the regulator's "Help Centre" were assembled in a dataset and the textual data analysed thematically. The findings showed that the majority of calls relate to indoor work environments such as kitchens, factories, and warehouses. The main themes identified were work environment, health effects, and organisational issues. Impacts of hot working conditions ranged from discomfort to serious heat-related illnesses. Poor management practices and inflexibility of supervisors featured strongly amongst callers' concerns. With temperatures predicted to increase and energy prices escalating, this timely study, using naturalistic data, highlights accounts of hot working conditions that can compromise workers' health and safety and the need for suitable measures to prevent heat stress. These could include risk assessments to assess the likelihood of heat stress in workplaces where excessively hot conditions prevail.

  16. Regulation of Heat Exchange across the Hornbill Beak: Functional Similarities with Toucans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M F N van de Ven

    Full Text Available Beaks are increasingly recognised as important contributors to avian thermoregulation. Several studies supporting Allen's rule demonstrate how beak size is under strong selection related to latitude and/or air temperature (Ta. Moreover, active regulation of heat transfer from the beak has recently been demonstrated in a toucan (Ramphastos toco, Ramphastidae, with the large beak acting as an important contributor to heat dissipation. We hypothesised that hornbills (Bucerotidae likewise use their large beaks for non-evaporative heat dissipation, and used thermal imaging to quantify heat exchange over a range of air temperatures in eighteen desert-living Southern Yellow-billed Hornbills (Tockus leucomelas. We found that hornbills dissipate heat via the beak at air temperatures between 30.7°C and 41.4°C. The difference between beak surface and environmental temperatures abruptly increased when air temperature was within ~10°C below body temperature, indicating active regulation of heat loss. Maximum observed heat loss via the beak was 19.9% of total non-evaporative heat loss across the body surface. Heat loss per unit surface area via the beak more than doubled at Ta > 30.7°C compared to Ta < 30.7°C and at its peak dissipated 25.1 W m-2. Maximum heat flux rate across the beak of toucans under comparable convective conditions was calculated to be as high as 61.4 W m-2. The threshold air temperature at which toucans vasodilated their beak was lower than that of the hornbills, and thus had a larger potential for heat loss at lower air temperatures. Respiratory cooling (panting thresholds were also lower in toucans compared to hornbills. Both beak vasodilation and panting threshold temperatures are potentially explained by differences in acclimation to environmental conditions and in the efficiency of evaporative cooling under differing environmental conditions. We speculate that non-evaporative heat dissipation may be a particularly important

  17. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runko Suzan J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate, female (megasporangiate, and vegetative organs (leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and

  18. New market based price regulation on combined heat and power in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Jesper; Nielsen, Marianne; Hansen, Anders B.; Lawaetz, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Major economic risks can become reality when local co-generation plants (L-CHP ) meet the full market penetration with new market based price regulation. Co-generation produces more than 50% of the national electricity consumption and half of the production is generated from L-CHP. The new price regulation is assumed to take action in 2004. The paper will present an analysis of a market based price regulation on the L-CHP-sector. The paper will spotlight on L-CHP in district heating systems supplying heat for domestic purposes. When smaller and medium sized CHP sell electricity they are paid an average price of 46 Euro per MWh. The return of selling electricity shall primarily cover the expenditure of buying gas for electricity production and writing off investments cost of a CHP-plant. With the framework of today it is a fact that the plants (in average) are only slightly competitive compared to individual heat production plants. When CHP meet market conditions there is a high risk that electricity prices will be reduced significantly (prices of 20 - 30 Euro per MWh) for a longer period. Significantly reduced electricity prices will result in dramatically increased heat prices. If no action is taken there will be a potential risk that heat consumers in the smaller and medium sized cities together must pay an extra bill of 200 million Euro each year. It corresponds to an average increase of the heating bill of 300 - 500 Euro per year for an average house. This is far from acceptable. There will also be a high risk that companies with industrial CHP will permanently convert to heat only boiler and only use their CHP occasionally because CHP plants might not be cost-effective when electricity prices are low. These effects can cause a significant increase of the national CO 2 emission

  19. Regulation models for district heating. Main report; Denmark; Reguleringsmodeller for fjernvarmen. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    With regard to choice of model for the regulation of district heating prices the report points out that a detailed analysis of a cost+ model could be considered. Such an analysis could provide further definition of the extended right to recoup the investment for heating companies, the shaping of the possibility of recognition of opportunity costs and the fixed cost allocation, and the clarified definition of necessary costs. The report also suggests that a price cap regulation or a completely free pricing in the entire sector is hardly appropriate forms of regulation. The report's analysis clearly shows that the choice of price regulation in the heat sector has impact on the incentives in terms of investment, green conversion, etc. It also appears that the different regulatory models have very different advantages and disadvantages, and lessons learned from other sectors and abroad show that changing price regulation rules can be a difficult and lengthy process with unintended consequences along the way. (LN)

  20. Mathematical modeling of heat treatment processes conserving biological activity of plant bioresources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. S.; Popov, E. S.; Pozhidaeva, E. A.; Pynzar, S. S.; Ryaskina, L. O.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model of the heat exchange process of LT-processing to estimate the dynamics of temperature field changes and optimize the regime parameters, due to the non-stationarity process, the physicochemical and thermophysical properties of food systems. The application of LT-processing, based on the use of low-temperature modes in thermal culinary processing of raw materials with preliminary vacuum packaging in a polymer heat- resistant film is a promising trend in the development of technics and technology in the catering field. LT-processing application of food raw materials guarantees the preservation of biologically active substances in food environments, which are characterized by a certain thermolability, as well as extend the shelf life and high consumer characteristics of food systems that are capillary-porous bodies. When performing the mathematical modeling of the LT-processing process, the packet of symbolic mathematics “Maple” was used, as well as the mathematical packet flexPDE that uses the finite element method for modeling objects with distributed parameters. The processing of experimental results was evaluated with the help of the developed software in the programming language Python 3.4. To calculate and optimize the parameters of the LT processing process of polycomponent food systems, the differential equation of non-stationary thermal conductivity was used, the solution of which makes it possible to identify the temperature change at any point of the solid at different moments. The present study specifies data on the thermophysical characteristics of the polycomponent food system based on plant raw materials, with the help of which the physico-mathematical model of the LT- processing process has been developed. The obtained mathematical model allows defining of the dynamics of the temperature field in different sections of the LT-processed polycomponent food systems on the basis of calculating the

  1. Conservation voltage regulation (CVR) applied to energy savings by voltage-adjusting equipment through AMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, B.-R.; Chang, C.-A.; Huang, P.-Y.; Kuo, C.-H.; Ye, Z.-J.; Shen, B.-C.; Chen, B.-K.

    2017-11-01

    Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) includes peak demand reduction, energy conservation, carbon emission reduction, and electricity bill reduction. This paper analyzes the energy-reduction of Siwei Feeders with applying CVR, which are situated in Penghu region and equipped with smart meters. Furthermore, the applicable voltage reduction range for the feeders will be explored. This study will also investigate how the CVR effect and energy conservation are improved with the voltage control devices integrated. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the Taiwan Power Company to promote and implement voltage reduction and energy conservation techniques. This study is expected to enhance the energy-reduction performance of the Penghu Low Carbon Island Project.

  2. What Can We Learn about Workplace Heat Stress Management from a Safety Regulator Complaints Database?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Hansen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat exposure can be a health hazard for many Australian workers in both outdoor and indoor situations. With many heat-related incidents left unreported, it is often difficult to determine the underlying causal factors. This study aims to provide insights into perceptions of potentially unsafe or uncomfortably hot working conditions that can affect occupational health and safety using information provided by the public and workers to the safety regulator in South Australia (SafeWork SA. Details of complaints regarding heat exposure to the regulator’s “Help Centre” were assembled in a dataset and the textual data analysed thematically. The findings showed that the majority of calls relate to indoor work environments such as kitchens, factories, and warehouses. The main themes identified were work environment, health effects, and organisational issues. Impacts of hot working conditions ranged from discomfort to serious heat-related illnesses. Poor management practices and inflexibility of supervisors featured strongly amongst callers’ concerns. With temperatures predicted to increase and energy prices escalating, this timely study, using naturalistic data, highlights accounts of hot working conditions that can compromise workers’ health and safety and the need for suitable measures to prevent heat stress. These could include risk assessments to assess the likelihood of heat stress in workplaces where excessively hot conditions prevail.

  3. Genome-wide discovery and differential regulation of conserved and novel microRNAs in chickpea via deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukesh; Chevala, V V S Narayana; Garg, Rohini

    2014-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential components of complex gene regulatory networks that orchestrate plant development. Although several genomic resources have been developed for the legume crop chickpea, miRNAs have not been discovered until now. For genome-wide discovery of miRNAs in chickpea (Cicer arietinum), we sequenced the small RNA content from seven major tissues/organs employing Illumina technology. About 154 million reads were generated, which represented more than 20 million distinct small RNA sequences. We identified a total of 440 conserved miRNAs in chickpea based on sequence similarity with known miRNAs in other plants. In addition, 178 novel miRNAs were identified using a miRDeep pipeline with plant-specific scoring. Some of the conserved and novel miRNAs with significant sequence similarity were grouped into families. The chickpea miRNAs targeted a wide range of mRNAs involved in diverse cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation (transcription factors), protein modification and turnover, signal transduction, and metabolism. Our analysis revealed several miRNAs with differential spatial expression. Many of the chickpea miRNAs were expressed in a tissue-specific manner. The conserved and differential expression of members of the same miRNA family in different tissues was also observed. Some of the same family members were predicted to target different chickpea mRNAs, which suggested the specificity and complexity of miRNA-mediated developmental regulation. This study, for the first time, reveals a comprehensive set of conserved and novel miRNAs along with their expression patterns and putative targets in chickpea, and provides a framework for understanding regulation of developmental processes in legumes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Structural and functional conservation of CLEC-2 with the species-specific regulation of transcript expression in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Ren, Shifang; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Dongmei; Hao, Yuqing; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lei; Lee, Chiayu; Qiu, Lin; Yun, Xiaojing; Xie, Jianhui

    2012-08-01

    CLEC-2 was first identified by sequence similarity to C-type lectin-like molecules with immune functions and has been reported as a receptor for the platelet-aggregating snake venom toxin rhodocytin and the endogenous sialoglycoprotein podoplanin. Recent researches indicate that CLEC-2-deficient mice were lethal at the embryonic stage associated with disorganized and blood-filled lymphatic vessels and severe edema. In view of a necessary role of CLEC-2 in the individual development, it is of interest to investigate its phylogenetic homology and highly conserved functional regions. In this work, we reported that CLEC-2 from different species holds with an extraordinary conservation by sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis. The functional structures including N-linked oligosaccharide sites and ligand-binding domain implement a structural and functional conservation in a variety of species. The glycosylation sites (N120 and N134) are necessary for the surface expression CLEC-2. CLEC-2 from different species possesses the binding activity of mouse podoplanin. Nevertheless, the expression of CLEC-2 is regulated with a species-specific manner. The alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, a regulatory mechanism of gene expression, and the binding sites on promoter for several key transcription factors vary between different species. Therefore, CLEC-2 shares high sequence homology and functional identity. However the transcript expression might be tightly regulated by different mechanisms in evolution.

  5. Lariat sequencing in a unicellular yeast identifies regulated alternative splicing of exons that are evolutionarily conserved with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Ali R; Manfredo, Amanda; Pleiss, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-30

    Alternative splicing is a potent regulator of gene expression that vastly increases proteomic diversity in multicellular eukaryotes and is associated with organismal complexity. Although alternative splicing is widespread in vertebrates, little is known about the evolutionary origins of this process, in part because of the absence of phylogenetically conserved events that cross major eukaryotic clades. Here we describe a lariat-sequencing approach, which offers high sensitivity for detecting splicing events, and its application to the unicellular fungus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an organism that shares many of the hallmarks of alternative splicing in mammalian systems but for which no previous examples of exon-skipping had been demonstrated. Over 200 previously unannotated splicing events were identified, including examples of regulated alternative splicing. Remarkably, an evolutionary analysis of four of the exons identified here as subject to skipping in S. pombe reveals high sequence conservation and perfect length conservation with their homologs in scores of plants, animals, and fungi. Moreover, alternative splicing of two of these exons have been documented in multiple vertebrate organisms, making these the first demonstrations of identical alternative-splicing patterns in species that are separated by over 1 billion y of evolution.

  6. Influence of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation during exercise-heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawka, M.N.; Gonzalez, R.R.; Dennis, R.C.; Young, A.J.; Muza, S.R.; Martin, J.W.; Francesconi, R.P.; Pandolf, K.B.; Valeri, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effects of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation responses during exercise in the heat. In a double blind study, 6 subjects (Ss) received a 700-ml solution of autologous red blood cells at a 60% Hct, and 3 Ss (control) received a 700-ml saline solution. All Ss attempted a Heat Stress Test (HST) two weeks prior to and 48-h post-transfusion during summer months. After 30 min of rest in a 20 0 C antechamber, the HST consisted of a 120-min exposure (two repeats of 15-min rest and 45-min treadmill walk) in a 35 0 C, 45% rh environment while euhydrated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and red cell volume (RCV, 51 Cr) were measured approximately 24 h before each HST. For experimental Ss, an increase in RCV (11%, P 2 max (11%, P < 0.05) was found following transfusion, whereas, differences were not observed in the control Ss. During the HSTs for experimental Ss, metabolic rate as well as steady state rectal and esophageal temperatures were similar, but heat storage tended (P = 0.13) to be lower post-transfusion. Steady state local arm (R + C) was reduced (P < 0.05) with no change in total body sweating rate or local arm evaporative heat loss post-transfusion. For control Ss, thermoregulatory responses were generally not altered post-transfusion. Erythrocythemia may improve steady state sensible heat exchange by allowing a greater volume of blood to be directed to the cutaneous vasculature

  7. Insights into the Molecular Events That Regulate Heat-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Citrus Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, María T; Establés-Ortíz, Beatriz; González-Candelas, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Low non-freezing temperature may cause chilling injury (CI), which is responsible for external quality deterioration in many chilling-sensitive horticultural crops. Exposure of chilling-sensitive citrus cultivars to non-lethal high-temperature conditioning may increase their chilling tolerance. Very little information is available about the molecular events involved in such tolerance. In this work, the molecular events associated with the low temperature tolerance induced by heating Fortune mandarin, which is very sensitive to chilling, for 3 days at 37°C prior to cold storage is presented. A transcriptomic analysis reveals that heat-conditioning has an important impact favoring the repression of genes in cold-stored fruit, and that long-term heat-induced chilling tolerance is an active process that requires activation of transcription factors involved in transcription initiation and of the WRKY family. The analysis also shows that chilling favors degradation processes, which affect lipids and proteins, and that the protective effect of the heat-conditioning treatment is more likely to be related to the repression of the genes involved in lipid degradation than to the modification of fatty acids unsaturation, which affects membrane permeability. Another major factor associated with the beneficial effect of the heat treatment on reducing CI is the regulation of stress-related proteins. Many of the genes that encoded such proteins are involved in secondary metabolism and in oxidative stress-related processes.

  8. Insights into the Molecular Events That Regulate Heat-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Citrus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Lafuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low non-freezing temperature may cause chilling injury (CI, which is responsible for external quality deterioration in many chilling-sensitive horticultural crops. Exposure of chilling-sensitive citrus cultivars to non-lethal high-temperature conditioning may increase their chilling tolerance. Very little information is available about the molecular events involved in such tolerance. In this work, the molecular events associated with the low temperature tolerance induced by heating Fortune mandarin, which is very sensitive to chilling, for 3 days at 37°C prior to cold storage is presented. A transcriptomic analysis reveals that heat-conditioning has an important impact favoring the repression of genes in cold-stored fruit, and that long-term heat-induced chilling tolerance is an active process that requires activation of transcription factors involved in transcription initiation and of the WRKY family. The analysis also shows that chilling favors degradation processes, which affect lipids and proteins, and that the protective effect of the heat-conditioning treatment is more likely to be related to the repression of the genes involved in lipid degradation than to the modification of fatty acids unsaturation, which affects membrane permeability. Another major factor associated with the beneficial effect of the heat treatment on reducing CI is the regulation of stress-related proteins. Many of the genes that encoded such proteins are involved in secondary metabolism and in oxidative stress-related processes.

  9. Development regulation changes local elected leaders can make to promote energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kron, Jr, N F

    1980-07-01

    This report lists actions that local officials can make to change their community's development regulations and thereby lessen the effects of local energy problems. The term development regulations, as used here, is a general reference to local or state controls over land use and development that affect design, orientation, placement, location, and related characteristics of buildings and infrastructure. The regulations include items such as zoning, subdivision controls, setbacks, yard and height requirements, and solar-access ordinances.

  10. A new hydraulic regulation method on district heating system with distributed variable-speed pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hai; Wang, Haiying; Zhu, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A hydraulic regulation method was presented for district heating with distributed variable speed pumps. • Information and automation technologies were utilized to support the proposed method. • A new hydraulic model was developed for distributed variable speed pumps. • A new optimization model was developed based on genetic algorithm. • Two scenarios of a multi-source looped system was illustrated to validate the method. - Abstract: Compared with the hydraulic configuration based on the conventional central circulating pump, a district heating system with distributed variable-speed-pumps configuration can often save 30–50% power consumption on circulating pumps with frequency inverters. However, the hydraulic regulations on distributed variable-speed-pumps configuration could be more complicated than ever while all distributed pumps need to be adjusted to their designated flow rates. Especially in a multi-source looped structure heating network where the distributed pumps have strongly coupled and severe non-linear hydraulic connections with each other, it would be rather difficult to maintain the hydraulic balance during the regulations. In this paper, with the help of the advanced automation and information technologies, a new hydraulic regulation method was proposed to achieve on-site hydraulic balance for the district heating systems with distributed variable-speed-pumps configuration. The proposed method was comprised of a new hydraulic model, which was developed to adapt the distributed variable-speed-pumps configuration, and a calibration model with genetic algorithm. By carrying out the proposed method step by step, the flow rates of all distributed pumps can be progressively adjusted to their designated values. A hypothetic district heating system with 2 heat sources and 10 substations was taken as a case study to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Two scenarios were investigated respectively. In Scenario I, the

  11. Regulation of fruit and seed response to heat and drought by sugars as nutrients and signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hua eLiu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence shows that sugars function both as nutrients and signals to regulate fruit and seed set under normal and stress conditions including heat and drought. Inadequate sucrose import to, and its degradation within, reproductive organs cause fruit and seed abortion under heat and drought. As nutrients, sucrose-derived hexoses provide carbon skeletons and energy for growth and development of fruits and seeds. Sugar metabolism can also alleviate the impact of stress on fruit and seed through facilitating biosynthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps and non-enzymic antioxidants (e.g. glutathione, ascorbic acid, which collectively maintain the integrity of membranes and prevent programmed cell death (PCD through protecting proteins and scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS. In parallel, sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose, also exert signalling roles through cross-talk with hormone and ROS signalling pathways and by mediating cell division and PCD. At the same time, emerging data indicate that sugar-derived signalling systems, including trehalose-6 phosphate (T6P, sucrose non-fermenting related kinase-1 (SnRK and the target of rapamycin (TOR kinase complex also play important roles in regulating plant development through modulating nutrient and energy signalling and metabolic processes, especially under abiotic stresses where sugar availability is low. This review aims to evaluate recent progress of research on abiotic stress responses of reproductive organs focusing on roles of sugar metabolism and signalling and addressing the possible biochemical and molecular mechanism by which sugars regulate fruit and seed set under heat and drought.

  12. Effect of two plant growth regulators and illumination conditions in the germination of conserved seeds of Clitoria ternatea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Quintana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds viability lost in the seed legume bank of Research Institute of Pastures and Forages (IIPF led to the aim of the work it was to determine the effect of two plant growth regulators (gibberellic acid; GA3 and naphthalene acetic acid; ANA and illumination conditions on the germination of Clitoria ternatea SC-136 conserved seeds. One experiment was performed with two-factor completely randomized design with four replications Five different levels of growth regulators (factor A and two illumination conditions (factor B were evaluated. The variables measured were: total germination percentage (PTG and angular transformation, days to 50% PTG (G50 and the days between 10 and 90% PTG (G10-90. In addition, morphological variables were evaluated. It was found that the addition of plant growth regulators (GA3 and NAA was effective in increasing germination of Clitoria ternatea SC-136 conserved seeds, but not the illumination conditions tested. Combination GA3 (1 mg l-1 and NAA (0.1 mg l-1 to stimulate germination was recommended. Key words: GA3, germplasm, legume, NAA, photoperiod.

  13. Federal regulation of the pipeline industry: a summary review. [Effects on use of energy-conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-05-31

    The principal purposes of this report are: (1) identification of the jurisdiction areas of the Federal pipeline-regulating agencies, and (2) examination of the amenability of the regulatory system to the introduction of energy-conservative new technology into the pipeline industry. The history, scope, and agency structure of state and Federal regulation are recounted and some gaps, overlaps, and ambiguities are identified. The only significant inhibitory effects upon technological innovation are found to derive from the FPC and ICC limits upon profit, the 1941 Justice Department consent decree limiting dividends to shipper-owned pipelines, and the income tax rules governing recovery of investment credits and startup losses. Effects of these limits are explored by simulation studies using the Systems, Science and Software pipeline economic model (PEM). Two new concepts of regulation are proposed which would neutralize the inhibitory effect of the present regulatory system and would motivate pipeline operators to conserve energy: (1) use of a ''national equivalent value'' in the economic tradeoff analyses which justify entry of a technological innovation into the rate base (valuation), and (2) a ''valuation allowance'' which would reverse the presently often-existing situation and insure that the pipeline operator would realize a greater profit from saving energy than from wasting it.

  14. Translational co-regulation of a ligand and inhibitor by a conserved RNA element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaucker, Andreas; Nagorska, Agnieszka; Kumari, Pooja

    2018-01-01

    In many organisms, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of components of pathways or processes has been reported. However, to date, there are few reports of translational co-regulation of multiple components of a developmental signaling pathway. Here, we show that an RNA element wh...

  15. The conserved splicing factor SUA controls alternative splicing of the developmental regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugliani, M.; Brambilla, V.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Koornneef, M.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3- and ABI3-ß, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-ß transcript

  16. Identification of two evolutionarily conserved 5' cis-elements involved in regulating spatiotemporal expression of Nolz-1 during mouse embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Li-Yun Chang

    Full Text Available Proper development of vertebrate embryos depends not only on the crucial funtions of key evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulators, but also on the precisely spatiotemporal expression of these transcriptional regulators. The mouse Nolz-1/Znf503/Zfp503 gene is a mammalian member of the conserved zinc-finger containing NET family. The expression pattern of Nolz-1 in mouse embryos is highly correlated with that of its homologues in different species. To study the spatiotemporal regulation of Nolz-1, we first identified two evolutionarily conserved cis-elements, UREA and UREB, in 5' upstream regions of mouse Nolz-1 locus. We then generated UREA-LacZ and UREB-LacZ transgenic reporter mice to characterize the putative enhancer activity of UREA and UREB. The results indicated that both UREA and UREB contained tissue-specific enhancer activity for directing LacZ expression in selective tissue organs during mouse embryogensis. UREA directed LacZ expression preferentially in selective regions of developing central nervous system, including the forebrain, hindbrain and spinal cord, whereas UREB directed LacZ expression mainly in other developing tissue organs such as the Nolz-1 expressing branchial arches and its derivatives, the apical ectodermal ridge of limb buds and the urogenital tissues. Both UREA and UREB directed strong LacZ expression in the lateral plate mesoderm where endogenous Nolz-1 was also expressed. Despite that the LacZ expression pattern did not full recapitulated the endogenous Nolz-1 expression and some mismatched expression patterns were observed, co-expression of LacZ and Nolz-1 did occur in many cells of selective tissue organs, such as in the ventrolateral cortex and ventral spinal cord of UREA-LacZ embryos, and the urogenital tubes of UREB-LacZ embryos. Taken together, our study suggests that UREA and UREB may function as evolutionarily conserved cis-regulatory elements that coordinate with other cis-elements to regulate

  17. Regulating edible insects: the challenge of adressing food security, nature conservation, and the erosion of traditional food culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul; Hanboonsong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Entomophagy is a common practice in many regions of the world but there are few examples of national regulations that govern insects for human consumption. Where entomophagy is not common, the current regulatory discourse focuses primarily on food safety and consumer protection. In countries where...... species, they do not appear explicitly in dietary guidelines. Although food safety is a major concern, it can undermine the importance of nature conservation, traditional food culture, food security, and potential economic development. Thus, entomophagy should be viewed holistically and development...

  18. An underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, V.E.

    1988-05-17

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast- acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor. 5 figs.

  19. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working flud in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor.

  20. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a nuclear reactor for generating electricity disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor

  1. New pre-heating system for natural gas pressure regulating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zullo, G.; Vertuani, C.; Borghesani, O.; Vignoli, F.

    1999-01-01

    Costs for running natural gas pressure regulating stations are mainly due to operation and maintenance of a natural gas preheating system, usually equipment with a hot water boiler or an armour-plated electric resistance immersed in a fluid. The article describe a system, considering a natural circulation boiler which uses steam/condensate (at 100 degrees C and 0,5 bar) as a thermal conductor, in thermodynamic balance and in absence of un condensable. This new boiler, already operating with satisfactory results in heating system for industrial buildings, does not require testing, notifications, periodical inspections by the competent authorities, constant monitoring by trained or patented staff. Besides, it allows easier installations procedures and running cost savings. The system, to be considered as static because it has no moving parts, is a good alternative to conventional forced hot water circulation or electric heating system [it

  2. Heat stress induced changes in metabolic regulators of donkeys from arid tracts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria N.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To find out heat stress induced changes in metabolic regulators of donkeys from arid tracts in India, blood samples were collected to harvest the serum during moderate and extreme hot ambiences. The metabolic enzymes determined were sorbitol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, gammaglutamayl transferase, 5’nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, arginase, and aldolase. The mean values of all the serum enzymes increased significantly (p≤0.05 during hot ambience as compared to respective values during moderate ambience. It was concluded that increased activity of all the enzymes in the serum was due to modulation of metabolic reactions to combat the effect of hot ambience on the animals. Activation of gluconeogenesis along with hexose monophosphate shunt and urea cycle probably helped the animals to combat the heat stress.

  3. Visible cost - invisible profit. The heating, ventilation and sanitary sector and the realization of energy conservation. Among politics, knowledge and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubak, Marit

    1998-01-01

    In social research, technology has customarily been considered problem-generating. What is needed to turn new technology into a positive instrument in environmental work? To answer this question one must understand the interaction between politics, knowledge and practice that is important for dealing with the environmental challenges. It is a main objective of this book to contribute to this understanding by analysing how the building industry deals with the energy and environmental challenges that are commonly known as energy conservation. Specifically, the book deals with the heating, ventilation and sanitary sector since this is where most of the companies working with energy conservation are found. The discussion applies to Norway

  4. Nuclear cGMP-dependent kinase regulates gene expression via activity-dependent recruitment of a conserved histone deacetylase complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Elevation of the second messenger cGMP by nitric oxide (NO activates the cGMP-dependent protein kinase PKG, which is key in regulating cardiovascular, intestinal, and neuronal functions in mammals. The NO-cGMP-PKG signaling pathway is also a major therapeutic target for cardiovascular and male reproductive diseases. Despite widespread effects of PKG activation, few molecular targets of PKG are known. We study how EGL-4, the Caenorhabditis elegans PKG ortholog, modulates foraging behavior and egg-laying and seeks the downstream effectors of EGL-4 activity. Using a combination of unbiased forward genetic screen and proteomic analysis, we have identified a conserved SAEG-1/SAEG-2/HDA-2 histone deacetylase complex that is specifically recruited by activated nuclear EGL-4. Gene expression profiling by microarrays revealed >40 genes that are sensitive to EGL-4 activity in a SAEG-1-dependent manner. We present evidence that EGL-4 controls egg laying via one of these genes, Y45F10C.2, which encodes a novel protein that is expressed exclusively in the uterine epithelium. Our results indicate that, in addition to cytoplasmic functions, active EGL-4/PKG acts in the nucleus via a conserved Class I histone deacetylase complex to regulate gene expression pertinent to behavioral and physiological responses to cGMP. We also identify transcriptional targets of EGL-4 that carry out discrete components of the physiological response.

  5. Design of power auto-regulating system's high reliability controller for 200 MW nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhencai; Liu Longzhi; Chen Yuan

    1996-01-01

    The paper mainly introduces power auto-regulating system's high reliability controller for 200 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor. The controller is implemented with excellent performance 16 bit single chip microcomputer 8097. Master controller and 10 digit samplers are blocked. Each and every block's hardware is identical. These blocks communicate each other through 8 bit BUS and operate synchronously by united clock and reset signal and are designed with three redundancies. The identity comparison principle through two-out-of three is also introduced. The test proves that designing scheme is feasible

  6. NFAT5 regulates HIV-1 in primary monocytes via a highly conserved long terminal repeat site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Ranjbar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To replicate, HIV-1 capitalizes on endogenous cellular activation pathways resulting in recruitment of key host transcription factors to its viral enhancer. RNA interference has been a powerful tool for blocking key checkpoints in HIV-1 entry into cells. Here we apply RNA interference to HIV-1 transcription in primary macrophages, a major reservoir of the virus, and specifically target the transcription factor NFAT5 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 5, which is the most evolutionarily divergent NFAT protein. By molecularly cloning and sequencing isolates from multiple viral subtypes, and performing DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift, and promoter mutagenesis transfection assays, we demonstrate that NFAT5 functionally interacts with a specific enhancer binding site conserved in HIV-1, HIV-2, and multiple simian immunodeficiency viruses. Using small interfering RNA to ablate expression of endogenous NFAT5 protein, we show that the replication of three major HIV-1 viral subtypes (B, C, and E is dependent upon NFAT5 in human primary differentiated macrophages. Our results define a novel host factor-viral enhancer interaction that reveals a new regulatory role for NFAT5 and defines a functional DNA motif conserved across HIV-1 subtypes and representative simian immunodeficiency viruses. Inhibition of the NFAT5-LTR interaction may thus present a novel therapeutic target to suppress HIV-1 replication and progression of AIDS.

  7. A review of state regulations that exceed those of the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.; Heckman, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report identifies and provides information on state hazardous waste management programs and regulations in states where the US Department of Energy (DOE) has facilities. The objective is to describe for the DOE defense program and its contractors how state requirements are more stringent than the federal regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). DOE defense programs are located in 13 of the 50 states. Most of these states have regulations that are essentially equivalent to the federal RCRA requirements as they existed prior to the 1984 amendments, but their regulations are, in most instances, more stringment than the federal requirements. Differences are both substantive and procedural, and they are summarized and tabulated herein. All but three of these 13 states have been granted Final Authorization from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to operate their own hazardous waste management program in accord with the federal RCRA program prior to the 1984 amendments; two of the three others have some stage of Interim Authorization. EPA currently administers all of the provisions of the 1984 amendments, including requirements for corrective action under Sect. 3004(u). Two states, Colorado and Tennessee, have been granted revisions to their Final Authorizations delegating responsibility for the hazardous wastes. Responsible state agencies (with appropriate telephone numbers) are indicated, as are the relevant laws and current regulatory statutes

  8. Hydrological self-regulation of domed peatlands in south-east Asia and consequences for conservation and restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dommain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the hydrological constraints on the existence of forested peat domes (peat swamp forests in the humid tropics, the self-regulation mechanisms that enable them to persist and the implications for restoration of damaged domes. The most important requirement for the preservation of peat is permanent saturation by water. The variable input of precipitation must be translated into a constant water supply to the peat mound. In intact tropical peat swamp domes, water is stored above the peat surface in depressions between hummocks that surround tree trunks and between spreading buttress roots. This above-ground water store is analogous to the water stored in the loose upper layer of peat and vegetation in Sphagnum bogs. The horizontal differentiation of the peat swamp forest floor into hummocks with limited hydraulic conductivity and depressions with high storage capacity resembles the hummock-hollow patterning of these Sphagnum bogs. Hummocks and other surface elements functionally resemble V-notch weirs that regulate water availability. Buttressed trees play a key role in providing the structural elements for hydrological self-regulation. An additional level of regulation is found in the concentric zonation of forest types with increased presence of buttressed trees on steeper margins. Conservation and restoration efforts should take into account the inter-relationships between trees, water and peat and the hydrological feedbacks that operate as a consequence.

  9. A Conserved Splicing Silencer Dynamically Regulates O-GlcNAc Transferase Intron Retention and O-GlcNAc Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kyun Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins with O-GlcNAc regulates a wide variety of cellular processes and has been linked to human diseases. The enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT and O-GlcNAcase (OGA add and remove O-GlcNAc, but the mechanisms regulating their expression remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that retention of the fourth intron of OGT is regulated in response to O-GlcNAc levels. We further define a conserved intronic splicing silencer (ISS that is necessary for OGT intron retention. Deletion of the ISS in colon cancer cells leads to increases in OGT, but O-GlcNAc homeostasis is maintained by concomitant increases in OGA protein. However, the ISS-deleted cells are hypersensitive to OGA inhibition in culture and in soft agar. Moreover, growth of xenograft tumors from ISS-deleted cells is compromised in mice treated with an OGA inhibitor. Thus, ISS-mediated regulation of OGT intron retention is a key component in OGT expression and maintaining O-GlcNAc homeostasis.

  10. The implications of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmon, C.F.; Sharples, F.E.; Smith, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA

  11. Functional analysis of the conserved transcriptional regulator CfWor1 in Cladosporium fulvum reveals diverse roles in the virulence of plant pathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ökmen, B.; Collemare, J.; Griffiths, S.A.; Burgt, van der A.; Cox, R.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal Wor1-like proteins are conserved transcriptional regulators that are reported to regulate the virulence of several plant pathogenic fungi by affecting the expression of virulence genes. Here, we report the functional analysis of CfWor1, the homologue of Wor1 in Cladosporium fulvum. ¿cfwor1

  12. Conservation of the response regulator gene gacA in Pseudomonas species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, J.T.; Mazzola, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The response regulator gene gacA influences the production of several secondary metabolites in both pathogenic and beneficial Pseudomonas spp. In this study, we developed primers and a probe for the gacA gene of Pseudomonas species and sequenced a 425 bp fragment of gacA from ten Pseudomonas strains

  13. Practical results of heat conservation in a housing estate scale-actions implemented by the Pradnik-Bialy-Zachod housing cooperative in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, L. [Pradnik-Bialy-Zachod Housing Cooperative, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    There are 11,600,000 apartments occupied in Poland. More than 7,700,000 of these apartments are located in towns. Energy consumption for heating, ventilation and district hot water in residential housing reaches 40% of the national power balance. A portion of district heat distribution and relatively low energy efficiency is characteristic for Polish residential housing. Seventy five percent of apartments in towns are provided with central heating installations and 55% of the entire heat demand in Polish buildings is covered by district heating systems. The total installed heat power of these systems reaches 46,000 MW. The situation with regard to conservation in Polish residential housing is directly related to the legacy of central planning of the national economy and to the current phase of its re-organization to the market-oriented system. The standard value of the overall heat-transfer coefficient for external walls in Poland until 1980 was 1.16 W/m{sup 2}K; at present it is reduced to 0.55 W/m{sup 2}K. There are numerous reasons for the low energy efficiency in residential housing. These reasons are discussed.

  14. Two conserved modules of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mediator regulate distinct cellular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Tomas; Rasmussen, Nina; Samuelsen, Camilla O

    2008-01-01

    Mediator is an evolutionary conserved coregulator complex required for transcription of almost all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mediator consists of two dissociable components-a core complex organized into a head and middle domain as well as the Cdk8 regulatory...... subcomplex. In this work we describe a functional characterization of the S. pombe Mediator. We report the identification of the S. pombe Med20 head subunit and the isolation of ts alleles of the core head subunit encoding med17+. Biochemical analysis of med8(ts), med17(ts), Deltamed18, Deltamed20...... and Deltamed27 alleles revealed a stepwise head domain molecular architecture. Phenotypical analysis of Cdk8 and head module alleles including expression profiling classified the Mediator mutant alleles into one of two groups. Cdk8 module mutants flocculate due to overexpression of adhesive cell...

  15. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim P Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  16. Analysis of heat transfer regulation and modification employing intermittently emplaced porous cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafai, K.; Huang, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    The present work forms a fundamental investigation on the effects of using intermittently porous cavities for regulating and modifying the flow and temperature fields and therefore changing the skin friction and heat transfer characteristics of an external surface. A general flow model that accounts for the effects of the impermeable boundary and inertial effects is used to describe the flow inside the porous region. Solutions of the problem have been carried out using a finite-difference method through the use of a stream function-vorticity transformation. Various interesting characteristics of the flow and temperature fields in the composite layer are analyzed and discussed in detail. The effects of various governing dimensionless parameters, such as the Darcy number, Reynolds number, Prandtl number, the inertia parameter as well as the effects of pertinent geometric parameters are thoroughly explored. Furthermore, the interactive effects of the embedded porous substrates on skin friction and heat transfer characteristics of an external surface are analyzed. The configuration analyzed in this work provides an innovative approach in altering the frictional and heat transfer characteristics of an external surface. 27 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  17. Thermal conductance and basal metabolic rate are part of a coordinated system for heat transfer regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Daniel E.; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Thermal conductance measures the ease with which heat leaves or enters  an organism's body. Although the analysis of this physiological variable in relation to climatic and ecological factors can be traced to studies by Scholander and colleagues, only small advances have occurred ever since. Here, we analyse the relationship between minimal thermal conductance estimated during summer (Cmin) and several ecological, climatic and geographical factors for 127 rodent species, in order to identify the exogenous factors that have potentially affected the evolution of thermal conductance. In addition, we evaluate whether there is compensation between Cmin and basal metabolic rate (BMR)—in such a way that a scale-invariant ratio between both variables is equal to one—as could be expected from the Scholander–Irving model of heat transfer. Our major findings are (i) annual mean temperature is the best single predictor of mass-independent Cmin. (ii) After controlling for the effect of body mass, there is a strong positive correlation between log10 (Cmin) and log10 (BMR). Further, the slope of this correlation is close to one, indicating an almost perfect compensation between both physiological variables. (iii) Structural equation modelling indicated that Cmin values are adjusted to BMR values and not the other way around. Thus, our results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs. PMID:23902915

  18. Thermal conductance and basal metabolic rate are part of a coordinated system for heat transfer regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Daniel E; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2013-09-22

    Thermal conductance measures the ease with which heat leaves or enters an organism's body. Although the analysis of this physiological variable in relation to climatic and ecological factors can be traced to studies by Scholander and colleagues, only small advances have occurred ever since. Here, we analyse the relationship between minimal thermal conductance estimated during summer (Cmin) and several ecological, climatic and geographical factors for 127 rodent species, in order to identify the exogenous factors that have potentially affected the evolution of thermal conductance. In addition, we evaluate whether there is compensation between Cmin and basal metabolic rate (BMR)-in such a way that a scale-invariant ratio between both variables is equal to one-as could be expected from the Scholander-Irving model of heat transfer. Our major findings are (i) annual mean temperature is the best single predictor of mass-independent Cmin. (ii) After controlling for the effect of body mass, there is a strong positive correlation between log10 (Cmin) and log10 (BMR). Further, the slope of this correlation is close to one, indicating an almost perfect compensation between both physiological variables. (iii) Structural equation modelling indicated that Cmin values are adjusted to BMR values and not the other way around. Thus, our results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs.

