WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulate ecosystem processes

  1. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Robert S [UNR; Smith, Stanley D [UNLV; Evans, Dave [WSU; Ogle, Kiona [ASU; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI

    2012-12-13

    Our results from the 10-year elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration study at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) indicate that the Mojave Desert is a dynamic ecosystem with the capacity to respond quickly to environmental changes. The Mojave Desert ecosystem is accumulating carbon (C), and over the 10-year experiment, C accumulation was significantly greater under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient, despite great fluctuations in C inputs from year to year and even apparent reversals in which [CO{sub 2}] treatment had greater C accumulations.

  2. Ecosystem processes and human influences regulate streamflow response to climate change at long-term ecological research sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia A. Jones; Irena F. Creed; Kendra L. Hatcher; Robert J. Warren; Mary Beth Adams; Melinda H. Benson; Emery Boose; Warren A. Brown; John L. Campbell; Alan Covich; David W. Clow; Clifford N. Dahm; Kelly Elder; Chelcy R. Ford; Nancy B. Grimm; Donald L Henshaw; Kelli L. Larson; Evan S. Miles; Kathleen M. Miles; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Adam T. Spargo; Asa B. Stone; James M. Vose; Mark W. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of long-term records at 35 headwater basins in the United States and Canada indicate that climate change effects on streamflow are not as clear as might be expected, perhaps because of ecosystem processes and human influences. Evapotranspiration was higher than was predicted by temperature in water-surplus ecosystems and lower than was predicted in water-...

  3. [Ecological regulation services of Hainan Island ecosystem and their valuation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhao, Tongqian; Zhao, Jingzhu; Xiao, Han; Wang, Xiaoke

    2004-08-01

    Ecosystem services imply the natural environmental conditions on which human life relies for existence, and their effectiveness formed and sustained by ecosystem and its ecological processes. In newly research reports, they were divided into four groups, i. e., provisioning services, regulation services, cultural services, and supporting services. To assess and valuate ecosystem services is the foundation of regional environmental reserve and development. Taking Hainan Island as an example and based on the structure and processes of natural ecosystem, this paper discussed the proper methods for regulation services assessment. The ecosystems were classified into 13 types including valley rain forest, mountainous rain forest, tropical monsoon forest, mountainous coppice forest, mountainous evergreen forest, tropical coniferous forest, shrubs, plantation, timber forest, windbreak forest, mangrove, savanna, and cropland, and then, the regulation services and their economic values of Hainan Island ecosystem were assessed and evaluated by terms of water-holding, soil conservancy, nutrient cycle, C fixation, and windbreak function. The economic value of the regulation services of Hainan Island ecosystem was estimated as 2035.88 x 10(8)-2153.39 x 10(8) RMB yuan, 8 times higher to its provisioning services (wood and agricultural products) which were estimated as only 254.06 x 10(8) RMB yuan. The result implied that ecosystem regulation services played an even more important role in the sustainable development of society and economy in Hainan Island.

  4. Can schooling regulate marine populations and ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Schools, shoals and swarms are pervasive in the oceans. They have to provide very strong advantages to have been selected and generalized in the course of evolution. Auto-organized groups are usually assumed to provide facilitated encounters of reproduction partners, improved protection against predation, better foraging efficiency, and hydrodynamic gains. However, present theories regarding their evolutionary advantages do not provide an unambiguous explanation to their universality. In particular, the mechanisms commonly proposed to explain grouping provide little support to the formation of very large groups that are common in the sea (e.g. Rieucau et al., 2014). From literature review, data analysis and using a simple mathematical model, I show that large auto-organized groups appear at high population density while only small groups or dispersed individuals remain at low population density. Following, an analysis of tuna tagging data and simple theoretical developments show that large groups are likely to expose individuals to a dramatic decrease of individual foraging success and simultaneous increase of predatory and disease mortality, while small groups avoid those adverse feedbacks and provide maximum foraging success and protection against predation, as it is usually assumed. This would create an emergent density-dependent regulation of marine populations, preventing them from outbursts at high density, and protecting them at low density. This would be a major contribution to their resilience and a crucial process of ecosystems dynamics. A two-step evolutionary process acting at the individual level is proposed to explain how this apparently suicidal behaviour could have been selected and generalized. It explains how grouping would have permitted the emergence of extremely high fecundity life histories, despite their notorious propensity to destabilize populations. The potential implications of the ;grouping feedback; on population resilience, ecosystem

  5. Process-Based Thinking in Ecosystem Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C.; Gray, Steven A.; Brooks, Wesley R.; Honwad, Sameer; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding complex systems such as ecosystems is difficult for young K-12 students, and students' representations of ecosystems are often limited to nebulously defined relationships between macro-level structural components inherent to the ecosystem in focus (rainforest, desert, pond, etc.) instead of generalizing processes across ecosystems…

  6. Nitrogen cycling process rates across urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Alexander J; Groffman, Peter M; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J

    2016-09-21

    Nitrogen (N) pollution of freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems is widespread and has numerous environmental and economic impacts. A portion of this excess N comes from urban watersheds comprised of natural and engineered ecosystems which can alter downstream N export. Studies of urban N cycling have focused on either specific ecosystems or on watershed-scale mass balances. Comparisons of specific N transformations across ecosystems are required to contextualize rates from individual studies. Here we reviewed urban N cycling in terrestrial, aquatic, and engineered ecosystems, and compared N processing in these urban ecosystem types to native reference ecosystems. We found that net N mineralization and net nitrification rates were enhanced in urban forests and riparian zones relative to reference ecosystems. Denitrification was highly variable across urban ecosystem types, but no significant differences were found between urban and reference denitrification rates. When focusing on urban streams, ammonium uptake was more rapid than nitrate uptake in urban streams. Additionally, reduction of stormwater runoff coupled with potential decreases in N concentration suggests that green infrastructure may reduce downstream N export. Despite multiple environmental stressors in urban environments, ecosystems within urban watersheds can process and transform N at rates similar to or higher than reference ecosystems. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  8. Effects of fire on major forest ecosystem processes: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong

    2006-09-01

    Fire and fire ecology are among the best-studied topics in contemporary ecosystem ecology. The large body of existing literature on fire and fire ecology indicates an urgent need to synthesize the information on the pattern of fire effects on ecosystem composition, structure, and functions for application in fire and ecosystem management. Understanding fire effects and underlying principles are critical to reduce the risk of uncharacteristic wildfires and for proper use of fire as an effective management tool toward management goals. This overview is a synthesis of current knowledge on major effects of fire on fire-prone ecosystems, particularly those in the boreal and temperate regions of the North America. Four closely related ecosystem processes in vegetation dynamics, nutrient cycling, soil and belowground process and water relations were discussed with emphases on fire as the driving force. Clearly, fire can shape ecosystem composition, structure and functions by selecting fire adapted species and removing other susceptible species, releasing nutrients from the biomass and improving nutrient cycling, affecting soil properties through changing soil microbial activities and water relations, and creating heterogeneous mosaics, which in turn, can further influence fire behavior and ecological processes. Fire as a destructive force can rapidly consume large amount of biomass and cause negative impacts such as post-fire soil erosion and water runoff, and air pollution; however, as a constructive force fire is also responsible for maintaining the health and perpetuity of certain fire-dependent ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological roles of fire in mediating and regulating ecosystems, fire should be incorporated as an integral component of ecosystems and management. However, the effects of fire on an ecosystem depend on the fire regime, vegetation type, climate, physical environments, and the scale of time and space of assessment. More ecosystem

  9. Ecosystem process interactions between central Chilean habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding ecosystem processes is vital for developing dynamic adaptive management of human-dominated landscapes. We focus on conservation and management of the central Chilean silvopastoral savanna habitat called “espinal”, which often occurs near matorral, a shrub habitat. Although matorral, espinal and native sclerophyllous forest are linked successionally, they are not jointly managed and conserved. Management goals in “espinal” include increasing woody cover, particularly of the dominant tree Acacia caven, improving herbaceous forage quality, and increasing soil fertility. We asked whether adjacent matorral areas contribute to espinal ecosystem processes related to the three main espinal management goals. We examined input and outcome ecosystem processes related to these goals in matorral and espinal with and without shrub understory. We found that matorral had the largest sets of inputs to ecosystem processes, and espinal with shrub understory had the largest sets of outcomes. Moreover, we found that these outcomes were broadly in the directions preferred by management goals. This supports our prediction that matorral acts as an ecosystem process bank for espinal. We recommend that management plans for landscape resilience consider espinal and matorral as a single landscape cover class that should be maintained as a dynamic mosaic. Joint management of espinal and matorral could create new management and policy opportunities.

  10. Ecohydrological processes and ecosystem services in the Anthropocene: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Dennis Hallema; Heidi Asbjornsen

    2017-01-01

    The framework for ecosystem services has been increasingly used in integrated watershed ecosystem management practices that involve scientists, engineers, managers, and policy makers. The objective of this review is to explore the intimate connections between ecohydrological processes and water-related ecosystem services in human-dominated ecosystems in the...

  11. Endogenous circadian regulation of carbon dioxide exchange in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor Resco de Dios; Michael L. Goulden; Kiona Ogle; Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger; Eric A. Davidson; Josu G. Alday; Greg A. Barron-Gafford; Arnaud Carrara; Andrew S. Kowalski; Walt C. Oechel; Borja R. Reverter; Russell L. Scott; Ruth K. Varner; Ruben Diaz-Sierra; Jose M. Moreno

    2012-01-01

    It is often assumed that daytime patterns of ecosystem carbon assimilation are mostly driven by direct physiological responses to exogenous environmental cues. Under limited environmental variability, little variation in carbon assimilation should thus be expected unless endogenous plant controls on carbon assimilation, which regulate photosynthesis in time, are active...

  12. Process-based principles for restoring river ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy J. Beechie; David A. Sear; Julian D. Olden; George R. Pess; John M. Buffington; Hamish Moir; Philip Roni; Michael M. Pollock

    2010-01-01

    Process-based restoration aims to reestablish normative rates and magnitudes of physical, chemical, and biological processes that sustain river and floodplain ecosystems. Ecosystem conditions at any site are governed by hierarchical regional, watershed, and reach-scale processes controlling hydrologic and sediment regimes; floodplain and aquatic habitat...

  13. Temporal changes in potential regulating ecosystem services driven by urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Amorim, Inês; Pires, Evanilton; Kalantari, Zahra; Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, António

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are understood to be the capacity of the landscape of a particular area to provide goods and services to society. In terms of human benefits, four categories of ES are usually considered: provisioning (e.g. seafood), regulating (e.g. climate regulation, air quality, water purification and natural hazard protection), supporting (e.g. maintenance of biodiversity), and cultural (e.g. recreation). The potential supply of ecosystem services has receive increasing interest as a tool for natural resource management. Nevertheless, the capacity to supply ES depends on biophysical conditions, as well as climate and land-use changes, induced by human activities. This study aims to investigate the potential for regulating ecosystem service supply of a Portuguese peri-urban catchment, and attempts to understand the temporal changes in ES over the last decades driven by urbanization. The study was developed in Ribeira dos Covões catchment (6.2 km2), in Portugal. Due to its proximity to Coimbra, a major city in the central region of Portugal, the catchment has undergone major land-use changes over the last half-century. Since 1958, the agricultural area, comprising mainly olives and arable land, has declined from 48% to 4%, due to increases in urban land (from 8% to 40%) and forest (from 44% to 53%), as well as a temporary creation of open spaces (from 0% to 3%). The nature of forest cover also changed, from native species, such as oaks (Quercus sp.), to commercial timber plantations, mostly of Pinus pinaster L. and Eucaliptus globulus L.. Urbanization became more pronounced after 1973, exhibiting a discontinuous pattern until 1995, and then later more continuous urban areas through the infilling of areas between the earlier urban cores. Quantification of regulating ES in the study catchment was achieved using GIS techniques, in order to gain a spatial dimension of ES distribution (Burkhard et al., 2009). Mapping ecosystem service capacities at a 5×5m

  14. A Practical Decision-Analysis Process for Forest Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher; F. Thomas Lloyd; David L. Loftis; Mark J. Twery

    2000-01-01

    Many authors have pointed out the need to firm up the 'fuzzy' ecosystem management paradigm and develop operationally practical processes to allow forest managers to accommodate more effectively the continuing rapid change in societal perspectives and goals. There are three spatial scales where clear, precise, practical ecosystem management processes are...

  15. Towards Business Process Management in networked ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan Versendaal; dr. Martijn Zoet; Jeroen Grondelle

    2014-01-01

    Managing and supporting the collaboration between different actors is key in any organizational context, whether of a hierarchical or a networked nature. In the networked context of ecosystems of service providers and other stakeholders, BPM is faced with different challenges than in a conventional

  16. Ecosystem management via interacting models of political and ecological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision to implement environmental protection options is a political one. Political realities may cause a country to not heed the most persuasive scientific analysis of an ecosystem's future health. A predictive understanding of the political processes that result in ecosystem management decisions may help guide ecosystem management policymaking. To this end, this article develops a stochastic, temporal model of how political processes influence and are influenced by ecosystem processes. This model is realized in a system of interacting influence diagrams that model the decision making of a country's political bodies. These decisions interact with a model of the ecosystem enclosed by the country. As an example, a model for Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus management in Kenya is constructed and fitted to decision and ecological data.

  17. Environmental regulation in a network of simulated microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M

    2008-07-29

    The Earth possesses a number of regulatory feedback mechanisms involving life. In the absence of a population of competing biospheres, it has proved hard to find a robust evolutionary mechanism that would generate environmental regulation. It has been suggested that regulation must require altruistic environmental alterations by organisms and, therefore, would be evolutionarily unstable. This need not be the case if organisms alter the environment as a selectively neutral by-product of their metabolism, as in the majority of biogeochemical reactions, but a question then arises: Why should the combined by-product effects of the biota have a stabilizing, rather than destabilizing, influence on the environment? Under certain conditions, selection acting above the level of the individual can be an effective adaptive force. Here we present an evolutionary simulation model in which environmental regulation involving higher-level selection robustly emerges in a network of interconnected microbial ecosystems. Spatial structure creates conditions for a limited form of higher-level selection to act on the collective environment-altering properties of local communities. Local communities that improve their environmental conditions achieve larger populations and are better colonizers of available space, whereas local communities that degrade their environment shrink and become susceptible to invasion. The spread of environment-improving communities alters the global environment toward the optimal conditions for growth and tends to regulate against external perturbations. This work suggests a mechanism for environmental regulation that is consistent with evolutionary theory.

  18. Disturbance, Functional Diversity and Ecosystem Processes: Does Species Identity Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Emrick III, Verl Roy

    2013-01-01

    The role of disturbance is widely recognized as a fundamental driver of ecological organization from individual species to entire landscapes. Anthropogenic disturbances from military training provide a unique opportunity to examine effects of disturbance on vegetation dynamics, physicochemical soil properties, and ecosystem processes. Additionally, plant functional diversity has been suggested as the key to ecosystem processes such as productivity and nutrient dynamics. I investigated how dis...

  19. Ecosystem services and biogeochemical cycles on a global scale: valuation of water, carbon and nitrogen processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Marcos D.B.; Ortega, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are provided by healthy ecosystems and are fundamental to support human life. However, natural systems have been degraded all over the world and the process of degradation is partially attributed to the lack of knowledge regarding the economic benefits associated with ES, which usually are not captured in the market. To valuate ES without using conventional approaches, such as the human's willingness-to-pay for ecosystem goods and services, this paper uses a different method based on Energy Systems Theory to estimate prices for biogeochemical flows that affect ecosystem services by considering their emergy content converted to equivalent monetary terms. Ecosystem services related to water, carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical flows were assessed since they are connected to a range of final ecosystem services including climate regulation, hydrological regulation, food production, soil formation and others. Results in this paper indicate that aquifer recharge, groundwater flow, carbon dioxide sequestration, methane emission, biological nitrogen fixation, nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching/runoff are the most critical biogeochemical flows in terrestrial systems. Moreover, monetary values related to biogeochemical flows on a global scale could provide important information for policymakers concerned with payment mechanisms for ecosystem services and costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Lake and wetland ecosystem services measuring water storage and local climate regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P.; Jiang, Bo; Bohn, Theodore J.; Lee, Kai N.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Ma, Dongchun; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2017-04-01

    Developing interdisciplinary methods to measure ecosystem services is a scientific priority, however, progress remains slow in part because we lack ecological production functions (EPFs) to quantitatively link ecohydrological processes to human benefits. In this study, we tested a new approach, combining a process-based model with regression models, to create EPFs to evaluate water storage and local climate regulation from a green infrastructure project on the Yongding River in Beijing, China. Seven artificial lakes and wetlands were established to improve local water storage and human comfort; evapotranspiration (ET) regulates both services. Managers want to minimize the trade-off between water losses and cooling to sustain water supplies while lowering the heat index (HI) to improve human comfort. We selected human benefit indicators using water storage targets and Beijing's HI, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity model to determine the change in ET from the new ecosystems. We created EPFs to quantify the ecosystem services as marginal values [Δfinal ecosystem service/Δecohydrological process]: (1) Δwater loss (lake evaporation/volume)/Δdepth and (2) Δsummer HI/ΔET. We estimate the new ecosystems increased local ET by 0.7 mm/d (20.3 W/m2) on the Yongding River. However, ET rates are causing water storage shortfalls while producing no improvements in human comfort. The shallow lakes/wetlands are vulnerable to drying when inflow rates fluctuate, low depths lead to higher evaporative losses, causing water storage shortfalls with minimal cooling effects. We recommend managers make the lakes deeper to increase water storage, and plant shade trees to improve human comfort in the parks.

  1. Process notebook for aquatic ecosystem simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzman, G.; Smith, E.; McKenzie, D.; Haar, B.; Fickeisen, D.

    1980-01-01

    This notebook contains a detailed comparison of 14 models of fish growth, energetics, population dynamics, and feeding. It is a basic document for the evaluation of thes models' usefulness for impact assessment. Model equations are categorized into 18 subprocesses comprising the major processes of consumption, predation, metabolic processes, growth, fecundity, and mortality. The model equations are compared in a standard notation and the equation rationales are considered and put into a historical framework with historical precedence charts. Model parameters are computed in standard units and data sources and techniques used for parameter estimation are identified. A translator compares standard notation with the notation used in the models. The major contribution of this work is that, for the first time, fish models are arrayed with their assumptions laid bare and their parameter values compared, allowing elucidation of model differeances and evaluaton of model behavior and data needs by using the process notebook as a base for further simulation comparison

  2. Attachment and Dyadic Regulation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-02-01

    Insecurely attached people have relatively unhappy and unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships depends on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to regulate the emotional and behavioral reactions of insecurely attached individuals, which promotes greater relationship satisfaction and security. We discuss attachment theory and interdependence dilemmas, and then explain how and why certain responses by partners assuage the cardinal concerns of insecure individuals in key interdependent situations. We then review recent studies illustrating how partners can successfully regulate the reactions of anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals, yielding more constructive interactions. We finish by considering how these regulation processes can create a more secure dyadic environment, which helps to improve relationships and attachment security across time.

  3. Current ecosystem processes in steppe near Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanteeva, Julia

    2015-04-01

    The steppes and forest steppes complexes of Priol'khonie at the Lake Baikal (southern Siberia, Russia) were studied in this research. Recreational activity has a significant impact on the Priol'khonie region. During soviet time this area was actively used for agriculture. Nowadays, this territory is the part of Pribaikalskyi National Park and special protection is needed. As the landscapes satisfy different human demands there are many land-management conflicts. The specific climate and soil conditions and human activity lead to erosion processes on study area. Sediment loads are transferred into the Lake Baikal and cause water pollution. Consequently, vegetation cover and phytomass play an important role for regulating hydrological processes in the ecosystems. The process of phytomass formation and its proactive role playing on sedimentation and mitigate silt detaching by rill and inter-rill erosion are considered in the research as important indicators of the ecosystem functions for steppe landscapes. These indicators were studied for the different land cover types identified on the area because the study area has a large variety of steppe and forest steppe complexes, differing in the form of relief, soil types, vegetation species composition and degree of land degradation. The fieldwork was conducted in the study area in the July and August of 2013. Thirty-two experimental sites (10 x 10 m) which characterized different types of ecosystem were established. The level of landscape degradation was estimated. The method of clipping was used for the valuation of above-ground herbaceous phytomass. The phytomass of tree stands was calculated using the volume-conversion rates for forest-steppe complexes. For the quantification of transferred silt by inter-rill erosion in different conditions (vegetation, slope, soil type, anthropogenic load) a portable rainfall simulator was created with taking into account the characteristics of the study area. The aboveground

  4. Forest Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Ecosystem services, feedback and evolution in developing mountainous catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Larry

    2010-05-01

    significant increase in population in the Southern Appalachians, with new building of second homes in steep headwaters, requiring significant expansion in high altitude roads, in contrast with traditional valley bottom development. With additional increases in hydrologic extremes (heavy precipitation and drought), and progressive changes in forest composition there has been increases in hazard from flash flooding, landslide activity and degraded water quality. The evaluation of integrated watershed impacts of the expected changes in climate and land management requires an interdisciplinary approach including direct feedbacks between ecological, hydrological, geomorphic and atmospheric processes within the framework of an adapting social system. Advances in this type of interdisciplinary research require a network of ecohydrologic observatories generating long term, multi-dimensional data, and a science community working across the interface of multiple fields. Adding individual and institutional behavior as an input or interactive component of watershed ecosystems remains a challenge that spans ecological, hydrological and social science.

  5. Microbes as engines of ecosystem function: when does community structure enhance predictions of ecosystem processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. Graham

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are vital in mediating the earth’s biogeochemical cycles; yet, despite our rapidly increasing ability to explore complex environmental microbial communities, the relationship between microbial community structure and ecosystem processes remains poorly understood. Here, we address a fundamental and unanswered question in microbial ecology: ‘When do we need to understand microbial community structure to accurately predict function?’ We present a statistical analysis investigating the value of environmental data and microbial community structure independently and in combination for explaining rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling processes within 82 global datasets. Environmental variables were the strongest predictors of process rates but left 44% of variation unexplained on average, suggesting the potential for microbial data to increase model accuracy. Although only 29% of our datasets were significantly improved by adding information on microbial community structure, we observed improvement in models of processes mediated by narrow phylogenetic guilds via functional gene data, and conversely, improvement in models of facultative microbial processes via community diversity metrics. Our results also suggest that microbial diversity can strengthen predictions of respiration rates beyond microbial biomass parameters, as 53% of models were improved by incorporating both sets of predictors compared to 35% by microbial biomass alone. Our analysis represents the first comprehensive analysis of research examining links between microbial community structure and ecosystem function. Taken together, our results indicate that a greater understanding of microbial communities informed by ecological principles may enhance our ability to predict ecosystem process rates relative to assessments based on environmental variables and microbial physiology.

  6. Microbial communities, processes and functions in acid mine drainage ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin-xing; Huang, Li-nan; Méndez-García, Celia; Kuang, Jia-liang; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Liu, Jun; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2016-04-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is generated from the oxidative dissolution of metal sulfides when water and oxygen are available largely due to human mining activities. This process can be accelerated by indigenous microorganisms. In the last several decades, culture-dependent researches have uncovered and validated the roles of AMD microorganisms in metal sulfides oxidation and acid generation processes, and culture-independent studies have largely revealed the diversity and metabolic potentials and activities of AMD communities, leading towards a full understanding of the microbial diversity, functions and interactions in AMD ecosystems. This review describes the diversity of microorganisms and their functions in AMD ecosystems, and discusses their biotechnological applications in biomining and AMD bioremediation according to their capabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Endogenous circadian regulation of carbon dioxide exchange in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that diurnal changes in terrestrial CO2 exchange are driven exclusively by the direct effect of the physical environment on plant physiology. We failed to corroborate this assumption, finding instead large diurnal fluctuations in whole ecosystem carbon assimilation across a ...

  8. Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

    2012-06-01

    Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

  9. Solution scanning as a key policy tool: identifying management interventions to help maintain and enhance regulating ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Sutherland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major task of policy makers and practitioners when confronted with a resource management problem is to decide on the potential solution(s to adopt from a range of available options. However, this process is unlikely to be successful and cost effective without access to an independently verified and comprehensive available list of options. There is currently burgeoning interest in ecosystem services and quantitative assessments of their importance and value. Recognition of the value of ecosystem services to human well-being represents an increasingly important argument for protecting and restoring the natural environment, alongside the moral and ethical justifications for conservation. As well as understanding the benefits of ecosystem services, it is also important to synthesize the practical interventions that are capable of maintaining and/or enhancing these services. Apart from pest regulation, pollination, and global climate regulation, this type of exercise has attracted relatively little attention. Through a systematic consultation exercise, we identify a candidate list of 296 possible interventions across the main regulating services of air quality regulation, climate regulation, water flow regulation, erosion regulation, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination and natural hazard regulation. The range of interventions differs greatly between habitats and services depending upon the ease of manipulation and the level of research intensity. Some interventions have the potential to deliver benefits across a range of regulating services, especially those that reduce soil loss and maintain forest cover. Synthesis and applications: Solution scanning is important for questioning existing knowledge and identifying the range of options available to researchers and practitioners, as well as serving as the necessary basis for assessing cost effectiveness and guiding implementation strategies. We

  10. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Herrera; Laura González; Daniel Calegari; Bruno Rienzi

    2017-01-01

    In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with ...

  11. Partition of some key regulating services in terrestrial ecosystems: Meta-analysis and review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viglizzo, E.F., E-mail: evigliz@cpenet.com.ar [INTA, EEA Anguil, Grupo de Investigaciones en Gestión Ambiental (GIGA), Av. Spinetto 785, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); INCITAP-CONICET, Ruta 35, km 335, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); UNLPam, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Av. Uruguay 151, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Jobbágy, E.G. [CONICET, Andes 950, 5700 San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Grupo de Estudios Ambientales IMASL, Ejército de los, Andes 950, 5700 San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Ricard, M.F. [INCITAP-CONICET, Ruta 35, km 335, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); UNLPam, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Av. Uruguay 151, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Paruelo, J.M. [Laboratorio de Análisis Regional y Teledetección, Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos Sistemas de información, Facultad de Agronomía and IFEVA, Universidad de Buenos Aires and CONICET, Av. San Martín 4453, 1417 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    Our knowledge about the functional foundations of ecosystem service (ES) provision is still limited and more research is needed to elucidate key functional mechanisms. Using a simplified eco-hydrological scheme, in this work we analyzed how land-use decisions modify the partition of some essential regulatory ES by altering basic relationships between biomass stocks and water flows. A comprehensive meta-analysis and review was conducted based on global, regional and local data from peer-reviewed publications. We analyzed five datasets comprising 1348 studies and 3948 records on precipitation (PPT), aboveground biomass (AGB), AGB change, evapotranspiration (ET), water yield (WY), WY change, runoff (R) and infiltration (I). The conceptual framework was focused on ES that are associated with the ecological functions (e.g., intermediate ES) of ET, WY, R and I. ES included soil protection, carbon sequestration, local climate regulation, water-flow regulation and water recharge. To address the problem of data normality, the analysis included both parametric and non-parametric regression analysis. Results demonstrate that PPT is a first-order biophysical factor that controls ES release at the broader scales. At decreasing scales, ES are partitioned as result of PPT interactions with other biophysical and anthropogenic factors. At intermediate scales, land-use change interacts with PPT modifying ES partition as it the case of afforestation in dry regions, where ET and climate regulation may be enhanced at the expense of R and water-flow regulation. At smaller scales, site-specific conditions such as topography interact with PPT and AGB displaying different ES partition formats. The probable implications of future land-use and climate change on some key ES production and partition are discussed. - Highlights: • The partition of regulatory services in ecosystems poses a major policy challenge. • We examined how partitions occur at the hydrosphere

  12. Partition of some key regulating services in terrestrial ecosystems: Meta-analysis and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglizzo, E.F.; Jobbágy, E.G.; Ricard, M.F.; Paruelo, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge about the functional foundations of ecosystem service (ES) provision is still limited and more research is needed to elucidate key functional mechanisms. Using a simplified eco-hydrological scheme, in this work we analyzed how land-use decisions modify the partition of some essential regulatory ES by altering basic relationships between biomass stocks and water flows. A comprehensive meta-analysis and review was conducted based on global, regional and local data from peer-reviewed publications. We analyzed five datasets comprising 1348 studies and 3948 records on precipitation (PPT), aboveground biomass (AGB), AGB change, evapotranspiration (ET), water yield (WY), WY change, runoff (R) and infiltration (I). The conceptual framework was focused on ES that are associated with the ecological functions (e.g., intermediate ES) of ET, WY, R and I. ES included soil protection, carbon sequestration, local climate regulation, water-flow regulation and water recharge. To address the problem of data normality, the analysis included both parametric and non-parametric regression analysis. Results demonstrate that PPT is a first-order biophysical factor that controls ES release at the broader scales. At decreasing scales, ES are partitioned as result of PPT interactions with other biophysical and anthropogenic factors. At intermediate scales, land-use change interacts with PPT modifying ES partition as it the case of afforestation in dry regions, where ET and climate regulation may be enhanced at the expense of R and water-flow regulation. At smaller scales, site-specific conditions such as topography interact with PPT and AGB displaying different ES partition formats. The probable implications of future land-use and climate change on some key ES production and partition are discussed. - Highlights: • The partition of regulatory services in ecosystems poses a major policy challenge. • We examined how partitions occur at the hydrosphere

  13. Climate Regulation Services of Natural and Managed Ecosystems of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Costa, M. H.; Cuadra, S.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems regulate climate through both biogeochemical mechanisms (greenhouse gas regulation) and biophysical mechanisms (regulation of water and energy). Land management therefore provides some of the most effective strategies for climate change mitigation. However, most policies aimed at climate protection through land management, including UNFCCC mechanisms and bioenergy sustainability standards, account only for biogeochemical climate services. By ignoring biophysical climate regulation services that in some cases offset the biogeochemical regulation services, these policies run the risk of failing to advance the best climate solutions. Quantifying the combined value of biogeochemical and biophysical climate regulation services remains an important challenge. Here, we use a combination of data synthesis and modeling to quantify how biogeochemical and biophysical effects combine to shape the climate regulation value (CRV) of 18 natural and managed ecosystem types across the Western Hemisphere. Natural ecosystems generally had higher CRVs than agroecosystems, largely driven by differences in biogeochemical services. Biophysical contributions ranged from minimal to dominant. They were highly variable in space and across ecosystem types, and their relative importance varied strongly with the spatio-temporal scale of analysis. Our findings pertain to current efforts to protect climate through land management. Specifically, they reinforce the importance of protecting tropical forests and recent findings that the climatic effects of bioenergy production may be somewhat more positive than previously estimated. Given that biophysical effects in some cases dominate, ensuring effective climate protection through land management requires consideration of combined biogeochemical and biophysical climate regulation services. While quantification of ecosystem climate services is necessarily complex, our CRV index serves as one potential approach to measure the

  14. Climate change impacts on ecosystems and ecosystem services in the United States: Process and prospects for sustained assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Nancy B.; Groffman, Peter M; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Tallis, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The third United States National Climate Assessment emphasized an evaluation of not just the impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, but also the impacts of climate change on the benefits that people derive from nature, known as ecosystem services. The ecosystems, biodiversity, and ecosystem services component of the assessment largely drew upon the findings of a transdisciplinary workshop aimed at developing technical input for the assessment, involving participants from diverse sectors. A small author team distilled and synthesized this and hundreds of other technical input to develop the key findings of the assessment. The process of developing and ranking key findings hinged on identifying impacts that had particular, demonstrable effects on the U.S. public via changes in national ecosystem services. Findings showed that ecosystem services are threatened by the impacts of climate change on water supplies, species distributions and phenology, as well as multiple assaults on ecosystem integrity that, when compounded by climate change, reduce the capacity of ecosystems to buffer against extreme events. As ecosystems change, such benefits as water sustainability and protection from storms that are afforded by intact ecosystems are projected to decline across the continent due to climate change. An ongoing, sustained assessment that focuses on the co-production of actionable climate science will allow scientists from a range of disciplines to ascertain the capability of their forecasting models to project environmental and ecological change and link it to ecosystem services; additionally, an iterative process of evaluation, development of management strategies, monitoring, and reevaluation will increase the applicability and usability of the science by the U.S. public.

  15. Environmental regulation in a network of simulated microbial ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Hywel T. P.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Earth possesses a number of regulatory feedback mechanisms involving life. In the absence of a population of competing biospheres, it has proved hard to find a robust evolutionary mechanism that would generate environmental regulation. It has been suggested that regulation must require altruistic environmental alterations by organisms and, therefore, would be evolutionarily unstable. This need not be the case if organisms alter the environment as a selectively neutral by-product of their ...

  16. Challenges for tree officers to enhance the provision of regulating ecosystem services from urban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen J; Doick, Kieron J; Hudson, Malcolm D; Schreckenberg, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Urbanisation and a changing climate are leading to more frequent and severe flood, heat and air pollution episodes in Britain's cities. Interest in nature-based solutions to these urban problems is growing, with urban forests potentially able to provide a range of regulating ecosystem services such as stormwater attenuation, heat amelioration and air purification. The extent to which these benefits are realized is largely dependent on urban forest management objectives, the availability of funding, and the understanding of ecosystem service concepts within local governments, the primary delivery agents of urban forests. This study aims to establish the extent to which British local authorities actively manage their urban forests for regulating ecosystem services, and identify which resources local authorities most need in order to enhance provision of ecosystem services by Britain's urban forests. Interviews were carried out with staff responsible for tree management decisions in fifteen major local authorities from across Britain, selected on the basis of their urban nature and high population density. Local authorities have a reactive approach to urban forest management, driven by human health and safety concerns and complaints about tree disservices. There is relatively little focus on ensuring provision of regulating ecosystem services, despite awareness by tree officers of the key role that urban forests can play in alleviating chronic air pollution, flood risk and urban heat anomalies. However, this is expected to become a greater focus in future provided that existing constraints - lack of understanding of ecosystem services amongst key stakeholders, limited political support, funding constraints - can be overcome. Our findings suggest that the adoption of a proactive urban forest strategy, underpinned by quantified and valued urban forest-based ecosystem services provision data, and innovative private sector funding mechanisms, can facilitate a change to a

  17. Ecological processes in the cycling of radionuclides within arctic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    Worldwide fallout radionuclides in arctic ecosystems was investigated ecologically by circumpolar nations during 1959-80. Several of the radionuclides are isotopes of elements which currently contribute to arctic haze; they thus serve as effective tracers of biogeochemical processes. Investigations demonstrated the effective concentration of several radionuclides, particularly strontium-90 (an alkaline earth metal) and cesium-137 (a light alkali metal) which are chemical analogs of calcium and potassium, two very important stable elements in biotic systems. Transfer of 137 Cs through the lichen-cariboureindeer-man food chain characteristic of circumpolar nations, resulted in body burdens in Inuit that were 20 to 200 times greater than those in human populations of temperature latitudes. Radiation exposures from 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other natural and worldwide fallout radionuclides, were two to three times greater than for most other world populations. These results demonstrate the concentration capabilities of arctic ecosystems for several groups of chemical elements that have counterparts in arctic haze. These elements, therefore, provide the basis for considering the ecological implications of current situations

  18. Climate-mediated changes in marine ecosystem regulation during El Niño

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Checkley, David M.; Koslow, J. Anthony

    2017-01-01

    concentrations and primary production). The shifts in ecosystem regulation are caused by changes in ocean-atmosphere forcing and triggered by highly variable climate conditions associated with El Niño. Furthermore, we show that biota respond differently to major El Niño events during positive or negative phases......, or whether the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down forcing may shift in response to climate change. In this study, we investigate the effects and relative importance of bottom-up, top-down and physical forcing during changing climate conditions on ecosystem regulation in the Southern California...

  19. A framework to assess landscape structural capacity to provide regulating ecosystem services in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkoom, Justice Nana; Frank, Susanne; Greve, Klaus; Fürst, Christine

    2018-03-01

    The Sudanian savanna landscapes of West Africa are amongst the world's most vulnerable areas to climate change impacts. Inappropriate land use and agriculture management practices continuously impede the capacity of agricultural landscapes to provide ecosystem services (ES). Given the absence of practical assessment techniques to evaluate the landscape's capacity to provide regulating ES in this region, the goal of this paper is to propose an integrative assessment framework which combines remote sensing, geographic information systems, expert weighting and landscape metrics-based assessment. We utilized Analytical Hierarchical Process and Likert scale for the expert weighting of landscape capacity. In total, 56 experts from several land use and landscape management related departments participated in the assessment. Further, we adapted the hemeroby concept to define areas of naturalness while landscape metrics including Patch Density, Shannon's Diversity, and Shape Index were utilized for structural assessment. Lastly, we tested the reliability of expert weighting using certainty measurement rated by experts themselves. Our study focused on four regulating ES including flood control, pest and disease control, climate control, and wind erosion control. Our assessment framework was tested on four selected sites in the Vea catchment area of Ghana. The outcome of our study revealed that highly heterogeneous landscapes have a higher capacity to provide pest and disease control, while less heterogeneous landscapes have a higher potential to provide climate control. Further, we could show that the potential capacities to provide ecosystem services are underestimated by 15% if landscape structural aspects assessed through landscape metrics are not considered. We conclude that the combination of adapted land use and an optimized land use pattern could contribute considerably to lower climate change impacts in West African agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  20. Business Ecosystem Definition in Built Environment Using a Stakeholder Assessment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Lappi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actors and their relationships are core elements of the business ecosystem concept, a trending model of business collaboration emphasizing organizational diversity, relationship dependency and joint evolution. This study approaches a built environment business ecosystem to structure the acknowledged complexity of ecosystem definition by applying a three-step stakeholder assessment process. The process is based on a stakeholder network diagram, Mitchell, Agle, and Wood’s (1997 well-recognized stakeholder salience model and a two-dimensional stakeholder matrix. The assessment process is applied to a school campus case study to define a built environment business ecosystem and the salience of the ecosystem actors. Results, including salience score calculation, validate the applicability of the proposed process. The findings provide novel insights for ecosystem researchers into how stakeholder theory concepts can be applied to broaden the understanding of business ecosystem dynamics.

  1. Soil Heat Flow. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James R.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Soil heat flow and the resulting soil temperature distributions have ecological consequences…

  2. Ecosystem services in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J

    that actions initiated to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions are sustainable and not destructive to existing ecosystem services. Therefore it is important to address i.e. land use change in relation to the regulating services of the ecosystems, such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation. At present...... a thorough understanding of the ecosystem processes controlling the uptake or emissions of GHG is fundamental. Here we present ECOCLIM in the context of ecosystem services and the experimental studies within ECOCLIM which will lead to an enhanced understanding of Danish ecosystems....

  3. Insights into the Processing of Carbon by Early Microbial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, D.; Bebout, B.; Carpenter, S.; Discipulo, S.; Londry, K.; Habicht, K.; Turk, K.

    2003-01-01

    Interactions between Earth and the biosphere that were crucial for early biological evolution also influenced substantially the processes that circulate C between its reservoirs in the atmosphere, ocean, crust and mantle. The C-13 C-12 values of crustal carbonates and organics have recorded changes both in biological discrimination and in the relative rates of burial of organics and carbonates. A full interpretation of these patterns needs further isotopic studies of microbial ecosystems and individual anaerobes. Thus we measured carbon isotope discrimination during autotrophic and heterotrophic growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea (SRB and SRA). Discrimination during CO2 assimilation is significantly larger than during heterotrophic growth on lactate or acetate. SRB grown lithoautotrophically consumed less than 3% of available CO2 and exhibited substantial discrimination, as follows: Desulfobacterium autotrophicum (alpha 1.0100 to 1.0123), Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus (alpha = 0.0138), and Desulfotomuculum acetoxidans (alpha = 1.0310). Mixotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on acetate and CO2 resulted in biomass with delta C-13 composition intermediate to that of the substrates. We have recently extended these experiments to include the thermophilic SRA Archeoglobus spp. Ecological forces also influence isotopic discrimination. Accordingly, we quantified the flow of C and other constituents in modern marine cyanobacterial mats, whose ancestry extends back billions of years. Such ecosystem processes shaped the biosignatures that entered sediments and atmospheres. At Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, we examined mats dominated by Microcoleus (subtidal) and Lyngbya (intertidal to supratidal) cyanobacteria. During 24 hour cycles, we observed the exchange of O2 and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) between mats and the overlying water. Microcoleus mats assimilated near-equal amounts of DIC during the day as they released at night, but

  4. Trust building electronic services as a crucial self-regulation feature of Digital Business Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Delina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of digital business ecosystem, the self-regulation feature plays crucial role. ICT supports biological and sociological phenomena through efficient electronic services. One of the main roles is building and enhancing efficient relationships between actors within the ecosystem. Problem of interaction between commercial subjects depends on expected benefits. These expectations are predictors of successful result from realized transaction with potential partner. And this predictor is based on trust and trustworthiness. The paper presents trust as crucial factor for cooperation and discusses specifics of several trust building mechanisms to increase the level of trust in e-cooperation within digital business ecosystems. Based on results provided by questionnaire survey in Slovak business environment, the paper discusses the relationship between the level of respondents´ electronic business experience and their preferences for the portfolio of trust building mechanisms.

  5. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Poorter, L.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity,

  6. An experiment framework to identify community functional components driving ecosystem processes and services delivery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.; Berg, M.P.; de Bello, F.; van Oosten, A.R.; Bila, K.; Moretti, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that the distribution of species trait values in a community can greatly determine ecosystem processes and services delivery. Two distinct components of community trait composition are hypothesized to chiefly affect ecosystem processes: (i) the average trait value of the

  7. An experimental framework to identify community functional components driving ecosystem processes and services delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dias, A. T. C.; Berg, M. P.; de Bello, Francesco; Oosten, A. R. V.; Bílá, Karolína; Morreti, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2013), s. 29-37 ISSN 0022-0477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : CWM * ecosystem functioning * ecosystem processes * ecosystem services * functional divergence * functional diversity * functional evenness * functional richness * mass ratio hypothesis * Rao index Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 5.694, year: 2013

  8. Discontinuity in the responses of ecosystem processes and multifunctionality to altered soil community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Mark A; Wood, Stephen A; Bardgett, Richard D; Black, Helaina I J; Bonkowski, Michael; Eggers, Till; Grayston, Susan J; Kandeler, Ellen; Manning, Peter; Setälä, Heikki; Jones, T Hefin

    2014-10-07

    Ecosystem management policies increasingly emphasize provision of multiple, as opposed to single, ecosystem services. Management for such "multifunctionality" has stimulated research into the role that biodiversity plays in providing desired rates of multiple ecosystem processes. Positive effects of biodiversity on indices of multifunctionality are consistently found, primarily because species that are redundant for one ecosystem process under a given set of environmental conditions play a distinct role under different conditions or in the provision of another ecosystem process. Here we show that the positive effects of diversity (specifically community composition) on multifunctionality indices can also arise from a statistical fallacy analogous to Simpson's paradox (where aggregating data obscures causal relationships). We manipulated soil faunal community composition in combination with nitrogen fertilization of model grassland ecosystems and repeatedly measured five ecosystem processes related to plant productivity, carbon storage, and nutrient turnover. We calculated three common multifunctionality indices based on these processes and found that the functional complexity of the soil communities had a consistent positive effect on the indices. However, only two of the five ecosystem processes also responded positively to increasing complexity, whereas the other three responded neutrally or negatively. Furthermore, none of the individual processes responded to both the complexity and the nitrogen manipulations in a manner consistent with the indices. Our data show that multifunctionality indices can obscure relationships that exist between communities and key ecosystem processes, leading us to question their use in advancing theoretical understanding--and in management decisions--about how biodiversity is related to the provision of multiple ecosystem services.

  9. Linking trajectories of land change, land degradation processes and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Salvati, L; Perini, L

    2016-05-01

    Land Degradation (LD) is a complex phenomenon resulting in a progressive reduction in the capacity of providing ecosystem services (ES). Landscape transformations promoting an unsustainable use of land often reveal latent processes of LD. An evaluation carried out in respect to the different ecosystem services is nowadays regarded as the most appropriate approach for assessing the effects of LD. The aim of this study is to develop an evaluation framework for identifying the linkages between land changes, LD processes and ES and suggesting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options suited to reverse (or mitigate) LD impact. A SWOT analysis was carried out with the aim to identify internal and external factors that are favorable (or unfavorable) to achieve the proposed SLM actions. The study areas are the Fortore valley and the Valpadana, in Italy. The main trajectory identified for the Fortore valley is related to land abandonment due to population aging and the progressive emigration started in the 1950s. The most relevant LD processes are soil erosion and geomorphological instability, affecting regulating services such as natural hazard and erosion control. SLM options should consider interventions to contrast geomorphological instability, the promotion of climate smart agriculture and of typical products, and an efficient water resources management. The main trajectories identified for Valpadana are related to urban expansion and farmland abandonment and, as a consequence, land take due to anthropogenic pressure and woodland expansion as the main LD process. The reduction of food production was identified as the most relevant provisioning service affected. SLM should envisage best practices finalized to water saving and soil consumption reduction: efficient irrigation solutions, climate smart agriculture and zero sealing practices. This study highlights the diagnostic value of the suggested approach where LD processes are elicited from land change trajectories

  10. Rapid top-down regulation of plant C:N:P stoichiometry by grasshoppers in an Inner Mongolia grassland ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangming; Han, Xingguo; Elser, James J

    2011-05-01

    Understanding how food web interactions alter the processing of limiting nutrient elements is an important goal of ecosystem ecology. An experiment manipulating densities of the grasshopper Oedaleus asiaticus was performed to assess top-down effects of grasshoppers on C:N:P stoichiometry of plants and soil in a grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China). With increased grasshopper feeding, plant biomass declined fourfold, litter abundance increased 30%, and the plant community became dominated by non-host plant taxa. Plant stoichiometric response depended on whether or not the plant was a grasshopper host food species: C:N and C:P ratios increased with increasing grasshopper density (GD) for host plants but decreased in non-host plants. These data suggest either a direct transfer of grasshopper-recycled nutrients from host to non-host plants or a release of non-host plants from nutrient competition with heavily grazed host plants. Litterfall C:N and C:P decreased across moderate levels of grasshopper density but no effects on C:N:P stoichiometry in the surface soil were observed, possibly due to the short experimental period. Our observations of divergent C:N:P stoichiometric response among plant species highlight the important role of grasshopper herbivory in regulating plant community structure and nutrient cycling in grassland ecosystems.

  11. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans

    2015-05-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity, actual litter decomposition, and potential litter decomposition) during secondary succession after shifting cultivation in wet tropical forest of Mexico. We test the importance of three alternative drivers of ecosystem processes: vegetation biomass (vegetation quantity hypothesis), community-weighted trait mean (mass ratio hypothesis), and functional diversity (niche complementarity hypothesis) using structural equation modeling. This allows us to infer the relative importance of different mechanisms underlying ecosystem process recovery. Ecosystem process rates changed during succession, and the strongest driver was aboveground biomass for each of the processes. Productivity of aboveground stem biomass and leaf litter as well as actual litter decomposition increased with initial standing vegetation biomass, whereas potential litter decomposition decreased with standing biomass. Additionally, biomass productivity was positively affected by community-weighted mean of specific leaf area, and potential decomposition was positively affected by functional divergence, and negatively by community-weighted mean of leaf dry matter content. Our empirical results show that functional diversity and community-weighted means are of secondary importance for explaining changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession. Instead, simply, the amount of vegetation in a site is the major driver of changes, perhaps because there is a steep biomass buildup during succession that overrides more subtle effects of community functional properties on ecosystem processes. We recommend future studies in the field of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to separate the effects of

  12. Dominance, biomass and extinction resistance determine the consequences of biodiversity loss for multiple coastal ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas W; Jenkins, Stuart R; Kingham, Rachel; Kenworthy, Joseph; Hawkins, Stephen J; Hiddink, Jan G

    2011-01-01

    Key ecosystem processes such as carbon and nutrient cycling could be deteriorating as a result of biodiversity loss. However, currently we lack the ability to predict the consequences of realistic species loss on ecosystem processes. The aim of this study was to test whether species contributions to community biomass can be used as surrogate measures of their contribution to ecosystem processes. These were gross community productivity in a salt marsh plant assemblage and an intertidal macroalgae assemblage; community clearance of microalgae in sessile suspension feeding invertebrate assemblage; and nutrient uptake in an intertidal macroalgae assemblage. We conducted a series of biodiversity manipulations that represented realistic species extinction sequences in each of the three contrasting assemblages. Species were removed in a subtractive fashion so that biomass was allowed to vary with each species removal, and key ecosystem processes were measured at each stage of community disassembly. The functional contribution of species was directly proportional to their contribution to community biomass in a 1:1 ratio, a relationship that was consistent across three contrasting marine ecosystems and three ecosystem processes. This suggests that the biomass contributed by a species to an assemblage can be used to approximately predict the proportional decline in an ecosystem process when that species is lost. Such predictions represent "worst case scenarios" because, over time, extinction resilient species can offset the loss of biomass associated with the extinction of competitors. We also modelled a "best case scenario" that accounts for compensatory responses by the extant species with the highest per capita contribution to ecosystem processes. These worst and best case scenarios could be used to predict the minimum and maximum species required to sustain threshold values of ecosystem processes in the future.