  19. Neurotoxicity induced by arsenic in Gallus Gallus: Regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Houjuan; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic, a naturally occurring heavy metal pollutant, is one of the functioning risk factors for neurological toxicity in humans. However, little is known about the effects of arsenic on the nervous system of Gallus Gallus. To investigate whether arsenic induce neurotoxicity and influence the oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) response in chickens, seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ). The histological changes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expressions of Hsps were detected. Results showed slightly histology changes were obvious in the brain tissues exposure to arsenic. The activities of Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) were decreased compared to the control, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased gradually along with increase in diet-arsenic. The mRNA levels of Hsps and protein expressions of Hsp60 and Hsp70 were up-regulated. These results suggested that sub-chronic exposure to arsenic induced neurotoxicity in chickens. Arsenic exposure disturbed the balance of oxidants and antioxidants. Increased heat shock response tried to protect chicken brain tissues from tissues damage caused by oxidative stress. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by arsenic include oxidative stress and heat shock protein response in chicken brain tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 regulates heat and cold pain sensitivity and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Maike; Mair, Norbert; Lim, Hee-Young; Zschiebsch, Katja; Blees, Johanna; Häussler, Annett; Brüne, Bernhard; Ferreiròs, Nerea; Kress, Michaela; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2014-06-01

    The present study assessed the functions of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in sensory neurons in models of acute, inflammatory, ischemic, and neuropathic pain. The alpha subunit, HIF1α, was specifically deleted in neurons of the dorsal root ganglia by mating HIF1α(fl/fl) mice with SNScre mice. SNS-HIF1α(-/-) mice were more sensitive to noxious heat and cold pain stimulation than were HIF1α(fl/fl) control mice. They also showed heightened first-phase nociceptive responses in the formalin and capsaicin tests with increased numbers of cFos-positive neurons in the dorsal horn, and intensified hyperalgesia in early phases after paw inflammation and hind limb ischemia/reperfusion. The behavioral cold and heat pain hypersensitivity was explained by increased calcium fluxes after transient receptor potential channel activation in primary sensory neurons of SNS-HIF1α(-/-) mice and lowered electrical activation thresholds of sensory fibers. SNS-HIF1α(-/-) mice however, developed less neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve injury, which was associated with an abrogation of HIF1-mediated gene up-regulation. The results suggest that HIF1α is protective in terms of acute heat and cold pain but in case of ongoing activation in injured neurons, it may promote the development of neuropathic pain. The duality of HIF1 in pain regulation may have an impact on the side effects of drugs targeting HIF1, which are being developed, for example, as anticancer agents. Specifically, in patients with cancer neuropathy, however, temporary HIF1 inhibition might provide a welcome combination of growth and pain reduction.

  1. A conserved NAD+ binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Bonkowski, Michael S; Moniot, Sébastien; Zhang, Dapeng; Hubbard, Basil P; Ling, Alvin J Y; Rajman, Luis A; Qin, Bo; Lou, Zhenkun; Gorbunova, Vera; Aravind, L; Steegborn, Clemens; Sinclair, David A

    2017-03-24

    DNA repair is essential for life, yet its efficiency declines with age for reasons that are unclear. Numerous proteins possess Nudix homology domains (NHDs) that have no known function. We show that NHDs are NAD + (oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) binding domains that regulate protein-protein interactions. The binding of NAD + to the NHD domain of DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1) prevents it from inhibiting PARP1 [poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase], a critical DNA repair protein. As mice age and NAD + concentrations decline, DBC1 is increasingly bound to PARP1, causing DNA damage to accumulate, a process rapidly reversed by restoring the abundance of NAD + Thus, NAD + directly regulates protein-protein interactions, the modulation of which may protect against cancer, radiation, and aging. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Regulators Involved in Dickeya solani Virulence, Genetic Conservation and Functional Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Marta; Golanowska, Małgorzata; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Dickeya (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) are plant pathogens causing severe diseases in many economically important crops. A majority of the strains responsible for potato disease in Europe belong to a newly identified Dickeya solani species. Although some ecological and epidemiological studies have been carried out, little is known about the regulation of D. solani virulence. The characterization of four D. solani strains indicates significant differences in their virulence on potato although they are genetically similar based on genomic fingerprinting profiles. A phenotypic examination included an analysis of virulence on potato, growth rate in culture, motility, Fe 3+ chelation, and pectate lyase, cellulase, protease, biosurfactant and blue pigment production. Mutants of four D. solani strains were constructed by inactivating the genes coding either for one of the main negative regulators of D. dadantii virulence (kdgR, pecS and pecT) or for the synthesis and perception of signaling molecules (expI and expR). Analysis of these mutants indicated that PecS, PecT and KdgR play a similar role in both species, repressing to different degrees the synthesis of virulence factors. The thermoregulator PecT seems to be a major regulator of D. solani virulence. This work also reveals the role of quorum sensing mediated by ExpI and ExpR in D. solani virulence on potato.

  3. Identification of evolutionarily conserved exons as regulated targets for the splicing activator tra2β in development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Grellscheid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing amplifies the information content of the genome, creating multiple mRNA isoforms from single genes. The evolutionarily conserved splicing activator Tra2β (Sfrs10 is essential for mouse embryogenesis and implicated in spermatogenesis. Here we find that Tra2β is up-regulated as the mitotic stem cell containing population of male germ cells differentiate into meiotic and post-meiotic cells. Using CLIP coupled to deep sequencing, we found that Tra2β binds a high frequency of exons and identified specific G/A rich motifs as frequent targets. Significantly, for the first time we have analysed the splicing effect of Sfrs10 depletion in vivo by generating a conditional neuronal-specific Sfrs10 knock-out mouse (Sfrs10(fl/fl; Nestin-Cre(tg/+. This mouse has defects in brain development and allowed correlation of genuine physiologically Tra2β regulated exons. These belonged to a novel class which were longer than average size and importantly needed multiple cooperative Tra2β binding sites for efficient splicing activation, thus explaining the observed splicing defects in the knockout mice. Regulated exons included a cassette exon which produces a meiotic isoform of the Nasp histone chaperone that helps monitor DNA double-strand breaks. We also found a previously uncharacterised poison exon identifying a new pathway of feedback control between vertebrate Tra2 proteins. Both Nasp-T and the Tra2a poison exon are evolutionarily conserved, suggesting they might control fundamental developmental processes. Tra2β protein isoforms lacking the RRM were able to activate specific target exons indicating an additional functional role as a splicing co-activator. Significantly the N-terminal RS1 domain conserved between flies and humans was essential for the splicing activator function of Tra2β. Versions of Tra2β lacking this N-terminal RS1 domain potently repressed the same target exons activated by full-length Tra2β protein.

  4. Regulation of the heat shock response under anoxia in the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Storey, Kenneth B

    2010-03-01

    The effects of 20 h of anoxic submergence in cold water and 5 h of aerobic recovery on the heat shock response were analyzed in four organs of the anoxia-tolerant turtle Trachemys scripta elegans. Immunoblotting was used to analyze levels of active and inactive forms of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), nuclear translocation of HSF1, and the levels of six heat shock proteins (HSPs). PCR was also used to retrieve the turtle HSF1 nucleotide sequence; its deduced amino acid sequence showed 97% identity with chicken HSF1. White skeletal muscle showed a strong fivefold increase in the amount of active HSF1 under anoxic conditions as well as an 80% increase in nuclear localization. This was accompanied by upregulation of five HSPs by 1.8- to 2.9-fold: Hsp25, Hsp40, Hsp70, Hsc70, and Hsp90, the latter two remained elevated after 5 h of aerobic recovery. Kidney and liver showed little change in active HSF1 content during anoxia and recovery, but a significant increase in the nuclear localization of HSF1 during anoxia. This supported enhanced expression of three HSPs in kidney (Hsp40, Hsc70, and Hsp90) and four in liver (Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsc70). Heart displayed a strong increase in active HSF1 during anoxia and recovery (6.6- to 6.8-fold higher than control) and increased nuclear localization but heart HSP levels did not rise. The data demonstrate organ-specific regulation of HSPs during anoxia exposure and aerobic recovery in T. s. elegans and suggest that the heat shock response is an important aspect of cytoprotection during facultative anaerobiosis, particularly with regard to underwater hibernation of turtles in cold water.

  5. A conserved inter-domain communication mechanism regulates the ATPase activity of the AAA-protein Drg1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prattes, Michael; Loibl, Mathias; Zisser, Gertrude; Luschnig, Daniel; Kappel, Lisa; Rössler, Ingrid; Grassegger, Manuela; Hromic, Altijana; Krieger, Elmar; Gruber, Karl; Pertschy, Brigitte; Bergler, Helmut

    2017-03-17

    AAA-ATPases fulfil essential roles in different cellular pathways and often act in form of hexameric complexes. Interaction with pathway-specific substrate and adaptor proteins recruits them to their targets and modulates their catalytic activity. This substrate dependent regulation of ATP hydrolysis in the AAA-domains is mediated by a non-catalytic N-terminal domain. The exact mechanisms that transmit the signal from the N-domain and coordinate the individual AAA-domains in the hexameric complex are still the topic of intensive research. Here, we present the characterization of a novel mutant variant of the eukaryotic AAA-ATPase Drg1 that shows dysregulation of ATPase activity and altered interaction with Rlp24, its substrate in ribosome biogenesis. This defective regulation is the consequence of amino acid exchanges at the interface between the regulatory N-domain and the adjacent D1 AAA-domain. The effects caused by these mutations strongly resemble those of pathological mutations of the AAA-ATPase p97 which cause the hereditary proteinopathy IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia). Our results therefore suggest well conserved mechanisms of regulation between structurally, but not functionally related members of the AAA-family.

  6. Crystal structure of the conserved herpesvirus fusion regulator complex gH—gL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdary, Tirumala K.; Cairns, Tina M.; Atanasiu, Doina; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E. [UPENN; (Tufts-MED)

    2015-02-09

    Herpesviruses, which cause many incurable diseases, infect cells by fusing viral and cellular membranes. Whereas most other enveloped viruses use a single viral catalyst called a fusogen, herpesviruses, inexplicably, require two conserved fusion-machinery components, gB and the heterodimer gH–gL, plus other nonconserved components. gB is a class III viral fusogen, but unlike other members of its class, it does not function alone. We determined the crystal structure of the gH ectodomain bound to gL from herpes simplex virus 2. gH–gL is an unusually tight complex with a unique architecture that, unexpectedly, does not resemble any known viral fusogen. Instead, we propose that gH–gL activates gB for fusion, possibly through direct binding. Formation of a gB–gH–gL complex is critical for fusion and is inhibited by a neutralizing antibody, making the gB–gH–gL interface a promising antiviral target.

  7. Crystal Structure of the Conserved Herpes Virus Fusion Regulator Complex gH–gL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdary, T.; Cairns, T; Atanasiu, D; Cohen, G; Eisenberg, R; Heldwein, E

    2010-01-01

    Herpesviruses, which cause many incurable diseases, infect cells by fusing viral and cellular membranes. Whereas most other enveloped viruses use a single viral catalyst called a fusogen, herpesviruses, inexplicably, require two conserved fusion-machinery components, gB and the heterodimer gH-gL, plus other nonconserved components. gB is a class III viral fusogen, but unlike other members of its class, it does not function alone. We determined the crystal structure of the gH ectodomain bound to gL from herpes simplex virus 2. gH-gL is an unusually tight complex with a unique architecture that, unexpectedly, does not resemble any known viral fusogen. Instead, we propose that gH-gL activates gB for fusion, possibly through direct binding. Formation of a gB-gH-gL complex is critical for fusion and is inhibited by a neutralizing antibody, making the gB-gH-gL interface a promising antiviral target.

  8. Crystal structure of the conserved herpes virus fusion regulator complex gH-gL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdary, Tirumala K; Cairns, Tina M; Atanasiu, Doina; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Heldwein, Ekaterina E [UPENN; (Tufts-MED)

    2010-09-13

    Herpesviruses, which cause many incurable diseases, infect cells by fusing viral and cellular membranes. Whereas most other enveloped viruses use a single viral catalyst called a fusogen, herpesviruses, inexplicably, require two conserved fusion-machinery components, gB and the heterodimer gH-gL, plus other nonconserved components. gB is a class III viral fusogen, but unlike other members of its class, it does not function alone. We determined the crystal structure of the gH ectodomain bound to gL from herpes simplex virus 2. gH-gL is an unusually tight complex with a unique architecture that, unexpectedly, does not resemble any known viral fusogen. Instead, we propose that gH-gL activates gB for fusion, possibly through direct binding. Formation of a gB-gH-gL complex is critical for fusion and is inhibited by a neutralizing antibody, making the gB-gH-gL interface a promising antiviral target.

  9. Curli Fibers Are Highly Conserved between Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli with Respect to Operon Structure and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Bian, Zhao; Hammar, Mårten; Sierralta, Walter D.; Normark, Staffan

    1998-01-01

    Mouse-virulent Salmonella typhimurium strains SR-11 and ATCC 14028-1s express curli fibers, thin aggregative fibers, at ambient temperature on plates as judged by Western blot analysis and electron microscopy. Concomitantly with curli expression, cells develop a rough and dry colony morphology and bind the dye Congo red (called the rdar morphotype). Cloning and characterization of the two divergently transcribed operons required for curli biogenesis, csgBA(C) and csgDEFG, from S. typhimurium SR-11 revealed the same gene order and flanking genes as in Escherichia coli. The divergence of the curli region between S. typhimurium and E. coli at the nucleotide level is above average (22.4%). However, a high level of conservation at the protein level, which ranged from 86% amino acid homology for the fiber subunit CsgA to 99% homology for the lipoprotein CsgG, implies functional constraints on the gene products. Consequently, S. typhimurium genes on low-copy-number plasmids were able to complement respective E. coli mutants, although not always to wild-type levels. rpoS and ompR are required for transcriptional activation of (at least) the csgD promoter. The high degree of conservation at the protein level and the identical regulation patterns in E. coli and S. typhimurium suggest similar roles of curli fibers in the same ecological niche in the two species. PMID:9457880

  10. Conserved salt-bridge competition triggered by phosphorylation regulates the protein interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, John J.

    2017-12-05

    Phosphorylation is a major regulator of protein interactions; however, the mechanisms by which regulation occurs are not well understood. Here we identify a salt-bridge competition or “theft” mechanism that enables a phospho-triggered swap of protein partners by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP). RKIP transitions from inhibiting Raf-1 to inhibiting G-protein–coupled receptor kinase 2 upon phosphorylation, thereby bridging MAP kinase and G-Protein–Coupled Receptor signaling. NMR and crystallography indicate that a phosphoserine, but not a phosphomimetic, competes for a lysine from a preexisting salt bridge, initiating a partial unfolding event and promoting new protein interactions. Structural elements underlying the theft occurred early in evolution and are found in 10% of homo-oligomers and 30% of hetero-oligomers including Bax, Troponin C, and Early Endosome Antigen 1. In contrast to a direct recognition of phosphorylated residues by binding partners, the salt-bridge theft mechanism represents a facile strategy for promoting or disrupting protein interactions using solvent-accessible residues, and it can provide additional specificity at protein interfaces through local unfolding or conformational change.

  11. Conserved salt-bridge competition triggered by phosphorylation regulates the protein interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, John J.; Wang, Sheng; Lee, Jiyoung; Ong, Colin; Sommese, Ruth; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Koelmel, Wolfgang; Hirschbeck, Maria; Schindelin, Hermann; Kisker, Caroline; Lorenz, Kristina; Sosnick, Tobin R.; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylation is a major regulator of protein interactions; however, the mechanisms by which regulation occurs are not well understood. Here we identify a salt-bridge competition or “theft” mechanism that enables a phospho-triggered swap of protein partners by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP). RKIP transitions from inhibiting Raf-1 to inhibiting G-protein–coupled receptor kinase 2 upon phosphorylation, thereby bridging MAP kinase and G-Protein–Coupled Receptor signaling. NMR and crystallography indicate that a phosphoserine, but not a phosphomimetic, competes for a lysine from a preexisting salt bridge, initiating a partial unfolding event and promoting new protein interactions. Structural elements underlying the theft occurred early in evolution and are found in 10% of homo-oligomers and 30% of hetero-oligomers including Bax, Troponin C, and Early Endosome Antigen 1. In contrast to a direct recognition of phosphorylated residues by binding partners, the salt-bridge theft mechanism represents a facile strategy for promoting or disrupting protein interactions using solvent-accessible residues, and it can provide additional specificity at protein interfaces through local unfolding or conformational change.

  12. A Conserved Cytochrome P450 Evolved in Seed Plants Regulates Flower Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua; Boachon, Benoît; Lugan, Raphaël; Tavares, Raquel; Erhardt, Mathieu; Mutterer, Jérôme; Demais, Valérie; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Brunaud, Véronique; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Pencik, Ales; Achard, Patrick; Gong, Fan; Hedden, Peter; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Renault, Hugues

    2015-12-07

    Global inspection of plant genomes identifies genes maintained in low copies across taxa and under strong purifying selection, which are likely to have essential functions. Based on this rationale, we investigated the function of the low-duplicated CYP715 cytochrome P450 gene family that appeared early in seed plants and evolved under strong negative selection. Arabidopsis CYP715A1 showed a restricted tissue-specific expression in the tapetum of flower buds and in the anther filaments upon anthesis. cyp715a1 insertion lines showed a strong defect in petal development, and transient alteration of pollen intine deposition. Comparative expression analysis revealed the downregulated expression of genes involved in pollen development, cell wall biogenesis, hormone homeostasis, and floral sesquiterpene biosynthesis, especially TPS21 and several key genes regulating floral development such as MYB21, MYB24, and MYC2. Accordingly, floral sesquiterpene emission was suppressed in the cyp715a1 mutants. Flower hormone profiling, in addition, indicated a modification of gibberellin homeostasis and a strong disturbance of the turnover of jasmonic acid derivatives. Petal growth was partially restored by the active gibberellin GA3 or the functional analog of jasmonoyl-isoleucine, coronatine. CYP715 appears to function as a key regulator of flower maturation, synchronizing petal expansion and volatile emission. It is thus expected to be an important determinant of flower-insect interaction. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Conserved Role for Atlastin GTPases in Regulating Lipid Droplet Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin W. Klemm

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipid droplets (LDs are the major fat storage organelles in eukaryotic cells, but how their size is regulated is unknown. Using genetic screens in C. elegans for LD morphology defects in intestinal cells, we found that mutations in atlastin, a GTPase required for homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER membranes, cause not only ER morphology defects, but also a reduction in LD size. Similar results were obtained after depletion of atlastin or expression of a dominant-negative mutant, whereas overexpression of atlastin had the opposite effect. Atlastin depletion in Drosophila fat bodies also reduced LD size and decreased triglycerides in whole animals, sensitizing them to starvation. In mammalian cells, co-overexpression of atlastin-1 and REEP1, a paralog of the ER tubule-shaping protein DP1/REEP5, generates large LDs. The effect of atlastin-1 on LD size correlates with its activity to promote membrane fusion in vitro. Our results indicate that atlastin-mediated fusion of ER membranes is important for LD size regulation.

  14. A bioinformatic survey of distribution, conservation, and probable functions of LuxR solo regulators in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Florez Salcedo, Diana Vanessa; Suarez-Moreno, Zulma R.

    2015-01-01

    LuxR solo transcriptional regulators contain both an autoinducer binding domain (ABD; N-terminal) and a DNA binding Helix-Turn-Helix domain (HTH; C-terminal), but are not associated with a cognate N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase coding gene in the same genome. Although a few LuxR solos have been characterized, their distributions as well as their role in bacterial signal perception and other processes are poorly understood. In this study we have carried out a systematic survey of distribution of all ABD containing LuxR transcriptional regulators (QS domain LuxRs) available in the InterPro database (IPR005143), and identified those lacking a cognate AHL synthase. These LuxR solos were then analyzed regarding their taxonomical distribution, predicted functions of neighboring genes and the presence of complete AHL-QS systems in the genomes that carry them. Our analyses reveal the presence of one or multiple predicted LuxR solos in many proteobacterial genomes carrying QS domain LuxRs, some of them harboring genes for one or more AHL-QS circuits. The presence of LuxR solos in bacteria occupying diverse environments suggests potential ecological functions for these proteins beyond AHL and interkingdom signaling. Based on gene context and the conservation levels of invariant amino acids of ABD, we have classified LuxR solos into functionally meaningful groups or putative orthologs. Surprisingly, putative LuxR solos were also found in a few non-proteobacterial genomes which are not known to carry AHL-QS systems. Multiple predicted LuxR solos in the same genome appeared to have different levels of conservation of invariant amino acid residues of ABD questioning their binding to AHLs. In summary, this study provides a detailed overview of distribution of LuxR solos and their probable roles in bacteria with genome sequence information. PMID:25759807

  15. A bioinformatic survey of distribution, conservation, and probable functions of LuxR solo regulators in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Florez Salcedo, Diana Vanessa; Suarez-Moreno, Zulma R

    2015-01-01

    LuxR solo transcriptional regulators contain both an autoinducer binding domain (ABD; N-terminal) and a DNA binding Helix-Turn-Helix domain (HTH; C-terminal), but are not associated with a cognate N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase coding gene in the same genome. Although a few LuxR solos have been characterized, their distributions as well as their role in bacterial signal perception and other processes are poorly understood. In this study we have carried out a systematic survey of distribution of all ABD containing LuxR transcriptional regulators (QS domain LuxRs) available in the InterPro database (IPR005143), and identified those lacking a cognate AHL synthase. These LuxR solos were then analyzed regarding their taxonomical distribution, predicted functions of neighboring genes and the presence of complete AHL-QS systems in the genomes that carry them. Our analyses reveal the presence of one or multiple predicted LuxR solos in many proteobacterial genomes carrying QS domain LuxRs, some of them harboring genes for one or more AHL-QS circuits. The presence of LuxR solos in bacteria occupying diverse environments suggests potential ecological functions for these proteins beyond AHL and interkingdom signaling. Based on gene context and the conservation levels of invariant amino acids of ABD, we have classified LuxR solos into functionally meaningful groups or putative orthologs. Surprisingly, putative LuxR solos were also found in a few non-proteobacterial genomes which are not known to carry AHL-QS systems. Multiple predicted LuxR solos in the same genome appeared to have different levels of conservation of invariant amino acid residues of ABD questioning their binding to AHLs. In summary, this study provides a detailed overview of distribution of LuxR solos and their probable roles in bacteria with genome sequence information.

  16. A bioinformatic survey of distribution, conservation and probable functions of LuxR solo regulators in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha eSubramoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available LuxR solo transcriptional regulators contain both an autoinducer binding domain (ABD; N-terminal and a DNA binding Helix-Turn-Helix domain (HTH; C-terminal, but are not associated with a cognate N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL synthase coding gene in the same genome. Although a few LuxR solos have been characterized, their distributions as well as their role in bacterial signal perception and other processes are poorly understood. In this study we have carried out a systematic survey of distribution of all ABD containing LuxR transcriptional regulators (QS domain LuxRs available in the InterPro database (IPR005143, and identified those lacking a cognate AHL synthase. These LuxR solos were then analyzed regarding their taxonomical distribution, predicted functions of neighboring genes and the presence of complete AHL-QS systems in the genomes that carry them. Our analyses reveal the presence of one or multiple predicted LuxR solos in many proteobacterial genomes carrying QS domain LuxRs, some of them harboring genes for one or more AHL-QS circuits. The presence of LuxR solos in bacteria occupying diverse environments suggests potential ecological functions for these proteins beyond AHL and interkingdom signaling. Based on gene context and the conservation levels of invariant amino acids of ABD, we have classified LuxR solos into functionally meaningful groups or putative orthologs. Surprisingly, putative LuxR solos were also found in a few non-proteobacterial genomes which are not known to carry AHL-QS systems. Multiple predicted LuxR solos in the same genome appeared to have different levels of conservation of invariant amino acid residues of ABD questioning their binding to AHLs. In summary, this study provides a detailed overview of distribution of LuxR solos and their probable roles in bacteria with genome sequence information.

  17. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  18. Regulation and Measurement of the Heat Generated by Automatic Tooth Preparation in a Confined Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Zheng, Jianqiao; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong; Lyu, Peijun

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and regulate heat generation in the dental pulp cavity and circumambient temperature around a tooth during laser ablation with a femtosecond laser in a confined space. The automatic tooth preparing technique is one of the traditional oral clinical technology innovations. In this technique, a robot controlled an ultrashort pulse laser to automatically complete the three-dimensional teeth preparing in a confined space. The temperature control is the main measure for protecting the tooth nerve. Ten tooth specimens were irradiated with a femtosecond laser controlled by a robot in a confined space to generate 10 teeth preparation. During the process, four thermocouple sensors were used to record the pulp cavity and circumambient environment temperatures with or without air cooling. A statistical analysis of the temperatures was performed between the conditions with and without air cooling (p heat generated in the pulp cavity was lower than the threshold for dental pulp damage. These results indicate that femtosecond laser ablation with air cooling might be an appropriate method for automatic tooth preparing.

  19. Flotillin-1 is an evolutionary-conserved memory-related protein up-regulated in implicit and explicit learning paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Francisco J; Divisch, Isabella; Demit, Marvie; Lubec, Gert; Pollak, Daniela D

    2013-06-01

    Studies of synaptic plasticity using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica as model system have been successfully used to identify proteins involved in learning and memory. The importance of molecular elements regulated by the learning- related neurotransmitter serotonin in Aplysia can then be explored in rodent models and finally tested for their relevance for human physiology and pathology. Herein, 2-DE gel-based electrophoresis has been used to investigate protein level changes after treatment with serotonin in Aplysia abdominal ganglia. Twenty-one proteins have been found to be regulated by serotonin, and protein level changes of actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), deleted in azoospermia associated protein (DAZAP-1), and Flotillin-1 have been verified by Western blotting. Flotillin-1, a member of the flotillin/reggie family of scaffolding proteins, has been previously found to be involved in neuritic branching and synapse formation in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, its importance for hippocampal- dependent learning and memory in the mouse has not been examined. Here, elevated levels of Flotillin-1 in hippocampal tissue of mice trained in the Morris water maze confirmed the relevance of Flotillin-1 for memory-related processes in a mammalian system. Thus, a translational approach-from invertebrates to rodents-led to the identification of Flotillin-1 as evolutionary-conserved memory-related protein.

  20. Branched-chain amino acid catabolism is a conserved regulator of physiological ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Johannes; Urban, Nadine; Priebe, Steffen; Groth, Marco; Frahm, Christiane; Hartmann, Nils; Gebauer, Juliane; Ravichandran, Meenakshi; Dommaschk, Anne; Schmeisser, Sebastian; Kuhlow, Doreen; Monajembashi, Shamci; Bremer-Streck, Sibylle; Hemmerich, Peter; Kiehntopf, Michael; Zamboni, Nicola; Englert, Christoph; Guthke, Reinhard; Kaleta, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias; Sühnel, Jürgen; Witte, Otto W; Zarse, Kim; Ristow, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ageing has been defined as a global decline in physiological function depending on both environmental and genetic factors. Here we identify gene transcripts that are similarly regulated during physiological ageing in nematodes, zebrafish and mice. We observe the strongest extension of lifespan when impairing expression of the branched-chain amino acid transferase-1 (bcat-1) gene in C. elegans, which leads to excessive levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). We further show that BCAAs reduce a LET-363/mTOR-dependent neuro-endocrine signal, which we identify as DAF-7/TGFβ, and that impacts lifespan depending on its related receptors, DAF-1 and DAF-4, as well as ultimately on DAF-16/FoxO and HSF-1 in a cell-non-autonomous manner. The transcription factor HLH-15 controls and epistatically synergizes with BCAT-1 to modulate physiological ageing. Lastly and consistent with previous findings in rodents, nutritional supplementation of BCAAs extends nematodal lifespan. Taken together, BCAAs act as periphery-derived metabokines that induce a central neuro-endocrine response, culminating in extended healthspan.

  1. Oestrogen, an evolutionary conserved regulator of T cell differentiation and immune tolerance in jawed vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiola, Matthieu; Knigge, Thomas; Duflot, Aurélie; Pinto, Patricia I S; Farcy, Emilie; Monsinjon, Tiphaine

    2018-07-01

    In teleosts, as in mammals, the immune system is tightly regulated by sexual steroid hormones, such as oestrogens. We investigated the effects of 17β-oestradiol on the expression of several genes related to T cell development and resulting T cell subpopulations in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, for a primary lymphoid organ, the thymus, and two secondary lymphoid organs, the head-kidney and the spleen. In parallel, the oxidative burst capacity was assessed in leucocytes of the secondary lymphoid organs. Apoptosis- and proliferation-related genes, indicative of B and T cell clonal selection and lymphoid progenitor activity, were not affected by elevated oestrogen-levels. Sex-related oestrogen-responsiveness in T cell and antigen-presenting cell markers was observed, the expression of which was differentially induced by oestrogen-exposure in the three lymphoid organs. Remarkably, in the spleen, oestrogen increased regulatory T cell-related gene expression was associated with a decrease in oxidative burst capacity. To the best of our knowledge, this study indicates for the first time that physiological levels of oestrogen are likely to promote immune tolerance by modulating thymic function (i.e., T cell development and output) and peripheral T cells in teleosts, similar to previously reported oestrogenic effects in mammals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A conserved role for syndecan family members in the regulation of whole-body energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Luca

    2010-06-01

    syndecan family members play a key role in the regulation of body metabolism.

  3. Heat storage in Asian elephants during submaximal exercise: behavioral regulation of thermoregulatory constraints on activity in endothermic gigantotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M F; Bakken, G S; Ratliff, J J; Langman, V A

    2013-05-15

    Gigantic size presents both opportunities and challenges in thermoregulation. Allometric scaling relationships suggest that gigantic animals have difficulty dissipating metabolic heat. Large body size permits the maintenance of fairly constant core body temperatures in ectothermic animals by means of gigantothermy. Conversely, gigantothermy combined with endothermic metabolic rate and activity likely results in heat production rates that exceed heat loss rates. In tropical environments, it has been suggested that a substantial rate of heat storage might result in a potentially lethal rise in core body temperature in both elephants and endothermic dinosaurs. However, the behavioral choice of nocturnal activity might reduce heat storage. We sought to test the hypothesis that there is a functionally significant relationship between heat storage and locomotion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and model the thermoregulatory constraints on activity in elephants and a similarly sized migratory dinosaur, Edmontosaurus. Pre- and post-exercise (N=37 trials) measurements of core body temperature and skin temperature, using thermography were made in two adult female Asian elephants at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA, USA. Over ambient air temperatures ranging from 8 to 34.5°C, when elephants exercised in full sun, ~56 to 100% of active metabolic heat production was stored in core body tissues. We estimate that during nocturnal activity, in the absence of solar radiation, between 5 and 64% of metabolic heat production would be stored in core tissues. Potentially lethal rates of heat storage in active elephants and Edmontosaurus could be behaviorally regulated by nocturnal activity.

  4. Caffeine Induces the Stress Response and Up-Regulates Heat Shock Proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Gong, Joomi; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Caffeine has both positive and negative effects on physiological functions in a dose-dependent manner. C. elegans has been used as an animal model to investigate the effects of caffeine on development. Caffeine treatment at a high dose (30 mM) showed detrimental effects and caused early larval arrest. We performed a comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the mode of action of high-dose caffeine treatment in C. elegans and found that the stress response proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)-4 (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] chaperone), HSP-6 (mitochondrial chaperone), and HSP-16 (cytosolic chaperone), were induced and their expression was regulated at the transcriptional level. These findings suggest that high-dose caffeine intake causes a strong stress response and activates all three stress-response pathways in the worms, including the ER-, mitochondrial-, and cytosolic pathways. RNA interference of each hsp gene or in triple combination retarded growth. In addition, caffeine treatment stimulated a food-avoidance behavior (aversion phenotype), which was enhanced by RNAi depletion of the hsp-4 gene. Therefore, up-regulation of hsp genes after caffeine treatment appeared to be the major responses to alleviate stress and protect against developmental arrest.

  5. Theoretical insight into the heat shock response (HSR) regulation in Lactobacillus casei and L. rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Zotta, Teresa; Iacumin, Lucilla; Reale, Anna

    2016-08-07

    The understanding of the heat shock response (HSR) in lactobacilli from a regulatory point of view is still limited, though an increased knowledge on the regulation of this central stress response can lead to improvements in the exploitation of these health promoting microorganisms. Therefore the aim of this in silico study, that is the first to be carried out for members of the Lactobacillus genus, was predicting how HSR influences cell functions in the food associated and probiotic species Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. To this purpose, thirteen whole genomes of these bacteria were analyzed to identify which genes involved in HSR are present. It was found that all the genomes share 25 HSR related genes, including those encoding protein repair systems, HSR repressors, HrcA and CtsR, and the positive regulators of HSR, alternative σ factors σ(32) and σ(24). Two genes encoding a σ(70)/σ(24) factor and a Lon protease, respectively, were found only in some genomes. The localization of the HSR regulators binding sites in genomes was analyzed in order to identify regulatory relationships driving HSR in these lactobacilli. It was observed that the binding site for the HrcA repressor is found upstream of the hrcA-grpE-dnaK-dnaJ and groES-groEL gene clusters, of two hsp genes, clpE, clpL and clpP, while the CtsR repressor binding site precedes the ctsR-clpC operon, clpB, clpE and clpP. Therefore the ClpE-ClpP protease complex is dually regulated by HrcA and CtsR. Consensus sequences for the promoters recognized by the HSR alternative σ factors were defined for L. casei and L. rhamnosus and were used in whole genome searches to identify the genes that are possibly regulated by these transcription factors and whose expression level is expected to increases in HSR. The results were validated by applying the same procedure of promoter consensus generation and whole genome search to an additional 11 species representative of the main Lactobacillus

  6. Combining Human Epigenetics and Sleep Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans: A Cross-Species Approach for Finding Conserved Genes Regulating Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyan; Zhu, Yong; Eliot, Melissa N; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E; Carskadon, Mary A; Hart, Anne C

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test a combined approach to identify conserved genes regulating sleep and to explore the association between DNA methylation and sleep length. We identified candidate genes associated with shorter versus longer sleep duration in college students based on DNA methylation using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. Orthologous genes in Caenorhabditis elegans were identified, and we examined whether their loss of function affected C. elegans sleep. For genes whose perturbation affected C. elegans sleep, we subsequently undertook a small pilot study to re-examine DNA methylation in an independent set of human participants with shorter versus longer sleep durations. Eighty-seven out of 485,577 CpG sites had significant differential methylation in young adults with shorter versus longer sleep duration, corresponding to 52 candidate genes. We identified 34 C. elegans orthologs, including NPY/flp-18 and flp-21, which are known to affect sleep. Loss of five additional genes alters developmentally timed C. elegans sleep (B4GALT6/bre-4, DOCK180/ced-5, GNB2L1/rack-1, PTPRN2/ida-1, ZFYVE28/lst-2). For one of these genes, ZFYVE28 (also known as hLst2), the pilot replication study again found decreased DNA methylation associated with shorter sleep duration at the same two CpG sites in the first intron of ZFYVE28. Using an approach that combines human epigenetics and C. elegans sleep studies, we identified five genes that play previously unidentified roles in C. elegans sleep. We suggest sleep duration in humans may be associated with differential DNA methylation at specific sites and that the conserved genes identified here likely play roles in C. elegans sleep and in other species. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A laser pointer driven microheater for precise local heating and conditional gene regulation in vivo. Microheater driven gene regulation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achermann Marc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue heating has been employed to study a variety of biological processes, including the study of genes that control embryonic development. Conditional regulation of gene expression is a particularly powerful approach for understanding gene function. One popular method for mis-expressing a gene of interest employs heat-inducible heat shock protein (hsp promoters. Global heat shock of hsp-promoter-containing transgenic animals induces gene expression throughout all tissues, but does not allow for spatial control. Local heating allows for spatial control of hsp-promoter-driven transgenes, but methods for local heating are cumbersome and variably effective. Results We describe a simple, highly controllable, and versatile apparatus for heating biological tissue and other materials on the micron-scale. This microheater employs micron-scale fiber optics and uses an inexpensive laser-pointer as a power source. Optical fibers can be pulled on a standard electrode puller to produce tips of varying sizes that can then be used to reliably heat 20-100 μm targets. We demonstrate precise spatiotemporal control of hsp70l:GFP transgene expression in a variety of tissue types in zebrafish embryos and larvae. We also show how this system can be employed as part of a new method for lineage tracing that would greatly facilitate the study of organogenesis and tissue regulation at any time in the life cycle. Conclusion This versatile and simple local heater has broad utility for the study of gene function and for lineage tracing. This system could be used to control hsp-driven gene expression in any organism simply by bringing the fiber optic tip in contact with the tissue of interest. Beyond these uses for the study of gene function, this device has wide-ranging utility in materials science and could easily be adapted for therapeutic purposes in humans.

  8. Unraveling regulation of the small heat shock proteins by the heat shock factor HvHsfB2c in barley: its implications in drought stress response and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B; Seiler, Christiane; Kuhlmann, Markus; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Lee, Justin; Reddy, Malireddy K; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in heat shock proteins upon exposure to damaging stresses and during plant development related to desiccation events reveal their dual importance in plant development and stress tolerance. Genome-wide sequence survey identified 20 non-redundant small heat shock proteins (sHsp) and 22 heat shock factor (Hsf) genes in barley. While all three major classes (A, B, C) of Hsfs are localized in nucleus, the 20 sHsp gene family members are localized in different cell organelles like cytoplasm, mitochondria, plastid and peroxisomes. Hsf and sHsp members are differentially regulated during drought and at different seed developmental stages suggesting the importance of chaperone role under drought as well as seed development. In silico cis-regulatory motif analysis of Hsf promoters showed an enrichment with abscisic acid responsive cis-elements (ABRE), implying regulatory role of ABA in mediating transcriptional response of HvsHsf genes. Gene regulatory network analysis identified HvHsfB2c as potential central regulator of the seed-specific expression of several HvsHsps including 17.5CI sHsp. These results indicate that HvHsfB2c is co-expressed in the central hub of small Hsps and therefore it may be regulating the expression of several HvsHsp subclasses HvHsp16.88-CI, HvHsp17.5-CI and HvHsp17.7-CI. The in vivo relevance of binding specificity of HvHsfB2C transcription factor to HSE-element present in the promoter of HvSHP17.5-CI under heat stress exposure is confirmed by gel shift and LUC-reporter assays. Further, we isolated 477 bp cDNA from barley encoding a 17.5 sHsp polypeptide, which was predominantly upregulated under drought stress treatments and also preferentially expressed in developing seeds. Recombinant HvsHsp17.5-CI protein was expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity, which displayed in vitro chaperone activity. The predicted structural model of HvsHsp-17.5-CI protein suggests that the α-crystallin domain is evolutionarily highly

  9. Unraveling regulation of the small heat shock proteins by the heat shock factor HvHsfB2c in barley: its implications in drought stress response and seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palakolanu Sudhakar Reddy

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in heat shock proteins upon exposure to damaging stresses and during plant development related to desiccation events reveal their dual importance in plant development and stress tolerance. Genome-wide sequence survey identified 20 non-redundant small heat shock proteins (sHsp and 22 heat shock factor (Hsf genes in barley. While all three major classes (A, B, C of Hsfs are localized in nucleus, the 20 sHsp gene family members are localized in different cell organelles like cytoplasm, mitochondria, plastid and peroxisomes. Hsf and sHsp members are differentially regulated during drought and at different seed developmental stages suggesting the importance of chaperone role under drought as well as seed development. In silico cis-regulatory motif analysis of Hsf promoters showed an enrichment with abscisic acid responsive cis-elements (ABRE, implying regulatory role of ABA in mediating transcriptional response of HvsHsf genes. Gene regulatory network analysis identified HvHsfB2c as potential central regulator of the seed-specific expression of several HvsHsps including 17.5CI sHsp. These results indicate that HvHsfB2c is co-expressed in the central hub of small Hsps and therefore it may be regulating the expression of several HvsHsp subclasses HvHsp16.88-CI, HvHsp17.5-CI and HvHsp17.7-CI. The in vivo relevance of binding specificity of HvHsfB2C transcription factor to HSE-element present in the promoter of HvSHP17.5-CI under heat stress exposure is confirmed by gel shift and LUC-reporter assays. Further, we isolated 477 bp cDNA from barley encoding a 17.5 sHsp polypeptide, which was predominantly upregulated under drought stress treatments and also preferentially expressed in developing seeds. Recombinant HvsHsp17.5-CI protein was expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity, which displayed in vitro chaperone activity. The predicted structural model of HvsHsp-17.5-CI protein suggests that the α-crystallin domain is

  10. Energy conservation indicators cold and heat storage. Revision factsheet cold and heat storage 2009; Besparingskentallen koude- en warmteopslag. Herziening factsheet koude- en warmteopslag 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosselaar, L. [SenterNovem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Koenders, M.J.B.; Van Helden, M.J.C.; Kleinlugtenbelt, J.H. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of the title revision is to update the existing indicators for cold and heat storage as given in the Protocol Monitoring Sustainable Energy [Dutch] Het doel van het onderzoek is om de bestaande set van kentallen voor koude- en warmteopslag uit het Protocol Monitoring Duurzame Energie te actualiseren.

  11. Down-regulation of miR-181a can reduce heat stress damage in PBMCs of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Lin; Fu, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Min-Yan; Li, Hui-Xia

    2016-09-01

    Heat stress can weaken the immune system and even increase livestock's susceptibility to disease. MicroRNA (miR) is short non-coding RNA that functions in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and some phenotypes. Our recent study found that miR-181a is highly expressed in the serum of heat-stressed Holstein cows, but the potential function of miR-181a is still not clarified. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from Holstein cows' peripheral blood, were used to investigate the effects of miR-181a inhibitor on heat stress damage. Our results showed that significant apoptosis and oxidative damage were induced by heat stress in PBMCs. However, with apoptosis, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were reduced, while the content of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased even under heat stress conditions after transfecting miR-181a inhibitors to PBMCs. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of bax and caspase-3 was significantly decreased, but mRNA expression of bcl-2 was increased in transfected PBMCs. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-181a can reduce heat stress damage in PBMCs of Holstein cows.

  12. Energetic retrofitting of industrial heat supply systems. Possibilities of enhancing the efficiency and energy conservation at large combustion engineering plants; Energetische Modernisierung industrieller Waermeversorgungssysteme. Moeglichkeiten der Effizienzsteigerung und der Energieeinsparung an grossen feuerungstechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on an energetic modernization of industrial heat supply systems. Possibilities of an enhancement of the energetic efficiency and energy conservation at large combustion engineering plants are described. After an introduction to this theme, the author of this contribution provides an overview of the optimization of heat supply systems, and reports on the following aspects: Optimisation of the heat demand; energy efficient heat generation; heat recovery; energy efficient conversion technology and generation technology; associate partners for more energy efficiency in industry and commerce; best practice examples.

  13. Crystal structures of two transcriptional regulators from Bacillus cereus define the conserved structural features of a PadR subfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntur Fibriansah

    Full Text Available PadR-like transcriptional regulators form a structurally-related family of proteins that control the expression of genes associated with detoxification, virulence and multi-drug resistance in bacteria. Only a few members of this family have been studied by genetic, biochemical and biophysical methods, and their structure/function relationships are still largely undefined. Here, we report the crystal structures of two PadR-like proteins from Bacillus cereus, which we named bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 (products of gene loci BC4206 and BCE3449 in strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987, respectively. BC4206, together with its neighboring gene BC4207, was previously shown to become significantly upregulated in presence of the bacteriocin AS-48. DNA mobility shift assays reveal that bcPadR1 binds to a 250 bp intergenic region containing the putative BC4206-BC4207 promoter sequence, while in-situ expression of bcPadR1 decreases bacteriocin tolerance, together suggesting a role for bcPadR1 as repressor of BC4206-BC4207 transcription. The function of bcPadR2 (48% identical in sequence to bcPadR1 is unknown, but the location of its gene just upstream from genes encoding a putative antibiotic ABC efflux pump, suggests a role in regulating antibiotic resistance. The bcPadR proteins are structurally similar to LmrR, a PadR-like transcription regulator in Lactococcus lactis that controls expression of a multidrug ABC transporter via a mechanism of multidrug binding and induction. Together these proteins define a subfamily of conserved, relatively small PadR proteins characterized by a single C-terminal helix for dimerization. Unlike LmrR, bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 lack a central pore for ligand binding, making it unclear whether the transcriptional regulatory roles of bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 involve direct ligand recognition and induction.

  14. Regulation of mouse small heat shock protein αb-crystallin gene by aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The stress-inducible small heat shock protein (shsp/αB-crystallin gene is expressed highly in the lens and moderately in other tissues. Here we provide evidence that it is a target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR transcription factor. A sequence (-329/-323, CATGCGA similar to the consensus xenobiotic responsive element (XRE, called here XRE-like, is present in the αBE2 region of αB-crystallin enhancer and can bind AhR in vitro and in vivo. αB-crystallin protein levels were reduced in retina, lens, cornea, heart, skeletal muscle and cultured muscle fibroblasts of AhR(-/- mice; αB-crystallin mRNA levels were reduced in the eye, heart and skeletal muscle of AhR(-/- mice. Increased AhR stimulated αB-crystallin expression in transfection experiments conducted in conjunction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and decreased AhR reduced αB-crystallin expression. AhR effect on aB-crystallin promoter activity was cell-dependent in transfection experiments. AhR up-regulated αB-crystallin promoter activity in transfected HeLa, NIH3T3 and COS-7 cells in the absence of exogenously added ligand (TCDD, but had no effect on the αB-crystallin promoter in C(2C(12, CV-1 or Hepa-1 cells with or without TCDD. TCDD enhanced AhR-stimulated αB-crystallin promoter activity in transfected αTN4 cells. AhR could bind to an XRE-like site in the αB-crystallin enhancer in vitro and in vivo. Finally, site-specific mutagenesis experiments showed that the XRE-like motif was necessary for both basal and maximal AhR-induction of αB-crystallin promoter activity. Our data strongly suggest that AhR is a regulator of αB-crystallin gene expression and provide new avenues of research for the mechanism of tissue-specific αB-crystallin gene regulation under normal and physiologically stressed conditions.

  15. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Petrie

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat and mechanical stress (vibration on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction.The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction, passive mechanical stress (vibration, or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair.Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus to analyze mRNA gene expression.We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold, PGC-1α (5.46 fold, and ABRA (5.98 fold; and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold. Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05; while vibration induced FOXK2 (2.36 fold change; p < 0.05. Vibration similarly caused a down regulation of MSTN (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05, but to a lesser extent than active muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p < 0.05 while heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold and ANKRD1 genes (0.51 fold; p < 0.05.These findings support a distinct gene regulation in response to heat stress, vibration, and muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative rehabilitation interventions to improve muscle cell

  16. Soil physical properties regulate lethal heating during burning of woody residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Busse; Carol Shestak; Ken Hubbert; Eric Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Temperatures well in excess of the lethal threshold for roots (60°C) have been measured in forest soils when woody fuels are burned. Whether this heat pulse is strongly moderated by soil moisture or soil texture is not fully understood, however. We measured soil heat profi les during 60 experimental burns, identifying changes in maximum soil temperature and heat...

  17. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  18. Regulation models for district heating. Background report; Denmark; Reguleringsmodeller for fjernvarmen. Baggrundsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    The background report describes in detail the elements of the analysis: the present regulation, experiences from other countries and sectors, the aim of regulation, and detailed analysis of four regulation models. (LN)

  19. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Michael A; Kimball, Amy L; McHenry, Colleen L; Suneja, Manish; Yen, Chu-Ling; Sharma, Arpit; Shields, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat) and mechanical stress (vibration) on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction. The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction), passive mechanical stress (vibration), or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair. Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus) to analyze mRNA gene expression. We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold), PGC-1α (5.46 fold), and ABRA (5.98 fold); and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold). Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative rehabilitation interventions to improve muscle cell development, growth, and repair.

  20. The expression of miR-125b regulates angiogenesis during the recovery of heat-denatured HUVECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Situo; Zhang, Pihong; Liang, Pengfei; Huang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-06-01

    In previous studies we found that miR-125b was down-regulated in denatured dermis of deep partial thickness burn patients. Moreover, miR-125b inhibited tumor-angiogenesis associated with the decrease of ERBB2 and VEGF expression in ovarian cancer cells and breast cancer cells, etc. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns and roles of miR-125b during the recovery of denatured dermis and heat-denatured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Deep partial thickness burns in Sprague-Dawley rats and the heat-denatured cells (52°C, 35 s) were used for analysis. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR were applied to evaluate the expression of miR-125b and ERBB2 and VEGF. The ability of angiogenesis in heat-denatured HUVECs was analyzed by scratch wound healing and tube formation assay after pri-miR-125b or anti-miR-125b transfection. miR-125b expression was time-dependent during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and HUVECs. Moreover, miR-125b regulated ERBB2 mRNA and Protein Expression and regulated angiogenesis association with regulating the expression of VEGF in heat-denatured HUVECs. Taken together our results show that the expression of miR-125b is time-dependent and miR-125b plays a regulatory role of angiogenesis during wound healing after burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the Effect of the Strategy of Heating on the Mudejar Church of Santa Maria in Ateca (Spain) for Preventive Conservation of the Altarpiece Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Fernández-Navajas, Ángel; Beltrán, Pedro; Merello, Paloma

    2013-01-01

    The mudéjar church of Santa María (Ateca) is valuable for its architecture and the altarpiece contained inside. Ateca is a village with continental climate characterized by cold winters and hot summers. In this paper we are interested in analysing the effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) changes produced by the heating system on the altarpiece. Therefore, a monitoring system of 15 temperature and 15 relative humidity sensors was installed with a recording frequency of a data point per minute. The main contribution of this paper is the quantitative study of the effect of the heating system on the thermo-hygrometric parameters using statistical techniques such as ANOVA, mean daily trajectories or bivariate plots, and the proposal of an innovative dynamic contour plot. As results, the heating system produces a substantial increase (decrease) of temperature (RH) causing an hourly variation of these physical parameters detrimental to the conservation of the altarpiece, especially in its higher areas. PMID:24064599

  2. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  3. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di, E-mail: DiWu@mail.nankai.edu.cn; Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Ser-17 is key for the stability of Drosophila Sav. •Ala mutation of Ser-17 promotes the proteasomal degradation of Sav. •Ser-17 residue is not the main target of Hpo-induced Sav stabilization. •Hpo-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate Sav stability. •This mechanism is conserved in the homologue of Sav, human WW45. -- Abstract: The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  4. Promotional study for joint implementation program. Energy conservation and efficiency improvement for district heating system in Tashkent, Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a study was carried out for repair/improvement of the district heating system in Tashkent City, the Republic of Uzbekistan. In the project, the following were studied: heightening of electrical insulation of the total pipeline, improvement in efficient utilization of heat energy in the thermal plant. As to the existing pipeline, heat loss is improved by 0-5% by changing it to electrical insulation pipe. In relation to the thermal plant, studied were cogeneration facility A using three 4MW gas turbines and combined cycle cogeneration facility B using two 40MW gas turbines. As a result, the amount of energy saving was 11,370 toe/y in pipeline, 12,750 toe/y in facility A and 69,000 toe/y in facility B. Further, the reduction amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions was 27,200t-CO2/y in pipeline, 30,500t-CO2/y in facility A and 164,900t-CO2/y in facility B. (NEDO)

  5. 75 FR 35338 - Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008; Conduct in Violation of the Act AGENCY... fairer market place. DATES: We will consider comments we receive by August 23, 2010. ADDRESSES: We invite... Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill) (Pub. L. 110-246), Congress...

  6. Potential regulation on the climatic effect of Tibetan Plateau heating by tropical air-sea coupling in regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziqian; Duan, Anmin; Yang, Song

    2018-05-01

    Based on the conventional weather research and forecasting (WRF) model and the air-sea coupled mode WRF-OMLM, we investigate the potential regulation on the climatic effect of Tibetan Plateau (TP) heating by the air-sea coupling over the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Results indicate that the TP heating significantly enhances the southwesterly monsoon circulation over the northern Indian Ocean and the South Asia subcontinent. The intensified southwesterly wind cools the sea surface mainly through the wind-evaporation-SST (sea surface temperature) feedback. Cold SST anomaly then weakens monsoon convective activity, especially that over the Bay of Bengal, and less water vapor is thus transported into the TP along its southern slope from the tropical oceans. As a result, summer precipitation decreases over the TP, which further weakens the TP local heat source. Finally, the changed TP heating continues to influence the summer monsoon precipitation and atmospheric circulation. To a certain extent, the air-sea coupling over the adjacent oceans may weaken the effect of TP heating on the mean climate in summer. It is also implied that considerations of air-sea interaction are necessary in future simulation studies of the TP heating effect.

  7. Effect of patchouli alcohol on the regulation of heat shock-induced oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Jiang, Linshu; Liu, Fenghua; Chen, Yuping; Xu, Lei; Li, Deyin; Ma, Yunfei; Li, Huanrong; Xu, Jianqin

    2016-08-01

    Purpose Patchouli alcohol (PA) is used to treat gastrointestinal dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the function of PA in the regulated process of oxidative stress in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). Materials and methods Oxidative stress was stimulated by exposing IEC-6 cells to heat shock (42 °C for 3 h). IEC-6 cells in treatment groups were pretreated with various concentrations of PA (10, 40, and 80 ng/mL) for 3 h before heat shock. Results Heat shock caused damage to the morphology of IEC-6 cells, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Moreover, mRNA and protein expression by target genes related to oxidative stress in heat shock were also altered. Specifically, the mRNA expression by HSP70, HSP90, GSH-px, NRF2 nd HO-1were all increased, and Nrf2 and Keap1 protein expression were increased after heat shock. However, pretreatment with PA weakened the level of damage to the cellular morphology, and decreased the MDA content caused by heat shock, indicating PA had cytoprotective activities. Pretreatment with PA at high dose significantly increased generation of intracellular ROS. Compared with the heat shock group alone, PA pretreatment significantly decreased the mRNA expression by HSP70, HSP90, SOD, CAT, GSH-px, KEAP1 and HO-1. Furthermore, the high dose of PA significantly increased Nrf2 protein expression, while both the intermediate and high dose of PA significantly increased HO-1 protein expression. Conclusion Heat-shock-induced oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells, and PA could alleviate the Nrf2-Keap1 cellular oxidative stress responses.

  8. 75 FR 25228 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Denying a Waiver to PB Heat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... consumption information to assist consumers in making purchasing decisions. DOE's regulations set forth under... waiver permitting publication of LWTSE would allow customers making purchasing decisions to ``receive the..., which could cause confusion to consumers making a purchasing decision. Further, DOE understands from the...

  9. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 2: energy planning and policy, energy conservation and rational use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The theme energy policy, regulation and sustainable development chosen for the 8. Brazilian congress on energy to be held in Rio de Janeiro from 30 November of 1999 to 02 December of 1999, specifically means the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme theme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; and renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  10. TG2 regulates the heat-shock response by the post-translational modification of HSF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Federica; Villella, Valeria Rachela; D'Eletto, Manuela; Farrace, Maria Grazia; Esposito, Speranza; Ferrari, Eleonora; Monzani, Romina; Occhigrossi, Luca; Pagliarini, Vittoria; Sette, Claudio; Cozza, Giorgio; Barlev, Nikolai A; Falasca, Laura; Fimia, Gian Maria; Kroemer, Guido; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi; Piacentini, Mauro

    2018-05-11

    Heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) is the master transcription factor that regulates the response to proteotoxic stress by controlling the transcription of many stress-responsive genes including the heat-shock proteins. Here, we show a novel molecular mechanism controlling the activation of HSF1. We demonstrate that transglutaminase type 2 (TG2), dependent on its protein disulphide isomerase activity, triggers the trimerization and activation of HSF1 regulating adaptation to stress and proteostasis impairment. In particular, we find that TG2 loss of function correlates with a defect in the nuclear translocation of HSF1 and in its DNA-binding ability to the HSP70 promoter. We show that the inhibition of TG2 restores the unbalance in HSF1-HSP70 pathway in cystic fibrosis (CF), a human disorder characterized by deregulation of proteostasis. The absence of TG2 leads to an increase of about 40% in CFTR function in a new experimental CF mouse model lacking TG2. Altogether, these results indicate that TG2 plays a key role in the regulation of cellular proteostasis under stressful cellular conditions through the modulation of the heat-shock response. © 2018 The Authors.

  11. Cytoplasmic protein binding to highly conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region of mouse protamine 2 mRNA, a translationally regulated transcript of male germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.K.; Hecht, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the protamines, the predominant nuclear proteins of mammalian spermatozoa, is regulated translationally during male germ-cell development. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of protamine 1 mRNA has been reported to control its time of translation. To understand the mechanisms controlling translation of the protamine mRNAs, we have sought to identify cis elements of the 3' UTR of protamine 2 mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, two sequence elements are shown to form specific RNA-protein complexes. Protein binding sites of the two complexes were determined by RNase T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding sites with antisense oligonucleotides, and by competition assays. The sequences of these elements, located between nucleotides + 537 and + 572 in protamine 2 mRNA, are highly conserved among postmeiotic translationally regulated nuclear proteins of the mammalian testis. Two closely linked protein binding sites were detected. UV-crosslinking studies revealed that a protein of about 18 kDa binds to one of the conserved sequences. These data demonstrate specific protein binding to a highly conserved 3' UTR of translationally regulated testicular mRNA

  12. Meta-analysis of breast cancer microarray studies in conjunction with conserved cis-elements suggest patterns for coordinate regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression measurements from breast cancer (BrCa tumors are established clinical predictive tools to identify tumor subtypes, identify patients showing poor/good prognosis, and identify patients likely to have disease recurrence. However, diverse breast cancer datasets in conjunction with diagnostic clinical arrays show little overlap in the sets of genes identified. One approach to identify a set of consistently dysregulated candidate genes in these tumors is to employ meta-analysis of multiple independent microarray datasets. This allows one to compare expression data from a diverse collection of breast tumor array datasets generated on either cDNA or oligonucleotide arrays. Results We gathered expression data from 9 published microarray studies examining estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor negative (ER- BrCa tumor cases from the Oncomine database. We performed a meta-analysis and identified genes that were universally up or down regulated with respect to ER+ versus ER- tumor status. We surveyed both the proximal promoter and 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR of our top-ranking genes in each expression group to test whether common sequence elements may contribute to the observed expression patterns. Utilizing a combination of known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS, evolutionarily conserved mammalian promoter and 3'UTR motifs, and microRNA (miRNA seed sequences, we identified numerous motifs that were disproportionately represented between the two gene classes suggesting a common regulatory network for the observed gene expression patterns. Conclusion Some of the genes we identified distinguish key transcripts previously seen in array studies, while others are newly defined. Many of the genes identified as overexpressed in ER- tumors were previously identified as expression markers for neoplastic transformation in multiple human cancers. Moreover, our motif analysis identified a collection of

  13. The development of a new district heating concept: Network design and optimization for integrating energy conservation and renewable energy use in energy sustainable communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Rosa, A.

    2012-07-01

    elements of LTDH networks, particularly when supplying low heat density building areas. The purpose of article IV was to perform simulations and analyses about low-energy DH networks supplying heat to energy-efficient building areas in countries such as Denmark with an extensive existing DH infrastructure, quantify their technical and economic feasibility, and suggest strategies for optimizing their design and operation. Article V deals with the potential and barriers of implementing DH in Canada, where the DH market share is low. Technical-economic feasibility studies for DH networks supplying an urban area in the city of Ottawa were carried out, with particular attention to developing the potential for supplying heat derived from Renewable Energy (RE). Chapter 6 summarises the conclusions. First of all, analysis of the case studies suggests that local authority energy plans should take the opportunities for DH implementation into account, because DH is an essential infrastructure for future, sustainable energy systems. Energy policy should aim at organizing and facilitating the synergy between energy conservation measures and the supply of heat based on RE energy and overcome the traditional competition between the two sectors. It is recommended that Finite Element Method (FEM) models and simulation should be used when designing new pipe geometries and systems. The reliability of the FEM models of DH pipes was validated by means of experimental data and comparison with analytical formulas and data from literature. The calculation method takes into account the temperature-dependency of the thermal conductivity of the insulation foam. It was demonstrated that the asymmetrical insulation of twin pipes in lowtemperature operations leads to 4% to 8% lower heat loss from the supply media pipe than a symmetrical configuration, and at the same time the heat loss from the return media pipe can be kept close to zero. With the use of optimized double-pipe systems (a pair of

  14. The role of heat shock protein 90 in the regulation of tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigorodova, E V; Ryazantseva, N V; Novitskii, V V; Belkina, M V; Maroshkina, A N

    2011-02-01

    Programmed death of Jurkat tumor cells was studied under conditions of culturing with 17-AAG selective inhibitor of heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa and etoposide. Apoptosis realization was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy with FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide. Activity of caspase-3 was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Inhibition of heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa activated the apoptotic program in Jurkat tumor cells and etoposide-induced apoptosis. The heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa acted as apoptosis inhibitor in tumor cells.

  15. HSF-1 is involved in regulation of ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis by heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Park, Saeram; Kim, Kwang-Youl; Kim, Mun-Young; Kim, Heekyeong; Park, Donha; Paik, Young-Ki

    2016-03-15

    The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans survives by adapting to environmental stresses such as temperature extremes by increasing the concentrations of ascaroside pheromones, termed ascarosides or daumones, which signal early C. elegans larvae to enter a non-aging dauer state for long-term survival. It is well known that production of ascarosides is stimulated by heat stress, resulting in enhanced dauer formation by which worms can adapt to environmental insults. However, the molecular mechanism by which ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis is stimulated by heat stress remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that the heat-shock transcription factor HSF-1 can mediate enhanced ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis in response to heat stress by activating the peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation genes in C. elegans. To explore the potential molecular mechanisms, we examined the four major genes involved in the ascaroside biosynthesis pathway and then quantified the changes in both the expression of these genes and ascaroside production under heat-stress conditions. The transcriptional activation of ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis genes by HSF-1 was quite notable, which is not only supported by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, but also accompanied by the enhanced production of chemically detectable major ascarosides (e.g. daumones 1 and 3). Consequently, the dauer formation rate was significantly increased by the ascaroside pheromone extracts from N2 wild-type but not from hsf-1(sy441) mutant animals grown under heat-stress conditions. Hence heat-stress-enhanced ascaroside production appears to be mediated at least in part by HSF-1, which seems to be important in adaptation strategies for coping with heat stress in this nematode. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. Electron Heating and Saturation of Self-regulating Magnetorotational Instability in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shoji; Muranushi, Takayuki; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2017-11-01

    Magnetorotational instability (MRI) has the potential to generatevigorous turbulence in protoplanetary disks, although its turbulence strength and accretion stress remain debatable because of the uncertainty of MRI with a low ionization fraction. We focus on the heating of electrons by strong electric fields, which amplifies nonideal magnetohydrodynamic effects. The heated electrons frequently collide with and stick to dust grains, which in turn decreases the ionization fraction and is expected to weaken the turbulent motion driven by MRI. In order to quantitatively investigate the nonlinear evolution of MRI, including the electron heating, we perform magnetohydrodynamical simulation with the unstratified shearing box. We introduce a simple analytic resistivity model depending on the current density by mimicking the resistivity given by the calculation of ionization. Our simulation confirms that the electron heating suppresses magnetic turbulence when the electron heating occurs with low current density. We find a clear correlation between magnetic stress and current density, which means that the magnetic stress is proportional to the squared current density. When the turbulent motion is completely suppressed, laminar accretion flow is caused by an ordered magnetic field. We give an analytical description of the laminar stateusing a solution of linear perturbation equations with resistivity. We also propose a formula that successfully predicts the accretion stress in the presence of the electron heating.

  17. The Highly Conserved Proline at Position 438 in Pseudorabies Virus gH Is Important for Regulation of Membrane Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Christina; Klupp, Barbara G.; Fuchs, Walter; Gerhard, Marika; Backovic, Marija; Rey, Felix A.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion in herpesviruses requires viral glycoproteins (g) gB and gH/gL. While gB is considered the actual fusion protein but is nonfusogenic per se, the function of gH/gL remains enigmatic. Crystal structures for different gH homologs are strikingly similar despite only moderate amino acid sequence conservation. A highly conserved sequence motif comprises the residues serine-proline-cysteine corresponding to positions 437 to 439 in pseudorabies virus (PrV) gH. The PrV-gH structure sho...

  18. Molecular conservation of estrogen-response associated with cell cycle regulation, hormonal carcinogenesis and cancer in zebrafish and human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Kunde R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebrafish is recognized as a versatile cancer and drug screening model. However, it is not known whether the estrogen-responsive genes and signaling pathways that are involved in estrogen-dependent carcinogenesis and human cancer are operating in zebrafish. In order to determine the potential of zebrafish model for estrogen-related cancer research, we investigated the molecular conservation of estrogen responses operating in both zebrafish and human cancer cell lines. Methods Microarray experiment was performed on zebrafish exposed to estrogen (17β-estradiol; a classified carcinogen and an anti-estrogen (ICI 182,780. Zebrafish estrogen-responsive genes sensitive to both estrogen and anti-estrogen were identified and validated using real-time PCR. Human homolog mapping and knowledge-based data mining were performed on zebrafish estrogen responsive genes followed by estrogen receptor binding site analysis and comparative transcriptome analysis with estrogen-responsive human cancer cell lines (MCF7, T47D and Ishikawa. Results Our transcriptome analysis captured multiple estrogen-responsive genes and signaling pathways that increased cell proliferation, promoted DNA damage and genome instability, and decreased tumor suppressing effects, suggesting a common mechanism for estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Comparative analysis revealed a core set of conserved estrogen-responsive genes that demonstrate enrichment of estrogen receptor binding sites and cell cycle signaling pathways. Knowledge-based and network analysis led us to propose that the mechanism involving estrogen-activated estrogen receptor mediated down-regulation of human homolog HES1 followed by up-regulation cell cycle-related genes (human homologs E2F4, CDK2, CCNA, CCNB, CCNE, is highly conserved, and this mechanism may involve novel crosstalk with basal AHR. We also identified mitotic roles of polo-like kinase as a conserved signaling pathway with multiple entry

  19. 75 FR 44163 - Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008; Conduct in Violation of the Act AGENCY... Act and provide for a fairer market place. DATES: We will consider comments we receive by November 22... clarify conditions for industry compliance with the P&S Act and provide for a fairer market place. We have...

  20. Lotus japonicus nodulation requires two GRAS domain regulators, one of which is functionally conserved in a non-legume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Lombardo, Fabien; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    and then increased following infection by M. loti. In hairy root transformations, LjNSP1 and MtNSP1 complemented both Mtnsp1-1 and Ljnsp1-1 mutants, demonstrating that these orthologous proteins have a conserved biochemical function. A Nicotiana benthamiana NSP1-like gene (NbNSP1) was shown to restore nodule...

  1. A conserved WW domain-like motif regulates invariant chain-dependent cell-surface transport of the NKG2D ligand ULBP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlenbrock, Franziska Katharina; van Andel, Esther; Andresen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    that the NKG2D ligand ULBP2 traffics over an invariant chain (Ii)-dependent pathway to the cell surface. This study set out to elucidate how Ii regulates ULBP2 cell-surface transport: We discovered conserved tryptophan (Trp) residues in the primary protein sequence of ULBP1-6 but not in the related MICA....../B. Substitution of Trp to alanine resulted in cell-surface inhibition of ULBP2 in different cancer cell lines. Moreover, the mutated ULBP2 constructs were retained and not degraded inside the cell, indicating a crucial role of this conserved Trp-motif in trafficking. Finally, overexpression of Ii increased...... surface expression of wt ULBP2 while Trp-mutants could not be expressed, proposing that this Trp-motif is required for an Ii-dependent cell-surface transport of ULBP2. Aberrant soluble ULBP2 is immunosuppressive. Thus, targeting a distinct protein module on the ULBP2 sequence could counteract...

  2. Hydroimidazolone modification of the conserved Arg12 in small heat shock proteins: studies on the structure and chaperone function using mutant mimics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram H Nagaraj

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MGO is an α-dicarbonyl compound present ubiquitously in the human body. MGO reacts with arginine residues in proteins and forms adducts such as hydroimidazolone and argpyrimidine in vivo. Previously, we showed that MGO-mediated modification of αA-crystallin increased its chaperone function. We identified MGO-modified arginine residues in αA-crystallin and found that replacing such arginine residues with alanine residues mimicked the effects of MGO on the chaperone function. Arginine 12 (R12 is a conserved amino acid residue in Hsp27 as well as αA- and αB-crystallin. When treated with MGO at or near physiological concentrations (2-10 µM, R12 was modified to hydroimidazolone in all three small heat shock proteins. In this study, we determined the effect of arginine substitution with alanine at position 12 (R12A to mimic MGO modification on the structure and chaperone function of these proteins. Among the three proteins, the R12A mutation improved the chaperone function of only αA-crystallin. This enhancement in the chaperone function was accompanied by subtle changes in the tertiary structure, which increased the thermodynamic stability of αA-crystallin. This mutation induced the exposure of additional client protein binding sites on αA-crystallin. Altogether, our data suggest that MGO-modification of the conserved R12 in αA-crystallin to hydroimidazolone may play an important role in reducing protein aggregation in the lens during aging and cataract formation.

  3. The roles of KCa, KATP, and KV channels in regulating cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jeffrey C; Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; McNeely, Brendan D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-05-01

    We recently showed the varying roles of Ca 2+ -activated (K Ca ), ATP-sensitive (K ATP ), and voltage-gated (K V ) K + channels in regulating cholinergic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in normothermic conditions. However, it is unclear whether the respective contributions of these K + channels remain intact during dynamic exercise in the heat. Eleven young (23 ± 4 yr) men completed a 30-min exercise bout at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) followed by a 40-min recovery period in the heat (35°C, 20% relative humidity). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and local sweat rate were assessed at four forearm skin sites perfused via intradermal microdialysis with: 1 ) lactated Ringer solution (control); 2 ) 50 mM tetraethylammonium (nonspecific K Ca channel blocker); 3 ) 5 mM glybenclamide (selective K ATP channel blocker); or 4 ) 10 mM 4-aminopyridine (nonspecific K V channel blocker). Responses were compared at baseline and at 10-min intervals during and following exercise. K Ca channel inhibition resulted in greater CVC versus control at end exercise ( P = 0.04) and 10 and 20 min into recovery (both P exercise (all P ≤ 0.04), and 10 min into recovery ( P = 0.02). No differences in CVC were observed with K V channel inhibition during baseline ( P = 0.15), exercise (all P ≥ 0.06), or recovery (all P ≥ 0.14). With the exception of K V channel inhibition augmenting sweating during baseline ( P = 0.04), responses were similar to control with all K + channel blockers during each time period (all P ≥ 0.07). We demonstrated that K Ca and K ATP channels contribute to the regulation of cutaneous vasodilation during rest and/or exercise and recovery in the heat. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Profiling conserved biological pathways in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disorder (ADPKD) to elucidate key transcriptomic alterations regulating cystogenesis: A cross-species meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shatakshee; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Pandey, Priyanka

    2017-09-05

    Initiation and progression of fluid filled cysts mark Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Thus, improved therapeutics targeting cystogenesis remains a constant challenge. Microarray studies in single ADPKD animal models species with limited sample sizes tend to provide scattered views on underlying ADPKD pathogenesis. Thus we aim to perform a cross species meta-analysis to profile conserved biological pathways that might be key targets for therapy. Nine ADPKD microarray datasets on rat, mice and human fulfilled our study criteria and were chosen. Intra-species combined analysis was performed after considering removal of batch effect. Significantly enriched GO biological processes and KEGG pathways were computed and their overlap was observed. For the conserved pathways, biological modules and gene regulatory networks were observed. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) using Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) was performed for genes found in conserved pathways. We obtained 28 modules of significantly enriched GO processes and 5 major functional categories from significantly enriched KEGG pathways conserved in human, mice and rats that in turn suggest a global transcriptomic perturbation affecting cyst - formation, growth and progression. Significantly enriched pathways obtained from up-regulated genes such as Genomic instability, Protein localization in ER and Insulin Resistance were found to regulate cyst formation and growth whereas cyst progression due to increased cell adhesion and inflammation was suggested by perturbations in Angiogenesis, TGF-beta, CAMs, and Infection related pathways. Additionally, networks revealed shared genes among pathways e.g. SMAD2 and SMAD7 in Endocytosis and TGF-beta. Our study suggests cyst formation and progression to be an outcome of interplay between a set of several key deregulated pathways. Thus, further translational research is warranted focusing on developing a combinatorial therapeutic

  5. The Caenorhabditis elegans iodotyrosine deiodinase ortholog SUP-18 functions through a conserved channel SC-box to regulate the muscle two-pore domain potassium channel SUP-9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Perez de la Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans gene sup-18 suppress the defects in muscle contraction conferred by a gain-of-function mutation in SUP-10, a presumptive regulatory subunit of the SUP-9 two-pore domain K(+ channel associated with muscle membranes. We cloned sup-18 and found that it encodes the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD, an NADH oxidase/flavin reductase that functions in iodine recycling and is important for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism. The FMN-binding site of mammalian IYD is conserved in SUP-18, which appears to require catalytic activity to function. Genetic analyses suggest that SUP-10 can function with SUP-18 to activate SUP-9 through a pathway that is independent of the presumptive SUP-9 regulatory subunit UNC-93. We identified a novel evolutionarily conserved serine-cysteine-rich region in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of SUP-9 required for its specific activation by SUP-10 and SUP-18 but not by UNC-93. Since two-pore domain K(+ channels regulate the resting membrane potentials of numerous cell types, we suggest that the SUP-18 IYD regulates the activity of the SUP-9 channel using NADH as a coenzyme and thus couples the metabolic state of muscle cells to muscle membrane excitability.

  6. Conservation of AtTZF1, AtTZF2 and AtTZF3 homolog gene regulation by salt stress in evolutionarily distant plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eD'Orso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arginine-rich tandem zinc-finger proteins (RR-TZF participate in a wide range of plant developmental processes and adaptive responses to abiotic stress, such as cold, salt and drought. This study investigates the conservation of the genes AtTZF1-5 at the level of their sequences and expression across plant species. The genomic sequences of the two RR-TZF genes TdTZF1-A and TdTZF1-B were isolated in durum wheat and assigned to chromosomes 3A and 3B, respectively. Sequence comparisons revealed that they encode proteins that are highly homologous to AtTZF1, AtTZF2 and AtTZF3. The expression profiles of these RR-TZF durum wheat and Arabidopsis proteins support a common function in the regulation of seed germination and responses to abiotic stress. In particular, analysis of plants with attenuated and overexpressed AtTZF3 indicate that AtTZF3 is a negative regulator of seed germination under conditions of salt stress. Finally, comparative sequence analyses establish that the RR-TZF genes are encoded by lower plants, including the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The regulation of the Physcomitrella AtTZF1-2-3-like genes by salt stress strongly suggests that a subgroup of the RR-TZF proteins has a function that has been conserved throughout evolution.