  13. Dominance, biomass and extinction resistance determine the consequences of biodiversity loss for multiple coastal ecosystem processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Davies

    Full Text Available Key ecosystem processes such as carbon and nutrient cycling could be deteriorating as a result of biodiversity loss. However, currently we lack the ability to predict the consequences of realistic species loss on ecosystem processes. The aim of this study was to test whether species contributions to community biomass can be used as surrogate measures of their contribution to ecosystem processes. These were gross community productivity in a salt marsh plant assemblage and an intertidal macroalgae assemblage; community clearance of microalgae in sessile suspension feeding invertebrate assemblage; and nutrient uptake in an intertidal macroalgae assemblage. We conducted a series of biodiversity manipulations that represented realistic species extinction sequences in each of the three contrasting assemblages. Species were removed in a subtractive fashion so that biomass was allowed to vary with each species removal, and key ecosystem processes were measured at each stage of community disassembly. The functional contribution of species was directly proportional to their contribution to community biomass in a 1:1 ratio, a relationship that was consistent across three contrasting marine ecosystems and three ecosystem processes. This suggests that the biomass contributed by a species to an assemblage can be used to approximately predict the proportional decline in an ecosystem process when that species is lost. Such predictions represent "worst case scenarios" because, over time, extinction resilient species can offset the loss of biomass associated with the extinction of competitors. We also modelled a "best case scenario" that accounts for compensatory responses by the extant species with the highest per capita contribution to ecosystem processes. These worst and best case scenarios could be used to predict the minimum and maximum species required to sustain threshold values of ecosystem processes in the future.

  14. Same pattern, different mechanism: Locking onto the role of key species in seafloor ecosystem process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Sarah Ann; Volkenborn, Nils; Pilditch, Conrad A; Lohrer, Andrew M; Wethey, David S; Hewitt, Judi E; Thrush, Simon F

    2016-05-27

    Seafloor biodiversity is a key mediator of ecosystem functioning, but its role is often excluded from global budgets or simplified to black boxes in models. New techniques allow quantification of the behavior of animals living below the sediment surface and assessment of the ecosystem consequences of complex interactions, yielding a better understanding of the role of seafloor animals in affecting key processes like primary productivity. Combining predictions based on natural history, behavior of key benthic species and environmental context allow assessment of differences in functioning and process, even when the measured ecosystem property in different systems is similar. Data from three sedimentary systems in New Zealand illustrate this. Analysis of the behaviors of the infaunal ecosystem engineers in each system revealed three very different mechanisms driving ecosystem function: density and excretion, sediment turnover and surface rugosity, and hydraulic activities and porewater bioadvection. Integrative metrics of ecosystem function in some cases differentiate among the systems (gross primary production) and in others do not (photosynthetic efficiency). Analyses based on behaviors and activities revealed important ecosystem functional differences and can dramatically improve our ability to model the impact of stressors on ecosystem and global processes.

  15. Regulations and the licensing process in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulla, Herbert U.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the licensing process which took place from 1971 to 1978 shows which laws, regulations and standards were used in checking the safety aspects of the nuclear power plant and which organisations participated in the licensing process. The internal organisation of the Austrian main-expert in the procedure is illustrated. Examples of detail-work are explained. The importance of intensive co-operation of the different technical groups and the problems of comparable examination depth are underlined. (author)

  16. Impaired ecosystem process despite little effects on populations: modeling combined effects of warming and toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Grimm, Volker; Forbes, Valery E

    2017-08-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are exposed to many stressors, including toxic chemicals and global warming, which can impair, separately or in combination, important processes in organisms and hence higher levels of organization. Investigating combined effects of warming and toxicants has been a topic of little research, but neglecting their combined effects may seriously misguide management efforts. To explore how toxic chemicals and warming, alone and in combination, propagate across levels of biological organization, including a key ecosystem process, we developed an individual-based model (IBM) of a freshwater amphipod detritivore, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, feeding on leaf litter. In this IBM, life history emerges from the individuals' energy budgets. We quantified, in different warming scenarios (+1-+4 °C), the effects of hypothetical toxicants on suborganismal processes, including feeding, somatic and maturity maintenance, growth, and reproduction. Warming reduced mean adult body sizes and population abundance and biomass, but only in the warmest scenarios. Leaf litter processing, a key contributor to ecosystem functioning and service delivery in streams, was consistently enhanced by warming, through strengthened interaction between the detritivorous consumer and its resource. Toxicant effects on feeding and maintenance resulted in initially small adverse effects on consumers, but ultimately led to population extinction and loss of ecosystem process. Warming in combination with toxicants had little effect at the individual and population levels, but ecosystem process was impaired in the warmer scenarios. Our results suggest that exposure to the same amount of toxicants can disproportionately compromise ecosystem processing depending on global warming scenarios; for example, reducing organismal feeding rates by 50% will reduce resource processing by 50% in current temperature conditions, but by up to 200% with warming of 4 °C. Our study has implications for

  17. Potential climate change impacts on temperate forest ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Emily B.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Zhang, Shuxia; Bradford, John B.; Reich, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Large changes in atmospheric CO2, temperature and precipitation are predicted by 2100, yet the long-term consequences for carbon, water, and nitrogen cycling in forests are poorly understood. We applied the PnET-CN ecosystem model to compare the long-term effects of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 on productivity, evapotranspiration, runoff, and net nitrogen mineralization in current Great Lakes forest types. We used two statistically downscaled climate projections, PCM B1 (warmer and wetter) and GFDL A1FI (hotter and drier), to represent two potential future climate and atmospheric CO2 scenarios. To separate the effects of climate and CO2, we ran PnET-CN including and excluding the CO2 routine. Our results suggest that, with rising CO2 and without changes in forest type, average regional productivity could increase from 67% to 142%, changes in evapotranspiration could range from –3% to +6%, runoff could increase from 2% to 22%, and net N mineralization could increase 10% to 12%. Ecosystem responses varied geographically and by forest type. Increased productivity was almost entirely driven by CO2 fertilization effects, rather than by temperature or precipitation (model runs holding CO2 constant showed stable or declining productivity). The relative importance of edaphic and climatic spatial drivers of productivity varied over time, suggesting that productivity in Great Lakes forests may switch from being temperature to water limited by the end of the century.

  18. Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, L; Bradshaw, C; Kumblad, L; Kautsky, U

    2014-07-01

    This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water

  19. Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C.; Kumblad, L.; Kautsky, U.

    2014-01-01

    This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water

  20. The economic value of the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil Costa, Marcos; Pires, Gabrielle; Fontes, Vitor; Brumatti, Livia

    2017-04-01

    The rainy Amazon climate allowed important activities to develop in the region as large rainfed agricultural lands and hydropower plants. The Amazon rainforest is an important source of moisture to the regional atmosphere and helps regulate the local climate. The replacement of forest by agricultural lands decreases the flux of water vapor into the atmosphere and changes the precipitation patterns, which may severely affect such economic activities. Assign an economic value to this ecosystem service may emphasize the significance to preserve the Amazon rainforest. In this work, we provide a first approximation of the quantification of the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by the Amazon rainforest using the marginal production method. We use climate scenarios derived from Amazon deforestation scenarios as input to crop and runoff models to assess how land use change would affect agriculture and hydropower generation. The effects of forest removal on soybean production and on cattle beef production can both be as high as US 16 per year per ha deforested, and the effects on hydropower generation can be as high as US 8 per year per ha deforested. We consider this as a conservative estimate of a permanent service provided by the rainforest. Policy makers and other Amazon agriculture and energy businesses must be aware of these numbers, and consider them while planning their activities.

  1. A terrestrial ecosystem model (SOLVEG) coupled with atmospheric gas and aerosol exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katata, Genki; Ota, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    In order to predict the impact of atmospheric pollutants (gases and aerosols) to the terrestrial ecosystem, new schemes for calculating the processes of dry deposition of gases and aerosols, and water and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems were implemented in the one-dimensional atmosphere-SOiL-VEGetation model, SOLVEG. We made performance tests at various vegetation areas to validate the newly developed schemes. In this report, the detail in each modeled process is described with an instruction how to use the modified SOLVEG. The framework of 'terrestrial ecosystem model' was developed for investigation of a change in water, energy, and carbon cycles associated with global warming and air pollution and its impact on terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  2. Water reservoirs - aquatic ecosystems subject to eutrophication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Veronica

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some aspects relating to eutrophication of Batca Doamnei and Reconstructia hydropower lakes situated near Piatra Neamt town. The presence of phosphorus salts in the two water reservoirs (ten times the admissible content) is responsible for excessive growth of plants. In Reconstructia lake the diversity of species is also explained by the existence of large amounts of nitrogen salts. The general characteristic of aquatic macrophyte is the resistance to large variations of environmental factors (water level, currents, temperature, turbidity, organic material content), adaptation to water pollution conditions and development of adverse condition resistant forms. Besides Cladophora, a harmful species in fishing waters when growing excessively, others species are favorable to aquatic life and help to the consolidation of complex lake biocenoses, providing support, food and habitation for many small animal species which also favor other species economically valuable. The aquatic macrophytes are true biological filters which maintain the natural auto-purging potential of the waters. Taking into consideration these facts, the direct and indirect effects of plant destruction on the whole ecosystem should be carefully analyzed

  3. Tansley Review No. 104, Calcium Physiology and Terrestrial Ecosystem Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. McLaughlin; R. Wimmer

    1999-01-01

    Calcium occupies a unique position among plant nutrients both chemically and functionally. Its chemical properties allow it to exist in a wide range of binding states and to serve in both structural and messenger roles. Despite its importance in many plant processes, Ca mobility is low, making Ca uptake and distribution rate a limiting process for many key plant...

  4. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Herrera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with data coming from autonomous sensors (e.g. reporting carbon emission in protected areas and from citizens providing information (e.g. illegal dumping in a voluntary way. Complex Event Processing (CEP technologies allow processing large amount of event data and detecting patterns from them. However, they do not provide native support for the geographic dimension of events which is essential for monitoring requirements which apply to specific geographic areas. This paper proposes a geospatial extension for CEP that allows monitoring environmental requirements considering the geographic location of the processed data. We extend an existing platform-independent, model-driven approach for CEP adding the geographic location to events and specifying patterns using geographic operators. The use and technical feasibility of the proposal is shown through the development of a case study and the implementation of a prototype.

  5. Implementing ecosystem-based marine management as a process of regionalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper; van Tatenhove, Jan

    2015-01-01

    and the Baltic Sea Fisheries Forum, both examples of regionalisation processes in order to implement ecosystem-based marine management. The Helsinki Commission Group for implementation of the ecosystem approach is a joint management body for the implementation of the Baltic Sea Action Plan and the European Union......This article deals with the implementation of ecosystem-based marine management in the Baltic Sea. It explores and documents in particular the preliminary lessons from environmental and fisheries management with reference to the Helsinki Commission Group for implementation of the ecosystem approach......'s Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The Baltic Sea Fisheries Forum is a new governing body to facilitate regional cooperation in fisheries management. The aim of the article is twofold: a) to describe and discuss two different pathways of regionalisation in the Baltic Sea and b) to explore how...

  6. Incorporating Ecosystem Processes Controlling Carbon Balance Into Models of Coupled Human-Natural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W.; Brown, D. G.; Brunner, A.; Fouladbash, L.; Hadzick, Z.; Hutchins, M.; Kiger, S. E.; Makino, Y.; Nassauer, J. I.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R. L.; Sun, S.

    2012-12-01

    A key element in the study of coupled human-natural systems is the interactions of human populations with vegetation and soils. In human-dominated landscapes, vegetation production and change results from a combination of ecological processes and human decision-making and behavior. Vegetation is often dramatically altered, whether to produce food for humans and livestock, to harvest fiber for construction and other materials, to harvest fuel wood or feedstock for biofuels, or simply for cultural preferences as in the case of residential lawns with sparse trees in the exurban landscape. This alteration of vegetation and its management has a substantial impact on the landscape carbon balance. Models can be used to simulate scenarios in human-natural systems and to examine the integration of processes that determine future trajectories of carbon balance. However, most models of human-natural systems include little integration of the human alteration of vegetation with the ecosystem processes that regulate carbon balance. Here we illustrate a few case studies of pilot-study models that strive for this integration from our research across various types of landscapes. We focus greater detail on a fully developed research model linked to a field study of vegetation and soils in the exurban residential landscape of Southeastern Michigan, USA. The field study characterized vegetation and soil carbon storage in 5 types of ecological zones. Field-observed carbon storage in the vegetation in these zones ranged widely, from 150 g C/m2 in turfgrass zones, to 6,000 g C/m2 in zones defined as turfgrass with sparse woody vegetation, to 16,000 g C/m2 in a zone defined as dense trees and shrubs. Use of these zones facilitated the scaling of carbon pools to the landscape, where the areal mixtures of zone types had a significant impact on landscape C storage. Use of these zones also facilitated the use of the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC to simulate C trajectories and also

  7. Information Processing in Auto-regulated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Javorszky

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present a model of information processing which is based on two concurrent ways of describing the world, where a description in one of the languages limits the possibilities for realisations in the other language. The two describing dimensions appear in our common sense as dichotomies of perspectives: subjective - objective; diversity - similarity; individual - collective. We abstract from the subjective connotations and treat the test theoretical case of an interval on which several concurrent categories can be introduced. We investigate multidimensional partitions as potential carriers of information and compare their efficiency to that of sequenced carriers. We regard the same assembly once as a contemporary collection, once as a longitudinal sequence and find promising inroads towards understanding information processing by auto-regulated systems. Information is understood to point out that what is the case from among alternatives, which could be the case. We have translated these ideas into logical operations on the set of natural numbers and have found two equivalence points on N where matches between sequential and commutative ways of presenting a state of the world can agree in a stable fashion: a flip-flop mechanism is envisioned. By following this new approach, a mathematical treatment of some poignant biomathematical problems is allowed. Also, the concepts presented in this treatise may well have relevance and applications within the information processing and the theory of language fields.

  8. Asymmetrical Responses of Ecosystem Processes to Positive Versus Negative Precipitation Extremes: a Replicated Regression Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, A. J.; Smith, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Heightened climatic variability due to atmospheric warming is forecast to increase the frequency and severity of climate extremes. In particular, changes to interannual variability in precipitation, characterized by increases in extreme wet and dry years, are likely to impact virtually all terrestrial ecosystem processes. However, to date experimental approaches have yet to explicitly test how ecosystem processes respond to multiple levels of climatic extremity, limiting our understanding of how ecosystems will respond to forecast increases in the magnitude of climate extremes. Here we report the results of a replicated regression experimental approach, in which we imposed 9 and 11 levels of growing season precipitation amount and extremity in mesic grassland during 2015 and 2016, respectively. Each level corresponded to a specific percentile of the long-term record, which produced a large gradient of soil moisture conditions that ranged from extreme wet to extreme dry. In both 2015 and 2016, asymptotic responses to water availability were observed for soil respiration. This asymmetry was driven in part by transitions between soil moisture versus temperature constraints on respiration as conditions became increasingly dry versus increasingly wet. In 2015, aboveground net primary production (ANPP) exhibited asymmetric responses to precipitation that largely mirrored those of soil respiration. In total, our results suggest that in this mesic ecosystem, these two carbon cycle processes were more sensitive to extreme drought than to extreme wet years. Future work will assess ANPP responses for 2016, soil nutrient supply and physiological responses of the dominant plant species. Future efforts are needed to compare our findings across a diverse array of ecosystem types, and in particular how the timing and magnitude of precipitation events may modify the response of ecosystem processes to increasing magnitudes of precipitation extremes.

  9. Spatio-temporal dynamics of regulating ecosystem services in Europe – The role of past and future land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturck, J.; Schulp, C.J.E.; Verburg, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Land use is a main driver for changes in supply and demand of regulating ecosystem services (ES). Most current ES inventories are static and do not address dynamics of ES supply resulting from historic and future land use change. This paper analyzes the role of land use change for the supply of two

  10. Connecting Payments for Ecosystem Services and Agri-Environment Regulation: An Analysis of the Welsh Glastir Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne-Jones, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Policy debates in the European Union have increasingly emphasised "Payments for Ecosystem Services" (PES) as a model for delivering agri-environmental objectives. This paper examines the Glastir scheme, introduced in Wales in 2009, as a notable attempt to move between long standing models of European agri-environment regulation and…

  11. Climate Extremes and Land-Use Change: Effects on Ecosystem Processes and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Michael; Erb, Karlheinz; Hasibeder, Roland; Mayr, Stefan; Niedertscheider, Maria; Oberhuber, Walter; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Tasser, Erich; Viovy, Nicolas; Wieser, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Extreme climatic events, in particular droughts and heatwaves, have significant impacts on ecosystem carbon and water cycles and a range of related ecosystem services. It is expected that in the coming decades the return intervals and severities of extreme droughts will increase substantially and may result in the passing of thresholds of ecosystem functioning, potentially causing legacy effects, which are so far poorly understood. Observational evidence suggests that different land cover types (forest, grassland) are differently influenced by extreme drought, but there is a lack of knowledge whether and how future, increasingly severe climate extremes will affect their concurrent and lagged responses, as well as land-use decisions determining future shifts in land cover. The ClimLUC project aims to understand how extreme summer drought affects carbon and water dynamics of mountain ecosystems under different land uses, and to analyse implications for ecosystem service provisioning. Overall, we hypothesize that land-use change alters the effects of extreme summer drought on ecosystem processes and the related services, grassland responding more rapidly and strongly but being more resilient to extreme drought than forest. To address the aims and hypotheses, we will 1) test experimentally how (a) a managed, (b) an abandoned mountain grassland and (c) an adjacent subalpine forest respond to a progressive extreme drought and will analyse threshold responses of carbon and water dynamics and their implications for ecosystem services (timber and fodder production, carbon sequestration, water provisioning); 2) quantify carry-over effects of the extreme event on ecosystem processes and services; 3) project and attribute future carbon and water cycle responses to extreme drought and related socio-economic changes, based on a process-based dynamic general vegetation model; 4) analyse the interrelation between land-use changes and the occurrence and severity of past and future

  12. Armillaria species: Primary drivers of forest ecosystem processes and potential impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Sara M. Ashiglar; Geral I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Species of the fungal genus Armillaria are pervasive in forest soils and are associated with widely ranging tree species of diverse forests worldwide (Baumgartner et al., 2011). As primary decay drivers of ecosystem processes, Armillaria species exhibit diverse ecological behaviors, ranging from virulent root and/or butt pathogens of diverse woody hosts, such as timber...

  13. Climatic and pollution influences on ecosystem processes in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt S. Pregitzer; David D. Reed; Glenn D. Mroz; Andrew J. Burton; John A. Witter; Donald A. Zak

    1996-01-01

    The Michigan gradient study was established in 1987 to examine the effects of climate and atmospheric deposition on forest productivity and ecosystem processes in the Great Lakes region. Four intensively-monitored northern hardwood study sites are located along a climatic and pollutant gradient extending from southern lower Michigan to northwestern upper Michigan. The...

  14. Nitrogen processing in a tidal freshwater marsh: a whole ecosystem 15N labeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribsholt, B.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Struyf, E.; Andersson, M.G.I.; Tramper, A.; de Brabandere, L.; van Damme, S.; Brion, N.; Meire, P.; Dehairs, F.; Middelburg, J.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the fate and transport of watershed-derived ammonium in a tidal freshwater marsh fringing the nutrientrich Scheldt River in a whole-ecosystem 15N labeling experiment. 15N-NH4+ was added to the floodwater entering a 3,477 14 m2 tidal marsh area, and marsh ammonium processing and

  15. Applications of the First Law to Ecological Systems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report describes concepts presented in another module called "The First Law of…

  16. What determines the importance of a species for ecosystem processes? Insights from tropical ant assemblages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houadria, Mickal; Menzel, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 4 (2017), s. 885-899 ISSN 0029-8549 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ecosystem processes * functional performance * functional redundancy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.130, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00442-017-3900-x

  17. Linking trajectories of land change, land degradation processes and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Salvati, L.; Perini, L.

    2016-01-01

    Land Degradation (LD) is a complex phenomenon resulting in a progressive reduction in the capacity of providing ecosystem services (ES). Landscape transformations promoting an unsustainable use of land often reveal latent processes of LD. An evaluation carried out in respect to the different

  18. Biotic and abiotic processes in eastside ecosystems: the effects of management on soil properties, processes, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Harvey; J. Michael Geist; Gerald L McDonald; Martin F. Jurgensen; Patrick H. Cochran; Darlene Zabowski; Robert T. Meurisse

    1994-01-01

    Productivity of forest and range land soils is based on a combination of diverse physical, chemical and biological properties. In ecosystems characteristic of eastside regions of Oregon and Washington, the productive zone is usually in the upper 1 or 2 m. Not only are the biological processes that drive both soil productivity and root development concentrated in...

  19. Parasites as drivers of key processes in aquatic ecosystems: Facts and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sures, B; Nachev, M; Pahl, M; Grabner, D; Selbach, C

    2017-09-01

    Despite the advances in our understanding of the ecological importance of parasites that we have made in recent years, we are still far away from having a complete picture of the ecological implications connected to parasitism. In the present paper we highlight key issues that illustrate (1) important contributions of parasites to biodiversity, (2) their integral role in ecosystems, (3) as well as their ecological effects as keystone species (4) and in biological invasion processes. By using selected examples from aquatic ecosystems we want to provide an insight and generate interest into the topic, and want to show directions for future research in the field of ecological parasitology. This may help to convince more parasitologists and ecologists contributing and advancing our understanding of the complex and fascinating interplay of parasites, hosts and ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Water and Nitrogen Limitations of Ecosystem Processes Across Three Dryland Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, C.; Lauenroth, W. K.; Burke, I. C.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of water and nitrogen (N) play a major role in controlling the distribution of ecosystem types and the rates of ecosystem processes across the globe. Both these resources are being altered by human activity. Anthropogenic fixation of N has increased inputs into the biosphere from 0.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to upwards of 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1, while the amount and seasonality of precipitation are expected to continue to change. Within dryland environments, the relationships between increasingly available N and ecosystem processes are especially complex due to dryland's characteristic strong limitation by low and highly variable precipitation. Other experiments have shown that this interplay between N and water can cause temporally complex co-limitation and spatially complex responses with variable effects on ecosystems, such as those to net primary productivity, soil respiration, and plant community composition. Research spanning multiple dryland plant communities is critical for generalizing findings to the 40% of the Earth's terrestrial surface covered in dryland ecosystems. Given IPCC projections in which both N availability and precipitation are altered, examining their interactive effect across multiple plant communities is critical to increasing our understanding of the limitations to ecosystem process in drylands. We are studying a gradient of three plant communities representing a C4 grassland (shortgrass steppe), a C3/C4 grassland (mixed grass prairie), and a shrub-dominated ecosystem with C3 and C4 grasses (sagebrush steppe). We added two levels of N (10 kg N ha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1) and increased summer monthly precipitation by 20%. Sites responded differently to treatments, with the scale of effect varying by treatment. The high-level nitrogen increased soil N availability and soil respiration, while decreasing soil carbon in the labile pool in the upper soil layers. These results will allow for better understanding of increased N in combination with

  1. Assessing impact of land use and climate change on regulating ecosystem services in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorencová, Eliška; Harmáčková, Veronika Zuzana; Landová, L.; Pártl, Adam; Vačkář, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2016), č. článku e01210. ISSN 2332-8878 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Czech Republic * drivers * ecosystem services * InVEST * modeling * scenarios * Special Feature: Ecosystem Management in Transition in Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Regional processes in mangrove ecosystems: Spatial scaling relationships, biomass, and turnover rates following catastrophic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, G.A.; Smith, T. J.; Whelan, K.R.T.; Doyle, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological processes and local-scale structural dynamics of mangroves are relatively well studied. Regional-scale processes, however, are not as well understood. Here we provide long-term data on trends in structure and forest turnover at a large scale, following hurricane damage in mangrove ecosystems of South Florida, U.S.A. Twelve mangrove vegetation plots were monitored at periodic intervals, between October 1992 and March 2005. Mangrove forests of this region are defined by a -1.5 scaling relationship between mean stem diameter and stem density, mirroring self-thinning theory for mono-specific stands. This relationship is reflected in tree size frequency scaling exponents which, through time, have exhibited trends toward a community average that is indicative of full spatial resource utilization. These trends, together with an asymptotic standing biomass accumulation, indicate that coastal mangrove ecosystems do adhere to size-structured organizing principles as described for upland tree communities. Regenerative dynamics are different between areas inside and outside of the primary wind-path of Hurricane Andrew which occurred in 1992. Forest dynamic turnover rates, however, are steady through time. This suggests that ecological, more-so than structural factors, control forest productivity. In agreement, the relative mean rate of biomass growth exhibits an inverse relationship with the seasonal range of porewater salinities. The ecosystem average in forest scaling relationships may provide a useful investigative tool of mangrove community biomass relationships, as well as offer a robust indicator of general ecosystem health for use in mangrove forest ecosystem management and restoration. ?? Springer 2006.

  3. Importance of neutral processes varies in time and space: Evidence from dryland stream ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Dong

    Full Text Available Many ecosystems experience strong temporal variability in environmental conditions; yet, a clear picture of how niche and neutral processes operate to determine community assembly in temporally variable systems remains elusive. In this study, we constructed neutral metacommunity models to assess the relative importance of neutral processes in a spatially and temporally variable ecosystem. We analyzed macroinvertebrate community data spanning multiple seasons and years from 20 sites in a Sonoran Desert river network in Arizona. The model goodness-of-fit was used to infer the importance of neutral processes. Averaging over eight stream flow conditions across three years, we found that neutral processes were more important in perennial streams than in non-perennial streams (intermittent and ephemeral streams. Averaging across perennial and non-perennial streams, we found that neutral processes were more important during very high flow and in low flow periods; whereas, at very low flows, the relative importance of neutral processes varied greatly. These findings were robust to the choice of model parameter values. Our study suggested that the net effect of disturbance on the relative importance of niche and neutral processes in community assembly varies non-monotonically with the severity of disturbance. In contrast to the prevailing view that disturbance promotes niche processes, we found that neutral processes could become more important when the severity of disturbance is beyond a certain threshold such that all organisms are adversely affected regardless of their biological traits and strategies.

  4. Comparison of seasonal soil microbial process in snow-covered temperate ecosystems of northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue Zhang

    Full Text Available More than half of the earth's terrestrial surface currently experiences seasonal snow cover and soil frost. Winter compositional and functional investigations in soil microbial community are frequently conducted in alpine tundra and boreal forest ecosystems. However, little information on winter microbial biogeochemistry is known from seasonally snow-covered temperate ecosystems. As decomposer microbes may differ in their ability/strategy to efficiently use soil organic carbon (SOC within different phases of the year, understanding seasonal microbial process will increase our knowledge of biogeochemical cycling from the aspect of decomposition rates and corresponding nutrient dynamics. In this study, we measured soil microbial biomass, community composition and potential SOC mineralization rates in winter and summer, from six temperate ecosystems in northern China. Our results showed a clear pattern of increased microbial biomass C to nitrogen (N ratio in most winter soils. Concurrently, a shift in soil microbial community composition occurred with higher fungal to bacterial biomass ratio and gram negative (G- to gram positive (G+ bacterial biomass ratio in winter than in summer. Furthermore, potential SOC mineralization rate was higher in winter than in summer. Our study demonstrated a distinct transition of microbial community structure and function from winter to summer in temperate snow-covered ecosystems. Microbial N immobilization in winter may not be the major contributor for plant growth in the following spring.

  5. Effects of acidic deposition on nutrient uptake, nutrient cycling and growth processes of vegetation in the spruce-fir ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Garten, C.T.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-16

    This report summarizes progress in three years of field research designed to evaluate biological and chemical indicators of the current and future health of the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem. The emphasis of this research has been on the identification and understanding of mechanisms through which current levels of acidic deposition are impacting ecosystem processes. The identification of these principal mechanisms and key biological indicators of change was designed to improve our capabilities to detect, monitor, and assess the effects of air quality regulations and attendant future air quality changes on ecosystem response. Individual research tasks focused on the following research areas: (1) the significance of foliar uptake of atmospheric sources of nitrogen in relationship to plant utilization of N from available soil reserves; (2) linkages between atmospheric inputs to the soil surface, solution chemistry, and decomposition in the upper organic soil horizons; (3) effects of soil solution chemistry on uptake of cations and aluminum by fine roots; and (4) the effects of varying rates of calcium supply on carbon metabolism of Fraser fir and red spruce, and the relationship between calcium levels in wood cells and integrity of wood formed in bole and branches. Each of the individual tasks was designed to focus upon a mechanism or process that we consider critical to understanding chemical and biological linkages. These linkages will be important determinants in understanding the basis of past and potential future responses of the high elevation Southern Appalachian Forest to acidic deposition and other co-occurring environmental stresses. This report contains (1) background and rationale for the research undertaken in 1992-94; (2) a summary of principal research findings; (3) publications from this research; and (4) characterization of data sets produced by this research which will be the basis of future research, analyses and/or publications.

  6. Forest Soil Bacteria: Diversity, Involvement in Ecosystem Processes, and Response to Global Change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lladó, Salvador; López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-27, č. článku e00063. ISSN 1092-2172 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-09040P; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15086 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bacteria * decomposition * ecosystem processes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 14.533, year: 2016

  7. A process-based framework for soil ecosystem services study and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Changhong; Liu, Huifang; Wang, Shuai

    2018-06-15

    Soil provides various indispensable ecosystem services for human society. Soil's complex structure and property makes the soil ecological processes complicated and brings about tough challenges for soil ecosystem services study. Most of the current frameworks on soil services focus exclusively on services per se, neglecting the links and underlying ecological mechanisms. This article put forward a framework on soil services by stressing the underlying soil mechanisms and processes, which includes: 1) analyzing soil natural capital stock based on soil structure and property, 2) disentangling the underlying complex links and soil processes, 3) soil services valuation based on field investigation and spatial explicit models, and 4) enacting soil management strategy based on soil services and their driving factors. By application of this framework, we assessed the soil services of sediment retention, water yield, and grain production in the Upper-reach Fenhe Watershed. Based on the ecosystem services and human driving factors, the whole watershed was clustered into five groups: 1) municipal area, 2) typical coal mining area, 3) traditional farming area, 4) unsustainable urbanizing area, and 5) ecological conservation area. Management strategies on soils were made according to the clustering based soil services and human activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrological regulation drives regime shifts: evidence from paleolimnology and ecosystem modeling of a large shallow Chinese lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; He, Qishuang; Yang, Bin; He, Wei; Xu, Fuliu; Janssen, Annette B G; Kuiper, Jan J; van Gerven, Luuk P A; Qin, Ning; Jiang, Yujiao; Liu, Wenxiu; Yang, Chen; Bai, Zelin; Zhang, Min; Kong, Fanxiang; Janse, Jan H; Mooij, Wolf M

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative evidence of sudden shifts in ecological structure and function in large shallow lakes is rare, even though they provide essential benefits to society. Such 'regime shifts' can be driven by human activities which degrade ecological stability including water level control (WLC) and nutrient loading. Interactions between WLC and nutrient loading on the long-term dynamics of shallow lake ecosystems are, however, often overlooked and largely underestimated, which has hampered the effectiveness of lake management. Here, we focus on a large shallow lake (Lake Chaohu) located in one of the most densely populated areas in China, the lower Yangtze River floodplain, which has undergone both WLC and increasing nutrient loading over the last several decades. We applied a novel methodology that combines consistent evidence from both paleolimnological records and ecosystem modeling to overcome the hurdle of data insufficiency and to unravel the drivers and underlying mechanisms in ecosystem dynamics. We identified the occurrence of two regime shifts: one in 1963, characterized by the abrupt disappearance of submerged vegetation, and another around 1980, with strong algal blooms being observed thereafter. Using model scenarios, we further disentangled the roles of WLC and nutrient loading, showing that the 1963 shift was predominantly triggered by WLC, whereas the shift ca. 1980 was attributed to aggravated nutrient loading. Our analysis also shows interactions between these two stressors. Compared to the dynamics driven by nutrient loading alone, WLC reduced the critical P loading and resulted in earlier disappearance of submerged vegetation and emergence of algal blooms by approximately 26 and 10 years, respectively. Overall, our study reveals the significant role of hydrological regulation in driving shallow lake ecosystem dynamics, and it highlights the urgency of using multi-objective management criteria that includes ecological sustainability perspectives when

  9. Process Network Approach to Understanding How Forest Ecosystems Adapt to Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Yun, J.; Hong, J.; Kwon, H.; Chun, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sustainability challenges are transforming science and its role in society. Complex systems science has emerged as an inevitable field of education and research, which transcends disciplinary boundaries and focuses on understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological systems (SES). SES is a combined system of social and ecological components and drivers that interact and give rise to results, which could not be understood on the basis of sociological or ecological considerations alone. However, both systems may be viewed as a network of processes, and such a network hierarchy may serve as a hinge to bridge social and ecological systems. As a first step toward such effort, we attempted to delineate and interpret such process networks in forest ecosystems, which play a critical role in the cycles of carbon and water from local to global scales. These cycles and their variability, in turn, play an important role in the emergent and self-organizing interactions between forest ecosystems and their environment. Ruddell and Kumar (2009) define a process network as a network of feedback loops and the related time scales, which describe the magnitude and direction of the flow of energy, matter, and information between the different variables in a complex system. Observational evidence, based on micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements, suggests that heterogeneity and disturbances in forest ecosystems in monsoon East Asia may facilitate to build resilience for adaptation to change. Yet, the principles that characterize the role of variability in these interactions remain elusive. In this presentation, we report results from the analysis of multivariate ecohydrologic and biogeochemical time series data obtained from temperate forest ecosystems in East Asia based on information flow statistics.

  10. Regulation of transport processes across the tonoplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Trentmann, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the vacuole builds up the cellular turgor and represents an important component in cellular responses to diverse stress stimuli. Rapid volume changes of cells, particularly of motor cells, like guard cells, are caused by variation of osmolytes and consequently of the water contents in the vacuole. Moreover, directed solute uptake into or release out of the large central vacuole allows adaptation of cytosolic metabolite levels according to the current physiological requirements and specific cellular demands. Therefore, solute passage across the vacuolar membrane, the tonoplast, has to be tightly regulated. Important principles in vacuolar transport regulation are changes of tonoplast transport protein abundances by differential expression of genes or changes of their activities, e.g., due to post-translational modification or by interacting proteins. Because vacuolar transport is in most cases driven by an electro-chemical gradient altered activities of tonoplast proton pumps significantly influence vacuolar transport capacities. Intense studies on individual tonoplast proteins but also unbiased system biological approaches have provided important insights into the regulation of vacuolar transport. This short review refers to selected examples of tonoplast proteins and their regulation, with special focus on protein phosphorylation. PMID:25309559

  11. Hot-spot analysis applied to the identification of potential high and low regulating, providing and cultural ecosystem services in Vilnius Region (Lithuania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Daniel, Depellegrin; Egarter-Vigl, Lukas; Cerda, Artemi; Estebaranz, Ferran; Misiune, Ieva

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) potential assessment is crucial for a correct territorial planning at different scales of analysis (Depellegrin et al., 2016). In urban and peri-urban areas, sprawl, grazing and unsustainable agriculture practices contributed to land degradation and de decrease of the quality and quantity of the services provided by these areas (Eldridge and Delgado-Baquerizo, 2017; Favretto et al., 2017). In order to understand the spatial pattern of these impacts, mapping ES potential is key to understand the areas that need to be restored and protected for an unsustainable use (Brevik et al., 2016; Egarter-Vigl et al., 2017; Pereira et al., 2017). Hot-spot analysis is a good method to identify clusters of areas with high and low capacity for ES capacity. This analysis is very useful to detect homogeneous areas, where ES have high or low quality. The objective of this work is to apply a hot-spot analysis to detect areas with high/low capacity for Regulating, Provision, Cultural and Total ES in Vilnius region. ES potential was carried out based on the matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009), which ranks ES capacity from 0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity to a different land use type. The results showed that regulating, providing and cultural and total ES have a significant dispersed (low-clustered) pattern: Regulating (Z-score=-19.28, pInternational Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455. Egarter-Vigl, L., Depellegrin, D., Pereira, P., De Groot, D., Tappeiner, U. (2017) Mapping the ecosystem service delivery chain: Capacity, flow, and demand pertaining to aesthetic experiences in mountain landscapes, Science of the Total Environment, 574, 442-436. Eldridge, D.J., Delgado-Baquerizo, M. (2017) Continental-scale impacts of livestock grazing on ecosystem supporting and regulating services. Land Degradation and Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2668 Favretto, N., Lueding, E., Stringer, L., Dougill, A.J. (2017) Valuing

  12. Ocean-atmosphere pollutant circulation processes: The Heligoland Bight ecosystem (PRISMA). 2. interim report (1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The PRISMA BMFT project is an important stage on the way to a comprehensive knowledge of the impacts of pollutants on the North Sea/Heligoland Bight ecosystem. The overall project is dedicated to the development, verification and application of a complex shelf-sea model which provides qualitative and quantitative data about the causal interactions between the basic atmospheric conditions, the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the water, the chemical reactons in the air, in the water and the sediments, and the activity of organisms. The model comprises a compact set of formulae, process formulations, initial and marginal conditions and empirical parameters which serves to describe the origin, transport, reactions and final deposition of pollutants in the North Sea, helps to analyze and elucidate the present condition of the ecosystem and its spatial and temporal variability, and provides forecasts in accordance with the changing natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. (orig.) [de

  13. Ecosystem services: developing sustainable management paradigms based on wetland functions and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; Conner, William H.; Burkett, Virginia R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Hester, Mark W.; Zheng, Haochi

    2013-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century and twentieth century, there was considerable interest and activity to develop the United States for agricultural, mining, and many other purposes to improve the quality of human life standards and prosperity. Most of the work to support this development was focused along disciplinary lines with little attention focused on ecosystem service trade-offs or synergisms, especially those that transcended boundaries of scientific disciplines and specific interest groups. Concurrently, human population size has increased substantially and its use of ecosystem services has increased more than five-fold over just the past century. Consequently, the contemporary landscape has been highly modified for human use, leaving behind a fragmented landscape where basic ecosystem functions and processes have been broadly altered. Over this period, climate change also interacted with other anthropogenic effects, resulting in modern environmental problems having a complexity that is without historical precedent. The challenge before the scientific community is to develop new science paradigms that integrate relevant scientific disciplines to properly frame and evaluate modern environmental problems in a systems-type approach to better inform the decision-making process. Wetland science is a relatively new discipline that grew out of the conservation movement of the early twentieth century. In the United States, most of the conservation attention in the earlier days was on wildlife, but a growing human awareness of the importance of the environment led to the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. Concurrently, there was a broadening interest in conservation science, and the scientific study of wetlands gradually gained acceptance as a scientific discipline. Pioneering wetland scientists became formally organized when they formed The Society of Wetland Scientists in 1980 and established a publication outlet to share wetland research

  14. Dynamics of radioecological and genetic processes in populations of mammalian model species at contamination of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabokon', N.I.; Goncharova, R.I.

    2008-01-01

    A short review of data on the time course of radiobiological and genetic processes in natural populations of mammalian model species inhabiting radiocontaminated ecosystems over many generations is presented here. The described time-courses of biological end-points in these populations do not reflect the time course of the whole-body dose rates, but do the outcome of multiple processes, including the direct response to individual irradiation, the transgeneration transmission and accumulation of induced damages and the development of adaptation. (authors)

  15. Expression regulation of design process gene in product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Fang, Lusheng; Li, Bo

    2011-01-01

    To improve the design process efficiency, this paper proposes the principle and methodology that design process gene controls the characteristics of design process under the framework of design process reuse and optimization based on design process gene. First, the concept of design process gene...... is proposed and analyzed, as well as its three categories i.e., the operator gene, the structural gene and the regulator gene. Second, the trigger mechanism that design objectives and constraints trigger the operator gene is constructed. Third, the expression principle of structural gene is analyzed...... with the example of design management gene. Last, the regulation mode that the regulator gene regulates the expression of the structural gene is established and it is illustrated by taking the design process management gene as an example. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications....

  16. Simulations of ecosystem hydrological processes using a unified multi-scale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Chongxuan; Fang, Yilin; Hinkle, Ross; Li, Hong-Yi; Bailey, Vanessa; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a unified multi-scale model (UMSM) that we developed to simulate hydrological processes in an ecosystem containing both surface water and groundwater. The UMSM approach modifies the Navier–Stokes equation by adding a Darcy force term to formulate a single set of equations to describe fluid momentum and uses a generalized equation to describe fluid mass balance. The advantage of the approach is that the single set of the equations can describe hydrological processes in both surface water and groundwater where different models are traditionally required to simulate fluid flow. This feature of the UMSM significantly facilitates modelling of hydrological processes in ecosystems, especially at locations where soil/sediment may be frequently inundated and drained in response to precipitation, regional hydrological and climate changes. In this paper, the UMSM was benchmarked using WASH123D, a model commonly used for simulating coupled surface water and groundwater flow. Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP) site at the Kissimmee, Florida, where active field monitoring and measurements are ongoing to understand hydrological and biogeochemical processes, was then used as an example to illustrate the UMSM modelling approach. The simulations results demonstrated that the DWP site is subject to the frequent changes in soil saturation, the geometry and volume of surface water bodies, and groundwater and surface water exchange. All the hydrological phenomena in surface water and groundwater components including inundation and draining, river bank flow, groundwater table change, soil saturation, hydrological interactions between groundwater and surface water, and the migration of surface water and groundwater interfaces can be simultaneously simulated using the UMSM. Overall, the UMSM offers a cross-scale approach that is particularly suitable to simulate coupled surface and ground water flow in ecosystems with strong surface water and groundwater interactions.

  17. Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides insights on nanoparticle (NP) influence or control on the extent and timescales of single or coupled physical, chemical, biological and hydrological reactions and processes that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. Examples taken from the literature that show how terrestrial NPs may determine the fate of the aqueous and sorbed (adsorbed or precipitated) chemical species of nutrients and contaminants, are also included in this chapter. Specifically, in the first section, chapter objectives, term definitions and discussions on size-dependent properties, the origin and occurrence of NP in terrestrial ecosystems and NP toxicity, are included. In the second section, the topic of the binary interactions of NPs of different sizes, shapes, concentrations and ages with the soil solution chemical species is covered, focusing on NP formation, stability, aggregation, ability to serve as sorbents, or surface-mediated precipitation catalysts, or electron donors and acceptors. In the third section, aspects of the interactions in the ternary systems composed of environmental NP, nutrient/contaminant chemical species, and the soil/sediment matrix are discussed, focusing on the inhibitory and catalytic effects of environmental NP on nutrient/contaminant advective mobility and mass transfer, adsorption and desorption, dissolution and precipitation and redox reactions that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. These three review sections are followed by a short summary of future research needs and directions, the acknowledgements, the list of the references, and the figures.

  18. Estimating California ecosystem carbon change using process model and land cover disturbance data: 1951-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxun; Vogelmann, James E.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Key, Carl H.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Price, D.T.; Chen, Jing M.; Cochrane, Mark A.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Howard, Stephen M.; Bliss, Norman B.; Jiang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Land use change, natural disturbance, and climate change directly alter ecosystem productivity and carbon stock level. The estimation of ecosystem carbon dynamics depends on the quality of land cover change data and the effectiveness of the ecosystem models that represent the vegetation growth processes and disturbance effects. We used the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and a set of 30- to 60-m resolution fire and land cover change data to examine the carbon changes of California's forests, shrublands, and grasslands. Simulation results indicate that during 1951–2000, the net primary productivity (NPP) increased by 7%, from 72.2 to 77.1 Tg C yr−1 (1 teragram = 1012 g), mainly due to CO2 fertilization, since the climate hardly changed during this period. Similarly, heterotrophic respiration increased by 5%, from 69.4 to 73.1 Tg C yr−1, mainly due to increased forest soil carbon and temperature. Net ecosystem production (NEP) was highly variable in the 50-year period but on average equalled 3.0 Tg C yr−1 (total of 149 Tg C). As with NEP, the net biome production (NBP) was also highly variable but averaged −0.55 Tg C yr−1 (total of –27.3 Tg C) because NBP in the 1980s was very low (–5.34 Tg C yr−1). During the study period, a total of 126 Tg carbon were removed by logging and land use change, and 50 Tg carbon were directly removed by wildland fires. For carbon pools, the estimated total living upper canopy (tree) biomass decreased from 928 to 834 Tg C, and the understory (including shrub and grass) biomass increased from 59 to 63 Tg C. Soil carbon and dead biomass carbon increased from 1136 to 1197 Tg C.Our analyses suggest that both natural and human processes have significant influence on the carbon change in California. During 1951–2000, climate interannual variability was the key driving force for the large interannual changes of ecosystem carbon source and sink at the state level, while logging and fire

  19. Species effects on ecosystem processes are modified by faunal responses to habitat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Mark T; Solan, Martin; Dyson, Kirstie E; Hernandez-Milian, Gema; Luque, Patricia; Pierce, Graham J; Raffaelli, Dave; Paterson, David M; White, Piran C L

    2008-12-01

    Heterogeneity is a well-recognized feature of natural environments, and the spatial distribution and movement of individual species is primarily driven by resource requirements. In laboratory experiments designed to explore how different species drive ecosystem processes, such as nutrient release, habitat heterogeneity is often seen as something which must be rigorously controlled for. Most small experimental systems are therefore spatially homogeneous, and the link between environmental heterogeneity and its effects on the redistribution of individuals and species, and on ecosystem processes, has not been fully explored. In this paper, we used a mesocosm system to investigate the relationship between habitat composition, species movement and sediment nutrient release for each of four functionally contrasting species of marine benthic invertebrate macrofauna. For each species, various habitat configurations were generated by selectively enriching patches of sediment with macroalgae, a natural source of spatial variability in intertidal mudflats. We found that the direction and extent of faunal movement between patches differs with species identity, density and habitat composition. Combinations of these factors lead to concomitant changes in nutrient release, such that habitat composition effects are modified by species identity (in the case of NH4-N) and by species density (in the case of PO4-P). It is clear that failure to accommodate natural patterns of spatial heterogeneity in such studies may result in an incomplete understanding of system behaviour. This will be particularly important for future experiments designed to explore the effects of species richness on ecosystem processes, where the complex interactions reported here for single species may be compounded when species are brought together in multi-species combinations.

  20. The functional value of Caribbean coral reef, seagrass and mangrove habitats to ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, Alastair R; Mumby, Peter J; Micheli, Fiorenza; Perry, Christopher T; Dahlgren, Craig P; Holmes, Katherine E; Brumbaugh, Daniel R

    2006-01-01

    Caribbean coral reef habitats, seagrass beds and mangroves provide important goods and services both individually and through functional linkages. A range of anthropogenic factors are threatening the ecological and economic importance of these habitats and it is vital to understand how ecosystem processes vary across seascapes. A greater understanding of processes will facilitate further insight into the effects of disturbances and assist with assessing management options. Despite the need to study processes across whole seascapes, few spatially explicit ecosystem-scale assessments exist. We review the empirical literature to examine the role of different habitat types for a range of processes. The importance of each of 10 generic habitats to each process is defined as its "functional value" (none, low, medium or high), quantitatively derived from published data wherever possible and summarised in a single figure. This summary represents the first time the importance of habitats across an entire Caribbean seascape has been assessed for a range of processes. Furthermore, we review the susceptibility of each habitat to disturbances to investigate spatial patterns that might affect functional values. Habitat types are considered at the scale discriminated by remotely-sensed imagery and we envisage that functional values can be combined with habitat maps to provide spatially explicit information on processes across ecosystems. We provide examples of mapping the functional values of habitats for populations of three commercially important species. The resulting data layers were then used to generate seascape-scale assessments of "hot spots" of functional value that might be considered priorities for conservation. We also provide an example of how the literature reviewed here can be used to parameterise a habitat-specific model investigating reef resilience under different scenarios of herbivory. Finally, we use multidimensional scaling to provide a basic analysis of the

  1. Long-Distance Interactions Regulate the Structure and Resilience of Coastal Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Koppel, J.; van der Heide, T.; Altieri, A.H.; Eriksson, B.K.; Bouma, T.J.; Olff, H.; Silliman, B.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that spatial interactions are important in structuring coastal ecosystems. Until recently, however, most of this work has been focused on seemingly exceptional systems that are characterized by regular, self-organized patterns. In this review, we document that

  2. Empirical Succession Mapping and Data Assimilation to Constrain Demographic Processes in an Ecosystem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R.; Andrews, T.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shifts in ecological communities in response to environmental change have implications for biodiversity, ecosystem function, and feedbacks to global climate change. Community composition is fundamentally the product of demography, but demographic processes are simplified or missing altogether in many ecosystem, Earth system, and species distribution models. This limitation arises in part because demographic data are noisy and difficult to synthesize. As a consequence, demographic processes are challenging to formulate in models in the first place, and to verify and constrain with data thereafter. Here, we used a novel analysis of the USFS Forest Inventory Analysis to improve the representation of demography in an ecosystem model. First, we created an Empirical Succession Mapping (ESM) based on ~1 million individual tree observations from the eastern U.S. to identify broad demographic patterns related to forest succession and disturbance. We used results from this analysis to guide reformulation of the Ecosystem Demography model (ED), an existing forest simulator with explicit tree demography. Results from the ESM reveal a coherent, cyclic pattern of change in temperate forest tree size and density over the eastern U.S. The ESM captures key ecological processes including succession, self-thinning, and gap-filling, and quantifies the typical trajectory of these processes as a function of tree size and stand density. Recruitment is most rapid in early-successional stands with low density and mean diameter, but slows as stand density increases; mean diameter increases until thinning promotes recruitment of small-diameter trees. Strikingly, the upper bound of size-density space that emerges in the ESM conforms closely to the self-thinning power law often observed in ecology. The ED model obeys this same overall size-density boundary, but overestimates plot-level growth, mortality, and fecundity rates, leading to unrealistic emergent demographic patterns. In particular

  3. Photodegradation processes in arid ecosystems: controlling factors and potential application in land restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Luna-Ramos, Lourdes; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Sole Benet, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Water availability plays a fundamental part in controlling biotic processes in arid ecosystems. However, recent evidence suggests that other decisive drivers take part in these processes. Despite low annual rainfall and microbial activity, unexplained high rates of litter decomposition, net nitrogen mineralization, soil enzymatic activity and carbon turnover have been observed in arid ecosystems. These observations have been partly explained by photodegradation, a process that consists of the breakdown of organic matter via solar radiation (UV) and that can increase decomposition rates and lead to changes in the balance of carbon and nutrients between plants, soil and atmosphere. A complete understanding of these mechanisms and its drivers in arid ecosystems remains a critical challenge for the scientific community at the global level. In this research, we conducted a multi-site field experiment to test the effects of photodegradation on decomposition of organic amendments used in ecosystem restoration. The study was carried out during 12 months in two study areas: the Pilbara region in Western Australia (Southern Hemisphere) and the Cabo de Gata Nijar Natural Park, South Spain (Northern Hemisphere). In both sites, four treatments were applied in replicated plots (1x1 m, n=4) that included a control (C) with no soil amendment; organic amendment covering the soil surface (AS); organic amendment incorporated into the soil (AI); and a combination of both techniques, both covering the surface and incorporated into the soil (AS-AI). Different organic amendments (native mulch versus compost) and soil substrates were used at each site according to local practices, but in both sites these were applied to increase soil organic matter up to 2%. At the two locations, a radiometer and a logger with a soil temperature and soil moisture probe were installed to monitor UV radiation and soil conditions for the duration of the trial. Soil microbial activity, soil CO2 efflux, and

  4. When a regulation becomes a learning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho; Cespedes, Paula

    systems. It influences the business processes, and therefore a business practice should be redeveloped and redefined, furthermore the control over the ICT practice has become very important in the recent years. Some frameworks, methodologies and bodies of knowledge have been developed to support......, a small consulting company from Costa Rica, is using action learning to implement COBIT in the financial sector in Costa Rica....