  7. Canonical Modeling of the Multi-Scale Regulation of the Heat Stress Response in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis L. Fonseca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat is one of the most fundamental and ancient environmental stresses, and response mechanisms are found in prokaryotes and shared among most eukaryotes. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the heat stress response involves coordinated changes at all biological levels, from gene expression to protein and metabolite abundances, and to temporary adjustments in physiology. Due to its integrative multi-level-multi-scale nature, heat adaptation constitutes a complex dynamic process, which has forced most experimental and modeling analyses in the past to focus on just one or a few of its aspects. Here we review the basic components of the heat stress response in yeast and outline what has been done, and what needs to be done, to merge the available information into computational structures that permit comprehensive diagnostics, interrogation, and interpretation. We illustrate the process in particular with the coordination of two metabolic responses, namely the dramatic accumulation of the protective disaccharide trehalose and the substantial change in the profile of sphingolipids, which in turn affect gene expression. The proposed methods primarily use differential equations in the canonical modeling framework of Biochemical Systems Theory (BST, which permits the relatively easy construction of coarse, initial models even in systems that are incompletely characterized.

  8. A Canonical DREB2-Type Transcription Factor in Lily Is Post-translationally Regulated and Mediates Heat Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on studies of monocot crops and eudicot model plants, the DREB2 class of AP2-type transcription factor has been shown to play crucial roles in various abiotic stresses, especially in the upstream of the heat stress response; however, research on DREB2s has not been reported in non-gramineous monocot plants. Here, we identified a novel DREB2 (LlDREB2B from lily (Lilium longiflorum, which was homologous to AtDREB2A of Arabidopsis, OsDREB2B of rice, and ZmDREB2A of maize. LlDREB2B was induced by heat, cold, salt, and mannitol stress, and its protein had transcriptional activity, was located in the nucleus, was able to bind to the dehydration-responsive element (DRE, and participated in the heat-responsive pathway of HsfA3. Overexpression of LlDREB2B in Arabidopsis activated expression of downstream genes and improved thermotolerance. LlDREB2B was not regulated by alternative splicing; functional transcripts accumulated under either normal or heat-stress conditions. A potential PEST sequence was predicted in LlDREB2B, but the stability of the LlDREB2B protein was not positively affected when the predicated PEST sequence was deleted. Further analysis revealed that the predicated PEST sequence lacked a SBC or SBC-like motif allowing interaction with BPMs and required for negative regulation. Nevertheless, LlDREB2B was still regulated at the post-translational level by interaction with AtDRIP1 and AtDRIP2 of Arabidopsis. In addition, LlDREB2B also interacted with AtRCD1 and LlRCD1 via a potential RIM motif located at amino acids 215–245. Taken together, our results show that LlDREB2B participated in the establishment of thermotolerance, and its regulation was different from that of the orthologs of gramineous and eudicot plants.

  9. A Canonical DREB2-Type Transcription Factor in Lily Is Post-translationally Regulated and Mediates Heat Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze; Liang, Jiahui; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Qingcui; Li, Guoqing; Yang, Xi; Wang, Chengpeng; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2018-01-01

    Based on studies of monocot crops and eudicot model plants, the DREB2 class of AP2-type transcription factor has been shown to play crucial roles in various abiotic stresses, especially in the upstream of the heat stress response; however, research on DREB2s has not been reported in non-gramineous monocot plants. Here, we identified a novel DREB2 (LlDREB2B) from lily ( Lilium longiflorum ), which was homologous to AtDREB2A of Arabidopsis, OsDREB2B of rice, and ZmDREB2A of maize. LlDREB2B was induced by heat, cold, salt, and mannitol stress, and its protein had transcriptional activity, was located in the nucleus, was able to bind to the dehydration-responsive element (DRE), and participated in the heat-responsive pathway of HsfA3. Overexpression of LlDREB2B in Arabidopsis activated expression of downstream genes and improved thermotolerance. LlDREB2B was not regulated by alternative splicing; functional transcripts accumulated under either normal or heat-stress conditions. A potential PEST sequence was predicted in LlDREB2B, but the stability of the LlDREB2B protein was not positively affected when the predicated PEST sequence was deleted. Further analysis revealed that the predicated PEST sequence lacked a SBC or SBC-like motif allowing interaction with BPMs and required for negative regulation. Nevertheless, LlDREB2B was still regulated at the post-translational level by interaction with AtDRIP1 and AtDRIP2 of Arabidopsis. In addition, LlDREB2B also interacted with AtRCD1 and LlRCD1 via a potential RIM motif located at amino acids 215-245. Taken together, our results show that LlDREB2B participated in the establishment of thermotolerance, and its regulation was different from that of the orthologs of gramineous and eudicot plants.

  10. Peak Load Regulation and Cost Optimization for Microgrids by Installing a Heat Storage Tank and a Portable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of electricity demands, many traditional distributed networks cannot cover their peak demands, especially in the evening. Additionally, with the interconnection of distributed electrical and thermal grids, system operational flexibility and energy efficiency can be affected as well. Therefore, by adding a portable energy system and a heat storage tank to the traditional distributed system, this paper proposes a newly defined distributed network to deal with the aforementioned problems. Simulation results show that by adding a portable energy system, fossil fuel energy consumption and daily operation cost can be reduced by 8% and 28.29%, respectively. Moreover, system peak load regulating capacity can be significantly improved. However, by introducing the portable energy system to the grid, system uncertainty can be increased to some extent. Therefore, chance constrained programming is proposed to control the system while considering system uncertainty. By applying Particle Swarm Optimization—Monte Carlo to solve the chance constrained programming, results show that power system economy and uncertainty can be compromised by selecting appropriate confidence levels α and β. It is also reported that by installing an extra heat storage tank, combined heat and power energy efficiency can be significantly improved and the installation capacity of the battery can be reduced.

  11. SSH analysis of endosperm transcripts and characterization of heat stress regulated expressed sequence tags in bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneha Goswami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH. We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger’s sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs. We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs—147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant, as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat – a novel step towards the development of

  12. Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 Regulates Xylem Development and Growth by a Conserved Mechanism That Modulates Hormone Signaling1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienenberger, Etienne; Douglas, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strict conservation of the vascular tissues in vascular plants (tracheophytes), our understanding of the genetic basis underlying the differentiation of secondary cell wall-containing cells in the xylem of tracheophytes is still far from complete. Using coexpression analysis and phylogenetic conservation across sequenced tracheophyte genomes, we identified a number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes of unknown function whose expression is correlated with secondary cell wall deposition. Among these, the Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 (VUP1) gene encodes a predicted protein of 24 kD with no annotated functional domains but containing domains that are highly conserved in tracheophytes. Here, we show that the VUP1 expression pattern, determined by promoter-β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression, is associated with vascular tissues, while vup1 loss-of-function mutants exhibit collapsed morphology of xylem vessel cells. Constitutive overexpression of VUP1 caused dramatic and pleiotropic developmental defects, including severe dwarfism, dark green leaves, reduced apical dominance, and altered photomorphogenesis, resembling brassinosteroid-deficient mutants. Constitutive overexpression of VUP homologs from multiple tracheophyte species induced similar defects. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed that overexpression of VUP1 represses the expression of many brassinosteroid- and auxin-responsive genes. Additionally, deletion constructs and site-directed mutagenesis were used to identify critical domains and amino acids required for VUP1 function. Altogether, our data suggest a conserved role for VUP1 in regulating secondary wall formation during vascular development by tissue- or cell-specific modulation of hormone signaling pathways. PMID:24567189

  13. A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2013-07-25

    Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  14. Visible cost - invisible profit. The heating, ventilation and sanitary sector and the realization of energy conservation. Among politics, knowledge and practice; Synlig kostnad - skjult gevinst. VVS-bransjen og realisering av ENOEK. Mellom politikk, kunnskap og praksis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubak, Marit

    1998-07-01

    In social research, technology has customarily been considered problem-generating. What is needed to turn new technology into a positive instrument in environmental work? To answer this question one must understand the interaction between politics, knowledge and practice that is important for dealing with the environmental challenges. It is a main objective of this book to contribute to this understanding by analysing how the building industry deals with the energy and environmental challenges that are commonly known as energy conservation. Specifically, the book deals with the heating, ventilation and sanitary sector since this is where most of the companies working with energy conservation are found. The discussion applies to Norway0.

  15. Energy Conservation: Heating Navy Hangars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    temperature, IF Tf Inside air temperature 1 foot above the floor, OF T. Inside design temperature, IF To Hot water temperature setpoint , OF TON Chiller ...systems capable of optimizing energy usage base-wide. An add-on to an existing large scale EMCS is probably the first preference, followed by single...the building comfort conditions are met during hours of building occupancy. 2. Optimized Start/Stop turns on equipment at the latest possible time and

  16. Regulating district heating in Romania: Legislative challenges and energy efficiency barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poputoaia, Diana; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Many states in Eastern and Central Europe (ECE) possess extensive district heating (DH) networks that were constructed during the days of communist rule in order to provide a universally accessible energy service that supported Soviet development policies. But the post-communist transition was marked by the exacerbation of the sector's numerous technical, economic, regulatory and environmental problems, accompanied by its abandonment in favour of alternative methods of domestic heating. Recent efforts to increase the use of DH in ECE as a result of environmental and energy security concerns have taken place in an absence of critical, context-sensitive research. The purpose of this paper is to explore the legal aspects of post-communist DH reforms in Romania, with the aim of identifying some of the governance challenges faced by state authorities in managing the sector. In broader terms, we seek to explore the extent to which the Romanian legislative framework is in a position to promote energy efficiency in DH. This has been achieved via an analysis of formal policy documents, government decrees, strategic documents and laws pertaining to this sector, as published and subsequently amended in the Official Gazette. The conclusions of the paper identify the key regulatory issues in the sector-especially with respect to the tariff setting process and the division of competences among different organisations in it-while suggesting a set of policy steps and general restructuring approaches that could help overcome the current situation.

  17. A conserved inter-domain communication mechanism regulates the ATPase activity of the AAA-protein Drg1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prattes, M.; Loibl, M.; Zisser, G.; Luschnig, D.; Kappel, L.; Rossler, I.; Grassegger, M.; Hromic, A.; Krieger, E.; Gruber, K.; Pertschy, B.; Bergler, H.

    2017-01-01

    AAA-ATPases fulfil essential roles in different cellular pathways and often act in form of hexameric complexes. Interaction with pathway-specific substrate and adaptor proteins recruits them to their targets and modulates their catalytic activity. This substrate dependent regulation of ATP

  18. The Populus ARBORKNOX1 homeodomain transcription factor regulates woody growth through binding to evolutionarily conserved target genes of diverse function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijun Liu; Matthew S. Zinkgraf; H. Earl Petzold; Eric P. Beers; Vladimir Filkov; Andrew Groover

    2014-01-01

    The class I KNOX homeodomain transcription factor ARBORKNOX1 (ARK1) is a key regulator of vascular cambium maintenance and cell differentiation in Populus. Currently, basic information is lacking concerning the distribution, functional characteristics, and evolution of ARK1 binding in the Populus genome.

  19. Heat shock instructs hESCs to exit from the self-renewal program through negative regulation of OCT4 by SAPK/JNK and HSF1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyunghee; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Oh, Jeehyun; Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Kim, Daesik; Lee, Min Young; Pack, Chan-Gi; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Bonghee

    2013-11-01

    Environmental factors affect self-renewal of stem cells by modulating the components of self-renewal networks. Heat shock, an environmental factor, induces heat shock factors (HSFs), which up-regulate stress response-related genes. However, the link of heat shock to self-renewal of stem cells has not been elucidated yet. Here, we present the direct link of heat shock to a core stem cell regulator, OCT4, in the self-renewal network through SAPK/JNK and HSF1 pathway. We first showed that heat shock initiated differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Gene expression analysis revealed that heat shock increased the expression of many genes involved in cellular processes related to differentiation of stem cells. We then examined the effects of HSFs induced by heat shock on core self-renewal factors. Among HSFs, heat shock induced mainly HSF1 in hESCs. The HSF1 repressed the expression of OCT4, leading to the differentiation of hESCs and the above differentiation-related gene expression change. We further examined the effects of the upstream MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases of HSF1 on the repression of OCT4 expression by HSF1. Among the MAP kinases, SAPK/JNK controlled predominantly the repression of the OCT4 expression by HSF1. The direct link of heat shock to the core self-renewal regulator through SAPK/JNK and HSF1 provides a fundamental basis for understanding the effect of heat and other stresses involving activation of HSF1 on the self-renewal program and further controlling differentiation of hESCs in a broad spectrum of stem cell applications using these stresses. © 2013.

  20. A non-conserved miRNA regulates lysosomal function and impacts on a human lysosomal storage disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa B; Di Malta, Chiara; Wen, Jiayu

    2014-01-01

    Sulfatases are key enzymatic regulators of sulfate homeostasis with several biological functions including degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and other macromolecules in lysosomes. In a severe lysosomal storage disorder, multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), global sulfatase activity...... of proteoglycan catabolism and lysosomal function. This blocks autophagy-mediated degradation, causing cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagosomes and autophagic substrates. By targeting miR-95 in cells from MSD patients, we can effectively increase residual SUMF1 expression, allowing for reactivation of sulfatase...

  1. Repair of steam generator heating tubes by roll-expanded plugs: approach to cover multiple national regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, J.; Ziegler, B.; Schoenheit, N. [AREVA NP Gmbh, Erlangen (Germany); Kostroun, F. [AREVA NP Canada Ltd., Pickering, ON (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    During operation, steam generators in nuclear power plants are subject to degradation mechanisms which have an impact on the component life-time. Most affected are the heating tubes which constitute the barrier of the contaminated primary cycle to the secondary side. Various corrosive attacks may cause wall thinning which requires tube repair. A common repair method is to plug the tubes by roll expanded plugs. This is a fast method, easily applicable and requires less equipment or personnel qualification as needed for weld plugs. After insertion, the plugs act as a pressure boundary from primary to secondary side. Although the function of the roll plug is simple, the different national regulations define the requirements which need to be fulfilled by a roll plug differently. In order to reduce the tooling as well as the plug types to a minimum, an approach according to one common design for different regulations and steam generator types is profitable. It was found, that the regulations according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code in combination with the German Safety Standards of the German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission covers the regulations of the majority of utilities. To develop a roll plug which suits the different regulatory demands, efforts were made to consider all technical and regulatory boundary conditions implied on roll expanded plugs. This covering approach had an impact on the plug design, which was required to be Helium tight after installation and suitable for a 40 year component lifetime also in accident and emergency conditions. To prove the suitability of the plug design a comprehensive testing programme of the mechanical and chemical properties of the designed roll-expanded plug was launched. A summary of the plug design and testing as well as the main test results are described. (author)

  2. Repair of steam generator heating tubes by roll-expanded plugs: approach to cover multiple national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.; Ziegler, B.; Schoenheit, N.; Kostroun, F.

    2012-01-01

    During operation, steam generators in nuclear power plants are subject to degradation mechanisms which have an impact on the component life-time. Most affected are the heating tubes which constitute the barrier of the contaminated primary cycle to the secondary side. Various corrosive attacks may cause wall thinning which requires tube repair. A common repair method is to plug the tubes by roll expanded plugs. This is a fast method, easily applicable and requires less equipment or personnel qualification as needed for weld plugs. After insertion, the plugs act as a pressure boundary from primary to secondary side. Although the function of the roll plug is simple, the different national regulations define the requirements which need to be fulfilled by a roll plug differently. In order to reduce the tooling as well as the plug types to a minimum, an approach according to one common design for different regulations and steam generator types is profitable. It was found, that the regulations according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code in combination with the German Safety Standards of the German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission covers the regulations of the majority of utilities. To develop a roll plug which suits the different regulatory demands, efforts were made to consider all technical and regulatory boundary conditions implied on roll expanded plugs. This covering approach had an impact on the plug design, which was required to be Helium tight after installation and suitable for a 40 year component lifetime also in accident and emergency conditions. To prove the suitability of the plug design a comprehensive testing programme of the mechanical and chemical properties of the designed roll-expanded plug was launched. A summary of the plug design and testing as well as the main test results are described. (author)

  3. A conserved degron containing an amphipathic helix regulates the cholesterol-mediated turnover of human squalene monooxygenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Ngee Kiat; Howe, Vicky; Jatana, Nidhi; Thukral, Lipi; Brown, Andrew J

    2017-12-08

    Cholesterol biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is tightly controlled by multiple mechanisms to regulate cellular cholesterol levels. Squalene monooxygenase (SM) is the second rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis and is regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. SM undergoes cholesterol-dependent proteasomal degradation when cholesterol is in excess. The first 100 amino acids of SM (designated SM N100) are necessary for this degradative process and represent the shortest cholesterol-regulated degron identified to date. However, the fundamental intrinsic characteristics of this degron remain unknown. In this study, we performed a series of deletions, point mutations, and domain swaps to identify a 12-residue region (residues Gln-62-Leu-73), required for SM cholesterol-mediated turnover. Molecular dynamics and circular dichroism revealed an amphipathic helix within this 12-residue region. Moreover, 70% of the variation in cholesterol regulation was dependent on the hydrophobicity of this region. Of note, the earliest known Doa10 yeast degron, Deg1, also contains an amphipathic helix and exhibits 42% amino acid similarity with SM N100. Mutating SM residues Phe-35/Ser-37/Leu-65/Ile-69 into alanine, based on the key residues in Deg1, blunted SM cholesterol-mediated turnover. Taken together, our results support a model whereby the amphipathic helix in SM N100 attaches reversibly to the ER membrane depending on cholesterol levels; with excess, the helix is ejected and unravels, exposing a hydrophobic patch, which then serves as a degradation signal. Our findings shed new light on the regulation of a key cholesterol synthesis enzyme, highlighting the conservation of critical degron features from yeast to humans. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Irresponsiveness of two retinoblastoma cases to conservative therapy correlates with up- regulation of hERG1 channels and of the VEGF-A pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Torre Agostino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment strategies for Retinoblastoma (RB, the most common primary intraocular tumor in children, have evolved over the past few decades and chemoreduction is currently the most popular treatment strategy. Despite success, systemic chemotherapeutic treatment has relevant toxicity, especially in the pediatric population. Antiangiogenic therapy has thus been proposed as a valuable alternative for pediatric malignancies, in particolar RB. Indeed, it has been shown that vessel density correlates with both local invasive growth and presence of metastases in RB, suggesting that angiogenesis could play a pivotal role for both local and systemic invasive growth in RB. We present here two cases of sporadic, bilateral RB that did not benefit from the conservative treatment and we provide evidence that the VEGF-A pathway is significantly up-regulated in both RB cases along with an over expression of hERG1 K+ channels. Case presentation Two patients showed a sporadic, bilateral RB, classified at Stage II of the Reese-Elsworth Classification. Neither of them got benefits from conservative treatment, and the two eyes were enucleated. In samples from both RB cases we studied the VEGF-A pathway: VEGF-A showed high levels in the vitreous, the vegf-a, flt-1, kdr, and hif1-α transcripts were over-expressed. Moreover, both the transcripts and proteins of the hERG1 K+ channels turned out to be up-regulated in the two RB cases compared to the non cancerous retinal tissue. Conclusions We provide evidence that the VEGF-A pathway is up-regulated in two particular aggressive cases of bilateral RB, which did not experience any benefit from conservative treatment, showing the overexpression of the vegf-a, flt-1, kdr and hif1-α transcripts and the high secretion of VEGF-A. Moreover we also show for the first time that the herg1 gene transcripts and protein are over expressed in RB, as occurs in several aggressive tumors. These results further stress

  5. The role of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2 in regulating human sperm-egg recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Nixon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common lesions present in the spermatozoa of human infertility patients is an idiopathic failure of sperm-egg recognition. Although this unique cellular interaction can now be readily by-passed by assisted reproductive strategies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, recent large-scale epidemiological studies have encouraged the cautious use of this technology and highlighted the need for further research into the mechanisms responsible for defective sperm-egg recognition. Previous work in this field has established that the sperm domains responsible for oocyte interaction are formed during spermatogenesis prior to being dynamically modified during epididymal maturation and capacitation in female reproductive tract. While the factors responsible for the regulation of these sequential maturational events are undoubtedly complex, emerging research has identified the molecular chaperone, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2, as a key regulator of these events in human spermatozoa. HSPA2 is a testis-enriched member of the 70 kDa heat shock protein family that promotes the folding, transport, and assembly of protein complexes and has been positively correlated with in vitro fertilization (IVF success. Furthermore, reduced expression of HSPA2 from the human sperm proteome leads to an impaired capacity for cumulus matrix dispersal, sperm-egg recognition and fertilization following both IVF and ICSI. In this review, we consider the evidence supporting the role of HSPA2 in sperm function and explore the potential mechanisms by which it is depleted in the spermatozoa of infertile patients. Such information offers novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing sperm function.

  6. Role of METTL20 in regulating β-oxidation and heat production in mice under fasting or ketogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Tadahiro; Furuse, Tamio; Balan, Shabeesh; Yamada, Ikuko; Okuno, Shuzo; Iwanari, Hiroko; Suzuki, Takehiro; Hamakubo, Takao; Dohmae, Naoshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Shinkai, Yoichi

    2018-01-19

    METTL20 is a seven-β-strand methyltransferase that is localised to the mitochondria and tri-methylates the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) β subunit (ETFB) at lysines 200 and 203. It has been shown that METTL20 decreases the ability of ETF to extract electrons from medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (MCAD) and glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase in vitro. METTL20-mediated methylation of ETFB influences the oxygen consumption rate in permeabilised mitochondria, suggesting that METTL20-mediated ETFB methylation may also play a regulatory role in mitochondrial metabolism. In this study, we generated Mettl20 knockout (KO) mice to uncover the in vivo functions of METTL20. The KO mice were viable, and a loss of ETFB methylation was confirmed. In vitro enzymatic assays revealed that mitochondrial ETF activity was higher in the KO mice than in wild-type mice, suggesting that the KO mice had higher β-oxidation capacity. Calorimetric analysis showed that the KO mice fed a ketogenic diet had higher oxygen consumption and heat production. A subsequent cold tolerance test conducted after 24 h of fasting indicated that the KO mice had a better ability to maintain their body temperature in cold environments. Thus, METTL20 regulates ETF activity and heat production through lysine methylation when β-oxidation is highly activated.

  7. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The Wheat NAC Transcription Factor TaNAC2L Is Regulated at the Transcriptional and Post-Translational Levels and Promotes Heat Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiwei; Zhang, Jinxia; Zhang, Ning; Xin, Mingming; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Ni, Zhongfu; Du, Jinkun

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress poses a serious threat to global crop production. In efforts that aim to mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress on crops, a variety of genetic tools are being used to develop plants with improved thermotolerance. The characterization of important regulators of heat stress tolerance provides essential information for this aim. In this study, we examine the wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAC transcription factor gene TaNAC2L. High temperature induced TaNAC2L expression in wheat and overexpression of TaNAC2L in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced acquired heat tolerance without causing obvious alterations in phenotype compared with wild type under normal conditions. TaNAC2L overexpression also activated the expression of heat-related genes in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaNAC2L may improve heat tolerance by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. Notably, TaNAC2L is also regulated at the post-translational level and might be degraded via a proteasome-mediated pathway. Thus, this wheat transcription factor may have potential uses in enhancing thermotolerance in crops.

  9. The Wheat NAC Transcription Factor TaNAC2L Is Regulated at the Transcriptional and Post-Translational Levels and Promotes Heat Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Guo

    Full Text Available Heat stress poses a serious threat to global crop production. In efforts that aim to mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress on crops, a variety of genetic tools are being used to develop plants with improved thermotolerance. The characterization of important regulators of heat stress tolerance provides essential information for this aim. In this study, we examine the wheat (Triticum aestivum NAC transcription factor gene TaNAC2L. High temperature induced TaNAC2L expression in wheat and overexpression of TaNAC2L in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced acquired heat tolerance without causing obvious alterations in phenotype compared with wild type under normal conditions. TaNAC2L overexpression also activated the expression of heat-related genes in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaNAC2L may improve heat tolerance by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. Notably, TaNAC2L is also regulated at the post-translational level and might be degraded via a proteasome-mediated pathway. Thus, this wheat transcription factor may have potential uses in enhancing thermotolerance in crops.

  10. A conserved WW domain-like motif regulates invariant chain-dependent cell-surface transport of the NKG2D ligand ULBP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Franziska; van Andel, Esther; Andresen, Lars; Skov, Søren

    2015-08-01

    Malignant cells expressing NKG2D ligands on their cell surface can be directly sensed and killed by NKG2D-bearing lymphocytes. To ensure this immune recognition, accumulating evidence suggests that NKG2D ligands are trafficed via alternative pathways to the cell surface. We have previously shown that the NKG2D ligand ULBP2 traffics over an invariant chain (Ii)-dependent pathway to the cell surface. This study set out to elucidate how Ii regulates ULBP2 cell-surface transport: We discovered conserved tryptophan (Trp) residues in the primary protein sequence of ULBP1-6 but not in the related MICA/B. Substitution of Trp to alanine resulted in cell-surface inhibition of ULBP2 in different cancer cell lines. Moreover, the mutated ULBP2 constructs were retained and not degraded inside the cell, indicating a crucial role of this conserved Trp-motif in trafficking. Finally, overexpression of Ii increased surface expression of wt ULBP2 while Trp-mutants could not be expressed, proposing that this Trp-motif is required for an Ii-dependent cell-surface transport of ULBP2. Aberrant soluble ULBP2 is immunosuppressive. Thus, targeting a distinct protein module on the ULBP2 sequence could counteract this abnormal expression of ULBP2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conserved Residues Lys57 and Lys401 of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Maintain an Active Site Conformation for Optimal Activity: Implications for Post-Translational Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Caba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite its study since the 1960's, very little is known about the post-translational regulation of the multiple catalytic activities performed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, the primary protein folding catalyst of the cell. This work identifies a functional role for the highly conserved CxxC-flanking residues Lys57 and Lys401 of human PDI in vitro. Mutagenesis studies have revealed these residues as modulating the oxidoreductase activity of PDI in a pH-dependent manner. Non-conservative amino acid substitutions resulted in enzyme variants upwards of 7-fold less efficient. This attenuated activity was found to translate into a 2-fold reduction of the rate of electron shuttling between PDI and the intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum oxidase, ERO1α, suggesting a functional significance to oxidative protein folding. In light of this, the possibility of lysine acetylation at residues Lys57 and Lys401 was assessed by in vitro treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin. A total of 28 acetyllysine residues were identified, including acLys57 and acLys401. The kinetic behavior of the acetylated protein form nearly mimicked that obtained with a K57/401Q double substitution variant providing an indication that acetylation of the active site-flanking lysine residues can act to reversibly modulate PDI activity.

  12. Conserved Residues Lys57 and Lys401 of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Maintain an Active Site Conformation for Optimal Activity: Implications for Post-Translational Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Cody; Ali Khan, Hyder; Auld, Janeen; Ushioda, Ryo; Araki, Kazutaka; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Mutus, Bulent

    2018-01-01

    Despite its study since the 1960's, very little is known about the post-translational regulation of the multiple catalytic activities performed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), the primary protein folding catalyst of the cell. This work identifies a functional role for the highly conserved CxxC-flanking residues Lys 57 and Lys 401 of human PDI in vitro . Mutagenesis studies have revealed these residues as modulating the oxidoreductase activity of PDI in a pH-dependent manner. Non-conservative amino acid substitutions resulted in enzyme variants upwards of 7-fold less efficient. This attenuated activity was found to translate into a 2-fold reduction of the rate of electron shuttling between PDI and the intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum oxidase, ERO1α, suggesting a functional significance to oxidative protein folding. In light of this, the possibility of lysine acetylation at residues Lys 57 and Lys 401 was assessed by in vitro treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). A total of 28 acetyllysine residues were identified, including acLys 57 and acLys 401 . The kinetic behavior of the acetylated protein form nearly mimicked that obtained with a K57/401Q double substitution variant providing an indication that acetylation of the active site-flanking lysine residues can act to reversibly modulate PDI activity.

  13. Conserved microRNA miR-8 in fat body regulates innate immune homeostasis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Kyou; Hyun, Seogang

    2012-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute a major arm of the innate immune system across diverse organisms. In Drosophila, septic injury by microbial pathogens rapidly induces the production of the AMPs in fat body via well elucidated pathways such as Toll and IMD. However, several epithelial tissues were reported to locally express AMPs without septic injury via poorly characterized ways. Here, we report that microRNA miR-8 regulates the levels of AMPs basally expressed in Drosophila. The levels of AMPs such as Drosomycin and Diptericin are significantly increased in miR-8 null animals in non-pathogen stimulated conditions. Analysis of various larval tissues revealed that the increase of Drosomycin is fat body specific. Supporting this observation, re-introduction of miR-8 only in the fat body restored the altered AMP expression in miR-8 null flies. Although loss of miR-8 impedes PI3K in the fat body, inhibition of PI3K does not phenocopy the AMP expression of miR-8 null flies, indicating that miR-8 regulates AMP independently of PI3K. Together, our findings suggest a role of miR-8 in systemic immune homeostasis in generally non-pathogenic conditions in flies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PRDM14 directly interacts with heat shock proteins HSP90α and glucose-regulated protein 78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Chiharu; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Nagatoishi, Satoru; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Imai, Kohzoh

    2018-02-01

    PRDM14 is overexpressed in various cancers and can regulate cancer phenotype under certain conditions. Inhibiting PRDM14 expression in breast and pancreatic cancers has been reported to reduce cancer stem-like phenotypes, which are associated with aggressive tumor properties. Therefore, PRDM14 is considered a promising target for cancer therapy. To develop a pharmaceutical treatment, the mechanism and interacting partners of PRDM14 need to be clarified. Here, we identified the proteins interacting with PRDM14 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, which do not express the three most common types of receptor (estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and HER2). We obtained 13 candidates that were pulled down with PRDM14 in TNBC HCC1937 cells and identified them by mass spectrometry. Two candidates-glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and heat shock protein 90-α (HSP90α)-were confirmed in immunoprecipitation assay in two TNBC cell lines (HCC1937 and MDA-MB231). Surface plasmon resonance analysis using GST-PRDM14 showed that these two proteins directly interacted with PRDM14 and that the interactions required the C-terminal region of PRDM14, which includes zinc finger motifs. We also confirmed the interactions in living cells by NanoLuc luciferase-based bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (NanoBRET) assay. Moreover, HSP90 inhibitors (17DMAG and HSP990) significantly decreased breast cancer stem-like CD24 -  CD44 + and side population (SP) cells in HCC1937 cells, but not in PRDM14 knockdown HCC1937 cells. The combination of the GRP78 inhibitor HA15 and PRDM14 knockdown significantly decreased cell proliferation and SP cell number in HCC1937 cells. These results suggest that HSP90α and GRP78 interact with PRDM14 and participate in cancer regulation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. The effect of price regulation on the performances of industrial symbiosis: a case study on district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Ramsheva, Yana Konstantinova

    2018-01-01

    . The most ambitious scenario doubles the amount of excess heat supplied and reduces the heat carbon footprint by 90% compared to current level, for an end-user price increase of 41%. The price increase results from a higher supply of excess heat at a higher price and an unchanged purchase cost from the coal......This study of the district heating system of Aalborg (Denmark) analyses how fiscal instruments affect the extent excess heat recovery helps reduce the carbon footprint of heat. It builds on a supply-and-demand framework and characterizes the changes in excess heat supply with consequential life...... cycle assessment in reference to one gigajoule distributed. The heat supply curve is defined through ten scenarios, which represent incremental shares of excess heat as the constraints of the said legal instruments are lifted. The heat demand curve follows the end-users’response to price changes...

  16. Prediction and characterisation of a highly conserved, remote and cAMP responsive enhancer that regulates Msx1 gene expression in cardiac neural crest and outflow tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kerry Ann; Davidson, Scott; Liaros, Angela; Barrow, John; Lear, Marissa; Heine, Danielle; Hoppler, Stefan; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2008-05-15

    Double knockouts of the Msx1 and Msx2 genes in the mouse result in severe cardiac outflow tract malformations similar to those frequently found in newborn infants. Despite the known role of the Msx genes in cardiac formation little is known of the regulatory systems (ligand receptor, signal transduction and protein-DNA interactions) that regulate the tissue-specific expression of the Msx genes in mammals during the formation of the outflow tract. In the present study we have used a combination of multi-species comparative genomics, mouse transgenic analysis and in-situ hybridisation to predict and validate the existence of a remote ultra-conserved enhancer that supports the expression of the Msx1 gene in migrating mouse cardiac neural crest and the outflow tract primordia. Furthermore, culturing of embryonic explants derived from transgenic lines with agonists of the PKC and PKA signal transduction systems demonstrates that this remote enhancer is influenced by PKA but not PKC dependent gene regulatory systems. These studies demonstrate the efficacy of combining comparative genomics and transgenic analyses and provide a platform for the study of the possible roles of Msx gene mis-regulation in the aetiology of congenital heart malformation.

  17. Gα and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein pairs maintain functional compatibility and conserved interaction interfaces throughout evolution despite frequent loss of RGS proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Dieter; McKain, Michael R; Lee, Soon Goo; Roy Choudhury, Swarup; McCann, Tyler; Schreier, Spencer; Harkess, Alex; Pires, J Chris; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Jez, Joseph M; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Pandey, Sona

    2017-10-01

    Signaling pathways regulated by heterotrimeric G-proteins exist in all eukaryotes. The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are key interactors and critical modulators of the Gα protein of the heterotrimer. However, while G-proteins are widespread in plants, RGS proteins have been reported to be missing from the entire monocot lineage, with two exceptions. A single amino acid substitution-based adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS proteins was proposed to enable the loss of RGS in monocots. We used a combination of evolutionary and biochemical analyses and homology modeling of the Gα and RGS proteins to address their expansion and its potential effects on the G-protein cycle in plants. Our results show that RGS proteins are widely distributed in the monocot lineage, despite their frequent loss. There is no support for the adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS protein pair based on single amino acid substitutions. RGS proteins interact with, and affect the activity of, Gα proteins from species with or without endogenous RGS. This cross-functional compatibility expands between the metazoan and plant kingdoms, illustrating striking conservation of their interaction interface. We propose that additional proteins or alternative mechanisms may exist which compensate for the loss of RGS in certain plant species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Strigolactone biosynthesis is evolutionarily conserved, regulated by phosphate starvation and contributes to resistance against phytopathogenic fungi in a moss, Physcomitrella patens

    KAUST Repository

    Decker, Eva L.

    2017-03-06

    In seed plants, strigolactones (SLs) regulate architecture and induce mycorrhizal symbiosis in response to environmental cues. SLs are formed by combined activity of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) 7 and 8 from 9-cis-β-carotene, leading to carlactone that is converted by cytochromes P450 (clade 711; MAX1 in Arabidopsis) into various SLs. As Physcomitrella patens possesses CCD7 and CCD8 homologs but lacks MAX1, we investigated if PpCCD7 together with PpCCD8 form carlactone and how deletion of these enzymes influences growth and interactions with the environment. We investigated the enzymatic activity of PpCCD7 and PpCCD8 in vitro, identified the formed products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LC-MS, and generated and analysed ΔCCD7 and ΔCCD8 mutants. We defined enzymatic activity of PpCCD7 as a stereospecific 9-cis-CCD and PpCCD8 as a carlactone synthase. ΔCCD7 and ΔCCD8 lines showed enhanced caulonema growth, which was revertible by adding the SL analogue GR24 or carlactone. Wild-type (WT) exudates induced seed germination in Orobanche ramosa. This activity was increased upon phosphate starvation and abolished in exudates of both mutants. Furthermore, both mutants showed increased susceptibility to phytopathogenic fungi. Our study reveals the deep evolutionary conservation of SL biosynthesis, SL function, and its regulation by biotic and abiotic cues.

  19. The Rab GTPase Rab8 as a shared regulator of ciliogenesis and immune synapse assembly: From a conserved pathway to diverse cellular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrussi, Laura; Baldari, Cosima T

    2016-01-01

    Rab GTPases, which form the largest branch of the Ras GTPase superfamily, regulate almost every step of vesicle-mediated trafficking. Among them, Rab8 is an essential participant in primary cilium formation. In a report recently published in the Journal of Cell Science, Finetti and colleagues identify Rab8 as a novel player in vesicular traffic in the non-ciliated T lymphocytes, which contributes to the assembly of the specialized signaling platform known as the immune synapse. By interacting with the v-SNARE VAMP-3, Rab8 is indeed responsible for the final docking/fusion step in T cell receptor (TCR) recycling to the immune synapse. A second important take-home message which comes to light from this work is that VAMP-3 also interacts with Rab8 at the base of the cilium in NIH-3T3 cells, where it regulates ciliary growth and targeting of Smoothened at the plasma membrane. Hence the data presented in this report, in addition to identifying Rab8 as a novel player in vesicular traffic to the immune synapse, reveal how both ciliated and non-ciliated cells take advantage of a conserved pathway to build highly specific cellular structures.

  20. Effects of the regulating energy levy and energy tariffs on the cost effectiveness of energy efficient production of heat and cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    With respect to the title subject collective and stand-alone systems for house and office buildings were analyzed. For houses a high-efficiency boiler as reference system, and individual micro-cogeneration unit, an individual electric heat pump with a collective aquifer as heat source, an individual gas heat pump with outside air as a heat source, a collective cogeneration system, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. For office buildings a high-efficiency boiler and a cooling machine as a reference system, an individual electric heat pump with an individual aquifer as a heat source, cold storage, collective cogeneration, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. Also an overview is given of the changes that are taking place in the tariffs for natural gas, e.g. the use of so-called Commodity Services. Finally, the impact on prices of natural gas and electricity of the fact that the tax-free threshold of the regulating energy levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) will disappear is investigated. 5 refs

  1. Differential response of cell-cycle and cell-expansion regulators to heat stress in apple (Malus domestica) fruitlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaishman, Moshe A; Peles, Yuval; Dahan, Yardena; Milo-Cochavi, Shira; Frieman, Aviad; Naor, Amos

    2015-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most significant factors affecting physiological and biochemical aspects of fruit development. Current and progressing global warming is expected to change climate in the traditional deciduous fruit tree cultivation regions. In this study, 'Golden Delicious' trees, grown in a controlled environment or commercial orchard, were exposed to different periods of heat treatment. Early fruitlet development was documented by evaluating cell number, cell size and fruit diameter for 5-70 days after full bloom. Normal activities of molecular developmental and growth processes in apple fruitlets were disrupted under daytime air temperatures of 29°C and higher as a result of significant temporary declines in cell-production and cell-expansion rates, respectively. Expression screening of selected cell cycle and cell expansion genes revealed the influence of high temperature on genetic regulation of apple fruitlet development. Several core cell-cycle and cell-expansion genes were differentially expressed under high temperatures. While expression levels of B-type cyclin-dependent kinases and A- and B-type cyclins declined moderately in response to elevated temperatures, expression of several cell-cycle inhibitors, such as Mdwee1, Mdrbr and Mdkrps was sharply enhanced as the temperature rose, blocking the cell-cycle cascade at the G1/S and G2/M transition points. Moreover, expression of several expansin genes was associated with high temperatures, making them potentially useful as molecular platforms to enhance cell-expansion processes under high-temperature regimes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of heat tolerance associated with genes controlling cell cycle and cell expansion may lead to the development of novel strategies for improving apple fruit productivity under global warming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valledor, Luis; Pascual, Jesús; Meijón, Mónica; Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA) and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4) during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.

  3. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valledor

    Full Text Available Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4 during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.

  4. Dispositivos de regulação conservadora, currículo e trabalho docente Conservative regulation devices, curriculum and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Santos Vieira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo discutimos dispositivos de controle, como regulação conservadora, e suas interferências tanto no processo de trabalho de professoras em início de carreira quanto na fabricação de suas identidades profissionais. A análise aqui apresentada é fruto de uma pesquisa realizada com professoras que atuam entre a 1ª e a 4ª série do ensino fundamental em escolas públicas, com menos de três anos de magistério e sem experiência anterior de trabalho efetivo em sala de aula. É sobre as professoras em início de carreira que se produz um conjunto de práticas (discursos que tem como função regular suas práticas e decisões, estabelecendo o quadro das condutas consideradas legítimas para que se efetive o processo educativo. Os efeitos dessa regulação agem sobre o processo de trabalho docente e sobre os processos de significação nele produzidos, estabelecendo uma representação do que vêm a ser a docência e sua identidade, tratando assim de ressignificar as práticas educativas.ABSTRACT: This paper discusses control devices as a conservative regulation and how they interfere both in the teaching process of beginning teachers and in their professional identity construction. It analyses data from a study with public elementary school beginning teachers who have taught for three years without previous teaching experience. Many practices (discourses are produced to regulate and constrain beginning teachers' judgment in terms of practices and decisions, establishing legitimate professional behaviors. This regulation - built through a set of control devices - acts on the teaching process and on its meaning processes, creating a representation about what teachers and their identity should be, thus re-signifying their practices.

  5. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  6. Regulation of lead toxicity by heat shock protein 90 (daf-21) is affected by temperature in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunbiao; Xu, Songbai; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yanhui; Guo, Tai L

    2014-06-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, stress resistance can be regulated by dauer formation (daf) genes. In the present study, regulation of heavy metal lead (Pb) toxicity by the 90-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90; daf-21) was investigated in both wild-type C. elegans and daf-21/Hsp90 mutants by focusing on the effects of varied temperatures below (15°C) or above (25 and 30°C) the presumptive optimum growth temperature (20°C). More acute toxicity of Pb, indicated by the 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50), was observed in wild-type adults than in the daf-21 mutant adults at 15, 20 and 25°C; however, the daf-21 mutant adults showed more sensitivity at 30°C. Enhanced Pb sensitivity (e.g., decrease LC50) in both types of C. elegans was observed with both increased and decreased temperatures when compared to that at 20°C. Additional examined endpoints included time course of toxicity at LC50s, pharyngeal pumping, reproduction, life span, and Hsp90 expression. Collective results showed that temperatures both above and below 20°C exacerbated Pb toxicity, and that the protein level of daf-21/Hsp90 was one of the most sensitive indicators of Pb toxicity in wild-type C. elegans, while pharyngeal pumping was more Pb sensitive in daf-21 mutants. Therefore, the expression of daf-21/Hsp90 has apparent utility for the prediction and assessment of Pb-induced toxicity in nematodes. Further, the stress responses related to Hsp90 expression in C. elegans may have considerable potential as sensitive biomarkers for the monitoring of environmental Pb contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quickscan potential of heat pumps for energy conservation in cultivation with low energy consumption; Quickscan potentie van warmtepompen voor energiebesparing bij teelten met een laag energieverbruik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ruijter, J.A.F.

    2012-06-15

    In the title quick scan the use of a heat pump has been calculated for two low-energy crops: radish and the cold cultivation of pot plants. With model calculations two types of heat pump are calculated: an electric heat pump and a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The payback period of a heat pump in low-energy crops is too long considering the current market [Dutch] In de quickscan is het gebruik van een warmtepomp doorgerekend voor twee energiearme teelten: radijs en koude teelt van potplanten. Met modelberekeningen zijn twee types warmtepomp beoordeeld, een elektrische en een gasmotorgedreven warmtepomp. De terugverdientijd van een warmtepomp in energiearme teelten is onder de huidige marktomstandigheden te lang.

  8. Genome-Scale Co-Expression Network Comparison across Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Reveals Significant Conservation at the Regulon Level of Local Regulators Despite Their Dissimilar Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrineh, Peyman; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Hosseinkhan, Nazanin; Narimani, Zahra; Marchal, Kathleen; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Availability of genome-wide gene expression datasets provides the opportunity to study gene expression across different organisms under a plethora of experimental conditions. In our previous work, we developed an algorithm called COMODO (COnserved MODules across Organisms) that identifies conserved expression modules between two species. In the present study, we expanded COMODO to detect the co-expression conservation across three organisms by adapting the statistics behind it. We applied COMODO to study expression conservation/divergence between Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Bacillus subtilis. We observed that some parts of the regulatory interaction networks were conserved between E. coli and S. enterica especially in the regulon of local regulators. However, such conservation was not observed between the regulatory interaction networks of B. subtilis and the two other species. We found co-expression conservation on a number of genes involved in quorum sensing, but almost no conservation for genes involved in pathogenicity across E. coli and S. enterica which could partially explain their different lifestyles. We concluded that despite their different lifestyles, no significant rewiring have occurred at the level of local regulons involved for instance, and notable conservation can be detected in signaling pathways and stress sensing in the phylogenetically close species S. enterica and E. coli. Moreover, conservation of local regulons seems to depend on the evolutionary time of divergence across species disappearing at larger distances as shown by the comparison with B. subtilis. Global regulons follow a different trend and show major rewiring even at the limited evolutionary distance that separates E. coli and S. enterica. PMID:25101984

  9. Energy conservation in buildings: a subject not to be swept under the carpet anymore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunde, W

    1977-04-01

    Energy shortages and price increases make the consumer conscious of having to show more concern for appropriate behavior, but conservation measures which are technically feasible and economically necessary cannot be obtained without legal regulations. Measures not only the gas supply companies have to deal with, but also the sanitary, heating and building industry are pointed out.

  10. Alleviation of salt stress by enterobacter sp. EJ01 in tomato and Arabidopsis is accompanied by up-regulation of conserved salinity responsive factors in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangmin; Jang, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Chae, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kui-Jae

    2014-02-01

    Microbiota in the niches of the rhizosphere zones can affect plant growth and responses to environmental stress conditions via mutualistic interactions with host plants. Specifically, some beneficial bacteria, collectively referred to as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), increase plant biomass and innate immunity potential. Here, we report that Enterobacter sp. EJ01, a bacterium isolated from sea china pink (Dianthus japonicus thunb) in reclaimed land of Gyehwa-do in Korea, improved the vegetative growth and alleviated salt stress in tomato and Arabidopsis. EJ01 was capable of producing 1-aminocy-clopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and also exhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The isolate EJ01 conferred increases in fresh weight, dry weight, and plant height of tomato and Arabidopsis under both normal and high salinity conditions. At the molecular level, short-term treatment with EJ01 increased the expression of salt stress responsive genes such as DREB2b, RD29A, RD29B, and RAB18 in Arabidopsis. The expression of proline biosynthetic genes (i.e. P5CS1 and P5CS2) and of genes related to priming processes (i.e. MPK3 and MPK6) were also up-regulated. In addition, reactive oxygen species scavenging activities were enhanced in tomatoes treated with EJ01 in stressed conditions. GFP-tagged EJ01 displayed colonization in the rhizosphere and endosphere in the roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, the newly isolated Enterobacter sp. EJ01 is a likely PGPR and alleviates salt stress in host plants through multiple mechanisms, including the rapid up-regulation of conserved plant salt stress responsive signaling pathways.

  11. Alleviation of Salt Stress by Enterobacter sp. EJ01 in Tomato and Arabidopsis Is Accompanied by Up-Regulation of Conserved Salinity Responsive Factors in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangmin; Jang, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Chae, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kui-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Microbiota in the niches of the rhizosphere zones can affect plant growth and responses to environmental stress conditions via mutualistic interactions with host plants. Specifically, some beneficial bacteria, collectively referred to as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), increase plant biomass and innate immunity potential. Here, we report that Enterobacter sp. EJ01, a bacterium isolated from sea china pink (Dianthus japonicus thunb) in reclaimed land of Gyehwa-do in Korea, improved the vegetative growth and alleviated salt stress in tomato and Arabidopsis. EJ01 was capable of producing 1-aminocy-clopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and also exhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The isolate EJ01 conferred increases in fresh weight, dry weight, and plant height of tomato and Arabidopsis under both normal and high salinity conditions. At the molecular level, short-term treatment with EJ01 increased the expression of salt stress responsive genes such as DREB2b, RD29A, RD29B, and RAB18 in Arabidopsis. The expression of proline biosynthetic genes (i.e. P5CS1 and P5CS2) and of genes related to priming processes (i.e. MPK3 and MPK6) were also up-regulated. In addition, reactive oxygen species scavenging activities were enhanced in tomatoes treated with EJ01 in stressed conditions. GFP-tagged EJ01 displayed colonization in the rhizosphere and endosphere in the roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, the newly isolated Enterobacter sp. EJ01 is a likely PGPR and alleviates salt stress in host plants through multiple mechanisms, including the rapid up-regulation of conserved plant salt stress responsive signaling pathways. PMID:24598995

  12. Conserved Lipid and Small-Molecule Modulation of COQ8 Reveals Regulation of the Ancient Kinase-like UbiB Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenbach, Andrew G; Kemmerer, Zachary A; Aydin, Deniz; Jochem, Adam; McDevitt, Molly T; Hutchins, Paul D; Stark, Jaime L; Stefely, Jonathan A; Reddy, Thiru; Hebert, Alex S; Wilkerson, Emily M; Johnson, Isabel E; Bingman, Craig A; Markley, John L; Coon, Joshua J; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Pagliarini, David J

    2018-02-15

    Human COQ8A (ADCK3) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Coq8p (collectively COQ8) are UbiB family proteins essential for mitochondrial coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis. However, the biochemical activity of COQ8 and its direct role in CoQ production remain unclear, in part due to lack of known endogenous regulators of COQ8 function and of effective small molecules for probing its activity in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that COQ8 possesses evolutionarily conserved ATPase activity that is activated by binding to membranes containing cardiolipin and by phenolic compounds that resemble CoQ pathway intermediates. We further create an analog-sensitive version of Coq8p and reveal that acute chemical inhibition of its endogenous activity in yeast is sufficient to cause respiratory deficiency concomitant with CoQ depletion. Collectively, this work defines lipid and small-molecule modulators of an ancient family of atypical kinase-like proteins and establishes a chemical genetic system for further exploring the mechanistic role of COQ8 in CoQ biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool... heating equipment and pool heaters. Table I.1--Amended Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... for national energy and water conservation; and 7. Other factors the Secretary of Energy (Secretary...

  14. Heat Shock Protein 70 Negatively Regulates TGF-β-Stimulated VEGF Synthesis via p38 MAP Kinase in Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Sakai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We previously demonstrated that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β stimulates the synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF through the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Heat shock protein70 (HSP70 is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of HSP70 in the TGF-β-stimulated VEGF synthesis and the underlying mechanism in these cells. Methods: Culture MC3T3-E1 cells were stimulated by TGF-β. Released VEGF was measured using an ELISA assay. VEGF mRNA level was quantified by RT-PCR. Phosphorylation of each protein kinase was analyzed by Western blotting. Results: VER-155008 and YM-08, both of HSP70 inhibitors, significantly amplified the TGF-β-stimulated VEGF release. In addition, the expression level of VEGF mRNA induced by TGF-β was enhanced by VER-155008. These inhibitors markedly strengthened the TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. The TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase was amplified in HSP70-knockdown cells. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, significantly suppressed the amplification by these inhibitors of the TGF-β-induced VEGF release. Conclusion: These results strongly suggest that HSP70 acts as a negative regulator in the TGF-β-stimulated VEGF synthesis in osteoblasts, and that the inhibitory effect of HSP70 is exerted at a point upstream of p38 MAP kinase.

  15. EXPERIENCE OF UTILIZATION OF CAPACITY BANKS AND SCHEMES OF FREQUENCY REGULATION IN MUNICIPAL CENTRALIZED HEATING SYSTEM OF CHISINAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHERNEI M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper provides a brief summary of the district heating system of the municipality Chisinau, including heat power sources, heat distribution network, production and consumption development over the past two decades and other data. Also, the priority investment projects realized by JSC "Termocom" are being presented. The company had implemented an automated monitoring system for the heat power production, transportation and distribution. For many years, the company used bellows pipes with polyurethane insulation, ball valves and plate heat exchangers. 14 out of 21 district heating boiler stations were upgraded 10 were completely automated having as a result no further need in full-time duty personnel there. The experience gained in the implementation of capacity banks and frequency inverters, summarizing the benefits and achieved results, is also presented in the current paper. It is to be underlined that in 2011 the company achieved decrease in electricity consumption by about 30% in comparison with 2005.

  16. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, SoonKap; Lee, Keh Chien; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2016-01-01

    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  17. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung

    2016-01-11

    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  18. Expression of the stress-response regulators CtsR and HrcA in the uropathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus during heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ciro César; de Oliveira, Lorayne Lauria; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Deivid; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Laport, Marinella Silva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    The uropathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an ubiquitous bacterium but little is known about mechanisms that allow its persistence in diverse environments. Here we evaluated S. saprophyticus growth and survival during heat shock, the expression of stress response regulators ctsR and hrcA through qRT-PCR and heat shock protein synthesis through 35 S-Met metabolic labeling. S. saprophyticus does not tolerate temperatures much higher than the optimal 37 °C, as its growth is greatly affected at 42 °C, though viability is maintained up to 48 °C. At 42 °C, the expression of ctsR and hrcA repressor genes approximately triple when compared to 37 °C and continue to increase together with temperature till 48 °C. Expression of hrcA peaks after 20 min of heat shock and decreases significantly after 30 min, indicating that heat stress response regulated by this gene may last 20-30 min. An increase in temperature is accompanied by the synthesis of at least eight proteins, three of which are likely the chaperones DnaK, GroEL and ClpB. In silico analysis indicate that the groEL gene may be regulated by HrcA, clpB by CtsR and dnaK by both repressors. This is the first work to discuss heat stress response in S. saprophyticus and a step forward in the understanding of mechanisms that make this a widespread and emergent pathogen.

  19. Proposal for adaptive management to conserve biotic integrity in a regulated segment of the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Elise R.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2002-01-01

    Conserving river biota will require innovative approaches that foster and utilize scientific understanding of ecosystem responses to alternative river-management scenarios. We describe ecological and societal issues involved in flow management of a section of the Tallapoosa River (Alabama, U.S.A.) in which a species-rich native fauna is adversely affected by flow alteration by an upstream hydropower dam. We hypothesize that depleted Iow flows, flow instability and thermal alteration resulting from pulsed flow releases at the hydropower dam are most responsible for changes in the Tallapoosa River biota. However, existing data are insufficient to prescribe with certainty minimum flow levels or the frequency and duration of stable flow periods that would be necessary or sufficient to protect riverine biotic integrity. Rather than negotiate a specific change in the flow regime, we propose that stakeholders--including management agencies, the power utility, and river advocates--engage in a process of adaptive-flow management. This process would require that stakeholders (1) develop and agree to management objectives; (2) model hypothesized relations between dam operations and management objectives; (3) implement a change in dam operations; and (4) evaluate biological responses and other stakeholder benefits through an externally reviewed monitoring program. Models would be updated with monitoring data and stakeholders would agree to further modify flow regimes as necessary to achieve management objectives. A primary obstacle to adaptive management will be a perceived uncertainty of future costs for the power utility and other stakeholders. However, an adaptive, iterative approach offers the best opportunity for improving flow regimes for native biota while gaining information critical to guiding management decisions in other flow-regulated rivers.

  20. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  1. Survey report of year 2000 version. Feasibility study on energy efficiency/conservation, and environmental improvement of district heat and electricity supply station Radom City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In order to promote the COP3 joint implementation, discussions were given on the district heat and electricity supply station in Radom City in Poland. Power capacity utilized above a certain level will be generated by cogeneration power plants according to the annual heat supply load patterns, and insufficient capacity will be supplied from the existing hot water boilers during winter when thermal load is high. Daily load variation will be handled by installing auxiliary combustion facilities of 20% of the full capacity. The power plants will be of natural gas burning gas-turbine cogeneration plants, and hot water will be supplied from the modified waste heat boilers. The cogeneration power plants will be capable of taking care of 80% of the annual supply quantity of heat. The heat supply capacity will be 72 MWt including the auxiliary combustion, and the electric power generation capacity will be 35 MWe. Improvement in thermal efficiency to 80% or higher will reduce coal consumption, resulting in saving of 28,117 toe/year after subtracting the increase in natural gas consumption. Reduction in CO2 emission will also be as large as 206,000 tons/year, causing air pollutants to be also reduced. Assuming the facility cost of 4,336 billion yen to be taken care by the Japanese environmental yen loan, the Polish National Fund loan, and the independent fund of the city of Radom, the IRRON investment over the operation period of 30 years is considerably good at 10%. The investment can be recovered in nine years, and the cash flow will have no problems. (NEDO)

  2. 43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1... INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general. The Secretary shall encourage the full consideration and incorporation of prudent and responsible water conservation...

  3. Effect of vibrational stress and spaceflight on regulation of heat shock proteins hsp70 and hsp27 in human lymphocytes (Jurkat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubano, L. A.; Lewis, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Heat shock protein levels are increased in cells as a result of exposure to stress. To determine whether heat shock protein regulation could be used to evaluate stress in cells during spaceflight, the response of Jurkat cells to spaceflight and simulated space shuttle launch vibration was investigated by evaluating hsp70 and hsp27 gene expression. Gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using mRNA extracted from vibrated, nonvibrated, space-flown, and ground control cells. Results indicate that mechanical stresses of vibration and low gravity do not up-regulate the mRNA for hsp70, although the gene encoding hsp27 is up-regulated by spaceflight but not by vibration. In ground controls, the mRNA for hsp70 and hsp27 increased with time in culture. We conclude that hsp70 gene expression is a useful indicator of stress related to culture density but is not an indicator of the stresses of launch vibration or microgravity. Up-regulation of hsp27 gene expression in microgravity is a new finding.

  4. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  5. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  6. The stress-induced heat shock protein 70.3 expression is regulated by a dual-component mechanism involving alternative polyadenylation and HuR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraynik, Stephen M; Gabanic, Andrew; Anthony, Sarah R; Kelley, Melissa; Paulding, Waltke R; Roessler, Anne; McGuinness, Michael; Tranter, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Heat shock protein 70.3 (Hsp70.3) expression increases in response to cellular stress and plays a cytoprotective role. We have previously shown that Hsp70.3 expression is controlled through coordinated post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs and alternative polyadenylation (APA), and APA-mediated shortening of the Hsp70.3 3'-UTR facilitates increased protein expression. A stress-induced increase in Hsp70.3 mRNA and protein expression is accompanied by alternative polyadenylation (APA)-mediated truncation of the 3'UTR of the Hsp70.3 mRNA transcript. However, the role that APA plays in stress-induced expression of Hsp70.3 remains unclear. Our results show that APA-mediated truncation of the Hsp70.3 3'UTR increases protein expression through enhanced polyribosome loading. Additionally, we demonstrate that the RNA binding protein HuR, which has been previously shown to play a role in mediating APA, is necessary for heat shock mediated increase in Hsp70.3 mRNA and protein. However, it is somewhat surprising to note that HuR does not play a role in APA of the Hsp70.3 mRNA, and these two regulatory events appear to be mutually exclusive regulators of Hsp70.3 expression. These results not only provide important insight to the regulation of stress response genes following heat shock, but also contribute an enhanced understanding of how alternative polyadenylation contributes to gene regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  8. Genome-wide identification and analysis of biotic and abiotic stress regulation of small heat shock protein (HSP20) family genes in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Senthilkumar K; Dalal, Monika; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bansal, Kailash C

    2017-04-01

    Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs)/HSP20 are molecular chaperones that protect plants by preventing protein aggregation during abiotic stress conditions, especially heat stress. Due to global climate change, high temperature is emerging as a major threat to wheat productivity. Thus, the identification of HSP20 and analysis of HSP transcriptional regulation under different abiotic stresses in wheat would help in understanding the role of these proteins in abiotic stress tolerance. We used sequences of known rice and Arabidopsis HSP20 HMM profiles as queries against publicly available wheat genome and wheat full length cDNA databases (TriFLDB) to identify the respective orthologues from wheat. 163 TaHSP20 (including 109 sHSP and 54 ACD) genes were identified and classified according to the sub-cellular localization and phylogenetic relationship with sequenced grass genomes (Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, Brachypodium distachyon and Setaria italica). Spatio-temporal, biotic and abiotic stress-specific expression patterns in normalized RNA seq and wheat array datasets revealed constitutive as well as inductive responses of HSP20 in different tissues and developmental stages of wheat. Promoter analysis of TaHSP20 genes showed the presence of tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic, light-responsive, circadian and cell cycle-responsive cis-regulatory elements. 14 TaHSP20 family genes were under the regulation of 8 TamiRNA genes. The expression levels of twelve HSP20 genes were studied under abiotic stress conditions in the drought- and heat-tolerant wheat genotype C306. Of the 13 TaHSP20 genes, TaHSP16.9H-CI showed high constitutive expression with upregulation only under salt stress. Both heat and salt stresses upregulated the expression of TaHSP17.4-CI, TaHSP17.7A-CI, TaHSP19.1-CIII, TaACD20.0B-CII and TaACD20.6C-CIV, while TaHSP23.7-MTI was specifically induced only under heat stress. Our results showed that the identified TaHSP20 genes play an important role under

  9. 家用暖气温度调节装置%Temperature Regulating Device of Household Heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付饶

    2017-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of energy waste caused by the commercialization and monetization of heating and neglecting energy saving, the application of PN16 electric dish plate valve and temperature power supply controller and other devices were used to the transformation of ordinary heating lines.The technology could be selected according to user''s needs to set indoor temperature threshold and automatic adjust the heating pipe on the electric valve closed or open state.This will not only meet the needs of heating, but also to avoid the waste of energy.Hundreds of users'' trials show that, in a heating cycle, average household heating cost-savings was up to 300 yuan.The payback period of investment was 1.3 heating cycles, which has a good application prospect.%为解决采暖实行用热商品化、货币化而忽视节能,造成能源浪费的问题,应用PN16电动碟板阀、温控电源控制器等器件对普通采暖管线进行改造.该技术可根据用户需要自选设定室内温度阙值,自动调节暖气管线上电动阀门关闭或开启状态,既满足了采暖的需要,又避免了能源浪费.数百用户试用表明,一个采暖周期每户平均节约采暖费用约300元.投资回收期1.3个采暖周期,具有很好的推广应用前景.

  10. Conserved cis-regulatory regions in a large genomic landscape control SHH and BMP-regulated Gremlin1 expression in mouse limb buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuniga Aimée

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse limb bud is a prime model to study the regulatory interactions that control vertebrate organogenesis. Major aspects of limb bud development are controlled by feedback loops that define a self-regulatory signalling system. The SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop forms the core of this signalling system that operates between the posterior mesenchymal organiser and the ectodermal signalling centre. The BMP antagonist Gremlin1 (GREM1 is a critical node in this system, whose dynamic expression is controlled by BMP, SHH, and FGF signalling and key to normal progression of limb bud development. Previous analysis identified a distant cis-regulatory landscape within the neighbouring Formin1 (Fmn1 locus that is required for Grem1 expression, reminiscent of the genomic landscapes controlling HoxD and Shh expression in limb buds. Results Three highly conserved regions (HMCO1-3 were identified within the previously defined critical genomic region and tested for their ability to regulate Grem1 expression in mouse limb buds. Using a combination of BAC and conventional transgenic approaches, a 9 kb region located ~70 kb downstream of the Grem1 transcription unit was identified. This region, termed Grem1 Regulatory Sequence 1 (GRS1, is able to recapitulate major aspects of Grem1 expression, as it drives expression of a LacZ reporter into the posterior and, to a lesser extent, in the distal-anterior mesenchyme. Crossing the GRS1 transgene into embryos with alterations in the SHH and BMP pathways established that GRS1 depends on SHH and is modulated by BMP signalling, i.e. integrates inputs from these pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed interaction of endogenous GLI3 proteins with the core cis-regulatory elements in the GRS1 region. As GLI3 is a mediator of SHH signal transduction, these results indicated that SHH directly controls Grem1 expression through the GRS1 region. Finally, all cis-regulatory regions within the Grem1

  11. The response of leaves to heat stress in tomato plants with source-sink modulated by growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Starck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The response to heat stress was investigated in heat-sensitive, Roma V. F. and heat-tolerant, Robin, cultivars whose fruit growth was stimulated by NOA + GA3 , or NOA + GA3 + zeatin. The treated plants were compared with untreated control plant. In each of these series half of the plants were subjected to one or three cycles of heat stress. A single cycle of 38°/25°C day and night did not significantly affect either the respiration rate or chlorophyll content. In PGR-untreated intact cv. Roma, heat stress inhibited starch formation during the day and strongly depressed night export from the blades. High temperature depressed the night transport less in plants having a higher sink demand of fruits in plant treated with PGR. In this case the amount of substances available for export was much higher and both sugars and starch were more intensively remobilized at night. In intact Robin plants, PGR and heat stress much less affected sugar and starch content. High temperature diminished noctural starch remobilization only in the NOA + GA3 series. Leaf disc growth was evaluated as a measure of response to heat stress after elimination of the direct effect of fruit demands. One cycle of high temperature did not negatively affect the growth of leaf discs; it even caused thermal low growth activation in both cultivars. Three cycles of heat stress depressed leaf disc growth after short-term stimulation, especially in Roma plants. Immediately after 3-day heat stress, there was no response of discs to GA3 or zeatin added to the solution on which the discs were floated. Leaf disc growth of Robin control and NOA + GA3 series was very similar in plants from optimal temperature conditions. High temperature inhibited only disc growth of the NOA + GA3 series owing to depression of starch break-down, diminishing the pool of sugars. In contrast, leaf discs of Roma cv. excided from NOA + GA3 treated plants from the optimal temperature series, grew more intensively

  12. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  13. Towards an integrated design of voluntary approaches and standardization processes: An analysis of issues and trends in the Italian regulation on ground coupled heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzi, Francesco; Frey, Marco; Iraldo, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigate GCHP regulation development from an entrepreneurial perspective. → Threats in booming market orient entrepreneurs toward green management. → Command and control regulation is not sufficient to guarantee market sustainability. → Voluntary regulation encourage best performers to invest in long-term strategies. → Bottom-up regulation design advances integration of process and product standards. - Abstract: Despite the lack of specific incentives, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) installations are booming in Italy both in the private and public sectors. Such rapid growth is coupled with increasing concern for environmental and technical performances since no comprehensive regulation and reliable standards currently exist. This paper discusses potential schemes aimed at balancing mandatory and voluntary requirements by using SWOT-based techniques and examining the opinions of sectoral leaders. The analysis suggests that standardization and voluntary schemes are perceived as efficient and effective tools to encourage the greening of Italian GCHP-SMEs in the short-term while laying the foundations for sustainable policies in the longer run. A potential scheme is discussed that was simulated by reflecting the supply-side of the market, and which involves process and product standards.

  14. Towards an integrated design of voluntary approaches and standardization processes: An analysis of issues and trends in the Italian regulation on ground coupled heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, Francesco, E-mail: f.rizzi@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Frey, Marco, E-mail: frey@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Iraldo, Fabio, E-mail: f.iraldo@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigate GCHP regulation development from an entrepreneurial perspective. {yields} Threats in booming market orient entrepreneurs toward green management. {yields} Command and control regulation is not sufficient to guarantee market sustainability. {yields} Voluntary regulation encourage best performers to invest in long-term strategies. {yields} Bottom-up regulation design advances integration of process and product standards. - Abstract: Despite the lack of specific incentives, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) installations are booming in Italy both in the private and public sectors. Such rapid growth is coupled with increasing concern for environmental and technical performances since no comprehensive regulation and reliable standards currently exist. This paper discusses potential schemes aimed at balancing mandatory and voluntary requirements by using SWOT-based techniques and examining the opinions of sectoral leaders. The analysis suggests that standardization and voluntary schemes are perceived as efficient and effective tools to encourage the greening of Italian GCHP-SMEs in the short-term while laying the foundations for sustainable policies in the longer run. A potential scheme is discussed that was simulated by reflecting the supply-side of the market, and which involves process and product standards.

  15. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Halabian, Raheleh; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Masroori, Nasser; Ebrahimi, Majid; Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa; Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  16. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi, E-mail: roudkenar@ibto.ir [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halabian, Raheleh [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourani, Mohammad Reza [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masroori, Nasser [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Majid [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  17. Microbial pathogenesis in cystic fibrosis: co-ordinate regulation of heat-shock response and conversion to mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, M J; Deretic, V

    1997-04-01

    Conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the mucoid phenotype plays a major role in the pathogenesis of respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). One mechanism responsible for mucoidy is based on mutations that inactivate the anti-sigma factor, MucA, which normally inhibits the alternative sigma factor, AIgU. The loss of MucA allows AIgU to freely direct transcription of the genes responsible for the production of the exopolysaccharide alginate resulting in mucoid colony morphology. In Escherichia coli, a close homologue of AIgU, sigma(E), directs transcription of several genes under conditions of extreme heat shock. Here we examined whether AIgU, besides its role in controlling alginate production, affects the heat-shock response in P. aeruginosa. The P. aeruginosa rpoH gene encoding a homologue of the major heat-shock sigma factor, sigma32, was found to be transcribed by AIgU containing RNA polymerase from one of its promoters (P3) identified in this study. Transcription of rpoH from P3 was elevated upon exposure to extreme heat shock in an aIgU-dependent manner. Importantly, the AIgU-dependent promoter of rpoH was found to be activated in mucoid mucA mutants. In keeping with this observation, introduction of a wild-type mucA gene abrogated AIgU-dependent rpoH transcription in mucoid P. aeruginosa laboratory isolates and CF isolates. These results suggest that conversion to mucoidy and the heat-shock response are co-ordinately regulated in P. aeruginosa. The simultaneous activation of both systems in mucA mutants, selected in the lungs of CF patients, may have significance for the inflammatory processes characteristic of the establishment of chronic infection and ensuing clinical deterioration in CF.

  18. Improvement of antioxidant activities and yield of spring maize through seed priming and foliar application of plant growth regulators under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress during reproductive and grain filling phases adversely affects the growth of cereals through reduction in grain’s number and size. However, exogenous application of antioxidants, plant growth regulators and osmoprotectants may be helpful to minimize these heat induced yield losses in cereals. This two year study was conducted to evaluate the role of exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AsA, salicylic acid (SA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 applied through seed priming or foliar spray on biochemical, physiological, morphological and yield related traits, grain yield and quality of late spring sown hybrid maize. The experiment was conducted in the spring season of 2007 and 2008. We observed that application of AsA, SA and H2O2 applied through seed priming or foliar spray improved the physiological, biochemical, morphological and yield related traits, grain yield and grain quality of late spring sown maize in both years. In both years, we observed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD activity in the plants where AsA, SA and H2O2were applied through seed priming or foliar spray than control. Membrane stability index (MSI, relative water contents (RWC, chlorophyll contents, grain yield and grain oil contents were also improved by exogenous application of AsA, SA and H2O2 in both years. Seed priming of AsA, SA and H2O2was equally effective as the foliar application. In conclusion, seed priming with AsA, SA and H2O2 may be opted to lessen the heat induced yield losses in late sown spring hybrid maize. Heat tolerance induced by ASA, SA and H2O2 may be attributed to increase in antioxidant activities and MSI which maintained RWC and chlorophyll contents in maize resulting in better grain yield in heat stress conditions.

  19. To Problem of Heat Load Distribution among Boilers with Various Systems for Regulation of Draught Machinery Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that while distributing loads among boilers an account of the power consumed by draught machinery with various regulation systems shifts an optimum point of load distribution by 2–5%.

  20. Man-machine interface design of real-time hardware-in-loop simulation system for power regulation of nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Xiaoli; Huang Xiaojin; Dong Zhe

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to set up real-time hardware-in-loop simulation system for power regulation of nuclear heating reactor (NHR) because it is used in the load following instance such as seawater desalination and energy source. As the experiment data are so large that it is hard to be real-time all in one computer and to save and show the data.With the distributed configuration, the system was set up having a legible and intuitionist man-machine interface, speeding the model calculation computer and meeting the requirements of power regulation of NHR. Screen clear and concise, easy command input and results output make the system easier to verify. (authors)

  1. Heat shock protein 70 negatively regulates the heat-shock-induced suppression of the IκB/NF-κB cascade by facilitating IκB kinase renaturation and blocking its further denaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Choon-Taek; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-Soo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2005-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) treatment has been previously shown to suppress the IκB/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) cascade by denaturing, and thus inactivating IκB kinase (IKK). HS is characterized by the induction of a group of heat shock proteins (HSPs). However, their role in the HS-induced suppression of the IκB/NF-κB cascade is unclear. Adenovirus-mediated HSP70 overexpression was found not to suppress the TNF-α-induced activation of the IκB/NF-κB pathway, thus suggesting that HSP70 is unlikely to suppress this pathway. When TNF-α-induced activation of the IκB/NF-κB pathway was regained 24 h after HS, HSP70 was found to be highly up-regulated. Moreover, blocking HSP70 induction delayed TNF-α-induced IκBα degradation and the resolubilization of IKK. In addition, HSP70 associated physically with IKK, suggesting that HSP70 is involved in the recovery process via molecular chaperone effect. Adenovirus-mediated HSP70 overexpression prior to HS blocked the IκBα stabilizing effect of HS by suppressing IKK insolubilization. Moreover, the up-regulation of endogenous HSP70 by preheating, suppressed this subsequent HS-induced IKK insolubilization, and this effect was abrogated by blocking HSP70 induction. These findings indicate that HSP70 accumulates during HS and negatively regulates the HS-induced suppression of the IκB/NF-κB cascade by facilitating the renaturation of IKK and blocking its further denaturation

  2. Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer and is up-regulated upon heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Christina; Stoeltzing, Oliver; Lang, Sven A; Moser, Christian; Mori, Akira; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Hellerbrand, Claus; Dietmeier, Wolfgang; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K

    2010-01-01

    Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. However, its exact role in cancer is discussed controversially because both tumor suppressive and oncogenic effects have been described. Here we followed-up on our previous observation that inhibition of Hsp90 may increase ATF3 expression and sought to determine the role of ATF3 in colon cancer. Regulation of ATF3 was determined in cancer cells using signaling inhibitors and a heat-shock protein-90 (Hsp90) antagonist. Human HCT116 cancer cells were stably transfected with an ATF3-shRNA or a luciferase-shRNA expression plasmid and alterations in cell motility were assessed in migration assays. The impact of ATF3 down-regulation on cancer growth and metastasis were investigated in a subcutaneous tumor model, a model of hepatic tumor growth and in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Human colon cancer tissues were analyzed for ATF3 expression. The results show that therapeutic Hsp90 inhibition substantially up-regulates the expression of ATF3 in various cancer cells, including colon, gastric and pancreatic cancer. This effect was evident both in vitro and in vivo. RNAi mediated knock-down of ATF3 in HCT116 colon cancer cells significantly increased cancer cell migration in vitro. Moreover, in xenogenic mouse models, ATF3 knock-down promoted subcutaneous tumor growth and hepatic metastasis, as well as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Importantly, ATF3 expression was lower in human colon cancer specimens, as compared to corresponding normal surrounding tissues, suggesting that ATF3 may represent a down-regulated tumor suppressor in colon cancer. In conclusion, ATF3 down-regulation in colon cancer promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Considering that blocking Hsp90 induces ATF3 expression, Hsp90 inhibition may represent a valid strategy to treat metastatic colon cancer by up-regulating this anti-metastatic transcription factor

  3. 75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    .... 1. Consensus Agreement On January 26, 2010, the Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration... subsections. B. History of the Standards Rulemaking for Residential Furnaces 1. Background Energy conservation... recommending minimum energy conservation standards for residential central air conditioners, heat pumps, and...