  5. Integration of coral reef ecosystem process studies and remote sensing: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, John; Yates, Kimberly; Halley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    anthropogenic causes (Brown, 1988). Models of coral reef ecosystems, parameterized by process measurements and scaled in time-space using remote sensing, have the potential to address pressing research questions that are central to devising valid management strategies (Grigg el al., 1984; Hatcher, 1997b). To attain this goal, ecosystem-level models that integrate studies of physical and chemical forcing with observed biological and geological responses are required. This interdisciplinary approach to understanding reef biogeochemical dynamics can allow investigations that integrate the scales of time and space (Hatcher, 1997a), thereby enabling prediction of coral reef change (Andréfouët and Payri, 2001). In turn, prediction of holistic ecosystem function within various environmental focusing scenarios has substantial promise in mitigating future disturbance. Indeed, management of coral reefs at the ecosystem level has been suggested as the only meaningful approach to preserving coral reefs (Bohnsack and Ault, 1996; Christensen et al., 1996).

  6. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-01-01

    , the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes......Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources...

  7. A dynamic ecosystem process model for understanding interactions between permafrost thawing and vegetation responses in the arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Travis, B. J.; Fisher, R. A.; Wilson, C. J.; McDowell, N.

    2010-12-01

    The arctic is expected to play an important role in the Earth’s future climate due to the large carbon stocks that are stored in permafrost and peatlands, a substantial proportion of which may be released to the atmosphere due to permafrost thawing. There may be positive feedbacks of permafrost thawing on plant growth by releasing stored nitrogen and increasing rooting depth; however, vegetation response to other changing variables such as CO2 and temperature can also modify soil hydrology and energy fluxes, leading to either positive or negative feedbacks on permafrost thawing. Disentangling the interactions between permafrost thawing and vegetation growth is critical for assessing the potential role of arctic regions on current and future global carbon cycling. We have developed a mechanistic, regional, and spatially explicit dynamic ecosystem process model through the integration of a 3-D soil hydrology and biogeochemistry model (Arctic Hydrology, ARCHY) and a dynamic vegetation model (Ecosystem Demography, ED), to quantify the importance of plant-permafrost interactions to soil and plant carbon storage. This model integrates important processes including photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration, 3-D competition for light, 3-D soil hydrology, energy fluxes (ice melting in the soil and solar radiation interception by canopy), nitrogen cycles (microbial decomposition, nitrogen transportation in soil, passive and active nitrogen uptake by plants), species migration, and drought-related mortality. A sensitivity analysis has been implemented to assess the importance of the hydrological cycle, the nitrogen cycle and energy fluxes in regulating the above and below-ground carbon cycles in arctic regions. Our model can fill an important gap between field and global land surface models for assessing plot and regional level hypotheses in the context of global climate.

  8. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  9. Self-tuning regulator for an interacting CSTR process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendra Mungale, Niraj; Upadhyay, Akshay; Jaganatha Pandian, B.

    2017-11-01

    In the paper we have laid emphasis on STR that is Self Tuning Regulator and its application for an interacting process. CSTR has a great importance in Chemical Process when we deal with controlling different parameters of a process using CSTR. Basically CSTR is used to maintain a constant liquid temperature in the process. The proposed method called self-tuning regulator, is a different scheme where process parameters are updated and the controller parameters are obtained from the solution of a design problem. The paper deals with STR and methods associated with it.

  10. Synergistic linkage between remote sensing and biophysical models for estimating plant ecophysiological and ecosystem processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Olioso, A.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Information on the ecological and physiological status of crops is essential for growth diagnostics and yield prediction. Within-field or between-field spatial information is required, especially with the recent trend toward precision agriculture, which seeks the efficient use of agrochemicals, water, and energy. The study of carbon and nitrogen cycles as well as environmental management on local and regional scales requires assessment of the spatial variability of biophysical and ecophysiological variables, scaling up of which is also needed for scientific and decision-making purposes. Remote sensing has great potential for these applications because it enables wide-area non-destructive, and real-time acquisition of information about ecophysiological conditions of vegetation. With recent advances in sensor technology, a variety of electromagnetic signatures, such as hyperspectral reflectance, thermal-infrared temperature, and microwave backscattering coefficients, can be acquired for both plants and ecosystems using ground-based, airborne, and satellite platforms. Their spatial and temporal resolutions have both recently been improved. This article reviews the state of the art in the remote sensing of plant ecophysiological data, with special emphasis on the synergy between remote sensing signatures and biophysical and ecophysiological process models. Several case studies for the optical, thermal, and microwave domains have demonstrated the potential of this synergistic linkage. Remote sensing and process modeling methods complement each other when combined synergistically. Further research on this approach is needed f or a wide range of ecophysiological and ecosystem studies, as well as for practical crop management

  11. Responses in Arctic marine carbon cycle processes: conceptual scenarios and implications for ecosystem function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen S. Findlay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is one of the fastest changing oceans, plays an important role in global carbon cycling and yet is a particularly challenging ocean to study. Hence, observations tend to be relatively sparse in both space and time. How the Arctic functions, geophysically, but also ecologically, can have significant consequences for the internal cycling of carbon, and subsequently influence carbon export, atmospheric CO2 uptake and food chain productivity. Here we assess the major carbon pools and associated processes, specifically summarizing the current knowledge of each of these processes in terms of data availability and ranges of rates and values for four geophysical Arctic Ocean domains originally described by Carmack & Wassmann (2006: inflow shelves, which are Pacific-influenced and Atlantic-influenced; interior, river-influenced shelves; and central basins. We attempt to bring together knowledge of the carbon cycle with the ecosystem within each of these different geophysical settings, in order to provide specialist information in a holistic context. We assess the current state of models and how they can be improved and/or used to provide assessments of the current and future functioning when observational data are limited or sparse. In doing so, we highlight potential links in the physical oceanographic regime, primary production and the flow of carbon within the ecosystem that will change in the future. Finally, we are able to highlight priority areas for research, taking a holistic pan-Arctic approach.

  12. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism at public schools: Supporting an ecosystemic management approach

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Susan; Venter, Rienie

    2016-01-01

    Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners' social and economic circumstances. Notwithstanding this fact, there is a worldwide trend towards a more punitive and retributory management approach to address learner absenteeism. Because such an approach neglects to consider absentees' specific circumstances, it fails to address learner absenteeism properly. In the first part of this article, the authors considered the suitability of the ecosystemic theory as basis for a manage...

  13. Supplementing forest ecosystem health projects on the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathy Barbouletos; Lynette Z. Morelan

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the functions and processes of ecosystems is critical before implementing forest ecosystem health projects on the landscape. Silvicultural treatments such as thinning, prescribed fire, and reforestation can simulate disturbance regimes and landscape patterns that have regulated forest ecosystems for centuries. As land managers we need to understand these...

  14. Biogeochemical Processes Regulating the Mobility of Uranium in Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Keaton M.; Taillefert, Martial

    2016-07-01

    This book chapters reviews the latest knowledge on the biogeochemical processes regulating the mobility of uranium in sediments. It contains both data from the literature and new data from the authors.

  15. Forest Fragmentation and Selective Logging Have Inconsistent Effects on Multiple Animal-Mediated Ecosystem Processes in a Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K.; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W.; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H.; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J. Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  16. Using ecological production functions to link ecological processes to ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem services (ES) production. Although EPFs are acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, their use in ecological risk assessment has received relatively ...

  17. Looking Past Primary Productivity: Benchmarking System Processes that Drive Ecosystem Level Responses in Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, E.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    As atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide levels continue to increase, it is critical that terrestrial ecosystem models can accurately predict ecological responses to the changing environment. Current predictions of net primary productivity (NPP) in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration are highly variable and contain a considerable amount of uncertainty. Benchmarking model predictions against data are necessary to assess their ability to replicate observed patterns, but also to identify and evaluate the assumptions causing inter-model differences. We have implemented a novel benchmarking workflow as part of the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn) that is automated, repeatable, and generalized to incorporate different sites and ecological models. Building on the recent Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Model Data Synthesis (FACE-MDS) project, we used observational data from the FACE experiments to test this flexible, extensible benchmarking approach aimed at providing repeatable tests of model process representation that can be performed quickly and frequently. Model performance assessments are often limited to traditional residual error analysis; however, this can result in a loss of critical information. Models that fail tests of relative measures of fit may still perform well under measures of absolute fit and mathematical similarity. This implies that models that are discounted as poor predictors of ecological productivity may still be capturing important patterns. Conversely, models that have been found to be good predictors of productivity may be hiding error in their sub-process that result in the right answers for the wrong reasons. Our suite of tests have not only highlighted process based sources of uncertainty in model productivity calculations, they have also quantified the patterns and scale of this error. Combining these findings with PEcAn's model sensitivity analysis and variance decomposition strengthen our ability to identify which processes

  18. Impacts of introduced Rangifer on ecosystem processes of maritime tundra on subarctic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Eviner, Valerie T.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of mammalian herbivores to remote islands without predators provide a natural experiment to ask how temporal and spatial variation in herbivory intensity alter feedbacks between plant and soil processes. We investigated ecosystem effects resulting from introductions of Rangifer tarandus (hereafter “Rangifer”) to native mammalian predator- and herbivore-free islands in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska. We hypothesized that the maritime tundra of these islands would experience either: (1) accelerated ecosystem processes mediated by positive feedbacks between increased graminoid production and rapid nitrogen cycling; or (2) decelerated processes mediated by herbivory that stimulated shrub domination and lowered soil fertility. We measured summer plant and soil properties across three islands representing a chronosequence of elapsed time post-Rangifer introduction (Atka: ~100 yr; Adak: ~50; Kagalaska: ~0), with distinct stages of irruptive population dynamics of Rangifer nested within each island (Atka: irruption, K-overshoot, decline, K-re-equilibration; Adak: irruption, K-overshoot; Kagalaska: initial introduction). We also measured Rangifer spatial use within islands (indexed by pellet group counts) to determine how ecosystem processes responded to spatial variation in herbivory. Vegetation community response to herbivory varied with temporal and spatial scale. When comparing temporal effects using the island chronosequence, increased time since herbivore introduction led to more graminoids and fewer dwarf-shrubs, lichens, and mosses. Slow-growingCladonia lichens that are highly preferred winter forage were decimated on both long-termRangifer-occupied islands. In addition, linear relations between more concentrated Rangifer spatial use and reductions in graminoid and forb biomass within islands added spatial heterogeneity to long-term patterns identified by the chronosequence. These results support, in part, the hypothesis that

  19. THE ACCOUNTING REGULATION PROCESS IN THE FIELD OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper develops an analysis on the accounting regulation process by considering the field of financial instruments as one of the most controversial areas of financial reporting. After a brief introduction, comprising aspects related to the accounting regulation process, we first stop upon the historical evolution of the two main accounting referential that currently collaborate through the convergence process. Our analysis focuses both on standards first issuance and on their amendment process. A special emphasize is given to the international accounting referential. The obtained results enhance the complexity of the approached field and indicate significant steps still needed to be taken.

  20. Fire Process Research Natural Areas: Managing research and restoration of dynamic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee

    2001-01-01

    Since 1992 a collaborative group of fire scientists, forest conservationists, and Federal resource specialists have been developing proposals for a Research Natural Area (RNA) in the Warner Creek Fire area on the Willamette National Forest in Oregon. Inspired by these proposals, the Oregon Natural Heritage Plan created the new category of "Fire Process RNAs"...

  1. Strategies for restoration of deep-water coral ecosystems based on a global survey of oil and gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, E. E.; Jones, D.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry is one of the most active agents of the global industrialization of the deep sea. The wide array of impacts following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted the need for a systematic review of existing regulations both in US waters and internationally. Within different exclusive economic zones, there are a wide variety of regulations regarding the survey of deep-water areas prior to leasing and the acceptable set-back distances from vulnerable marine ecosystems once they are discovered. There are also varying mitigation strategies for accidental release of oil and gas, including active monitoring systems, temporary closings of oil and gas production, and marine protected areas. The majority of these regulations are based on previous studies of typical impacts from oil and gas drilling, rather than accidental releases. However, the probability of an accident from standard operations increases significantly with depth. The Oil & Gas working group of the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative is an international partnership of scientists, managers, non-governmental organizations, and industry professionals whose goal is to review existing regulations for the oil & gas industry and produce a best practices document to advise both developed and developing nations on their regulatory structure as energy development moves into deeper waters.

  2. Climate regulates alpine lake ice cover phenology and aquatic ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel L.; Caine, Nel; McKnight, Diane M.; Williams, Mark W.; Hell, Katherina; Miller, Matthew P.; Hart, Sarah J.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.

    2016-01-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate change, yet relatively few records are available to characterize shifts in ecosystem structure or their underlying mechanisms. Using a long-term dataset on seven alpine lakes (3126 to 3620 m) in Colorado, USA, we show that ice-off dates have shifted seven days earlier over the past 33 years and that spring weather conditions – especially snowfall – drive yearly variation in ice-off timing. In the most well-studied lake, earlier ice-off associated with increases in water residence times, thermal stratification, ion concentrations, dissolved nitrogen, pH, and chlorophyll-a. Mechanistically, low spring snowfall and warm temperatures reduce summer stream flow (increasing lake residence times) but enhance melting of glacial and permafrost ice (increasing lake solute inputs). The observed links among hydrological, chemical, and biological responses to climate factors highlight the potential for major shifts in the functioning of alpine lakes due to forecasted climate change.

  3. Mapping Ecological Processes and Ecosystem Services for Prioritizing Restoration Efforts in a Semi-arid Mediterranean River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Mattia; O'Farrell, Patrick J.; Notivol, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A.

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid Mediterranean regions are highly susceptible to desertification processes which can reduce the benefits that people obtain from healthy ecosystems and thus threaten human wellbeing. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 recognizes the need to incorporate ecosystem services into land-use management, conservation, and restoration actions. The inclusion of ecosystem services into restoration actions and plans is an emerging area of research, and there are few documented approaches and guidelines on how to undertake such an exercise. This paper responds to this need, and we demonstrate an approach for identifying both key ecosystem services provisioning areas and the spatial relationship between ecological processes and services. A degraded semi-arid Mediterranean river basin in north east Spain was used as a case study area. We show that the quantification and mapping of services are the first step required for both optimizing and targeting of specific local areas for restoration. Additionally, we provide guidelines for restoration planning at a watershed scale; establishing priorities for improving the delivery of ecosystem services at this scale; and prioritizing the sub-watersheds for restoration based on their potential for delivering a combination of key ecosystem services for the entire basin.

  4. Mapping ecological processes and ecosystem services for prioritizing restoration efforts in a semi-arid Mediterranean river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Mattia; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Notivol, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid Mediterranean regions are highly susceptible to desertification processes which can reduce the benefits that people obtain from healthy ecosystems and thus threaten human wellbeing. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 recognizes the need to incorporate ecosystem services into land-use management, conservation, and restoration actions. The inclusion of ecosystem services into restoration actions and plans is an emerging area of research, and there are few documented approaches and guidelines on how to undertake such an exercise. This paper responds to this need, and we demonstrate an approach for identifying both key ecosystem services provisioning areas and the spatial relationship between ecological processes and services. A degraded semi-arid Mediterranean river basin in north east Spain was used as a case study area. We show that the quantification and mapping of services are the first step required for both optimizing and targeting of specific local areas for restoration. Additionally, we provide guidelines for restoration planning at a watershed scale; establishing priorities for improving the delivery of ecosystem services at this scale; and prioritizing the sub-watersheds for restoration based on their potential for delivering a combination of key ecosystem services for the entire basin.

  5. Productivity and modifications of ecosystem processes in gaps of a low Macchia in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Marco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance in Mediterranean shrub lands creates gaps that break up the shrub cover and potentially restrict productivity and other ecosystem processes. Gaps make up to about 20% of the low Macchia area at the Castel Volturno nature reserve (southern Italy. The plant community consists mainly of small annual species (legumes, grasses and forbs that germinate in November and die out before the onset of summer drought. The inter-annual variability in productivity and the relative abundance of legumes, grasses and forbs were assessed over 4 yr (2004–2007 to evaluate main potential modifications of ecosystem processes determined by the occurrence of gaps in the shrub cover.

    In the study years, at the peak production, plant mass varied from about 250 to 700 g m−2; biomass belowground allocation varied from 23% in the wettest to 44% in the driest year. Belowground/aboveground biomass ratios were negatively related to rainfall and positively related to the length of the dry period, showing that water availability controls biomass allocation patterns. Legumes were the most abundant fraction (about 60% of the aboveground mass in the wettest year. In the drier years legumes exhibited a shorter life cycle and senesced by mid-spring. Among the three functional groups monitored, legumes were the most sensitive to water shortage and their biomass was positively related to the amount of rainfall and negatively related to the length of the dry period. The higher fraction of legume mass was associated with higher nitrogen content in plant tissues and in the soil. Senesced annual species decomposed more than senescent Phillyrea sp. leaves. The stability of organic carbon pool, evaluated through the endogenous mineralization coefficient (CEM, was lower in gaps than in understorey soils.

  6. Forest Soil Bacteria: Diversity, Involvement in Ecosystem Processes, and Response to Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lladó, Salvador; López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-06-01

    The ecology of forest soils is an important field of research due to the role of forests as carbon sinks. Consequently, a significant amount of information has been accumulated concerning their ecology, especially for temperate and boreal forests. Although most studies have focused on fungi, forest soil bacteria also play important roles in this environment. In forest soils, bacteria inhabit multiple habitats with specific properties, including bulk soil, rhizosphere, litter, and deadwood habitats, where their communities are shaped by nutrient availability and biotic interactions. Bacteria contribute to a range of essential soil processes involved in the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. They take part in the decomposition of dead plant biomass and are highly important for the decomposition of dead fungal mycelia. In rhizospheres of forest trees, bacteria interact with plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi as commensalists or mycorrhiza helpers. Bacteria also mediate multiple critical steps in the nitrogen cycle, including N fixation. Bacterial communities in forest soils respond to the effects of global change, such as climate warming, increased levels of carbon dioxide, or anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. This response, however, often reflects the specificities of each studied forest ecosystem, and it is still impossible to fully incorporate bacteria into predictive models. The understanding of bacterial ecology in forest soils has advanced dramatically in recent years, but it is still incomplete. The exact extent of the contribution of bacteria to forest ecosystem processes will be recognized only in the future, when the activities of all soil community members are studied simultaneously. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Thermal regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Progress report, 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, K.W.; Klug, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Upper and lower thermal limits and temperature dependent growth were determined for a number of organisms (or populations) representing various functional groups of stream ecosystems (microconsumers, producers, and macroconsumers, shredders, collectors, scrapers, and predators). Although temperature functions as an overall control parameter, organic substrate (microconsumers) and inorganic nutrients (microconsumers and producers), light (producers) and food quality (macroconsumers) can modify thermal responses. Stream microorganisms typically grow below their thermal optima, community composition being determined by those that can manage the maximum growth at a given temperature utilizing a given organic substrate. Producers in first to third order streams are generally light limited (although nutrient availability is also important). Food quality, primarily a function of microbial biomass in the case of detritivores. can compensate for temperature dependent growth in non-predator macroinvertebrate functional groups. (U.S.)

  8. Community Characteristics and Leaf Stoichiometric Traits of Desert Ecosystems Regulated by Precipitation and Soil in an Arid Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tianyu; Zhou, Jihua; Cai, Wentao; Gao, Nannan; Du, Hui; Jiang, Lianhe; Lai, Liming; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation is a key environmental factor determining plant community structure and function. Knowledge of how community characteristics and leaf stoichiometric traits respond to variation in precipitation is crucial for assessing the effects of global changes on terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we measured community characteristics, leaf stoichiometric traits, and soil properties along a precipitation gradient (35–209 mm) in a desert ecosystem of Northwest China to explore the drivers of these factors. With increasing precipitation, species richness, aboveground biomass, community coverage, foliage projective cover (FPC), and leaf area index (LAI) all significantly increased, while community height decreased. The hyperarid desert plants were characterized by lower leaf carbon (C) and nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) levels, and stable N and P, and these parameters did not change significantly with precipitation. The growth of desert plants was limited more by N than P. Soil properties, rather than precipitation, were the main drivers of desert plant leaf stoichiometric traits, whereas precipitation made the biggest contribution to vegetation structure and function. These results test the importance of precipitation in regulating plant community structure and composition together with soil properties, and provide further insights into the adaptive strategy of communities at regional scale in response to global climate change. PMID:29320458

  9. Community Characteristics and Leaf Stoichiometric Traits of Desert Ecosystems Regulated by Precipitation and Soil in an Arid Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Guan, Tianyu; Zhou, Jihua; Cai, Wentao; Gao, Nannan; Du, Hui; Jiang, Lianhe; Lai, Liming; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2018-01-10

    Precipitation is a key environmental factor determining plant community structure and function. Knowledge of how community characteristics and leaf stoichiometric traits respond to variation in precipitation is crucial for assessing the effects of global changes on terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we measured community characteristics, leaf stoichiometric traits, and soil properties along a precipitation gradient (35-209 mm) in a desert ecosystem of Northwest China to explore the drivers of these factors. With increasing precipitation, species richness, aboveground biomass, community coverage, foliage projective cover (FPC), and leaf area index (LAI) all significantly increased, while community height decreased. The hyperarid desert plants were characterized by lower leaf carbon (C) and nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) levels, and stable N and P, and these parameters did not change significantly with precipitation. The growth of desert plants was limited more by N than P. Soil properties, rather than precipitation, were the main drivers of desert plant leaf stoichiometric traits, whereas precipitation made the biggest contribution to vegetation structure and function. These results test the importance of precipitation in regulating plant community structure and composition together with soil properties, and provide further insights into the adaptive strategy of communities at regional scale in response to global climate change.

  10. Science in the public process of ecosystem management: lessons from Hawaii, Southeast Asia, Africa and the US Mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutrich, John; Donovan, Deanna; Finucane, Melissa; Focht, Will; Hitzhusen, Fred; Manopimoke, Supachit; McCauley, David; Norton, Bryan; Sabatier, Paul; Salzman, Jim; Sasmitawidjaja, Virza

    2005-08-01

    Partnerships and co-operative environmental management are increasing worldwide as is the call for scientific input in the public process of ecosystem management. In Hawaii, private landowners, non-governmental organizations, and state and federal agencies have formed watershed partnerships to conserve and better manage upland forested watersheds. In this paper, findings of an international workshop convened in Hawaii to explore the strengths of approaches used to assess stakeholder values of environmental resources and foster consensus in the public process of ecosystem management are presented. Authors draw upon field experience in projects throughout Hawaii, Southeast Asia, Africa and the US mainland to derive a set of lessons learned that can be applied to Hawaiian and other watershed partnerships in an effort to promote consensus and sustainable ecosystem management. Interdisciplinary science-based models can serve as effective tools to identify areas of potential consensus in the process of ecosystem management. Effective integration of scientific input in co-operative ecosystem management depends on the role of science, the stakeholders and decision-makers involved, and the common language utilized to compare tradeoffs. Trust is essential to consensus building and the integration of scientific input must be transparent and inclusive of public feedback. Consideration of all relevant stakeholders and the actual benefits and costs of management activities to each stakeholder is essential. Perceptions and intuitive responses of people can be as influential as analytical processes in decision-making and must be addressed. Deliberative, dynamic and iterative decision-making processes all influence the level of stakeholder achievement of consensus. In Hawaii, application of lessons learned can promote more informed and democratic decision processes, quality scientific analysis that is relevant, and legitimacy and public acceptance of ecosystem management.

  11. Net primary productivity of China's terrestrial ecosystems from a process model driven by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Liu, G; Chen, J M; Chen, M; Liu, J; Ju, W M; Sun, R; Zhou, W

    2007-11-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is one of the foci in global climate change research. Simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is important for carbon cycle research. In this study, China's terrestrial NPP was simulated using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), a carbon-water coupled process model based on remote sensing inputs. For these purposes, a national-wide database (including leaf area index, land cover, meteorology, vegetation and soil) at a 1 km resolution and a validation database were established. Using these databases and BEPS, daily maps of NPP for the entire China's landmass in 2001 were produced, and gross primary productivity (GPP) and autotrophic respiration (RA) were estimated. Using the simulated results, we explore temporal-spatial patterns of China's terrestrial NPP and the mechanisms of its responses to various environmental factors. The total NPP and mean NPP of China's landmass were 2.235 GtC and 235.2 gCm(-2)yr(-1), respectively; the total GPP and mean GPP were 4.418 GtC and 465 gCm(-2)yr(-1); and the total RA and mean RA were 2.227 GtC and 234 gCm(-2)yr(-1), respectively. On average, NPP was 50.6% of GPP. In addition, statistical analysis of NPP of different land cover types was conducted, and spatiotemporal patterns of NPP were investigated. The response of NPP to changes in some key factors such as LAI, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, VPD and AWC are evaluated and discussed.

  12. Effects of diffuse radiation on canopy gas exchange processes in a forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knohl, Alexander; Baldocchi, Dennis D.

    2008-06-01

    Forest ecosystems across the globe show an increase in ecosystem carbon uptake efficiency under conditions with high fraction of diffuse radiation. Here, we combine eddy covariance flux measurements at a deciduous temperate forest in central Germany with canopy-scale modeling using the biophysical multilayer model CANVEG to investigate the impact of diffuse radiation on various canopy gas exchange processes and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Increasing diffuse radiation enhances canopy photosynthesis by redistributing the solar radiation load from light saturated sunlit leaves to nonsaturated shade leaves. Interactions with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit and reduced leaf respiration are only of minor importance to canopy photosynthesis. The response strength of carbon uptake to diffuse radiation depends on canopy characteristics such as leaf area index and leaf optical properties. Our model computations shows that both canopy photosynthesis and transpiration increase initially with diffuse fraction, but decrease after an optimum at a diffuse fraction of 0.45 due to reduction in global radiation. The initial increase in canopy photosynthesis exceeds the increase in transpiration, leading to a rise in water-use-efficiency. Our model predicts an increase in carbon isotope discrimination with water-use-efficiency resulting from differences in the leaf-to-air vapor pressure gradient and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit. This finding is in contrast to those predicted with simple big-leaf models that do not explicitly calculate leaf energy balance. At an annual scale, we estimate a decrease in annual carbon uptake for a potential increase in diffuse fraction, since diffuse fraction was beyond the optimum for 61% of the data.

  13. Predictor of regulation of uranium dioxide powder pressing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, Eduardo Souza; Araujo, Victor Hugo Leal de; Bernardelli, Sergio Henrique

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important steps of the uranium dioxide pellets fabrication used in the nuclear fuel elements is the green pellets pressing. The target density of the pellets after the sintering process determines the density of the green pellet. To meet the same sintered target density the green density may vary according to the powder characteristics. These variations implies in changing the regulation of the press for different powder's patches. The regulation done empirically imply in productivity loss and necessity of reprocessing the pellets pressed during the press regulation and also depends on the operator experience. At this work, was developed an artificial neural network feed forward back propagation to predict the press regulation, depending on the powder characteristics and the green pellet's target density. The results obtained at INB - Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S. A. during the fabrication of the fifth recharge of Angra II nuclear power plant are presented. (author)

  14. Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al

  15. An individual-based process model to simulate landscape-scale forest ecosystem dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert Seidl; Werner Rammer; Robert M. Scheller; Thomas Spies

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystem dynamics emerges from nonlinear interactions between adaptive biotic agents (i.e., individual trees) and their relationship with a spatially and temporally heterogeneous abiotic environment. Understanding and predicting the dynamics resulting from these complex interactions is crucial for the sustainable stewardship of ecosystems, particularly in the...

  16. Direct and terrestrial vegetation-mediated effects of environmental change on aquatic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky A. Ball; John S. Kominoski; Heather E. Adams; Stuart E. Jones; Evan S. Kane; Terrance D. Loecke; Wendy M. Mahaney; Jason P. Martina; Chelse M. Prather; Todd M.P. Robinson; Christopher T. Solomon

    2010-01-01

    Global environmental changes have direct effects on aquatic ecosystems, as well as indirect effects through alterations of adjacent terrestrial ecosystem structure and functioning. For example, shifts in terrestrial vegetation communities resulting from global changes can affect the quantity and quality of water, organic matter, and nutrient inputs to aquatic...

  17. The Humboldt Current System: Ecosystem components and processes, fisheries, and sediment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino, Vivian; Lange, Carina B.

    2009-12-01

    In the Humboldt Current System (HCS), biological and non-biological components, ecosystem processes, and fisheries are known to be affected by multi-decadal, inter-annual, annual, and intra-seasonal scales. The interplay between atmospheric variability, the poleward undercurrent, the shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), and the fertilizing effect of coastal upwelling and overall high primary production rates drive bio-physical interactions, the carbon biomass, and fluxes of gases and particulate and dissolved matter through the water column. Coastal upwelling (permanent and seasonally modulated off Peru and northern Chile, and markedly seasonal between 30°S and 40°S) is the key process responsible for the high biological productivity in the HCS. At present, the western coast of South America produces more fish per unit area than any other region in the world ocean (i.e. ∼7.5 × 10 6 t of anchoveta were landed in 2007). Climate changes on different temporal scales lead to alterations in the distribution ranges of anchoveta and sardine populations and shifts in their dominance throughout the HCS. The factors affecting the coastal marine ecosystem that reverberate in the fisheries are crucial from a social perspective, since the economic consequences of mismanagement can be severe. Fish remains are often well-preserved in sediment settings under the hypoxic conditions of the OMZ off Peru and Chile, and reveal multi-decadal variability and centennial-scale changes in fish populations. Sediment studies from the Chilean continental margin encompassing the last 20,000 years of deposition reveal changes in sub-surface conditions in the HCS during deglaciation, interpreted to include: a major reorganization of the OMZ; a deglacial increase in denitrification decoupled from local marine productivity; and higher deglacial and Holocene paleoproductivities compared to the Last Glacial Maximum in central-south Chile (35-37°S) while this scheme is reversed for north

  18. The regulator's stake in a multi-stakeholder process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Mikael; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Norrby, Soeren; Westerlind, Magnus

    1999-01-01

    The siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel poses a number of challenges to a broad range of stakeholders, e.g. implementers, regulators, potential host municipalities, environmental groups, political decision-makers on different levels and the public. This paper presents some regulatory challenges as experienced and approached by the Swedish regulators most involved in nuclear waste management (the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, SSI, and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI). First the regulatory framework is outlined with emphasis on decision-making processes and environmental impact assessment. Then a short background is given to the current status of the ongoing programme for repository siting. The main part of the paper discusses some conclusions from the so-called RISCOM pilot project, which was concluded in 1998. The paper also contains some findings from other projects as well as some experiences from the ongoing siting process. It is important to have independent regulators, with the capacity to review the safety assessment of the implementer. The regulators also have the challenging task to be people's experts in stretching the implementer. At the same time they should expose themselves to the being stretched by other stakeholders and the public at large. Experience also shows that regulators should engage early in the pre-licensing phase, e.g. in EIA and siting, and that this can be done without compromising the independence and integrity needed in the licensing phase. The regulator must be present at all levels, and observant of the participants' different needs and roles played on the national, regional and local level. A well structured, but flexible, EIA appear to be an efficient 'vehicle' for public participation. However, it is believed that the EIA should be complemented with hearings, in both the pre-licensing and licensing phases, since this is believed to increase the transparency of the decision making process. Such

  19. Monitoring Termite-Mediated Ecosystem Processes Using Moderate and High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, B. M.; Hanan, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Termites are considered dominant decomposers and prominent ecosystem engineers in the global tropics and they build some of the largest and architecturally most complex non-human-made structures in the world. Termite mounds significantly alter soil texture, structure, and nutrients, and have major implications for local hydrological dynamics, vegetation characteristics, and biological diversity. An understanding of how these processes change across large scales has been limited by our ability to detect termite mounds at high spatial resolutions. Our research develops methods to detect large termite mounds in savannas across extensive geographic areas using moderate and high resolution satellite imagery. We also investigate the effect of termite mounds on vegetation productivity using Landsat-8 maximum composite NDVI data as a proxy for production. Large termite mounds in arid and semi-arid Senegal generate highly reflective `mound scars' with diameters ranging from 10 m at minimum to greater than 30 m. As Sentinel-2 has several bands with 10 m resolution and Landsat-8 has improved calibration, higher radiometric resolution, 15 m spatial resolution (pansharpened), and improved contrast between vegetated and bare surfaces compared to previous Landsat missions, we found that the largest and most influential mounds in the landscape can be detected. Because mounds as small as 4 m in diameter are easily detected in high resolution imagery we used these data to validate detection results and quantify omission errors for smaller mounds.

  20. Piezo proteins: regulators of mechanosensation and other cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N; Gracheva, Elena O; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2014-11-14

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular development, volume regulation, cellular migration, proliferation, and elongation. Mutations in human Piezo proteins have been associated with a variety of disorders including hereditary xerocytosis and several syndromes with muscular contracture as a prominent feature. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Piezo Proteins: Regulators of Mechanosensation and Other Cellular Processes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular development, volume regulation, cellular migration, proliferation, and elongation. Mutations in human Piezo proteins have been associated with a variety of disorders including hereditary xerocytosis and several syndromes with muscular contracture as a prominent feature. PMID:25305018

  2. Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: a critical review spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tana E.; Cavaleri, Molly A.; Reed, Sasha C.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests play a major role in regulating global carbon (C) fluxes and stocks, and even small changes to C cycling in this productive biome could dramatically affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Temperature is expected to increase over all land surfaces in the future, yet we have a surprisingly poor understanding of how tropical forests will respond to this significant climatic change. Here we present a contemporary synthesis of the existing data and what they suggest about how tropical forests will respond to increasing temperatures. Our goals were to: (i) determine whether there is enough evidence to support the conclusion that increased temperature will affect tropical forest C balance; (ii) if there is sufficient evidence, determine what direction this effect will take; and, (iii) establish what steps should to be taken to resolve the uncertainties surrounding tropical forest responses to increasing temperatures. We approach these questions from a mass-balance perspective and therefore focus primarily on the effects of temperature on inputs and outputs of C, spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale responses. We found that, while there is the strong potential for temperature to affect processes related to C cycling and storage in tropical forests, a notable lack of data combined with the physical, biological and chemical diversity of the forests themselves make it difficult to resolve this issue with certainty. We suggest a variety of experimental approaches that could help elucidate how tropical forests will respond to warming, including large-scale in situ manipulation experiments, longer term field experiments, the incorporation of a range of scales in the investigation of warming effects (both spatial and temporal), as well as the inclusion of a diversity of tropical forest sites. Finally, we highlight areas of tropical forest research where notably few data are available, including temperature effects on: nutrient cycling

  3. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Palacio, German Rau

    1998-01-01

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  4. Accelerating the development of an information ecosystem in health care, by stimulating the growth of safe intermediate processing of health information (IPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshana Liyanage

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Health care, in common with many other industries, is generating large amounts of routine data, data that are challenging to process, analyse or curate, so-called ‘big data’. A challenge for health informatics is to make sense of these data. Part of the answer will come from the development of ontologies that support the use of heterogeneous data sources and the development of intermediate processors of health information (IPHI. IPHI will sit between the generators of health data and information, often the providers of health care, and the managers, commissioners, policy makers, researchers, and the pharmaceutical and other healthcare industries. They will create a health ecosystem by processing data in a way that stimulates improved data quality and potentially health care delivery by providers of health care, and by providing greater insights to legitimate users of data. Exemplars are provided of how a health ecosystem might be encouraged and developed to promote patient safety and more efficient health care. These are in the areas of how to integrate data around the unsafe use of alcohol and to explore vaccine safety. A challenge for IPHI is how to ensure that their processing of data is valid, safe and maintains privacy. Development of the healthcare ecosystem and IPHI should be actively encouraged internationally. Governments, regulators and providers of health care should facilitate access to health data and the use of national and international comparisons to monitor standards. However, most importantly, they should pilot new methods of improving quality and safety through the intermediate processing of health data.

  5. CEQ regulations called peril to nuclear licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Court challenges are expected over regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) that were designed to improve nuclear-licensing decisions, but that have actually changed the meanings of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations. The legal implications of these changes could, unless resolved, make the licensing process for nuclear facilities even more uncertain. Agency comments are thought to be critical, although the CEQ has declined to release them, and some question the Council's legality. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission faults the CEQ regulations for revising existing law, being inconsistent with the responsibilities of an independent regulatory body, and extending the CEQ's authority beyond the role assigned by NEPA and the President's Executive Order

  6. Simulated carbon and water processes of forest ecosystems in Forsmark and Oskarshamn during a 100-year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik; Gaerdenaes, Annemieke; Eckersten, Henrik

    2006-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is currently investigating the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for possible localisation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Important components of the investigations are characterizations of the land surface ecosystems in the areas with respect to hydrological and biological processes, and their implications for the fate of radionuclide contaminants entering the biosphere from a shallow groundwater contamination. In this study, we simulate water balance and carbon turnover processes in forest ecosystems representative for the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for a 100-year period using the ecosystem process model CoupModel. The CoupModel describes the fluxes of water and matter in a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, forced by time series of meteorological variables. The model has previously been parameterized for many of the vegetation systems that can be found in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas: spruce/pine forests, willow, grassland and different agricultural crops. This report presents a platform for further use of models like CoupModel for investigations of radionuclide turnover in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn area based on SKB data, including a data set of meteorological forcing variables for Forsmark 1970-2004, suitable for simulations of a 100-year period representing the present day climate, a hydrological parameterization of the CoupModel for simulations of the forest ecosystems in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas, and simulated carbon budgets and process descriptions for Forsmark that correspond to a possible steady state of the soil storage of the forest ecosystem

  7. Simulated carbon and water processes of forest ecosystems in Forsmark and Oskarshamn during a 100-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Land and Water Resources Engineering; Gaerdenaes, Annemieke [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Eckersten, Henrik [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Crop Production Ecology

    2006-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is currently investigating the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for possible localisation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Important components of the investigations are characterizations of the land surface ecosystems in the areas with respect to hydrological and biological processes, and their implications for the fate of radionuclide contaminants entering the biosphere from a shallow groundwater contamination. In this study, we simulate water balance and carbon turnover processes in forest ecosystems representative for the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for a 100-year period using the ecosystem process model CoupModel. The CoupModel describes the fluxes of water and matter in a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, forced by time series of meteorological variables. The model has previously been parameterized for many of the vegetation systems that can be found in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas: spruce/pine forests, willow, grassland and different agricultural crops. This report presents a platform for further use of models like CoupModel for investigations of radionuclide turnover in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn area based on SKB data, including a data set of meteorological forcing variables for Forsmark 1970-2004, suitable for simulations of a 100-year period representing the present day climate, a hydrological parameterization of the CoupModel for simulations of the forest ecosystems in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas, and simulated carbon budgets and process descriptions for Forsmark that correspond to a possible steady state of the soil storage of the forest ecosystem.

  8. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-03-13

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma.

  9. The influence of ecological processes on the accumulation of persistent organochlorines in aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Olof

    1999-09-01

    Several ecological problems influences the fate, transport, and accumulation of persistent organochlorines (OCs) in aquatic ecosystems. In this thesis, I have focused on two processes, namely (i) the food chain bioaccumulation of OCs, and (ii) the trophic status of the aquatic system. To test the biomagnification theory, I investigated PCB concentrations in planktonic food chains in lakes. The concentrations of PCB on a lipid basis did not increase with increasing trophic level. Hence, I could give no support to the theory of biomagnification. Instead, lipid content explained most of the variation in PCB accumulation in these food chains. PCBs were differentially fractionated in the food chains, the relative amount of high molecular weight PCBs increased with increasing trophic level, indicating congener specific differences in either the accumulation or the elimination of PCBs at the different trophic levels. In another study, I investigated the relationship between OC concentrations and trophic level, measured as {delta}{sup 15}N, in a specific predatory fish population. The dry weight OC concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N were related, indicating effects of prey choice on the OC accumulation. However, here also, lipid content explained the major part of the variation in OC concentrations, independent of trophic level (e. g. {delta}{sup 15}N). I investigated the effects of trophic status, measured as Tot-P concentration in water, on the concentrations of OCs in water, planktonic food chains and sediment in lakes. The dry weight concentrations of PCBs in phytoplankton were negatively related to the trophic status of the lakes. However, this relationship was explained by the decreasing lipid content of phytoplankton with lake trophic status. The phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes had lower lipid content than phytoplankton in oligotrophic lakes, possibly due to inter- and intraspecific differences in lipid content due to nutrient stress. The sediment accumulation and

  10. Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: A synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin D; Groffman, Peter M; Burns, Douglas A.; Beall, Frederick D; Hazlett, Paul W.; Yorks, Thad E

    2016-01-01

    Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.

  11. Process and device for regulating an electromagnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, Lucien.

    1980-01-01

    Process for regulating the operation of an electromagnetic filter and, in particular, for keeping the efficiency of the filter at a sufficiently high level irrespective of the degree of filter clogging, fluid flow rate and temperature of the fluid. The filter includes an envelope containing a filling that can be magnetized by a coil activated by a d.c. supply arranged around the envelope. The regulating process includes the following stages: - activating the coil by a current of lower intensity than that of the saturation current of the filling, - determining the pressure drop of the filter, fluid flow rate and fluid temperature, - increasing the intensity of the current activating the coil when the efficiency of the filter corresponding to the measured values drops below a given level [fr

  12. Powder Flux Regulation in the Laser Material Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizubieta, Jon Iñaki; Wegener, Maximiliam; Arntz, Kristian; Lamikiz, Aitzol; Ruiz, Jose Exequiel

    In the present research work a powder flux regulation system has been designed, developed and validated with the aim of improving the Laser Material Deposition (LMD) process. In this process, the amount of deposited material per substrate surface unit area depends on the real feed rate of the nozzle. Therefore, a regulation system based on a solenoid valve has been installed at the nozzle entrance in order to control the powder flux. The powder flux control has been performed based on the machine real feed rate, which is compared with the programmed feed rate. An instantaneous velocity error is calculated and the powder flow is controlled as a function of this variation using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals. Thereby, in zones where the Laser Material Deposition machine reduces the feed rate due to a trajectory change, powder accumulation can be avoided and the generated clads would present a homogeneous shape.

  13. Implicit Processes, Self-Regulation, and Interventions for Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Quinton, Tom; Brunton, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate and subsequently change behavior is influenced by both reflective and implicit processes. Traditional theories have focused on conscious processes by highlighting the beliefs and intentions that influence decision making. However, their success in changing behavior has been modest with a gap between intention and behavior apparent. Dual-process models have been recently applied to health psychology; with numerous models incorporating implicit processes that influence behavior as well as the more common conscious processes. Such implicit processes are theorized to govern behavior non-consciously. The article provides a commentary on motivational and volitional processes and how interventions have combined to attempt an increase in positive health behaviors. Following this, non-conscious processes are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinning. The article will then highlight how these processes have been measured and will then discuss the different ways that the non-conscious and conscious may interact. The development of interventions manipulating both processes may well prove crucial in successfully altering behavior.

  14. Design of Linear-Quadratic-Regulator for a CSTR process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghna, P. R.; Saranya, V.; Jaganatha Pandian, B.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims at creating a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). A CSTR is a common process used in chemical industries. It is a highly non-linear system. Therefore, in order to create the gain feedback controller, the model is linearized. The controller is designed for the linearized model and the concentration and volume of the liquid in the reactor are kept at a constant value as required.

  15. Piezo Proteins: Regulators of Mechanosensation and Other Cellular Processes*

    OpenAIRE

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular deve...

  16. Technical Report: Investigation of Carbon Cycle Processes within a Managed Landscape: An Ecosystem Manipulation and Isotope Tracer Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffis, Timothy J; Baker, John M; Billmark, Kaycie

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this research is to provide a better scientific understanding of carbon cycle processes within an agricultural landscape characteristic of the Upper Midwest. This project recognizes the need to study processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales to reduce uncertainty in ecosystem and landscape-scale carbon budgets to provide a sound basis for shaping future policy related to carbon management. Specifically, this project has attempted to answer the following questions: 1. Would the use of cover crops result in a shift from carbon neutral to significant carbon gain in corn-soybean rotation ecosystems of the Upper Midwest? 2. Can stable carbon isotope analyses be used to partition ecosystem respiration into its autotrophic and heterotrophic components? 3. Can this partitioning be used to better understand the fate of crop residues to project changes in the soil carbon reservoir? 4. Are agricultural ecosystems of the Upper Midwest carbon neutral, sinks, or sources? Can the proposed measurement and modeling framework help address landscape-scale carbon budget uncertainties and help guide future carbon management policy?

  17. Developing a Data Driven Process-Based Model for Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasri, B.; Rahman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    Estimating ecosystem carbon fluxes at various spatial and temporal scales is essential for quantifying the global carbon cycle. Numerous models have been developed for this purpose using several environmental variables as well as vegetation indices derived from remotely sensed data. Here we present a data driven modeling approach for gross primary production (GPP) that is based on a process based model BIOME-BGC. The proposed model was run using available remote sensing data and it does not depend on look-up tables. Furthermore, this approach combines the merits of both empirical and process models, and empirical models were used to estimate certain input variables such as light use efficiency (LUE). This was achieved by using remotely sensed data to the mathematical equations that represent biophysical photosynthesis processes in the BIOME-BGC model. Moreover, a new spectral index for estimating maximum photosynthetic activity, maximum photosynthetic rate index (MPRI), is also developed and presented here. This new index is based on the ratio between the near infrared and the green bands (ρ858.5/ρ555). The model was tested and validated against MODIS GPP product and flux measurements from two eddy covariance flux towers located at Morgan Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in Indiana and Harvard Forest in Massachusetts. Satellite data acquired by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and MODIS were used. The data driven model showed a strong correlation between the predicted and measured GPP at the two eddy covariance flux towers sites. This methodology produced better predictions of GPP than did the MODIS GPP product. Moreover, the proportion of error in the predicted GPP for MMSF and Harvard forest was dominated by unsystematic errors suggesting that the results are unbiased. The analysis indicated that maintenance respiration is one of the main factors that dominate the overall model outcome errors and improvement in maintenance respiration estimation

  18. DayCent-Chem Simulations of Ecological and Biogeochemical Processes of Eight Mountain Ecosystems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Melannie D.; Baron, Jill S.; Clow, David W.; Creed, Irena F.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Ewing, Holly A.; Haines, Bruce D.; Knoepp, Jennifer; Lajtha, Kate; Ojima, Dennis S.; Parton, William J.; Renfro, Jim; Robinson, R. Bruce; Van Miegroet, Helga; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Williams, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    deposition as a result of dry and fog inputs. The uncertainties related to weathering reactions, deposition, soil cation exchange capacity, and groundwater contributions influenced how well the simulated acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and pH estimates compared to observed values. Daily discharge was well represented by the model for most sites. The chapters of this report describe the parameterization for each site and summarize model results for ecosystem variables, stream discharge, and stream chemistry. This intersite comparison exercise provided insight about important and possibly not well understood processes.

  19. An Ecosystem Model for the Simulation of Physical and Biological Oceanic Processes-IDAPAK User's Guide and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Arrigo, Kevin; Murtugudde, Ragu; Signorini, Sergio R.; Tai, King-Sheng

    1998-01-01

    This TM describes the development, testing, and application of a 4-component (phytoplankton, zooplankton, nitrate, and ammonium) ecosystem model capable of simulating oceanic biological processes. It also reports and documents an in-house software package (Interactive Data Analysis Package - IDAPAK) for interactive data analysis of geophysical fields, including those related to the forcing, verification, and analysis of the ecosystem model. Two regions were studied in the Pacific: the Warm Pool (WP) in the Equatorial Pacific (165 deg. E at the equator) and at Ocean Weather Station P (OWS P) in the Northeast Pacific (50 deg. N, 145 deg. W). The WP results clearly indicate that the upwelling at 100 meters correlates well with surface blooms. The upwelling events in late 1987 and 1990 produced dramatic increases in the surface layer values of all 4 ecosystem components, whereas the spring-summer deep mixing events, do not seem to incur a significant response in any of the ecosystem quantities. The OWS P results show that the monthly profiles of temperature, the annual cycles of solar irradiance, and 0- to 50-m integrated nitrate accurately reproduce observed values. Annual primary production is 190 gC/m(exp 2)/yr, which is consistent with recent observations but is much greater than earlier estimates.