  4. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  5. Characterization of novel heat-responsive transcription factor (TaHSFA6e) gene involved in regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) - A key member of heat stress-tolerance network of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Goswami, Suneha; Singh, Khushboo; Dubey, Kavita; Rai, Gyanendra K; Singh, Bhupinder; Singh, Shivdhar; Grover, Monendra; Mishra, Dwijesh; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bakshi, Suman; Rai, Anil; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Praveen, Shelly

    2018-08-10

    Heat stress has an adverse effect on the quality and quantity of agriculturally important crops, especially wheat. The tolerance mechanism has not been explored much in wheat and very few genes/ TFs responsive to heat stress is available on public domain. Here, we identified, cloned and characterized a putative TaHSFA6e TF gene of 1.3 kb from wheat cv. HD2985. We observed an ORF of 368 aa with Hsf DNA binding signature domain in the amino acid sequence. Single copy number of TaHSFA6e was observed integrated in the genome of wheat. Expression analysis of TaHSFA6e under differential HS showed maximum transcripts in wheat cv. Halna (thermotolerant) in response to 38 °C for 2 h during pollination and grain-filling stages, as compared to PBW343, HD2329 and HD2985. Putative target genes of TaHSFA6e (HSP17, HSP70 and HSP90) showed upregulation in response to differential HS (30 & 38 °C, 2 h) during pollination and grain-filling stages. Small HSP17 was observed most triggered in Halna under HS. We observed increase in the catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and decrease in the lipid peroxidation in thermotolerant cvs. (Halna, HD2985), as compared to thermosusceptible (PBW343, HD2329) under differential HS. Multiple stresses (heat - 38 °C, 2 h, and drought - 100 mL of 20% polyethylene Glycol 6000) during seedling stage of wheat showed positive correlation between the expression of TaHSFA6e, putative targets (HSP70, HSP90, HSP17) and TAC. Halna (thermotolerant) performed better, as compared to other contrasting cvs. TaHSFA6e TF can be used as promising candidate gene for manipulating the heat stress-tolerance network. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  7. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  8. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  9. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  10. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  11. Comparative study of ageing, heat treatment and accelerated carbonation for stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in view of reducing regulated heavy metal/metalloid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rafael M; Mertens, Gilles; Salman, Muhammad; Cizer, Özlem; Van Gerven, Tom

    2013-10-15

    This study compared the performance of four different approaches for stabilization of regulated heavy metal and metalloid leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA): (i) short term (three months) heap ageing, (ii) heat treatment, (iii) accelerated moist carbonation, and (iv) accelerated pressurized slurry carbonation. Two distinct types of MSWI-BA were tested in this study: one originating from a moving-grate furnace incineration operation treating exclusively household refuse (sample B), and another originating from a fluid-bed furnace incineration operation that treats a mixture of household and light industrial wastes (sample F). The most abundant elements in the ashes were Si (20-27 wt.%) and Ca (16-19 wt.%), followed by significant quantities of Fe, Al, Na, S, K, Mg, Ti, and Cl. The main crystalline substances present in the fresh ashes were Quartz, Calcite, Apatite, Anhydrite and Gehlenite, while the amorphous fraction ranged from 56 to 73 wt.%. The leaching values of all samples were compared to the Flemish (NEN 7343) and the Walloon (DIN 38414) regulations from Belgium. Batch leaching of the fresh ashes at natural pH showed that seven elements exceeded at least one regulatory limit (Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn), and that both ashes had excess basicity (pH > 12). Accelerated carbonation achieved significant reduction in ash basicity (9.3-9.9); lower than ageing (10.5-12.2) and heat treatment (11.1-12.1). For sample B, there was little distinction between the leaching results of ageing and accelerated carbonation with respect to regulatory limits; however carbonation achieved comparatively lower leaching levels. Heat treatment was especially detrimental to the leaching of Cr. For sample F, ageing was ineffective and heat treatment had marginally better results, while accelerated carbonation delivered the most effective performance, with slurry carbonation meeting all DIN limits. Slurry carbonation was deemed the most

  12. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  13. Akt/FOXO3a signaling modulates the endothelial stress response through regulation of heat shock protein 70 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Soo; Skurk, Carsten; Maatz, Henrike; Shiojima, Ichiro; Ivashchenko, Yuri; Yoon, Suk-Won; Park, Young-Bae; Walsh, Kenneth

    2005-06-01

    To identify new antiapoptotic targets of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in endothelial cells, adenovirus-mediated Akt1 gene transfer and oligonucleotide microarrays were used to examine Akt-regulated transcripts. DNA microarray analysis revealed that HSP70 expression underwent the greatest fold activation of 12,532 transcripts examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) transduced with constitutively active Akt1. Akt1 gene transfer increased HSP70 transcript expression by 24.8-fold as determined by quantitative PCR and promoted a dose-dependent up-regulation of HSP70 protein as determined by Western immunoblot analysis. Gene transfer of FOXO3a, a downstream target of Akt in endothelial cells, significantly suppressed both basal and stress-induced HSP70 protein expression. FOXO3a induced caspase-9-dependent apoptosis in HUVEC, and cotransduction with Ad-HSP70 rescued endothelial cells from FOXO3a-induced apoptosis under basal and stress conditions. Our results identify HSP70 as a new antiapoptotic target of Akt-FOXO3a signaling in endothelial cells that controls viability through modulation of the stress-induced intrinsic cell death pathway.

  14. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  15. A conserved mechanism of autoinhibition for the AMPK kinase domain: ATP-binding site and catalytic loop refolding as a means of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littler, Dene R.; Walker, John R.; Davis, Tara; Wybenga-Groot, Leanne E.; Finerty, Patrick J. Jr; Newman, Elena; Mackenzie, Farell; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2010-01-01

    A 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the isolated kinase domain from the α2 subunit of human AMPK, the first from a multicellular organism, is presented. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved trimeric protein complex that is responsible for energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Here, a 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the isolated kinase domain from the α2 subunit of human AMPK, the first from a multicellular organism, is presented. This human form adopts a catalytically inactive state with distorted ATP-binding and substrate-binding sites. The ATP site is affected by changes in the base of the activation loop, which has moved into an inhibited DFG-out conformation. The substrate-binding site is disturbed by changes within the AMPKα2 catalytic loop that further distort the enzyme from a catalytically active form. Similar structural rearrangements have been observed in a yeast AMPK homologue in response to the binding of its auto-inhibitory domain; restructuring of the kinase catalytic loop is therefore a conserved feature of the AMPK protein family and is likely to represent an inhibitory mechanism that is utilized during function

  16. Energy Building Regulations: The Effect of the Federal Performance Standards on Building Code Administration and the Conservation of Energy in New Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopper, William D.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the changes in the administration and enforcement of building regulations that will be engendered by the proposed federal energy building standards. Also evaluates the effectiveness of those standards in meeting congressional intent. Available from U.C. Davis Law Review, School of Law, Martin Luther King Jr. Hall, University of…

  17. Identification of the sigmaB regulon of Bacillus cereus and conservation of sigmaB-regulated genes in low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van W.; Voort, van der M.; Molenaar, D.; Moezelaar, R.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor B has an important role in the acquisition of stress resistance in many gram-positive bacteria, including the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Here, we describe the identification of the set of B-regulated genes in B. cereus by DNA microarray analysis of the

  18. Exosome uptake depends on ERK1/2-heat shock protein 27 signaling and lipid Raft-mediated endocytosis negatively regulated by caveolin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Katrin J; Christianson, Helena C; Wittrup, Anders; Bourseau-Guilmain, Erika; Lindqvist, Eva; Svensson, Lena M; Mörgelin, Matthias; Belting, Mattias

    2013-06-14

    The role of exosomes in cancer can be inferred from the observation that they transfer tumor cell derived genetic material and signaling proteins, resulting in e.g. increased tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the membrane transport mechanisms and the signaling events involved in the uptake of these virus-like particles remain ill-defined. We now report that internalization of exosomes derived from glioblastoma (GBM) cells involves nonclassical, lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. Importantly, we show that the lipid raft-associated protein caveolin-1 (CAV1), in analogy with its previously described role in virus uptake, negatively regulates the uptake of exosomes. We find that exosomes induce the phosphorylation of several downstream targets known to associate with lipid rafts as signaling and sorting platforms, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). Interestingly, exosome uptake appears dependent on unperturbed ERK1/2-HSP27 signaling, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation is under negative influence by CAV1 during internalization of exosomes. These findings significantly advance our general understanding of exosome-mediated uptake and offer potential strategies for how this pathway may be targeted through modulation of CAV1 expression and ERK1/2 signaling.

  19. Proteomic analysis of a model unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, during short-term exposure to irradiance stress reveals significant down regulation of several heat-shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahong, Bancha; Roytrakul, Suttiruk; Phaonaklop, Narumon; Wongratana, Janewit; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2012-03-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms often suffer from excessive irradiance, which cause harmful effects to the chloroplast proteins and lipids. Photoprotection and the photosystem II repair processes are the mechanisms that plants deploy to counteract the drastic effects from irradiance stress. Although the protective and repair mechanisms seemed to be similar in most plants, many species do confer different level of tolerance toward high light. Such diversity may originate from differences at the molecular level, i.e., perception of the light stress, signal transduction and expression of stress responsive genes. Comprehensive analysis of overall changes in the total pool of proteins in an organism can be performed using a proteomic approach. In this study, we employed 2-DE/LC-MS/MS-based comparative proteomic approach to analyze total proteins of the light sensitive model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in response to excessive irradiance. Results showed that among all the differentially expressed proteins, several heat-shock proteins and molecular chaperones were surprisingly down-regulated after 3-6 h of high light exposure. Discussions were made on the possible involvement of such down regulation and the light sensitive nature of this model alga.

  20. Conservation of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels and their regulation in Drosophila: A novel genetically-pliable channelopathic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpitikul, Worawan B; Viswanathan, Meera C; O'Rourke, Brian; Yue, David T; Cammarato, Anthony

    2018-04-21

    Dysregulation of L-type Ca 2+ channels (LTCCs) underlies numerous cardiac pathologies. Understanding their modulation with high fidelity relies on investigating LTCCs in their native environment with intact interacting proteins. Such studies benefit from genetic manipulation of endogenous channels in cardiomyocytes, which often proves cumbersome in mammalian models. Drosophila melanogaster, however, offers a potentially efficient alternative as it possesses a relatively simple heart, is genetically pliable, and expresses well-conserved genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed an abundance of Ca-α1D and Ca-α1T mRNA in fly myocardium, which encode subunits that specify hetero-oligomeric channels homologous to mammalian LTCCs and T-type Ca 2+ channels, respectively. Cardiac-specific knockdown of Ca-α1D via interfering RNA abolished cardiac contraction, suggesting Ca-α1D (i.e. A1D) represents the primary functioning Ca 2+ channel in Drosophila hearts. Moreover, we successfully isolated viable single cardiomyocytes and recorded Ca 2+ currents via patch clamping, a feat never before accomplished with the fly model. The profile of Ca 2+ currents recorded in individual cells when Ca 2+ channels were hypomorphic, absent, or under selective LTCC blockage by nifedipine, additionally confirmed the predominance of A1D current across all activation voltages. T-type current, activated at more negative voltages, was also detected. Lastly, A1D channels displayed Ca 2+ -dependent inactivation, a critical negative feedback mechanism of LTCCs, and the current through them was augmented by forskolin, an activator of the protein kinase A pathway. In sum, the Drosophila heart possesses a conserved compendium of Ca 2+ channels, suggesting that the fly may serve as a robust and effective platform for studying cardiac channelopathies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Systems-level approaches reveal conservation of trans-regulated genes in the rat and genetic determinants of blood pressure in humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langley, S. R.; Bottolo, L.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef; Zídek, Václav; Hubner, N.; Cook, S.A.; Pravenec, Michal; Aitman, T. J.; Petretto, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 4 (2013), s. 653-665 ISSN 0008-6363 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11049; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : integrative genomics * expression QTLs * time series analysis * trans-acting regulation * genome-wide association studies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.808, year: 2013

  2. Stressed-induced TMEM135 protein is part of a conserved genetic network involved in fat storage and longevity regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernat J Exil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of mitochondrial fat metabolism lead to sudden death in infants and children. Although survival is possible, the underlying molecular mechanisms which enable this outcome have not yet been clearly identified. Here we describe a conserved genetic network linking disorders of mitochondrial fat metabolism in mice to mechanisms of fat storage and survival in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans. We have previously documented a mouse model of mitochondrial very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD deficiency. We originally reported that the mice survived birth, but, upon exposure to cold and fasting stresses, these mice developed cardiac dysfunction, which greatly reduced survival. We used cDNA microarrays to outline the induction of several markers of lipid metabolism in the heart at birth in surviving mice. We hypothesized that the induction of fat metabolism genes in the heart at birth is part of a regulatory feedback circuit that plays a critical role in survival. The present study uses a dual approach employing both C57BL/6 mice and the nematode, C. elegans, to focus on TMEM135, a conserved protein which we have found to be upregulated 4.3 (±0.14-fold in VLCAD-deficient mice at birth. Our studies have demonstrated that TMEM135 is highly expressed in mitochondria and in fat-loaded tissues in the mouse. Further, when fasting and cold stresses were introduced to mice, we observed 3.25 (±0.03- and 8.2 (±0.31-fold increases in TMEM135 expression in the heart, respectively. Additionally, we found that deletion of the tmem135 orthologue in C. elegans caused a 41.8% (±2.8% reduction in fat stores, a reduction in mitochondrial action potential and decreased longevity of the worm. In stark contrast, C. elegans transgenic animals overexpressing TMEM-135 exhibited increased longevity upon exposure to cold stress. Based on these results, we propose that TMEM135 integrates biological processes involving fat metabolism and energy expenditure in

  3. Utilising heat from nuclear waste for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A heating unit utilising the decay heat from irradiated material comprises a storage envelope for the material associated with a heat exchange system, means for producing a flow of air over the heat exchange system to extract heat from the material, an exhaust duct capable of discharging the heated air to the atmosphere, and means for selectively diverting at least some of the heated air to effect the required heating. With the flow of air over the heat exchange system taking place by a natural thermosyphon process the arrangement is self regulating and inherently reliable. (author)

  4. The conserved dileucine- and tyrosine-based motifs in MLV and MPMV envelope glycoproteins are both important to regulate a common Env intracellular trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Vergès Sandra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrovirus particles emerge from the assembly of two structural protein components, Gag that is translated as a soluble protein in the cytoplasm of the host cells, and Env, a type I transmembrane protein. Because both components are translated in different intracellular compartments, elucidating the mechanisms of retrovirus assembly thus requires the study of their intracellular trafficking. Results We used a CD25 (Tac chimera-based approach to study the trafficking of Moloney murine leukemia virus and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Env proteins. We found that the cytoplasmic tails (CTs of both Env conserved two major signals that control a complex intracellular trafficking. A dileucine-based motif controls the sorting of the chimeras from the trans-Golgi network (TGN toward endosomal compartments. Env proteins then follow a retrograde transport to the TGN due to the action of a tyrosine-based motif. Mutation of either motif induces the mis-localization of the chimeric proteins and both motifs are found to mediate interactions of the viral CTs with clathrin adaptors. Conclusion This data reveals the unexpected complexity of the intracellular trafficking of retrovirus Env proteins that cycle between the TGN and endosomes. Given that Gag proteins hijack endosomal host proteins, our work suggests that the endosomal pathway may be used by retroviruses to ensure proper encountering of viral structural Gag and Env proteins in cells, an essential step of virus assembly.

  5. Self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes by a dual jet-heating active galactic nucleus feedback mechanism: methods, tests and implications for cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-03-01

    We develop a subgrid model for the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and their associated active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This model transposes previous attempts to describe BH accretion and AGN feedback with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique to the adaptive mesh refinement framework. It also furthers their development by implementing a new jet-like outflow treatment of the AGN feedback which we combine with the heating mode traditionally used in the SPH approach. Thus, our approach allows one to test the robustness of the conclusions derived from simulating the impact of self-regulated AGN feedback on galaxy formation vis-à-vis the numerical method. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates on to the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates which not only deposits energy, but also deposits mass and momentum on the grid. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient for the formation of massive galaxies as it appears to be able to efficiently prevent the accumulation of and/or expel cold gas out of haloes/galaxies and significantly suppress star formation. Our model predicts that the relationship between BHs and their host galaxy mass evolves as a function of redshift, because of the vigorous accretion

  6. Cyclic ADP-ribose and heat regulate oxytocin release via CD38 and TRPM2 in the hypothalamus during social or psychological stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhong

    2016-07-01

    C were higher than those of control mice. The TRPM2 mRNA levels and immunoreactivities increased in the subordinate group with cage-switch stress. These results showed that cADPR/CD38 and heat/TRPM2 are co-regulators of OT secretion and suggested that CD38 and TRPM2 are potential therapeutic targets for OT release in psychiatric diseases caused by social stress.

  7. WAYS TO MANAGE HEATING INERTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Biloshytskyi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research paper proposes to estimate the effect of heat inertia of the water heating system, in transient operation modes, on the temperature condition in the passenger car, as well as to offer technical solutions intended to reduce the heating system inertia effect and to maintain a stable temperature condition in the passenger car premises in transitional modes of the heating system. Methodology. The author developed the method for controlling the heat transfer of heating system pipes with the help of regulating casing. To control the heating system and the heat transfer of heating pipes, two types of temperature control sensors were used in the passenger car: certain sensors interacted with regulatory casings, while the others interacted with high-voltage tubular heating element control devices. To assess the efficiency of heat interchange regulation of heating pipes and the heating system control, with installed regulating casings, the operation of the heating system with regulating casings and two types of sensors was mathematically modelled. Mathematical modelling used the experimental test data. The results of experimental tests and mathematical modelling were compared. Findings. Currently in operated passenger cars, control of heating appliances is not constructively provided. Automatic maintenance of the set temperature in a passenger car is limited to switching on and off of high-voltage tubular heating elements. The use of regulating casings on heating pipes allows reducing the effects of heat inertia and maintaining stable thermal conditions in a passenger car, using the heating system as a heat accumulator, and also provides the opportunity to realize an individual control of air temperature in the compartment. Originality. For the first time, the paper studied the alternative ways of regulating the temperature condition in a passenger car. Using of the heating system as a heat accumulator. Practical value. The

  8. Conserving energy by eliminating waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N. H.

    1979-07-01

    Some ways in which energy is wasted in industry are discussed and the losses involved are quantified. Reference is made to a particular loss in annealing furnaces; wasted energy in factory and lighting systems; heat generated by motors and lighting and by such processes as welding; unlagged hot pipework and most hot processes; and poor building envelope features. It is concluded that an industry should declare its intention of conservation at the highest possible level, identify conservation as a manufacturing target, and invest the responsibility in people for whom it is a full-time activity. (MCW)

  9. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J Magnoni

    Full Text Available AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates, including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activators on glucose uptake, AMPK activity, cell surface levels of trout GLUT4 and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 as well as the expression of enzymes regulating glucose disposal and PGC1α in trout myotubes derived from a primary muscle cell culture. We show that AICAR and metformin significantly stimulated glucose uptake (1.6 and 1.3 fold, respectively and that Compound C completely abrogated the stimulatory effects of the AMPK activators on glucose uptake. The combination of insulin and AMPK activators did not result in additive nor synergistic effects on glucose uptake. Moreover, exposure of trout myotubes to AICAR and metformin resulted in an increase in AMPK activity (3.8 and 3 fold, respectively. We also provide evidence suggesting that stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators in trout myotubes may take place, at least in part, by increasing the cell surface and mRNA levels of trout GLUT4. Finally, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose disposal (hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and did not affect glycogen content or glycogen synthase mRNA levels in trout myotubes. Therefore, we provide evidence, for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting a potentially important role of AMPK in stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in the skeletal muscle of fish.

  10. Heat shock protein 90 positively regulates Chikungunya virus replication by stabilizing viral non-structural protein nsP2 during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high morbidity and socio-economic loss associated with the recent massive global outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV emphasize the need to understand the biology of the virus for developing effective antiviral therapies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, an attempt was made to understand the molecular mechanism involved in Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 mediated regulation of CHIKV infection in mammalian cells using CHIKV prototype strain (S 27 and Indian outbreak strain of 2006 (DRDE-06. Our results showed that Hsp90 is required at a very early stage of viral replication and Hsp90 inhibitor Geldanamycin (GA can abrogate new virus particle formation more effectively in the case of S 27 than that of DRDE-06. Further analysis revealed that CHIKV nsP2 protein level is specifically reduced by GA treatment as well as HSP90-siRNA transfection; however, viral RNA remains unaltered. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that nsP2 interacts with Hsp90 during infection; however this interaction is reduced in the presence of GA. In addition, our analysis on Hsp90 associated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway demonstrated that CHIKV infection stabilizes Raf1 and activates Hsp90 client protein Akt, which in turn phosphorylates mTOR. Subsequently, this phosphorylation leads to the activation of two important downstream effectors, S6K and 4EBP1, which may facilitate translation of viral as well as cellular mRNAs. Hence, the data suggests that CHIKV infection is regulated by Hsp90 associated Akt phosphorylation and DRDE-06 is more efficient than S 27 in enhancing the activation of host signaling molecules for its efficient replication and virus production. CONCLUSION: Hsp90 positively regulates Chikungunya virus replication by stabilizing CHIKV-nsP2 through its interaction during infection. The study highlights the possible molecular mechanism of GA mediated inhibition of CHIKV replication and differential effect of this drug on S 27 and DRDE-06

  11. The immune-regulating effect of Xiao'er Qixingcha in constipated mice induced by high-heat and high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chang; Yang, Guang-Hua; Zheng, Rong-Bo; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Peng, Shao-Zhong; Xie, Jian-Hui; Chen, Jian-Nan; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Su, Zi-Ren; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-03-31

    Xiao'er Qixingcha (EXQ) has been extensively applied to relieve dyspepsia and constipation in children for hundreds of years in China. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying its efficacy remained to be defined. The present study aimed to clarify the possible laxative and immune-regulating effects of EXQ on two models of experimental constipation in mice, which mimicked the pediatric constipation caused by high-heat and high-protein diet (HHPD). The two models of constipated mice were induced by HHPD or HHPD + atropine respectively. To investigate the laxative and immune-regulating activities of EXQ, animals were treated with three doses of EXQ (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/kg) for 7 consecutive days. The fecal output parameters (number and weight), weight of intestinal content and, the thymus and spleen indexes were measured. The levels of sIgA, IL-10, TNF-α and LPS in colon and serum were determined by ELISA. Furthermore, the pathological changes of colon tissue were examined after routine H&E staining. Both HHPD and HHPD + atropine treatments obviously inhibited the fecal output and reduced the colonic sIgA, prominently increased the levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in colonic tissue and elevated the contents of LPS in serum and colonic tissues. In contrast, oral administration of EXQ significantly improved the feces characters and dose-dependently decreased the intestinal changes in both models. In HHPD model test, EXQ efficaciously boosted the sIgA level in a dose-dependent manner, significantly elicited decreases in TNF-α and IL-10 levels, and evidently decreased the spleen and thymus indexes. In HHPD + atropine model test, EXQ treatment reversed the pathological changes by not only dramatically decreasing the spleen index and the levels of LPS and IL-10, but also markedly elevating the thymus index. Furthermore, microscopic observation revealed that EXQ treatment maintained the integrity of colonic mucosa, and protected the colonic tissues from inflammation in the

  12. Activation of the oxidative stress regulator PpYap1 through conserved cysteine residues during methanol metabolism in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Taisuke; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris can grow on methanol as sole source of carbon and energy. The first reaction in yeast methanol metabolism, catalyzed by an abundant peroxisomal enzyme, alcohol oxidase, generates high levels of H(2)O(2), but the oxidative stress response during methanol metabolism has not been elucidated. In this study, we isolated the Yap1 homolog of P. pastoris (PpYap1) and analyzed the properties of a PpYAP1-disruption strain. The PpYap1 transcription factor is activated after exposure to various reactive agents, and therefore functions as a regulator of the redox system in P. pastoris. We have also identified PpGPX1, the unique glutathione peroxidase-encoding gene in P. pastoris whose expression is induced by PpYap1. PpGpx1, but not the ScTsa1 or SpTpx1 homolog PpTsa1, functions as a H(2)O(2) sensor and activates PpYap1. This study is the first demonstration of a yeast Yap1 family protein activated during conventional metabolism.

  13. A conserved two-component regulatory system, PidS/PidR, globally regulates pigmentation and virulence-related phenotypes of Burkholderia glumae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Hari Sharan; Barphagha, Inderjit Kaur; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-09-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a rice pathogenic bacterium that causes bacterial panicle blight. Some strains of this pathogen produce dark brown pigments when grown on casamino-acid peptone glucose (CPG) agar medium. A pigment-positive and highly virulent strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, was randomly mutagenized with mini-Tn5gus, and the resulting mini-Tn5gus derivatives showing altered pigmentation phenotypes were screened on CPG agar plates to identify the genetic elements governing the pigmentation of B. glumae. In this study, a novel two-component regulatory system (TCRS) composed of the PidS sensor histidine kinase and the PidR response regulator was identified as an essential regulatory factor for pigmentation. Notably, the PidS/PidR TCRS was also required for the elicitation of the hypersensitive response on tobacco leaves, indicating the dependence of the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) type III secretion system of B. glumae on this regulatory factor. In addition, B. glumae mutants defective in the PidS/PidR TCRS showed less production of the phytotoxin, toxoflavin, and less virulence on rice panicles and onion bulbs relative to the parental strain, 411gr-6. The presence of highly homologous PidS and PidR orthologues in other Burkholderia species suggests that PidS/PidR-family TCRSs may exert the same or similar functions in different Burkholderia species, including both plant and animal pathogens. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  14. A novel lens epithelium gene, LEP503, is highly conserved in different vertebrate species and is developmentally regulated in postnatal rat lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y; Sachs, G; Athmann, C

    2000-02-01

    The development of the lens is dependent on the proliferation of lens epithelial cells and their differentiation into fiber cells near the lens bow/equator. Identification of genes specifically expressed in the lens epithelial cells and their functions may provide insight into molecular events that regulate the processes of lens epithelial cell differentiation. In this study, a novel lens epithelium gene product, LEP503, identified from rat by a subtractive cDNA cloning strategy was investigated in the genome organization, mRNA expression and protein localization. The genomic sequences for LEP503 isolated from rat, mouse and human span 1754 bp, 1694 bp and 1895 bp regions encompassing the 5'-flanking region, two exons, one intron and 3'-flanking region. All exon-intron junction sequences conform to the GT/AG rule. Both mouse and human LEP503 genes show very high identity (93% for mouse and 79% for human) to rat LEP503 gene in the exon 1 that contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 61 amino acid residues with a leucine-rich domain. The deduced protein sequences also show high identity (91% between mouse and rat and 77% between human and rat). Western blot shows that LEP503 is present as a specific approximately 6.9 kDa band in the water-insoluble-urea-soluble fraction of lens cortex where lens epithelium is included. Immuno-staining shows that LEP503 is localized in the epithelial cells along the entire anterior surface of rat lens. Developmentally, LEP503 is expressed at a low level at newborn, and then the expression level increases by about ten-fold around postnatal day 14 and remains at this high level for about 25 days before it drops back to the low level by postnatal day 84. These data suggest that the LEP503 may be an important lens epithelial cell gene involving the processes of epithelial cell differentiation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Evidence on How a Conserved Glycine in the Hinge Region of HapR Regulates Its DNA Binding Ability: LESSONS FROM A NATURAL VARIANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Dongre; N Singh; C Dureja; N Peddada; A Solanki; F Ashish; S Raychaudhuri

    2011-12-31

    HapR has been recognized as a quorum-sensing master regulator in Vibrio cholerae. Because it controls a plethora of disparate cellular events, the absence of a functional HapR affects the physiology of V. cholerae to a great extent. In the current study, we pursued an understanding of an observation of a natural protease-deficient non-O1, non-O139 variant V. cholerae strain V2. Intriguingly, a nonfunctional HapR (henceforth designated as HapRV2) harboring a substitution of glycine to aspartate at position 39 of the N-terminal hinge region has been identified. An in vitro gel shift assay clearly suggested the inability of HapRV2 to interact with various cognate promoters. Reinstatement of glycine at position 39 restores DNA binding ability of HapRV2 (HapRV2G), thereby rescuing the protease-negative phenotype of this strain. The elution profile of HapRV2 and HapRV2G proteins in size-exclusion chromatography and their circular dichroism spectra did not reflect any significant differences to explain the functional discrepancies between the two proteins. To gain insight into the structure-function relationship of these two proteins, we acquired small/wide angle x-ray scattering data from samples of the native and G39D mutant. Although Guinier analysis and indirect Fourier transformation of scattering indicated only a slight difference in the shape parameters, structure reconstruction using dummy amino acids concluded that although HapR adopts a 'Y' shape similar to its crystal structure, the G39D mutation in hinge drastically altered the DNA binding domains by bringing them in close proximity. This altered spatial orientation of the helix-turn-helix domains in this natural variant provides the first structural evidence on the functional role of the hinge region in quorum sensing-related DNA-binding regulatory proteins of Vibrio spp.

  16. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EE-2006-BT-STD-0129] RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on page 20112 in the issue of Friday...

  17. Prinsip Umum Penatalaksanaan Cedera Olahraga Heat Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Ade Tobing, Saharun Iso

    2016-01-01

    Exercises that are conducted in an extreme heat environment can cause heat injury. Heatinjury is associated with disturbance to temperature regulation and cardiovascular systems. Heatstroke is the most severe type of heat injury. Heat stroke is associated with high morbidity andmortality numbers, particularly if therapy treatment is delayed. In general, heat stroke is caused bytwo things, namely increase in heat production and decrease in heat loss.Heat stroke signs include: (1) rectal temper...

  18. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  19. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Heat shock factors HsfB1 and HsfB2b are involved in the regulation of Pdf1.2 expression and pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Busch, Wolfgang; Birke, Hannah; Kemmerling, Birgit; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Schöffl, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfB1/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdf1.2a/b in mutant plants. The Pdf expression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdf1.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdf genes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses.

  1. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Climate Regulation of Rearing-Related Buildings - Evaluating the Factors Related to the Energy Requirement of Heating/Cooling, and Analysis of Alternative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Laszló

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The most notable role in the energy usage of rearing-related buildings belongs to barn climate. For animals, one of the most important climate parameter is the temperature of the barn atmosphere. This can be kept in the proper interval by either heating or cooling. Apart from the operation of technological solutions, the need for airing barns must be taken into consideration. This means there are special technical requirements for airing. Also, they can cause significant energy losses. The temperature limit of heating is mainly influenced by the technological temperature related to keeping the animal in question, its acceptable differences, the heat loss of the barn, and the airing requirement. Energy sources applicable to heating can be traditional sources (coal, oil, gas, renewable sources (solar, biomass, wind, water, or geothermal energy, or transformed energy (electricity. As these have specific operation systems, they also mean further challenges in implementing efficient energy usage. The usage of heating energy can either be optimised by the rational usage of the heating system, or machinery explicitly made for reserving energy. Sparing heating energy via recuperative heating exchange may cut costs significantly, which we also proved in this research with actual calculations. However, we have to state that the efficient usage of heat exchangers requires that the internal and external temperatures differ greatly, which has a huge impact on heat recovery performance.

  3. Salivary protein histatin 3 regulates cell proliferation by enhancing p27{sup Kip1} and heat shock cognate protein 70 ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yimamura@po.mdu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan); Wang, Pao-Li [Department of Bacteriology, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Masuno, Kazuya [Department of Dental Education Innovation, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Sogawa, Norio [Department of Pharmacology, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Histatins are salivary proteins with antimicrobial activities. We previously reported that histatin 3 binds to heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), which is constitutively expressed, and induces DNA synthesis stimulation and promotes human gingival fibroblast (HGF) survival. However, the underlying mechanisms of histatin 3 remain largely unknown. Here, we found that the KRHH sequence of histatin 3 at the amino acid positions 5–8 was essential for enhancing p27{sup Kip1} (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) binding to HSC70 that occurred in a dose-dependent manner; histatin 3 enhanced the binding between p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70 during the G{sub 1}/S transition of HGFs as opposed to histatin 3-M(5–8) (substitution of KRHH for EEDD in histatin 3). Histatin 3, but not histatin 3-M(5–8), stimulated DNA synthesis and promoted HGF survival. Histatin 3 dose-dependently enhanced both p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70 ubiquitination, whereas histatin 3-M(5–8) did not. These findings provide further evidence that histatin 3 may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, particularly during G{sub 1}/S transition, via the ubiquitin–proteasome system of p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70. - Highlights: • KRHH amino acid sequence was required in histatin 3 to bind HSC70. • Histatin 3 enhanced HSC70 binding to p27{sup Kip1} during the G{sub 1}/S transition in HGFs. • KRHH sequence stimulated DNA synthesis and promoted cell survival. • Histatin 3 dose-dependently enhanced both p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70 ubiquitination. • Histatin 3 stimulates cell proliferation via the ubiquitin–proteasome system.

  4. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  5. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  6. Making Heat Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation. PMID:26635418

  7. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  8. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  9. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  10. Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity: Level II, Unit 9, Lesson 1; Force, Mass, and Distance: Lesson 2; Types of Motion and Rest: Lesson 3; Electricity and Magnetism: Lesson 4; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields: Lesson 5; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy: Lesson 6; Simple Machines and Work: Lesson 7; Gas Laws: Lesson 8; Principles of Heat Engines: Lesson 9; Sound and Sound Waves: Lesson 10; Light Waves and Particles: Lesson 11; Program. A High.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity; Force, Mass, and Distance; Types of Motion and Rest; Electricity and Magnetism; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy; Simple Machines and Work; Gas Laws; Principles of Heat Engines;…

  11. Twin cities institutional issues study cogenerated hot water district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, R. E.; Leas, R.; Kolb, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Community district heating, utilizing hot water produced through electrical/thermal cogeneration, is seen as an integral part of Minnesota's Energy Policy and Conservation Plan. Several studies have been conducted which consider the technical and institutional issues affecting implementation of cogenerated district heating in the Minneapolis and St. Paul Metropolitan Area. The state of the technical art of cogenerated hot water district heating is assumed to be transferable from European experience. Institutional questions relating to such factors as the form of ownership, financing, operation, regulation, and product marketability cannot be transferred from the European experience, and have been the subject of an extensive investigation. The form and function of the Institutional Issues Study, and some of the preliminary conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study are discussed.

  12. Renewable energies heat act and government grants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nast, M.

    2010-01-01

    In Germany renewable energies in the heat market are promoted by the Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWaermeG) and by government grants. Ultimately, these two instruments are not only about short-term market success, but rather about the perspectives of climate protection and resource conservation. The focus of this report is therefore on the long-term significance of the current design of government grants and EEWaermeG. We will introduce and discuss the quantitative goals and structural changes strived for as well as - on a slightly shorter time horizon - the quality assurance regulations which must accompany the steady and stable growth of renewable energies. In the process, we will elaborate in particular on heat pumps, which have recently been added to the government support programme, along with solar collectors. Some explanations regarding the structural relationships between EEWaermeG and government grants round off this contribution. (author)

  13. Profit by conserving energy in your restaurant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This manual is aimed at the Canadian restaurant sector with a view of promoting sound energy conservation practices. Monitoring is recommended to identify energy consumption and measure results of a conservation effects. These efforts can be done with respect to selection, operation, and maintenance of restaurant equipment used in food preparation, HVAC systems, refrigeration, water heating, and lighting. Overall building design and planning of new installations are also considered. 27 figs.

  14. 2-component heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1987-03-01

    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  15. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...

  16. Urban district heating using nuclear heat - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresovski, T.; Oliker, I.

    1979-01-01

    The use of heat from nuclear power plants is of great interest in connection with projected future expansions of large urban district heating systems. Oil price escalation and air pollution from increased burning of fossil fuels are substantial incentivers for the adoption of nuclear heat and power plants. The cost of the hot water piping system from the nuclear plant to the city is a major factor in determining the feasibility of using nuclear heat. To achieve reasonable costs, the heat load should be at least 1500 MW(th), transport temperatures 125-200 0 C and distances preferably 50 km or less. Heat may be extracted from the turbines of conventional power reactors. Alternatively, some special-purpose smaller reactors are under development which are specially suited to production of heat with little or no power coproduct. Many countries are conducting studies of future expansions of district heating systems to use nuclear heat. Several countries are developing technology suitable for this application. Actual experience with the use of nuclear heat for district heating is currently being gained only in the USSR, however. While district heating appears to be a desirable technology at a time of increasing fossil-fuel costs, the use of nuclear heat will require siting of nuclear plants within transmission radius of cities. The institutional barries toward use of nuclear heating will have to be overcome before the energy conservation potential of this approach can be realized on a significant scale. (author)

  17. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  18. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  19. De novo RNA sequencing transcriptome of Rhododendron obtusum identified the early heat response genes involved in the transcriptional regulation of photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linchuan Fang

    Full Text Available Rhododendron spp. is an important ornamental species that is widely cultivated for landscape worldwide. Heat stress is a major obstacle for its cultivation in south China. Previous studies on rhododendron principally focused on its physiological and biochemical processes, which are involved in a series of stress tolerance. However, molecular or genetic properties of rhododendron's response to heat stress are still poorly understood. The phenotype and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters of four rhododendron cultivars were compared under normal or heat stress conditions, and a cultivar with highest heat tolerance, "Yanzhimi" (R. obtusum was selected for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 325,429,240 high quality reads were obtained and assembled into 395,561 transcripts and 92,463 unigenes. Functional annotation showed that 38,724 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes in at least one of the proteins or nucleotide databases used in this study. These 38,724 unigenes were categorized into 51 functional groups based on Gene Ontology classification and were blasted to 24 known cluster of orthologous groups. A total of 973 identified unigenes belonged to 57 transcription factor families, including the stress-related HSF, DREB, ZNF, and NAC genes. Photosynthesis was significantly enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, and the changed expression pattern was illustrated. The key pathways and signaling components that contribute to heat tolerance in rhododendron were revealed. These results provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for heat-tolerance breeding.

  20. De novo RNA sequencing transcriptome of Rhododendron obtusum identified the early heat response genes involved in the transcriptional regulation of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jun; Dong, Yanfang; Xu, Dongyun; Mao, Jing; Zhou, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Rhododendron spp. is an important ornamental species that is widely cultivated for landscape worldwide. Heat stress is a major obstacle for its cultivation in south China. Previous studies on rhododendron principally focused on its physiological and biochemical processes, which are involved in a series of stress tolerance. However, molecular or genetic properties of rhododendron’s response to heat stress are still poorly understood. The phenotype and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters of four rhododendron cultivars were compared under normal or heat stress conditions, and a cultivar with highest heat tolerance, “Yanzhimi” (R. obtusum) was selected for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 325,429,240 high quality reads were obtained and assembled into 395,561 transcripts and 92,463 unigenes. Functional annotation showed that 38,724 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes in at least one of the proteins or nucleotide databases used in this study. These 38,724 unigenes were categorized into 51 functional groups based on Gene Ontology classification and were blasted to 24 known cluster of orthologous groups. A total of 973 identified unigenes belonged to 57 transcription factor families, including the stress-related HSF, DREB, ZNF, and NAC genes. Photosynthesis was significantly enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, and the changed expression pattern was illustrated. The key pathways and signaling components that contribute to heat tolerance in rhododendron were revealed. These results provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for heat-tolerance breeding. PMID:29059200

  1. Heat Pipes Reduce Engine-Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Increased fuel vaporization raises engine efficiency. Heat-pipe technology increased efficiency of heat transfer beyond that obtained by metallic conduction. Resulted in both improved engine operation and reduction in fuel consumption. Raw material conservation through reduced dependence on strategic materials also benefit from this type of heat-pipe technology. Applications result in improved engine performance and cleaner environment.

  2. Energy conservation according to the building codes of the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning; Energihushaallning enligt Boverkets byggregler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    To comply with international and national targets for energy use, the National Board has adopted rules setting the levels to be met in order to conserve energy in buildings. The rules for buildings are shown in Boverkets building regulations (BBR). The BBR lists comprehensive requirements in order to ensure that a building must not use more than a certain number of kilowatt hours per square meter and year. There are more detailed requirements for thermal insulation, heating, cooling and air conditioning installations, efficient use of electricity and installation of metering systems for monitoring of building energy. The latest version of the BBR came into force on February 1, 2009 and has more stringent requirements for the buildings heated by electricity or comfort cooling powered by electricity. This handbook presents comments and answers to questions about the new rules for energy conservation. It replaces our previous handbook 'Thermal calculations'

  3. An always reliable energy source. 100 years unexploited: Heat from wastewater in the pump station Mannheim Ochsenpferch; Eine stets zuverlaessige Energiequelle. 100 Jahre ungenutzt. Waerme aus Abwasser im Pumpwerk Mannheim-Ochsenpferch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Klaus W.

    2012-12-15

    Energy price increases, financial supports as well as exacerbated regulation on energy conservation increasingly makes the heat from waste water attractive and ensures a rapidly increasing number of projects. The pump station Ochsenpferch is the first reference object in Mannheim (Federal Republic of Germany). This pump station is a public station according to a standard being established in 2019 presumably.

  4. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  5. Fiscal 2000 international energy use rationalization measures project. International energy consumption efficiency improvement technology diffusion project - Green helmet project (Thailand: Report on heating furnace energy conservation seminar); 2000 nendo. Kokusai energy shiyo gorika to taisaku jigyo, Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka to gijutsu fukyu jigyo, Green helmet jigyo (Thai : kanetsuro shoenergy seminar hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The above-named seminar was held in Bangkok, Thailand, on January 30, 2001, and covered three kinds of industries of ceramics, glass, and aluminum. Approximately 200 people attended the meeting, consisting of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization)-affiliated people and 16 lecturers from Japan, and Thai participants. The seminar comprised a 'keynote address' and 'lectures on engineering' that aimed at the three industries as a whole, and 'lectures on engineering' and 'cases and activities for energy conservation' that aimed, respectively, at the three industries. Lectures were delivered on operating technologies which were already in practical use and on state-of-the-art technologies. The keynote address, entitled 'Global warming prevention and industrial furnaces,' covered the results of the 'High-performance industrial furnace field test project.' The lectures on engineering dealt with the 'instrumentation control system' and 'heat insulation technology' which were basic technologies for energy conservation and 'diagnosis technology and practice' which aimed at the enhancement of energy conservation after the start of operation. Questions and answers were earnestly exchanged. (NEDO)

  6. Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15…

  7. The Fourier law in a momentum-conserving chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardinà, C.; Kurchan, J.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a family of models for heat conduction with and without momentum conservation. They are analytically solvable in the high temperature limit and can also be efficiently simulated. In all cases the Fourier law is verified in one dimension.

  8. Life cycle study. Carbon dioxide emissions lower in electric heating than in oil heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, A.; Jaervinen, P.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    A primary objective of energy conservation is to cut carbon dioxide emissions. A comparative study on the various heating forms, based on the life cycle approach, showed that the carbon dioxide emissions resulting form heating are appreciably lower now that electric heating has become more common. The level of carbon dioxide emissions in Finland would have been millions of tonnes higher had oil heating been chosen instead of electric heating. (orig.)

  9. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  10. Development of platform to compare different wall heat transfer packages for system analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Gil; Lee, Won Woong; Lee, Jeong Ik; Shin, Sung Gil

    2016-01-01

    System thermal hydraulic (STH) analysis code is used for analyzing and evaluating the safety of a designed nuclear system. The system thermal hydraulic analysis code typically solves mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for multiple phases with sets of selected empirical constitutive equations to close the problem. Several STH codes are utilized in academia, industry and regulators, such as MARS-KS, SPACE, RELAP5, COBRA-TF, TRACE, and so on. Each system thermal hydraulic code consists of different sets of governing equations and correlations. However, the packages and sets of correlations of each code are not compared quantitatively yet. Wall heat transfer mode transition maps of SPACE and MARS-KS have a little difference for the transition from wall nucleate heat transfer mode to wall film heat transfer mode. Both codes have the same heat transfer packages and correlations in most region except for wall film heat transfer mode. Most of heat transfer coefficients calculated for the range of selected variables of SPACE are the same with those of MARS-KS. For the intervals between 500K and 540K of wall temperature, MARS-KS selects the wall film heat transfer mode and Bromley correlation but SPACE select the wall nucleate heat transfer mode and Chen correlation. This is because the transition from nucleate boiling to film boiling of MARS-KS is earlier than SPACE. More detailed analysis of the heat transfer package and flow regime package will be followed in the near future

  11. Ventilation and air heating systems. 5. rev. and enlarged ed. Lueftung und Luftheizung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihle, C. (Bundesfachschule fuer Sanitaer-, Heizungs- und Klimatechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    Higher demands on the air quality of flats, offices and assembly rooms make ventilation and air heating the subjects of increasing interest. Taking into account the ever more urgent need for energy conservation the book deals with all aspects of ventilation on the basis of the recent DIN standards, VDI sheets and regulations. It may be used as an instruction manual, professional reference book or as a guide to practice-oriented subject selection with a minimum of theoretical fundamentals. The book deals with ventilation and air heating systems, free ventilation, design fundamentals, exercised for ventilation and air heating systems, central and decentralized ventilation systems, practical examples, ducts and calculation of ducts, air distribution, fans, noise formation, noise pollution abatement and heat recovery. (BWI) With 472 figs., 91 tabs., 1 separate map.

  12. Global transcriptome analysis of the heat shock response ofshewanella oneidensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Sarah; Liu, Xueduan; Yan, Tinfeng; Wu, Liyou; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam P.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2004-04-30

    Shewanella oneidensis is an important model organism for bioremediation studies because of its diverse respiratory capabilities. However, the genetic basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying the ability of S. oneidensis to survive and adapt to various environmentally relevant stresses is poorly understood. To define this organism's molecular response to elevated growth temperatures, temporal gene expression profiles were examined in cells subjected to heat stress using whole-genome DNA microarrays for S. oneidensis MR-1. Approximately 15 percent (711) of the predicted S. oneidensis genes represented on the microarray were significantly up- or down-regulated (P < 0.05) over a 25-min period following shift to the heat shock temperature (42 C). As expected, the majority of S. oneidensis genes exhibiting homology to known chaperones and heat shock proteins (Hsps) were highly and transiently induced. In addition, a number of predicted genes encoding enzymes in glycolys is and the pentose cycle, [NiFe] dehydrogenase, serine proteases, transcriptional regulators (MerR, LysR, and TetR families), histidine kinases, and hypothetical proteins were induced in response to heat stress. Genes encoding membrane proteins were differentially expressed, suggesting that cells possibly alter their membrane composition or structure in response to variations in growth temperature. A substantial number of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins displayed down-regulated co-expression patterns in response to heat stress, as did genes encoding prophage and flagellar proteins. Finally, based on computational comparative analysis of the upstream promoter regions of S.oneidensis heat-inducible genes, a putative regulatory motif, showing high conservation to the Escherichia coli sigma 32-binding consensus sequence, was identified.

  13. Effect of crosslinking and grafting by 60Co-γ-ray irradiation on carbon black/polyethylene switching materials and fluoride resin system in self-regulating heating cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiping; Wu Yiming; Luo Yanling; Wang Jikui

    2000-01-01

    A new kind of PTC (positive temperature coefficient) conductive composite and its appliance switching, self-regulating heating cables, for organic polymer alloy filled with carbon black was studied and developed in this paper. The conductive mechanism and the dependence of resistivity on temperature of this system was shed light on, and a new view on PTC effect was set up. Power adjustion coefficient was proposed as a parameter for representing the self-regulating properties and aging life. The relationship between structure and properties was investigated by using several measurement means such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic properties, torque analysis and so on, and the experimental results were fully explained. (author)

  14. Careers in the Renewable Energy and Conservation Professions and Trades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    Many kinds of jobs can be found in the renewable energy and energy conservation industries. This pamphlet indicates that a large career potential exists within the solar and conservation professions and trades. These careers consist of individuals who design, build, or install solar heating or hot water systems, who implement energy conservation…

  15. Sensing the Heat Stress by Mammalian Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cates Jordan; Graham Garrett C; Omattage Natalie; Pavesich Elizabeth; Setliff Ian; Shaw Jack; Smith Caitlin; Lipan Ovidiu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The heat-shock response network controls the adaptation and survival of the cell against environmental stress. This network is highly conserved and is connected with many other signaling pathways. A key element of the heat-shock network is the heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF), which is transiently activated by elevated temperatures. HSF translocates to the nucleus upon elevated temperatures, forming homotrimeric complexes. The HSF homotrimers bind to the heat shock ...

  16. Heating plants. Comparison between the main available techniques that allow heating plants to respect the new regulations; Les chaudieres. Comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the main methods available today to improve the thermal and environmental performances of heating plants and burners and points out the technical and economical advantages and drawbacks of these methods. The methods are described according to the type of pollutant: SO{sub x} (fuel treatment, smokes desulfurization, in-situ desulfurizers injection, lime treatment of solid and liquid fuels), NO{sub x} (smokes recycling, low-NO{sub x} burners, air staging, over-dimensioning of combustion chambers, reduction of combustion air temperature, re-burning, denitrifier injection, combination of several methods), dusts (filters and cyclones). (J.S.)

  17. Heat pumps and heat exchangers in cow and pig houses in the Nordic countries. Utilization potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, S [Statens Jordbrugstekniske Forsoeg, Horsens, Denmark

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is made of how many heat pumps it may be possible to establish in animal buildings in the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, and Icelandic agriculture. This assessment is based on the present livestock structure. Furthermore information is given of the yearly oil conservation that theoretically can be obtained, provided heat pumps and heat exchangers are installed every where with a sufficient livestock basis. The largest energy conservation can be obtained by heat recovery in cow- and pig houses and by heat exchangers in production of piglets.

  18. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  19. The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear transport activity of triple C2H2 zinc finger proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) motifs on proteins are frequently recognized as a structure for DNA binding. Accumulated reports indicate that ZF motifs contain nuclear localization signal (NLS) to facilitate the transport of ZF proteins into nucleus. We investigated the critical factors that facilitate the nuclear transport of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. Three conserved basic residues (hot spots) were identified among the ZF sequences of triple C2H2 ZF proteins that reportedly have NLS function. Additional basic residues can be found on the α-helix of the ZFs. Using the ZF domain (ZFD) of Egr-1 as a template, various mutants were constructed and expressed in cells. The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. Mutation at any hot spot of the Egr-1 ZFs reduced the nuclear transport activity. Changes of the basic residues at the α-helical region of the second ZF (ZF2) of the Egr-1 ZFD abolished the NLS activity. However, this activity can be restored by substituting the acidic residues at the homologous positions of ZF1 or ZF3 with basic residues. The restored activity dropped again when the hot spots at ZF1 or the basic residues in the α-helix of ZF3 were mutated. The variations in nuclear transport activity are linked directly to the binding activity of the ZF proteins with importins. This study was extended to other triple C2H2 ZF proteins. SP1 and KLF families, similar to Egr-1, have charged amino acid residues at the second (α2) and the third (α3) positions of the α-helix. Replacing the amino acids at α2 and α3 with acidic residues reduced the NLS activity of the SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The reduced activity can be restored by substituting the α3 with histidine at any SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The results show again the interchangeable role of ZFs and charge residues in the α-helix in regulating the NLS activity of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. PMID:29381770

  20. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  1. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Energy conservation No.2). Achievement report on international joint study on popularization promotion of geothermal heat pump-assisted environmentally compatible heating system for Changchun City, China; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (Shoe No.2). Chinetsu heat pump ni yoru Chugoku Changchun shi kankyo tekigogata danbo system no fukyu sokushin ni kansuru kokusai kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A geothermal heat pump-assisted heating system is introduced into Changchun City and a survey is conducted to determine if the system may be popularized in this extremely cold region located in the northeastern part of China. In concrete terms, the hot water that circulates through the office building of Changchun Ground Heat Development Co., Ltd., is switched to hot water prepared by a geothermal heat pump. The test continued from December 2000 to March 2001. It is then concluded that heating by geothermal heat pumps will be fully serviceable to Changchun City. Implemented are (1) the shift from the coal fired boiler system to a geothermal heat pump system comprising 16 subterranean heat exchangers for the heating of the office building which is approximately 1000 m{sup 2} large, (2) long-term monitoring of the operating conditions, (3) measurement of subterranean heat exchanger thermal conductivity and subterranean temperature, and (4) the study of pipe shapes for improved thermal efficiency, grouting materials, and the like. (NEDO)

  2. CANDU heat sinks improvements as a follow up to Fukushima Daiichi accident ''the regulator perspective''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesmous, Noreddine; Harwood, Chris [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) recommendations related to improving the heat sink strategy as a follow up to the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (FDA). As a follow up to FDA, CNSC staff tasked the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) licensees to review the lessons learned from the FDA and re-examine the NPP safety cases. The reviews have examined the CANDU defence-in-depth strategy and considered events more severe than those that have historically been regarded as credible, and evaluated their impact on the NPPs safety. Availability of emergency equipment was shown to be crucial during the FDA and its availability could have arrested the accident progression early enough to minimize any radioactive release to the environment. As a result, licensees presented appropriate evaluations of the means to provide coolant make-up to the primary Heat Transport System (HTS), boilers, moderator, calandria vault, and irradiated fuel pools.

  3. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  4. Energy conservation in new and older buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehm, H

    1978-07-01

    For buildings, the building permits of which had been asked for after 1.9.77, new regulations according to the heat protection term are to be observed. The possibility of restricting heat losses, the simplified manifestation for restricting the transmission heat consumption and details of the new demands and the special regulation for neighbouring buildings are reported. Furthermore, the demands for restricting heat losses due to leaks and for the purpose of ventilation, as well as at buildings with low internal temperatures and buildings for sport and gathering purposes, are dealt with. The simplified heat balance calculation represents a key to the problem solution. In detail it is shown how to make a proper selection of improvement measures.

  5. Energy-conserving mechanisms as adaptation to undernutrition and water deprivation in the African Zebu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, V.A.; King, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In a study designed to simulate pastoral cattle management practices on marginal and rangelands in Kenya, the physiological adaptations for energy conservation were investigated in African Zebu cattle during a period of undernutrition and water deprivation. In experimental design, the food available to cattle was restricted to 50% of maintenance, watering reduced to every 2 d and distances walked increased from 8 to 16 km/d. Restricting food for nearly 3 months resulted in a 13-14% weight loss in cattle. A 2-day watering regime did not decrease food intake. Cattle that walked the longer distances lost slightly more weight but not significantly more. There was a significant overall reduction in water requirements. Slowing water turnover is seen as adaptive in a water-limited environment. The water turnover rate was determined using the tritiated water dilution technique. Higher solar intensities increased water turnover somewhat, as did extending walking distances. The resting metabolic rate of cattle on restricted food and water was reduced to 30% below that of well-fed and daily watered cattle. This reduction in metabolic requirements would result in conserving energy in dry seasons. Cattle became more thermolabile when offered smaller quantities of food. A heat debt was incurred at night and sweating rates were regulated at low levels during the day, resulting in heat storage. It is suggested that this is a mechanism by which energy is conserved through increasing thermogenesis to maintain body temperature within the normal range

  6. Characterization of CaHsp70-1, a Pepper Heat-Shock Protein Gene in Response to Heat Stress and Some Regulation Exogenous Substances in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Lu, Jin-Ping; Chai, Lin; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is sensitive to heat stress (HS). Heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70s) play a crucial role in protecting plant cells against HS and control varies characters in different plants. However, CaHsp70-1 gene was not well characterized in pepper. In this study, CaHsp70-1 was cloned from the pepper thermotolerant line R9, which encoded a protein of 652 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 71.54 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.20. CaHsp70-1 belongs to the cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, and best matched with tomato SlHsp70. CaHsp70-1 was highly induced in root, stem, leaf and flower in R9 with HS treatment (40 °C for 2 h). In both thermosensitive line B6 and thermotolerant line R9, CaHsp70-1 significantly increased after 0.5 h of HS (40 °C), and maintained in a higher level after 4 h HS. The expression of CaHsp70-1 induced by CaCl2, H2O2 and putrescine (Put) under HS were difference between B6 and R9 lines. The different expression patterns may be related to the differences in promoters of CaHsp70-1 from the two lines. These results suggest that CaHsp70-1 as a member of cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, may be involved in HS defense response via a signal transduction pathway contained Ca2+, H2O2 and Put. PMID:25356507

  7. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  8. Energy conservation in refrigerating machines by combining of thermo-static expansion valve and interior heat transfer material; Energieeinsparung in Kaelteanlagen durch Kombination von thermostatischem Expansionsventil und innerem Waermeuebertrager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambovtsev, Alexander

    2007-12-15

    The invention of the refrigerating machine enables to generate cold energy in any needed amount and at any desired temperature. However, cold energy generation requires driving energy. The target of this dissertation is to reduce the energy consumption of refrigerating plants considerably by means of an intelligent combination of the thermo-static expansion valve and the interior heat transfer medium. This combination should not deteriorate the reliability nor incur additional costs. Until today the two known components thermo-static expansion valve and interior heat transfer medium are considered as incompatible, because the simple connection of both components leads to an unstable control behaviour. After a detailed analysis of the causes for this instability the hypothesis is made, a stable working area can be found by means of a deliberate ''deterioration'' of the internal heat transfer medium. This ''deterioration'' can be e.g. a bypass of a part of the high-pressure flow or a parallel flow arrangement of the flows in the heat transfer medium. This hypothesis was primarily proved by experiments, but also by simulation calculations. A test stand was set-up for this purpose, which was used to test various configurations and control strategies. A considerable reduction of the energy consumption compared to conventional arrangements was achieved. (orig.) [German] Die Erfindung der Kaeltemaschine macht es moeglich, dass heute zu beliebiger Zeit Kaelte in benoetigter Menge und gewuenschter Temperatur erzeugt werden kann. Aber fuer die Kaelteerzeugung braucht man Antriebsenergie. Das Ziel dieser Doktorarbeit besteht darin, mit einer intelligenten Kombination von thermostatischem Expansionsventil (TEV) und innerem Waermeuebertrager (IWUe) den Energieverbrauch von Kaelteanlagen deutlich zu verringern, ohne dass dies zu einer Verschlechterung der Zuverlaessigkeit oder wesentlichen Mehrkosten fuehrt. Bis heute gelten die beiden

  9. Refrigeration waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    UK Super A Stores was built in 1972 and is part of a small indoor shopping complex linked together by a heated mall. The store has a public floor area of approximately 1,232 m{sup 2} (13,261 ft.{sup 2}) and sells the usual variety of food produce including a large selection of frozen foods. There are five lengths of refrigerated display cabinets with a total area of approximately 78 m{sup 2}. There are also some frozen food storage rooms at the back of the store. This report provides a description of a waste heat recovery system within a medium sized food store. It details how the waste heat that is produced by the conventional frozen food display cabinets, can be reused by the store's space heating system. Recommended uses for this waste heat include: diverting to the loading bays which would make the reheat coil unnecessary, diverting to the front of the shop, and heating the adjacent shopping mall. The CREDA (Conservation and Renewable Energy Demonstration Assistance) program contributed $17,444 towards the total project cost of $30,444. The project was initiated by the store owner, who is now realizing a lower annual fuel consumption, with the resulting financial savings. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The conflicts and the compromises between light, heat and energy conservation in schools under trees shadowing; Os conflitos e os compromissos entre luz, calor e conservacao de energia no ambiente construido escolar sujeito ao sombreamento arboreo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrobon, Claudio E. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: carmen@cybertelecom.com.br; Lamberts, Roberto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: lamberts@ecv.ufsc.br; Pereira, Fernando O.R. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: feco@arq.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the diagnosis, the definition and the quantification about the trees shadowing conflicts and compromises in classrooms located in Maringa-PR, by a exploratory research. It is made by using General Systems Theory and 'in loco' measurements of thermal and luminous parameters, trees computer hemispherical imaging treatment with equipment and methodology develop to this aim. It was made too, computer parametric simulation, using the TRY - Test Reference Year - a climatic data file with 52 640 data hour by hour and 8 162 computer parametric simulations with the software Visual DOE 2.6 with the aim to identify the more sensitive parameters, as well: artificial lightning retrofit, trees distance to the building, WWR - Window to Wall Ratio, and the external walls and ceilings thermal inertia and isolation. The results indicate the need of windows functions specialization. The electric energy conservation is about 14% to 57%, simulated in annual basis. (author)

  11. Energy conservation for houses and its calculation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S H

    1981-04-01

    The concept of energy conservation of houses has been developed and began to be applied widely since the first oil crisis. Now we can say definitely that insulating a house is the most effective way of saving energy, and the renewable energy sources are useful only when the demand for space heating and hot water is minimized by insulating. If a house is well insulated, it will need a much smaller, simpler and cheaper heating system. So it will be less efficient to put a solar collector and wind generator on a poorly insulated house. Architects and engineers should have a certain level of practical knowledge of insulation for house to persuade customers using insulating materials and structure. Moreover, it is very essential to amend the existing building codes in order to facilitate this basic necessity. For instance, the Building Regulations of Denmark requires a U-value of 0.4 W/m/sup 2/ degC for heavy weight external wall. If the cavity wall has outer and inner leaf of just normal brick with internal finish of 20 mm cement mortar, which is a typical wall construction for houses in Korea, the thickness of insulation materials to the cavity can be calculated in order to fullfil the U-value of 0.4 W/m/sup 2/ degC in addition to the cavity of the external heavy wall: expanded polyurethane 58 mm, urea formaldehyde foam 67 mm, expanded polystyrene 78 mm, mineral wool 94 mm. The economic feasibility of solar heating system has been calculated. By applying 25% of the year inflation ratio for fuel cost, the result turns out economically comparable with solar heating systems.

  12. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  13. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  14. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  15. Italian energy conservation laws: Implementation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Italian energy conservation Law No. 9 was designed to reduce Italy's worrisome 82% dependency on foreign energy supplies by encouraging the development and use of renewable energy sources, fuel diversification and auto-production/cogeneration by private industry. Law No. 10 was intended to promote energy conservation initiatives especially with regard to the efficient use of energy for space heating in public buildings. Both of these legal incentives have encountered great difficulties in implementation due to the inability of the Government to provide the necessary timely and sufficient start-up funds, as well as, due to the excessive bureaucratism that was built into the administrative procedures

  16. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program: Bibliography, 1988 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H. (comp.)

    1988-04-01

    The 831 references covering the period 1980 through Feb. 1988, are arranged under the following: analysis and evaluation, building equipment, building thermal envelope systems and materials, community systems and cogeneration, residential conservation service, retrofit, advanced heat engine ceramics, alternative fuels, microemulsion fuels, industrial chemical heat pumps, materials for waste heat utilization, energy conversion and utilization materials, tribology, emergency energy conservation,inventions, electric energy systems, thermal storage, biofuels production, biotechnology, solar technology, geothermal, and continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations. An author index is included.

  17. Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  18. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  19. Thermal construction unit activation with supply air gains significance. Ceilings cooling - supply air heating - more than 50 % energy conservation; Thermische Bauteilaktivierung mit Zuluft gewinnt an Bedeutung. Decke kuehlen - Zuluft erwaermen - mehr als 50% Energie einsparen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2009-05-15

    In the year 2001, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the first office building was established which uses a thermal construction unit activation with air as cooling agent. Today, the system ''Concret-cool'' already is installed in more than 40 buildings. Computations show that due to the room heating by means of internally finned ventilation pipes embedded in concrete more than 50 % less energy in comparison to comparable systems can be used. In his Green Building project ''Skyline Tower'' in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), also star architect Helmut Jahn uses the know-how of the manufacturer of ventilation systems from Stuttgart. As one of the first multi-storied buildings in Munich, ''Skyline Tower'' with its 23 floors was prized with the pre-certificate of the German quality seal ''sustainable building ''in gold.

  20. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  1. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  2. Regulation of heating and air-conditioning systems based on human thermal sensation: impact on the energy consumption in buildings; Regulation des systemes de chauffage et de climatisation basee sur la sensation thermique humaine: impact sur la consommation d'energie dans les batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endravadan, M.

    2006-02-15

    This study is based on the adaptive approach. The thermal comfort of an individual depends on indoor conditions that can be controlled. However, changes in activity or clothing adjustments are difficult to control and measure in the field experiments. Behavioural actions undertaken by the occupant to overcome the discomfort could be varying and may have diverse consequences. Sometimes these actions are beneficial to the occupant, although often they lead to disastrous amounts of energy consumption. Hence, it becomes crucial to consider the human behaviour and the thermal inertia of the building. The creation of numerical models is useful to study the coupling between these two components and to evaluate the effects of the behaviour on comfort and the energy. The simulations were conducted using TRNSYS software. A model such as 'Global Behavioural Regulator' (GBR) was created to evaluate the effects of clothing or thermostat adjustments made by the occupant depending on his thermal sensation (PMV). The energy costs of several types of regulators have been compared in various seasons for example, winter and summer using a light and heavy weight building. The heating of a whole-building may not be necessary in temperate climates or during mid-season. However, comfortable working conditions could be assured for the occupants with the use of an individual heating system such as a 'Local Heating System' (LHS). In such a context, it becomes interesting to evaluate the occupant's behaviour in regards to local heating and its effects on comfort and energy consumption. The LHS consists of three radiant panels; therefore, it is important to evaluate the local heat exchanges with precision. Experiments conducted with the manikin were used to validate the infra-red model; whereas experiments with real subjects were studied to understand the occupant behaviour on the LHS as a function of their local thermal sensations. These analyses led to the creation

  3. Balancing of solar heating options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, W.B.; van Koppen, C.W.J.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In the field of energy conservation many options are presently competing. This study aims at providing more rational criteria for selection between these options.The options considered are; insulation of the walls, regeneration of the heat in the waste air, double glazing, attached sunspace at the

  4. The Heating Curve Adjustment Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornaat, W.; Peitsman, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    In apartment buildings with a collective heating system usually a weather compensator is used for controlling the heat delivery to the various apartments. With this weather compensator the supply water temperature to the apartments is regulated depending on the outside air temperature. With

  5. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  6. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  7. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  8. Controllability of conservative behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we first define the class of J-conservative behaviours with observable storage functions, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. We then provide two main results. The first result states that if J(-xi,xi) is nonsingular, the input cardinality of a J-conservative

  9. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  10. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Setting conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  12. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  13. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  14. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  15. Natural convection in heat-generating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, Leonid A; Kondratenko, Petr S; Strizhov, Valerii F

    2001-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of convective heat transfer from a heat-generating fluid confined to a closed volume are reviewed. Theoretical results are inferred from analytical estimates based on the relevant conservation laws and the current understanding of the convective heat-transfer processes. Four basic and one asymptotic regime of heat transfer are identified depending on the heat generation rate. Limiting heat-transfer distribution patterns are found for the lower boundary. Heat transfer in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry is analyzed. Quasi-steady-state heat transfer from a cooling-down fluid without internal heat sources is studied separately. Experimental results and theoretical predictions are compared. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  18. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential water... final rule revising energy conservation standards for residential water heaters, direct heating.... EERE-2009-BT-TP-0013] RIN 1904-AB95 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures...

  19. High intensity heat pulse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalamanchili, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of finite-difference methods for the solution of partial differential equations is common in both design and research and development because of the advance of computers. The numerical methods for the unsteady heat diffusion equation received most attention not only because of heat transfer problems but also happened to be the basis for any study of parabolic partial differential equations. It is common to test the heat equation first even the methods developed for complex nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics or convective heat transfer. It is concluded that the finite-element method is conservative in both stability and monoscillation characteristics than the finite-difference method but not as conservative as the method of weighted-residuals. Since the finite-element is unique because of Gurtin's variational principle and numerous finite-differences can be constructed, it is found that some finite-difference schemes are better than the finite-element scheme in accuracy also. Therefore, further attention is focused here on finite-difference schemes only. Various physical problems are considered in the field of heat transfer. These include: numerous problems in steady and unsteady heat conduction; heat pulse problems, such as, plasma torch; problems arising from machining operations, such as, abrasive cut-off and surface grinding. (Auth.)

  20. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  1. Annotated directory of energy conservation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    Summaries of 34 consumer energy conservation programs in Canada and the USA are listed. Areas of focus are: (1) home heating and cooling; (2) household appliances; (3) private transportation; and (4) community involvement. Each summary contains information on the program objectives, operating details, results to date, costs and benefits, and source of funding. The key contact person is identified and background literature references are given. ((MJJ)

  2. Cloning, characterization, and heat stress-induced redistribution of a protein homologous to human hsp27 in the zebrafish Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Li; Bryantsev, Anton L.; Chechenova, Maria B.; Shelden, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Hsp27 is a small heat shock protein (shsp) regulating stress tolerance and increasingly thought to play roles in tissue homeostasis and differentiation. The zebrafish Danio rerio is an important model for the study of developmental processes, but little is known regarding shsps in this animal. Here, we report the sequence, expression, regulation, and function of a zebrafish protein (zfHsp27) homologous to human Hsp27. zfHsp27 contains three conserved phosphorylatable serines and a cysteine important for regulation of apoptosis, but it lacks much of a C-terminal tail domain and shows low homology in two putative actin interacting domains that are features of mammalian Hsp27. zfHsp27 mRNA is most abundant in adult skeletal muscle and heart and is upregulated during early embryogenesis. zfHsp27 expressed in mammalian fibroblasts was phosphorylated in response to heat stress and anisomycin, and this phosphorylation was prevented by treatment with SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK. Expression of zfHsp27 and human Hsp27 in mammalian fibroblasts promoted a similar degree of tolerance to heat stress. zfHsp27 fusion proteins entered the nucleus and associated with the cytoskeleton of heat stressed cells in vitro and in zebrafish embryos. These results reveal conservation in regulation and function of mammalian and teleost Hsp27 proteins and define zebrafish as a new model for the study of Hsp27 function

  3. Industrial waste heat utilization for low temperature district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hao; Xia, Jianjun; Zhu, Kan; Su, Yingbo; Jiang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of low grade waste heat are discharged into the environment, mostly via water evaporation, during industrial processes. Putting this industrial waste heat to productive use can reduce fossil fuel usage as well as CO 2 emissions and water dissipation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a holistic approach to the integrated and efficient utilization of low-grade industrial waste heat. Recovering industrial waste heat for use in district heating (DH) can increase the efficiency of the industrial sector and the DH system, in a cost-efficient way defined by the index of investment vs. carbon reduction (ICR). Furthermore, low temperature DH network greatly benefits the recovery rate of industrial waste heat. Based on data analysis and in-situ investigations, this paper discusses the potential for the implementation of such an approach in northern China, where conventional heat sources for DH are insufficient. The universal design approach to industrial-waste-heat based DH is proposed. Through a demonstration project, this approach is introduced in detail. This study finds three advantages to this approach: (1) improvement of the thermal energy efficiency of industrial factories; (2) more cost-efficient than the traditional heating mode; and (3) CO 2 and pollutant emission reduction as well as water conservation. -- Highlights: •We review situation of industrial waste heat recovery with a global perspective. •We present a way to analyze the potential to utilize industrial waste heat for DH. •Northern China has huge potential for using low-grade industrial waste heat for DH. •A demonstration project is introduced using the universal approach we propose. •It proves huge benefits for factories, heat-supply companies and the society

  4. Integrated multiscale simulation of combined heat and power based district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peifeng; Nord, Natasa; Ertesvåg, Ivar Ståle; Ge, Zhihua; Yang, Zhiping; Yang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of power plant, district heating network and heat users in detail and integrated. • Coupled calculation and analysis of the heat and pressure losses of the district heating network. • District heating is not preferable for very low heat load due to relatively high heat loss. • Lower design supply temperatures of the district heating network give higher system efficiency. - Abstract: Many studies have been carried out separately on combined heat and power and district heating. However, little work has been done considering the heat source, the district heating network and the heat users simultaneously, especially when it comes to the heating system with large-scale combined heat and power plant. For the purpose of energy conservation, it is very important to know well the system performance of the integrated heating system from the very primary fuel input to the terminal heat users. This paper set up a model of 300 MW electric power rated air-cooled combined heat and power plant using Ebsilon software, which was validated according to the design data from the turbine manufacturer. Then, the model of heating network and heat users were developed based on the fundamental theories of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Finally the combined heat and power based district heating system was obtained and the system performances within multiscale scope of the system were analyzed using the developed Ebsilon model. Topics with regard to the heat loss, the pressure drop, the pump power consumption and the supply temperatures of the district heating network were discussed. Besides, the operational issues of the integrated system were also researched. Several useful conclusions were drawn. It was found that a lower design primary supply temperature of the district heating network would give a higher seasonal energy efficiency of the integrated system throughout the whole heating season. Moreover, it was not always right to relate low design

  5. Elevated CO2 increases R gene-dependent resistance of Medicago truncatula against the pea aphid by up-regulating a heat shock gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yucheng; Guo, Huijuan; Yuan, Erliang; Ge, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Resistance against pathogens and herbivorous insects in many plant results from the expression of resistance (R) genes. Few reports, however, have considered the effects of elevated CO 2 on R gene-based resistance in plants. The current study determined the responses of two near isogenic Medicago truncatula genotypes (Jester has an R gene and A17 does not) to the pea aphid and elevated CO 2 in open-top chambers in the field. Aphid abundance, mean relative growth rate and feeding efficiency were increased by elevated CO 2 on A17 plants but were reduced on Jester plants. According to proteomic and gene expression data, elevated CO 2 enhanced pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) but decreased the effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in aphid-infested A17 plants. For aphid-infested Jester plants, by contrast, elevated CO 2 enhanced the ETI-related heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and its co-chaperones, the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In a loss-of-function experiment, silencing of the HSP90 gene in Jester plants impaired the JA signaling pathway and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis against the aphid under ambient CO 2 , and negated the increased resistance against the aphid under elevated CO 2 . Our results suggest that increases in expression of HSP90 are responsible for the enhanced resistance against the aphid under elevated CO 2 . © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Hood River Conservation Project load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1987-11-01

    As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes were retrofit with conservation measures. Local weather information was also collected on a 15-min basis. This data base was used to evaluate the load savings attributable to HRCP. Two methods of weather normalization were used and showed close agreement. The weather-normalized diversified residential load savings on the Pacific Power and Light system and Hood River area peak days were >0.5 kW/household. The average spring, summer, and fall savings were much smaller, <0.1 kW/household. The load factor for the diversified residential load decreased following the conservation retrofit actions. 11 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Not changes in membrane fluidity but proteotoxic stress triggers heat shock protein expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütgers, Mark; Muranaka, Ligia Segatto; Schulz-Raffelt, Miriam; Thoms, Sylvia; Schurig, Juliane; Willmund, Felix; Schroda, Michael

    2017-12-01

    A conserved reaction of all organisms exposed to heat stress is an increased expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Several studies have proposed that HSP expression in heat-stressed plant cells is triggered by an increased fluidity of the plasma membrane. Among the main lines of evidence in support of this model are as follows: (a) the degree of membrane lipid saturation was higher in cells grown at elevated temperatures and correlated with a lower amplitude of HSP expression upon a temperature upshift, (b) membrane fluidizers induce HSP expression at physiological temperatures, and (c) membrane rigidifier dimethylsulfoxide dampens heat-induced HSP expression. Here, we tested whether this holds also for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that heat-induced HSP expression in cells grown at elevated temperatures was reduced because they already contained elevated levels of cytosolic HSP70A/90A that apparently act as negative regulators of heat shock factor 1. We find that membrane rigidifier dimethylsulfoxide impaired translation under heat stress conditions and that membrane fluidizer benzyl alcohol not only induced HSP expression but also caused protein aggregation. These findings support the classical model for the cytosolic unfolded protein response, according to which HSP expression is induced by the accumulation of unfolded proteins. Hence, the membrane fluidity model should be reconsidered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 77 FR 5403 - Conservation of Antarctic Animals and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 670 Conservation of Antarctic Animals and Plants AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, The National Science Foundation (NSF) is amending its regulations to reflect newly designated...

  9. 76 FR 60933 - Antarctic Conservation Act Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Antarctic Conservation Act Permit Applications AGENCY: National... Conservation Act of 1978. DATES: Interested parties are invited to submit written data, comments, or views with... Regulation for conduct of a flight from South America, over the South Pole, landing at Teniente Marsh Base...