  20. Combined global change effects on ecosystem processes in nine U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melannie D. Hartman; Jill S. Baron; Holly A. Ewing; Kathleen C. Weathers; Chelcy Miniat

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent changes in climate, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, and increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affect ecosystems in complex ways. The DayCent-Chem model was used to investigate the combined effects of these human-caused drivers of change over the period 1980–2075 at seven forested montane and two alpine watersheds...

  1. Novel forests maintain ecosystem processes after the decline of native tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Mascaro; Flint Hughes; Stefan A. Schnitzer

    2012-01-01

    The positive relationship between species diversity (richness and evenness) and critical ecosystem functions, such as productivity, carbon storage, and nutrient cycling, is often used to predict the consequences of extinction. At regional scales, however, plant species richness is mostly increasing rather than decreasing because successful plant species introductions...

  2. Influence of forest planning alternatives on landscape pattern and ecosystem processes in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Zollner; L. Jay Roberts; Eric J. Gustafson; Hong S. He; Volker Radeloff

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating an ecosystem management perspective into forest planning requires consideration of the impacts of timber management on a suite of landscape characteristics at broad spatial and long temporal scales. We used the LANDIS forest landscape simulation model to predict forest composition and landscape pattern under seven alternative forest management plans...

  3. Incorporating Ecosystem Experiments and Observations into Process Models of Forest Carbon and Water Cycles: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E. J.; Thomas, R. Q.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Domec, J. C.; Noormets, A.; King, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies, both experimental and observational, have been conducted over the past two decades in an attempt to understand how water and carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems may respond to changes in climatic conditions. These studies have produced a wealth of detailed data on key processes driving these cycles. In parallel, sophisticated models of these processes have been formulated to answer a variety of questions relevant to natural resource management. Recent advances in data assimilation techniques offer exciting new possibilities to combine this wealth of ecosystem data with process models of ecosystem function to improve prediction and quantify associated uncertainty. Using forests of the southeastern United States as our focus, we will specify how fine-scale physiological (e.g. half-hourly sap flux) can be scaled up with quantified error for use in models of stand growth and hydrology. This approach represents an opportunity to leverage current and past research from experiments including throughfall displacement × fertilization (PINEMAP), irrigation × fertilization (SETRES), elevated CO­2­ (Duke and ORNL FACE) and a variety of observational studies in both conifer and hardwood forests throughout the region, using a common platform for data assimilation and prediction. As part of this discussion, we will address variation in dominant species, stand structure, site age, management practices, soils and climate that represent both challenges to the development of a common analytical approach and opportunities to address questions of interest to policy makers and natural resource managers.

  4. [Effects and mechanism of freeze-thawing cycles on key processes of nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-qin; Qi, Yu-chun; Dong, Yun-she; Peng, Qin; Guo, Shu-fang; He, Yun-long; Yan, Zhong-qing

    2015-11-01

    As a widespread natural phenomenon in the soil of middle and high latitude as well as high altitude, freeze-thawing cycles have a great influence on the nitrogen cycle of terrestrial ecosystem in non-growing season. Freeze-thawing cycles can alter the physicochemical and biological properties of the soil, which thereby affect the migration and transformation of soil nitrogen. The impacts of freeze-thawing cycles on key processes of nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystem found in available studies remain inconsistent, the mechanism is still not clear, and the research methods also need to be further explored and innovated. So it is necessary to sum up and analyze the existing achievements in order to better understand the processes of soil nitrogen cycle subjected to freeze-thawing cycles. This paper reviewed the research progress in China and abroad about the effects and mechanisms of freeze-thawing cycles on key processes of nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystem, including mineralization, immobilization, nitrification and denitrification, N leakage and gaseous loss, and analyzed the deficiencies of extant research. The possible key research topics that should be urgently paid more attention to in the future were also discussed.

  5. Structurally complex habitats provided by Acropora palmata influence ecosystem processes on a reef in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, N. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2012-09-01

    The disappearance of Acropora palmata from reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) represents a significant loss in the amount of structurally complex habitat available for reef-associated species. The consequences of such a widespread loss of complex structure on ecosystem processes are still unclear. We sought to determine whether the disappearance of complex structure has adversely affected grazing and invertebrate predation rates on a shallow reef in the FKNMS. Surprisingly, we found grazing rates and invertebrate predation rates were lower in the structurally complex A. palmata branches than on the topographically simple degraded reefs. We attribute these results to high densities of aggressively territorial damselfish, Stegastes planifrons, living within A. palmata. Our study suggests the presence of agonistic damselfish can cause the realized spatial patterns of ecosystem processes to deviate from the expected patterns. Reef ecologists must therefore carefully consider the assemblage of associate fish communities when assessing how the mortality of A. palmata has affected coral reef ecosystem processes.

  6. Marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA): Quantifying processes in the sea at the spatio-temporal scales on which they occur

    KAUST Repository

    Godøl, Olav Rune

    2014-07-22

    Sustainable management of fisheries resources requires quantitative knowledge and understanding of species distribution, abundance, and productivity-determining processes. Conventional sampling by physical capture is inconsistent with the spatial and temporal scales on which many of these processes occur. In contrast, acoustic observations can be obtained on spatial scales from centimetres to ocean basins, and temporal scales from seconds to seasons. The concept of marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA) is founded on the basic capability of acoustics to detect, classify, and quantify organisms and biological and physical heterogeneities in the water column. Acoustics observations integrate operational technologies, platforms, and models and can generate information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology with advanced operational capabilities and tailored modelling integrated into a flexible tool for ecosystem research and monitoring. Case studies are presented to illustrate application of the MEA concept in quantification of biophysical coupling, patchiness of organisms, predator-prey interactions, and fish stock recruitment processes. Widespread implementation of MEA will have a large impact on marine monitoring and assessment practices and it is to be hoped that they also promote and facilitate interaction among disciplines within the marine sciences.

  7. Understanding environmental drivers in the regulation of soil respiration dynamics after fire in semi-arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Erickson, Todd E.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Merritt, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Pilbara, soil CO2 efflux, soil C, soil moisture, soil temperature Introduction Soil respiration (Rs) has become a major research focus given the increase in atmospheric CO2 emissions and the large contribution of these CO2 fluxes from soils (Van Groenigen et al., 2014). In addition to its importance in the global C cycle, Rs is a fundamental indicator of soil health and quality that reflects the level of microbial activity and provides an indication of the ability of soils to support plant growth (Oyonarte et al., 2012; Munoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Wildfires can have a significant impact on Rs rates, with the scale of the impact depending on environmental factors such as temperature and moisture, and organic C content in the soil. Vegetation cover can have a significant effect on regulating organic C contents; and while advances are made into understanding the effects of fire on organic C contents and CO2 fluxes (Granged et al., 2011; Willaarts et al., 2015; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016), there is limited knowledge of the variability of Rs across ecosystem types, vegetation communities, and responses to fire. In this research we aimed to assess the impacts of a wildfire on the soil CO2 fluxes and soil respiration in a semi-arid ecosystem of Western Australia (Pilbara biogeographical region), and to understand the main environmental drivers controlling these fluxes in different vegetation types. The study has application for other arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Methods The study area was selected following a wildfire that affected 25 ha in February 2014. Twelve plots were established in the burnt site (B) within a 400 m2 area, and 12 plots in an adjacent unburnt control site. At each site, three plots were installed below the canopy of each of the most representative vegetation types of the areas: Eucalyptus trees, Acacia shrubs and Triodia grasses, and three on bare soil. Soil sampling and measurement of soil CO2 efflux, temperature and moisture were

  8. Regulable process for sawage electrochemical treatment from heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covaliov, V.; Covaliova, O.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for sewage treatment and may be used in the protection for metal working, in particular, for electroplating. The disperse magnetic particle are obtaining in the comminution of the sintered spheric particle into a magnetilique faction block at the electrolyser at the outlet from the electrolyzer it is determined the suspension magnetization value concentration of the solid phase and the redox potential of the values it is automatically regulated the feed of magnetic particles and the current intensity correspondingly

  9. Cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulation of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Tomec

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among secondary school students in cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulated learning (SRL according to year of education, learning program, sex and achievement. Beside this, the autors were interested in the relationship between (metacognitive components of self-regulated learning. The theoretical framework of the research was the four-component model of self-regulated learning by Hofer, Yu and Pintrich (1998. The focus was on the first part of the model which is about cognitive structure and cognitive strategies.Metacognitive awareness inventory (Shraw and Sperling Dennison, 1994 and Cognitive strategies awareness questionnaire (Pečjak, 2000, in Peklaj and Pečjak, 2002 were applied. In a sample of 321 students, differences in perception of importance of cognitive strategies among students attending different grades (1st and 4th, students attending different learning programs, students of different gender and students with different achievements emerged. Students' achievement in the whole sample was related to amount of metacognitive awareness. In the sample of 4-year students and students attending professional secondary schools, students' achievement was additionally related to appraisal of importance elaboration and organizational strategies. Further statistical analyses of relationship between components in SRL showed high positive correlation between cognitive and metacognitive components.

  10. Establishment and maintenance of regulating ecosystem services in a dryland area of Central Asia: the Kökyar Protection Forest, Aksu, NW China, as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missall, S.; Welp, M.; Thevs, N.; Abliz, A.; Halik, Ü.

    2014-12-01

    The city of Aksu, situated at the northern fringe of the Taklimakan Desert in the northwest of China, is exposed to periodic severe dust and sand storms. In 1986, local authorities decided to establish a peri-urban shelterbelt plantation, the so-called Kökyar Protection Forest. It was realised as a patchwork of poplar shelterbelts and orchards. The total area of the plantation reached 3800 ha in 2005. This endeavour was made possible by the annual mass mobilisation of Aksu citizens, based on the Chinese regulation of the "National Compulsory Afforestation Campaigns". Establishment costs amounted to ca. CNY 60 000 ha-1 (ca. USD 10 000 ha-1). The regulating ecosystem services provided by Kökyar Protection Forest clearly reduce dust and sand storm impacts on Aksu City. Permanent maintenance of the plantation is facilitated by leasing orchard plots to private fruit farmers. This system ensures forest tending, reduces government expenses, and provides incomes to farmers. From the perspective of the local economy, annual farming net benefits generated by Kökyar fruit farmers more than compensate annual government grants for maintenance, resulting in an overall monetary net benefit of at least CNY 10 500 ha-1 (ca. USD 1600 ha-1) on the long-term average. The intended regulating ecosystem services can thus be provided to the citizens of Aksu without payments for ecosystem services or other financial burdens. For a more complete understanding of Kökyar Protection Forest, future research should be directed towards quantifying the effect of its regulating ecosystem services, and on investigating the negative downstream consequences of its water consumption.

  11. Volcano ecology at Chaiten, Chile: geophysical processes interact with forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.; Crisafulli, C.; Jones, J. A.; Lara, A.

    2010-12-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaiten Volcano (Chile) offers many insights into volcano ecology -ecological responses to volcanic and associated hydrologic processes and ecosystem development in post-eruption landscapes. Varied intensities of pyroclastic density currents (PDC) and thickness of tephra fall deposits (to 50+ cm) created strong gradients of disturbance in several hundred square kilometers of native forest in a sector north to southeast from the volcano. A gradient from tree removal to toppled forest to standing, scorched forest extends 1.5 km northward from the caldera rim along the trajectory of a PDC. Close to the vent (e.g., 2 km NE from rim) a rain of ca. 10 cm of gravel tephra stripped foliage and twigs from tree canopies; farther away (23 km SE) 10 cm of fine tephra loaded the canopy, causing extensive fall of limbs >8 cm diameter. Even in the severely disturbed, north-flank PDC zone, surviving bamboo, ferns, and other herbs sprouted from pre-eruption soil and other refugia; sprouts of new foliage appeared on the boles and major limbs of several species of toppled and scorched, standing trees; animals including vertebrates (rodents and amphibians) and terrestrial invertebrates (e.g., insects and arachnids) either survived or quickly recolonized; and a diverse fungal community began decomposing the vast dead wood resource. During the second growing season we documented the presence of some plant species that had colonized by seed. Within two years after the eruption secondary ecological disturbances resulting from channel change and overbank deposition of fluvially transported tephra created new patches of damaged forest in riparian zones of streams draining the north flank and along the Rio Rayas and Rio Chaiten. These features parallel observations in the intensively-studied, post-1980-eruption landscape of Mount St. Helens over a similar time period. However, several aspects of ecological response to the two eruptions differ because of differences

  12. Thermal-nutritional regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Technical progress report, October 1, 1978-November 1, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, K.W.

    1980-11-01

    The research encompassed three general areas: (1) characterization of stream macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups (shredders, collectors, scrapers, and predators) based on morphological and behavioral adaptations and food-source-specific growth responses of selected species; (2) demonstration of the relative importance of temperature and food quality (in which maximum quality is defined as that producing the most growth) in controlling growth rate and survivorship of stream functional groups; and (3) derivation and refinement of conceptual and quantitative models of stream ecosystem structure and function, with particular emphasis on detrital processing. Verification of the functional group concept as a tool for assessing and predicting is reflected in alterations of the relative dominance of various functional groups. Food quality can strongly influence the growth rates of shredders, collectors and scrapers and override the effects of temperature in a number of cases. Gathering collectors may select food particles by size (or at least be restricted to a limited portion of the total range available) but representative species do not appear to select for quality.

  13. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-02-01

    Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.

  14. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre F; Hornos, José Eduardo M; Reinitz, John

    2015-02-01

    Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.

  15. Neural processing of emotional-intensity predicts emotion regulation choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Roni; Thiruchselvam, Ravi; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J; Sheppes, Gal

    2016-12-01

    Emotional-intensity is a core characteristic of affective events that strongly determines how individuals choose to regulate their emotions. Our conceptual framework suggests that in high emotional-intensity situations, individuals prefer to disengage attention using distraction, which can more effectively block highly potent emotional information, as compared with engagement reappraisal, which is preferred in low emotional-intensity. However, existing supporting evidence remains indirect because prior intensity categorization of emotional stimuli was based on subjective measures that are potentially biased and only represent the endpoint of emotional-intensity processing. Accordingly, this study provides the first direct evidence for the role of online emotional-intensity processing in predicting behavioral regulatory-choices. Utilizing the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials, we evaluated online neural processing of stimuli's emotional-intensity (late positive potential, LPP) prior to regulatory-choices between distraction and reappraisal. Results showed that enhanced neural processing of intensity (enhanced LPP amplitudes) uniquely predicted (above subjective measures of intensity) increased tendency to subsequently choose distraction over reappraisal. Additionally, regulatory-choices led to adaptive consequences, demonstrated in finding that actual implementation of distraction relative to reappraisal-choice resulted in stronger attenuation of LPPs and self-reported arousal. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem primary productivity in East Asia based on remote sensing and process-based model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Min; Ju, Wei-Min; Chen, Jing-Ming; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Gui-Rui; Han, Shi-Jie

    2012-02-01

    Based on the bi-linearly interpolated meteorological reanalysis data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA and by using the leaf area index data derived from the GIMMS NDVI to run the process-based Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model, this paper simulated and analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the terrestrial ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in East Asia in 2000-2005. Before regional simulating and calculating, the observation GPP data of different terrestrial ecosystem in 15 experimental stations of AsiaFlux network and the inventory measurements of NPP at 1300 sampling sites were applied to validate the BEPS GPP and NPP. The results showed that BEPS could well simulate the changes in GPP and NPP of different terrestrial ecosystems, with the R2 ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.2 to 1.2 g C x m(-2) x d(-1). The simulated values by BEPS could explain 78% of the changes in annual NPP, and the RMSE was 118 g C x m(-2) x a(-1). In 2000-2005, the averaged total GPP and total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia were 21.7 and 10.5 Pg C x a(-1), respectively, and the GPP and NPP exhibited similar spatial and temporal variation patterns. During the six years, the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems varied from 10.2 to 10.7 Pg C x a(-1), with a coefficient of variation being 2. 2%. High NPP (above 1000 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the southeast island countries, while low NPP (below 30 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the desert area of Northwest China. The spatial patterns of NPP were mainly attributed to the differences in the climatic variables across East Asia. The NPP per capita also varied greatly among different countries, which was the highest (70217 kg C x a(-1)) in Mongolia, far higher than that (1921 kg C x a(-1)) in China, and the lowest (757 kg C x a(-1)) in India.

  17. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry

  18. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal,...

  19. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Noli

    Full Text Available VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  20. Disentangling trade-offs and synergies around ecosystem services with the influence network framework: illustration from a consultative process over the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Crouzat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of sustainability is to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functioning while improving human well-being. For this, the ecosystem service (ES approach has the potential to bridge the still existing gap between ecological management and social development, especially by focusing on trade-offs and synergies between ES and between their beneficiaries. Several frameworks have been proposed to account for trade-offs and synergies between ES, and between ES and other components of social-ecological systems. However, to date, insufficient explicit attention has been paid to the three facets encompassed in the ES concept, namely potential supply, demand, and use, leading to incomplete descriptions of ES interactions. We expand on previous frameworks by proposing a new influence network framework (INF based on an explicit consideration of influence relationships between these three ES facets, biodiversity, and external driving variables. We tested its ability to provide a comprehensive view of complex social-ecological interactions around ES through a consultative process focused on environmental management in the French Alps. We synthetized the interactions mentioned during this consultative process and grouped variables according to their overall propensity to influence or be influenced by the system. The resulting directed sequence of influences distinguished between: (1 mostly influential variables (dynamic social variables and ecological state variables, (2 target variables (provisioning and cultural services, and (3 mostly impacted variables (regulating services and biodiversity parameters. We discussed possible reasons for the discrepancies between actual and perceived influences and proposed options to overcome them. We demonstrated that the INF holds the potential to deliver collective assessments of ES relations by: (1 including ecological as well as social aspects, (2 providing opportunities for colearning processes between

  1. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF STATE REGULATION OF MIGRATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Nikolaevna Tarasenko

    2018-05-01

    State regulation of migration processes and the identification of the main centers of attraction of labor by analyzing the immigration policies of developed countries. Method or methodology of work: article used statistical methods of analysis, economic and mathematical methods, as well as empirical research methods, such as monitoring and comparison. Results: Informative reasons for population migration were received, mechanisms for state regulation of migration were established showing some aspects of the analysis of the migration policy of the main centers of labor attraction. Scope of application of the results: it is advisable to apply the results in public administration bodies when developing migration policies and mechanisms for its implementation, researchers of migration processes for the development of scientific discussion.

  2. Carbon-water Cycling in the Critical Zone: Understanding Ecosystem Process Variability Across Complex Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, Holly [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Brooks, Paul [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-06-16

    One of the largest knowledge gaps in environmental science is the ability to understand and predict how ecosystems will respond to future climate variability. The links between vegetation, hydrology, and climate that control carbon sequestration in plant biomass and soils remain poorly understood. Soil respiration is the second largest carbon flux of terrestrial ecosystems, yet there is no consensus on how respiration will change as water availability and temperature co-vary. To address this knowledge gap, we use the variation in soil development and topography across an elevation and climate gradient on the Front Range of Colorado to conduct a natural experiment that enables us to examine the co-evolution of soil carbon, vegetation, hydrology, and climate in an accessible field laboratory. The goal of this project is to further our ability to combine plant water availability, carbon flux and storage, and topographically driven hydrometrics into a watershed scale predictive model of carbon balance. We hypothesize: (i) landscape structure and hydrology are important controls on soil respiration as a result of spatial variability in both physical and biological drivers: (ii) variation in rates of soil respiration during the growing season is due to corresponding shifts in belowground carbon inputs from vegetation; and (iii) aboveground carbon storage (biomass) and species composition are directly correlated with soil moisture and therefore, can be directly related to subsurface drainage patterns.

  3. Disruption of ecosystem processes in western North America by invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Dukes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Many ecosystems of western North America have been dramatically changed by non-native species. Here, we review ecological impacts of 56 plant, animal, fungus, and protist species that were brought to this region by humans. We discuss characteristics of invasive species that can lead to major ecosystem impacts, and explore how invasive species alter many different attributes of ecosystems. Specifically, we include examples of invasive species that affect geomorphology, fire regimes, hydrology, microclimate, atmospheric composition, nutrient cycling, and productivity. Finally, we review the direct consequences of biological invasions for some native species. We summarize examples from this paper in Appendix 1. Our examples illustrate how, as invasive species have become dominant across large areas of western North America's grassland, shrubland, dune, riparian, and estuarine ecosystems, the properties and functioning of these systems have changed. To date, some systems in this region, such as its forests, remain relatively unaffected by invasive species. However, recent attacks of forest pathogens highlight the potential vulnerability of these ecosystemsMuchos ecosistemas de Norteamérica occidental han cambiado dramáticamente a causa del efecto producido por especies no autóctonas. Aquí se muestra una revisión del impacto ecológico producido por 56 especies diferentes de plantas, animales y hongos, y especies de protistas que fueron traídos a esta región por humanos. Discutimos las características de las especies invasoras que pueden producir un gran impacto en el ecosistema, y exploramos cómo las especies invasoras pueden alterar de forma muy diferente los atributos de un ecosistema. Específicamente, incluimos ejemplos de especies invasoras que afectan a la geomorfología, a los regímenes del fuego, a la hidrología, al microclima, a la composición atmosférica, al ciclo de nutrientes, y a la productividad. Finalmente, revisamos las

  4. Radiochronology of marine sediments and its application to the knowledge of the process of environmental pollution in coastal Cuban ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Gómez-Batista, Miguel; Bolaños-Alvares, Yoelvis; Muñoz-Caravaca, Alain; Morera-Gómez, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    The results achieved in the implementation of the radiochronology of marine sediments for the reconstruction of databases and knowledge of the evolution of environmental pollution in four coastal ecosystems of national significance are presented in this paper Fluxes of selected heavy metals and persistent organic compounds are discussed for the Cienfuegos and Havana bays and Sagua and La Coloma estuaries. Finally, is showed the effectiveness of radiochronology of sediments as a useful tool for environmental management and knowledge of temporal processes of pollution in the aquatic environment. (author)

  5. The interactive effects of fire and diversity on short-term responses of ecosystem processes in experimental mediterranean grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Siamantziouras, Akis-Stavros D; Galanidis, Alexandros; Mprezetou, Irene; Troumbis, Andreas Y

    2006-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment using constructed communities to test whether species richness contributed to the maintenance of ecosystem processes under fire disturbance. We studied the effects of diversity components (i.e., species richness and species composition) upon productivity, structural traits of vegetation, decomposition rates, and soil nutrients between burnt and unburnt experimental Mediterranean grassland communities. Our results demonstrated that fire and species richness had interactive effects on aboveground biomass production and canopy structure components. Fire increased biomass production of the highest-richness communities. The effects of fire on aboveground biomass production at different levels of species richness were derived from changes in both vertical and horizontal canopy structure of the communities. The most species-rich communities appeared to be more resistant to fire in relation to species-poor ones, due to both compositional and richness effects. Interactive effects of fire and species richness were not important for belowground processes. Decomposition rates increased with species richness, related in part to increased levels of canopy structure traits. Fire increased soil nutrients and long-term decomposition rate. Our results provide evidence that composition within richness levels had often larger effects on the stability of aboveground ecosystem processes in the face of fire disturbance than species richness per se.

  6. Analysis of energetic exchange processes within the two different forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivec, J.

    2002-01-01

    The utilisation of energy within the floodplain forest ecosystem near Lednice - south Moravia, and spruce monoculture ecosystem near Rájec Jestřebí - central Moravia during the years 1988 and 1989 was measured. Net radiation balance, global solar radiation, wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures and soil heat flux directly by instruments and sensors; latent, sensible heat flux and heat flux to the vegetation was calculated. It is possible to say, considering hitherto results, that well watered (groundwater) floodplain forest ecosystem shows greater evapotranspiration and therefore latent heat flux than spruce monoculture. Greater flux of energy was recorded in a daily course of sensible heat flux (65% proportion to net radiation), in contrast with the spruce monoculture. The floodplain forest latent heat flux proportion to net radiation was found to be variable within the growing season; in the middle of the vegetation period (from June to August) it reached the value of about 70%, at the end (in October) of about 20%. The estimation of the floodplain forest actual evapotranspiration was possible almost all over the season, the actual evapotranspiration reached its maximum of about 0.72 mm/square m per h one hour after the maximum of radiation balance. The time lag of about 4 hours was observed when compared the diurnal course of air humidity gradient to the air temperature gradient above the forest canopy. This phenomenon caused the left side asymmetry of the diurnal course of the Bowen ratio. It was not possible to measure the spruce monoculture latent heat flux all over the season, probably due to smaller gradient of the air humidity although it was measured across at greater distance than in the floodplain forest (12 m in comparison with 9 m). The values of the second half of May and the first half of June ones were at our disposal only. The spruce monoculture latent heat flux proportion to radiation balance was found about 25%, the actual evapotranspiration

  7. Economic viewpoints on ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Heide, van der C.M.

    2013-01-01

    to help determine the different values of ecosystems. Ecosystem services are usually divided into four categories: provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and habitat services (previously denoted as supporting services). This overview highlights economic theories about

  8. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  9. Nutrient limitation on ecosystem productivity and processes of mature and old-growth subtropical forests in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enqing Hou

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is considered the dominant limiting nutrient in temperate regions, while phosphorus (P limitation frequently occurs in tropical regions, but in subtropical regions nutrient limitation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated N and P contents and N:P ratios of foliage, forest floors, fine roots and mineral soils, and their relationships with community biomass, litterfall C, N and P productions, forest floor turnover rate, and microbial processes in eight mature and old-growth subtropical forests (stand age >80 yr at Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China. Average N:P ratios (mass based in foliage, litter (L layer and mixture of fermentation and humus (F/H layer, and fine roots were 28.3, 42.3, 32.0 and 32.7, respectively. These values are higher than the critical N:P ratios for P limitation proposed (16-20 for foliage, ca. 25 for forest floors. The markedly high N:P ratios were mainly attributed to the high N concentrations of these plant materials. Community biomass, litterfall C, N and P productions, forest floor turnover rate and microbial properties were more strongly related to measures of P than N and frequently negatively related to the N:P ratios, suggesting a significant role of P availability in determining ecosystem production and productivity and nutrient cycling at all the study sites except for one prescribed disturbed site where N availability may also be important. We propose that N enrichment is probably a significant driver of the potential P limitation in the study area. Low P parent material may also contribute to the potential P limitation. In general, our results provided strong evidence supporting a significant role for P availability, rather than N availability, in determining ecosystem primary productivity and ecosystem processes in subtropical forests of China.

  10. Terrestrial ecosystem process model Biome-BGCMuSo v4.0: summary of improvements and new modeling possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, Dóra; Barcza, Zoltán; Marjanović, Hrvoje; Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Dobor, Laura; Gelybó, Györgyi; Fodor, Nándor; Pintér, Krisztina; Churkina, Galina; Running, Steven; Thornton, Peter; Bellocchi, Gianni; Haszpra, László; Horváth, Ferenc; Suyker, Andrew; Nagy, Zoltán

    2016-12-01

    The process-based biogeochemical model Biome-BGC was enhanced to improve its ability to simulate carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles of various terrestrial ecosystems under contrasting management activities. Biome-BGC version 4.1.1 was used as a base model. Improvements included addition of new modules such as the multilayer soil module, implementation of processes related to soil moisture and nitrogen balance, soil-moisture-related plant senescence, and phenological development. Vegetation management modules with annually varying options were also implemented to simulate management practices of grasslands (mowing, grazing), croplands (ploughing, fertilizer application, planting, harvesting), and forests (thinning). New carbon and nitrogen pools have been defined to simulate yield and soft stem development of herbaceous ecosystems. The model version containing all developments is referred to as Biome-BGCMuSo (Biome-BGC with multilayer soil module; in this paper, Biome-BGCMuSo v4.0 is documented). Case studies on a managed forest, cropland, and grassland are presented to demonstrate the effect of model developments on the simulation of plant growth as well as on carbon and water balance.

  11. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori A; Korol, Donna L; Gold, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  12. Electromagnetic processes during phase commutation in field regulated reluctance machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, A. N.; Sychev, D. A.; Zemlyansky, A. A.; Krupnova, M. N.; Funk, T. A.; Ishmet'eva, V. D.

    2018-03-01

    The processes of currents switching in stator windings have been explained by the existence of the electromagnetic torque ripples in the electric drive with the field-regulated reluctance machine. The maximum value of ripples in the open loop control system for the six-phase machine can reach 20 percent from the developed electromagnetic torque. This method allows one to make calculation of ripple spike towards average torque developed by the electromotor for the different number of phases. Application of a trapezoidal form of current at six phases became the solution. In case of a less number of phases than six, a ripple spike considerably increases, which is inadmissible. On the other hand, increasing the number of phases tends to the increase of the semiconductor inverter external dimensions based on the inconspicuous decreasing of a ripple spike. The creation and usage of high-speed control loops of current (HCLC) have been recommended for a reduction of the electromagnetic torque’s ripple level, as well as the appliance of positive current feedback in switching phase currents. This decision allowed one to receive a mean value of the torque more than 10%, compared to system without change, to reduce greatly ripple spike of the electromagnetic torque. The possibility of the electric drive effective operation with FRRM in emergency operation has been shown.

  13. Modeling Elevation and Aspect Controls on Emerging Ecohydrologic Processes and Ecosystem Patterns Using the Component-based Landlab Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudurupati, S. S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Adams, J. M.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Gasparini, N. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Hutton, E. W. H.

    2014-12-01

    Topography plays a commanding role on the organization of ecohydrologic processes and resulting vegetation patterns. In southwestern United States, climate conditions lead to terrain aspect- and elevation-controlled ecosystems, with mesic north-facing and xeric south-facing vegetation types; and changes in biodiversity as a function of elevation from shrublands in low desert elevations, to mixed grass/shrublands in mid elevations, and forests at high elevations and ridge tops. These observed patterns have been attributed to differences in topography-mediated local soil moisture availability, micro-climatology, and life history processes of plants that control chances of plant establishment and survival. While ecohydrologic models represent local vegetation dynamics in sufficient detail up to sub-hourly time scales, plant life history and competition for space and resources has not been adequately represented in models. In this study we develop an ecohydrologic cellular automata model within the Landlab component-based modeling framework. This model couples local vegetation dynamics (biomass production, death) and plant establishment and competition processes for resources and space. This model is used to study the vegetation organization in a semiarid New Mexico catchment where elevation and hillslope aspect play a defining role on plant types. Processes that lead to observed plant types across the landscape are examined by initializing the domain with randomly assigned plant types and systematically changing model parameters that couple plant response with soil moisture dynamics. Climate perturbation experiments are conducted to examine the plant response in space and time. Understanding the inherently transient ecohydrologic systems is critical to improve predictions of climate change impacts on ecosystems.

  14. Inferring differential evolutionary processes of plant persistence traits in Northern Hemisphere Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, J.G.; Keeley, J.E.; Verdu, M.

    2006-01-01

    1 Resprouting capacity (R) and propagule-persistence (P) are traits that are often considered to have evolved where there are predictable crown fires. Because several indicators suggest a stronger selective pressure for such traits in California than in the Mediterranean Basin, we hypothesize that plant species should have evolved to become R+ and P+ more frequently in California than in the Mediterranean Basin. 2 To test this hypothesis we studied the phylogenetic association between R and P states in both California and the Mediterranean Basin using published molecular phylogenies. 3 The results suggest that R and P evolved differently in the two regions. The occurrence of the states differs significantly between regions for trait P, but not for trait R. The different patterns (towards R+ and P+ in California and towards R+ and P- in the Mediterranean Basin) are reflected in the higher abundance and the wider taxonomic distribution of species with both persistence traits (R+P+ species) in California. 4 The differential acquisition of fire persistence mechanisms at the propagule level (P+) supports the idea that fire selective pressures has been higher in California than in the Mediterranean Basin. 5 Our comparative phylogenetic-informed analysis contributes to an understanding of the differential role of the Quaternary climate in determining fire persistence traits in different Mediterranean-type ecosystems and, thus, to the debate on the evolutionary convergence of traits. ?? 2006 British Ecological Society.

  15. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

  16. Parental Regulation of Teenagers' Time: Processes and Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarre, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…

  17. Self-regulation and selective exposure: the impact of depleted self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter

    2008-03-01

    In the present research, the authors investigated the impact of self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing, that is, the tendency of individuals to systematically prefer standpoint-consistent information to standpoint-inconsistent information in information evaluation and search. In 4 studies with political and economic decision-making scenarios, it was consistently found that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources exhibited a stronger tendency for confirmatory information processing than did individuals with nondepleted self-regulation resources. Alternative explanations based on processes of ego threat, cognitive load, and mood were ruled out. Mediational analyses suggested that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources experienced increased levels of commitment to their own standpoint, which resulted in increased confirmatory information processing. In sum, the impact of ego depletion on confirmatory information search seems to be more motivational than cognitive in nature.

  18. Thermal regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Progress report, October 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, K.W.; Klug, M.J.

    1976-07-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: characterization of functional groups of running water organisms, particularly macroconsumers; studies on relationship of functional groups to qualitative and quantitative characteristics of organic inputs to stream ecosystems; studies on relationship of functional groups to thermal regimes; and dimensioning the control of feeding and growth by temperature and food quality and quantity and determining the extent of compensatory action of each. (HLW)

  19. Non-equilbrium dynamics of ecosystem processes in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joseph Pignatello

    The relatively mild and stable climate of the last 10,000 years betrays a history of environmental variability and rapid changes. Humans have recently accelerated global environmental change, ushering in the Anthropocene. Meeting accelerating demands for food, energy, and goods and services has accelerated species extinctions, shows of reactive nitrogen and phosphorus, and warming of the atmosphere. I address the over- arching question of how ecosystems will respond to changing and variable environments through several focused studies. Each study examines an ecosystem response to ex- pected environmental changes in the future. To address how the changing environment affects the sizes and turnover rates of slowly and quickly cycling soil carbon pools, I analyzed the responses of grassland soils to simulated species diversity loss, increased deposition of nitrogen and increased atmospheric CO2. I used a soil respiration experiment to fit models of soil carbon pool turnover to respired carbon dioxide. Species diversity, nitrogen deposition and atmospheric CO2 had no effect on the total soil carbon after 8 years of treatments. Although total soil carbon did not change, the rates of cycling in the fast and slow pools changed in response to elevated CO2 and diversity loss treatments. Nitrogen treatments increased the size of the slowly cycling carbon pool. Precipitation variability has increased around most of the world since the industrial revolution. I used plant mesocosms in a greenhouse experiment to manipulate rainfall variability and mycorrhizal associations. I hypothesized that 1) rewetting events re- sult in higher nitrogen uxes from dry soils than moist soils, 2) a repeated pattern of events caused by low-frequency simulated rainfall results in higher nitrogen uxes and 3) the better ability of ectomycorrhizal fungi relative to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to decompose and assimilate organic nitrogen reduces leaching losses of nitrogen caused by both rewetting

  20. Validation of a Process-Based Agro-Ecosystem Model (Agro-IBIS for Maize in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tureniguli Amuti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural oasis expansion and intensive management practices have occurred in arid and semiarid regions of China during the last few decades. Accordingly, regional carbon and water budgets have been profoundly impacted by agroecosystems in these regions. Therefore, study on the methods used to accurately estimate energy, water, and carbon exchanges is becoming increasingly important. Process-based models can represent the complex processes between land and atmosphere among agricultural ecosystems. However, before the models can be applied they must be validated under different environmental and climatic conditions. In this study, a process-based agricultural ecosystem model (Agro-IBIS was validated for maize crops using 3 years of soil and biometric measurements at Wulanwusu agrometeorological site (WAS located in the Shihezi oasis in Xinjiang, northwest China. The model satisfactorily represented leaf area index (LAI during the growing season, simulating its peak values within the magnitude of 0–10%. The total biomass carbon was overestimated by 15%, 8%, and 16% in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. The model satisfactorily simulated the soil temperature (0–10 cm and volumetric water content (VWC (0–25 cm of farmland during the growing season. However, it overestimated soil temperature approximately by 4 °C and VWC by 15–30% during the winter, coinciding with the period of no vegetation cover in Xinjiang. Overall, the results indicate that the model could represent crop growth, and seems to be applicable in multiple sites in arid oases agroecosystems of Xinjiang. Future application of the model will impose more comprehensive validation using eddy covariance flux data, and consider including dynamics of crop residue and improving characterization of the final stage of leaf development.

  1. Combined use of isotopic and hydrometric data to conceptualize ecohydrological processes in a high-elevation tropical ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Giovanny M; Celleri, Rolando; Lazo, Patricio X; Vache, Kellie B; Perakis, Steven; Crespo, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Few high-elevation tropical catchments worldwide are gauged and even fewer are studied using combined hydrometric and isotopic data. Consequently, we lack information needed to understand processes governing rainfall-runoff dynamics and to predict their influence on downstream ecosystem functioning. To address this need, we present a combination of hydrometric and water stable isotopic observations in the wet Andean páramo ecosystem of the Zhurucay Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2). The catchment is located in the Andes of south Ecuador between 3400 and 3900 m a.s.l. Water samples for stable isotopic analysis were collected during 2 years (May 2011 – May 2013), while rainfall and runoff measurements were continuously recorded since late 2010. The isotopic data reveal that Andosol soils predominantly situated on hillslopes drain laterally to Histosols (Andean páramo wetlands) mainly located at the valley bottom. Histosols, in turn, feed water to creeks and small rivers throughout the year, establishing hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and the drainage network. Runoff is primarily comprised of pre-event water stored in the Histosols, which is replenished by rainfall that infiltrates through the Andosols. Contributions from the mineral horizon and the top of the fractured bedrock are small and only seem to influence discharge in small catchments during low flow generation (non-exceedance flows hydrological process and 2) (Histosols) wetlands are the major source of stream runoff. Our study highlights that detailed isotopic characterization during short time periods provides valuable information about ecohydrological processes in regions where very few basins are gauged.

  2. Biogeochemical cycles of Chernobyl-born radionuclides in the contaminated forest ecosystems: long-term dynamics of the migration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Biogeochemical migration is a dominant factor of the radionuclide transport through the biosphere. In the early XX century, V.I. Vernadskii, a Russian scientist known, noted about a special role living things play in transport and accumulation of natural radionuclide in various environments. The role of biogeochemical processes in migration and redistribution of technogenic radionuclides is not less important. In Russia, V. M. Klechkovskii and N.V. Timofeev-Ressovskii showed some important biogeochemical aspects of radionuclide migration by the example of global fallout and Kyshtym accident. Their followers, R.M. Alexakhin, M.A. Naryshkin, N.V. Kulikov, F.A. Tikhomirov, E.B. Tyuryukanova, and others also contributed a lot to biogeochemistry of radionuclides. In the post-Chernobyl period, this area of knowledge received a lot of data that allowed building the radioactive element balance and flux estimation in various biogeochemical cycles [Shcheglov et al., 1999]. Regrettably, many of recent radioecological studies are only focused on specific radionuclide fluxes or pursue some applied tasks, missing the holistic approach. Most of the studies consider biogeochemical fluxes of radioactive isotopes in terms of either dose estimation or radionuclide migration rates in various food chains. However, to get a comprehensive picture and develop a reliable forecast of environmental, ecological, and social consequences of radioactive pollution in a vast contaminated area, it is necessary to investigate all the radionuclide fluxes associated with the biogeochemical cycles in affected ecosystems. We believe such an integrated approach would be useful to study long-term environmental consequences of the Fukushima accident as well. In our long-term research, we tried to characterize the flux dynamics of the Chernobyl-born radionuclides in the contaminated forest ecosystems and landscapes as a part of the integrated biogeochemical process. Our field studies were started in June of

  3. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  4. A positive and multi-element conserving time stepping scheme for biogeochemical processes in marine ecosystem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, H.; Burchard, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an unconditionally positive and multi-element conserving time stepping scheme for systems of non-linearly coupled ODE's is presented. These systems of ODE's are used to describe biogeochemical transformation processes in marine ecosystem models. The numerical scheme is a positive-definite modification of the Runge-Kutta method, it can have arbitrarily high order of accuracy and does not require time step adaption. If the scheme is combined with a modified Patankar-Runge-Kutta method from Burchard et al. (2003), it also gets the ability to solve a certain class of stiff numerical problems, but the accuracy is restricted to second-order then. The performance of the new scheme on two test case problems is shown.

  5. Which processes dominate the uncertainties in the modelling of the transfer of radionuclides in lake ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundblad, B.

    1991-01-01

    There are several processes governing the transfer of radionuclides in the aquatic environment. These processes are usually lumped together into specific parameters describing those processes, such as distribution coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. One can conclude from the B3 scenario that the differences in results were explained more by difference in the selection of parameter values than they were by differences in assumed lake type or model structure. The parameters contributing most to the uncertainty in model predictions were the distribution coefficient between water and sediment and the fish bioaccumulation factor. In a site specific assessment it may be possible to limit the level of consideration necessary for each process according to lake type, the chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides released. In the B5 scenario it was found that no new processes were identified in spite of the site specific data given. However most users changed their model according to the new information given. The A5 scenario showed that the predictions were in fairly good agreement with the observed values. Other results from this study are the importance of including resuspension, chemical form. Predictions of concentration of cesium in fish were performed by applying a constant bioaccumulation factor approach or a dynamic modelling approach. It showed that it was necessary to apply the dynamic modelling to be able to calculate the initial concentration in fish. This was also discussed in Scenario B3 and thus has been verified in Scenario A5. (3 refs., 10 figs.)

  6. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  7. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk eBeyenal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA. We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl (cathodic mat system and +300 mVAg/AgCl (anodic mat system and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both anodic and cathodic mat systems. Interestingly, the cathodic mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the anodic mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the cathodic mats than in the anodic mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the cathodic mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that

  8. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phuc T; Renslow, Ryan S; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N; Lindemann, Stephen R; Fredrickson, James K; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  9. Ecosystem protection by effluent bioremediation: silver nanoparticles impregnation in a textile fabrics process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Nelson; Marcato, Priscyla D.; Alves, Oswaldo L.; Silva, Joao P. S. Da; Souza, Gabriel I. H. De; Rodrigues, Flavio A.; Esposito, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    This work studied a bioremediation process of silver nanoparticles with the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. These nanoparticles were obtained from several washes of cotton fabrics impregnated with silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The optimized growth of C. violaceum for silver nanoparticles bioremediation was obtained. The effluents of wash process of the cotton fabric were efficiently treated with C. violaceum. This treatment was based on biosorption which was very efficient for the elimination of silver nanoparticles remaining in the wash water. The bacteria after biosorption were morphologically transformed, but the normal morphology after a new culture was completely restored. The process also allowed the recovery of silver material that was leached into the effluent for a reutilization avoiding any effect to the eco-environment.

  10. Ecosystem protection by effluent bioremediation: silver nanoparticles impregnation in a textile fabrics process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Nelson, E-mail: duran@iqm.unicamp.br; Marcato, Priscyla D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Biological Chemistry Laboratory, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Alves, Oswaldo L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Silva, Joao P. S. Da; Souza, Gabriel I. H. De [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Biological Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Center (Brazil); Rodrigues, Flavio A. [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Material Chemistry Laboratory, Biochemical Research Center (Brazil); Esposito, Elisa [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Biological Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Center (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    This work studied a bioremediation process of silver nanoparticles with the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. These nanoparticles were obtained from several washes of cotton fabrics impregnated with silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The optimized growth of C. violaceum for silver nanoparticles bioremediation was obtained. The effluents of wash process of the cotton fabric were efficiently treated with C. violaceum. This treatment was based on biosorption which was very efficient for the elimination of silver nanoparticles remaining in the wash water. The bacteria after biosorption were morphologically transformed, but the normal morphology after a new culture was completely restored. The process also allowed the recovery of silver material that was leached into the effluent for a reutilization avoiding any effect to the eco-environment.

  11. Fishing for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L; Pegg, Mark A; Cole, Nicholas W; Siddons, Stephen F; Fedele, Alexis D; Harmon, Brian S; Ruskamp, Ryan L; Turner, Dylan R; Uerling, Caleb C

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem services. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem services, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem services could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem services. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The Process of Legal Drafting Regulation in the Development of the Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mardha, Amil

    2009-01-01

    THE PROCESS OF LEGAL DRAFTING REGULATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. In Indonesia, the process of legal drafting to establish the regulation is based on the Act No. 10 Year 2004 on the Establishment of Legislation. The process shall comply with the constitutional and institutional requirements of national political and legal system. In drafting the development of the regulation of nuclear energy, BAPETEN has been involving some other agencies or other related g...

  13. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Decision-Making in Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    1997-01-01

    Land management activities on public lands combine multiple objectives in order to create a plan of action over a finite time horizon. Because management activities are constrained by time and money, it is critical to make the best use of available agency resources. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) offers a structure for multi-objective decisionmaking so that...

  14. Integrating fuel treatment into ecosystem management: A proposed project planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith D. Stockmann; Kevin D. Hyde; J. Greg Jones; Dan R. Loeffler; Robin P. Silverstein

    2010-01-01

    Concern over increased wildland fire threats on public lands throughout the western United States makes fuel reduction activities the primary driver of many management projects. This single-issue focus recalls a management planning process practiced frequently in recent decades - a least-harm approach where the primary objective is first addressed and then plans are...

  15. Establishment and maintenance of regulating ecosystem services in a dryland area of central Asia, illustrated using the Kökyar Protection Forest, Aksu, NW China, as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missall, S.; Welp, M.; Thevs, N.; Abliz, A.; Halik, Ü.

    2015-06-01

    The city of Aksu, situated at the northern fringe of the Taklimakan Desert in northwest China, is exposed to severe periodic dust and sand storms. In 1986, local authorities decided to establish a peri-urban shelterbelt plantation, the so-called Kökyar Protection Forest, with the aim of reducing dust and sand storm impacts on Aksu City by the regulating ecosystem services provided by the plantation. It was realised as a patchwork of poplar shelterbelts and orchards. The total area of the plantation reached 3800 ha in 2005. The Kökyar Protection Forest is used as a case study to answer the following question: under which institutional frameworks and to which financial conditions can peri-urban shelterbelts be established and maintained? The endeavour of planting the shelterbelt was made possible by the annual mass mobilisation of Aksu citizens, based on the Chinese regulation of the "National Compulsory Afforestation Campaigns". Establishment costs amounted to ca. CNY 60 000 ha-1 (ca. USD 10 000 ha-1). Permanent maintenance of the plantation is facilitated by leasing orchard plots to private fruit farmers. From the perspective of the local economy, annual farming net benefits generated by Kökyar fruit farmers more than compensate for annual government grants for maintenance, resulting in an average overall monetary net benefit of at least CNY 10 500 ha-1 (ca. USD 1600 ha-1) in the long term. For a more complete understanding of Kökyar Protection Forest, future research should be directed towards quantifying the effect of its regulating ecosystem services and on investigating the negative downstream consequences of its water consumption.

  16. Effects of submarine mine tailings on macrobenthic community structure and ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannum, Hilde C; Gundersen, Hege; Escudero-Oñate, Carlos; Johansen, Joachim T; Schaanning, Morten T

    2018-07-15

    A mesocosm experiment with intact benthic communities was conducted to evaluate the effects of mine tailings on benthic community structure and biogeochemical processes. Two types of tailings were supplied from process plants using flotation and flocculation chemicals, while a third type was absent of added chemicals. All tailings impacted the sediment community at thin layers, and through more mechanisms than merely hypersedimentation. In general, the strongest impact was observed in a very fine-grained tailings containing flotation chemicals. The second strongest occurred in tailings with no process chemicals. The tailings with flocculation chemicals initiated the weakest response. Fluxes of oxygen, nitrate and ammonium provided some indications on biodegradation of organic phases. Release of phosphate and silicate decreased with increasing layer thickness of all three tailings. A threshold level of 2cm was identified both for faunal responses and for fluxes of phosphate and silicate. The particular impact mechanisms should receive more attention in future studies in order to minimize the environmental risk associated with tailings disposal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling regulating ecosystem services trade-offs across landscape scenarios in Trebonsko Wetlands Biosphere Reserve, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harmáčková, Veronika Zuzana; Vačkář, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 295, SI (2015), s. 207-215 ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA TA ČR TD010026 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate regulation * water quality regulation * InVEST models * decision support * social-ecological systems Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2015

  18. Regulation of transport processes across the tonoplast membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eTrentmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the vacuole builds up the cellular turgor and represents an important component in cellular responses to diverse stress stimuli. Rapid volume changes of cells, particularly of motor cells, like guard cells, are caused by variation of osmolytes and consequently of the water contents in the vacuole. Moreover, directed solute uptake into or release out of the large central vacuole allows adaptation of cytosolic metabolite levels according to the current physiological requirements and specific cellular demands. Therefore, solute passage across the vacuolar membrane, the tonoplast, has to be tightly regulated. Important principles in vacuolar transport regulation are changes of tonoplast transport protein abundances by differential expression of genes or changes of their activities, e.g. due to post-translational modification or by interacting proteins. Because vacuolar transport is in most cases driven by an electro-chemical gradient altered activities of tonoplast proton pumps significantly influence vacuolar transport capacities. Intense studies on individual tonoplast proteins but also unbiased system biological approaches have provided important insights into the regulation of vacuolar transport. This short review refers to selected examples of tonoplast proteins and their regulation, with special focus on protein phosphorylation.

  19. Self-Regulation Processes and Thriving in Childhood and Adolescence: A View of the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Urban, Jennifer Brown

    2011-01-01

    Both organismic and intentional self-regulation processes must be integrated across childhood and adolescence for adaptive developmental regulations to exist and for the developing person to thrive, both during the first two decades of life and through the adult years. To date, such an integrated, life-span approach to self-regulation during…

  20. Expert Voices in Learning Improvisation: Shaping Regulation Processes through Experiential Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Leon R.

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal and collaborative activity plays an important role in the social aspects of self-regulated learning (SRL) development. Peer, teacher and group interactions facilitate support for self-regulation, co-regulation and socially shared regulatory processes. Situated and experiential interplay facilitates personal, co-constructed and…

  1. Effects of Self-Regulated Vocabulary Learning Process on Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Researchers, especially in the field of educational psychology, have argued that self-efficacy plays an important role in self-regulated learning. As such, teaching of self-regulated learning often focuses on enhancing self-efficacy. However, few studies have examined how the process of self-regulated learning might lead to the enhancement of…

  2. Simple metal model for predicting uptake and chemical processes in sewage-fed aquaculture ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azanu, David; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Darko, Godfred

    2016-01-01

    but not working properly for chromium and mercury. Additional processes, including precipitation of chromium and bio-magnification of methylmercury were introduced to explain concentration of chromium and mercury in fish. Comparison of measured and predicted metal concentration used for validation gave a linear......% was the best, which is also in accordance to the fish growth. The ratio of fish food was also calibrated to be 70% due to a food chain in the water and 30% due to a food chain in the sediment. This gave the lowest uncertainty of the model. The simple metal model was working acceptably well for Pb, Cu and Cd...

  3. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Water addition regulates the metabolic activity of ammonia oxidizers responding to environmental perturbations in dry subhumid ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Macdonald, Catriona A; Trivedi, Pankaj; Holmes, Bronwyn; Bodrossy, Levente; He, Ji-Zheng; Singh, Brajesh K

    2015-02-01

    Terrestrial arid and semi-arid ecosystems (drylands) constitute about 41% of the Earth's land surface and are predicted to experience increasing fluctuations in water and nitrogen availability. Mounting evidence has confirmed the significant importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in nitrification, plant nitrogen availability and atmospheric N2 O emissions, but their responses to environmental perturbations in drylands remain largely unknown. Here we evaluate how the factorial combinations of irrigation and fertilization in forests and land-use change from grassland to forest affects the dynamics of AOA and AOB following a 6-year dryland field study. Potential nitrification rates and AOA and AOB abundances were significantly higher in the irrigated plots, accompanied by considerable changes in community compositions, but their responses to fertilization alone were not significant. DNA-stable isotope probing results showed increased (13) CO2 incorporation into the amoA gene of AOA, but not of AOB, in plots receiving water addition, coupled with significantly higher net mineralization and nitrification rates. High-throughput microarray analysis revealed that active AOA assemblages belonging to Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosotalea were increasingly labelled by (13) CO2 following irrigation. However, no obvious effects of land-use changes on nitrification rates or metabolic activity of AOA and AOB could be observed under dry conditions. We provide evidence that water addition had more important roles than nitrogen fertilization in influencing the autotrophic nitrification in dryland ecosystems, and AOA are increasingly involved in ammonia oxidation when dry soils become wetted. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Upper Mississippi River: Transport, processing, and effects on the river ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.N.; Richardson, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Existing research on nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) can be organized into the following categories: (1) Long-term changes in nutrient concentrations and export, and their causes; (2) Nutrient cycling within the river; (3) Spatial and temporal patterns of river nutrient concentrations; (4) Effects of elevated nutrient concentrations on the river; and (5) Actions to reduce river nutrient concentrations and flux. Nutrient concentration and flux in the Mississippi River have increased substantially over the last century because of changes in land use, climate, hydrology, and river management and engineering. As in other large floodplain rivers, rates of processes that cycle nitrogen and phosphorus in the UMR exhibit pronounced spatial and temporal heterogeneity because of the complex morphology of the river. This spatial variability in nutrient processing creates clear spatial patterns in nutrient concentrations. For example, nitrate concentrations generally are much lower in off-channel areas than in the main channel. The specifics of in-river nutrient cycling and the effects of high rates of nutrient input on UMR have been less studied than the factors affecting nutrient input to the river and transport to the Gulf of Mexico, and important questions concerning nutrient cycling in the UMR remain. Eutrophication and resulting changes in river productivity have only recently been investigated the UMR. These recent studies indicate that the high nutrient concentrations in the river may affect community composition of aquatic vegetation (e. g., the abundance of filamentous algae and duckweeds), dissolved oxygen concentrations in off-channel areas, and the abundance of cyanobacteria. Actions to reduce nutrient input to the river include changes in land-use practices, wetland restoration, and hydrological modifications to the river. Evidence suggests that most of the above methods can contribute to reducing nutrient concentration in

  6. Intracellular Calreticulin Regulates Multiple Steps in Fibrillar Collagen Expression, Trafficking, and Processing into the Extracellular Matrix*

    OpenAIRE

    Van Duyn Graham, Lauren; Sweetwyne, Mariya T.; Pallero, Manuel A.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), a chaperone and Ca2+ regulator, enhances wound healing, and its expression correlates with fibrosis in animal models, suggesting that CRT regulates production of the extracellular matrix. However, direct regulation of collagen matrix by CRT has not been previously demonstrated. We investigated the role of CRT in the regulation of fibrillar collagen expression, secretion, processing, and deposition in the extracellular matrix by fibroblasts. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts defi...

  7. AFSC/ABL: Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) fish and oceanography data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Understanding the processes that regulate early marine survival of salmon is a major goal of the Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) Northeast Pacific (NEP)...

  8. Do You Have 5 Minutes To Spare? –The Challenges Of Stakeholder Processes In Ecosystem Services Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koschke, L.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Operationalization of the ecosystem services (ES concept for improved natural resource management and decision support cannot, thus far, be rated as satisfactory. Participation of stakeholders is still a major methodical and conceptual challenge for implementing ES. Therefore, we conducted an online survey and a literature analysis to identify benefits and challenges of the application of ES in participatory processes. The results show that the purpose of stakeholder engagement is very diverse as a result of varying objectives, spatial scales and institutional levels of analysis. The complexity, terminology and (lacking coherent classification of ES are pivotal aspects that should be accounted for in the design of studies to improve stakeholder participation. Although limitations of time and financial resources are bigger challenges than ES related ones, tailoring communication strategies and information for different stakeholder groups are of major importance for the success of ES studies. Results support the view that the potential benefits of applying ES, e.g., consensus finding, and development of integrated solutions, cannot be realized consistently across the different spatial scales and decision-making levels. Focusing on stakeholder processes represents a means to increase the relevance, reliability and impact of study results and to move participation in ES research from theory to reality.

  9. Short- and longterm impacts of Acacia longifolia invasion on belowground processes of a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten

    2008-01-01

    to new areas, displacing the native vegetation. These invaded ecosystems contrast with the native dune ecosystems that are typically dominated by herb and shrub communities. This study characterizes belowground changes to the native environment as a result of recent (20 y...

  10. Non-linear interactions determine the impact of sea-level rise on estuarine benthic biodiversity and ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; Raffaelli, David; White, Piran C L

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise induced by climate change may have significant impacts on the ecosystem functions and ecosystem services provided by intertidal sediment ecosystems. Accelerated sea-level rise is expected to lead to steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure, with consequent impacts on intertidal ecosystems. We examined the relationships between abundance, biomass, and community metabolism of benthic fauna with beach slope, particle size and exposure, using samples across a range of conditions from three different locations in the UK, to determine the significance of sediment particle size beach slope and wave exposure in affecting benthic fauna and ecosystem function in different ecological contexts. Our results show that abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption of intertidal macrofauna and meiofauna are affected significantly by interactions among sediment particle size, beach slope and wave exposure. For macrofauna on less sloping beaches, the effect of these physical constraints is mediated by the local context, although for meiofauna and for macrofauna on intermediate and steeper beaches, the effects of physical constraints dominate. Steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure generally result in decreases in abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption, but these relationships are complex and non-linear. Sea-level rise is likely to lead to changes in ecosystem structure with generally negative impacts on ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be affected by local ecological context, especially for less sloping beaches.

  11. Evidence of Facilitation Cascade Processes as Drivers of Successional Patterns of Ecosystem Engineers at the Upper Altitudinal Limit of the Dry Puna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Luca; Tardella, Federico Maria; Piermarteri, Karina; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation processes constitute basic elements of vegetation dynamics in harsh systems. Recent studies in tropical alpine environments demonstrated how pioneer plant species defined as "ecosystem engineers" are capable of enhancing landscape-level richness by adding new species to the community through the modification of microhabitats, and also provided hints about the alternation of different ecosystem engineers over time. Nevertheless, most of the existing works analysed different ecosystem engineers separately, without considering the interaction of different ecosystem engineers. Focusing on the altitudinal limit of Peruvian Dry Puna vegetation, we hypothesized that positive interactions structure plant communities by facilitation cascades involving different ecosystem engineers, determining the evolution of the microhabitat patches in terms of abiotic resources and beneficiary species hosted. To analyze successional mechanisms, we used a "space-for-time" substitution to account for changes over time, and analyzed data on soil texture, composition, and temperature, facilitated species and their interaction with nurse species, and surface area of engineered patches by means of chemical analyses, indicator species analysis, and rarefaction curves. A successional process, resulting from the dynamic interaction of different ecosystem engineers, which determined a progressive amelioration of soil conditions (e.g. nitrogen and organic matter content, and temperature), was the main driver of species assemblage at the community scale, enhancing species richness. Cushion plants act as pioneers, by starting the successional processes that continue with shrubs and tussocks. Tussock grasses have sometimes been found to be capable of creating microhabitat patches independently. The dynamics of species assemblage seem to follow the nested assemblage mechanism, in which the first foundation species to colonize a habitat provides a novel substrate for colonization by other

  12. Evidence of Facilitation Cascade Processes as Drivers of Successional Patterns of Ecosystem Engineers at the Upper Altitudinal Limit of the Dry Puna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Malatesta

    Full Text Available Facilitation processes constitute basic elements of vegetation dynamics in harsh systems. Recent studies in tropical alpine environments demonstrated how pioneer plant species defined as "ecosystem engineers" are capable of enhancing landscape-level richness by adding new species to the community through the modification of microhabitats, and also provided hints about the alternation of different ecosystem engineers over time. Nevertheless, most of the existing works analysed different ecosystem engineers separately, without considering the interaction of different ecosystem engineers. Focusing on the altitudinal limit of Peruvian Dry Puna vegetation, we hypothesized that positive interactions structure plant communities by facilitation cascades involving different ecosystem engineers, determining the evolution of the microhabitat patches in terms of abiotic resources and beneficiary species hosted. To analyze successional mechanisms, we used a "space-for-time" substitution to account for changes over time, and analyzed data on soil texture, composition, and temperature, facilitated species and their interaction with nurse species, and surface area of engineered patches by means of chemical analyses, indicator species analysis, and rarefaction curves. A successional process, resulting from the dynamic interaction of different ecosystem engineers, which determined a progressive amelioration of soil conditions (e.g. nitrogen and organic matter content, and temperature, was the main driver of species assemblage at the community scale, enhancing species richness. Cushion plants act as pioneers, by starting the successional processes that continue with shrubs and tussocks. Tussock grasses have sometimes been found to be capable of creating microhabitat patches independently. The dynamics of species assemblage seem to follow the nested assemblage mechanism, in which the first foundation species to colonize a habitat provides a novel substrate for

  13. Nonlinear ecosystem services response to groundwater availability under climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J.; Zipper, S. C.; Motew, M.; Booth, E.; Kucharik, C. J.; Steven, L. I.

    2017-12-01

    Depletion of groundwater has been accelerating at regional to global scales. Besides serving domestic, industrial and agricultural needs, in situ groundwater is also a key control on biological, physical and chemical processes across the critical zone, all of which underpin supply of ecosystem services essential for humanity. While there is a rich history of research on groundwater effects on subsurface and surface processes, understanding interactions, nonlinearity and feedbacks between groundwater and ecosystem services remain limited, and almost absent in the ecosystem service literature. Moreover, how climate extremes may alter groundwater effects on services is underexplored. In this research, we used a process-based ecosystem model (Agro-IBIS) to quantify groundwater effects on eight ecosystem services related to food, water and biogeochemical processes in an urbanizing agricultural watershed in the Midwest, USA. We asked: (1) Which ecosystem services are more susceptible to shallow groundwater influences? (2) Do effects of groundwater on ecosystem services vary under contrasting climate conditions (i.e., dry, wet and average)? (3) Where on the landscape are groundwater effects on ecosystem services most pronounced? (4) How do groundwater effects depend on water table depth? Overall, groundwater significantly impacted all services studied, with the largest effects on food production, water quality and quantity, and flood regulation services. Climate also mediated groundwater effects with the strongest effects occurring under dry climatic conditions. There was substantial spatial heterogeneity in groundwater effects across the landscape that is driven in part by spatial variations in water table depth. Most ecosystem services responded nonlinearly to groundwater availability, with most apparent groundwater effects occurring when the water table is shallower than a critical depth of 2.5-m. Our findings provide compelling evidence that groundwater plays a vital

  14. Hydrologic connectivity and implications for ecosystem processes - Lessons from naked watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooseff, Michael N.; Wlostowski, Adam; McKnight, Diane M.; Jaros, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Hydrologic connectivity has received great attention recently as our conceptual models of watersheds and water quality have evolved in the past several decades. However, the structural complexity of most temperate watersheds (i.e. connections among shallow soils, deep aquifers, the atmosphere and streams) and the dynamic seasonal changes that occur within them (i.e., plant senescence which impacts evapotranspiration) create significant challenges to characterizing or quantifying hydrologic connectivity. The McMurdo Dry Valleys, a polar desert in Antarctica, provide a unique opportunity to study hydrologic connectivity because there is no vegetative cover (and therefore no transpiration), and no deep aquifers connected to surface soils or streams. Glacier melt provides stream flow to well-established channels and closed-basin, ice-covered lakes on the valley floor. Streams are also connected to shallow hyporheic zones along their lengths, which are bounded at 75 cm depth by ice-cemented permafrost. These hydrologic features and connections provide water for and underpin biological communities. Hence, exchange of water among them provides a vector for exchange of energy and dissolved solutes. Connectivity is dynamic on timescales of a day to a flow season (6-12 weeks), as streamflow varies over these timescales. The timescales over which these connections occur is also dynamic. Exchanges between streams and hyporheic zones, for example, have been estimated to be as short as hours to as long as several weeks. These exchanges have significant implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems and the biotic communities in each feature. Here we evaluate the lessons we can learn about hydrologic connectivity in the MDV watersheds that are simplified in the context of processes occurring and water reservoirs included in the landscape, yet are sensitive to climate controls and contain substantial physical heterogeneity. We specifically explore several metrics that are

  15. The match-mismatch model of emotion processing styles and emotion regulation strategies in fibromyalgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, R.; Ooijen-van der Linden, L. van; Lumley, M.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Middendorp, H. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Individuals differ in their style of processing emotions (e.g., experiencing affects intensely or being alexithymic) and their strategy of regulating emotions (e.g., expressing or reappraising). A match-mismatch model of emotion processing styles and emotion regulation strategies is

  16. Writing Regulation Processes in Higher Education: A Review of Two Decades of Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Bubaré, Anna; Castelló, Montserrat

    2018-01-01

    In Higher Education (HE), writers need to regulate their writing processes in order to achieve their communicative goals. Although critical for academic success and knowledge construction, writing regulation processes have been mainly researched in compulsory education rather than in HE, with no systematic review focused on this context. The…

  17. [Urban ecosystem services: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi-zheng; Huang, Gan-lin; Wu, Jian-guo

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining and improving ecosystem services in urban areas and human well-being are essential for sustainable development and therefore constitute an important topic in urban ecology. Here we reviewed studies on ecosystem services in urban areas. Based on the concept and classification of urban ecosystem services, we summarized characteristics of urban ecosystem services, including the human domination, high demand of ecosystem services in urban areas, spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystem services supply and demand in urban areas, multi-services of urban green infrastructures, the socio-economic dimension of ecosystem services supply and ecosystem disservices in urban areas. Among different urban ecosystem services, the regulating service and cultural service are particularly indispensable to benefit human health. We pointed out that tradeoffs among different types of ecosystem services mostly occur between supportive service and cultural service, as well as regulating service and cultural service. In particular, we emphasized the relationship between landscape design (i.e. green infrastructure) and ecosystem services supply. Finally, we discussed current gaps to link urban ecosystem services studies to landscape design and management and pointed out several directions for future research in urban ecosystem services.

  18. Valuation of rangeland ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Economic valuation lends itself well to the anthropocentric orientation of ecosystem services. An economic perspective on ecosystems portrays them as natural assets providing a flow of goods and services valuable to individuals and society collectively. A few examples include the purification of drinking water, reduced risk from flooding and other extreme events, pollination of agricultural crops, climate regulation, and recreation opportunities from plant and animal habitat maintenance, among many others. Once these goods and services are identified and quantified, they can be monetized to complete the valuation process. The monetization of ecosystem goods and services (in the form of dollars) provides a common metric that allows for cross-comparison of attributes and evaluation of differing ecological scenarios. Complicating the monetization process is the fact that most of these goods and services are public and non-market in nature; meaning they are non-rival and non-exclusive and are typically not sold in a traditional market setting where monetary values are revealed. Instead, one must employ non-market valuation techniques, with primary valuation methods typically being very time and resource consuming, intimidating to non-economists, and often impractical. For these reasons, benefit transfer methods have gained popularity. This methodology harnesses the primary collection results of existing studies to make inferences about the economic values of non-market goods and services at an alternative policy site (in place and/or in time). For instance, if a primary valuation study on oak reestablishment on rangelands in southern California yielded a value of $30 per-acre associated with water regulation, this result can be transferred, with some adjustments, to say something about the value of an acre of oaks on rangelands in northern portions of the state. The economic valuation of rangeland ecosystem services has many roles. Economic values may be used as input

  19. Resolving terrestrial ecosystem processes along a subgrid topographic gradient for an earth-system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subin, Z M; Milly, Paul C.D.; Sulman, B N; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, E

    2014-01-01

    capability to represent some of the controls of these hydrological variables, but also that improvement in parameterization and input datasets are needed for more realistic simulations. We found large sensitivity in model-diagnosed wetland and inundated area to the depth of conductive soil and the parameterization of macroporosity. With improved parameterization and inclusion of peatland biogeochemical processes, the model could provide a new approach to investigating the vulnerability of Boreal peatland carbon to climate change in ESMs.

  20. Investigating point zero: The artificial catchment 'Chicken Creek' as an observatory to study critical zone structures and processes of the critical zone in an initial ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttl, Reinhard F.; Gerwin, Werner

    2010-05-01

    Recently, earth surface structures reaching from vegetation to the groundwater in the near underground have been termed "critical zone". This zone is "critical" to supporting life on Earth and, thus, the understanding of processes within this zone is of great importance in environmental sciences. Investigating the critical zone requires interdisciplinary and integrative research approaches across the fields of geomorphology, ecology, biology, soil science, hydrology and environmental modeling. A central motivation of the critical zone concept is the need for moving beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries to a more holistic and integrated study of the Earth surface system. However, the critical zone is characterized by complex interactions between abiotic and biotic structures and processes which need to be analyzed for improving our understanding of ecosystem functioning as well as of ecosystem development. To gain a better understanding of these fundamental questions it might be helpful to look at initial ecosystems, i.e. at ecosystems in the initial phase of development. It can be hypothesized that the complexity of a very young ecosystem is lower compared to mature systems and, therefore, structure-process interactions might become more obvious at early than at later stages of development. In this context, an artificial watershed was constructed with well known boundary conditions to investigate the initial ecosystem phase. The catchment ‘Chicken Creek' in Lusatia (Germany; 150 km SE from Berlin) has an area of 6 ha. It was set up with a layer of post-glacial sandy sediments overlying an aquiclude made of clay at the base. These hydrological starting conditions allowed for the formation of a groundwater body within the sandy layer of the experimental catchment. Further, after completion of the construction works in September 2005 the site was left to natural succession and no measures like planting or fertilization were carried out. As the initial phase of

  1. Applying Hillslope Hydrology to Bridge between Ecosystem and Grid-Scale Processes within an Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subin, Z. M.; Sulman, B. N.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial control on surface energy fluxes, vegetation properties, and soil carbon cycling. Its interactions with ecosystem processes are highly nonlinear across a large range, as both drought stress and anoxia can impede vegetation and microbial growth. Earth System Models (ESMs) generally only represent an average soil-moisture state in grid cells at scales of 50-200 km, and as a result are not able to adequately represent the effects of subgrid heterogeneity in soil moisture, especially in regions with large wetland areas. We addressed this deficiency by developing the first ESM-coupled subgrid hillslope-hydrological model, TiHy (Tiled-hillslope Hydrology), embedded within the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model. In each grid cell, one or more representative hillslope geometries are discretized into land model tiles along an upland-to-lowland gradient. These geometries represent ~1 km hillslope-scale hydrological features and allow for flexible representation of hillslope profile and plan shapes, in addition to variation of subsurface properties among or within hillslopes. Each tile (which may represent ~100 m along the hillslope) has its own surface fluxes, vegetation state, and vertically-resolved state variables for soil physics and biogeochemistry. Resolution of water state in deep layers (~200 m) down to bedrock allows for physical integration of groundwater transport with unsaturated overlying dynamics. Multiple tiles can also co-exist at the same vertical position along the hillslope, allowing the simulation of ecosystem heterogeneity due to disturbance. The hydrological model is coupled to the vertically-resolved Carbon, Organisms, Respiration, and Protection in the Soil Environment (CORPSE) model, which captures non-linearity resulting from interactions between vertically-heterogeneous soil carbon and water profiles. We present comparisons of simulated water table depth to observations. We examine sensitivities to

  2. Importance of regional species pools and functional traits in colonization processes: predicting re-colonization after large-scale destruction of ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirmer, A.; Tischew, S.; Ozinga, W.A.; Lampe, von M.; Baasch, A.; Groenendael, van J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale destruction of ecosystems caused by surface mining provides an opportunity for the study of colonization processes starting with primary succession. Surprisingly, over several decades and without any restoration measures, most of these sites spontaneously developed into valuable biotope

  3. The Process of Legal Drafting Regulation in the Development of the Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amil Mardha

    2009-01-01

    In Indonesia, the process of legal drafting to establish the regulation is based on the Act No. 10 Year 2004 on the Establishment of Legislation. The process shall comply with the constitutional and institutional requirements of national political and legal system. In drafting the development of the regulation of nuclear energy, BAPETEN has been involving some other agencies or other related government agencies, and stakeholders such as utility, academic institutions, and publics. In general, in the process of legal drafting, international publications or other country regulations can be a reference and adopted. In the establishment of the regulations of nuclear energy, BAPETEN has issued some Government Regulations and Chairman Regulations of BAPETEN. For nuclear safety of NPP, the regulations have not been completed yet, but some regulations related in the area of siting of NPP have been already available. In this paper, it is discussed the process of the establishment of legislation and of the legal drafting nuclear regulation of NPP, and the current status of NPP regulations. (author)

  4. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...... in the conceptual framework for EU wide ecosystem assessments (Maes et al., 2013), which couples existing approaches for recreation management at country level with behavioural data derived from surveys, and population distribution data. The proposed framework is based on three components: the ecosystem function...

  5. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S. James; Shirley, Thomas C.; Mondragon, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15–439 m) and temperatures (4–8°C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs.

  6. Nitrogen processing in a tidal freshwater marsh: a whole ecosystem 15N labeling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribsholt, B.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Struyf, E.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the fate and transport of watershed-derived ammonium in a tidal freshwater marsh fringing the nutrient-rich Scheldt River in a whole-ecosystem 15N labeling experiment. 15N-NH4+ was added to the floodwater entering a 3,477 m2 tidal marsh area, and marsh ammonium processing...... and retention were traced in six subsequent tide cycles. We present data for the water phase components of the marsh system, in which changes in concentration and isotopic enrichment of NO3-, NO2- , N2O, N2, NH4+, and suspended particulate nitrogen (SPN) were measured in concert with a mass balance study....... Simultaneous addition of a conservative tracer (NaBr) confirmed that tracer was evenly distributed, and the Br2 budget was almost closed (115% recovery). All analyzed dissolved and suspended N pools were labeled, and 31% of added 15N-NH4+ was retained or transformed. Nitrate was the most important pool for 15N...

  7. Dynamical Processes in Ageing, Gene Regulation and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss

    is that unstable activation and stable repression is a requirement for the motif to produce oscillations. The last part of this thesis studies the emergence of communication networks. In this study we constructed a simple e-mail game. E-mails from two session with 16 players, who had never met before, showed how......My thesis consists of three parts. The first part covers ageing phenomena. In the first project I measured the mobility of two DNA repair proteins. Contrasting diffusion coefficients from literature I was able to classify DNA repair protein into either "scanners" or "responders". In a second...... project we constructed a mathematical model and showed that if DNA damage is primarily caused by geno-toxic agents, it would be advantageous for cells to have a fragile DNA repair mechanism. The second part of my Ph.D. thesis covers gene regulation. In the first project we show how RNA polymerase can...

  8. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located ne...

  9. Regulation of health information processing in an outsourcing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Policy makers must consider the work force, technology, cost, and legal implications of their legislative proposals. AHIMA, AAMT, CHIA, and MTIA urge lawmakers to craft regulatory solutions that enforce HIPAA and support advancements in modern health information processing practices that improve the quality and cost of healthcare. We also urge increased investment in health information work force development and implementation of new technologies to advance critical healthcare outcomes--timely, accurate, accessible, and secure information to support patient care. It is essential that state legislatures reinforce the importance of improving information processing solutions for healthcare and not take actions that will produce unintended and detrimental consequences.

  10. Estimating Rates of Permafrost Degradation and their Impact on Ecosystems across Alaska and Northwest Canada using the Process-based Permafrost Dynamics Model GIPL as a Component of the Integrated Ecosystem Model (IEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, S. S.; Genet, H.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Breen, A. L.; McGuire, A. D.; Rupp, S. T.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Bolton, W. R.; Walsh, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of climate warming on permafrost and the potential of climate feedbacks resulting from permafrost thawing have recently received a great deal of attention. Permafrost temperature has increased in most locations in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic during the past 30-40 years. The typical increase in permafrost temperature is 1-3°C. The process-based permafrost dynamics model GIPL developed in the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab, and which is the permafrost module of the Integrated Ecosystem Model (IEM) has been using to quantify the nature and rate of permafrost degradation and its impact on ecosystems, infrastructure, CO2 and CH4fluxes and net C storage following permafrost thaw across Alaska and Northwest Canada. The IEM project is a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary effort aimed at understanding potential landscape, habitat and ecosystem change across the IEM domain. The IEM project also aims to tie three scientific models together Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), the ALFRESCO (ALaska FRame-based EcoSystem Code) and GIPL so that they exchange data at run-time. The models produce forecasts of future fire, vegetation, organic matter, permafrost and hydrology regimes. The climate forcing data are based on the historical CRU3.1 data set for the retrospective analysis period (1901-2009) and the CMIP3 CCCMA-CGCM3.1 and MPI-ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate models for the future period (2009-2100). All data sets were downscaled to a 1 km resolution, using a differencing methodology (i.e., a delta method) and the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) climatology. We estimated the dynamics of permafrost temperature, active layer thickness, area occupied by permafrost, and volume of thawed soils across the IEM domain. The modeling results indicate how different types of ecosystems affect the thermal state of permafrost and its stability. Although the rate of soil warming and permafrost degradation in peatland areas are slower than

  11. One carbon cycle: Impacts of model integration, ecosystem process detail, model resolution, and initialization data, on projections of future climate mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; le page, Y.; Patel, P. L.; Chini, L. P.; Sahajpal, R.; Dubayah, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J.; Janetos, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) simulate the interactions between human and natural systems at a global scale, representing a broad suite of phenomena across the global economy, energy system, land-use, and carbon cycling. Most proposed climate mitigation strategies rely on maintaining or enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink as a substantial contribution to restrain the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, however most IAMs rely on simplified regional representations of terrestrial carbon dynamics. Our research aims to reduce uncertainties associated with forest modeling within integrated assessments, and to quantify the impacts of climate change on forest growth and productivity for integrated assessments of terrestrial carbon management. We developed the new Integrated Ecosystem Demography (iED) to increase terrestrial ecosystem process detail, resolution, and the utilization of remote sensing in integrated assessments. iED brings together state-of-the-art models of human society (GCAM), spatial land-use patterns (GLM) and terrestrial ecosystems (ED) in a fully coupled framework. The major innovative feature of iED is a consistent, process-based representation of ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle throughout the human, terrestrial, land-use, and atmospheric components. One of the most challenging aspects of ecosystem modeling is to provide accurate initialization of land surface conditions to reflect non-equilibrium conditions, i.e., the actual successional state of the forest. As all plants in ED have an explicit height, it is one of the few ecosystem models that can be initialized directly with vegetation height data. Previous work has demonstrated that ecosystem model resolution and initialization data quality have a large effect on flux predictions at continental scales. Here we use a factorial modeling experiment to quantify the impacts of model integration, process detail, model resolution, and initialization data on projections of

  12. Serotoninergic regulation of emotional and behavioural control processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, R.; Roberts, A.C.; Robbins, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) has long been implicated in a wide variety of emotional, cognitive and behavioural control processes. However, its precise contribution is still not well understood. Depletion of 5-HT enhances behavioural and brain responsiveness to punishment or other aversive

  13. Incorporating Human Factors into design change processes - a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, L.; McRobbie, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Canada must receive written approval from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) when making certain changes that are defined in their licenses. The CNSC expects the design change process to include a method for ensuring that the human-machine interface and workplace design support the safe and reliable performance of required tasks. When reviewing design changes for approval, the CNSC looks for evidence of analysis work, use of appropriate human factors design guide-lines, and verification and validation testing of the design. In addition to reviewing significant design changes, evaluations are conducted to ensure design change processes adequately address human performance. Findings from reviews and evaluations highlight the need to integrate human factors into the design change process, provide human factors training and support to engineering staff, establish processes to ensure coordination between the various groups with a vested interest in human factors, and develop more rigorous methods to validate changes to maintenance, field operations and testing interfaces. (author)

  14. Fish biodiversity sampling in stream ecosystems: a process for evaluating the appropriate types and amount of gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph M.; Wells, Sarah P.; Mather, Martha E.; Muth, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Because human impacts and climate change threaten aquatic ecosystems, a need exists to quantify catchment-scale biodiversity patterns and identify conservation actions that can mitigate adverse human impacts on aquatic biota.

  15. Climate change consequences for terrestrial ecosystem processes in NW Greeland: Results from the High Arctic Biocomplexity project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, J. M.; Sullivan, P.; Rogers, M.; Sharp, E. D.; Sletten, R.; Burnham, J. L.; Hallet, B.; Hagedorn, B.; Czimiczk, C.

    2009-12-01

    Greenland is experiencing some of the fastest rates of climate warming across the Arctic including warmer summers and increases in snow fall. The effects of these new states of Greenland are however, uncertain especially for carbon, nitrogen and water biogeochemical processes, soil traits, vegetation growth patterns, mineral nutrition and plant ecophysiological processes. Since 2003 we have conducted a suite of observational and experimental measurements that have been designed to understand the fundamental nature of polar desert, polar semi-desert and fen landscapes in NW Greenland. In addition, we have established a suite of experiments to ascertain ecosystem responses to warming at multiple levels (~2030 and 2050), in conjunction with added summer rain; the consequences of added snow fall (ambient, intermediate and deep) and the effects of increases in nutrient additions (added N, P and N+P), which represent extreme warming conditions. We find that: a) the soil C pools are 6-fold larger than previously measured, b) extremely old C (up to ~30k bp) which has been buried by frost cracking and frost heaving is reaching the modern atmosphere, but in only trace amounts as measured by respired 14CO2, c) warming that simulates 2030, has only a small effect on net C sequestration but warming that simulates 2050 when combined with added summer rain, increases C sequestration by 300%, d) increases in N deposition almost immediately and completely changes the vegetation composition of polar semi-deserts shifting the NDVI values from 0.2 to 0.5 within 2 years. Our findings depict a system that is poised to contribute stronger feedbacks than previously expected as climates in NW Greenland change.

  16. Granule protein processing and regulated secretion in neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash eSheshechalam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are part of a family of granulocytes that, together with eosinophils and basophils, play an essential role in innate immunity. Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating leukocytes and are vital for rapid immune responses, being recruited to sites of injury or infection within minutes, where they can act as specialized phagocytic cells. However, another prominent function of neutrophils is the release of pro-inflammatory compounds, including cytokines, chemokines and digestive enzymes, which are stored in intracellular compartments and released through regulated exocytosis. Hence, an important feature that contributes to rapid immune responses is capacity of neutrophils to synthesize and store pre-formed pro-inflammatory mediators in specialized intracellular vesicles and thus no new synthesis is required. This review will focus on advancement in three topics relevant to neutrophil secretion. First we will examine what is known about basal level pro-inflammatory mediator synthesis, trafficking and storage in secretory compartments. Second, we will review recent advancements in the mechanisms that control vesicle mobilization and the release of pre-formed mediators. Third, we will examine the upregulation and de novo synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators by neutrophils engaged at sites of infection.

  17. Alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.W. Rundel; C.I. Millar

    2016-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are typically defined as those areas occurring above treeline, while recognizing that alpine ecosystems at a local scale may be found below this boundary for reasons including geology, geomorphology, and microclimate. The lower limit of the alpine ecosystems, the climatic treeline, varies with latitude across California, ranging from about 3500 m in...

  18. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  19. Serotoninergic regulation of emotional and behavioural control processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Roshan; Roberts, Angela C; Robbins, Trevor W

    2008-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) has long been implicated in a wide variety of emotional, cognitive and behavioural control processes. However, its precise contribution is still not well understood. Depletion of 5-HT enhances behavioural and brain responsiveness to punishment or other aversive signals, while disinhibiting previously rewarded but now punished behaviours. Findings suggest that 5-HT modulates the impact of punishment-related signals on learning and emotion (aversion), but also promotes response inhibition. Exaggerated aversive processing and deficient response inhibition could underlie distinct symptoms of a range of affective disorders, namely stress- or threat-vulnerability and compulsive behaviour, respectively. We review evidence from studies with human volunteers and experimental animals that begins to elucidate the neurobiological systems underlying these different effects.

  20. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume II Yakima (Overview, Report, Appendices).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  1. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume III (Overview and Tools).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  2. Regulation of amyloid precursor protein processing by its KFERQ motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Seon; Kim, Dong-Hou; Yoon, Seung-Yong

    2016-06-01

    Understanding of trafficking, processing, and degradation mechanisms of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is important because APP can be processed to produce β-amyloid (Aβ), a key pathogenic molecule in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we found that APP contains KFERQ motif at its C-terminus, a consensus sequence for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) or microautophagy which are another types of autophagy for degradation of pathogenic molecules in neurodegenerative diseases. Deletion of KFERQ in APP increased C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and secreted N-terminal fragments of APP and kept it away from lysosomes. KFERQ deletion did not abolish the interaction of APP or its cleaved products with heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), a protein necessary for CMA or microautophagy. These findings suggest that KFERQ motif is important for normal processing and degradation of APP to preclude the accumulation of APP-CTFs although it may not be important for CMA or microautophagy. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 337-342].

  3. Overview of the current National Primary Drinking Water Regulations and regulation development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotruvo, J.A.; Regelski, M.

    1989-01-01

    The promulgation of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR) follows specific steps. First, the Advance Notice of Proposed Rule Making (ANPRM) is published. Second, the EPA, as mandated by the SDWA Amendments, proposes maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), (enforceable standards) and maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs) simultaneously. The Office of Drinking Water developed a six-phase schedule that has attempted to parallel the SDWA-specified deadlines: Phase I - Voltile organic chemicals - July 8, 1987; Phase II - Synthetic organic chemicals and inorganic chemicals - June 1989, microbials and surface water treatment - June 1989, and Lead/copper - December 1988; Phase III - Radionuclides - December 1988; Phase IV - Disinfectants and disinfection by-products - June 1989; Phase V - Other inorganic chemicals, synthetic organic chemicals, and pesticides - June 1989; and Phase VI - 25 additional chemicals - January 199. In selecting contaminants for regulation, the most relevant criteria are (1) potential health risk; (2) ability to detect a contaminant in the drinking water; and (3) occurrence or potential occurrence in drinking water. The EPA uses a three category approach for setting maximum contaminant level goals for carcinogens: Category I, strong evidence of carcinogenicity-zero; Category II, equivocal evidence - reference dose (RfD) approach or 0.00001 to 0.000001 cancer risk range; and Category III, inadequate or no evidence from animal studies - RfD approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Modeling of hydroecological feedbacks predicts distinct classes of landscape pattern, process, and restoration potential in shallow aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that interactions between vegetation and flow cause the emergence of channel patterns that are distinct from the standard Schumm classification of river channels. Although landscape pattern is known to be linked to ecosystem services such as habitat provision, pollutant removal, and sustaining biodiversity, the mechanisms responsible for the development and stability of different landscape patterns in shallow, vegetated flows have remained poorly understood. Fortunately, recent advances have made possible large-scale models of flow through vegetated environments that can be run over a range of environmental variables and over timescales of millennia. We describe a new, quasi-3D cellular automata model that couples simulations of shallow-water flow, bed shear stresses, sediment transport, and vegetation dynamics in an efficient manner. That efficiency allowed us to apply the model widely in order to determine how different hydroecological feedbacks control landscape pattern and process in various types of wetlands and floodplains. Distinct classes of landscape pattern were uniquely associated with specific types of allogenic and autogenic drivers in wetland flows. Regular, anisotropically patterned wetlands were dominated by allogenic processes (i.e., processes driven by periodic high water levels and flow velocities that redistribute sediment), relative to autogenic processes (e.g., vegetation production, peat accretion, and gravitational erosion). These anistropically patterned wetlands are therefore particularly prone to hydrologic disturbance. Other classes of wetlands that emerged from simulated interactions included maze-patterned, amorphous, and topographically noisy marshes, open marsh with islands, banded string-pool sequences perpendicular to flow, parallel deep and narrow channels flanked by marsh, and ridge-and-slough patterned marsh oriented parallel to flow. Because vegetation both affects and responds to the balance between the

  5. Skin-specific regulation of SREBP processing and lipid biosynthesis by glycerol kinase 5

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Duanwu; Tomisato, Wataru; Su, Lijing; Sun, Lei; Choi, Jin Huk; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Kuan-wen; Zhan, Xiaoming; Choi, Mihwa; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Miao; Castro-Perez, Jose M.; Hildebrand, Sara; Murray, Anne R.; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.

    2017-01-01

    We discovered a previously unrecognized regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis, glycerol kinase 5 (GK5), which functions exclusively in the skin independently of cholesterol regulation in other tissues. GK5 negatively regulates the processing and nuclear localization of sterol regulatory element binding proteins, transcription factors that control expression of virtually all cholesterol synthesis enzymes. Excessive amounts of cholesterol, triglycerides, and ceramides were found in the skin of ...

  6. Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers: The Mediating Role of Social Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…

  7. Developing the support business-processes information system for self-regulation institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko Anatoly Vasilevich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Studying the methods of sructurization, optimization and the automation for modern self-regulation institute business-processes are considered in the article. The aim of the text is to show the strategy of modeling self-regulation information system and the strategy of the membership dues accounting and agency compensation.

  8. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a) | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with manage

  9. Ecosystem function in complex mountain terrain: Combining models and long-term observations to advance process-based understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, William R.; Knowles, John F.; Blanken, Peter D.; Swenson, Sean C.; Suding, Katharine N.

    2017-04-01

    Abiotic factors structure plant community composition and ecosystem function across many different spatial scales. Often, such variation is considered at regional or global scales, but here we ask whether ecosystem-scale simulations can be used to better understand landscape-level variation that might be particularly important in complex terrain, such as high-elevation mountains. We performed ecosystem-scale simulations by using the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 to better understand how the increased length of growing seasons may impact carbon, water, and energy fluxes in an alpine tundra landscape. The model was forced with meteorological data and validated with observations from the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Program site. Our results demonstrate that CLM is capable of reproducing the observed carbon, water, and energy fluxes for discrete vegetation patches across this heterogeneous ecosystem. We subsequently accelerated snowmelt and increased spring and summer air temperatures in order to simulate potential effects of climate change in this region. We found that vegetation communities that were characterized by different snow accumulation dynamics showed divergent biogeochemical responses to a longer growing season. Contrary to expectations, wet meadow ecosystems showed the strongest decreases in plant productivity under extended summer scenarios because of disruptions in hydrologic connectivity. These findings illustrate how Earth system models such as CLM can be used to generate testable hypotheses about the shifting nature of energy, water, and nutrient limitations across space and through time in heterogeneous landscapes; these hypotheses may ultimately guide further experimental work and model development.

  10. Redox regulation of fertilisation and the spermatogenic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junichi Fujii; Satoshi Tsunoda

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of male infertility; it damages spermatogenic cells, the spermatogenic process and sperm function. Recent advances in redox biology have revealed the signalling role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated by cells. While highly reactive oxidants, such as the hydroxyl radical, exert largely deleterious effects, hydrogen peroxide can feasibly serve as a signal mediator because it is moderately reactive and membrane permeable and because it can oxidize only limited numbers of functional groups of biological molecules. The amino acid side chain most sensitive to oxidation is cysteine sulphydryl, which is commonly involved in the catalysis of some enzymes. Although the reactivity of cysteine sulphhydryl is not very high in ordinary proteins, some phosphatases possess a highly reactive sulphydryl group at their catalytic centre and are thereby oxidatively inactivated by transiently elevated hydrogen peroxide levels after extracellular stimuli and under certain environmental conditions. Peroxiredoxins, in turn, show moderate hydrogen peroxide-reducing activity, and their role in the modulation of ROS-mediated signal transduction in ordinary cells, mediated by protecting phosphatases from oxidative inactivation, has attracted much attention. Although knowledge of the signalling role of ROS in the male reproductive system is limited at present, its significance is becoming a focal issue. Here, we present a review of the emerging signalling role of hydrogen peroxide in testes.

  11. STRATEGIC PRIORITIES FOR THE INTERNAL MIGRATION PROCESSES REGULATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Balueva

    2018-01-01

    implementation ought to be approved by the strategic migration model for Ukraine’s internal migration aimed at promoting the implementation of the basic IDPs and internally displaced businesses rights; ensuring the social and economic integration of the IDPs into the host society; promotion of country territories’ social and economic development; reducing the level of social and psychological tension in host communities; creating new jobs; improvement of the investment climate; increasing the efficiency of using the country intellectual potential and its human resources. Value / originality. Solving the urgent issues associated with forced displacement processes, including integration and adaptation to host communities.

  12. Insight into nitrous oxide production processes in the western North Pacific based on a marine ecosystem isotopomer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, C.; Sasai, Y.; Wakita, M.; Honda, M. C.; Fujiki, T.; Harada, N.; Makabe, A.; Matsushima, S.; Toyoda, S.; Yoshida, N.; Ogawa, N. O.; Suga, H.; Ohkouchi, N.

    2016-02-01

    Based on the observed inverse relationship between the dissolved oxygen and N2O concentrations in the ocean, previous models have indirectly predicted marine N2O emissions from the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU), In this study, a marine ecosystem model that incorporates nitrous oxide (N2O) production processes (i.e., ammonium oxidation during nitrification and nitrite reduction during nitrifier denitrification) was newly developed to estimate the sea-air N2O flux and to quantify N2O production processes. Site preference of 15N (SP) in N2O isotopomers (14N15N16O and 15N14N16O) and the average nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N) were added to the model because they are useful tracers to distinguish between ammonium oxidation and nitrite reduction. This model was applied to two contrasting time series sites, a subarctic station (K2) and a subtropical station (S1) in the western North Pacific. The model was validated with observed nitrogen concentration and nitrogen isotopomer datasets, and successfully simulated the higher N2O concentrations, higher δ15N values, and higher site preference values for N2O at K2 compared with S1. The annual mean N2O emissions were estimated to be 34 mg N m-2 yr-1 at K2 and 2 mg N m-2 yr-1 at S1. Using this model, we conducted three case studies: 1) estimating the ratio of in-situ biological N2O production to nitrate (NO3-) production during nitrification, 2) estimating the ratio of N2O production by ammonium oxidation to that by nitrite reduction, and 3) estimating the ratio of AOA ammonium oxidation to AOB ammonium oxidation. The results of case studies estimated the ratios of in situ biological N2O production to nitrate production during nitrification to be 0.22% at K2 and 0.06% at S1. It is also suggested that N2O was mainly produced via ammonium oxidation at K2 but was produced via both ammonium oxidation and nitrite reduction at S1. It is also revealed that 80% of the ammonium oxidation at K2 was caused by archaea in the subsurface

  13. Preface: Ecosystem services, ecosystem health and human communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    This special issue contains a collection of manuscripts that were originally intended to be included in the special issue on "Physics and Economics of Ecosystem Services Flows" (Volume 101, guest editors H. Su, J. Dong and S. Nagarajan) and "Biogeochemical Processes in the Changing Wetland Environment" (Volume 103, guest editors J. Bai, L. Huang and H. Gao). All of them are addressing issues related to ecosystem services in different settings. Ecosystem services are of high value for both the ecosystems and human communities, and understanding the impacts of environmental processes and human activities on ecosystems is of fundamental importance for the preservation of these services.

  14. Dynamics in organic matter processing, ecosystem metabolism and trophic sources for consumers in the Mara River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masese, F.O.

    2015-01-01

    To properly conserve, restore and manage riverine ecosystems and the services they provide, it is pertinent to understand their functional dynamics. However, there is still a major knowledge gap concerning the functioning of tropical rivers in terms of energy sources supporting riverine

  15. Ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: hydrologic vegetation gradient as an indicator for lateral hydrologic connectivity of headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taehee Hwang; James M. Vose; Christina. Tague

    2012-01-01

    Lateral water flow in catchments can produce important patterns in water and nutrient fluxes and stores and also influences the long-term spatial development of forest ecosystems. Specifically, patterns of vegetation type and density along hydrologic flow paths can represent a signal of the redistribution of water and nitrogen mediated by lateral hydrologic flow. This...

  16. Ecosystem microbiology of coral reefs: linking genomic, metabolomic, and biogeochemical dynamics from animal symbioses to reefscape processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegley Kelly, L.; Haas, A.F.; Nelson, C.E.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, molecular techniques have established the critical role of both free-living and host-associated microbial partnerships in the environment. Advancing research to link microbial community dynamics simultaneously to host physiology and ecosystem biogeochemistry is required to

  17. Marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA): Quantifying processes in the sea at the spatio-temporal scales on which they occur

    KAUST Repository

    Godø l, Olav Rune; Handegard, Nils Olav; Browman, Howard I.; MacAulay, Gavin J.; Kaartvedt, Stein; Giske, Jarl; Ona, Egil; Huse, Geir; Johnsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology

  18. Biodiversity and ecosystem processes: lessons from nature to improve management of planted forests for REDD-plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian D. Thompson; Kimiko Okabe; John A. Parrotta; David I. Forrester; Eckehard Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; Hisatomo Taki

    2014-01-01

    Planted forests are increasingly contributing wood products and other ecosystem services at a global scale. These forests will be even more important as carbon markets develop and REDD-plus forest programs (forests used specifically to reduce atmospheric emissions of CO2 through deforestation and forest degradation) become common. Restoring degraded and deforested...

  19. BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS VS BUSINESS DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  20. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions...... for Harvard students) or value proposition (share messages, photos, videos, etc. with friends). Processes of configuring actors, resources, and value propositions are influenced by the structural embeddedness of the service ecosystem (e.g., regional infrastructure, existing networks of actors, or resource...... availability) as well as guided by the actors’ own and shared institutions (e.g., rules, norms,and beliefs).We contextualize each starting point with illustrative cases and analyze the service ecosystem configuration process: “Axoon/Trumpf” (initiated by resources), “JOSEPHS – the service manufactory...

  1. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examining group-based emotion regulation that integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Personality and self-regulation: trait and information-processing perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rick H

    2006-12-01

    This article introduces the special issue of Journal of Personality on personality and self-regulation. The goal of the issue is to illustrate and inspire research that integrates personality and process-oriented accounts of self-regulation. The article begins by discussing the trait perspective on self-regulation--distinguishing between temperament and personality accounts--and the information-processing perspective. Three approaches to integrating these perspectives are then presented. These range from methodological approaches, in which constructs representing the two perspectives are examined in integrated statistical models, to conceptual approaches, in which the two perspectives are unified in a holistic theoretical model of self-regulation. The article concludes with an overview of the special issue contributions, which are organized in four sections: broad, integrative models of personality and self-regulation; models that examine the developmental origins of self-regulation and self-regulatory styles; focused programs of research that concern specific aspects or applications of self-regulation; and strategies for increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of self-regulation.

  3. Assimilation of the Observational Data in the Marine Ecosystem Adaptive Model at the Known Mean Values of the Processes in the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Е. Тimchenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Assimilation of observational data in the marine ecosystem adaptive models constructed by the adaptive balance of causes method is considered. It is shown that the feedback balance between the ecosystem variables and the rates of their change used in the method equations, permits to introduce a stationary state of the ecosystem characterized by the observed mean values of the variables. The method for assessing the normalized coefficients of influences based on application of the Euler theorem on homogeneous functions to the functions representing material balances of biochemical reactions of the substance transformation is proposed. It is shown that the normalized ratios of the modeled process mean values can be used as the estimates of the reaction product derivatives obtained on the basis of their resources included in the equations of material balances. One-dimensional adaptive model of the sea upper layer ecosystem is constructed as an example; it is based on the scheme of cause-effect relations of the Fasham, Dacklow and McKelvie model of plankton dynamics and nitrogen cycle It is shown that in such a model, observational data is assimilated by automatic adaptation of the model variables to the assimilated information providing that the substance material balance are preserved in the transformation reactions. The data simulating both observations of the chlorophyll a concentrations and the marine environment dynamics are assimilated in the model. Time scenarios of the biochemical processes are constructed; they confirm applicability of the proposed method for assessing the effect coefficients based on the ratios of the simulated process mean values.

  4. The Impact of Metacognitive Strategies and Self-Regulating Processes of Solving Math Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vula, Eda; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Berisha, Valbona; Saqipi, Blerim; Elezi, Shpetim

    2017-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners' achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems.…

  5. Forest Ecosystem services: Water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; James Vose; Travis Warziniack; Bill Holman

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005), awareness has steadily grown regarding the importance of maintaining natural capital. Forest vegetation is a valuable source of natural capital, and the regulation of water quantity and quality is among the most important forest ecosystem services in many regions around the world. Changes in...

  6. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.; Spigel, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are defined as a set of interdependent actors and factors coordinated in such a way that they enable productive entrepreneurship within a particular territory. The purpose of this paper is to

  7. Supporting the self-regulatory resource: does conscious self-regulation incidentally prime nonconscious support processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, Derek C

    2009-11-01

    Ego-depletion (depletion of self-regulatory strength) can impair conscious efforts at self-regulation. Research into nonconscious self-regulation has demonstrated that preconscious automaticity and implementation intentions can automatically carry out regulatory tasks during times of ego-depletion. However, preconscious automaticity can only emerge during well-practiced tasks while implementation intentions can only support tasks that have been explicitly planned. Thus, when it comes to supporting the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour during times of ego-depletion these processes should be ineffective. However, it is argued here that because the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour can incidentally prime the underlying mental representations those primed representations can be postconsciously re-activated to support that behaviour during times of ego-depletion. Postconscious self-regulation might, therefore, support a type of self-regulatory behaviour that has, thus far, not been associated with any form of support.

  8. Regulation of Emotions in Socially Challenging Learning Situations: An Instrument to Measure the Adaptive and Social Nature of the Regulation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvenoja, Hanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvela, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) research has conventionally relied on measures, which treat SRL as an aptitude. To study self-regulation and motivation in learning contexts as an ongoing adaptive process, situation-specific methods are needed in addition to static measures. This article presents an "Adaptive Instrument for Regulation of Emotions"…

  9. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as a tool to link soil organic matter composition to ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    obtained 2D spectra resolve overlaps observed in 1D 13C spectra, so that hundreds of distinct CH moieties can be observed and many individual molecular fragments can be identified. For instance, in the aromatic spectral region, signals originating from various lignin monomers and unsaturated compounds can be resolved. This yields a detailed chemical fingerprint of the SOM samples, and valuable insights on molecular structures. We observed differences in the respective aromatic region of the 2D spectra of the litter layers and the fibric and humic horizons, in relation with humification processes. We were also able to relate the cross-peak complexity and abundance patterns of identifiable molecular moieties to variability in the temperature response of organic matter degradation, as assessed by Q10. To conclude, solution-state 2D NMR spectroscopy is a highly promising new tool to characterize SOM composition at the molecular level, which opens completely new possibilities to link SOM molecular composition to ecosystem processes, and their responses to environmental changes.

  10. Effects of climate and lifeform on dry matter yield (epsilon) from simulations using BIOME BGC. [ecosystem process model for vegetation biomass production using daily absorbed photosynthetically active radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Running, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    An ecosystem process simulation model, BIOME-BGC, is used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the factors that may cause the dry matter yield (epsilon) and annual net primary production to vary for different ecosystems. At continental scales, epsilon is strongly correlated with annual precipitation. At a single location, year-to-year variation in net primary production (NPP) and epsilon is correlated with either annual precipitation or minimum air temperatures. Simulations indicate that forests have lower epsilon than grasslands. The most sensitive parameter affecting forest epsilon is the total amount of living woody biomass, which affects NPP by increasing carbon loss by maintenance respiration. A global map of woody biomass should significantly improve estimates of global NPP using remote sensing.

  11. Nitrogen, organic carbon and sulphur cycling in terrestrial ecosystems: linking nitrogen saturation to carbon limitation of soil microbial processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Cosby, B. J.; Evans, C. D.; Hruška, J.; Moldan, F.; Oulehle, F.; Šantrůčková, H.; Tahovská, K.; Wright, R. F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 115, 1-3 (2013), s. 33-51 ISSN 0168-2563. [BIOGEOMON : international symposium on ecosystem behavior /7./. Northport, 15.07.2012-20.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nitrogen * carbon * sulphur * acidification * forest soil * modelling Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2013

  12. When things don't add up: quantifying impacts of multiple stressors from individual metabolism to ecosystem processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Sullivan, Lauren L; Grimm, Volker; Forbes, Valery E

    2018-04-01

    Ecosystems are exposed to multiple stressors which can compromise functioning and service delivery. These stressors often co-occur and interact in different ways which are not yet fully understood. Here, we applied a population model representing a freshwater amphipod feeding on leaf litter in forested streams. We simulated impacts of hypothetical stressors, individually and in pairwise combinations that target the individuals' feeding, maintenance, growth and reproduction. Impacts were quantified by examining responses at three levels of biological organisation: individual-level body sizes and cumulative reproduction, population-level abundance and biomass and ecosystem-level leaf litter decomposition. Interactive effects of multiple stressors at the individual level were mostly antagonistic, that is, less negative than expected. Most population- and ecosystem-level responses to multiple stressors were stronger than expected from an additive model, that is, synergistic. Our results suggest that across levels of biological organisation responses to multiple stressors are rarely only additive. We suggest methods for efficiently quantifying impacts of multiple stressors at different levels of biological organisation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Development of an analogue multiplexed regulation for periodic 1. order delayed processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblard, J.C.

    1967-07-01

    The present note deals with the study regulations of the sampled type, for 1. order process with simple delay. In order to obtain a good stability in such regulations, together with acceptable performances, it is interesting to use polynomial type correctors acting directly on the sampled error signals. The active elements of these correctors can be shared by all the channels to be controlled. Furthermore, the determination of the correction parameters results from an optimal study of the system. In the second part is described the construction of a multiplexed regulation for diffusion ovens. (author) [fr

  14. The process of self-regulation in adolescents: A narrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Kelly; Daiute, Colette

    2017-06-01

    This qualitative study utilized a narrative approach to explore the process of self-regulation in adolescents and to examine the functions of various relational genres on psychological state and context expressions in this process. Nineteen participants, who live in high-risk settings were recruited from a youth development and life skills program located at an urban public high school in the United States. The goal of this project is to craft a process method for research and practice on adolescents' self-regulation while providing evidence for self-regulation being a complex process. This research uses an exploratory study design with a narrative approach, utilizing text message based activities in the method. Findings from the plot analysis suggest that for adolescents, the process of self-regulation begins as highly emotional and then becomes a more emotionally and cognitively balanced process. In addition, adolescents utilize different strategies to resolve conflict situations across different contexts and relational genres. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hierarchical Synthesis of Coastal Ecosystem Health Indicators at Karimunjawa National Marine Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danu Prasetya, Johan; Ambariyanto; Supriharyono; Purwanti, Frida

    2018-02-01

    The coastal ecosystem of Karimunjawa National Marine Park (KNMP) is facing various pressures, including from human activity. Monitoring the health condition of coastal ecosystems periodically is needed as an evaluation of the ecosystem condition. Systematic and consistent indicators are needed in monitoring of coastal ecosystem health. This paper presents hierarchical synthesis of coastal ecosystem health indicators using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Hierarchical synthesis is obtained from process of weighting by paired comparison based on expert judgments. The variables of coastal ecosystem health indicators in this synthesis consist of 3 level of variable, i.e. main variable, sub-variable and operational variable. As a result of assessment, coastal ecosystem health indicators consist of 3 main variables, i.e. State of Ecosystem, Pressure and Management. Main variables State of Ecosystem and Management obtain the same value i.e. 0.400, while Pressure value was 0.200. Each main variable consist of several sub-variable, i.e. coral reef, reef fish, mangrove and seagrass for State of Ecosystem; fisheries and marine tourism activity for Pressure; planning and regulation, institutional and also infrastructure and financing for Management. The highest value of sub-variable of main variable State of Ecosystem, Pressure and Management were coral reef (0.186); marine tourism pressure (0.133) and institutional (0.171), respectively. The highest value of operational variable of main variable State of Ecosystem, Pressure and Management were percent of coral cover (0.058), marine tourism pressure (0.133) and presence of zonation plan, regulation also socialization of monitoring program (0.53), respectively. Potential pressure from marine tourism activity is the variable that most affect the health of the ecosystem. The results of this research suggest that there is a need to develop stronger conservation strategies to facing with pressures from marine tourism

  16. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-13

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  17. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-01

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  18. Adaptive management for soil ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, Hannah E.; Bevans, Rebecca A.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Baer, Sara G.; Wall, Diana H.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by soil include regulation of the atmosphere and climate, primary (including agricultural) production, waste processing, decomposition, nutrient conservation, water purification, erosion control, medical resources, pest control, and disease mitigation. The simultaneous production of these multiple services arises from complex interactions among diverse aboveground and belowground communities across multiple scales. When a system is mismanaged, non-linear and persistent losses in ecosystem services can arise. Adaptive management is an approach to management designed to reduce uncertainty as management proceeds. By developing alternative hypotheses, testing these hypotheses and adjusting management in response to outcomes, managers can probe dynamic mechanistic relationships among aboveground and belowground soil system components. In doing so, soil ecosystem services can be preserved and critical ecological thresholds avoided. Here, we present an adaptive management framework designed to reduce uncertainty surrounding the soil system, even when soil ecosystem services production is not the explicit management objective, so that managers can reach their management goals without undermining soil multifunctionality or contributing to an irreversible loss of soil ecosystem services.

  19. Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

  20. Energy Flexibility Potential of Industrial Processes in the Regulating Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Aabjerg Friis, Henrik Tønder; Gravers Mostrup, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    , and electric heating in replacement of conventional technologies. To enable the use of demand response, the consumers must have economical and practical incentives without loss of convenience. This study aims to investigate the demand-response market potential of a flexible industrial process in the current...... electricity market structure. The Danish West regulating power market is selected in this study with an ideal process simulation of an industrial roller press. By analysing market data, the value of flexible electricity consumption by the roller press in the regulating power market is demonstrated by an ideal...

  1. Conceptualizing Stakeholders' Perceptions of Ecosystem Services: A Participatory Systems Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rita; Videira, Nuno

    2015-12-01

    A participatory system dynamics modelling approach is advanced to support conceptualization of feedback processes underlying ecosystem services and to foster a shared understanding of leverage intervention points. The process includes systems mapping workshop and follow-up tasks aiming at the collaborative construction of causal loop diagrams. A case study developed in a natural area in Portugal illustrates how a stakeholder group was actively engaged in the development of a conceptual model depicting policies for sustaining the climate regulation ecosystem service.

  2. Ecosystem approach in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiullin, Iskander

    2017-04-01

    biological relationships some complicated chemical and physical processes occur in ecosystems, so the ecosystem approach also involves interdisciplinary connection between biology, chemistry, physics, geology, mathematics, and others. Therefore, our schoolteachers of these subjects work together on environmental education of students. Ecosystem approach allows students to achieve a deeper understanding of how ecosystems work. This may help them to find keys for understanding and solving environmental problems such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, pollution, waste, energy efficiency etc.

  3. Evaluation of CH4 and N2O Budget of Natural Ecosystems and Croplands in Asia with a Process-based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are important sink of carbon dioxide (CO2) but significant sources of other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To resolve the role of terrestrial biosphere in the climate system, we need to quantify total greenhouse gas budget with an adequate accuracy. In addition to top-down evaluation on the basis of atmospheric measurements, model-based approach is required for integration and up-scaling of filed data and for prediction under changing environment and different management practices. Since the early 2000s, we have developed a process-based model of terrestrial biogeochemical cycles focusing on atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of trace gases: Vegetation Integrated SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT). The model includes simple and comprehensive schemes of carbon and nitrogen cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, allowing us to capture dynamic nature of greenhouse gas budget. Beginning from natural ecosystems such as temperate and tropical forests, the models is now applicable to croplands by including agricultural practices such as planting, harvest, and fertilizer input. Global simulation results have been published from several papers, but model validation and benchmarking using up-to-date observations are remained for works. The model is now applied to several practical issues such as evaluation of N2O emission from bio-fuel croplands, which are expected to accomplish the mitigation target of the Paris Agreement. We also show several topics about basic model development such as revised CH4 emission affected by dynamic water-table and refined N2O emission from nitrification.

  4. A multitrophic model to quantify the effects of marine viruses on microbial food webs and ecosystem processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitz, Joshua S.; Stock, Charles A.; Wilhelm, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Viral lysis of microbial hosts releases organic matter that can then be assimilated by nontargeted microorganisms. Quantitative estimates of virus-mediated recycling of carbon in marine waters, first established in the late 1990s, were originally extrapolated from marine host and virus densities......, host carbon content and inferred viral lysis rates. Yet, these estimates did not explicitly incorporate the cascade of complex feedbacks associated with virus-mediated lysis. To evaluate the role of viruses in shaping community structure and ecosystem functioning, we extend dynamic multitrophic...

  5. Spatial Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Functions and Services using Human Relating Factors for SDG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.; Kim, T.; Lim, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Application of ecosystem service concept in environmental related decision making could be numerical and objective standard for policy maker between preserving and developing perspective of environment. However, pursuing maximum benefit from natural capital through ecosystem services caused failure by losing ecosystem functions through its trade-offs. Therefore, difference between ecosystem functions and services were demonstrated and would apply human relating perspectives. Assessment results of ecosystem functions and services can be divided 3 parts. Tree growth per year set as the ecosystem function factor and indicated through so called pure function map. After that, relating functions can be driven such as water conservation, air pollutant purification, climate change regulation, and timber production. Overall process and amount are numerically quantified. These functional results can be transferred to ecosystem services by multiplying economic unit value, so function reflecting service maps can be generated. On the other hand, above services, to implement more reliable human demand, human reflecting service maps are also be developed. As the validation, quantified ecosystem functions are compared with former results through pixel based analysis. Three maps are compared, and through comparing difference between ecosystem function and services and inversed trends in function based and human based service are analysed. In this study, we could find differences in PF, FRS, and HRS in relation to based ecosystem conditions. This study suggests that the differences in PF, FRS, and HRS should be understood in the decision making process for sustainable management of ecosystem services. Although the analysis is based on in sort existing process separation, it is important to consider the possibility of different usage of ecosystem function assessment results and ecosystem service assessment results in SDG policy making. Furthermore, process based functional approach

  6. Urban ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvigneaud, P

    1974-01-01

    The author considers the town as an ecosystem. He examines its various subdivisions (climate, soil, structure, human and non-human communities, etc.) for which he chooses examples with particular reference to the city of Brussels.

  7. Indicators for mapping ecosystem services: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egoh, Benis N; Drakou, Evangelia; Dunbar, Martha B.; Maes, Joachim; Willemen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive from ecosystems, such as food provisioning, water regulating and provisioning, soil productivity, and use of natural areas for recreation. The current challenge is to mainstream ecosystem services into policies and practices in order to ensure

  8. Temperature regulates deterministic processes and the succession of microbial interactions in anaerobic digestion process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, J.; Li, Ch.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Yao, M.; Heděnec, Petr; Li, H.; Li, T.; Rui, J.; Frouz, Jan; Li, X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, October (2017), s. 134-143 ISSN 0043-1354 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anaerobic digestion * deterministic process * microbial interactions * modularity * temperature gradient Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Water resources Impact factor: 6.942, year: 2016

  9. The Smithsonian-led Marine Global Earth Observatory (MarineGEO): Proposed Model for a Collaborative Network Linking Marine Biodiversity to Ecosystem Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity - the variety of functional types of organisms - is the engine of marine ecosystem processes, including productivity, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. Biodiversity remains a black box in much of ocean science, despite wide recognition that effectively managing human interactions with marine ecosystems requires understanding both structure and functional consequences of biodiversity. Moreover, the inherent complexity of biological systems puts a premium on data-rich, comparative approaches, which are best met via collaborative networks. The Smithsonian Institution's MarineGEO program links a growing network of partners conducting parallel, comparative research to understand change in marine biodiversity and ecosystems, natural and anthropogenic drivers of that change, and the ecological processes mediating it. The focus is on nearshore, seabed-associated systems where biodiversity and human population are concentrated and interact most, yet which fall through the cracks of existing ocean observing programs. MarineGEO offers a standardized toolbox of research modules that efficiently capture key elements of biological diversity and its importance in ecological processes across a range of habitats. The toolbox integrates high-tech (DNA-based, imaging) and low-tech protocols (diver surveys, rapid assays of consumer activity) adaptable to differing institutional capacity and resources. The model for long-term sustainability involves leveraging in-kind support among partners, adoption of best practices wherever possible, engagement of students and citizen scientists, and benefits of training, networking, and global relevance as incentives for participation. Here I highlight several MarineGEO comparative research projects demonstrating the value of standardized, scalable assays and parallel experiments for measuring fish and invertebrate diversity, recruitment, benthic herbivory and generalist predation, decomposition, and carbon sequestration. Key

  10. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): A tool for coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Asencio, M.; Alvarado, J.A. Corcho; Alonso-Hernández, C.; Quejido-Cabezas, A.; Ruiz-Fernández, A.C.; Sanchez-Sanchez, M.; Gómez-Mancebo, M.B.; Froidevaux, P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Past metal pollution in the heavy polluted coastal ecosystem of Havana Bay. ► Effectiveness of pollution-reduction strategies. ► Dated environmental archives to reconstruct sedimentation and pollution trends. ► Impact of severe climatic events on sedimentation. - Abstract: Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the 210 Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Niño periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution.

  11. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  12. Interrelation of hormonal regulation parameters and metabolic processes in children from the families with radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenjev, M.M.; Kashkalda, D.A.; Borisko, G.O.; Cherevatova, S.Kh.; Bondarenko, V.A.; Kalmikova, N.V.; Spyivak, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    Interrelations of the indices of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system with hormone level were investigated in teenagers born from the parents who participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up. Multiple inter-systemic relations indicating participation of hormonal regulation mechanisms in promotion of redox processes were revealed. In girls from the families of Chornobyl accident clean-up participants, LP and AOP processes dependent significantly on the level of steroid hormones. In boys, the relations with thyroid system dominated.

  13. Processes of self-regulated learning in music theory in elementary music schools in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Peklaj, Cirila; Smolej-Fritz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship between these processes. A total of 457 fifth- and sixth- grade students from 10 different elementary music schools in Slovenia participated in the...

  14. The impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes of solving math word problems

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Vula; Rrezarta Avdyli; Valbona Berisha; Blerim Saqipi; Shpetim Elezi

    2017-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners’ achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems. Two hundred sixty-three learners, of three classes of third graders (N=130) and four classes of fifth ...

  15. Dealing with feelings: characterization of trait alexithymia on emotion regulation strategies and cognitive-emotional processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Swart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. METHOD: Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing. RESULTS: The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. CONCLUSION: Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group.

  16. Ethical issues in engineering design processes ; regulative frameworks for safety and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, A. van

    2007-01-01

    The ways designers deal with ethical issues that arise in their consideration of safety and sustainability in engineering design processes are described. In the case studies, upon which this article is based, a difference can be seen between normal and radical design. Designers refer to regulative

  17. Processes of Self-Regulated Learning in Music Theory in Elementary Music Schools in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Barbara Smolej; Peklaj, Cirila

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship…

  18. Modulation of ROS levels in fibroblasts by altering mitochondria regulates the process of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Jaroslav; Nfonsam, Valentine; Calienes, Fernanda; Sligh, James E; Jandova, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fibroblasts which are thought to be crucial regulators of wound healing with a potential to affect the expression of nuclear genes involved in this process. ROS generated by mitochondria are involved in all stages of tissue repair process but the regulation of ROS-generating system in fibroblasts still remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to better understand molecular mechanisms of how the regulation of ROS levels generated by mitochondria may influence the process of wound repair. Cybrid model system of mtDNA variations was used to study the functional consequences of altered ROS levels on wound healing responses in a uniform nuclear background of cultured ρ(0) fibroblasts. Mitochondrial ROS in cybrids were modulated by antioxidants that quench ROS to examine their ability to close the wound. Real-time PCR arrays were used to investigate whether ROS generated by specific mtDNA variants have the ability to alter expression of some key nuclear-encoded genes central to the wound healing response and oxidative stress. Our data suggest levels of mitochondrial ROS affect expression of some nuclear encoded genes central to wound healing response and oxidative stress and modulation of mitochondrial ROS by antioxidants positively affects in vitro process of wound closure. Thus, regulation of mitochondrial ROS-generating system in fibroblasts can be used as effective natural redox-based strategy to help treat non-healing wounds.

  19. Regulation of pri-microRNA BIC transcription and processing in Burkitt lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, J.; van den Berg, Anke; de Jong, Doetje; Blokzijl, T.; Harms, G.; Bouwman, E.; Jacobs, Susan; Poppema, Sibrand; Kroesen, Bart-Jan

    2007-01-01

    BIC is a primary microRNA (pri-miR-155) that can be processed to mature miR-155. In this study, we show the crucial involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) in the regulation of BIC expression upon B-cell receptor triggering. Surprisingly, Northern blot analysis

  20. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... provisional payment and sent to the disbursing office after a pre- payment review. Interim vouchers not... after a pre-payment review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to...] RIN 0750-AH52 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY...

  1. Emotion processing and regulation in women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Middendorp, H. van; Devaere, L.; Larsen, J.K.; van Ramshorst, B.; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional eating, the tendency to eat when experiencing negative affect, is prevalent in morbid obesity and may indicate that ways to deal with emotions are disturbed. Our aim was to compare emotion processing and regulation between 102 women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery and

  2. Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…

  3. Modeling plankton ecosystem functioning and nitrogen fluxes in the oligotrophic waters of the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean: a focus on light-driven processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Le Fouest

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean (AO undergoes profound changes of its physical and biotic environments due to climate change. In some areas of the Beaufort Sea, the stronger haline stratification observed in summer alters the plankton ecosystem structure, functioning and productivity, promoting oligotrophy. A one-dimension (1-D physical–biological coupled model based on the large multiparametric database of the Malina project in the Beaufort Sea was used (i to infer the plankton ecosystem functioning and related nitrogen fluxes and (ii to assess the model sensitivity to key light-driven processes involved in nutrient recycling and phytoplankton growth. The coupled model suggested that ammonium photochemically produced from photosensitive dissolved organic nitrogen (i.e., photoammonification process was a necessary nitrogen source to achieve the observed levels of microbial biomass and production. Photoammonification directly and indirectly (by stimulating the microbial food web activity contributed to 70% and 18.5% of the 0–10 m and whole water column, respectively, simulated primary production (respectively 66% and 16% for the bacterial production. The model also suggested that variable carbon to chlorophyll ratios were required to simulate the observed herbivorous versus microbial food web competition and realistic nitrogen fluxes in the Beaufort Sea oligotrophic waters. In face of accelerating Arctic warming, more attention should be paid in the future to the mechanistic processes involved in food webs and functional group competition, nutrient recycling and primary production in poorly productive waters of the AO, as they are expected to expand rapidly.

  4. Implementing the optimal provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J; Plantinga, Andrew J; Nelson, Erik

    2014-04-29

    Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives to landowners for increased provision of ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners' costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.

  5. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often encountered in combination with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, and may cause additional metabolic dysregulation and hence worsening of disease states. TH’s potential as a regulator of brain glucose metabolism is heightened by interactions with insulin signaling, but there have been relatively few studies on this topic or on the actions of TH in a mature brain. This review discusses evidence for mechanistic links between TH, insulin, cognitive function, and brain glucose metabolism, and suggests that TH is a good candidate to be a modulator of memory processes, likely at least in part by modulation of central insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. PMID:22437199

  6. Indicators for mapping ecosystem services: a review

    OpenAIRE

    EGOH BENIS NCHINE; DRAKOU EVANGELIA; DUNBAR MARTHA BONNET; MAES JOACHIM; WILLEMEN LOUISE

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive from ecosystems, such as food provisioning, water regulating and provisioning, soil productivity, and use of natural areas for recreation. The current challenge is to mainstream ecosystem services into policies and practices in order to ensure the continuous provision of these benefits to humans. The European Union has adopted an EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2020 in which the target of safeguarding ecosystem services is explicitly include...

  7. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  8. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  9. SDF1 Reduces Interneuron Leading Process Branching through Dual Regulation of Actin and Microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysko, Daniel E.; Putt, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process. PMID:24695713

  10. SDF1 reduces interneuron leading process branching through dual regulation of actin and microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysko, Daniel E; Putt, Mary; Golden, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-02

    Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process.

  11. Nitrogen Cycling from Increased Soil Organic Carbon Contributes Both Positively and Negatively to Ecosystem Services in Wheat Agro-Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeda Palmer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions. Given this uncertainty, progress is needed in quantifying the impact of increased SOC concentration on agro-ecosystems. Increased SOC concentration affects both N cycling and soil physical properties (i.e., water holding capacity. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the contribution, both positive and negative, of increased SOC concentration on ecosystem services provided by wheat agro-ecosystems. We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM to represent the effect of increased SOC concentration on N cycling and soil physical properties, and used model outputs as proxies for multiple ecosystem services from wheat production agro-ecosystems at seven locations around the world. Under increased SOC, we found that N cycling had a larger effect on a range of ecosystem services (food provision, filtering of N, and nitrous oxide regulation than soil physical properties. We predicted that food provision in these agro-ecosystems could be significantly increased by increased SOC concentration when N supply is limiting. Conversely, we predicted no significant benefit to food production from increasing SOC when soil N supply (from fertiliser and soil N stocks is not limiting. The effect of increasing SOC on N cycling also led to significantly higher nitrous oxide emissions, although the relative increase was small. We also found that N losses via deep drainage were

  12. Nitrogen Cycling from Increased Soil Organic Carbon Contributes Both Positively and Negatively to Ecosystem Services in Wheat Agro-Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeda; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Dominati, Estelle J; Probert, Merv E; Meier, Elizabeth A; Huth, Neil I; Dodd, Mike; Snow, Val; Larsen, Joshua R; Parton, William J

    2017-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions. Given this uncertainty, progress is needed in quantifying the impact of increased SOC concentration on agro-ecosystems. Increased SOC concentration affects both N cycling and soil physical properties (i.e., water holding capacity). Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the contribution, both positive and negative, of increased SOC concentration on ecosystem services provided by wheat agro-ecosystems. We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to represent the effect of increased SOC concentration on N cycling and soil physical properties, and used model outputs as proxies for multiple ecosystem services from wheat production agro-ecosystems at seven locations around the world. Under increased SOC, we found that N cycling had a larger effect on a range of ecosystem services (food provision, filtering of N, and nitrous oxide regulation) than soil physical properties. We predicted that food provision in these agro-ecosystems could be significantly increased by increased SOC concentration when N supply is limiting. Conversely, we predicted no significant benefit to food production from increasing SOC when soil N supply (from fertiliser and soil N stocks) is not limiting. The effect of increasing SOC on N cycling also led to significantly higher nitrous oxide emissions, although the relative increase was small. We also found that N losses via deep drainage were minimally

  13. Transient simulation of regression rate on thrust regulation process in hybrid rocket motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to study the characteristics of regression rate of solid grain during thrust regulation process. For this purpose, an unsteady numerical model of regression rate is established. Gas–solid coupling is considered between the solid grain surface and combustion gas. Dynamic mesh is used to simulate the regression process of the solid fuel surface. Based on this model, numerical simulations on a H2O2/HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hybrid motor have been performed in the flow control process. The simulation results show that under the step change of the oxidizer mass flow rate condition, the regression rate cannot reach a stable value instantly because the flow field requires a short time period to adjust. The regression rate increases with the linear gain of oxidizer mass flow rate, and has a higher slope than the relative inlet function of oxidizer flow rate. A shorter regulation time can cause a higher regression rate during regulation process. The results also show that transient calculation can better simulate the instantaneous regression rate in the operation process.

  14. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, M C; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rosario Rueda, M

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs), and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4-6, 7-9, and 10-13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation.

  15. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: Implications for self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación eCheca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs, and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4 to 6, 7 to 9, and 10 to 13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation.

  16. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, M. C.; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rosario Rueda, M.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs), and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4–6, 7–9, and 10–13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation. PMID:24795676

  17. Should Climatologists and Spatial Planners Interact? Weather regulation as an ecosystem service to be considered in the land-use planning field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Mathieu; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Strada, Susanna; Stéfanon, Marc; Torre, André

    2016-04-01

    scope of solutions to be considered in the spatial planning field. Regional meteorology/climatology has demonstrated over the past decades that changes in land-uses and/or land cover may have substantial impacts on a) mean regional/local climate (Lobell & Bonfils, 2008), b) the magnitude and duration of extreme events (e.g. Marshall et al., 2004, Davin et al., 2014), c) air quality and therefore human's and ecosystems' health (e.g. Corchnoy et al. 1992, Hewitt et al., 2009). Such studies support the hypothesis that a careful regional climate modelling may help to refine the global climate projections and assess the local benefits or drawbacks of various land use/land cover policies. There is however a lack of studies at such spatial scales (from local to regional) to carefully quantify the impacts realistic land scenarios may have on atmospheric conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, air quality, winds, incoming radiation). We have started to think about ways to evaluate those at the French national scale. That implies the choice of ad-hoc models, scenarios, data for evaluation, … that we will discuss. Our proposal is that in fine the regulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (where we live) may be considered as a service that land uses/cover/management may impact and that we need to study as much as other ecosystem services are. ____________ References: Bulkeley, H. (2006) A changing climate for spatial planning? In: Planning Theory and Practice, 7(2): 203-214. Corchnoy, S.B.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R. (1992) Hydrocarbon emission from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, air basin. In: Atmospheric Environment, 26B(3): 339-348. Davoudi, S.; Crawford, Jenny; Mehmood, A. (2009) Planning for Climate Change: Strategies for Mitigation and Adaptation for Spatial Planners. London: Earthscan, 344 p. Davin, E. L.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Ciais, P.; Olioso, A.; Wang, T. (2014) Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management, Proceedings of

  18. The Importance of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis in Process-based Models of Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems with Particular Emphasis on Forest Ecosystems — Selected Papers from a Workshop Organized by the International Society for Ecological Modelling (ISEM) at the Third Biennal Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (IEMSS) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, August 9-13, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Liu, Jinxun; Ascough, James C.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Many process-based models of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles have been developed for terrestrial ecosystems, including forest ecosystems. They address many basic issues of ecosystems structure and functioning, such as the role of internal feedback in ecosystem dynamics. The critical factor in these phenomena is scale, as these processes operate at scales from the minute (e.g. particulate pollution impacts on trees and other organisms) to the global (e.g. climate change). Research efforts remain important to improve the capability of such models to better represent the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, including the C, nutrient, (e.g. N) and water cycles. Existing models are sufficiently well advanced to help decision makers develop sustainable management policies and planning of terrestrial ecosystems, as they make realistic predictions when used appropriately. However, decision makers must be aware of their limitations by having the opportunity to evaluate the uncertainty associated with process-based models (Smith and Heath, 2001 and Allen et al., 2004). The variation in scale of issues currently being addressed by modelling efforts makes the evaluation of uncertainty a daunting task.

  19. Linking children's neuropsychological processing of emotion with their knowledge of emotion expression regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Dawn; Bourne, Victoria J

    2007-09-01

    Understanding of emotions has been shown to develop between the ages of 4 and 10 years; however, individual differences exist in this development. While previous research has typically examined these differences in terms of developmental and/or social factors, little research has considered the possible impact of neuropsychological development on the behavioural understanding of emotions. Emotion processing tends to be lateralised to the right hemisphere of the brain in adults, yet this pattern is not as evident in children until around the age of 10 years. In this study 136 children between 5 and 10 years were given both behavioural and neuropsychological tests of emotion processing. The behavioural task examined expression regulation knowledge (ERK) for prosocial and self-presentational hypothetical interactions. The chimeric faces test was given as a measure of lateralisation for processing positive facial emotion. An interaction between age and lateralisation for emotion processing was predictive of children's ERK for only the self-presentational interactions. The relationships between children's ERK and lateralisation for emotion processing changes across the three age groups, emerging as a positive relationship in the 10-year-olds. The 10-years-olds who were more lateralised to the right hemisphere for emotion processing tended to show greater understanding of the need for regulating negative emotions during interactions that would have a self-presentational motivation. This finding suggests an association between the behavioural and neuropsychological development of emotion processing.

  20. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  1. Maintaining activity engagement: individual differences in the process of self-regulating motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Carol; Thoman, Dustin B

    2006-12-01

    Typically, models of self-regulation include motivation in terms of goals. Motivation is proposed to differ among individuals as a consequence of the goals they hold as well as how much they value those goals and expect to attain them. We suggest that goal-defined motivation is only one source of motivation critical for sustained engagement. A second source is the motivation that arises from the degree of interest experienced in the process of goal pursuit. Our model integrates both sources of motivation within the goal-striving process and suggests that individuals may actively monitor and regulate them. Conceptualizing motivation in terms of a self-regulatory process provides an organizing framework for understanding how individuals might differ in whether they experience interest while working toward goals, whether they persist without interest, and whether and how they try to create interest. We first present the self-regulation of motivation model and then review research illustrating how the consideration of individual differences at different points in the process allows a better understanding of variability in people's choices, efforts, and persistence over time.

  2. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  3. Self-Regulated Learning from Illustrated Text: Eye Movement Modelling to Support Use and Regulation of Cognitive Processes during Learning from Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, Katharina; Schubert, Carina; Schüler, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Background: When learning with text and pictures, learners often fail to adequately process the materials, which can be explained as a failure to self-regulate one's learning by choosing adequate cognitive learning processes. Eye movement modelling examples (EMME) showing how to process multimedia instruction have improved elementary school…

  4. Theorizing and researching levels of processing in self-regulated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winne, Philip H

    2018-03-01

    Deep versus surface knowledge is widely discussed by educational practitioners. A corresponding construct, levels of processing, has received extensive theoretical and empirical attention in learning science and psychology. In both arenas, lower levels of information and shallower levels of processing are predicted and generally empirically demonstrated to limit knowledge learners gain, curtail what they can do with newly acquired knowledge, and shorten the life span of recently acquired knowledge. I recapitulate major accounts of levels or depth of information and information processing to set a stage for conceptualizing, first, self-regulated learning (SRL) from this perspective and, second, how a "levels-sensitive" approach might be implemented in research about SRL. I merge the levels construct into a model of SRL (Winne, 2011, Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 15-32), New York: Routledge; Winne, 2017b, Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (2 nd ed.), New York: Routledge; Winne & Hadwin, 1998, Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 277-304). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) conceptually and with respect to operationally defining the levels construct in the context of SRL in relation to each of the model's four phases - surveying task conditions, setting goals and planning, engaging the task, and composing major adaptations for future tasks. Select illustrations are provided for each phase of SRL. Regarding phase 3, a software system called nStudy is introduced as state-of-the-art instrumentation for gathering fine-grained, time-stamped trace data about information learners select for processing and operations they use to process that information. Self-regulated learning can be viewed through a lens of the levels construct, and operational definitions can be designed to research SRL with respect to levels. While information can be organized arbitrarily deeply, the levels construct may not be particularly

  5. A new window of opportunity to reject process-based biotechnology regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gary E; Stevens, Yvonne A

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether biotechnology regulation should be based on the process or the product has long been debated, with different jurisdictions adopting different approaches. The European Union has adopted a process-based approach, Canada has adopted a product-based approach, and the United States has implemented a hybrid system. With the recent proliferation of new methods of genetic modification, such as gene editing, process-based regulatory systems, which are premised on a binary system of transgenic and conventional approaches, will become increasingly obsolete and unsustainable. To avoid unreasonable, unfair and arbitrary results, nations that have adopted process-based approaches will need to migrate to a product-based approach that considers the novelty and risks of the individual trait, rather than the process by which that trait was produced. This commentary suggests some approaches for the design of such a product-based approach.

  6. The RB/E2F pathway and regulation of RNA processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlander, Joseph [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, 1007 East Lowell Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bosco, Giovanni, E-mail: gbosco@email.arizona.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, 1007 East Lowell Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2009-07-03

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) is inactivated in a majority of cancers. RB restricts cell proliferation by inhibiting the E2F family of transcription factors. The current model for RB/E2F function describes its role in regulating transcription at gene promoters. Whether the RB or E2F proteins might play a role in gene expression beyond transcription initiation is not well known. This review describes evidence that points to a novel role for the RB/E2F network in the regulation of RNA processing, and we propose a model as a framework for future research. The elucidation of a novel role of RB in RNA processing will have a profound impact on our understanding of the role of this tumor suppressor family in cell and developmental biology.

  7. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Brain development is a process requiring precise control of many different cell types. One method to achieve this is through specific and temporally regulated modification of proteins in order to alter structure and function. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is known...... on protein-level events, this study also provides significant insight into detailed roles for individual modified proteins in the developing brain, helping to advance the understanding of the complex protein-driven processes that underlie development. Finally, the use of a novel bioinformatic analytical tool...... provides one of the most comprehensive sets of individual PTM site regulation data for mammalian brain tissue. This will provide a valuable resource for those wishing to perform comparisons or meta-analyses of large scale PTMomic data, as are becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, being focussed...

  8. Designer ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Singh, Kripal; O'Grady, Audrey; Courtney, Ronan; Kalra, Alok; Singh, Rana Pratap; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Steinberger, Yosef; Patra, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in human population is accelerating the rate of land use change, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, triggering a serious threat to life supporting ecosystem services. Existing strategies for biological conservation remain insufficient to achieve a sustainable human-nature

  9. Changes in rainfall patterns in Mediterranean ecosystems: the MIND project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papale D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Will Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems be affected by the expected changes in precipitation regimes? If so, by how much and in which direction? These questions are at the basis of the research performed in context of the EU MIND project, whose key objectives were: i to investigate the potential effects of increasing drought on Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems at the process, ecosystem and regional scales and ii to assess ecosystem vulnerability to changes in rainfall patterns. A network of experimental study sites has been created in Portugal, Spain, France and Italy, where field manipulations alter the amount of water available to the ecosystem. The most up-to-date methods of ecophysiology, micrometeorology, soil ecology and remote sensing have been used to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the response of vegetation and soil to changes in water availability. This information is providing the basis for the implementation and validation of simulation models capable of predicting the drought response of Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems, and their vulnerability to future climate change, on a larger scale. The out-coming results are elucidating how water availability affects plant ecophysiological processes, the dynamics of soil carbon and the overall exchange of mass and energy between the land and the atmosphere. This paper focuses on some of the important, yet preliminary, results on C and energy fluxes that have been obtained at the large scale troughfall manipulation experiment (Tolfa, Italy, in a forest dominated by Arbutus unedo L.

  10. Restoring fire as an ecological process in shortgrass prairie ecosystems: initial effects of prescribed burning during the dormant and growing seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Dale G; Gatewood, Richard G; Paris, Randi B

    2002-06-01

    Prior to Anglo-European settlement, fire was a major ecological process influencing the structure, composition and productivity of shortgrass prairie ecosystems on the Great Plains. However during the past 125 years, the frequency and extent of grassland fire has dramatically declined as a result of the systematic heavy grazing by large herds of domestic cattle and sheep which reduced the available levels of fine fuel and organized fire suppression efforts that succeeded in altering the natural fire regime. The greatly diminished role of recurrent fire in these ecosystems is thought to be responsible for ecologically adverse shifts in the composition, structure and diversity of these grasslands, leading specifically to the rise of ruderal species and invasion by less fire-tolerant species. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ecological effects of fire season and frequency on the shortgrass prairie and to determine the means by which prescribed fire can best be restored in this ecosystem to provide the greatest benefit for numerous resource values. Plant cover, diversity, biomass and nutrient status, litter cover and soil chemistry were measured prior to and following fire treatments on a buffalograss-blue grama shortgrass prairie in northeastern New Mexico. Dormant-season fire was followed by increases in grass cover, forb cover, species richness and concentrations of foliar P, K, Ca, Mg and Mn. Growing-season fire produced declines in the cover of buffalograss, graminoids and forbs and increases in litter cover and levels of foliar P, K, Ca and Mn. Although no changes in soil chemistry were observed, both fire treatments caused decreases in herbaceous production, with standing biomass resulting from growing-season fire approximately 600 kg/ha and dormant-season fire approximately 1200 kg/ha, compared with controls approximately 1800 kg/ha. The initial findings of this long-term experiment suggest that dormant-season burning may be the preferable method

  11. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  12. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  13. F-box only protein 2 (Fbxo2) regulates amyloid precursor protein levels and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Graham; Hunt, Jack; Minakawa, Eiko; Sharkey, Lisa; Tipper, Nathan; Tennant, William; Paulson, Henry L

    2014-03-07

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane glycoprotein whose cleavage products, particularly amyloid-β, accumulate in Alzheimer disease (AD). APP is present at synapses and is thought to play a role in both the formation and plasticity of these critical neuronal structures. Despite the central role suggested for APP in AD pathogenesis, the mechanisms regulating APP in neurons and its processing into cleavage products remain incompletely understood. F-box only protein 2 (Fbxo2), a neuron-enriched ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor that preferentially binds high-mannose glycans on glycoproteins, was previously implicated in APP processing by facilitating the degradation of the APP-cleaving β-secretase, β-site APP-cleaving enzyme. Here, we sought to determine whether Fbxo2 plays a similar role for other glycoproteins in the amyloid processing pathway. We present in vitro and in vivo evidence that APP is itself a substrate for Fbxo2. APP levels were decreased in the presence of Fbxo2 in non-neuronal cells, and increased in both cultured hippocampal neurons and brain tissue from Fbxo2 knock-out mice. The processing of APP into its cleavage products was also increased in hippocampi and cultured hippocampal neurons lacking Fbxo2. In hippocampal slices, this increase in cleavage products was accompanied by a significant reduction in APP at the cell surface. Taken together, these results suggest that Fbxo2 regulates APP levels and processing in the brain and may play a role in modulating AD pathogenesis.

  14. Improving the Understanding and Model Representation of Processes that Couple Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.; Schmid, B.; Alexander, M. L. L.; Bell, D.; D'Ambro, E.; Hubbe, J. M.; Liu, J.; Mei, F.; Pekour, M. S.; Pinterich, T.; Schobesberger, S.; Shilling, J.; Springston, S. R.; Thornton, J. A.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wang, J.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations, however, contain uncertainties resulting from insufficient coincident data that couples cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneity in surface layer, boundary layer, and aerosol properties. We describe the measurement strategy and preliminary findings from the recent Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign conducted in May and September of 2016 in the vicinity of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site located in Oklahoma. The goal of the HI-SCALE campaign is to provide a detailed set of aircraft and surface measurements needed to obtain a more complete understanding and improved parameterizations of the lifecycle of shallow clouds. The sampling is done in two periods, one in the spring and the other in the late summer to take advantage of variations in the "greenness" for various types of vegetation, new particle formation, anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and other aerosol properties. The aircraft measurements will be coupled with extensive routine ARM SGP measurements as well as Large Eddy Simulation (LES), cloud resolving, and cloud-system resolving models. Through these integrated analyses and modeling studies, the affects of inhomogeneity in land use, vegetation, soil moisture, convective eddies, and aerosol properties on the evolution of shallow clouds will be determined, including the feedbacks of cloud radiative effects.

  15. Synchronization of developmental processes and defense signaling by growth regulating transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Liu

    Full Text Available Growth regulating factors (GRFs are a conserved class of transcription factor in seed plants. GRFs are involved in various aspects of tissue differentiation and organ development. The implication of GRFs in biotic stress response has also been recently reported, suggesting a role of these transcription factors in coordinating the interaction between developmental processes and defense dynamics. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GRFs mediate the overlaps between defense signaling and developmental pathways are elusive. Here, we report large scale identification of putative target candidates of Arabidopsis GRF1 and GRF3 by comparing mRNA profiles of the grf1/grf2/grf3 triple mutant and those of the transgenic plants overexpressing miR396-resistant version of GRF1 or GRF3. We identified 1,098 and 600 genes as putative targets of GRF1 and GRF3, respectively. Functional classification of the potential target candidates revealed that GRF1 and GRF3 contribute to the regulation of various biological processes associated with defense response and disease resistance. GRF1 and GRF3 participate specifically in the regulation of defense-related transcription factors, cell-wall modifications, cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling, and secondary metabolites accumulation. GRF1 and GRF3 seem to fine-tune the crosstalk between miRNA signaling networks by regulating the expression of several miRNA target genes. In addition, our data suggest that GRF1 and GRF3 may function as negative regulators of gene expression through their association with other transcription factors. Collectively, our data provide new insights into how GRF1 and GRF3 might coordinate the interactions between defense signaling and plant growth and developmental pathways.

  16. Coordinated approaches to quantify long-term ecosystem dynamics in response to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiqi Luo; Jerry Melillo; Shuli Niu; Claus Beier; James S. Clark; Aime E.T. Classen; Eric Dividson; Jeffrey S. Dukes; R. Dave Evans; Christopher B. Field; Claudia I. Czimczik; Michael Keller; Bruce A. Kimball; Lara M. Kueppers; Richard J. Norby; Shannon L. Pelini; Elise Pendall; Edward Rastetter; Johan Six; Melinda Smith; Mark G. Tjoelker; Margaret S. Torn

    2011-01-01

    Many serious ecosystem consequences of climate change will take decades or even centuries to emerge. Long-term ecological responses to global change are strongly regulated by slow processes, such as changes in species composition, carbon dynamics in soil and by long-lived plants, and accumulation of nutrient capitals. Understanding and predicting these processes...

  17. Cognitive regulation of smoking behavior within a cigarette: Automatic and nonautomatic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motschman, Courtney A; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-06-01

    There has been limited research on cognitive processes governing smoking behavior in individuals who are tobacco dependent. In a replication (Baxter & Hinson, 2001) and extension, this study examined the theory (Tiffany, 1990) that drug use may be controlled by automatic processes that develop over repeated use. Heavy and occasional cigarette smokers completed a button-press reaction time (RT) task while concurrently smoking a cigarette, pretending to smoke a lit cigarette, or not smoking. Slowed RT during the button-press task indexed the cognitive disruption associated with nonautomatic control of behavior. Occasional smokers' RTs were slowed when smoking or pretending to smoke compared with when not smoking. Heavy smokers' RTs were slowed when pretending to smoke versus not smoking; however, their RTs were similarly fast when smoking compared with not smoking. The results indicated that smoking behavior was more highly regulated by controlled, nonautomatic processes among occasional smokers and by automatic processes among heavy smokers. Patterns of RT across the interpuff interval indicated that occasional smokers were significantly slowed in anticipation of and immediately after puffing onset, whereas heavy smokers were only slowed significantly after puffing onset. These findings suggest that the entirety of the smoking sequence becomes automatized, with the behaviors leading up to puffing becoming more strongly regulated by automatic processes with experience. These results have relevance to theories on the cognitive regulation of cigarette smoking and support the importance of interventions that focus on routinized behaviors that individuals engage in during and leading up to drug use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Expression, processing and transcriptional regulation of granulysin in short-term activated human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groscurth Peter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulysin, a cytotoxic protein expressed in human natural killer cells and activated T lymphocytes, exhibits cytolytic activity against a variety of intracellular microbes. Expression and transcription have been partially characterised in vitro and four transcripts (NKG5, 519, 520, and 522 were identified. However, only a single protein product of 15 kDa was found, which is subsequently processed to an active 9 kDa protein. Results In this study we investigated generation of granulysin in lymphokine activated killer (LAK cells and antigen (Listeria specific T-cells. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed NKG5 to be the most prominent transcript. It was found to be up-regulated in a time-dependent manner in LAK cells and antigen specific T-cells and their subsets. Two isoforms of 519 mRNA were up-regulated under IL-2 and antigen stimulation. Moreover, two novel transcripts, without any known function, comprising solely parts of the 5 prime region of the primary transcript, were detected. A significant increase of granulysin expressing LAK cells as well as antigen specific T-cells was shown by fluorescence microscopy. On the subset level, increase in CD4+ granulysin expressing cells was found only under antigen stimulation. Immunoblotting showed the 15 kDa form of granulysin to be present in the first week of stimulation either with IL-2 or with bacterial antigen. Substantial processing to the 9 kDa form was detected during the first week in LAK cells and in the second week in antigen specific T-cells. Conclusion This first comprehensive study of granulysin gene regulation in primary cultured human lymphocytes shows that the regulation of granulysin synthesis in response to IL-2 or bacterial antigen stimulation occurs at several levels: RNA expression, extensive alternative splicing and posttranslational processing.

  19. Processing and regulation of negative emotions in anorexia nervosa: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Seidel

    Full Text Available Theoretical models and recent advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN have increasingly focused on the role of alterations in the processing and regulation of emotions. To date, however, our understanding of these changes is still limited and reports of emotional dysregulation in AN have been based largely on self-report data, and there is a relative lack of objective experimental evidence or neurobiological data.The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigated the hemodynamic correlates of passive viewing and voluntary downregulation of negative emotions by means of the reappraisal strategy detachment in AN patients. Detachment is regarded as adaptive regulation strategy associated with a reduction in emotion-related amygdala activity and increased recruitment of prefrontal brain regions associated with cognitive control processes. Emotion regulation efficacy was assessed via behavioral arousal ratings and fMRI activation elicited by an established experimental paradigm including negative images. Participants were instructed to either simply view emotional pictures or detach themselves from feelings triggered by the stimuli.The sample consisted of 36 predominantly adolescent female AN patients and a pairwise age-matched healthy control group. Behavioral and neuroimaging data analyses indicated a reduction of arousal and amygdala activity during the regulation condition for both patients and controls. However, compared with controls, individuals with AN showed increased activation in the amygdala as well as in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC during the passive viewing of aversive compared with neutral pictures.These results extend previous findings indicative of altered processing of salient emotional stimuli in AN, but do not point to a general deficit in the voluntary regulation of negative emotions. Increased dlPFC activation in AN during passive viewing of negative stimuli is in line with

  20. The regulator's stake in a multi-stakeholder process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Mikael; Larsson, Carl-Magnus [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Norrby, Soeren; Westerlind, Magnus [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel poses a number of challenges to a broad range of stakeholders, e.g. implementers, regulators, potential host municipalities, environmental groups, political decision-makers on different levels and the public. This paper presents some regulatory challenges as experienced and approached by the Swedish regulators most involved in nuclear waste management (the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, SSI, and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI). First the regulatory framework is outlined with emphasis on decision-making processes and environmental impact assessment. Then a short background is given to the current status of the ongoing programme for repository siting. The main part of the paper discusses some conclusions from the so-called RISCOM pilot project, which was concluded in 1998. The paper also contains some findings from other projects as well as some experiences from the ongoing siting process. It is important to have independent regulators, with the capacity to review the safety assessment of the implementer. The regulators also have the challenging task to be people's experts in stretching the implementer. At the same time they should expose themselves to the being stretched by other stakeholders and the public at large. Experience also shows that regulators should engage early in the pre-licensing phase, e.g. in EIA and siting, and that this can be done without compromising the independence and integrity needed in the licensing phase. The regulator must be present at all levels, and observant of the participants' different needs and roles played on the national, regional and local level. A well structured, but flexible, EIA appear to be an efficient 'vehicle' for public participation. However, it is believed that the EIA should be complemented with hearings, in both the pre-licensing and licensing phases, since this is believed to increase the transparency of the decision making

  1. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  2. The helminth community component species of the wood mouse as biological tags of a ten post-fire-year regeneration process in a Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Durán, Sandra; Debenedetti, Ángela L; Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2018-05-10

    Serra Calderona Natural Park, a Mediterranean ecosystem, has been in post-fire regeneration for 10 years. To elucidate which helminth community component species of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, can be considered biological tags of this process, the influence of intrinsic (host density; host sex and age) and extrinsic factors (site, year, and period of capture; vegetation recovery) on their prevalence and abundance has been analysed, comparing a burned and an unburned area. A total of 564 wood mice (408 from the burned and 156 from the unburned area), from the 2nd to the10th post-fire year, was included in this helminthoecological study. The results suggest that the area in post-fire regeneration is still more vulnerable to periodic environmental changes than the unburned area as deduced from the analysis of the helminth populations of Pseudocatenotaenia matovi, Skrjabinotaenia lobata, Trichuris muris, Eucoleus bacillatus and Aonchotheca annulosa. The intermediate and definitive host populations presented a greater variability to these environmental changes in the burned area (Taenia parva, P. matovi, S. lobata, A. annulosa, Syphacia stroma and S. frederici). In the regenerating area, some behavioural changes in certain populations determined by the host sex are taking place (T. parva, Helgimosomoides polygyrus and S. frederici). During the last years studied, a greater similarity in the populational development of some component species between both areas can be appreciated (H. polygyrus and S. stroma). The role of the wood mouse and its helminth parasites as biological tags of the post-fire regeneration process in Mediterranean ecosystems has been confirmed.

  3. MicroRNAs (MiRs) Precisely Regulate Immune System Development and Function in Immunosenescence Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Human aging is a complex process with pivotal changes in gene expression of biological pathways. Immune system dysfunction has been recognized as one of the most important abnormalities induced by senescent names immunosenescence. Emerging evidences suggest miR role in immunosenescence. We aimed to systemically review all relevant reports to clearly state miR effects on immunosenescence process. Sensitive electronic searches carried out. Quality assessment has been performed. Since majority of the included studies were laboratory works, and therefore heterogen, we discussed miR effects on immunological aging process nonstatically. Forty-six articles were found in the initial search. After exclusion of 34 articles, 12 studies enrolled to the final stage. We found that miRs have crucial roles in exact function of immune system. MiRs are involved in the regulation of the aging process in the immune system components and target certain genes, promoting or inhibiting immune system reaction to invasion. Also, miRs control life span of the immune system members by regulation of the genes involved in the apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that immunosenescence is controllable by proper manipulation of the various miRs expression. DNA methylation and histone acetylation have been discovered as novel strategies, altering NF-κB binding ability to the miR promoter sites. Effect of miRs on impairment of immune system function due to the aging is emerging. Although it has been accepted that miRs have determinant roles in the regulation of the immunosenescence; however, most of the reports are concluded from animal/laboratory works, suggesting the necessity of more investigations in human.

  4. Global power production scenarios to 2100 and the dual role of forests: accelerated climate damage or regulating and provisioning ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    The worlds' electrical power production is depending on the current energy infrastructure, and future investments in new power supply facilities using renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Continued growth in power production in the 21st century will cause global environmental change (GEC......). GEC with climate change as an important driver will affect the environment and the economy in multiple ways that can be summarized as losses of biodiversity and changing ecosystem services (ES), but with very diverse temporal and spatial impacts. In a simple global growth model for power production......, including non-renewable and renewable energy sources, the potential role of forest biomass is investigated. The demands for forest ecosystem services imposed by the global power production are assessed in the present study. Three global power supply scenarios to 2050 with different emphasis...

  5. The Regulation of Immunological Processes by Peripheral Neurons in Homeostasis and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Huang, Siyi; Riol-Blanco, Lorena; Barreiro, Olga; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2015-10-01

    The nervous system and the immune system are the principal sensory interfaces between the internal and external environment. They are responsible for recognizing, integrating, and responding to varied stimuli, and have the capacity to form memories of these encounters leading to learned or 'adaptive' future responses. We review current understanding of the cross-regulation between these systems. The autonomic and somatosensory nervous systems regulate both the development and deployment of immune cells, with broad functions that impact on hematopoiesis as well as on priming, migration, and cytokine production. In turn, specific immune cell subsets contribute to homeostatic neural circuits such as those controlling metabolism, hypertension, and the inflammatory reflex. We examine the contribution of the somatosensory system to autoimmune, autoinflammatory, allergic, and infectious processes in barrier tissues and, in this context, discuss opportunities for therapeutic manipulation of neuro-immune interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of cytokine receptors by Golgi N-glycan processing and endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Emily A; Le Roy, Christine; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M; Pawling, Judy; Cheung, Pam; Granovsky, Maria; Nabi, Ivan R; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Dennis, James W

    2004-10-01

    The Golgi enzyme beta1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5) is up-regulated in carcinomas and promotes the substitution of N-glycan with poly N-acetyllactosamine, the preferred ligand for galectin-3 (Gal-3). Here, we report that expression of Mgat5 sensitized mouse cells to multiple cytokines. Gal-3 cross-linked Mgat5-modified N-glycans on epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta receptors at the cell surface and delayed their removal by constitutive endocytosis. Mgat5 expression in mammary carcinoma was rate limiting for cytokine signaling and consequently for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. Mgat5 also promoted cytokine-mediated leukocyte signaling, phagocytosis, and extravasation in vivo. Thus, conditional regulation of N-glycan processing drives synchronous modification of cytokine receptors, which balances their surface retention against loss via endocytosis.

  7. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: the roles of social connection and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nicole A; Burleson, Mary H

    2013-01-01

    Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18-30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities-including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group-relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders.

  8. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: the roles of social connection and emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nicole A.; Burleson, Mary H.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18–30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders. PMID:23450647

  9. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: The roles of social connection and emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18 to 30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (n=82; MAs or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n=234 and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one’s own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders.

  10. [Research progress of ecosystem service flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui Min; Fan, Yu Long; Ding, Sheng Yan

    2016-07-01

    With the development of social economy, human disturbance has resulted in a variety of ecosystem service degradation or disappearance. Ecosystem services flow plays an important role in delivery, transformation and maintenance of ecosystem services, and becomes one of the new research directions. In this paper, based on the classification of ecosystem services flow, we analyzed ecosystem service delivery carrier, and investigated the mechanism of ecosystem service flow, including the information, property, scale features, quantification and cartography. Moreover, a tentative analysis on cost-effective of ecosystem services flow (such as transportation costs, conversion costs, usage costs and cost of relativity) was made to analyze the consumption cost in ecosystem services flow process. It aimed to analyze dissipation cost in ecosystem services flow process. To a certain extent, the study of ecosystem service flow solved the problem of "double counting" in ecosystem services valuation, which could make a contribution for the sake of recognizing hot supply and consumption spots of ecosystem services. In addition, it would be conducive to maximizing the ecosystem service benefits in the transmission process and putting forward scientific and reasonable ecological compensation.

  11. Urban ecosystem services for resilience planning and management in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhearson, Timon; Hamstead, Zoé A; Kremer, Peleg

    2014-05-01

    We review the current state of knowledge about urban ecosystem services in New York City (NYC) and how these services are regulated, planned for, and managed. Focusing on ecosystem services that have presented challenges in NYC-including stormwater quality enhancement and flood control, drinking water quality, food provisioning and recreation-we find that mismatches between the scale of production and scale of management occur where service provision is insufficient. Adequate production of locally produced services and services which are more accessible when produced locally is challenging in the context of dense urban development that is characteristic of NYC. Management approaches are needed to address scale mismatches in the production and consumption of ecosystem services. By coordinating along multiple scales of management and promoting best management practices, urban leaders have an opportunity to ensure that nature and ecosystem processes are protected in cities to support the delivery of fundamental urban ecosystem services.

  12. The impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes of solving math word problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Vula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners’ achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems. Two hundred sixty-three learners, of three classes of third graders (N=130 and four classes of fifth graders (N=133 of the elementary cycle from two urban schools of Kosovo, participated in the study. Almost half of the total number of the third and fifth-graderswere exposed to metacognitive instruction. The rest of the learners were included in control classes in which they performed tasks without having been given any specific guidance, based exclusively on traditional methods and respective textbooks. All the learners were tested in math word problems twice, before the intervention and after it. Research findings have shown that metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes that learners use to control their actions, to reason, and to reflect, are one of the main resources that influence their success in solving a math word problem. Although the difference between the pre-test and the post-test resultswas statistically significant solely with the fifth-grade experimental classes, yet an improved performance was observed in third-grade experimental learners’ classes compared to control classes. Theoretical and practical implications of the research are discussed in the end of the study.

  13. Relationships at the aboveground-belowground interface: plants, soil biota and soil processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porazinska, D.L.; Bardgett, R.D.; Postma-Blaauw, M.B.; Hunt, H.W.; Parsons, A.N.; Seastedt, T.R.; Wall, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Interactions at the aboveground-below ground interface provide important feedbacks that regulate ecosystem processes. Organisms within soil food webs are involved in processes of decomposition and nutrient mineralization, and their abundance and activity have been linked to plant ecophysiological

  14. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick W; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  15. Impacts of land use/cover change on ecosystem services for Xiamen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Cui, S.

    2009-12-01

    Based on remote sensing images of Xiamen in 1987, 1997 and 2007, the process of ecosystem service alteration resulting from land use/cover change was quantitatively analyzed through RS and GIS techniques. Consulting relative researches, an integrated assessment model was built to evaluating regional ecosystem services of Xiamen. The results showed that the total ecosystem service value of Xiamen was increased by 14.67%, from 3271.5 million to 3751.39 RMB. The relative change rate of supplying service, regulation service, cultural service and supporting service were 97.8%, -25.1%, 165.0% and -44.7% respectively, which indicated that land use/ cover change had positive effects on supplying and cultural service, whereas it had negatively affected both regulation service and supporting service. Land use/cover types of Xiamen in 1987, 1997 and 2007 Ecosystem values of Xiamen in 1987, 1997 and 2007 10 thousand RMB

  16. Infant Responding to Joint Attention, Executive Processes, and Self-Regulation in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Mundy, Peter; Block, Jessica J.; Delgado, Christine E. F.; Parlade, Meaghan V.; Pomares, Yuly B.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Infant joint attention is related to behavioral and social outcomes, as well as language in childhood. Recent research and theory suggests that the relations between joint attention and social-behavioral outcomes may reflect the role of executive self-regulatory processes in the development of joint attention. To test this hypothesis two- studies were conducted. The first, cross-sectional study examined the development of responding to joint attention skill (RJA) in terms of increasing executive efficiency of responding between 9 and 18 months of age. The results indicated that development of RJA was characterized by a decreased latency to shift attention in following another person’s gaze and head turn, as well as an increase in the proportion of correct RJA responses exhibited by older infants. The second study examined the longitudinal relations between 12-month measures of responding to joint attention (RJA) and 36-month attention regulation in a delay of gratification task. The results indicated that responding to joint attention at 12-months was significantly related to children’s use of three types of self-regulation behaviors while waiting for a snack reward at 36 months of age. These observations are discussed in light of a developmental theory of attention regulation and joint attention in infancy. PMID:22206892

  17. Internal cholinergic regulation of learning and recall in a model of olfactory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licurgo Benemann Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory system, cholinergic modulation has been associated with contrast modulation and changes in receptive fields in the olfactory bulb, as well the learning of odor associations in olfactory cortex. Computational modeling and behavioral studies suggest that cholinergic modulation could improve sensory processing and learning while preventing pro-active interference when task demands are high. However, how sensory inputs and/or learning regulate incoming modulation has not yet been elucidated. We here use a computational model of the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex (PC and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB to explore how olfactory learning could regulate cholinergic inputs to the system in a closed feedback loop. In our model, the novelty of an odor is reflected in firing rates and sparseness of cortical neurons in response to that odor and these firing rates can directly regulate learning in the system by modifying cholinergic inputs to the system. In the model, cholinergic neurons reduce their firing in response to familiar odors – reducing plasticity in the PC, but increase their firing in response to novel odor – increasing PC plasticity. Recordings from HDB neurons in awake behaving rats reflect predictions from the model by showing that a subset of neurons decrease their firing as an odor becomes familiar.

  18. Reproducibility of Carbon and Water Cycle by an Ecosystem Process Based Model Using a Weather Generator and Effect of Temporal Concentration of Precipitation on Model Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, T.; Machimura, T.

    2014-12-01

    GCM is generally used to produce input weather data for the simulation of carbon and water cycle by ecosystem process based models under climate change however its temporal resolution is sometimes incompatible to requirement. A weather generator (WG) is used for temporal downscaling of input weather data for models, where the effect of WG algorithms on reproducibility of ecosystem model outputs must be assessed. In this study simulated carbon and water cycle by Biome-BGC model using weather data measured and generated by CLIMGEN weather generator were compared. The measured weather data (daily precipitation, maximum, minimum air temperature) at a few sites for 30 years was collected from NNDC Online weather data. The generated weather data was produced by CLIMGEN parameterized using the measured weather data. NPP, heterotrophic respiration (HR), NEE and water outflow were simulated by Biome-BGC using measured and generated weather data. In the case of deciduous broad leaf forest in Lushi, Henan Province, China, 30 years average monthly NPP by WG was 10% larger than that by measured weather in the growing season. HR by WG was larger than that by measured weather in all months by 15% in average. NEE by WG was more negative in winter and was close to that by measured weather in summer. These differences in carbon cycle were because the soil water content by WG was larger than that by measured weather. The difference between monthly water outflow by WG and by measured weather was large and variable, and annual outflow by WG was 50% of that by measured weather. The inconsistency in carbon and water cycle by WG and measured weather was suggested be affected by the difference in temporal concentration of precipitation, which was assessed.

  19. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  20. Emotion regulation in children with behavior problems: linking behavioral and brain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granic, Isabela; Meusel, Liesel-Ann; Lamm, Connie; Woltering, Steven; Lewis, Marc D

    2012-08-01

    Past studies have shown that aggressive children exhibit rigid (rather than flexible) parent-child interactions; these rigid repertoires may provide the context through which children fail to acquire emotion-regulation skills. Difficulties in regulating emotion are associated with minimal activity in dorsal systems in the cerebral cortex, for example, the anterior cingulate cortex. The current study aimed to integrate parent-child and neurocognitive indices of emotion regulation and examine their associations for the first time. Sixty children (8-12 years old) referred for treatment for aggression underwent two assessments. Brain processes related to emotion regulation were assessed using dense-array EEG with a computerized go/no-go task. The N2 amplitudes thought to tap inhibitory control were recorded, and a source analysis was conducted. In the second assessment, parents and children were videotaped while trying to solve a conflict topic. State space grids were used to derive two dynamic flexibility parameters from the coded videotapes: (a) the number of transitions between emotional states and (b) the dispersion of emotional states, based on proportional durations in each state. The regression results showed that flexibility measures were not related to N2 amplitudes. However, flexibility measures were significantly associated with the ratio of dorsal to ventral source activation: for transitions, ΔR 2 = .27, F (1, 34) = 13.13, p = .001; for dispersion, ΔR 2 = .29, F (1, 35) = 14.76, p < .001. Thus, in support of our main hypothesis, greater dyadic flexibility was associated with a higher ratio of dorsomedial to ventral activation, suggesting that children with more flexible parent-child interactions are able to recruit relatively more dorsomedial activity in challenging situations.

  1. Fort Collins Science Center: Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zack

    2004-01-01

    Many challenging natural resource management issues require consideration of a web of interactions among ecosystem components. The spatial and temporal complexity of these ecosystem problems demands an interdisciplinary approach integrating biotic and abiotic processes. The goals of the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch are to provide sound science to aid federal resource managers and use long-term, place-focused research and monitoring on federal lands to advance ecosystem science.

  2. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-01

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  3. Heparan sulfate regulates amyloid precursor protein processing by BACE1, the Alzheimer's β-secretase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, Zoe; Yates, Edwin A.; Wayne, Gareth; Amour, Augustin; McDowell, William; Turnbull, Jeremy E.

    2003-01-01

    Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the Alzheimer's β-secretase (BACE1) is a key step in generating amyloid β-peptide, the main component of amyloid plaques. Here we report evidence that heparan sulfate (HS) interacts with β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE) 1 and regulates its cleavage of APP. We show that HS and heparin interact directly with BACE1 and inhibit in vitro processing of peptide and APP substrates. Inhibitory activity is dependent on saccharide size and specific structural characteristics, and the mechanism of action involves blocking access of substrate to the active site. In cellular assays, HS specifically inhibits BACE1 cleavage of APP but not alternative cleavage by α-secretase. Endogenous HS immunoprecipitates with BACE1 and colocalizes with BACE1 in the Golgi complex and at the cell surface, two of its putative sites of action. Furthermore, inhibition of cellular HS synthesis results in enhanced BACE1 activity. Our findings identify HS as a natural regulator of BACE1 and suggest a novel mechanism for control of APP processing. PMID:14530380

  4. Response of the Eastern Mediterranean microbial ecosystem to dust and dust affected by acid processing in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael David Krom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acid processes in the atmosphere, particularly those caused by anthropogenic acid gases, increase the amount of bioavailable P in dust and hence are predicted to increase microbial biomass and primary productivity when supplied to oceanic surface waters. This is likely to be particularly important in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS, which is P limited during the winter bloom and N&P co-limited for phytoplankton in summer. However, it is not clear how the acid processes acting on Saharan dust will affect the microbial biomass and primary productivity in the EMS. Here, we carried out bioassay manipulations on EMS surface water on which Saharan dust was added as dust (Z, acid treated dust (ZA, dust plus excess N (ZN and acid treated dust with excess N (ZNA during springtime (May 2012 and measured bacterioplankton biomass, metabolic and other relevant chemical and biological parameters. We show that acid treatment of Saharan dust increased the amount of bioavailable P supplied by a factor of ~40 compared to non-acidified dust (18.4 nmoles P mg-1 dust vs. 0.45 nmoles P mg-1 dust, respectively. The increase in chlorophyll, primary and bacterial productivity for treatments Z and ZA were controlled by the amount of N added with the dust while those for treatments ZN and ZNA (in which excessive N was added were controlled by the amount of P added. These results confirm that the surface waters were N&P co-limited for phytoplankton during springtime. However, total chlorophyll and primary productivity in the acid treated dust additions (ZA and ZNA were less than predicted from that calculated from the amount of the potentially limiting nutrient added. This biological inhibition was interpreted as being due to labile trace metals being added with the acidified dust. A probable cause for this biological inhibition was the addition of dissolved Al, which forms potentially toxic Al nanoparticles when added to seawater. Thus, the effect of anthropogenic acid

  5. Application of an ecosystem model to evaluate the importance of different processes and food web structure for transfer of 13 elements in a shallow lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, L; Bradshaw, C; Andersson, E; Kautsky, U

    2017-04-01

    In environmental risk assessments of nuclear waste, there is need to estimate the potential risks of a large number of radionuclides over a long time period during which the environment is likely to change. Usually concentration ratios (CRs) are used to calculate the activity concentrations in organisms. However, CRs are not available for all radionuclides and they are not easily scalable to the varying environment. Here, an ecosystem transport model of elements, which estimates concentrations in organisms using carbon flows and food transfer instead of CR is presented. It is a stochastic compartment model developed for Lake Eckarfjärden at Forsmark in Sweden. The model was based on available data on carbon circulation, physical and biological processes from the site and identifies 11 functional groups of organisms. The ecosystem model was used to estimate the environmental transfer of 13 elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cs, I, Ni, Nb, Pb, Se, Sr, Th, U) to various aquatic organisms, using element-specific distribution coefficients for suspended particles (K d PM ) and upper sediment (K d sed ), and subsequent transfer in the foodweb. The modelled CRs for different organism groups were compared with measured CRs from the lake and literature data, and showed good agreement for many elements and organisms, particularly for lower trophic levels. The model is, therefore, proposed as an alternative to measured CR, though it is suggested to further explore active uptake, assimilation and elimination processes to get better correspondence for some of the elements. The benthic organisms (i.e. bacteria, microphytobenthos and macroalgae) were identified as more important than pelagic organisms for transfer of elements to top predators. The element transfer model revealed that most of the radionuclides were channelled through the microbial loop, despite the fact that macroalgae dominated the carbon fluxes in this lake. Thus, element-specific adsorption of elements to the surface of

  6. Modeling invasive alien plant species in river systems: Interaction with native ecosystem engineers and effects on hydro-morphodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geerling, G. W.; Egger, G.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-08-01

    Invasive alien plant species negatively impact native plant communities by out-competing species or changing abiotic and biotic conditions in their introduced range. River systems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions, because waterways can function as invasion corridors. Understanding interactions of invasive and native species and their combined effects on river dynamics is essential for developing cost-effective management strategies. However, numerical models for simulating long-term effects of these processes are lacking. This paper investigates how an invasive alien plant species affects native riparian vegetation and hydro-morphodynamics. A morphodynamic model has been coupled to a dynamic vegetation model that predicts establishment, growth and mortality of riparian trees. We introduced an invasive alien species with life-history traits based on Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica), and investigated effects of low- and high propagule pressure on invasion speed, native vegetation and hydro-morphodynamic processes. Results show that high propagule pressure leads to a decline in native species cover due to competition and the creation of unfavorable native colonization sites. With low propagule pressure the invader facilitates native seedling survival by creating favorable hydro-morphodynamic conditions at colonization sites. With high invader abundance, water levels are raised and sediment transport is reduced during the growing season. In winter, when the above-ground invader biomass is gone, results are reversed and the floodplain is more prone to erosion. Invasion effects thus depend on seasonal above- and below ground dynamic vegetation properties and persistence of the invader, on the characteristics of native species it replaces, and the combined interactions with hydro-morphodynamics.

  7. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Predictive Association between Social Information Processing and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the moderating role of emotion regulation in the relationship between some components of social information processing (hostile interpretation and anger) and aggressive behavior. The secondary aim was to assess whether emotion regulation, hostile interpretation, and anger account for gender differences…

  8. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  9. Dealing with Feeling: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Strategies Derived from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L.; Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal

    2012-01-01

    The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER)…

  10. Individual Distinctive Features of Self-Regulation Processes Peculiar to Students of Different Profiles of Lateral Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Svetlana A.; Zherebnenko, Oksana A.; Mukhamedzyanova, Flera G.; Moskalenko, Svetlana V.; Gorelikova, Olga N.

    2016-01-01

    The research paper presents an analysis of the interrelation between the lateral organisation profiles' indicators and self-regulation features. The existence of significant distinctions in the processes of self-regulation among respondents with different variants of lateral profiles of the interhemispheric asymmetry is proved, as well as the…

  11. Ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types: understanding the interactions and suggesting pathways for sustaining multiple ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Turton, Stephen M; Macgregor, Colin J; Pert, Petina L

    2016-10-01

    As ecosystem services supply from tropical forests is declining due to deforestation and forest degradation, much effort is essential to sustain ecosystem services supply from tropical forested landscapes, because tropical forests provide the largest flow of multiple ecosystem services among the terrestrial ecosystems. In order to sustain multiple ecosystem services, understanding ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types and identifying certain ecosystem services that could be managed to leverage positive effects across the wider bundle of ecosystem services are required. We sampled three forest types, tropical rainforests, sclerophyll forests, and rehabilitated plantation forests, over an area of 32,000m(2) from Wet Tropics bioregion, Australia, aiming to compare supply and evaluate interactions and patterns of eight ecosystem services (global climate regulation, air quality regulation, erosion regulation, nutrient regulation, cyclone protection, habitat provision, energy provision, and timber provision). On average, multiple ecosystem services were highest in the rainforests, lowest in sclerophyll forests, and intermediate in rehabilitated plantation forests. However, a wide variation was apparent among the plots across the three forest types. Global climate regulation service had a synergistic impact on the supply of multiple ecosystem services, while nutrient regulation service was found to have a trade-off impact. Considering multiple ecosystem services, most of the rehabilitated plantation forest plots shared the same ordination space with rainforest plots in the ordination analysis, indicating that rehabilitated plantation forests may supply certain ecosystem services nearly equivalent to rainforests. Two synergy groups and one trade-off group were identified. Apart from conserving rainforests and sclerophyll forests, our findings suggest two additional integrated pathways to sustain the supply of multiple ecosystem services from a

  12. Ecosystem services as a common language for coastal ecosystem-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Elise F; Polasky, Stephen; Kappel, Carrie V; Reed, Denise J; Stoms, David M; Koch, Evamaria W; Kennedy, Chris J; Cramer, Lori A; Hacker, Sally D; Barbier, Edward B; Aswani, Shankar; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Silliman, Brian R; Muthiga, Nyawira; Bael, David; Wolanski, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Ecosystem-based management is logistically and politically challenging because ecosystems are inherently complex and management decisions affect a multitude of groups. Coastal ecosystems, which lie at the interface between marine and terrestrial ecosystems and provide an array of ecosystem services to different groups, aptly illustrate these challenges. Successful ecosystem-based management of coastal ecosystems requires incorporating scientific information and the knowledge and views of interested parties into the decision-making process. Estimating the provision of ecosystem services under alternative management schemes offers a systematic way to incorporate biogeophysical and socioeconomic information and the views of individuals and groups in the policy and management process. Employing ecosystem services as a common language to improve the process of ecosystem-based management presents both benefits and difficulties. Benefits include a transparent method for assessing trade-offs associated with management alternatives, a common set of facts and common currency on which to base negotiations, and improved communication among groups with competing interests or differing worldviews. Yet challenges to this approach remain, including predicting how human interventions will affect ecosystems, how such changes will affect the provision of ecosystem services, and how changes in service provision will affect the welfare of different groups in society. In a case study from Puget Sound, Washington, we illustrate the potential of applying ecosystem services as a common language for ecosystem-based management.

  13. Valuing Ecosystem Services in Terms of Ecological Risks and Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abson, Dave; Termansen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The economic valuation of ecosystem services is a key policy tool in stemming losses of biological diversity. It is proposed that the loss of ecosystem function and the biological resources within ecosystems is due in part to the failure of markets to recognize the benefits humans derive...... from ecosystems. Placing monetary values on ecosystem services is often suggested as a necessary step in correcting such market failures. We consider the effects of valuing different types of ecosystem services within an economic framework. We argue that provisioning and regulating ecosystem services...

  14. Biocomplexity in Mangrove Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, I. C.; Lovelock, C. E.; Berger, U.; McKee, K. L.; Joye, S. B.; Ball, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems.

  15. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2014-01-01

    We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services...... to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  16. Collaborative web-based annotation of video footage of deep-sea life, ecosystems and geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, R.; Ratmeyer, V.; Pop Ristov, A.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    More and more seagoing scientific expeditions use video-controlled research platforms such as Remote Operating Vehicles (ROV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), and towed camera systems. These produce many hours of video material which contains detailed and scientifically highly valuable footage of the biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of the oceans. Many of the videos contain unique observations of unknown life-forms which are rare, and which cannot be sampled and studied otherwise. To make such video material online accessible and to create a collaborative annotation environment the "Video Annotation and processing platform" (V-App) was developed. A first solely web-based installation for ROV videos is setup at the German Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (available at http://videolib.marum.de). It allows users to search and watch videos with a standard web browser based on the HTML5 standard. Moreover, V-App implements social web technologies allowing a distributed world-wide scientific community to collaboratively annotate videos anywhere at any time. It has several features fully implemented among which are: • User login system for fine grained permission and access control • Video watching • Video search using keywords, geographic position, depth and time range and any combination thereof • Video annotation organised in themes (tracks) such as biology and geology among others in standard or full screen mode • Annotation keyword management: Administrative users can add, delete, and update single keywords for annotation or upload sets of keywords from Excel-sheets • Download of products for scientific use This unique web application system helps making costly ROV videos online available (estimated cost range between 5.000 - 10.000 Euros per hour depending on the combination of ship and ROV). Moreover, with this system each expert annotation adds instantaneous available and valuable knowledge to otherwise uncharted

  17. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  18. Development of a data driven process-based model for remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystem productivity, evapotranspiration, and above-ground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Masri, Bassil

    2011-12-01

    Modeling terrestrial ecosystem functions and structure has been a subject of increasing interest because of the importance of the terrestrial carbon cycle in global carbon budget and climate change. In this study, satellite data were used to estimate gross primary production (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET) for two deciduous forests: Morgan Monroe State forest (MMSF) in Indiana and Harvard forest in Massachusetts. Also, above-ground biomass (AGB) was estimated for the MMSF and the Howland forest (mixed forest) in Maine. Surface reflectance and temperature, vegetation indices, soil moisture, tree height and canopy area derived from the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMRS-E), LIDAR, and aerial imagery respectively, were used for this purpose. These variables along with others derived from remotely sensed data were used as inputs variables to process-based models which estimated GPP and ET and to a regression model which estimated AGB. The process-based models were BIOME-BGC and the Penman-Monteith equation. Measured values for the carbon and water fluxes obtained from the Eddy covariance flux tower were compared to the modeled GPP and ET. The data driven methods produced good estimation of GPP and ET with an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 molC/m2 and 0.40 mm/day, respectively for the MMSF and the Harvard forest. In addition, allometric data for the MMSF were used to develop the regression model relating AGB with stem volume. The performance of the AGB regression model was compared to site measurements using remotely sensed data for the MMSF and the Howland forest where the model AGB RMSE ranged between 2.92--3.30 Kg C/m2. Sensitivity analysis revealed that improvement in maintenance respiration estimation and remotely sensed maximum photosynthetic activity as well as accurate estimate of canopy resistance will result in improved GPP and ET predictions. Moreover, AGB estimates were

  19. Risk and markets for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendor, Todd K; Riggsbee, J Adam; Doyle, Martin

    2011-12-15

    Market-based environmental regulations (e.g., cap and trade, "payments for ecosystem services") are increasingly common. However, few detailed studies of operating ecosystem markets have lent understanding to how such policies affect incentive structures for improving environmental quality. The largest U.S. market stems from the Clean Water Act provisions requiring ecosystem restoration to offset aquatic ecosystems damaged during development. We describe and test how variations in the rules governing this ecosystem market shift risk between regulators and entrepreneurs to promote ecological restoration. We analyze extensive national scale data to assess how two critical aspects of market structure - (a) the geographic scale of markets and (b) policies dictating the release of credits - affect the willingness of entrepreneurs to enter specific markets and produce credits. We find no discernible relationship between policies attempting to ease market entry and either the number of individual producers or total credits produced. Rather, market entry is primarily related to regional geography (the prevalence of aquatic ecosystems) and regional economic growth. Any improvements to policies governing ecosystem markets require explicit evaluation of the interplay between policy and risk elements affecting both regulators and entrepreneurial credit providers. Our findings extend to emerging, regulated ecosystem markets, including proposed carbon offset mechanisms, biodiversity banking, and water quality trading programs.

  20. Ecosystem services: Just another catch phrase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Weidner

    2011-01-01

    The "ecosystem services" concept has emerged as a popular area of discussion among policy makers and conservation advocates. Ecosystem services are the benefits people derive from nature and include the provision of water, food, wood, and fiber; regulation of climate, flood, drought, and disease; maintenance of biodiversity; and recreational, aesthetic,...

  1. Taking the pulse of mountains: Ecosystem responses to climatic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Peterson, David L.; Hessl, Amy E.

    2003-01-01

    An integrated program of ecosystem modeling and field studies in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.) has quantified many of the ecological processes affected by climatic variability. Paleoecological and contemporary ecological data in forest ecosystems provided model parameterization and validation at broad spatial and temporal scales for tree growth, tree regeneration and treeline movement. For subalpine tree species, winter precipitation has a strong negative correlation with growth; this relationship is stronger at higher elevations and west-side sites (which have more precipitation). Temperature affects tree growth at some locations with respect to length of growing season (spring) and severity of drought at drier sites (summer). Furthermore, variable but predictable climate-growth relationships across elevation gradients suggest that tree species respond differently to climate at different locations, making a uniform response of these species to future climatic change unlikely. Multi-decadal variability in climate also affects ecosystem processes. Mountain hemlock growth at high-elevation sites is negatively correlated with winter snow depth and positively correlated with the winter Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. At low elevations, the reverse is true. Glacier mass balance and fire severity are also linked to PDO. Rapid establishment of trees in subalpine ecosystems during this century is increasing forest cover and reducing meadow cover at many subalpine locations in the western U.S.A. and precipitation (snow depth) is a critical variable regulating conifer expansion. Lastly, modeling potential future ecosystem conditions suggests that increased climatic variability will result in increasing forest fire size and frequency, and reduced net primary productivity in drier, east-side forest ecosystems. As additional empirical data and modeling output become available, we will improve our ability to predict the effects of climatic change

  2. Broad spectrum detoxification: the major longevity assurance process regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, David; McElwee, Joshua J

    2005-03-01

    Our recent survey of genes regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests a role for a number of gene classes in longevity assurance. Based on these findings, we propose a model for the biochemistry of longevity assurance and ageing, which is as follows. Ageing results from molecular damage from highly diverse endobiotic toxins. These are stochastic by-products of diverse metabolic processes, of which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are likely to be only one component. Our microarray analysis suggests a major role in longevity assurance of the phase 1, phase 2 detoxification system involving cytochrome P450 (CYP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. Unlike superoxide and hydrogen peroxide detoxification, this system is energetically costly, and requires the excretion from the cell of its products. Given such costs, its activity may be selected against, as predicted by the disposable soma theory. CYP and UGT enzymes target lipophilic molecular species; insufficient activity of this system is consistent with age-pigment (lipofuscin) accumulation during ageing. We suggest that IIS-regulated longevity assurance involves: (a) energetically costly detoxification and excretion of molecular rubbish, and (b) conservation of existing proteins via molecular chaperones. Given the emphasis in this theory on investment in cellular waste disposal, and on protein conservation, we have dubbed it the green theory.

  3. Simulating the Emergence and Survival of Mutations Using a Self Regulating Multitype Branching Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Mode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for an experimenter to study the emergence and survival of mutations, because mutations are rare events so that large experimental population must be maintained to ensure a reasonable chance that a mutation will be observed. In his famous book, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Sir R. A. Fisher introduced branching processes into evolutionary genetics as a framework for studying the emergence and survival of mutations in an evolving population. During the lifespan of Fisher, computer technology had not advanced to a point at which it became an effective tool for simulating the phenomenon of the emergence and survival of mutations, but given the wide availability of personal desktop and laptop computers, it is now possible and financially feasible for investigators to perform Monte Carlo Simulation experiments. In this paper all computer simulation experiments were carried out within a framework of self regulating multitype branching processes, which are part of a stochastic working paradigm. Emergence and survival of mutations could also be studied within a deterministic paradigm, which raises the issue as to what sense are predictions based on the stochastic and deterministic models are consistent. To come to grips with this issue, a technique was used such that a deterministic model could be embedded in a branching process so that the predictions of both the stochastic and deterministic compared based on the same assigned values of parameters.

  4. Cognitive and Emotion Regulation Change Processes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Impact of the nuclear critics on the development of the regulating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, Thomas.

    1978-01-01

    The impact of nuclear critics on the regulating process is difficult to analyse as the question is to identify them and to define their aim. In the United States it is generally considered that such critics are the new class of liberal intellectuals who have been politically jolted by Vietnam and Watergate. On this side of the Atlantic, the anti-nuclear movement seems different, less coherent and more complex: the local opposition, the environmentalists and the militant radicals. All these opponents can intervene at three levels: technically they attack the technical standards applied and propose other energy sources. At regulatory level they can influence decision-making provided they are in a majority; politically they take action on behalf of the basic respect of democracy for minorities and individual rights. (NEA) [fr

  6. Postgraduate education and research in Brazil: regulation and reconfiguration processes of academic work formation and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferreira de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This text analyses some of the processes of formation and production regulation and reconfiguration of the scholarly work in Brazil. Initially we examine the context and meaning of knowledge production in times of flexible accumulation, as well as the current landscape of Postgraduate education in the country. We seek to understand how public policies in the area, particularly the actions of evaluation and promotion, and the new modus operandi of the Postgraduate study and research organization have been reconfiguring the work production of teaching and students within the programs, especially in education. Above all, we seek to highlight the role of promotion and evaluation agencies, increasingly committed to a vision of expansion that drives the production of knowledge associated with demands of economic-productivity, rather than a consistent formative project that would result in a significant advancement in the production and dissemination of knowledge in the different areas.

  7. Regulation of protein phosphatase 2A during embryonic diapause process in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shi-Hong; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yen; Lin, Pei-Ling

    2017-11-01

    Regulation of protein phosphorylation requires coordinated interactions between protein kinases and protein phosphatases. In the present study, we investigated regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) during the embryonic diapause process of B. mori. An immunoblotting analysis showed that Bombyx eggs contained a catalytic C subunit, a major regulatory B subunit (B55/PR55 subunit), and a structural A subunit, with the A and B subunits undergoing differential changes between diapause and non-diapause eggs during embryonic process. In non-diapause eggs, eggs whose diapause initiation was prevented by HCl, and eggs in which diapause had been terminated by chilling of diapausing eggs at 5°C for 70days and then were transferred to 25°C, protein levels of the A and B subunits of PP2A gradually increased toward embryonic development. However, protein levels of the A and B subunits in diapause eggs remained at low levels during the first 8days after oviposition. The direct determination of PP2A enzymatic activity showed that the activity remained at low levels in diapause eggs during the first 8days after oviposition. However, in non-diapause eggs, eggs whose diapause initiation was prevented by HCl, and eggs in which diapause had been terminated by chilling, PP2A enzymatic activity sharply increased during the first several days, reached a peak during the middle embryonic development, and then greatly decreased 3 or 4days before hatching. Examination of temporal changes in mRNA expression levels of the catalytic β subunit and regulatory subunit of PP2A showed high levels in eggs whose diapause initiation was prevented by HCl compared to those in diapause eggs. These results demonstrate that the higher PP2A gene expression and PP2A A and B subunit protein levels and increased enzymatic activity are related to embryonic development of B. mori. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecosystem services as a framework for forest stewardship: Deschutes National Forest overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikola Smith; Robert Deal; Jeff Kline; Dale Blahna; Trista Patterson; Thomas A. Spies; Karen. Bennett

    2011-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services has emerged as a way of framing and describing the comprehensive set of benefits that people receive from nature. These include commonly recognized goods like timber and fresh water, as well as processes like climate regulation and water purification, and aesthetic, spiritual, and cultural benefits. The USDA Forest Service has been...

  9. Ecosystem services in grassland associated with biotic and abiotic soil parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Boer, de Herman; Hanegraaf, M.C.; Bokhorst, J.; Nierop, D.; Bloem, J.; Schouten, T.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.

    2010-01-01

    Biotic soil parameters have so far seldom played a role in practical soil assessment and management of grasslands. However, the ongoing reduction of external inputs in agriculture would imply an increasing reliance on ecosystem self-regulating processes. Since soil biota play an important role in

  10. Self-regulated learning processes of medical students during an academic learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Jalili, Mohammad; Yazdani, Kamran; Fata, Ladan; Sandars, John

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to identify the self-regulated learning (SRL) processes of medical students during a biomedical science learning task and to examine the associations of the SRL processes with previous performance in biomedical science examinations and subsequent performance on a learning task. A sample of 76 Year 1 medical students were recruited based on their performance in biomedical science examinations and stratified into previous high and low performers. Participants were asked to complete a biomedical science learning task. Participants' SRL processes were assessed before (self-efficacy, goal setting and strategic planning), during (metacognitive monitoring) and after (causal attributions and adaptive inferences) their completion of the task using an SRL microanalytic interview. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the means and frequencies of SRL processes. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations of SRL processes with previous examination performance and the learning task performance. Most participants (from 88.2% to 43.4%) reported task-specific processes for SRL measures. Students who exhibited higher self-efficacy (odds ratio [OR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.90) and reported task-specific processes for metacognitive monitoring (OR 6.61, 95% CI 1.68-25.93) and causal attributions (OR 6.75, 95% CI 2.05-22.25) measures were more likely to be high previous performers. Multiple analysis revealed that similar SRL measures were associated with previous performance. The use of task-specific processes for causal attributions (OR 23.00, 95% CI 4.57-115.76) and adaptive inferences (OR 27.00, 95% CI 3.39-214.95) measures were associated with being a high learning task performer. In multiple analysis, only the causal attributions measure was associated with high learning task performance. Self-efficacy, metacognitive monitoring and causal attributions measures were associated

  11. Assimilation of remote sensing data into a process-based ecosystem model for monitoring changes of soil water content in croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Weimin; Gao, Ping; Wang, Jun; Li, Xianfeng; Chen, Shu

    2008-10-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is an important factor affecting photosynthesis, growth, and final yields of crops. The information on SWC is of importance for mitigating the reduction of crop yields caused by drought through proper agricultural water management. A variety of methodologies have been developed to estimate SWC at local and regional scales, including field sampling, remote sensing monitoring and model simulations. The reliability of regional SWC simulation depends largely on the accuracy of spatial input datasets, including vegetation parameters, soil and meteorological data. Remote sensing has been proved to be an effective technique for controlling uncertainties in vegetation parameters. In this study, the vegetation parameters (leaf area index and land cover type) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) were assimilated into a process-based ecosystem model BEPS for simulating the variations of SWC in croplands of Jiangsu province, China. Validation shows that the BEPS model is able to capture 81% and 83% of across-site variations of SWC at 10 and 20 cm depths during the period from September to December, 2006 when a serous autumn drought occurred. The simulated SWC responded the events of rainfall well at regional scale, demonstrating the usefulness of our methodology for SWC and practical agricultural water management at large scales.

  12. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  13. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate MHC and antigen processing molecules in human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Suárez-Alvarez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are an attractive resource for new therapeutic approaches that involve tissue regeneration. hESCs have exhibited low immunogenicity due to low levels of Mayor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class-I and absence of MHC class-II expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms regulating MHC expression in hESCs had not been explored.We analyzed the expression levels of classical and non-classical MHC class-I, MHC class-II molecules, antigen-processing machinery (APM components and NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L in hESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and NTera2 (NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of these genes were investigated by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays. We showed that low levels of MHC class-I molecules were associated with absent or reduced expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP-1 and tapasin (TPN components in hESCs and iPSCs, which are involved in the transport and load of peptides. Furthermore, lack of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m light chain in these cells limited the expression of MHC class I trimeric molecule on the cell surface. NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB were observed in all pluripotent stem cells lines. Epigenetic analysis showed that H3K9me3 repressed the TPN gene in undifferentiated cells whilst HLA-B and beta2m acquired the H3K4me3 modification during the differentiation to embryoid bodies (EBs. Absence of HLA-DR and HLA-G expression was regulated by DNA methylation.Our data provide fundamental evidence for the epigenetic control of MHC in hESCs and iPSCs. Reduced MHC class I and class II expression in hESCs and iPSCs can limit their recognition by the immune response against these cells. The knowledge of these mechanisms will further allow the development of strategies to induce tolerance and improve stem cell allograft acceptance.

  14. Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulate MHC and Antigen Processing Molecules in Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz; Rodriguez, Ramón M.; Calvanese, Vincenzo; Blanco-Gelaz, Miguel A.; Suhr, Steve T.; Ortega, Francisco; Otero, Jesus; Cibelli, Jose B.; Moore, Harry; Fraga, Mario F.; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an attractive resource for new therapeutic approaches that involve tissue regeneration. hESCs have exhibited low immunogenicity due to low levels of Mayor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class-I and absence of MHC class-II expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms regulating MHC expression in hESCs had not been explored. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the expression levels of classical and non-classical MHC class-I, MHC class-II molecules, antigen-processing machinery (APM) components and NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L) in hESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and NTera2 (NT2) teratocarcinoma cell line. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of these genes were investigated by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. We showed that low levels of MHC class-I molecules were associated with absent or reduced expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP-1) and tapasin (TPN) components in hESCs and iPSCs, which are involved in the transport and load of peptides. Furthermore, lack of β2-microglobulin (β2m) light chain in these cells limited the expression of MHC class I trimeric molecule on the cell surface. NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB) were observed in all pluripotent stem cells lines. Epigenetic analysis showed that H3K9me3 repressed the TPN gene in undifferentiated cells whilst HLA-B and β2m acquired the H3K4me3 modification during the differentiation to embryoid bodies (EBs). Absence of HLA-DR and HLA-G expression was regulated by DNA methylation. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide fundamental evidence for the epigenetic control of MHC in hESCs and iPSCs. Reduced MHC class I and class II expression in hESCs and iPSCs can limit their recognition by the immune response against these cells. The knowledge of these mechanisms will further allow the development of strategies to induce tolerance and improve stem cell allograft acceptance

  15. Cycling indices for ecosystem models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, J.H.; Gardner, R.H.; Mankin, J.B.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The study of ecosystems is aided by representing structural and functional groups of organisms or processes as discrete components. A complex compartment model will explicitly map pathways from one compartment to another and specify transfer rates. This quantitative description allows insight into the dynamics of flow of nutrients, toxic chemicals, radionuclides, or energy. Three new indices that calculate compartment-specific probabilities of occurrence and recycling and illustrate the problem of applying these indices to ecosystem models are presented

  16. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan; Kumar, Geetha B.; Banerji, Asoke; Nair, Bipin G., E-mail: bipin@amrita.edu

    2016-08-15

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′ ,7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. - Highlights: • Ecdysterone significantly enhances cell migration in a dose dependent manner. • Ecdysterone augments cell spreading during the initial phase of cell migration through actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. • Ecdysterone enhances cell proliferation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. • Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide production via activation of EGFR

  17. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan; Kumar, Geetha B.; Banerji, Asoke; Nair, Bipin G.

    2016-01-01

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′ ,7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. - Highlights: • Ecdysterone significantly enhances cell migration in a dose dependent manner. • Ecdysterone augments cell spreading during the initial phase of cell migration through actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. • Ecdysterone enhances cell proliferation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. • Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide production via activation of EGFR

  18. Astronomical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  19. Searching for resilience: addressing the impacts of changing disturbance regimes on forest ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Spies, Thomas A.; Peterson, David L.; Stephens, Scott L.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1. The provisioning of ecosystem services to society is increasingly under pressure from global change. Changing disturbance regimes are of particular concern in this context due to their high potential impact on ecosystem structure, function and composition. Resilience-based stewardship is advocated to address these changes in ecosystem management, but its operational implementation has remained challenging. 2. We review observed and expected changes in disturbance regimes and their potential impacts on provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services, concentrating on temperate and boreal forests. Subsequently, we focus on resilience as a powerful concept to quantify and address these changes and their impacts, and present an approach towards its operational application using established methods from disturbance ecology. 3. We suggest using the range of variability concept – characterizing and bounding the long-term behaviour of ecosystems – to locate and delineate the basins of attraction of a system. System recovery in relation to its range of variability can be used to measure resilience of ecosystems, allowing inferences on both engineering resilience (recovery rate) and monitoring for regime shifts (directionality of recovery trajectory). 4. It is important to consider the dynamic nature of these properties in ecosystem analysis and management decision-making, as both disturbance processes and mechanisms of resilience will be subject to changes in the future. Furthermore, because ecosystem services are at the interface between natural and human systems, the social dimension of resilience (social adaptive capacity and range of variability) requires consideration in responding to changing disturbance regimes in forests. 5. Synthesis and applications. Based on examples from temperate and boreal forests we synthesize principles and pathways for fostering resilience to changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management. We

  20. Meteorological and small scale internal ecosystem variability characterize the uncertainty of ecosystem level responses to elevated CO2. Insights from the Duke Forest FACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, A.; Katul, G. G.; Fatichi, S.; Palmroth, S.; Way, D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the open questions in climate change research is the pathway by which elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration impacts the biogeochemical and hydrological cycles at the ecosystem scale. This impact leads to significant changes in long-term carbon stocks and the potential of ecosystems to sequester CO2, partially mitigating anthropogenic emissions. While the significance of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on instantaneous leaf-level processes such as photosynthesis and transpiration is rarely disputed, its integrated effect at the ecosystem level and at long-time scales remains a subject of debate. This debate has taken on some urgency as illustrated by differences arising between ecosystem modelling studies, and data-model comparisons using Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) sites around the world. Inherent leaf-to-leaf variability in gas exchange rates can generate such inconsistencies. This inherent variability arises from the combined effect of meteorological "temporal" variability and the "spatial" variability of the biochemical parameters regulating vegetation carbon uptake. This combined variability leads to a non-straightforward scaling of ecosystem fluxes from the leaf to ecosystems. To illustrate this scaling behaviour, we used 10 years of leaf gas exchange measurements collected at the Duke Forest FACE experiment. The internal variability of the ecosystem parameters are first quantified and then combined with three different leaf-scale stomatal conductance models and an ecosystem model. The main results are: (a) Variability of the leaf level fluxes is dependent on both the meteorological drivers and differences in leaf age, position within the canopy, nitrogen and CO2 fertilization, which can be accommodated in model parameters; (b) Meteorological variability plays the dominant role at short temporal scales while parameter variability is significant at longer temporal scales. (c) Leaf level results do not necessarily translate to similar ecosystem

  1. Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children's cognitive self-regulation skills development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; M = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and spring of the preschool year, and classroom observations were conducted three times throughout the year. Multilevel models tested associations between classroom behaviors of teachers and students using the Classroom Observation in Preschool and the Teacher Observation in Preschool and gains children made in a CSR composite score (Dimensional Change Card Sort, Peg Tapping, Head Toes Knees Shoulders, Copy Design, and Corsi Blocks) across the preschool year. After controlling for demographic covariates and children's pretest scores, both affective and cognitive classroom processes were associated with gains. More teacher behavior approving, less disapproving, and more positive emotional tone were associated with gains. The proportion of observed time teachers spent delivering instruction as well as the proportion of time children were involved with mathematics and literacy were also related to CSR gains, as was the quality of teacher instruction. Although exploratory, these results highlight the potential for modifications in classroom practices to aid in children's CSR development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Dealing with emotions when the ability to cry is hampered: emotion processing and regulation in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, N. van; Bossema, E.R.; Middendorp, H. van; Kruize, A.A.; Bootsma, H.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The hampered ability to cry in patients with Sjogren's syndrome may affect their ways of dealing with emotions. The aim of this study was to examine differences in emotion processing and regulation between people with and without Sjogren's syndrome and correlations of emotion processing

  3. MDRL lncRNA regulates the processing of miR-484 primary transcript by targeting miR-361.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are emerging as new players in gene regulation, but whether lncRNAs operate in the processing of miRNA primary transcript is unclear. Also, whether lncRNAs are involved in the regulation of the mitochondrial network remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that a long noncoding RNA, named mitochondrial dynamic related lncRNA (MDRL, affects the processing of miR-484 primary transcript in nucleus and regulates the mitochondrial network by targeting miR-361 and miR-484. The results showed that miR-361 that predominantly located in nucleus can directly bind to primary transcript of miR-484 (pri-miR-484 and prevent its processing by Drosha into pre-miR-484. miR-361 is able to regulate mitochondrial fission and apoptosis by regulating miR-484 levels. In exploring the underlying molecular mechanism by which miR-361 is regulated, we identified MDRL and demonstrated that it could directly bind to miR-361 and downregulate its expression levels, which promotes the processing of pri-miR-484. MDRL inhibits mitochondrial fission and apoptosis by downregulating miR-361, which in turn relieves inhibition of miR-484 processing by miR-361. Our present study reveals a novel regulating model of mitochondrial fission program which is composed of MDRL, miR-361 and miR-484. Our work not only expands the function of the lncRNA pathway in gene regulation but also establishes a new mechanism for controlling miRNA expression.

  4. Incorporating historical ecosystem diversity into conservation planning efforts in grass and shrub ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Ganguli; Johathan B. Haufler; Carolyn A. Mehl; Jimmie D. Chew

    2011-01-01

    Understanding historical ecosystem diversity and wildlife habitat quality can provide a useful reference for managing and restoring rangeland ecosystems. We characterized historical ecosystem diversity using available empirical data, expert opinion, and the spatially explicit vegetation dynamics model SIMPPLLE (SIMulating Vegetative Patterns and Processes at Landscape...

  5. Ecosystems science: Genes to landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-05-09

    Bountiful fisheries, healthy and resilient wildlife, flourishing forests and vibrant grasslands are coveted resources that benefit all Americans. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science supports the conservation and management of the Nation’s fish and wildlife, and the landscapes they inhabit. Our biological resources—ecosystems and the wild things that live in them—are the foundation of our conservation heritage and an economic asset to current and future generations of Americans.The USGS Ecosystems Mission Area, the biological research arm of the Department of the Interior (DOI), provides science to help America achieve sustainable management and conservation of its biological resources. This work is done within the broader mission of the USGS—to serve the Nation with science that advances understanding of our natural resources, informs land and water stewardship, and helps safeguard communities from natural and environmental hazards. The Ecosystems Mission Area provides research, technical assistance, and education conducted by Cooperative Research Units and Science Centers located in nearly every State.The quality of life and economic strength in America hinges on healthy ecosystems that support living things and natural processes. Ecosystem science better enables society to understand how and why ecosystems change and to guide actions that can prevent damage to, and restore and sustain ecosystems. It is through this knowledge that informed decisions are made about natural resources that can enhance our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being.

  6. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion : Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J.

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and

  7. Evolution and regulation of cellular periodic processes: a role for paralogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trachana, Kalliopi; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2010-01-01

    performed the first systematic comparison in three organisms (Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by using public microarray data. We observed that although diurnal-regulated and ultradian-regulated genes are not generally cell-cycle-regulated, they tend to have cell...

  8. Ecosystem service valuations of mangrove ecosystems to inform decision making and future valuation exercises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available The valuation of ecosystem services is a complex process as it includes several dimensions (ecological, socio-cultural and economic and not all of these can be quantified in monetary units. The aim of this paper is to conduct an ecosystem services valuation study for mangroves ecosystems, the results of which can be used to inform governance and management of mangroves. We used an expert-based participatory approach (the Delphi technique to identify, categorize and rank the various ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems at a global scale. Subsequently we looked for evidence in the existing ecosystem services literature for monetary valuations of these ecosystem service categories throughout the biogeographic distribution of mangroves. We then compared the relative ranking of ecosystem service categories between the monetary valuations and the expert based analysis. The experts identified 16 ecosystem service categories, six of which are not adequately represented in the literature. There was no significant correlation between the expert based valuation (the Delphi technique and the economic valuation, indicating that the scope of valuation of ecosystem services needs to be broadened. Acknowledging this diversity in different valuation approaches, and developing methodological frameworks that foster the pluralism of values in ecosystem services research, are crucial for maintaining the credibility of ecosystem services valuation. To conclude, we use the findings of our dual approach to valuation to make recommendations on how to assess and manage the ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems.

  9. Ecosystem service valuations of mangrove ecosystems to inform decision making and future valuation exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Sutherland, William J; Dicks, Lynn; Hugé, Jean; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2014-01-01

    The valuation of ecosystem services is a complex process as it includes several dimensions (ecological, socio-cultural and economic) and not all of these can be quantified in monetary units. The aim of this paper is to conduct an ecosystem services valuation study for mangroves ecosystems, the results of which can be used to inform governance and management of mangroves. We used an expert-based participatory approach (the Delphi technique) to identify, categorize and rank the various ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems at a global scale. Subsequently we looked for evidence in the existing ecosystem services literature for monetary valuations of these ecosystem service categories throughout the biogeographic distribution of mangroves. We then compared the relative ranking of ecosystem service categories between the monetary valuations and the expert based analysis. The experts identified 16 ecosystem service categories, six of which are not adequately represented in the literature. There was no significant correlation between the expert based valuation (the Delphi technique) and the economic valuation, indicating that the scope of valuation of ecosystem services needs to be broadened. Acknowledging this diversity in different valuation approaches, and developing methodological frameworks that foster the pluralism of values in ecosystem services research, are crucial for maintaining the credibility of ecosystem services valuation. To conclude, we use the findings of our dual approach to valuation to make recommendations on how to assess and manage the ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems.

  10. Co-regulation of redox processes in freshwater wetlands as a function of organic matter availability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alewell, C.; Paul, S.; Lischeid, G.; Storck, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have important filter functions in landscapes but are considered to be the biggest unknowns regarding their element dynamics under global climate change. Information on sink and source function of sulphur, nitrogen, organic matter and acidity in wetlands is crucial for freshwater regeneration. Recent results indicate that redox processes are not completely controlled by the sequential reduction chain (that is electron acceptor availability) but that electron donor availability may be an important regulator. Our hypothesis was that only sites which are limited in their electron donor availability (low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) follow the concept of the sequential reduction chain. We compared the results of two freshwater wetland systems: 1) three forested fens within a boreal spruce catchment in a low mountain range in southern Germany (high DOC regime) and 2) three floodplain soils within a groundwater enrichment area in the Rhein valley in northwest Switzerland (low DOC regime). Micro scale investigations (a few cm 3 ) with dialyse chambers as well as soil solution and groundwater concentrations at the forested fens (high DOC regime) indicated simultaneous consumption of nitrate and sulphate with release of iron, manganese and methane (CH 4 ) as well as an enrichment in stable sulphur isotopes indicating a co-existence of processes attributed to different redox gradients. Soil and aquifer gas measurements down to 4.6 m at the groundwater enrichment site (low DOC regime and carbon limitation) showed extreme high rates of metabolism with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) , dinitrous oxide (N 2 O) and CH 4 concentrations reaching fifty, thirty and three times atmospheric concentrations, respectively. Simultaneously, groundwater oxygen (O 2 ) saturation was between 50 and 95%. We concluded that independent of DOC regime the sequential reduction chain was not a suitable concept in our systems. Instead of electron acceptor or donor availability

  11. Ayahuasca and the process of regulation in Brazil and internationally: implications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Beatriz Caiuby; Feeney, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides a summary and analysis of the regulation of ayahuasca in Brazil, from its prohibition in the mid-eighties to the recent adoption of CONAD's (Conselho Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas) 2010 Resolution, which established a set of rules, norms and ethical principles to be applied to religious and ritual uses of ayahuasca. Brazil's regulatory process is used as a starting point to explore emerging international regulatory themes as various nations respond to the global expansion of the Santo Daime and UDV (União do Vegetal) ayahuasca religions. The text reviews the primary legislative and court documents, academic literature, as well as solicited expert opinions. Three prominent themes have emerged internationally. The first concerns the scope of international treaties regarding plant-based psychoactive substances, as well as the responsibilities of individual nations to adhere to said treaties. The second concerns the scope of religious liberty and how to determine religious legitimacy. The final theme addresses the potential dangers of ayahuasca to health and public safety. Over the past 20 years the Brazilian ayahuasca religions have established a global presence, with congregations in the USA, Canada, Japan, South Africa, Australia, and throughout Europe and Latin America. As a result, many nations are faced with the predicament of balancing the interests of these religious minorities with the international "war on drugs." The regulatory process applied in Brazil exemplifies a progressive approach, one which considered issues of anthropology and involved representatives of ayahuasca religions, and which provided a degree of deference to the principle of religious liberty. The Brazilian process has influenced judicial and administrative decisions internationally, and stands as a model worthy of further consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation by sliding operation of a denitrification process; Regulation par regime glissant d`un procede de denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babary, J.P.; Bourrel, S.

    1995-12-31

    Biotechnological processing of waste waters is made through fixed bed bioreactors. Biochemical reaction kinetics can be modelled by non linear differential equations. The model is used to develop control laws. As an application, a denitrification bioreactor is modelled. Then control algorithm is checked through mathematical simulation of nitrogen compounds concentration ratio. (D.L.)

  13. Current and future carbon budget at Takayama site, Japan, evaluated by a regional climate model and a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Noh, Nam-Jin; Saitoh, Taku M; Ito, Akihiko; Wakazuki, Yasutaka; Muraoka, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Accurate projection of carbon budget in forest ecosystems under future climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration is important to evaluate the function of terrestrial ecosystems, which serve as a major sink of atmospheric CO 2 . In this study, we examined the effects of spatial resolution of meteorological data on the accuracies of ecosystem model simulation for canopy phenology and carbon budget such as gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem production (NEP) of a deciduous forest in Japan. Then, we simulated the future (around 2085) changes in canopy phenology and carbon budget of the forest by incorporating high-resolution meteorological data downscaled by a regional climate model. The ecosystem model overestimated GPP and ER when we inputted low-resolution data, which have warming biases over mountainous landscape. But, it reproduced canopy phenology and carbon budget well, when we inputted high-resolution data. Under the future climate, earlier leaf expansion and delayed leaf fall by about 10 days compared with the present state was simulated, and also, GPP, ER and NEP were estimated to increase by 25.2%, 23.7% and 35.4%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the increase of NEP in June and October would be mainly caused by rising temperature, whereas that in July and August would be largely attributable to CO 2 fertilization. This study suggests that the downscaling of future climate data enable us to project more reliable carbon budget of forest ecosystem in mountainous landscape than the low-resolution simulation due to the better predictions of leaf expansion and shedding.

  14. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  15. Spatial patterns in the condition index of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in a macrotidal coastal ecosystem: Influence of tidal processes and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Sonia; Bernard, Ismaël; Pouvreau, Stéphane; Maurer, Danièle; Schaal, Gauthier; Ganthy, Florian; Cominassi, Louise; Allain, Gwenhael; Sautour, Benoit; David, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    In macrotidal coastal ecosystems, spatial heterogeneity of the water column properties is induced by both oceanic and continental influences. Hydrodynamic processes generate a land-sea gradient of environmental conditions, affecting the biological performances of sedentary organisms. The aim of the present study is to establish an extensive spatial assessment in the reproductive investment of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Arcachon Bay. This is done by looking for a relationship between the Lawrence and Scott condition index (LSCI) and two tidal processes: the immersion level (IL) and the local oceanic flushing time (LoFt). The LSCI of C. gigas was assessed, just before gamete release, at 68 sampling stations in Arcachon Bay. Oyster performance was overall low and spatially variable. Significant differences in the LSCI were detected between the outer and inner bay. Oyster reefs located toward the mouth of the bay exhibited high LSCI (between 9 and 11), while oyster reefs located in inner bay, especially in south-eastern part around the Eyre River, had low LSCI (below 6). Linear modelling allowed to highlight significant effects of both tidal processes IL and LoFt on the obtained LSCI gradient. IL, LoFt explained 33% of the spatial variability observed on LSCI (IL = 3%; LoFt = 17%; LoFt + IL: 13%), 6% were attributed to the intra-station variation (ISv). Thus, high IL and rapid LoFt favor a better development of somatic-gonadal volume, probably because of longer feeding time and higher supply of food from the ocean by tide flows. Disentangling the effects of IL and LoFt on LSCI allowed to describe the spatial pattern in 61% of variability not explained by both tidal factors. A residual gradient directed southeast-northwest highlighted that others factors, independent from IL and LoFt seems to hamper inner bay oyster reproductive performance. Consequently, investigating on the ecological functioning (Eyre influences), trophic potential and anthropogenic

  16. Capability-Driven Design of Business Service Ecosystem to Support Risk Governance in Regulatory Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Feltus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based regulation and risk governance gain momentum in most sectorial ecosystems, should they be the finance, the healthcare or the telecommunications ecosystems. Although there is a profusion of tools to address this issue at the corporate level, worth is to note that no solution fulfils this function at the ecosystem level yet. Therefore, in this article, the Business Service Ecosystem (BSE metamodel is semantically extended, considering the Capability as a Service (CaaS theory, in order to raise the enterprise risk management from the enterprise level up to the ecosystem level. This extension allows defining a concrete ecosystem metamodel which is afterwards mapped with an information system risk management model to support risk governance at the ecosystem level. This mapping is illustrated and validated on the basis of an application case for the Luxembourgish financial sector applied to the most important concepts from the BSE: capability, resource, service and goal.

  17. Climate change in Eastern Taimyr over the last 80 years and the warming impact on biodiversity and ecosystem processes in its territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Pospelova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of long-term changes of mean annual temperatures and the active temperature sum over 80 years was carried out using data of the Khatanga meteorological station. Since the 1990s, an essential warming was observed, especially after 2000. The warming influence on vegetation takes place immediately (the ecosystem composition changes due to the degradation of cryogenic processes as well as directly by increasing the time of the vegetation period and the total amount of heat on plants. As a result, in the last few years, the lead of phenological phenomena terms is observed – the time of foliage expansion and efflorescence of plants-indicators, geese arriving, mosquitos appearance, ice thawing. By long term monitoring data, the moving of some north-taiga plant species to forest tundra and tundra is observed, as well as their establishing in vegetation communities. However, at this moment, the character of the vegetation is stable. The occurrence of taiga animals is increased in tundra and forest tundra. An active revival of larch is observed in forest tundra and north sparse forests. A removing forest border to the north is not observed, but in the southern mountains of Taimyr its replacing on higher levels could be seen. A decreasing summer precipitation quantity increases the possibility of forest fires, spring and bog drying. It influences negatively on bog flora and near-water fauna. It is possible, that the main reason of the local climate change at the East of Taimyr is less connected to the global planet change, but much more to pulsations of the strong Siberian anticyclone.

  18. Conceptualizing Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Ecosystem Services: A Participatory Systems Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Rita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A participatory system dynamics modelling approach is advanced to support conceptualization of feedback processes underlying ecosystem services and to foster a shared understanding of leverage intervention points. The process includes systems mapping workshop and follow-up tasks aiming at the collaborative construction of causal loop diagrams. A case study developed in a natural area in Portugal illustrates how a stakeholder group was actively engaged in the development of a conceptual model depicting policies for sustaining the climate regulation ecosystem service.

  19. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruszka Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19. However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. Results To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3′ UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Conclusions Seven of the

  20. Mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions impact and their influence on terrestrial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik Oliveira, K.; Niedbała, G.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important challenges faced by the humanity in the current century is the increasing temperature on Earth, caused by a growing emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Terrestrial ecosystems, as an important component of the carbon cycle, play an important role in the sequestration of carbon, which is a chance to improve the balance of greenhouse gases. Increasing CO2 absorption by terrestrial ecosystems is one way to reduce the atmospheric CO2 emissions. Sequestration of CO2 by terrestrial ecosystems is not yet fully utilized method of mitigating CO2 emission to the atmosphere. Terrestrial ecosystems, especially forests, are essential for the regulation of CO2 content in the atmosphere and more attention should be paid to seeking the natural processes of CO2 sequestration.

  1. Contribution of glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptors to the regulation of neurodegenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sheela; Maatouk, Layal

    2013-12-01

    Isolation of glucocorticoids (GCs) from adrenal glands followed by synthesis led rapidly to their first clinical application, about 70 years ago, for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. To this day GCs are used in diseases that have an inflammatory component. However, their use is carefully monitored because of harmful side effects. GCs are also synonymous with stress and adaptation. In CNS, GC binds and activates high affinity mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and low affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GR, whose expression is ubiquitous, is only activated when GC levels rise as during circadian peak and in response to stress. Numerous recent studies have yielded important and new insights on the mechanisms concerning pulsatile secretory pattern of GCs as well as various processes that tightly control their synthesis via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis involving regulated release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from hypothalamus and pituitary, respectively. GR modulates neuronal functions and viability through both genomic and non-genomic actions, and importantly its transcriptional regulatory activity is tightly locked with GC secretory pattern. There is increasing evidence pointing to involvement of GC-GR in neurodegenerative disorders. Patients with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's or Huntington's disease show chronically high cortisol levels suggesting changes occurring in controls of HPA axis. In experimental models of these diseases, chronic stress or GC treatment was found to exacerbate both the clinical symptoms and neurodegenerative processes. However, recent evidence also shows that GC-GR can exert neuroprotective effects. Thus, for any potential therapeutic strategies in these neurodegenerative diseases we need to understand the precise modifications both in HPA axis and in GR activity and find ways to harness their protective actions.

  2. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator intracellular processing, trafficking, and opportunities for mutation-specific treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rogan, Mark P

    2012-02-01

    Recent advances in basic science have greatly expanded our understanding of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the chloride and bicarbonate channel that is encoded by the gene, which is mutated in patients with CF. We review the structure, function, biosynthetic processing, and intracellular trafficking of CFTR and discuss the five classes of mutations and their impact on the CF phenotype. The therapeutic discussion is focused on the significant progress toward CFTR mutation-specific therapies. We review the results of encouraging clinical trials examining orally administered therapeutics, including agents that promote read-through of class I mutations (premature termination codons); correctors, which overcome the CFTR misfolding that characterizes the common class II mutation F508del; and potentiators, which enhance the function of class III or IV mutated CFTR at the plasma membrane. Long-term outcomes from successful mutation-specific treatments could finally answer the question that has been lingering since and even before the CFTR gene discovery: Will therapies that specifically restore CFTR-mediated chloride secretion slow or arrest the deleterious cascade of events leading to chronic infection, bronchiectasis, and end-stage lung disease?

  3. Skin-specific regulation of SREBP processing and lipid biosynthesis by glycerol kinase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duanwu; Tomisato, Wataru; Su, Lijing; Sun, Lei; Choi, Jin Huk; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Kuan-wen; Zhan, Xiaoming; Choi, Mihwa; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Miao; Castro-Perez, Jose M.; Hildebrand, Sara; Murray, Anne R.; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Beutler, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The recessive N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–induced phenotype toku is characterized by delayed hair growth, progressive hair loss, and excessive accumulation of dermal cholesterol, triglycerides, and ceramides. The toku phenotype was attributed to a null allele of Gk5, encoding glycerol kinase 5 (GK5), a skin-specific kinase expressed predominantly in sebaceous glands. GK5 formed a complex with the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) through their C-terminal regulatory domains, inhibiting SREBP processing and activation. In Gk5toku/toku mice, transcriptionally active SREBPs accumulated in the skin, but not in the liver; they were localized to the nucleus and led to elevated lipid synthesis and subsequent hair growth defects. Similar defective hair growth was observed in kinase-inactive GK5 mutant mice. Hair growth defects of homozygous toku mice were partially rescued by treatment with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin. GK5 exists as part of a skin-specific regulatory mechanism for cholesterol biosynthesis, independent of cholesterol regulation elsewhere in the body. PMID:28607088

  4. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume I Kootenai River (Overview, Report and Appendices).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  5. Optimal advanced credit releases in ecosystem service markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd K; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  6. Regulator process for the authorization of an amendment to the operation license of a nuclear power plant in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.; Espinosa V, J.M.; Salgado, J.R.; Mamani, Y.R.

    2005-01-01

    The regulator process by which an authorization is granted from an amendment to the License of Operation of a nuclear power station in Mexico is described. It makes an appointment the effective legal mark, the technical characteristics of the modification, the evaluation process and deposition upon oath of tests and finally the elaboration of the Safety report and the Technical Verdict that is a correspondent for the regulator organism to the Secretary of Energy, the one that in turn is the responsible of granting the amendment the License just as it establishes it the Law. (Author)

  7. Investigation of different cage designs and mechano-regulation algorithms in the lumbar interbody fusion process - a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postigo, Sergio; Schmidt, Hendrik; Rohlmann, Antonius; Putzier, Michael; Simón, Antonio; Duda, Georg; Checa, Sara

    2014-04-11

    Lumbar interbody fusion cages are commonly used to treat painful spinal degeneration and instability by achieving bony fusion. Many different cage designs exist, however the effect of cage morphology and material properties on the fusion process remains largely unknown. This finite element model study aims to investigate the influence of different cage designs on bone fusion using two mechano-regulation algorithms of tissue formation. It could be observed that different cages play a distinct key role in the mechanical conditions within the fusion region and therefore regulate the time course of the fusion process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecosystem services as assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Wayne R; Rea, Anne W; Suter, Glenn W; Martin, Lawrence; Blake-Hedges, Lynne; Crk, Tanja; Davis, Christine; Ferreira, Gina; Jordan, Steve; Mahoney, Michele; Barron, Mace G

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the outputs of ecological processes that contribute to human welfare or have the potential to do so in the future. Those outputs include food and drinking water, clean air and water, and pollinated crops. The need to protect the services provided by natural systems has been recognized previously, but ecosystem services have not been formally incorporated into ecological risk assessment practice in a general way in the United States. Endpoints used conventionally in ecological risk assessment, derived directly from the state of the ecosystem (e.g., biophysical structure and processes), and endpoints based on ecosystem services serve different purposes. Conventional endpoints are ecologically important and susceptible entities and attributes that are protected under US laws and regulations. Ecosystem service endpoints are a conceptual and analytical step beyond conventional endpoints and are intended to complement conventional endpoints by linking and extending endpoints to goods and services with more obvious benefit to humans. Conventional endpoints can be related to ecosystem services even when the latter are not considered explicitly during problem formulation. To advance the use of ecosystem service endpoints in ecological risk assessment, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Assessment Forum has added generic endpoints based on ecosystem services (ES-GEAE) to the original 2003 set of generic ecological assessment endpoints (GEAEs). Like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are defined by an entity and an attribute. Also like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are broadly described and will need to be made specific when applied to individual assessments. Adoption of ecosystem services as a type of assessment endpoint is intended to improve the value of risk assessment to environmental decision making, linking ecological risk to human well-being, and providing an improved means of communicating those risks. Integr Environ Assess Manag

  9. Design and analysis of modified Smith predictors for self-regulating and non-self regulating processes with dead time

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanakumar, G; Nayak, C G

    2007-01-01

    A modification of Smith predictor for controlling the higher order processes with integral action ad long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a Dead Time Compensator(DTC), which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, robust performance of tuning formulae and to obtain a critically damped system which is as fast as possible in its setpoint and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.

  10. Performing Ecosystem Services at Mud Flats in Seocheon, Korea: Using Q Methodology for Cooperative Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuck Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem services, which are the direct and indirect benefits of nature to humans, has been established as a supporting tool to increase the efficiency in decision-making regarding environmental planning. However, preceding studies on decision-making in relation to ecosystem services have been limited to identifying differences in perception, whereas few studies have reported cooperative alternatives. Therefore, this study aimed to present a method for cooperative decision-making among ecosystem service stakeholders using Q methodology. The results showed three perspectives on ecosystem services of small mud flat areas: ecological function, ecotourism, and human activity. The perspectives on cultural services and regulating services were diverse, whereas those on supporting services were similar. Thus, supporting services were considered crucial for the cooperative assessment and management of small mud flat ecosystems as well as for the scientific evaluation of regulating services. Furthermore, this study identified practical implementation measures to increase production through land management, to manufacture related souvenirs, and to link them to ecotourism. Overall, our results demonstrated the ideal process of cooperative decision-making to improve ecosystem services.

  11. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  12. Mapping Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev,Teodor; Burkhard,Benjamin; Maes,Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the contributions of ecosystem structure and function (in combination with other inputs) to human well-being. That means, humankind is strongly dependent on well-functioning ecosystems and natural capital that are the base for a constant flow of ecosystem services from nature to society. Therefore ecosystem services have the potential to become a major tool for policy and decision making on global, national, regional and local scales. Possible applications are manifold:...

  13. Sustainable web ecosystem design

    CERN Document Server

    O'Toole, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This book is about the process of creating web-based systems (i.e., websites, content, etc.) that consider each of the parts, the modules, the organisms - binary or otherwise - that make up a balanced, sustainable web ecosystem. In the current media-rich environment, a website is more than a collection of relative html documents of text and images on a static desktop computer monitor. There is now an unlimited combination of screens, devices, platforms, browsers, locations, versions, users, and exabytes of data with which to interact. Written in a highly approachable, practical style, this boo

  14. Dealing with Feelings : Characterization of Trait Alexithymia on Emotion Regulation Strategies and Cognitive-Emotional Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Kortekaas, R; Aleman, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings'', is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core

  15. Implications of agricultural transitions and urbanization for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S; Buerkert, Andreas; Hoffmann, Ellen M; Schlecht, Eva; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-11-06

    Historically, farmers and hunter-gatherers relied directly on ecosystem services, which they both exploited and enjoyed. Urban populations still rely on ecosystems, but prioritize non-ecosystem services (socioeconomic). Population growth and densification increase the scale and change the nature of both ecosystem- and non-ecosystem-service supply and demand, weakening direct feedbacks between ecosystems and societies and potentially pushing social-ecological systems into traps that can lead to collapse. The interacting and mutually reinforcing processes of technological change, population growth and urbanization contribute to over-exploitation of ecosystems through complex feedbacks that have important implications for sustainable resource use.

  16. Climate-dependence of ecosystem services in a nature reserve in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiaohui; Song, Huali; Zhang, Yiran; Li, Yanran; Liu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of ecosystem services has become a hotspot in terms of research focus, but uncertainties over appropriate methods remain. Evaluation can be based on the unit price of services (services value method) or the unit price of the area (area value method). The former takes meteorological factors into account, while the latter does not. This study uses Kunyu Mountain Nature Reserve as a study site at which to test the effects of climate on the ecosystem services. Measured data and remote sensing imagery processed in a geographic information system were combined to evaluate gas regulation and soil conservation, and the influence of meteorological factors on ecosystem services. Results were used to analyze the appropriateness of the area value method. Our results show that the value of ecosystem services is significantly affected by meteorological factors, especially precipitation. Use of the area value method (which ignores the impacts of meteorological factors) could considerably impede the accuracy of ecosystem services evaluation. Results were also compared with the valuation obtained using the modified equivalent value factor (MEVF) method, which is a modified area value method that considers changes in meteorological conditions. We found that MEVF still underestimates the value of ecosystem services, although it can reflect to some extent the annual variation in meteorological factors. Our findings contribute to increasing the accuracy of evaluation of ecosystem services.

  17. Integrating a process-based ecosystem model with Landsat imagery to assess impacts of forest disturbance on terrestrial carbon dynamics: Case studies in Alabama and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest ecosystems in the southern United States are dramatically altered by three major 26 disturbances: timber harvesting, hurricane, and permanent land conversion. Understanding and quantifying effects of disturbance on forest carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles is critical for sustainable forest m...

  18. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of Pseudo-Response Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.

  19. Interpretation and Regulation of Electronic Defects in IGZO TFTs Through Materials & Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, Tarun

    The recent rise in the market for consumer electronics has fueled extensive research in the field of display. Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) are used as active matrix switching devices for flat panel displays such as LCD and OLED. The following investigation involves an amorphous metal-oxide semiconductor that has the potential for improved performance over current technology, while maintaining high manufacturability. Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (IGZO) is a semiconductor material which is at the onset of commercialization. The low-temperature large-area deposition compatibility of IGZO makes it an attractive technology from a manufacturing standpoint, with an electron mobility that is 10 times higher than current amorphous silicon technology. The stability of IGZO TFTs continues to be a challenge due to the presence of defect states and problems associated with interface passivation. The goal of this dissertation is to further the understanding of the role of defect states in IGZO, and investigate materials and processes needed to regulate defects to the level at which the associated influence on device operation is controlled. The relationships between processes associated with IGZO TFT operation including IGZO sputter deposition, annealing conditions and back-channel passivation are established through process experimentation, materials analysis, electrical characterization, and modeling of electronic properties and transistor behavior. Each of these components has been essential in formulating and testing several hypotheses on the mechanisms involved, and directing efforts towards achieving the goal. Key accomplishments and quantified results are summarized as follows: • XPS analysis identified differences in oxygen vacancies in samples before and after oxidizing ambient annealing at 400 °C, showing a drop in relative integrated area of the O-1s peak from 32% to 19%, which experimentally translates to over a thousand fold decrease in the channel free electron

  20. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Bagstad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service, sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows, users (user locations and level of demand, and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems' capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for

  1. What our eyes tell us about feelings: Tracking pupillary responses during emotion regulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Valerie L; Kuchinke, Lars; Dierolf, Angelika M; Merz, Christian J; Otto, Tobias; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-04-01

    Emotion regulation is essential for adaptive behavior and mental health. Strategies applied to alter emotions are known to differ in their impact on psychological and physiological aspects of the emotional response. However, emotion regulation outcome has primarily been assessed via self-report, and studies comparing regulation strategies with regard to their peripheral physiological mechanisms are limited in number. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the effects of different emotion regulation strategies on pupil dilation, skin conductance responses, and subjective emotional responses. Thirty healthy females were presented with negative and neutral pictures and asked to maintain or up- and downregulate their upcoming emotional responses through reappraisal or distraction. Pupil dilation and skin conductance responses were significantly enhanced when viewing negative relative to neutral pictures. For the pupil, this emotional arousal effect manifested specifically late during the pupillary response. In accordance with subjective ratings, increasing negative emotions through reappraisal led to the most prominent pupil size enlargements, whereas no consistent effect for downregulation was found. In contrast, early peak dilations were enhanced in all emotion regulation conditions independent of strategy. Skin conductance responses were not further modulated by emotion regulation. These results indicate that pupil diameter is modulated by emotional arousal, but is initially related to the extent of mental effort required to regulate automatic emotional responses. Our data thus provide first evidence that the pupillary response might comprise two distinct temporal components reflecting cognitive emotion regulation effort on the one hand and emotion regulation success on the other hand. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  3. The Assessment of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Sensory Processing Sensitivity and Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeil Soleymani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive emotional regulation strategies, sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal people. Materials and Methods: Statistical population of this study was all of patients with multiple sclerosis that referred to M.S association of Iran in the tehran. Sample of this study was 30 individuals of patients with multiple sclerosis selected by available sampling method and were matched with 30 individuals of normal people. Two groups completed cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity questionnaires. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results: The results indicated that there is significant difference between two groups in view of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in which the mean of scores of patients with multiple sclerosis in maladaptive strategies of self- blame, catastrophizing and other blame were more than normal people and mean of scores of them in adaptive strategies of positive refocusing, positive reappraisal and putting into perspective were less than normal people. The results also indicated that there is a significant difference between two groups in anxiety sensitivity and sensory processing sensitivity. Conclusion: The most of emotional problems in patients with multiple sclerosis can be the result of more application of maladaptive strategies of cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and high anxiety sensitivity.

  4. A novel processing system of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakuki, Masanori; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Kiyoshi; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    The proteolytic cascade is the key step in transactivation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a transcriptional factor of lipid synthesis. Proteolysis of SREBP-2 is strictly regulated by sterols, but that of SREBP-1c was not strongly sterol-regulated, but inhibited by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this study, the proteolytic processing of SREBP-1 and -2 was examined by transfection studies of cDNA-encoding mutants in which all the known cleavage sites were disrupted. In cultured cells, sterol-regulated SREBP-2 processing was completely eliminated by mutation of cleavage sites. In contrast, the corresponding SREBP-1c mutants as well as wild type exhibited large amounts of cleaved products in the nuclear extracts from culture cells and murine liver in vivo. The nuclear form of the mutant SREBP-1c was induced by delipidated condition and suppressed by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 PUFA, but not by sterols. This novel processing mechanism was affected by neither SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) nor insulin-induced gene (Insig)-1, unlike SREBP-2, but abolished by a serine protease inhibitor. Through analysis of deletion mutant, a site-2 protease recognition sequence (DRSR) was identified to be involved in this novel processing. These findings suggest that SREBP-1c cleavage could be subjected to a novel PUFA-regulated cleavage system in addition to the sterol-regulatory SCAP/Insig system.

  5. "I'll stop procrastinating now!" Fostering specific processes of self-regulated learning to reduce academic procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunschel, Carola; Patrzek, Justine; Klingsieck, Katrin B; Fries, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Academic procrastination is considered to be a result of self-regulation failure having detrimental effects on students' well-being and academic performance. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a group training that aimed to reduce academic procrastination. We based the training on a cyclical process model of self-regulated learning, thus, focusing on improving deficient processes of self-regulated learning among academic procrastinators (e.g., time management, dealing with distractions). The training comprised five sessions and took place once a week for 90 min in groups of no more than 10 students. Overall, 106 students completed the training. We evaluated the training using a comprehensive control group design with repeated measures (three points of measurement); the control group was trained after the intervention group's training. The results showed that our training was successful. The trained intervention group significantly reduced academic procrastination and improved specific processes of self-regulated learning (e.g., time management, concentration), whereas the untrained control group showed no change regarding these variables. After the control group had also been trained, the control group also showed the expected favorable changes. The students rated the training overall as good and found it recommendable for procrastinating friends. Hence, fostering self-regulatory processes in our intervention was a successful attempt to support students in reducing academic procrastination. The evaluation of the training encourages us to adapt the training for different groups of procrastinators.

  6. The influence of teacher perceived administration of self-regulated learning on students' motivation and information-processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, JS; Minnaert, A; Boekaerts, M

    This study investigates the influence of teacher perceived administration of self-regulated learning on students' motivation and information-processing over time. This was done in the context of the Interactive Learning group System (ILS (R)): a large-scale innovation program in Dutch vocational

  7. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  8. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  9. Genomic misconception: a fresh look at the biosafety of transgenic and conventional crops. A plea for a process agnostic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Klaus

    2014-01-25

    The regulation of genetically engineered crops, in Europe and within the legislation of the Cartagena biosafety protocol is built on false premises: The claim was (and unfortunately still is) that there is a basic difference between conventional and transgenic crops, this despite the fact that this has been rejected on scientifically solid grounds since many years. This contribution collects some major arguments for a fresh look at regulation of transgenic crops, they are in their molecular processes of creation not basically different from conventional crops, which are based in their breeding methods on natural, sometimes enhanced mutation. But the fascination and euphoria of the discoveries in molecular biology and the new perspectives in plant breeding in the sixties and seventies led to the wrong focus on transgenic plants alone. In a collective framing process the initial biosafety debates focused on the novelty of the process of transgenesis. When early debates on the risk assessment merged into legislative decisions, this wrong focus on transgenesis alone seemed uncontested. The process-focused view was also fostered by a conglomerate of concerned scientists and biotechnology companies, both with a vested interest to at least tolerate the rise of the safety threshold to secure research money and to discourage competitors of all kinds. Policy minded people and opponent activists without deeper insight in the molecular science agreed to those efforts without much resistance. It is interesting to realize, that the focus on processes was uncontested by a majority of regulators, this despite of serious early warnings from important authorities in science, mainly of US origin. It is time to change the regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops toward a more science based process-agnostic legislation. Although this article concentrates on the critique of the process-oriented regulation, including some details about the history behind, there should be no

  10. Processes, information, and accounting gaps in the regulation of Argentina's private railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-17

    Almost a decade after Argentina began privatizing its railways, resolution of the conflicts between regulators, users, and operators continues to take longer, and to be more difficult, than expected. This paper argues that many of these conflicts are...

  11. Financial Incentives Differentially Regulate Neural Processing of Positive and Negative Emotions during Value-Based Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Farrell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and economic incentives often conflict in decision environments. To make economically desirable decisions then, deliberative neural processes must be engaged to regulate automatic emotional reactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we evaluated how fixed wage (FW incentives and performance-based (PB financial incentives, in which pay is proportional to outcome, differentially regulate positive and negative emotional reactions to hypothetical colleagues that conflicted with the economics of available alternatives. Neural activity from FW to PB incentive contexts decreased for positive emotional stimuli but increased for negative stimuli in middle temporal, insula, and medial prefrontal regions. In addition, PB incentives further induced greater responses to negative than positive emotional decisions in the frontal and anterior cingulate regions involved in emotion regulation. Greater response to positive than negative emotional features in these regions also correlated with lower frequencies of economically desirable choices. Our findings suggest that whereas positive emotion regulation involves a reduction of responses in valence representation regions, negative emotion regulation additionally engages brain regions for deliberative processing and signaling of incongruous events.

  12. Financial Incentives Differentially Regulate Neural Processing of Positive and Negative Emotions during Value-Based Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Anne M; Goh, Joshua O S; White, Brian J

    2018-01-01

    Emotional and economic incentives often conflict in decision environments. To make economically desirable decisions then, deliberative neural processes must be engaged to regulate automatic emotional reactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we evaluated how fixed wage (FW) incentives and performance-based (PB) financial incentives, in which pay is proportional to outcome, differentially regulate positive and negative emotional reactions to hypothetical colleagues that conflicted with the economics of available alternatives. Neural activity from FW to PB incentive contexts decreased for positive emotional stimuli but increased for negative stimuli in middle temporal, insula, and medial prefrontal regions. In addition, PB incentives further induced greater responses to negative than positive emotional decisions in the frontal and anterior cingulate regions involved in emotion regulation. Greater response to positive than negative emotional features in these regions also correlated with lower frequencies of economically desirable choices. Our findings suggest that whereas positive emotion regulation involves a reduction of responses in valence representation regions, negative emotion regulation additionally engages brain regions for deliberative processing and signaling of incongruous events.

  13. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  14. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems....

  15. Influenţa modificărilor în utilizarea terenurilor asupra serviciilor de reglare ale ecosistemului forestier. Studiu de caz: estul depresiunii Loviştei [The influence of land use changes on regulation services of the forest ecosystem. Case study: the eastern part of the Loviştea Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem services has been long debated in the scientific literature and in recent years it has seen many different classifications and even definitions. It offers a way to a more comprehensive assessment of the value of an ecosystem or landscape. The main four categories of ecosystem services and of functions that provide them are: production, regulation, supporting or habitat and cultural. The assessment of ecosystem services is important in domains like land management and planning, decision making, ecological economics, and, as it is the case for this particular study, in landscape and environmental planning and management. This study is centred on the regulation functions and services provided mainly by forest ecosystems and tries to assess the trade-off that occur along with changes in the land cover/use of wooded areas. To achieve this, firstly we identify and quantify the changes in landscape and land use and cover in the target area between 1980 and 2006. The next step is to draw an inventory of the regulating functions and services and assess the relative degree to which a land cover/use is theoretically able to provide each service. The last step is to evaluate the losses and gains in terms of services in the period of time considered by taking into account each type of change in land use/cover and the decrease or increase in the degree to which the land is still able to provide regulating services. All the results are also spatially illustrated through maps.

  16. High Resolution Urban Land Cover Mapping Using NAIP Aerial Photography and Image Processing for the USEPA National Atlas of Sustainability and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilant, A. N.; Baynes, J.; Dannenberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The US EPA National Atlas for Sustainability is a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application that allows users to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services in a specific region. The Atlas provides users with a visual method for interpreting ecosystem services and understanding how they can be conserved and enhanced for a sustainable future. The Urban Atlas component of the National Atlas will provide fine-scale information linking human health and well-being to environmental conditions such as urban heat islands, near-road pollution, resource use, access to recreation, drinking water quality and other quality of life indicators. The National Land Cover Data (NLCD) derived from 30 m scale 2006 Landsat imagery provides the land cover base for the Atlas. However, urban features and phenomena occur at finer spatial scales, so higher spatial resolution and more current LC maps are required. We used 4 band USDA NAIP imagery (1 m pixel size) and various classification approaches to produce urban land cover maps with these classes: impervious surface, grass and herbaceous, trees and forest, soil and barren, and water. Here we present the remote sensing methods used and results from four pilot cities in this effort, highlighting the pros and cons of the approach, and the benefits to sustainability and ecosystem services analysis. Example of high resolution land cover map derived from USDA NAIP aerial photo. Compare 30 m and 1 m resolution land cover maps of downtown Durham, NC.

  17. Linkages of plant stoichiometry to ecosystem production and carbon fluxes with increasing nitrogen inputs in an alpine steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yunfeng; Li, Fei; Zhou, Guoying; Fang, Kai; Zhang, Dianye; Li, Changbin; Yang, Guibiao; Wang, Guanqin; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuanhe

    2017-12-01

    Unprecedented levels of nitrogen (N) have entered terrestrial ecosystems over the past century, which substantially influences the carbon (C) exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere. Temperature and moisture are generally regarded as the major controllers over the N effects on ecosystem C uptake and release. N-phosphorous (P) stoichiometry regulates the growth and metabolisms of plants and soil organisms, thereby affecting many ecosystem C processes. However, it remains unclear how the N-induced shift in the plant N:P ratio affects ecosystem production and C fluxes and its relative importance. We conducted a field manipulative experiment with eight N addition levels in a Tibetan alpine steppe and assessed the influences of N on aboveground net primary production (ANPP), gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE); we used linear mixed-effects models to further determine the relative contributions of various factors to the N-induced changes in these parameters. Our results showed that the ANPP, GEP, ER, and NEE all exhibited nonlinear responses to increasing N additions. Further analysis demonstrated that the plant N:P ratio played a dominate role in shaping these C exchange processes. There was a positive relationship between the N-induced changes in ANPP (ΔANPP) and the plant N:P ratio (ΔN:P), whereas the ΔGEP, ΔER, and ΔNEE exhibited quadratic correlations with the ΔN:P. In contrast, soil temperature and moisture were only secondary predictors for the changes in ecosystem production and C fluxes along the N addition gradient. These findings highlight the importance of plant N:P ratio in regulating ecosystem C exchange, which is crucial for improving our understanding of C cycles under the scenarios of global N enrichment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Payment for Ecosystem Services | Benjamin | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This address focuses on the legislative design for payment or ecosystem services (PES) since most countries do not have specific legislation that addresses the subject. Brazil is in the process of drafting national legislation on ecosystem services and there are several important issues that can be learnt from this experience.

  19. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  20. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  1. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  2. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Villa, Ferdinando; Batker, David; Harrison-Cox, Jennifer; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems’ capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for economic

  3. Analysis and synthesis of a system for optimal automatic regulation of the process of mechanical cutting by a combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop, E.; Coroescu, T.; Poanta, A.; Pop, M.

    1978-01-01

    Uncontrollable dynamic operating regime of a combine has a negative effect. A consequence of the uncontrolled change in productivity and rate during cutting is total decrease in productivity. The cutters of the cutting mechanism are prematurely worn out. The quality of the coal decreases. Complications with combine control reduce productivity. The motor is exposed to the maximum loads, its service life decreases, and there is an inefficient consumption of electricity. Studies of the optimal automatic regulation of the cutting process were made by the method of modeled analysis on digital and analog machines. The method uses an electronic-automatic device with integrating circuit of domestic production (A-741, A-723). This device controls and regulates the current parameters of the acting motor. The device includes primarily an element of information type of the Hall TH traductor type, the regulating element is an electronic relay, electronic power distributor, etc.

  4. Coordinated approaches to quantify long-term ecosystem dynamics in response to global change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.; Melillo, J.; Niu, S.

    2011-01-01

    a coordinated approach that combines long-term, large-scale global change experiments with process studies and modeling. Long-term global change manipulative experiments, especially in high-priority ecosystems such as tropical forests and high-latitude regions, are essential to maximize information gain......Many serious ecosystem consequences of climate change will take decades or even centuries to emerge. Long-term ecological responses to global change are strongly regulated by slow processes, such as changes in species composition, carbon dynamics in soil and by long-lived plants, and accumulation...... to be the most effective strategy to gain the best information on long-term ecosystem dynamics in response to global change....

  5. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  6. On Man and Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Harold

    1982-01-01

    Distinctions between natural ecosystems and human ecosystems are misleading. Natural and social sciences can be integrated through the concept of a "human-use ecosystem," in which social scientists analyze the community, household, and individual, and natural scientists analyze the land. Includes a case study of St. Kitts. (KC)

  7. Towards ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support

  8. Rights to ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these services are provided outside the borders of the land where they are produced; this article investigates who is entitled to these non-excludable ecosystem services from two libertarian perspectives. Taking a

  9. Whole-ecosystem nitrogen effects research in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    There has been an enormous increase during the past few years in the amount of research being conducted in Europe on the effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on aquatic, and especially terrestrial, ecosystems. Nitrogen deposition increases the emissions of N 2 O from forest soils and may decrease CH 4 uptake. Both increased N 2 O production and decreased CH 4 consumption would increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Thus there are important linkages between nitrogen deposition (and consequent ecosystem effects) and the release of greenhouse gases that have been implicated in potential global climate change. This paper summarises some of the European research that has been carried out in recent years. The experimental approach has shifted heavily into whole-ecosystem experimental manipulations, which are being conducted across gradients of atmospheric deposition and other environmental factors. Manipulations are focused primarily on coniferous forest ecosystems and involve increasing ambient deposition of sulfur and nitrogen; excluding ambient deposition via the construction of roofs over entire forested plots or catchments; and manipulating climatic factors, especially water availability. Experiments are designed to continue for long periods (i.e., 5-10 years) and are augmented by detailed, process-level studies at the manipulation sites. Results of the broad-scale and detailed studies are being used to build, test, and validate mathematical models that simulate nitrogen processing, nutrient cycling, and water regulation in coniferous forest ecosystems under varying depositional and climatic regimes. Ultimately, these models will be used to predict nitrogen saturation, estimate the critical loads of nitrogen for European forests, and specify emission controls needed to protect European forests and surface waters from the detrimental effects of excess nitrogen deposition. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 photos

  10. Commentary: Europe needs a central, transparent, and evidence based regulation process for devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikermaan, Michaela; Gluud, Christian; Perleth, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Last September, the European Commission published proposals to update regulations for medical devices in order to improve patient safety.1 The proposals are being discussed by the European parliament where critical debate is being led by the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety...

  11. Self-regulation of learning processes of student teachers in new training arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, M.; Vermunt, J.D.; Brekelmans, J.M.G.; Brok, den P.J.; Verloop, N.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade a lot of new training arrangements for student teachers have been started. One of the major changes with regard to former curricula is the more self-regulative way of learning that is expected from student teachers. The question rises if student teachers are well prepared to be

  12. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  13. Effects of Goal Relations on Self-Regulated Learning in Multiple Goal Pursuits: Performance, the Self-Regulatory Process, and Task Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of goal relations on self-regulation in the pursuit of multiple goals, focusing on self-regulated performance, the self-regulatory process, and task enjoyment. The effect of multiple goal relations on self-regulation was explored in a set of three studies. Goal relations were divided into…

  14. The regulation of social education as a profession: an analysis of the processes of regulation of the identity and socio-professional status of the social educator in Portugal and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira Ramalho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the processes of regulation of the exercise of social education as a profession that we consider as emergent (in the portuguese case and diffuse (in the brazilian case. In the first case, we look at an institutional logic of the profession, in which self-regulation processes are more prevalent, although they resort to petitioning procedures through which, and in a subsidiary way, they seek to "fit in" the profession of social educator in the "world” of the segmented professions according to the portuguese norm. In the case of the Brazilian context, a process of regulation that bets on the legitimating preponderance of the State, As a regulatory agency of the regulation of the profession, even though self-regulatory procedures are subsidiarily recognized, without calling into question the medial role of the State as the main regulator. Keywords: regulation; social education; social educator; emergent profession; diffuse profession

  15. Landscape-scale processes influence riparian plant composition along a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchical frameworks are useful constructs when exploring landscape- and local-scale factors affecting patterns of vegetation in riparian areas. In drylands, which have steep environmental gradients and high habitat heterogen