  10. The social implications of using drones for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbrook, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, or 'drones', appear to offer a flexible, accurate and affordable solution to some of the technical challenges of nature conservation monitoring and law enforcement. However, little attention has been given to their possible social impacts. In this paper, I review the possible social impacts of using drones for conservation, including on safety, privacy, psychological wellbeing, data security and the wider understanding of conservation problems. I argue that negative social impacts are probable under some circumstances and should be of concern for conservation for two reasons: (1) because conservation should follow good ethical practice; and (2) because negative social impacts could undermine conservation effectiveness in the long term. The paper concludes with a call for empirical research to establish whether the identified social risks of drones occur in reality and how they could be mitigated, and for self-regulation of drone use by the conservation sector to ensure good ethical practice and minimise the risk of unintended consequences.

  11. A concept of passive safety pressurized water reactor system with inherent matching nature of core heat generation and heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Yoshio; Araya, Fumimasa; Iwamura, Takamichi; Okumura, Keisuke

    1995-01-01

    The reduction of manpower in operation and maintenance by simplification of the system are essential to improve the safety and the economy of future light water reactors. At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a concept of a simplified passive safety reactor system JPSR was developed for this purpose and in the concept minimization of developing work and conservation of scale-up capability in design were considered. The inherent matching nature of core heat generation and heat removal rate is introduced by the core with high reactivity coefficient for moderator density and low reactivity coefficient for fuel temperature (Doppler effect) and once-through steam generators (SGs). This nature makes the nuclear steam supply system physically-slave for the steam and energy conversion system by controlling feed water mass flow rate. The nature can be obtained by eliminating chemical shim and adopting in-vessel control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) units and a low power density core. In order to simplify the system, a large pressurizer, canned pumps, passive residual heat removal systems with air coolers as a final heat sink and passive coolant injection system are adopted and the functions of volume and boron concentration control and seal water supply are eliminated from the chemical and volume control system (CVCS). The emergency diesel generators and auxiliary component cooling system of 'safety class' for transferring heat to sea water as a final heat sink in emergency are also eliminated. All of systems are built in the containment except for the air coolers of the passive residual heat removal system. The analysis of the system revealed that the primary coolant expansion in 100% load reduction in 60 s can be mitigated in the pressurizer without actuating the pressure relief valves and the pressure in 50% load change in 30 s does not exceed the maximum allowable pressure in accidental conditions in regardless of pressure regulation. (author)

  12. Impact of local empowerment on conservation practices in a highly developed country

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Sigrid; Hausner, Vera Helene

    2017-01-01

    Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/conl.12369 Community-based conservation, where local decision makers are responsible for balancing conservation and development, is often preferred to exclusion- ary conservation that prioritizes use-limitation through strict regulation. Un- raveling the evidence for conservation impact of different governance regimes is challenging. Focusing on conservation practices before and after a reform can provide an early indication of behaviora...

  13. Daikenchuto, a Kampo medicine, regulates intestinal fibrosis associated with decreasing expression of heat shock protein 47 and collagen content in a rat colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ken; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Natsuko; Hirai, Yasuko; Mizushima, Katsura; Horie, Ryusuke; Fukumoto, Kohei; Yamada, Shinya; Harusato, Akihito; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Yoshida, Naohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Wakabayashi, Naoki; Yagi, Nobuaki; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis. Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, has been reported to ameliorate intestinal inflammation. The aims of this study were to determine time-course profiles of several parameters of fibrosis in a rat model, to confirm the HSP47-expressing cells in the colon, and finally to evaluate DKT's effects on intestinal fibrosis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 200 g using an enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). HSP47 localization was determined by immunohistochemistry. Colonic inflammation and fibrosis were assessed by macroscopic, histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. Colonic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), HSP47, and collagen type I were assessed by real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DKT was administered orally once a day from 8 to 14 d after TNBS administration. The colon was removed on the 15th day. HSP47 immunoreactivity was coexpressed with α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells located in the subepithelial space. Intracolonic administration of TNBS resulted in grossly visible ulcers. Colonic inflammation persisted for 6 weeks, and fibrosis persisted for 4 weeks after cessation of TNBS treatment. The expression levels of mRNA and proteins for TGF-β1, HSP47, and collagen I were elevated in colonic mucosa treated with TNBS. These fibrosis markers indicated that DKT treatment significantly inhibited TNBS-induced fibrosis. These findings suggest that DKT reduces intestinal fibrosis associated with decreasing expression of HSP47 and collagen content in the intestine.

  14. Vascular homeostasis regulators, Edn1 and Agpt2, are upregulated as a protective effect of heat-treated zinc yeast in irradiated murine bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Megumi; Imadome, Kaori; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Anzai, Kazunori; Ikota, Nobuo; Imai, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the in vivo radioprotection activity by Zn-containing, heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (Zn-yeast). Zn-yeast suspension was administered into C3H/He mice immediately after whole body irradiation (WBI) at 7.5 Gy. Bone marrow was extracted from the mice 6 hours after irradiation and analyzed on a microarray. Expression changes in the candidate responsive genes differentially expressed in treated mice were re-examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The bone marrow was also examined pathologically at 6 h, 3, 7, and 14 days postirradiation. Thirty-six genes, including Edn1 and Agpt2, were identified as candidate responsive genes in irradiated mouse bone marrow treated with Zn-yeast by showing a greater than three-fold change compared with control (no irradiation and no Zn-yeast) mice. The expressions of Cdkn1a, Bax, and Ccng, which are well known as radioresponsive genes, were upregulated in WBI mice and Zn-yeast treated WBI mice. Pathological examination showed the newly formed microvessels lined with endothelial cells, and small round hematopoietic cells around vessels in bone marrow matrix of mice administered with Zn-yeast after WBI, while whole-body irradiated mice developed fatty bone marrow within 2 weeks after irradiation. This study identified a possible mechanism for the postirradiation protection conferred by Zn-yeast. The protective effect of Zn-yeast against WBI is related to maintaining the bone marrow microenvironment, including targeting endothelial cells and cytokine release. (author)

  15. Prospects of engineering thermotolerance in crops through modulation of heat stress transcription factor and heat shock protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Röth, Sascha; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Cell survival under high temperature conditions involves the activation of heat stress response (HSR), which in principle is highly conserved among different organisms, but shows remarkable complexity and unique features in plant systems. The transcriptional reprogramming at higher temperatures is controlled by the activity of the heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). Hsfs allow the transcriptional activation of HSR genes, among which heat shock proteins (Hsps) are best characterized. Hsps belong to multigene families encoding for molecular chaperones involved in various processes including maintenance of protein homeostasis as a requisite for optimal development and survival under stress conditions. Hsfs form complex networks to activate downstream responses, but are concomitantly subjected to cell-type-dependent feedback regulation through factor-specific physical and functional interactions with chaperones belonging to Hsp90, Hsp70 and small Hsp families. There is increasing evidence that the originally assumed specialized function of Hsf/chaperone networks in the HSR turns out to be a complex central stress response system that is involved in the regulation of a broad variety of other stress responses and may also have substantial impact on various developmental processes. Understanding in detail the function of such regulatory networks is prerequisite for sustained improvement of thermotolerance in important agricultural crops. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nitric oxide acts as a positive regulator to induce metamorphosis of the ascidian Herdmania momus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Nobuo; Degnan, Sandie M

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation in ascidian

  17. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  18. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  19. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  1. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Feb 19, 2012 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 ... die within a short period of time (e.g., infanticide) (Erhart and. Overdorff 1998 .... been as deep or may have healed by the time of examination. Falls during ...

  2. Birds of Conservation Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of...

  3. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  4. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  5. Project for rationalization measures for international energy conservation. Model project concerning efficient consumption of energy for international energy conservation (Model project of waste heat recovery on billet reheating furnace); 1999 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado model jigyo (kozai kanetsuro hainetsu kaishu model jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of curtailing energy consumption in the steel industry, a heavy energy consuming industry in Thailand, a model project was carried out for waste heat recovery on a billet reheating furnace, with the fiscal 1999 results compiled. This model project is to install a high efficiency recuperator and the latest combustion control system in the existing furnace in a SISCO (The Siam Iron and Steel Co., Ltd.) plant in Thailand. This year, following the preceding year, the construction manual was prepared, as were the test run manual, performance verification manual, operation and maintenance manual, etc. Supervisors were also dispatched to the site, giving guidance of the installation work, test run and the demonstrative operation, on the basis of these documents. Operation for verifying performance of the equipment was implemented on November 17, 1999, with the intended results obtained. Subsequently, operation maintenance instructors were dispatched, with energy saving effect proved through the collection/analysis of operation data and monitoring, for example. Further, as the dissemination activities, pamphlets and videos were prepared, and seminars were held, among others. (NEDO)

  6. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  7. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall be...

  8. 48 CFR 536.570-11 - Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat. 536.570-11 Section... OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 536.570-11 Heat. Insert the clause at 552.236-80, Heat, in solicitations and contracts if construction, dismantling...

  9. 48 CFR 552.236-80 - Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat. 552.236-80 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.236-80 Heat. As prescribed in 536.570-11, insert the following clause: Heat (APR 1984) Unless otherwise specified or unless already...

  10. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  11. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  12. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat......Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...

  14. Solar thermal heating and cooling. A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, M.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts the literature and technical papers on the heating and cooling of buildings with solar thermal energy. Over 650 citations are arranged in the following categories: space heating and cooling systems; space heating and cooling models; building energy conservation; architectural considerations, thermal load computations; thermal load measurements, domestic hot water, solar and atmospheric radiation, swimming pools; and economics.

  15. Evolutionarily Conserved, Growth Plate Zone-Specific Regulation of the Matrilin-1 Promoter: L-Sox5/Sox6 and Nfi Factors Bound near TATA Finely Tune Activation by Sox9 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Andrea; Kénesi, Erzsébet; Rentsendorj, Otgonchimeg; Molnár, Annamária; Szénási, Tibor; Sinkó, Ildikó; Zvara, Ágnes; Thottathil Oommen, Sajit; Barta, Endre; Puskás, László G.; Lefebvre, Veronique; Kiss, Ibolya

    2011-01-01

    To help uncover the mechanisms underlying the staggered expression of cartilage-specific genes in the growth plate, we dissected the transcriptional mechanisms driving expression of the matrilin-1 gene (Matn1). We show that a unique assembly of evolutionarily conserved cis-acting elements in the Matn1 proximal promoter restricts expression to the proliferative and prehypertrophic zones of the growth plate. These elements functionally interact with distal elements and likewise are capable of restricting the domain of activity of a pancartilaginous Col2a1 enhancer. The proximal elements include a Pe1 element binding the chondrogenic L-Sox5, Sox6, and Sox9 proteins, a SI element binding Nfi proteins, and an initiator Ine element binding the Sox trio and other factors. Sox9 binding to Pe1 is indispensable for functional interaction with the distal promoter. Binding of L-Sox5/Sox6 to Ine and Nfib to SI modulates Sox9 transactivation in a protein dose-dependent manner, possibly to enhance Sox9 activity in early stages of chondrogenesis and repress it at later stages. Hence, our data suggest a novel model whereby Sox and Nfi proteins bind to conserved Matn1 proximal elements and functionally interact with each other to finely tune gene expression in specific zones of the cartilage growth plate. PMID:21173167

  16. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  17. Statistically derived conservation equations for fluid particle flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.N. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of water droplets in a heated nuclear fuel channel is of significant interest to nuclear reactor safety studies pertaining to loss-of-coolant accidents. This paper presents the derivation of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for a distribution of fluid particles (bubbles or droplets) transported by a continuous fluid medium. When coupled with the appropriate closure equations, the conservation equations can be used to model nonequilibrium, two-phase, dispersed, fluid flow behavior

  18. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  19. RAP2.4a Is Transported through the Phloem to Regulate Cold and Heat Tolerance in Papaya Tree (Carica papaya cv. Maradol: Implications for Protection Against Abiotic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa-Yañez

    Full Text Available Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10, and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2 domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily. Semiquantitative PCR experiments indicated that each CpRap2 gene is differentially expressed under stress conditions, such as extreme temperatures. Moreover, genetic transformants of tobacco plants overexpressing CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b genes show a high level of tolerance to cold and heat stress compared to non-transformed plants. Confocal microscopy analysis of tobacco transgenic plants showed that CpRAP2.4a and CpRAP2.4b proteins were mainly localized to the nuclei of cells from the leaves and roots and also in the sieve elements. Moreover, the movement of CpRap2.4a RNA in tobacco grafting was analyzed. Our results indicate that CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b RNA in the papaya tree have a functional role in the response to stress conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures via direct translation outside the parental RNA cell.

  20. Transportation energy conservation data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A. S.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Burch, D. F.; Howard, E. B.; Hull, J. F.; Madewell, D. G.; Malthouse, N. S.; Ogle, M. C.

    1976-10-01

    Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; Conservation Alternatives; Government Impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; Energy Supply, including domestic petroleum production, prices, and projections; and Transportation Demand, including population characteristics and economic determinants. A bibliography of data sources is provided at the end of each chapter. A more general bibliography glossary, and subject index are included at the end of the book.

  1. Energy conservation by technical means: the control systems matter.; Energiesparen durch technische Hilfsmittel: auf die Regelkreise kommt es an.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benecke, J. [Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI), Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The new German regulation on energy conservation in buildings (draft) offers certain flexibility for choosing the quality of the building envelope (thermal resistance and air tightness) and of the HV equipment (AC not considered) in order to balance and minimize the yearly heating-energy demand. Up to now, there was little consideration given to control systems which are able to assist the inhabitants in using heating and ventilation efficiently. The performance of such systems is being discussed. (orig.) [German] In Deutschland betraegt der Anteil der Raumheizenergie am Endenergieverbrauch rund 35%; ihr Anteil am Endenergieverbrauch der Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher betraegt rund 76%. Die Vorgaben der bisherigen Waermeschutzverordnungen und der geplanten Energieeinsparverordnung veranschaulichen das Energieeinsparpotential, das durch effizientere Energienutzung im Gebaeudebereich erschlossen werden kann. (orig.)

  2. Heat-shock proteins in stromal joint tissues: innocent bystanders or disease-initiating proteins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Stijn; Juchtmans, Nele; Elewaut, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that are highly conserved between species. In recent decades it has become clear that these proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases by (dys)regulating the immune system and by direct effects on the stromal tissues of the joint. In this review we discuss current insights into the expression pattern of HSPs in connective tissues, the direct biological role of HSPs in stromal tissues and the potential clinical applications.

  3. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  4. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  5. Competition within the energy sector and State regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.; Jess Olsen, O.

    1995-10-01

    It is presumed that energy markets will be liberalized. Questions discussed are how the Danish electricity and gas sectors are to be re-regulated in order to ensure that this goal is reached in the most satisfactory manner (cheaper energy supply under competitive conditions) and whether there will be a conflict between the goal of liberalization and the environmental goals of clean technology and energy conservation. It is suggested that a compulsory splitting up of the two regional power associations in Denmark should not be necessary. Transmission and distribution must continue to be regulated as these are natural monopolies not compatible with competition. District heating will still be a monopoly and its prices must be closely regulated to prevent soaring. The opening up of the European gas market to competition will threaten Danish energy utilities. The increasing compulsory use of natural gas in cogeneration plants to politically determined high prices is not sustainable under competitive conditions. Energy saving activities should not be affected. Energy surcharges are attractive measures on a liberalized market. The regulation of competition ought to be incorporated explicitly as a restriction in the Ministry of Energy's energy policy regulation. Energy utilities could be excluded from participation in price setting. International regulation of competition will demand a clarification of the separation of regulatory competence between the member states and the European Commission. It will also be necessary to adjust the Danish regulation of the electricity sector to the future Scandinavian system. (AB) 77 refs

  6. Investigation of possible primary energy conservation using different coupling scenarios of mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery on processes of space - and service water heating.; Untersuchung der erzielbaren Primaerenergieeinsparung bei unterschiedlichen Kopplungsvarianten mechanischer Lueftungsanlagen mit Waermerueckgewinnung an Verfahren zur Heizenergiebereitstellung und/oder Brauchwassererwaermung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle, F.; Bruckmann, O.

    2001-07-01

    The criteria for acceptance testing of ventilation systems with integrated heat recovery were specified by the Deutsches Institut fuer Bautechnik (DIBt), Berlin, for systems for heat supply to the fresh air stream (air-to-air systems). This includes requirements on the test facilities of the technical inspection services, e.g. test stand layout and measuring systems to ensure a standard accuracy. The contribution describes these requirements for the example of the test facility of the Institute of Applied Thermodynamics and Air Conditioning Engineering at Essen University. (orig.) [German] Die Pruefkriterien fuer Zulassungspruefungen von Wohnungslueftungsgeraeten mit Waermerueckgewinnung wurden, zumindest sofern es Geraete zur Waermeuebertragung an den Zuluftstrom betrifft (Luft/Luft-Technik), vom Deutschen Institut fuer Bautechnik (DIBt) in Berlin verbindlich festgelegt. Hiermit verbunden sind nicht zuletzt die Anforderungen an die Versuchsstaende der Pruefstellen zur Durchfuehrung dieser Zulassungspruefungen hinsichtlich des Aufbaus und der einzusetzenden Messtechnik, bzw. der zu erzielenden Messgenauigkeit. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt diese Anforderungen am Beispiel des Pruefstandes des Instituts fuer Angewandte Thermodynamik und Klimatechnik an der Universitaet Essen. (orig.)

  7. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...... concepts such as “poverty” and “sustainability” hide important nuances with regards to the variety of processes and subsequent effects that are triggered when tourism and conservation are being adjoined. Experiences with tourism developments show that destinations that are weak economically find it harder...... to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...

  8. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...... and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which...... explored. The study conveyed five key messages: 1. Wild mango may become extinct under future climate change scenarios so it is high time to start thinking about conservation initiatives. 2. Wild mango is a small sized mango with a large kernel in relation to other Mangifera species which provides...

  9. Resource conservation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.

    1999-01-01

    Resource conservation management is a management program similar to financial management in that its success requires commitment by all levels of the organization to the process as well as an accounting procedure and auditing of critical components. Resource conservation management provides a framework for all elements of efficient building operations and maintenance. The savings connected with the program are principally connected with changes in the way buildings are operated and maintained. Given the reduction in rebates for the installation of energy-efficient equipment, this approach has considerable promise. This paper discusses the evolution of the resource conservation management service and the savings associated with a two-year pilot effort with seven school districts, as well as the critical components of a successful program

  10. Heat planning for fossil-fuel-free district heating areas with extensive end-use heat savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, S.

    2014-01-01

    is a theoretical investigation of the district heating system in the Copenhagen area, in which heat conservation is related to the heat supply in buildings from an economic perspective. Supplying the existing building stock from low-temperature energy resources, e.g. geothermal heat, might lead to oversized......The Danish government plans to make the Danish energy system to be completely free of fossil fuels by 2050 and that by 2035 the energy supply for buildings and electricity should be entirely based on renewable energy sources. To become independent from fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce...... the energy consumption of the existing building stock, increase energy efficiency, and convert the present heat supply from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. District heating is a sustainable way of providing space heating and domestic hot water to buildings in densely populated areas. This paper...

  11. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  12. An analytical model for annular flow boiling heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, A.; Hassan, I.

    2009-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to predict flow boiling heat transfer coefficient in microchannel heat sinks. The new analytical model is proposed to predict the two-phase heat transfer coefficient during annular flow regime based on the separated model. Opposing to the majority of annular flow heat transfer models, the model is based on fundamental conservation principles. The model considers the characteristics of microchannel heat sink during annular flow and eliminates using any empirical closure relations. Comparison with limited experimental data was found to validate the usefulness of this analytical model. The model predicts the experimental data with a mean absolute error 8%. (author)

  13. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  14. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  15. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  16. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  17. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  18. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  19. The Energy Conservation Guide 98/99; ENOEK guiden 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Norwegians have the world's largest electricity consumption per capita. This booklet aims to advice house owners on efficient use of energy. The main sections discuss the concept of energy conservation in general, heating, stoves and fireplaces, central heating, insulation and sealing, windows, hot water, water saving, lighting, domestic appliances, ventilation, outdoor facilities, and finally gives some tips on investments and profitability and how to obtain expert advice. The booklet is profusely illustrated.

  20. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1... procurement and property management documents reflect the policy set forth in paragraph (b) of this section... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Energy conservation...

  1. Principles of the Energy Conservation Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes 21 principles of the draft Energy Conservation Bill. The principles lay down fundamental responsibilities of the government, the municipalities, business entities, citizens and power plants in the field of economical energy management. Included are principles to minimize energy consumption and to stimulate a reasonable energy management, the role of the energy distribution network, responsibilities of the central load dispatching center, and power plant output regulation schemes. (J.B.)

  2. 75 FR 70083 - Emergency Forest Restoration Program and Emergency Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Restoration Program and Emergency Conservation Program AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The Farm Service Agency (FSA) is amending regulations as required by the Food, Conservation, and... as follows: PART 701--EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM, EMERGENCY FOREST RESTORATION PROGRAM, AND...

  3. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  4. (ICTs) And Environmental Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICTs have a potential for improving the accessibility of environmental information, and if appropriately applied, they can empower local people to make informed decisions regarding environmental issues, thus enhancing environmental conservation. However, the challenge is on how to define particular roles that ...

  5. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  6. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  7. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  8. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Sims

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Speyeria (Nymphalidae are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants. Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.

  9. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  10. Crowdfunding biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Cajiao, E; Archibald, C; Friedman, R; Steven, R; Fuller, R A; Game, E T; Morrison, T H; Ritchie, E G

    2018-05-26

    Raising funds is critical for conserving biodiversity and hence so too is scrutinizing emerging financial mechanisms that might help achieve this goal. In this context, anecdotal evidence indicates crowdfunding is being used to support a variety of activities needed for biodiversity conservation, yet its magnitude and allocation remain largely unknown. We conducted a global analysis to help address this knowledge gap, based on empirical data from conservation-focused projects extracted from crowdfunding platforms. For each project, we determined the funds raised, date, country of implementation, proponent characteristics, activity type, biodiversity realm, and target taxa. We identified 72 relevant platforms and 577 conservation-focused projects that have raised US$4 790 634 since 2009. Whilst proponents were based in 38 countries, projects were delivered across 80 countries, indicating a potential mechanism of resource mobilization. Proponents were from non-governmental organizations (35%), universities (30%), or were freelancers (26%). Most projects were for research (40%), persuasion (31%), and on-ground actions (21%). Projects have focused primarily on species (57.7%) and terrestrial ecosystems (20.3%), and less on marine (8.8%) and freshwater ecosystems (3.6%). Projects have focused on 208 species, including a disproportionate number of threatened bird and mammal species. Crowdfunding for biodiversity conservation has now become a global phenomenon and presents signals for potential expansion, despite possible pitfalls. Opportunities arise from its spatial amplifying effect, steady increase over time, inclusion of Cinderella species, adoption by multiple actors, and funding of a range of activities beyond research. Our study paves the way for further research on key questions, such as campaign success rates, effectiveness, and drivers of adoption. Even though the capital input of crowdfunding so far has been modest compared to other conservation finance

  11. Oil and gas conservation in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereda, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Saskatchewan's Oil and Gas Conservation Act provides legislative authority for the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations, 1985. The main purposes of the Act are to maximize oil and gas recovery, to allow each owner the opportunity of obtaining his share of oil or gas and to protect the environment and prevent waste. The document under review described how this legislative intent is fulfilled through the spacing of wells, the setting of allowables, and approval of waterflood and enhanced recovery projects, while considering equitable drainage of oil and gas. Specific topics dealt with include: vertical well spacing, infill drilling, off-target drilling, horizontal well spacing, and allowables. The concepts of voluntary and statutory pooling as well as voluntary and statutory unitization were explained. Examples of waterflood and enhanced oil recovery projects were provided. The regulation relating to oil and gas conservation were first implemented in 1952 and evolved to their present form through a series of changes and amendments. The most significant changes to the regulations were made in 1991 when horizontal drilling needed to be accommodated. 1 tab

  12. Nonlinear Conservation Laws and Finite Volume Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Randall J.

    Introduction Software Notation Classification of Differential Equations Derivation of Conservation Laws The Euler Equations of Gas Dynamics Dissipative Fluxes Source Terms Radiative Transfer and Isothermal Equations Multi-dimensional Conservation Laws The Shock Tube Problem Mathematical Theory of Hyperbolic Systems Scalar Equations Linear Hyperbolic Systems Nonlinear Systems The Riemann Problem for the Euler Equations Numerical Methods in One Dimension Finite Difference Theory Finite Volume Methods Importance of Conservation Form - Incorrect Shock Speeds Numerical Flux Functions Godunov's Method Approximate Riemann Solvers High-Resolution Methods Other Approaches Boundary Conditions Source Terms and Fractional Steps Unsplit Methods Fractional Step Methods General Formulation of Fractional Step Methods Stiff Source Terms Quasi-stationary Flow and Gravity Multi-dimensional Problems Dimensional Splitting Multi-dimensional Finite Volume Methods Grids and Adaptive Refinement Computational Difficulties Low-Density Flows Discrete Shocks and Viscous Profiles Start-Up Errors Wall Heating Slow-Moving Shocks Grid Orientation Effects Grid-Aligned Shocks Magnetohydrodynamics The MHD Equations One-Dimensional MHD Solving the Riemann Problem Nonstrict Hyperbolicity Stiffness The Divergence of B Riemann Problems in Multi-dimensional MHD Staggered Grids The 8-Wave Riemann Solver Relativistic Hydrodynamics Conservation Laws in Spacetime The Continuity Equation The 4-Momentum of a Particle The Stress-Energy Tensor Finite Volume Methods Multi-dimensional Relativistic Flow Gravitation and General Relativity References

  13. Underground storage of heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.; Nougarede, F.

    1976-01-01

    The interest laying in heat storage is envisaged taking account of the new energy context, with a view to optimizing the use of production means of heat sources hardly modulated according to the demand. In such a way, a natural medium, without any constructions cost but only an access cost is to be used. So, porous and permeable rocky strata allowing the use of a pressurized water flow as a transfer fluid are well convenient. With such a choice high temperatures (200 deg C) may be obtained, that are suitable for long transmissions. A mathematical model intended for solving the conservation equations in the case of heat storage inside a confined water layer is discussed. An approach of the operating conditions of storage may involve either a line-up arrangement (with the hot drilling at the center, the cold drillings being aligned on both sides) or a radial arrangement (with cold drillings at the peripheral edge encircling the hot drilling at the center of the layer). The three principal problems encountered are: starting drilling, and the circuit insulation and control [fr

  14. Review: heat pipe heat exchangers at IROST

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2012-01-01

    The use of the heat pipe as a component in a heat recovery device has gained worldwide acceptance. Heat pipes are passive, highly reliable and offer high heat transfer rates. This study summarizes the investigation of different types of heat pipe heat recovery systems (HPHRSs). The studies are classified on the basis of the type of the HPHRS. This research is based on 30 years of experience on heat pipe and heat recovery systems that are presented in this study. Copyright , Oxford University ...

  15. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  16. Focus on energy conservation: a project list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    The Urban Land Institute (ULI) has prepared the following list of outstanding energy conserving projects for the US Department of Energy. As requested by the Department, the list includes descriptions of land developments and individual buildings suggested by members of ULI and by other sources. The projects have been selected to exemplify the major energy saving techniques in use today, with emphasis on those strategies most significant for people engaged in the business of land development. To make the list a useful reference for developers and public officials, ULI has attempted to cover energy conservation in the broadest sense from overall site planning to the functioning of individual building components. Focusing too closely on the myriad types of hardware available has been avoided and examples of the basic considerations important to energy-conscious planning and design are provided. Details on some heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are provided in order to acquaint readers with major innovations in the field.

  17. Safety provision during heating of coal downcast shafts with gas heat generators using degassed methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Р. Алабьев

    2017-06-01

    Together with heat generators of mixed type the article also describes a working principle of heat generator of indirect action type, which to the fullest extent possible meets requirements of Russian Federation legislation and regulation for application of this heat generators in coal mines conditions. The article has a principal working scheme of heat unit layout using this type of generator. It is shown that after development of corresponding normative documents regulating processes of design, construction and operation of heating units using heaters of indirect action, their application in Russian coal mines will be possible without breaking Safety standards and rules.

  18. Unwanted heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, M.

    2006-01-01

    The number of small heating plants using biomass is growing. According to TREND's information, Hrinovska energeticka, is the only one that controls the whole supplier chain in cooperation with its parent company in Bratislava. Starting with the collection and processing of wood chips by burning, heat production and heat distribution to the end user. This gives the company better control over costs and consequently its own prices. Last year, the engineering company, Hrinovske storjarne, decided to focus only on its core business and sold its heating plant, Hrinovske tepelne hospodarstvo, to Intech Slovakia and changed the company name to Hrinovska energeticka. Local companies and inhabitants were concerned that the new owner would increase prices. But the company publicly declared and kept promises that the heat price for households would remain at 500 Slovak crowns/gigajoule (13.33 EUR/gigajoule ), one of the lowest prices in Slovakia. This year the prices increased slightly to 570 Slovak crowns (15.2 EUR). 'We needed - even at the cost of lower profit - to satisfy our customers so that we would not lose them. We used this time for transition to biomass. This will allow us to freeze our prices in the coming years,' explained the statutory representative of the company, Ivan Dudak. (authors)

  19. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  20. Conference on energy-conserving, solar-heated greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.; Gillett, D. (eds.)

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-five papers were included. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirty and five were listed by title. Introductory and closing letters and the welcome and keynote addresses were not abstracted. (MHR)

  1. Evolutionary Conservation of the Components in the TOR Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Hisashi; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that controls multiple cellular processes upon various intracellular and extracellular stimuli. Since its first discovery, extensive studies have been conducted both in yeast and animal species including humans. Those studies have revealed that TOR forms two structurally and physiologically distinct protein complexes; TOR complex 1 (TORC1) is ubiquitous among eukaryotes including animals, yeast, protozoa, and plants, while TOR complex 2 (TORC2) is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species other than plants. The studies have also identified two crucial regulators of mammalian TORC1 (mTORC1), Ras homolog enriched in brain (RHEB) and RAG GTPases. Of these, RAG regulates TORC1 in yeast as well and is conserved among eukaryotes with the green algae and land plants as apparent exceptions. RHEB is present in various eukaryotes but sporadically missing in multiple taxa. RHEB, in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , appears to be extremely divergent with concomitant loss of its function as a TORC1 regulator. In this review, we summarize the evolutionarily conserved functions of the key regulatory subunits of TORC1 and TORC2, namely RAPTOR, RICTOR, and SIN1. We also delve into the evolutionary conservation of RHEB and RAG and discuss the conserved roles of these GTPases in regulating TORC1.

  2. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  4. Methods of equipment conservation of a carboelectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado Higuera, Julio Cesar

    2001-01-01

    Several conservation methods are mentioned like they are those of conservation in dry, in humid, conservation of bombs of water conservation, of turbines, of generators, of transformers, of electric motors and conservation of coal piles

  5. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  6. Monopole heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Upper bounds on the flux of monopoles incident on the Earth with velocity -5 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ) and on the flux of monopoles incident on Jupiter with velocity -3 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ), are derived. Monopoles moving this slowly lose sufficient energy to be stopped, and then catalyse nucleon decay, releasing heat. The limits are obtained by requiring the rate of energy release from nucleon decay to be less than the measured amount of heat flowing out from the surface of the planet. (U.K.)

  7. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  8. Heat Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, Latif M.

    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.

  9. Heat planning for fossil-fuel-free district heating areas with extensive end-use heat savings: A case study of the Copenhagen district heating area in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrestrup, M.; Svendsen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Danish government plans to make the Danish energy system to be completely free of fossil fuels by 2050 and that by 2035 the energy supply for buildings and electricity should be entirely based on renewable energy sources. To become independent from fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of the existing building stock, increase energy efficiency, and convert the present heat supply from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. District heating is a sustainable way of providing space heating and domestic hot water to buildings in densely populated areas. This paper is a theoretical investigation of the district heating system in the Copenhagen area, in which heat conservation is related to the heat supply in buildings from an economic perspective. Supplying the existing building stock from low-temperature energy resources, e.g. geothermal heat, might lead to oversized heating plants that are too expensive to build in comparison with the potential energy savings in buildings. Long-term strategies for the existing building stock must ensure that costs are minimized and that investments in energy savings and new heating capacity are optimized and carried out at the right time. - Highlights: • We investigate how much heating consumption needs to be reduced in a district heating area. • We examine fossil-fuel-free supply vs. energy conservations in the building stock. • It is slightly cost-beneficial to invest in energy renovation from today for a societal point of view. • It is economically beneficial for district heating companies to invest in energy renovations from today. • The cost per delivered heat unit is lower when energy renovations are carried out from today

  10. On momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    The relativistic law of momentum transformation shows that the sum of momenta of even isolated particles is not invariable in all inertial reference systems. This is connected with the relativistic change of kinetic energy and mass of a system of particles in result of internal interactions. The paper proposes a short and simple proof on the necessity of potential momentum. The momentum conservation law (for all interactions in the Minkowski world) is expressed in a generalized form. The constancy of the sum of kinetic and potential momentum of closed system of particles is shown. The energy conservation is a necessary condition. The potential momentum is defined as usual (e.g. as in the Berkeley Physics Course). (author). 13 refs

  11. Conservation laws shape dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs—we define a procedure to identify the conservative and the minimal set of nonconservative contributions in the entropy production. The former is expressed as the difference between changes caused by time-dependent drivings and a generalized potential difference. The latter is a sum over the minimal set of flux-force contributions controlling the dissipative flows across the system. When the system is initially prepared at equilibrium (e.g. by turning off drivings and forces), a finite-time detailed fluctuation theorem holds for the different contributions. Our approach relies on identifying the complete set of conserved quantities and can be viewed as the extension of the theory of generalized Gibbs ensembles to nonequilibrium situations.

  12. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  13. Electricity Market Optimization of Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a portfolio of domestic heat pumps controlled by an aggregator. The aggregator is able to adjust the consumption of the heat pumps without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the main consumption to hours with low electricity prices. Further......, the aggregator is able to place upward and downward regulating bids in the regulating power market based on the consumption flexibility. A simulation is carried out based on data from a Danish domestic heat pump project, historical spot prices, regulating power prices, and spot price predictions. The simulations...

  14. Implications Of Fuelwood Demandon Sustainable Forest Conservation Of The Sub-Sahara Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogbon Odunwole

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute immensely to economic and social development through formal trade in timber environmental services non- timber forest products safety net spiritual and aesthetic value. Wood is a key source of energy that has been used for millennia for cooking boiling water lighting and heating. Today about 2.5billion people depend on biomass energy for cooking and heating with 87 of this energy being provided by wood. In sub-Saharan African more than 90 of the population relies on wood fire that is firewood and charcoal as their primary source of domestic energy. Over 80 of urban householders and small industries use charcoal and firewood as their source of energy. Despite their numerous importance Africas forest continue to decline rapidly due to increase in agricultural practices into forest lands population growth and urbanization increased poverty high dependence on natural resources for subsistence and income through forest. The study centred on the implications of fuel wood demand on forest conservation in sub-Sahara Africa - a regional focus on Akure metropolitan area Ondo State. The specific objectives of the paper were to identify firewood consumption pattern in Akure metropolitan area and factors responsible for increased fuelwood demand in the study area. The paper adopted direct observation oral interview and 0.05 of the study area as sample size for the study. The study observed lack of adequate alternative poor implementation and enforcement of government regulation on forestry poverty and poor awareness on the menace of forest depletion among others. The paper posited provision of alternative fuel with subsidy regular awareness campaign proper monitoring implementation and enforcement of forest regulations with a view to achieving sustainable conservation.

  15. Energy conservation in French industry and at Rhone-Poulenc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongon, A.

    1979-07-01

    Thirteen examples are given to illustrate France's energy conservation program. The examples show the most efficient way of energy sources management, the application of the process optimization's method, and the use of control equipment for process and heating. The details on how energy is used rationally at Rhone-Poulenc are presented.

  16. Numerical simulation of two phase flows in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandotto Biettoli, M.

    2006-04-01

    The author gives an overview of his research activity since 1981. He first gives a detailed presentation of properties and equations of two-phase flows in heat exchangers, and of their mathematical and numerical investigation: semi-local equations (mass conservation, momentum conservation and energy conservation), homogenized conservation equations (mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation, boundary conditions), equation closures, discretization, resolution algorithm, computational aspects and applications. Then, he reports the works performed in the field of turbulent flows, hyperbolic methods, low Mach methods, the Neptune project, and parallel computing

  17. Sustainability of three modified soil conservation methods in agriculture area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, M. A.; Sara, F. H.; Christanto, N.; Sartohadi, J.; Samodra, G.; Widicahyono, A.; Ardiana, N.; Widiyati, C. N.; Astuti, E. M.; Martha, G. K.; Malik, R. F.; Sambodo, A. P.; Rokhmaningtyas, R. P.; Swastanto, G. A.; Gomez, C.

    2018-04-01

    Recent innovations in soil conservation methods do not present any breakthrough. Providing more attractive soil conservation methods from the farmer’s perspective is however still of critical importance. Contributing to this soil research gap we attempt to evaluate the sustainable use of three modified conservation methods, namely JALAPA (Jala Sabut Kelapa - geotextile made of coconut fibres), wood sediment trap, and polybag system compared to traditional tillage without conservation method. This research provides both qualitative and quantitative analysis on the performance of each conservation measures. Therefore, in addition to the total sediment yield value and investment cost – as quantitative analysis, we also evaluate qualitatively the indicator of soil loss, installation, maintenance, and the durability of conservation medium. Those criteria define the sustainability use of each conservation method. The results show that JALAPA is the most effective method for controlling soil loss, but it also requires the most expensive cost for installation. However, our finding confirms that geotextile is sensitive to sun heating by which the coconut fibre can become dry and shrink. Wood sediment trap is the cheapest and easiest to install; however it is easily damaged by termite. Polybag method results in the highest productivity, but requires more time during the first installation. In terms of the farmer’s perspective, soil conservation using polybag system was the most accepted technique due to its high benefits; even if it is less effective at reducing soil loss compared to JALAPA.

  18. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  19. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  20. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof