Gregory R Johnson
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Characterizing the spatial distribution of proteins directly from microscopy images is a difficult problem with numerous applications in cell biology (e.g. identifying motor-related proteins and clinical research (e.g. identification of cancer biomarkers. Here we describe the design of a system that provides automated analysis of punctate protein patterns in microscope images, including quantification of their relationships to microtubules. We constructed the system using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy images from the Human Protein Atlas project for 11 punctate proteins in three cultured cell lines. These proteins have previously been characterized as being primarily located in punctate structures, but their images had all been annotated by visual examination as being simply "vesicular". We were able to show that these patterns could be distinguished from each other with high accuracy, and we were able to assign to one of these subclasses hundreds of proteins whose subcellular localization had not previously been well defined. In addition to providing these novel annotations, we built a generative approach to modeling of punctate distributions that captures the essential characteristics of the distinct patterns. Such models are expected to be valuable for representing and summarizing each pattern and for constructing systems biology simulations of cell behaviors.
Johnson, Gregory R; Li, Jieyue; Shariff, Aabid; Rohde, Gustavo K; Murphy, Robert F
2015-12-01
Characterizing the spatial distribution of proteins directly from microscopy images is a difficult problem with numerous applications in cell biology (e.g. identifying motor-related proteins) and clinical research (e.g. identification of cancer biomarkers). Here we describe the design of a system that provides automated analysis of punctate protein patterns in microscope images, including quantification of their relationships to microtubules. We constructed the system using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy images from the Human Protein Atlas project for 11 punctate proteins in three cultured cell lines. These proteins have previously been characterized as being primarily located in punctate structures, but their images had all been annotated by visual examination as being simply "vesicular". We were able to show that these patterns could be distinguished from each other with high accuracy, and we were able to assign to one of these subclasses hundreds of proteins whose subcellular localization had not previously been well defined. In addition to providing these novel annotations, we built a generative approach to modeling of punctate distributions that captures the essential characteristics of the distinct patterns. Such models are expected to be valuable for representing and summarizing each pattern and for constructing systems biology simulations of cell behaviors.
Generalisation of Regular and Irregular Morphological Patterns.
Prasada, Sandeep; and Pinker, Steven
1993-01-01
When it comes to explaining English verbs' patterns of regular and irregular generalization, single-network theories have difficulty with the former, rule-only theories with the latter process. Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence, based on observation during experiments and simulations in morphological pattern generation, independently call…
Regularities, Natural Patterns and Laws of Nature
Stathis Psillos
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to sketch an empiricist metaphysics of laws of nature. The key idea is that there are regularities without regularity-enforcers. Differently put, there are natural laws without law-makers of a distinct metaphysical kind. This sketch will rely on the concept of a natural pattern and more significantly on the existence of a network of natural patterns in nature. The relation between a regularity and a pattern will be analysed in terms of mereology. Here is the road map. In section 2, I will briefly discuss the relation between empiricism and metaphysics, aiming to show that an empiricist metaphysics is possible. In section 3, I will offer arguments against stronger metaphysical views of laws. Then, in section 4 I will motivate nomic objectivism. In section 5, I will address the question ‘what is a regularity?’ and will develop a novel answer to it, based on the notion of a natural pattern. In section 6, I will raise the question: ‘what is a law of nature?’, the answer to which will be: a law of nature is a regularity that is characterised by the unity of a natural pattern.
Incremental pattern matching for regular expressions
Jalali, Arash; Ghamarian, Amir Hossein; Rensink, Arend; Fish, Andrew; Lambers, Leen
2012-01-01
Graph pattern matching lies at the heart of any graph transformation-based system. Incremental pattern matching is one approach proposed for reducingthe overall cost of pattern matching over successive transformations by preserving the matches that stay relevant after a rule application. An importan
Regular pattern formation in real ecosystems
Rietkerk, Max; Koppel, Johan van de
2008-01-01
Localized ecological interactions can generate striking large-scale spatial patterns in ecosystems through spatial self-organization. Possible mechanisms include oscillating consumer–resource interactions, localized disturbance-recovery processes and scale-dependent feedback. Despite abundant theore
Regular pattern formation in real ecosystems
Rietkerk, M.; Van de Koppel, J.
2008-01-01
Localized ecological interactions can generate striking large-scale spatial patterns in ecosystems through spatial self-organization. Possible mechanisms include oscillating consumer–resource interactions, localized disturbance-recovery processes and scale-dependent feedback. Despite abundant
Incremental Mining for Regular Frequent Patterns in Vertical Format
Vijay Kumar G
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In the real world database updates continuously in several online applications like super market, network monitoring, web administration, stock market etc. Frequent pattern mining is afundamental and essential area in data mining research. Not only occurrence frequency of a pattern but also occurrence behaviour of a pattern may be treated as important criteria to measure the interestingness of a pattern. A frequent pattern is said to be regular frequent if the occurrence behaviour is less than or equal to the user given regularity threshold. In incremental transactional databases the occurrence frequency and the occurrence behaviour of a pattern changes whenever a small set of new transactions are added to the database. It is undesirable to mine regular frequent patterns from the scratch. Thus proposes a new algorithm called RFPID (Regular Frequent Pattern Mining in Incremental Databases to mine regular frequent patterns in incremental transactional databases using vertical data format which requires only one database scan. The experimental results show our algorithm is efficient in both memory utilization and execution.
Typed and unambiguous pattern matching on strings using regular expressions
Brabrand, Claus; Thomsen, Jakob G.
2010-01-01
We show how to achieve typed and unambiguous declarative pattern matching on strings using regular expressions extended with a simple recording operator. We give a characterization of ambiguity of regular expressions that leads to a sound and complete static analysis. The analysis is capable...... of pinpointing all ambiguities in terms of the structure of the regular expression and report shortest ambiguous strings. We also show how pattern matching can be integrated into statically typed programming languages for deconstructing strings and reproducing typed and structured values. We validate our...... approach by giving a full implementation of the approach presented in this paper. The resulting tool, reg-exp-rec, adds typed and unambiguous pattern matching to Java in a stand-alone and non-intrusive manner. We evaluate the approach using several realistic examples....
Typed and Unambiguous Pattern Matching on Strings using Regular Expressions
Brabrand, Claus; Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær
2010-01-01
We show how to achieve typed and unambiguous declarative pattern matching on strings using regular expressions extended with a simple recording operator. We give a characterization of ambiguity of regular expressions that leads to a sound and complete static analysis. The analysis is capable of......We show how to achieve typed and unambiguous declarative pattern matching on strings using regular expressions extended with a simple recording operator. We give a characterization of ambiguity of regular expressions that leads to a sound and complete static analysis. The analysis is...... capable of pinpointing all ambiguities in terms of the structure of the regular expression and report shortest ambiguous strings. We also show how pattern matching can be integrated into statically typed programming languages for deconstructing strings and reproducing typed and structured values. We validate our...... approach by giving a full implementation of the approach presented in this paper. The resulting tool, reg-exp-rec, adds typed and unambiguous pattern matching to Java in a stand-alone and non-intrusive manner. We evaluate the approach using several realistic examples....
A theoretical foundation for multi-scale regular vegetation patterns.
Tarnita, Corina E; Bonachela, Juan A; Sheffer, Efrat; Guyton, Jennifer A; Coverdale, Tyler C; Long, Ryan A; Pringle, Robert M
2017-01-18
Self-organized regular vegetation patterns are widespread and thought to mediate ecosystem functions such as productivity and robustness, but the mechanisms underlying their origin and maintenance remain disputed. Particularly controversial are landscapes of overdispersed (evenly spaced) elements, such as North American Mima mounds, Brazilian murundus, South African heuweltjies, and, famously, Namibian fairy circles. Two competing hypotheses are currently debated. On the one hand, models of scale-dependent feedbacks, whereby plants facilitate neighbours while competing with distant individuals, can reproduce various regular patterns identified in satellite imagery. Owing to deep theoretical roots and apparent generality, scale-dependent feedbacks are widely viewed as a unifying and near-universal principle of regular-pattern formation despite scant empirical evidence. On the other hand, many overdispersed vegetation patterns worldwide have been attributed to subterranean ecosystem engineers such as termites, ants, and rodents. Although potentially consistent with territorial competition, this interpretation has been challenged theoretically and empirically and (unlike scale-dependent feedbacks) lacks a unifying dynamical theory, fuelling scepticism about its plausibility and generality. Here we provide a general theoretical foundation for self-organization of social-insect colonies, validated using data from four continents, which demonstrates that intraspecific competition between territorial animals can generate the large-scale hexagonal regularity of these patterns. However, this mechanism is not mutually exclusive with scale-dependent feedbacks. Using Namib Desert fairy circles as a case study, we present field data showing that these landscapes exhibit multi-scale patterning-previously undocumented in this system-that cannot be explained by either mechanism in isolation. These multi-scale patterns and other emergent properties, such as enhanced resistance to
Regularized quadratic cost function for oriented fringe-pattern filtering.
Villa, Jesús; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; De la Rosa, Ismael
2009-06-01
We use the regularization theory in a Bayesian framework to derive a quadratic cost function for denoising fringe patterns. As prior constraints for the regularization problem, we propose a Markov random field model that includes information about the fringe orientation. In our cost function the regularization term imposes constraints to the solution (i.e., the filtered image) to be smooth only along the fringe's tangent direction. In this way as the fringe information and noise are conveniently separated in the frequency space, our technique avoids blurring the fringes. The attractiveness of the proposed filtering method is that the minimization of the cost function can be easily implemented using iterative methods. To show the performance of the proposed technique we present some results obtained by processing simulated and real fringe patterns.
Superior regularity in erosion patterns by planar subsurface channeling.
Redinger, Alex; Hansen, Henri; Linke, Udo; Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M; Michely, Thomas
2006-03-17
The onset of pattern formation through exposure of Pt(111) with 5 keV Ar(+) ions at grazing incidence has been studied at 550 K by scanning tunneling microscopy and is supplemented by molecular-dynamics simulations of single ion impacts. A consistent description of pattern formation in terms of atomic scale mechanisms is given. Most surprisingly, pattern formation depends crucially on the angle of incidence of the ions. As soon as this angle allows subsurface channeling of the ions, pattern regularity and alignment with respect to the ion beam greatly improves. These effects are traced back to the positionally aligned formation of vacancy islands through the damage created by the ions at dechanneling locations.
Combined treatment in punctate inner choroidopathy
Terelak-Borys B
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Barbara Terelak-Borys, Katarzyna Zagajewska, Irmina Jankowska-Lech, Piotr Tesla, Iwona Grabska-Liberek Department of Ophthalmology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Prof W Orlowski Clinical Hospital, Warsaw, Poland Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe a combination treatment for choroidal neovascular (CNV membrane, secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC.Patient and methods: A 44-year-old female patient was diagnosed with PIC complicated by the development of recurrent juxtafoveal neovascular membrane. The treatment included a sequence of monotherapy regimens: systemic steroid therapy, photodynamic therapy, and intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor (anti-VEGF. Owing to the CNV membrane resistance to various types of monotherapy, a combination treatment consisting of local injections of steroid underneath the Tenon’s capsule and intravitreal anti-VEGF injections was used.Results: Systemic steroid therapy resulted in rapid local improvement with a very short remission period. No positive effects of photodynamic therapy were observed. Sequential anti-VEGF injections led to remission periods of several months. Permanent regression of CNV membrane was achieved following combined local application of steroid and intravitreal anti-VEGF injections.Conclusion: A combination treatment including steroid and anti-VEGF medication characterized by anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic effects may be a very beneficial option for the treatment of recurrent CNV membrane as a complication of PIC. Keywords: punctate inner choroidopathy, neovascular membrane, anti-VEGF injections, photodynamic therapy, steroids
Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community
Christensen, Katrine; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.
2011-01-01
Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC) and to ......Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC......) and to examine the appearance of patterns and regularities in the way EMAC members choose collaboration partners. The work is based on a Social Network Analysis of the co-authored publications presented at the 2000-2010 EMAC conferences. Results show that the main selection criteria for choosing collaboration...... partners is socio-cultural and geographical proximity rather than marketing sub-discipline, pointing towards a very systematic tendency for EMAC members to be organised around institutions in the same or culturally related countries....
Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community
Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.; Christensen, Katrine
2011-01-01
Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC) and to ......Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC......) and to examine the appearance of patterns and regularities in the way EMAC members choose collaboration partners. The work is based on a Social Network Analysis of the co-authored publications presented at the 2000-2010 EMAC conferences. Results show that the main selection criteria for choosing collaboration...... partners is socio-cultural and geographical) proximity rather than marketing sub-discipline, pointing towards a very systematic tendency for EMAC members to be organised around institutions in the same or culturally related countries....
Detecting regularities in soccer dynamics: A T-pattern approach
Valentino Zurloni
2014-01-01
Full Text Available La dinámica del juego en partidos de fútbol profesional es un fenómeno complejo que no ha estado resuelto de forma óptima a través delas vías tradicionales que han pretendido la cuantificación en deportes de equipo. El objetivo de este estudio es el de detectar la dinámica existente mediante un análisis de patrones temporales. Específicamente, se pretenden revelar las estructuras ocultas pero estables que subyacen a las situaciones interactivas que determinan las acciones de ataque en el fútbol. El planteamiento metodológico se basa en un diseño observacional, y con apoyo de registros digitales y análisis informatizados. Los datos se analizaron mediante el programa Theme 6 beta, el cual permite detectar la estructura temporaly secuencial de las series de datos, poniendo de manifiesto patrones que regular o irregularmente ocurren repetidamente en un período de observación. El Theme ha detectado muchos patrones temporales (T-patterns en los partidos de fútbol analizados. Se hallaron notables diferencias entre los partidos ganados y perdidos. El número de distintos T-patterns detectados fue mayor para los partidos perdidos, y menor para los ganados, mientras que el número de eventos codificados fue similar. El programa Theme y los T-patterns mejoran las posibilidades investigadoras respecto a un análisis de rendimiento basado en la frecuencia, y hacen que esta metodología sea eficaz para la investigación y constituya un apoyo procedimental en el análisis del deporte. Nuestros resultados indican que se requieren posteriores investigaciones relativas a posibles conexiones entre la detección de estas estructuras temporales y las observaciones humanas respecto al rendimiento en el fútbol. Este planteamiento sería un apoyo tanto para los miembros de los equipos como para los entrenadores, permitiendo alcanzar una mejor comprensión de la dinámica del juego y aportando una información que no ofrecen los métodos tradicionales.
Patterns of Buyer Behavior: Regularities, Models, and Extensions
Mark Uncles; Andrew Ehrenberg; Kathy Hammond
1995-01-01
Many empirical regularities in the buying behavior of consumers have been linked together into a comprehensive model, the Dirichlet. In this paper we list some of the well-established regularities, show how they are theoretically intertwined, and illustrate how this approach to modeling can assist the marketing analyst.
Superior regularity in erosion patterns by planar subsurface channeling
Redinger, A.; Hansen, H; Linke, U.; Rosandi, Y.; Urbassek, H. M.; Michely, T.
2006-01-01
The onset of pattern formation through exposure of Pt(111) with 5 keV Ar+ ions at grazing incidence has been studied at 550 K by scanning tunneling microscopy and is supplemented by molecular-dynamics simulations of single ion impacts. A consistent description of pattern formation in terms of atomic scale mechanisms is given. Most surprisingly, pattern formation depends crucially on the angle of incidence of the ions. As soon as this angle allows subsurface channeling of the ions, pattern reg...
Detecting palindromes, patterns, and borders in regular languages
Anderson, Terry; Loftus, John; Rampersad, Narad; Santean, Nicolae; Shallit, Jeffrey
2007-01-01
Given a language L and a nondeterministic finite automaton M, we consider whether we can determine efficiently (in the size of M) if M accepts at least one word in L, or infinitely many words. Given that M accepts at least one word in L, we consider how long a shortest word can be. The languages L that we examine include the palindromes, the non-palindromes, the k-powers, the non-k-powers, the powers, the non-powers (also called primitive words), the words matching a general pattern, the bord...
Asymmetry Factors Shaping Regular and Irregular Bursting Rhythms in Central Pattern Generators
Elices, Irene; Varona, Pablo
2017-01-01
Central Pattern Generator (CPG) circuits are neural networks that generate rhythmic motor patterns. These circuits are typically built of half-center oscillator subcircuits with reciprocally inhibitory connections. Another common property in many CPGs is the remarkable rich spiking-bursting dynamics of their constituent cells, which balance robustness and flexibility to generate their joint coordinated rhythms. In this paper, we use conductance-based models and realistic connection topologies inspired by the crustacean pyloric CPG to address the study of asymmetry factors shaping CPG bursting rhythms. In particular, we assess the role of asymmetric maximal synaptic conductances, time constants and gap-junction connectivity to establish the regularity of half-center oscillator based CPGs. We map and characterize the synaptic parameter space that lead to regular and irregular bursting activity in these networks. The analysis indicates that asymmetric configurations display robust regular rhythms and that large regions of both regular and irregular but coordinated rhythms exist as a function of the asymmetry in the circuit. Our results show that asymmetry both in the maximal conductances and in the temporal dynamics of mutually inhibitory neurons can synergistically contribute to shape wide regimes of regular spiking-bursting activity in CPGs. Finally, we discuss how a closed-loop protocol driven by a regularity goal can be used to find and characterize regular regimes when there is not time to perform an exhaustive search, as in most experimental studies. PMID:28261081
Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Lee, MeYeon; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Park, SoAh; Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, KyoungJu; Han, Tae Jin; Bae, Hoonsik
2015-01-01
Despite the considerable importance of accurately estimating the respiration regularity of a patient in motion compensation treatment, not to mention the necessity of maintaining that regularity through the following sessions, an effective and simply applicable method by which those goals can be accomplished has rarely been reported. The authors herein propose a simple respiration regularity index based on parameters derived from a correspondingly simplified respiration model. In order to simplify a patient's breathing pattern while preserving the data's intrinsic properties, we defined a respiration model as a cos4( ω( t) · t) wave form with a baseline drift. According to this respiration formula, breathing-pattern fluctuation could be explained using four factors: the sample standard deviation of respiration period ( s f ), the sample standard deviation of amplitude ( s a ) and the results of a simple regression of the baseline drift (slope as β, and standard deviation of residuals as σ r ) of a respiration signal. The overall irregularity ( δ) was defined as , where is a variable newly-derived by using principal component analysis (PCA) for the four fluctuation parameters and has two principal components ( ω 1, ω 2). The proposed respiration regularity index was defined as ρ = ln(1 + (1/ δ))/2, a higher ρ indicating a more regular breathing pattern. We investigated its clinical relevance by comparing it with other known parameters. Subsequently, we applied it to 110 respiration signals acquired from five liver and five lung cancer patients by using real-time position management (RPM; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Correlations between the regularity of the first session and the remaining fractions were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Additionally, the respiration regularity was compared between the liver and lung cancer patient groups. The respiration regularity was determined based on ρ; patients with ρ 0.7 was
REGULAR PATTERN MINING (WITH JITTER ON WEIGHTED-DIRECTED DYNAMIC GRAPHS
A. GUPTA
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Real world graphs are mostly dynamic in nature, exhibiting time-varying behaviour in structure of the graph, weight on the edges and direction of the edges. Mining regular patterns in the occurrence of edge parameters gives an insight into the consumer trends over time in ecommerce co-purchasing networks. But such patterns need not necessarily be precise as in the case when some product goes out of stock or a group of customers becomes unavailable for a short period of time. Ignoring them may lead to loss of useful information and thus taking jitter into account becomes vital. To the best of our knowledge, no work has been yet reported to extract regular patterns considering a jitter of length greater than unity. In this article, we propose a novel method to find quasi regular patterns on weight and direction sequences of such graphs. The method involves analysing the dynamic network considering the inconsistencies in the occurrence of edges. It utilizes the relation between the occurrence sequence and the corresponding weight and direction sequences to speed up this process. Further, these patterns are used to determine the most central nodes (such as the most profit yielding products. To accomplish this we introduce the concept of dynamic closeness centrality and dynamic betweenness centrality. Experiments on Enron e-mail dataset and a synthetic dynamic network show that the presented approach is efficient, so it can be used to find patterns in large scale networks consisting of many timestamps.
The encoding of temporally irregular and regular visual patterns in the human brain.
Semir Zeki
Full Text Available In the work reported here, we set out to study the neural systems that detect predictable temporal patterns and departures from them. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to locate activity in the brains of subjects when they viewed temporally regular and irregular patterns produced by letters, numbers, colors and luminance. Activity induced by irregular sequences was located within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, including an area that was responsive to irregular patterns regardless of the type of visual stimuli producing them. Conversely, temporally regular arrangements resulted in activity in the right frontal lobe (medial frontal gyrus, in the left orbito-frontal cortex and in the left pallidum. The results show that there is an abstractive system in the brain for detecting temporal irregularity, regardless of the source producing it.
PhyloPattern: regular expressions to identify complex patterns in phylogenetic trees
Pontarotti Pierre
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To effectively apply evolutionary concepts in genome-scale studies, large numbers of phylogenetic trees have to be automatically analysed, at a level approaching human expertise. Complex architectures must be recognized within the trees, so that associated information can be extracted. Results Here, we present a new software library, PhyloPattern, for automating tree manipulations and analysis. PhyloPattern includes three main modules, which address essential tasks in high-throughput phylogenetic tree analysis: node annotation, pattern matching, and tree comparison. PhyloPattern thus allows the programmer to focus on: i the use of predefined or user defined annotation functions to perform immediate or deferred evaluation of node properties, ii the search for user-defined patterns in large phylogenetic trees, iii the pairwise comparison of trees by dynamically generating patterns from one tree and applying them to the other. Conclusion PhyloPattern greatly simplifies and accelerates the work of the computer scientist in the evolutionary biology field. The library has been used to automatically identify phylogenetic evidence for domain shuffling or gene loss events in the evolutionary histories of protein sequences. However any workflow that relies on phylogenetic tree analysis, could be automated with PhyloPattern.
REGULAR PATTERN MINING (WITH JITTER) ON WEIGHTED-DIRECTED DYNAMIC GRAPHS
Gupta, A.; H. K. THAKUR; Gupta, T.; Yadav, S.
2017-01-01
Real world graphs are mostly dynamic in nature, exhibiting time-varying behaviour in structure of the graph, weight on the edges and direction of the edges. Mining regular patterns in the occurrence of edge parameters gives an insight into the consumer trends over time in ecommerce co-purchasing networks. But such patterns need not necessarily be precise as in the case when some product goes out of stock or a group of customers becomes unavailable for a short period of time. Ignoring them ...
Anthony Leicht
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC. Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex. At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%–170% vs. IC-Con 29%–52% and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex −2.1%–1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%–10%. IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%–10% vs. −0.6%–1.4%. Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification.
Regular Nanoscale Protein Patterns via Directed Adsorption through Self-Assembled DNA Origami Masks.
Ramakrishnan, Saminathan; Subramaniam, Sivaraman; Stewart, A Francis; Grundmeier, Guido; Keller, Adrian
2016-11-16
DNA origami has become a widely used method for synthesizing well-defined nanostructures with promising applications in various areas of nanotechnology, biophysics, and medicine. Recently, the possibility to transfer the shape of single DNA origami nanostructures into different materials via molecular lithography approaches has received growing interest due to the great structural control provided by the DNA origami technique. Here, we use ordered monolayers of DNA origami nanostructures with internal cavities on mica surfaces as molecular lithography masks for the fabrication of regular protein patterns over large surface areas. Exposure of the masked sample surface to negatively charged proteins results in the directed adsorption of the proteins onto the exposed surface areas in the holes of the mask. By controlling the buffer and adsorption conditions, the protein coverage of the exposed areas can be varied from single proteins to densely packed monolayers. To demonstrate the versatility of this approach, regular nanopatterns of four different proteins are fabricated: the single-strand annealing proteins Redβ and Sak, the iron-storage protein ferritin, and the blood protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). We furthermore demonstrate the desorption of the DNA origami mask after directed protein adsorption, which may enable the fabrication of hierarchical patterns composed of different protein species. Because selectivity in adsorption is achieved by electrostatic interactions between the proteins and the exposed surface areas, this approach may enable also the large-scale patterning of other charged molecular species or even nanoparticles.
Effect of adhesion transfer on the surface pattern regularity in nanostructuring burnishing
Kuznetsov, Viktor P.; Tarasov, Sergey Yu.; Nikonov, Anton Yu.; Filippov, Andrey V.; Voropaev, Vladimir V.; Dmitriev, Andrey I.
2016-11-01
In the paper the influence of friction-induced adhesion of metal to the tool on the formation of surface topography under nanostructuring burnishing was studied. A comprehensive approach, including both experimental (optical microscopy and profilometry) and theoretical (computer-aided simulation) methods was used. The results showed a direct connection between values of adhesion strength of materials in contact with the workpiece surface pattern quality caused by the tool movement. Results of the experimental and theoretical study are in good agreement and allow us to identify the reason of regular profile forming during surface burnishing.
Appearance of implicative regularities in Boolean criterion space and pattern recognition
Zakrevskii, A.D.
1982-01-01
A new approach to the solution of problems in recognition theory is noted within the framework of the more general problem of the appearance of regularities in the data flow, and of the problem of converting the latter into knowledge, is some adequate model of the class of objects under investigation that operationally permit finding the solution of diverse problems of pattern recognition, classification, empirical prediction, filling in the blanks in experimental tables, etc. This approach is developed in application to the case of binary criteria, which permits efficient utilization of the apparatus of Boolean function theory, but allows extension also of the case of multi-valued criteria. A method is proposed for the determination, by a training sample, of the general properties of a single class of real objects representable by appropriate points of the Boolean space m of all criteria. The method relies on a unique a priori hypothesis about the preference of regularities connecting minimal groups of criteria. The expediency of the appearance of sufficiently strong regularities of the type elementary exclusions that yield implicative relations between criteria and the construction of differentiated prediction procedures on their basis, which permit extrapolation of partially assigned properties of objects not in the training sample with a foundation will follow logically from this hypothesis. 12 references.
Regular and irregular patterns of self-localized excitation in arrays of coupled phase oscillators
Wolfrum, Matthias; Omel' chenko, Oleh E. [Weierstrass Institute, Mohrenstrasse 39, Berlin 10117 (Germany); Sieber, Jan [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, North Park Road, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)
2015-05-15
We study a system of phase oscillators with nonlocal coupling in a ring that supports self-organized patterns of coherence and incoherence, called chimera states. Introducing a global feedback loop, connecting the phase lag to the order parameter, we can observe chimera states also for systems with a small number of oscillators. Numerical simulations show a huge variety of regular and irregular patterns composed of localized phase slipping events of single oscillators. Using methods of classical finite dimensional chaos and bifurcation theory, we can identify the emergence of chaotic chimera states as a result of transitions to chaos via period doubling cascades, torus breakup, and intermittency. We can explain the observed phenomena by a mechanism of self-modulated excitability in a discrete excitable medium.
Motz, Benjamin A.; Erickson, Molly A.; Hetrick, William P.
2013-01-01
Humans perceive a wide range of temporal patterns, including those rhythms that occur in music, speech, and movement; however, there are constraints on the rhythmic patterns that we can represent. Past research has shown that sequences in which sounds occur regularly at non-metrical locations in a repeating beat period (non-integer ratio…
Motz, Benjamin A.; Erickson, Molly A.; Hetrick, William P.
2013-01-01
Humans perceive a wide range of temporal patterns, including those rhythms that occur in music, speech, and movement; however, there are constraints on the rhythmic patterns that we can represent. Past research has shown that sequences in which sounds occur regularly at non-metrical locations in a repeating beat period (non-integer ratio…
Liu, Quan-Xing; Jin, Zhen
2006-01-01
Results are reported concerning the formation of spatial patterns in the two-species ratio-dependent predator-prey model driven by spatial colored-noise. The results show that there is a critical value with respect to the intensity of spatial noise for this system when the parameters are in the Turing space, above which the regular spatial patterns appear in two dimensions, but under which there are not regular spatial patterns produced. In particular, we investigate in two-dimensional space ...
Sgattoni, Giulia; Jeddi, Zeinab; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Einarsson, Páll; Tryggvason, Ari; Lund, Björn; Lucchi, Federico
2016-09-01
Katla is a threatening volcano in Iceland, partly covered by the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. The volcano has a large caldera with several active geothermal areas. A peculiar cluster of long-period seismic events started on Katla's south flank in July 2011, during an unrest episode in the caldera that culminated in a glacier outburst. The seismic events were tightly clustered at shallow depth in the Gvendarfell area, 4 km south of the caldera, under a small glacier stream at the southern margin of Mýrdalsjökull. No seismic events were known to have occurred in this area before. The most striking feature of this seismic cluster is its temporal pattern, characterized by regular intervals between repeating seismic events, modulated by a seasonal variation. Remarkable is also the stability of both the time and waveform features over a long time period, around 3.5 years. We have not found any comparable examples in the literature. Both volcanic and glacial processes can produce similar waveforms and therefore have to be considered as potential seismic sources. Discerning between these two causes is critical for monitoring glacier-clad volcanoes and has been controversial at Katla. For this new seismic cluster on the south flank, we regard volcano-related processes as more likely than glacial ones for the following reasons: 1) the seismic activity started during an unrest episode involving sudden melting of the glacier and a jökulhlaup; 2) the glacier stream is small and stagnant; 3) the seismicity remains regular and stable for years; 4) there is no apparent correlation with short-term weather changes, such as rainstorms. We suggest that a small, shallow hydrothermal system was activated on Katla's south flank in 2011, either by a minor magmatic injection or by changes of permeability in a local crack system.
Cheong, K; Lee, M; Kang, S; Yoon, J; Park, S; Hwang, T; Kim, H; Kim, K; Han, T; Bae, H [Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-01
Purpose: Despite the importance of accurately estimating the respiration regularity of a patient in motion compensation treatment, an effective and simply applicable method has rarely been reported. The authors propose a simple respiration regularity index based on parameters derived from a correspondingly simplified respiration model. Methods: In order to simplify a patient's breathing pattern while preserving the data's intrinsic properties, we defined a respiration model as a power of cosine form with a baseline drift. According to this respiration formula, breathing-pattern fluctuation could be explained using four factors: sample standard deviation of respiration period, sample standard deviation of amplitude and the results of simple regression of the baseline drift (slope and standard deviation of residuals of a respiration signal. Overall irregularity (δ) was defined as a Euclidean norm of newly derived variable using principal component analysis (PCA) for the four fluctuation parameters. Finally, the proposed respiration regularity index was defined as ρ=ln(1+(1/ δ))/2, a higher ρ indicating a more regular breathing pattern. Subsequently, we applied it to simulated and clinical respiration signals from real-time position management (RPM; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and investigated respiration regularity. Moreover, correlations between the regularity of the first session and the remaining fractions were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The respiration regularity was determined based on ρ; patients with ρ<0.3 showed worse regularity than the others, whereas ρ>0.7 was suitable for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). Fluctuations in breathing cycle and amplitude were especially determinative of ρ. If the respiration regularity of a patient's first session was known, it could be estimated through subsequent sessions. Conclusions: Respiration regularity could be objectively determined
Zhong, Chen; Batty, Michael; Manley, Ed; Wang, Jiaqiu; Wang, Zijia; Chen, Feng; Schmitt, Gerhard
2016-01-01
To discover regularities in human mobility is of fundamental importance to our understanding of urban dynamics, and essential to city and transport planning, urban management and policymaking. Previous research has revealed universal regularities at mainly aggregated spatio-temporal scales but when we zoom into finer scales, considerable heterogeneity and diversity is observed instead. The fundamental question we address in this paper is at what scales are the regularities we detect stable, explicable, and sustainable. This paper thus proposes a basic measure of variability to assess the stability of such regularities focusing mainly on changes over a range of temporal scales. We demonstrate this by comparing regularities in the urban mobility patterns in three world cities, namely London, Singapore and Beijing using one-week of smart-card data. The results show that variations in regularity scale as non-linear functions of the temporal resolution, which we measure over a scale from 1 minute to 24 hours thus reflecting the diurnal cycle of human mobility. A particularly dramatic increase in variability occurs up to the temporal scale of about 15 minutes in all three cities and this implies that limits exist when we look forward or backward with respect to making short-term predictions. The degree of regularity varies in fact from city to city with Beijing and Singapore showing higher regularity in comparison to London across all temporal scales. A detailed discussion is provided, which relates the analysis to various characteristics of the three cities. In summary, this work contributes to a deeper understanding of regularities in patterns of transit use from variations in volumes of travellers entering subway stations, it establishes a generic analytical framework for comparative studies using urban mobility data, and it provides key points for the management of variability by policy-makers intent on for making the travel experience more amenable.
Chen Zhong
Full Text Available To discover regularities in human mobility is of fundamental importance to our understanding of urban dynamics, and essential to city and transport planning, urban management and policymaking. Previous research has revealed universal regularities at mainly aggregated spatio-temporal scales but when we zoom into finer scales, considerable heterogeneity and diversity is observed instead. The fundamental question we address in this paper is at what scales are the regularities we detect stable, explicable, and sustainable. This paper thus proposes a basic measure of variability to assess the stability of such regularities focusing mainly on changes over a range of temporal scales. We demonstrate this by comparing regularities in the urban mobility patterns in three world cities, namely London, Singapore and Beijing using one-week of smart-card data. The results show that variations in regularity scale as non-linear functions of the temporal resolution, which we measure over a scale from 1 minute to 24 hours thus reflecting the diurnal cycle of human mobility. A particularly dramatic increase in variability occurs up to the temporal scale of about 15 minutes in all three cities and this implies that limits exist when we look forward or backward with respect to making short-term predictions. The degree of regularity varies in fact from city to city with Beijing and Singapore showing higher regularity in comparison to London across all temporal scales. A detailed discussion is provided, which relates the analysis to various characteristics of the three cities. In summary, this work contributes to a deeper understanding of regularities in patterns of transit use from variations in volumes of travellers entering subway stations, it establishes a generic analytical framework for comparative studies using urban mobility data, and it provides key points for the management of variability by policy-makers intent on for making the travel experience more
Fleet and backup tank sizing under regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns
Dupuis, Ronald Gerard
The focus of this study involves logistics issues surrounding the industrial gas business. The industrial gas business is a major industry (approximately $30 billion/year) and has been experiencing substantial growth in recent years. The industrial gas business supports two types of customers. The first type is the traditional merchant customers who rely entirely on the logistics system for product. Their demand is of a stochastic nature. The second type of customers is referred to as customers. These customers have air separation plants on their own sites and they must rely on the logistics system when their separation plant fails. To assist in providing a continuous flow of product, all onsite plants also have a backup tank which can provide sufficient product for relatively short durations of time, 24 to 96 hours of supply. The onsite separation plants are approximately 98% reliable, but when they fail, the customer generally requires a significant amount of product. This type of demand pattern will be defined as impulse stochastic. This study focuses on two areas of the logistics support system. The first part deals with the economic sizing of onsite backup tanks. For a given onsite, we determine the most economical choice for a backup system considering numerous characteristics of the onsite customer as well as the logistics system. In the second part, we develop methods for determining the optimal fleet size under both regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns. The methods provide support for long range forecasting, short-term vehicle reallocation and private verses contract carrier vehicle mix determination. The methods further provide a means to describe the effect future onsite growth will have on distribution as it is related to vehicle fleet size.
Void Structures in Regularly Patterned ZnO Nanorods Grown with the Hydrothermal Method
Yu-Feng Yao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The void structures and related optical properties after thermal annealing with ambient oxygen in regularly patterned ZnO nanrorod (NR arrays grown with the hydrothermal method are studied. In increasing the thermal annealing temperature, void distribution starts from the bottom and extends to the top of an NR in the vertical (c-axis growth region. When the annealing temperature is higher than 400°C, void distribution spreads into the lateral (m-axis growth region. Photoluminescence measurement shows that the ZnO band-edge emission, in contrast to defect emission in the yellow-red range, is the strongest under the n-ZnO NR process conditions of 0.003 M in Ga-doping concentration and 300°C in thermal annealing temperature with ambient oxygen. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate that the concentration of hydroxyl groups in the vertical growth region is significantly higher than that in the lateral growth region. During thermal annealing, hydroxyl groups are desorbed from the NR leaving anion vacancies for reacting with cation vacancies to form voids.
Regular patterns for proteome-wide distribution of protein abundance across species.
Fan Zhong
Full Text Available A proteome of the bio-entity, including cell, tissue, organ, and organism, consists of proteins of diverse abundance. The principle that determines the abundance of different proteins in a proteome is of fundamental significance for an understanding of the building blocks of the bio-entity. Here, we report three regular patterns in the proteome-wide distribution of protein abundance across species such as human, mouse, fly, worm, yeast, and bacteria: in most cases, protein abundance is positively correlated with the protein's origination time or sequence conservation during evolution; it is negatively correlated with the protein's domain number and positively correlated with domain coverage in protein structure, and the correlations became stronger during the course of evolution; protein abundance can be further stratified by the function of the protein, whereby proteins that act on material conversion and transportation (mass category are more abundant than those that act on information modulation (information category. Thus, protein abundance is intrinsically related to the protein's inherent characters of evolution, structure, and function.
Conversion regular patterns of acetic acid,propionic acid and butyric acid in UASB reactor
LIU Min; REN Nan-qi; CHEN Ying; ZHU Wen-fang; DING Jie
2004-01-01
On the basis of continuous tests and batch tests, conversion regular patterns of acetate, propionate and butyrate in activated sludge at different heights of the UASB reactor were conducted. Results indicated that the conversion capacity of the microbial is decided by the substrate characteristic when sole VFA is used as the only substrate. But when mixed substrates are used,the conversion regulations would have changed accordingly. Relationships of different substrates vary according to their locations. In the whole reactor, propionate's conversion is restrained by acetate and butyrate of high concentration. On the top and at the bottom of the reactor, conversion of acetate, but butyrate, is restrained by propionate. And in the midst, acetate's conversion is accelerated by propionate while that of butyrate is restrained. It is proved, based on the analysis of specific conversion rate, that the space distribution of the microbe is the main factor that affects substrates' conversion. The ethanol-type fermentation of the acidogenic-phase is the optimal acid-type fermentation for the two-phase anaerobic process.
Sgattoni, Giulia; Guðmundsson, Ólafur; Einarsson, Páll; Tryggvason, Ari; Lund, Björn; Lucchi, Federico
2015-01-01
Katla is a threatening volcano in Iceland, partly covered by the M\\'yrdalsj\\"okull ice cap. The volcano has a large caldera with several active geothermal areas. A peculiar cluster of long-period seismic events started on Katla's south flank in July 2011, during an unrest episode in the caldera that culminated in a glacier outburst. The seismic events were tightly clustered at shallow depth in the Gvendarfell area, 4 km south of the caldera, under a small glacier stream on the southern margin of M\\'yrdalsj\\"okull. No seismic events were known to have occurred in this area before. The most striking feature of this seismic cluster is its temporal pattern, characterized by regular intervals between repeating seismic events, modulated by a seasonal variation. Remarkable is also the stability of both the time and waveform features over a long time period, around 3.5 years. No comparable examples have been found in the literature. Both volcanic and glacial processes can produce similar waveforms and therefore have ...
Optimal escape from potential wells-patterns of regular and chaotic bifurcation
Stewart, H. B.; Thompson, J. M. T.; Ueda, Y.; Lansbury, A. N.
The patterns of bifurcation governing the escape of periodically forced oscillations from a potential well over a smooth potential barrier are studied by numerical simulation. Both the generic asymmetric single-well cubic potential and the symmetric twin-well potential Duffing oscillator are surveyed by varying three parameters: forcing frequency, forcing amplitude, and damping coefficient. The close relationship between optimal escape and nonlinear resonance within the well is confirmed over a wide range of damping. Subtle but significant differences are observed at higher damping ratios. The possibility of indeterminate outcomes of jumps to and from resonance near optimal escape is cmppletely suppressed above a critical level of the damping ratio (about 0.12 for the asymmetric single-well oscillator). Coincidentally, at almost the same level of damping, the optimal escape condition becomes distinct from the apex in the (ω, F) plane of the bistable regime; this corresponds to the appearance of chaotic attractors which subsume both resonant and non-resonant motions within one well. At higher damping levels, further changes occur involving conversions from chaotic-saddle to regular-saddle bifurcations. These changes in optimal escape phenomena correspond to codimension three bifurcations at exceptional points in the space of three parameters. These bifurcations are described in terms of homoclinic and heteroclinic structures of invariant manifolds, and changes in accessible boundary orbits. The same sequence of codimension three bifurcations is observed in both the twin-well Duffing oscillator and the asymmetric single-well escape equation. Within the codimension three bifurcation patterns governing escape, one particular codimension two global bifurcation involves a chaotic attractor explosion, or interior crisis, compounded with a blue sky catastrophe or boundary crisis of the exploded attractor. This codimension two bifurcation has structure containing a form of
Dose domain regularization of MLC leaf patterns for highly complex IMRT plans
Nguyen, Dan; Yu, Victoria Y.; Ruan, Dan; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); O’Connor, Daniel [Department of Mathematics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
2015-04-15
Purpose: The advent of automated beam orientation and fluence optimization enables more complex intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning using an increasing number of fields to exploit the expanded solution space. This has created a challenge in converting complex fluences to robust multileaf collimator (MLC) segments for delivery. A novel method to regularize the fluence map and simplify MLC segments is introduced to maximize delivery efficiency, accuracy, and plan quality. Methods: In this work, we implemented a novel approach to regularize optimized fluences in the dose domain. The treatment planning problem was formulated in an optimization framework to minimize the segmentation-induced dose distribution degradation subject to a total variation regularization to encourage piecewise smoothness in fluence maps. The optimization problem was solved using a first-order primal-dual algorithm known as the Chambolle-Pock algorithm. Plans for 2 GBM, 2 head and neck, and 2 lung patients were created using 20 automatically selected and optimized noncoplanar beams. The fluence was first regularized using Chambolle-Pock and then stratified into equal steps, and the MLC segments were calculated using a previously described level reducing method. Isolated apertures with sizes smaller than preset thresholds of 1–3 bixels, which are square units of an IMRT fluence map from MLC discretization, were removed from the MLC segments. Performance of the dose domain regularized (DDR) fluences was compared to direct stratification and direct MLC segmentation (DMS) of the fluences using level reduction without dose domain fluence regularization. Results: For all six cases, the DDR method increased the average planning target volume dose homogeneity (D95/D5) from 0.814 to 0.878 while maintaining equivalent dose to organs at risk (OARs). Regularized fluences were more robust to MLC sequencing, particularly to the stratification and small aperture removal. The maximum and
Punctate white matter lesions in infants: new insights using susceptibility-weighted imaging
Niwa, Tetsu [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Departments of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Vries, Linda S. de; Benders, Manon J.N.L.; Groenendaal, Floris [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital/University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neonatology, KE 04.123.1, PO Box 85090, Utrecht (Netherlands); Takahara, Taro [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)
2011-09-15
Punctate white matter lesions (PWML) are recognized with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as hypersignal on T1-weighted imaging and hyposignal on T2-weighted imaging. Our aim was to assess how often a hemorrhagic component was present in PWML using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Seventeen preterm (gestational age, 25-34 weeks) and seven full-term infants (age at MRI, 37-42 weeks) with PWML were included. Seven preterm infants had sequential MRIs. PWML were diagnosed with conventional MRI and compared with SWI, where signal loss is suggestive of hemorrhage. The pattern of associated brain lesions was taken into account, and the percentage of lesions with signal loss on SWI was calculated for each infant. A significantly higher percentage of signal loss on SWI (median, 93.9%) was found among infants with germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage as the primary diagnosis (n = 8) compared to those with a primary diagnosis of white matter injury (n = 14; median, 14.2%; p < 0.01). In the infants with serial MRIs, a reduction in the number of PWML and/or signal loss on SWI was noted at term equivalent age. In the patient who died, cystic lesions, associated with hemorrhage and gliosis, were demonstrated on histology. SWI can distinguish hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic PWML. Signal loss on SWI was more common when PWML were associated with an intraventricular hemorrhage. Longitudinal imaging showed a decrease in the number of PWML over time, with some PWML no longer showing signal loss on SWI, suggesting early gliosis. (orig.)
Regular pattern formation on surface of aromatic polymers and its cytocompatibility
Michaljaničová, I.; Slepička, P.; Rimpelová, S.; Slepičková Kasálková, N.; Švorčík, V.
2016-05-01
In this work, we describe ripple and dot nanopatterning of three different aromatic polymer substrates by KrF excimer laser treatment. The conditions for regular structures were established by laser fluence and number of pulses. Subsequently, the influence of the angle of incidence of a laser beam was investigated. We have chosen polyethersulfone (PES), polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) as substrates for modification since they are thermally, chemically and mechanically resistant aromatic polymers with high absorption coefficients at excimer laser wavelength. As a tool of wettability investigation, we used contact angle measurement and for determination of the absorption edge, UV-vis spectroscopy was used. Material surface chemistry was analyzed using FTIR and the changes caused by modification were gained as differential spectra by subtraction of the spectra of non-modified material. Surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy, also the roughness and surface area of modified samples were studied. The scans showed the formation of regular periodic structures, ripples and dots, after treatment by 8 and 16 mJ cm-2 and 6000 pulses. Further, initial in vitro cytocompatibility tests were performed using U-2 OS cell line growing on PES samples subjected to scanning electron microscopy analysis. The structure formation mapping contributes strongly to development of new applications using nanostructured polymers, e.g. in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in selected electronics and metamaterials construction.
Regular pattern formation on surface of aromatic polymers and its cytocompatibility
Michaljaničová, I. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Rimpelová, S. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, Prague 6, 166 28 (Czech Republic); Slepičková Kasálková, N.; Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)
2016-05-01
Highlights: • The nanopatterning technique of PES, PEI and PEEK with KrF laser was described. • Both nanodots and ripples on aromatic polymers were successfully constructed. • Dimensions of nanostructures can be precisely controlled. • Surface parameters dependent on angle of laser beam incidence were characterized. • U-2 OS cell adaptation and growth on nanopatterned surface was described. - Abstract: In this work, we describe ripple and dot nanopatterning of three different aromatic polymer substrates by KrF excimer laser treatment. The conditions for regular structures were established by laser fluence and number of pulses. Subsequently, the influence of the angle of incidence of a laser beam was investigated. We have chosen polyethersulfone (PES), polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) as substrates for modification since they are thermally, chemically and mechanically resistant aromatic polymers with high absorption coefficients at excimer laser wavelength. As a tool of wettability investigation, we used contact angle measurement and for determination of the absorption edge, UV–vis spectroscopy was used. Material surface chemistry was analyzed using FTIR and the changes caused by modification were gained as differential spectra by subtraction of the spectra of non-modified material. Surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy, also the roughness and surface area of modified samples were studied. The scans showed the formation of regular periodic structures, ripples and dots, after treatment by 8 and 16 mJ cm{sup −2} and 6000 pulses. Further, initial in vitro cytocompatibility tests were performed using U-2 OS cell line growing on PES samples subjected to scanning electron microscopy analysis. The structure formation mapping contributes strongly to development of new applications using nanostructured polymers, e.g. in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in selected electronics and metamaterials
Cohen, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Osborne, T.; Murray, A.; Watts, A. C.; Watts, D.; Heffernan, J. B.
2012-12-01
Development of karst landscapes is controlled by focused delivery of water undersaturated with respect to the soluble rock minerals. As that water comes to equilibrium with the rock, secondary porosity is incrementally reinforced creating a positive feedback that acts to augment the drainage network and subsequent water delivery. In most self-organizing systems, spatial positive feedbacks create features (in landscapes: patches; in karst aquifers: conduits) whose size-frequency relationship follows a power function, indicating a higher probability of large features than would occur with a random or Gaussian genesis process. Power functions describe several aspects of secondary porosity in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in north Florida. In contrast, a different pattern arises in the karst landscape in southwest Florida (Big Cypress National Preserve; BICY), where low-relief and a shallow aquiclude govern regional hydrology. There, the landscape pattern is highly regular (Fig. 1), with circular cypress-dominated wetlands occupying depressions that are hydrologically isolated and distributed evenly in a matrix of pine uplands. Regular landscape patterning results from spatially coupled feedbacks, one positive operating locally that expands patches coupled to another negative that operates at distance, eventually inhibiting patch expansion. The positive feedback in BICY is thought to derive from the presence of surface depressions, which sustain prolonged inundation in this low-relief setting, and facilitate wetland development that greatly augments dissolution potential of infiltrating water in response to ecosystem metabolic processes. In short, wetlands "drill" into the carbonate leading to both vertical and lateral basin expansion. Wetland expansion occurs at the expense of surrounding upland area, which is the local catchment that subsidizes water availability. A distal inhibitory feedback on basin expansion thus occurs as the water necessary to sustain prolonged
Large-area regular nanodomain patterning in He-irradiated lithium niobate crystals
Ofan, A; Gaathon, O; Osgood, R M Jr [Center for Integrated Science and Technology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lilienblum, M; Hoffmann, A; Soergel, E [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Sehrbrock, A; Irsen, S [Center of Advanced European Studies and Research (CAESAR), Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, 53175 Bonn (Germany); Bakhru, S; Bakhru, H, E-mail: ao2199@columbia.edu, E-mail: soergel@uni-bonn.de [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12222 (United States)
2011-07-15
Large-area ferroelectric nanodomain patterns, which are desirable for nonlinear optical applications, were generated in previously He-implanted lithium niobate crystals by applying voltage pulses to the tip of a scanning force microscope. The individual nanodomains were found to be of uniform size, which depended only on the inter-domain spacing and the pulse amplitude. We explain this behavior by the electrostatic repulsion of poling-induced buried charges between adjacent domains. The domain patterns were imaged by piezoresponse force microscopy and investigated by domain-selective etching in conjunction with focused ion beam etching followed by scanning electron microscopy imaging. In order to optimize the He-irradiation parameters for easy and reliable nanodomain patterning a series of samples subjected to various irradiation fluences and energies was prepared. The different samples were characterized by investigating nanodomains generated with a wide range of pulse parameters (amplitude and duration). In addition, these experiments clarified the physical mechanism behind the facile poling measured in He-irradiated lithium niobate crystals: the damage caused by the energy loss that takes place via electronic excitations appears to act to stabilize the domains, whereas the nuclear-collision damage degrades the crystal quality, and thus impedes reliable nanodomain generation.
Rao Vinita
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A 28-year-old, healthy female, who had a recent repeated history of miscarriage, presented with bilateral choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM, for which she received photodynamic therapy with three doses of lucentis, at intervals of one month each, to which she responded. After five months, the patient again presented with complaints of diminution of vision since 15 days. She had a history of miscarriage two days before presenting to our clinic. CNVM was scarred at this time and the fundus picture showed multiple small punctate spots around the fovea at the level of the choroid, which showed early hyperfluroscence on fundus fluorescein angiography, suggestive of punctate inner choroidopathy. She was advised systemic steroids, to which she responded dramatically.
Guillaume Salbreux
Full Text Available The orderly packing and precise arrangement of epithelial cells is essential to the functioning of many tissues, and refinement of this packing during development is a central theme in animal morphogenesis. The mechanisms that determine epithelial cell shape and position, however, remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigate these mechanisms in a striking example of planar order in a vertebrate epithelium: The periodic, almost crystalline distribution of cone photoreceptors in the adult teleost fish retina. Based on observations of the emergence of photoreceptor packing near the retinal margin, we propose a mathematical model in which ordered columns of cells form as a result of coupling between planar cell polarity (PCP and anisotropic tissue-scale mechanical stresses. This model recapitulates many observed features of cone photoreceptor organization during retinal growth and regeneration. Consistent with the model's predictions, we report a planar-polarized distribution of Crumbs2a protein in cone photoreceptors in both unperturbed and regenerated tissue. We further show that the pattern perturbations predicted by the model to occur if the imposed stresses become isotropic closely resemble defects in the cone pattern in zebrafish lrp2 mutants, in which intraocular pressure is increased, resulting in altered mechanical stress and ocular enlargement. Evidence of interactions linking PCP, cell shape, and mechanical stresses has recently emerged in a number of systems, several of which show signs of columnar cell packing akin to that described here. Our results may hence have broader relevance for the organization of cells in epithelia. Whereas earlier models have allowed only for unidirectional influences between PCP and cell mechanics, the simple, phenomenological framework that we introduce here can encompass a broad range of bidirectional feedback interactions among planar polarity, shape, and stresses; our model thus represents a
Pohler, Elizabeth; Mamai, Ons; Hirst, Jennifer; Zamiri, Mozheh; Horn, Helen; Nomura, Toshifumi; Irvine, Alan D.; Moran, Benvon E.; Wilson, Neil J.; Smith, Frances J. D.; Goh, Christabelle S. M; Sandilands, Aileen; Cole, Christian; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Evans, Alan T.; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Masashi; Suehiro, Akihiro; Konohana, Izumi; Shboul, Mohammad; Teissier, Sebastien; Boussofara, Lobna; Denguezli, Mohamed; Saad, Ali; Gribaa, Moez; Dopping-Hepenstal, Patricia J.; McGrath, John A; Brown, Sara J.; Goudie, David R.; Reversade, Bruno; Munro, Colin S.; McLean, W. H. Irwin
2012-01-01
Palmoplantar keratodermas (PPKs) are a group of disorders that are diagnostically and therapeutically problematic in dermatogenetics1-3. Punctate PPKs are characterized by circumscribed hyperkeratotic lesions on palms and soles with considerable heterogeneity. In 18 families with autosomal dominant punctate PPK (OMIM #148600), we report heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in AAGAB, encoding alpha- and gamma-adaptin binding protein p34, at a previously linked locus on 15q22. p34, a cytosolic protein with a Rab-like GTPase domain, was shown to bind both clathrin adaptor protein complexes, indicative of a role in membrane traffic. Ultrastucturally, lesional epidermis showed abnormalities in intracellular vesicle biology. Immunohistochemistry showed hyperproliferation within the punctate lesions. Knockdown of p34 in keratinocytes led to increased cell division, which was linked to greatly increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression and tyrosine phosphorylation. We hypothesize that p34 deficiency may impair endocytic recycling of growth factor receptors such as EGFR, leading to increased signaling and proliferation. PMID:23064416
Smoly, Ilan; Carmel, Amir; Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal
2016-03-01
Network querying is a powerful approach to mine molecular interaction networks. Most state-of-the-art network querying tools either confine the search to a prespecified topology in the form of some template subnetwork, or do not specify any topological constraints at all. Another approach is grammar-based queries, which are more flexible and expressive as they allow for expressing the topology of the sought pattern according to some grammar-based logic. Previous grammar-based network querying tools were confined to the identification of paths. In this article, we extend the patterns identified by grammar-based query approaches from paths to trees. For this, we adopt a higher order query descriptor in the form of a regular tree grammar (RTG). We introduce a novel problem and propose an algorithm to search a given graph for the k highest scoring subgraphs matching a tree accepted by an RTG. Our algorithm is based on the combination of dynamic programming with color coding, and includes an extension of previous k-best parsing optimization approaches to avoid isomorphic trees in the output. We implement the new algorithm and exemplify its application to mining viral infection patterns within molecular interaction networks. Our code is available online.
Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Moraes, Walter André dos Santos; Andersen, Monica Levy; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio
2014-01-01
Some individuals are able to successfully reach very old ages, reflecting higher adaptation against age-associated effects. Sleep is one of the processes deeply affected by aging; however few studies evaluating sleep in long-lived individuals (aged over 85) have been reported to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the sleep patterns and biochemical profile of oldest old individuals (N = 10, age 85–105 years old) and compare them to young adults (N = 15, age 20–30 years old) and older adults (N = 13, age 60–70 years old). All subjects underwent full-night polysomnography, 1-week of actigraphic recording and peripheral blood collection. Sleep electroencephalogram spectral analysis was also performed. The oldest old individuals showed lower sleep efficiency and REM sleep when compared to the older adults, while stage N3 percentage and delta power were similar across the groups. Oldest old individuals maintained strictly regular sleep-wake schedules and also presented higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels than older adults. The present study revealed novel data regarding specific sleep patterns and maintenance of slow wave sleep in the oldest old group. Taken together with the favorable lipid profile, these results contribute with evidence to the importance of sleep and lipid metabolism regulation in the maintenance of longevity in humans. PMID:25009494
Lavancier, Frédéric; Møller, Jesper
We consider a dependent thinning of a regular point process with the aim of obtaining aggregation on the large scale and regularity on the small scale in the resulting target point process of retained points. Various parametric models for the underlying processes are suggested and the properties ...
Edelman, David B; McMenamin, Mark; Sheesley, Peter; Pivar, Stuart
2016-09-01
We present a plausible account of the origin of the archetypal vertebrate bauplan. We offer a theoretical reconstruction of the geometrically regular structure of the blastula resulting from the sequential subdivision of the egg, followed by mechanical deformations of the blastula in subsequent stages of gastrulation. We suggest that the formation of the vertebrate bauplan during development, as well as fixation of its variants over the course of evolution, have been constrained and guided by global mechanical biases. Arguably, the role of such biases in directing morphology-though all but neglected in previous accounts of both development and macroevolution-is critical to any substantive explanation for the origin of the archetypal vertebrate bauplan. We surmise that the blastula inherently preserves the underlying geometry of the cuboidal array of eight cells produced by the first three cleavages that ultimately define the medial-lateral, dorsal-ventral, and anterior-posterior axes of the future body plan. Through graphical depictions, we demonstrate the formation of principal structures of the vertebrate body via mechanical deformation of predictable geometrical patterns during gastrulation. The descriptive rigor of our model is supported through comparisons with previous characterizations of the embryonic and adult vertebrate bauplane. Though speculative, the model addresses the poignant absence in the literature of any plausible account of the origin of vertebrate morphology. A robust solution to the problem of morphogenesis-currently an elusive goal-will only emerge from consideration of both top-down (e.g., the mechanical constraints and geometric properties considered here) and bottom-up (e.g., molecular and mechano-chemical) influences. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Areej M. Abduldaim
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We introduced and studied -regular modules as a generalization of -regular rings to modules as well as regular modules (in the sense of Fieldhouse. An -module is called -regular if for each and , there exist and a positive integer such that . The notion of -pure submodules was introduced to generalize pure submodules and proved that an -module is -regular if and only if every submodule of is -pure iff is a -regular -module for each maximal ideal of . Many characterizations and properties of -regular modules were given. An -module is -regular iff is a -regular ring for each iff is a -regular ring for finitely generated module . If is a -regular module, then .
Ferreira, Flávio P.; Forte, Paulo M. F.; Felgueiras, Paulo E. R.; Bret, Boris P. J.; Belsley, Michael S.; Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J.
2017-02-01
An Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI) system for optical inspection of imaging devices used in automotive industry using an inspecting optics of lower spatial resolution than the device under inspection is described. This system is robust and with no moving parts. The cycle time is small. Its main advantage is that it is capable of detecting and quantifying defects in regular patterns, working below the Shannon-Nyquist criterion for optical resolution, using a single low resolution image sensor. It is easily scalable, which is an important advantage in industrial applications, since the same inspecting sensor can be reused for increasingly higher spatial resolutions of the devices to be inspected. The optical inspection is implemented with a notch multi-band Fourier filter, making the procedure especially fitted for regular patterns, like the ones that can be produced in image displays and Head Up Displays (HUDs). The regular patterns are used in production line only, for inspection purposes. For image displays, functional defects are detected at the level of a sub-image display grid element unit. Functional defects are the ones impairing the function of the display, and are preferred in AOI to the direct geometric imaging, since those are the ones directly related with the end-user experience. The shift in emphasis from geometric imaging to functional imaging is critical, since it is this that allows quantitative inspection, below Shannon-Nyquist. For HUDs, the functional detect detection addresses defects resulting from the combined effect of the image display and the image forming optics.
Levison, Ashleigh L; Baynes, Kimberly M; Lowder, Careen Y; Kaiser, Peter K; Srivastava, Sunil K
2017-05-01
To describe the findings seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) and multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis (MCP) complicated by choroidal neovascular membranes. This was an Institutional Review Board-approved prospective, descriptive case series. 12 patients with PIC and MCP complicated by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) were included. Each patient underwent slit-lamp examination by a uveitis specialist followed by conventional spectral domain OCT imaging of the macula. OCTA images of the macula were then obtained. 12 patients were enrolled in the study, out of which 9 patients were followed longitudinally. CNV was identified in 11 of the 12 patients. In all patients where fluorescein angiography (FA) was inconclusive for presence of CNV, OCTA identified CNV. Various lesions on OCT suggestive of activity correlated with changes in the vascular structure of OCTA to confirm suspicion of clinical activity. In patients with PIC and MCP complicated by CNV, OCTA successfully identified underlying CNV. Given the difficulty of differentiating inflammatory lesions from early CNV on OCT and FA, OCTA may provide a valuable method of monitoring patients with posterior uveitis highly correlated with development of CNV. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Tóth, L Fejes; Ulam, S; Stark, M
1964-01-01
Regular Figures concerns the systematology and genetics of regular figures. The first part of the book deals with the classical theory of the regular figures. This topic includes description of plane ornaments, spherical arrangements, hyperbolic tessellations, polyhedral, and regular polytopes. The problem of geometry of the sphere and the two-dimensional hyperbolic space are considered. Classical theory is explained as describing all possible symmetrical groupings in different spaces of constant curvature. The second part deals with the genetics of the regular figures and the inequalities fo
Ramenghi, Luca A.; Fumagalli, Monica; Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Mosca, Fabio [University of Milan, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, IRCCS, Milan (Italy); Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Bianchini, Elena; Triulzi, Fabio [Ospedale Pediatrico ' ' Buzzi' ' -ICP, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy)
2007-02-15
Early white matter (WM) injury affects brain maturation in preterm infants as revealed by diffusion tensor imaging and volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term postmenstrual age (PMA). The aim of the study was to assess quantitatively brain maturation in preterm infants with and without milder forms of WM damage (punctate WM lesions, PWML) using conventional MRI. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using a previously validated scoring system (total maturation score, TMS) which utilizes four parameters (progressive myelination and cortical infolding, progressive involution of glial cell migration bands and germinal matrix tissue). PWML were defined as foci of increased signal on T1-weighted images and decreased signal on T2-weighted images with no evidence of cystic degeneration. A group of 22 preterm infants with PWML at term PMA (PWML group) were compared with 22 matched controls with a normal MR appearance. The two groups were comparable concerning gestational age, birth weight and PMA. TMS was significantly lower in the PWML group than in the control group (mean TMS 12.44 {+-} 2.31 vs 14.00 {+-} 1.44; P = 0.011). Myelination (mean 2.76 {+-} 0.42 PWML group vs 3.32 {+-} 0.55 control group, P = 0.003) and cortical folding (3.64 {+-} 0.79 vs 4.09 {+-} 0.43, P = 0.027) appeared to be significantly delayed in babies with PWML. Conventional MRI appears able to quantify morphological changes in brain maturation of preterm babies with PWML; delayed myelination and reduced cortical infolding seem to be the most significant aspects. (orig.)
Rodriguez, John D; Lane, Keith; Ousler, George W; Angjeli, Endri; Smith, Lisa; Abelson, Mark
2015-03-03
Purpose. To develop an automated method of grading fluorescein staining that accurately reproduces the clinical grading system currently in use. Methods. From the slit lamp photograph of the fluorescein-stained cornea, the region of interest was selected and punctate dot number calculated using software developed with the Opencv computer vision library. Images (N=229) were then divided into six incremental severity categories based on computed scores. The final selection of fifty-four photographs represented the full range of scores: nine images from each of six categories. These were then evaluated by three investigators using a clinical 0-4 corneal staining scale. Pearson correlations were calculated to compare investigator scores, and mean investigator and automated scores. Lin's Concordance Correlations (CCC) and Bland Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods and between investigators. Results. Pearson's correlation between investigators was 0.914; mean CCC between investigators was 0.882. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that scores assessed by Investigator 3 were significantly higher than those of Investigators 1 and 2 (paired t-test). The predicted grade was calculated to be: Gpred=1.48log(Ndots) - 0.206. The two-point Pearson's correlation coefficient between the methods was 0.927 (p<0.0001). CCC between predicted automated score Gpred and mean investigator score was 0.929, 95% C.I. (0.884, 0.957). Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate bias. The difference in standard deviation between clinical and automated methods was 0.398. Conclusion. An objective, automated analysis of corneal staining provides a quality assurance tool to be used to substantiate clinical grading of key corneal staining endpoints in multi-centered clinical trials of dry eye.
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Rosing, Kasper; Merete Lempert, Susanne
2016-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To describe the pattern of dental services provided to 64-65-year-old Danes who are regular users of dental care over a 5-year period, to analyse whether this pattern is associated with socio-demographic and/or socioeconomic factors, and if different uses of dental services are related......-sectional study of all aged 64-65 (n = 37 234) who received a dental examination in 2009 was conducted. Clinical data comprised dental services received under the National Health Insurance reimbursement scheme, dental status and DMFT. Geographical, socio-demographic and socioeconomic data derived from public...... and social area-based factors and to some degree gender, income, and education must be taken into consideration as all these factors seem to influence the future demand for dental services....
Sylviana, N.; Gunawan, H.; Lesmana, R.; Purba, A.; Akbar, I. B.
2017-03-01
Strenuous physical activity will induced higher Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level in human body that can be measured by serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Malondialdehyde is product of lipid peroxidation process that define as oxidative damage of lipid biomolecule by reactivity of reactive oxygen species. Still, the dynamic pattern of Malondialdehyde (MDA) level under strenuous exercise is not fully understood. Potent antioxidant such as Astaxanthin and training may be altered the level of MDA. Thus, purpose of this study is to understand effect of astaxanthin to MDA dynamic pattern on training male after strenuous physical activity. It was a double blind, experimental study, conducted on thirty young male age, divided into untrained and trained groups. Supplement Astaxanthin was given to 15 subject as well as placebo for one week after supplementation, Subjects were tested with anaerobic strenuous physical activity. The values were analyzed with ANOVA test followed by Duncan test showed that in every groups, mean of MDA before test was similar, start increase significantly after tested, begin decrease at 6th hour post test and back to baseline at 24th hour post-test ( poxidative stress condition without altered its dynamic pattern in male after strenuous physical activity
Stokes, Chris R.; Margold, Martin; Creyts, Timothy
2017-04-01
Rapidly-flowing ice streams are an important mechanism through which ice sheets lose mass, and much work has focussed on elucidating the processes that increase or decrease their velocity. Recent work using standard inverse methods has inferred previously-unrecognised regular patterns of high basal shear stress ('sticky spots' >200 kPa) beneath a number of ice streams in Antarctica and Greenland, termed 'traction ribs'. They appear at a scale intermediate between smaller ribbed moraines and much larger mega-ribs observed on palaeo-ice sheet beds, but it is unclear whether they have a topographic expression at the bed. Here, we report observations of rib-like bedforms from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) along palaeo-ice stream beds in western Canada that resemble both the pattern and dimensions of traction ribs. Their identification suggests that traction ribs may have a topographic expression that lies between, and partly overlaps with, ribbed moraines and much larger mega-ribs. These intermediate-sized bedforms support the notion of a ribbed bedform continuum. Their formation remains conjectural, but our observations from palaeo-ice streams, coupled with those from modern ice masses, suggest they are consistent with wave-like instabilities occurring in the coupled flow of ice and till and modulated by subglacial meltwater drainage. Their form and pattern may also involve glaciotectonism of subglacial sediments.
Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Pokorny, Florian B; Einspieler, Christa; Langmann, Andrea; Körner, Christof; Falck-Ytter, Terje; Marschik, Peter B
2016-01-01
Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence), we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian) adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12). We found that (a) reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b) better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c) reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d) eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency.
Jin, Erhui; Wang, Chenfang; Hu, Qianqian; Jin, Guangming; Li, Shenghe
2014-01-01
Cytokines within the uterus are critical in the maternal-fetal immune regulation. Immunosuppressive cytokine IL-35 was recently discovered inhibitory cytokine, which were pivotal in the establishment of immune tolerance against self-antigens and antigens encountered in foreign implantation. In order to analyze the role of IL-35 in maternal-fetal immune tolerance, the expression patterns of IL-35 in mouse endometrium were studied during early pregnancy by immunohistochemistry, ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR. As results, we found that IL-35 positive cells in the uterus showed significant distribution difference after fetal implantation, which mainly distributed in luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium of mouse uterus from gestational day 1 to 2, and glandular epithelium and stroma from gestational day 4 to 7. The number of positive cells, immunoreactive scores, protein and mRNA expression of IL-35 showed firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of pregnancy day. The largest contents of IL-35 in the uterus were detected on gestational day 4. Compared with non-pregnant mice, pregnant mice showed the significantly increased mRNA expression of Ebi3 (Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3, IL-35 subunit) in the endometrium on gestational day 2 and the highest level of expression on gestational day 4. The mRNA expression of p35 (IL-35 subunit) was significantly lower than that of Ebi3 gene and showed the inconsistent change from gestational day 5 to 7. However, the significant correlation existed between the immunohistochemical expression, contents and mRNA expression of IL-35. These results indicated that IL-35 contributed to the establishment and maintenance of maternal-fetal tolerance during early pregnancy.
Magdalena Krieber
Full Text Available Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence, we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12. We found that (a reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency.
Innes, Carrie R H; Poudel, Govinda R; Jones, Richard D
2013-11-01
-going to sleep at a similar time each night, falling asleep quickly, and infrequent arousals-were related to greater vulnerability to microsleeps following sleep restriction. There were intercorrelations between all the sleep measures associated with microsleep rate following sleep restriction, indicating that the measures form a pattern of behaviors and are not independently related to microsleep rate. Perhaps some people maintain a regular sleep pattern because they experience sleepiness the following day when their pattern is disrupted. Conversely, people with more variation in their sleep pattern may do so because this does not substantially increase sleepiness the following day. We conclude that people with consistent sleep patterns and efficient sleep may be more prone to microsleeps than other people when their usual regular pattern is disrupted by sleep restriction.
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.
1994-01-01
Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient descent...... in the estimated generalization error with respect to the regularization parameters. The scheme is implemented in the authors' Designer Net framework for network training and pruning, i.e., is based on the diagonal Hessian approximation. The scheme does not require essential computational overhead in addition...... to what is needed for training and pruning. The viability of the approach is demonstrated in an experiment concerning prediction of the chaotic Mackey-Glass series. The authors find that the optimized weight decays are relatively large for densely connected networks in the initial pruning phase, while...
Djordjevic, Z M; Folic, M M; Jankovic, S M
2017-10-01
Regular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is an important component of multifaceted interventions directed at the problem with resistance of bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was to analyse antimicrobial consumption and resistance among isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. causing HAIs, before and after the introduction of mandatory reporting of resistance patterns to prescribers. A retrospective observational study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015, at an interdisciplinary ICU of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia. The intervention consisted of continuous resistance monitoring of all bacterial isolates from ICU patients and biannual reporting of results per isolate to prescribers across the hospital. Both utilization of antibiotics and density of resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were followed within the ICU. Resistance densities of P. aeruginosa to all tested antimicrobials were lower in 2015, in comparison with 2011. Although isolates of Acinetobacter spp. had lower resistance density in 2015 than in 2011 to the majority of investigated antibiotics, a statistically significant decrease was noted only for piperacillin/tazobactam. Statistically significant decreasing trends of consumption were recorded for third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, whereas for the piperacillin/tazobactam, ampicillin/sulbactam and carbapenems, utilization trends were decreasing, but without statistical significance. In the same period, increasing trends of consumption were observed for tigecycline and colistin. Regular monitoring of resistance of bacterial isolates in ICUs and reporting of summary results to prescribers may lead to a significant decrease in utilization of some antibiotics and slow restoration of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. susceptibility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Coxeter, H S M
1973-01-01
Polytopes are geometrical figures bounded by portions of lines, planes, or hyperplanes. In plane (two dimensional) geometry, they are known as polygons and comprise such figures as triangles, squares, pentagons, etc. In solid (three dimensional) geometry they are known as polyhedra and include such figures as tetrahedra (a type of pyramid), cubes, icosahedra, and many more; the possibilities, in fact, are infinite! H. S. M. Coxeter's book is the foremost book available on regular polyhedra, incorporating not only the ancient Greek work on the subject, but also the vast amount of information
Fang-Fang Mo; Le-Peng Wang; Si-Hua Gao
2016-01-01
Objective: To analyze the similarities and differences of the applications of “the lung and large intestine being interior-exteriorly related”between the ancient and modern clinical practices, and to reveal the theory meaning. Method: Based on the ancient and modern medical cases database, 245 ancient medical records and 373 modern medical records were studied with the general statistical description and analysis of association rules, and the results were compared to summarize the similarities and differences of the regular pattern of syndrome and treatment on lung-large intestine related diseases in ancient and modern medical records. Results: In modern medical cases, intestinal diseases appeared with the main symptom of constipation due to deficiency of lung qi and qi stagnation of large intestine were always treated by purgation together with replenishing and restoring lung qi. In ancient medical cases, large intestine heat was always caused by lung heat and a variety of diarrhea symptoms appeared. They were always treated by clearing heat and moistening lungs. In addition, the symptom of bound stool caused by qi stagnation of large intestine due to lung qi stagnation was always treated by lowering lung qi to regulate and smooth large intestine qi. And Armeniae Amarum Semen was used by both as a core medicinal herb. Conclusion: Ascending-descending of qi movement is the core of the lung and large intestine relationship. In other words, the lung and the large intestine communicate through qi.
Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Simojoki, Kaarlo; Ojanperä, Ilkka
2016-01-01
The most severe consequences of drug abuse include infectious diseases, overdoses, and drug-related deaths. As the range of toxicologically relevant compounds is continually changing due to the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), laboratories are encountering analytical challenges. Current immunoassays are insufficient for determining the whole range of the drugs abused, and a broad-spectrum screening method is therefore needed. Here, the patterns of drug abuse in two groups of drug users were studied from urine samples using a comprehensive screening method based on high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The two groups comprised drug abusers undergoing opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) or drug withdrawal therapy and routinely visiting a rehabilitation clinic, and drug abusers with irregular attendance at a harm reduction unit (HRU) and suspected of potential NPS abuse. Polydrug abuse was observed in both groups, but was more pronounced among the HRU subjects with a mean number of concurrent drugs per sample of 3.9, whereas among the regularly treated subjects the corresponding number was 2.1. NPS and pregabalin were more frequent among HRU subjects, and their abuse was always related to drug co-use. The most common drug combination for an HRU subject included amphetamine, cannabis, buprenorphine, benzodiazepine, and alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone. A typical set of drugs for treated subjects was buprenorphine, benzodiazepine, and occasionally amphetamine. Abuse of several concurrent drugs poses a higher risk of drug intoxication and a threat of premature termination of OMT. Since the subjects attending treatment used fewer concurrent drugs, this treatment could be valuable in reducing polydrug abuse.
煤矿深部含水层突水规律的研究%Study on water bursting regular pattern at deep water-bearing strata
邢会安
2012-01-01
In the early stage of coal mine production, the shallow water-bearing strata are the main factors that affect the mining safety, whereas the deep water-bearing strata have little effect on coal production. The water pressure of the coal mine is increasing quickly with the increase of the mining depth. Therefore, the impacts of deep water-bearing strata on coal production become more and more serious. The high water pressure and quosity in deep water-bearing strata not only cause the water inrush become more violent and swift, but also gush much more water. All of them greatly enhance the difficult of controlling water inrush. Major characteristics and the water bursting regular pattern in deep water-bearing strata were systematically summarized in this paper. Therefore, this paper has an important meaning to the mine water control work.%在煤矿生产的初期,对煤矿生产有影响的是浅部含水层,深部含水层对煤矿生产影响不大.随着煤矿生产开采深度的增加,矿井水压越来越大,因此深部含水层对煤矿生产的影响越来越严重.深部含水层由于水压高,含水性强,所以出水不仅量大、迅猛,而且治理难度大.本文总结了深部含水层的特点和突水规律.这些规律对于搞好煤矿防治水工作具有十分重要的意义.
Chen, Xiao-dong; Li, Tian-zeng; Qi, Shao-hai; Xie, Ju-lin; Xu, Ying-bin; Pan, Shu; Yuan, Ji-Shan; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Hui-zhen
2006-02-01
To investigate the regular pattern of the distribution of skin epidermal stem cells (ESCs) in the different parts of a healthy human body, and to evaluate the feasibility of the identification of ESCs by P63 and CD29 with single and double labeling. Full-thickness skin samples from 21 parts (including scalp, dorsum of foot, sole of foot, pubic region, and scrotum) of 5 healthy persons were harvested for the study. Immunohistochemistry method with biotin-streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (SP) was employed with P63 and CD29 as the first antibody to carry out single and double labeling. The staining results were subjected to image analysis. The distribution of the ESCs in the skin from the above parts was observed and expressed as positive unit (PU) value. It was found by P63 single labeling and P63 and CD29 double labeling that the PU value in the dorsum of foot was the lowest while that in the scalp was the highest among all the parts of a healthy body. It was also found by CD29 single labeling that the PU value in the dorsum of foot was the lowest [(11.9 +/- 1.5)%] while highest in the scalp [(29.1 +/- 5.0)%]. The PU value in the hairy region of a human body was evidently higher than that in the non-hairy region (P 0.05). There are more ESCs in the skin from the scalp, mons pubis and scrotum than other parts of the body. Single P63 or CD29 labeling exhibits higher sensitivity but lower specificity in the identification of ESCs. While the double labeling method exhibits higher specificity but lower sensitivity. Above all, it seems that the double labeling may be a simple and effective method for the identification of ESCs.
Lin, Zhimiao; Zhao, Jiahui; Nitoiu, Daniela; Scott, Claire A; Plagnol, Vincent; Smith, Frances J D; Wilson, Neil J; Cole, Christian; Schwartz, Mary E; McLean, W H Irwin; Wang, Huijun; Feng, Cheng; Duo, Lina; Zhou, Eray Yihui; Ren, Yali; Dai, Lanlan; Chen, Yulan; Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xun; O'Toole, Edel A; Kelsell, David P; Yang, Yong
2015-03-05
Calpastatin is an endogenous specific inhibitor of calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease. Here we show that loss-of-function mutations in calpastatin (CAST) are the genetic causes of an autosomal-recessive condition characterized by generalized peeling skin, leukonychia, acral punctate keratoses, cheilitis, and knuckle pads, which we propose to be given the acronym PLACK syndrome. In affected individuals with PLACK syndrome from three families of different ethnicities, we identified homozygous mutations (c.607dup, c.424A>T, and c.1750delG) in CAST, all of which were predicted to encode truncated proteins (p.Ile203Asnfs∗8, p.Lys142∗, and p.Val584Trpfs∗37). Immunohistochemistry shows that staining of calpastatin is reduced in skin from affected individuals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed widening of intercellular spaces with chromatin condensation and margination in the upper stratum spinosum in lesional skin, suggesting impaired intercellular adhesion as well as keratinocyte apoptosis. A significant increase of apoptotic keratinocytes was also observed in TUNEL assays. In vitro studies utilizing siRNA-mediated CAST knockdown revealed a role for calpastatin in keratinocyte adhesion. In summary, we describe PLACK syndrome, as a clinical entity of defective epidermal adhesion, caused by loss-of-function mutations in CAST.
Shu-Xuan Deng; An-Chun Cheng; Ming-Shu Wang; Ping Cao; Bin Yan; Nian-Chun Yin; Sheng-Yan Cao; Zhen-Hua Zhang
2008-01-01
AIM:To identify and understand the regular distribution pattern for Salmonella enteritidis (S.enteritidis) in the internal organs of mice after an oral challenge over a 3 wk period.METHODS:Assays based on the serovar-specific DNA sequence of S.enteritidis from GenBank,and a serovar-specific real-time,fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) were developed for the detection of S.enteritidis.We used this assay to detect genomic DNA of S.enteritidis in the blood and the internal organs,including heart,liver,spleen,kidney,pancreas,and gallbladder,from mice after oral challenge at different time points respectively.RESULTS:The results showed that the spleen was positive at 12 h post inoculation (PI),and the blood was at 14 h PI.The organism was detected in the liver and heart at 16 h PI,the pancreas was positive at 20 h PI,and the final organs to show positive results were the kidney and gallbladder at 22 h PI.The copy number of S.enteritidis DNA in each tissue reached a peak at 24-36 h PI,with the liver and spleen containing high concentrations of S.enteritidis,whereas the blood,heart,kidney,pancreas,and gallbladder had low concentrations.S.enteritidis populations began to decrease and were not detectable at 3 d PI,but were still present up to 12 d PI in the gallbladder,2 wk for the liver,and 3 wk for the spleen without causing apparent symptoms.CONCLUSION:The results provided significant data for understanding the life cycle of S.enteritidis in the internal organs,and showed that the liver and spleen may be the primary sites for setting itself up as a commensa over a long time after oral challenge.Interestingly,it may be the first time reported that the gallbladder is a site of carriage for S.enteritidis over a 12 d period.This study will help to understand the mechanisms of action of S.enteritidis infection in vivo.
Hua, Rui; Liu, Limin; Chen, Lei
2014-12-01
To investigate the autofluorescence (AF) characteristics of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) and to evaluate the progression rate of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy lesions in PIC using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Twenty-two eyes of 14 PIC cases and 21 eyes of 21 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) cases which received retinal coagulation as a control group were enrolled in this study. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and AF were recorded from all patients at 18 months follow-up. The RPE atrophy areas of PIC and laser scars in NPDR were analyzed using the Region Finder software of the Heidelberg Eye Explorer. This software allows direct export of AF images from the database and semi-automated detection of atrophic areas by shadow correction, vessel detection, and selection of seed points. At baseline, both hyperfluorescence and hypofluorescence were observed in the lesions of PIC eyes with a focal elevation of RPE and corresponding disruption of the ellipsoid region of the inner segment ellipsoid zone (EZ). In contrast, hypo-AF was detected when there was a lack of RPE. The mean progression rate of RPE atrophy in PIC and NPDR were 3.735 mm(2)/year (0.056-0.545) and 0.127 mm(2)/year (0.015-0.466), respectively. Compared with the atrophy area in the last visit, the progression rate in PIC was significantly greater than that in NPDR (Z=5.615, P<0.0001). The results of AF reflect the status of PIC and the progression rate of RPE atrophy in PIC, which can be used to predict the progress of PIC noninvasively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
曾志; 谢润乾; 张涛; 谭丽贤; 庾秀英
2011-01-01
质谱学在中药药效物质的结构确定中起至关重要的作用,对每一个化合物质谱的确切解释需要对每一个质谱的关键裂解过程具有足够的了解.本研究报道了川芎中具有不饱和侧链与饱和侧链内酯类化合物的质谱学规律.质谱特征峰[M+ -29]和[M+-42]表明了从这些内酯类化合物的分子离子分别失去不饱和侧链上的末端烷基-C2H5和-C3H6基团,这是川芎中具有不饱和侧链内酯类化合物(如(Z)-藁本内酯、(E)-藁本内酯、丁烯基酞内酯和川芎内酯Ⅰ)的典型质谱特征；质谱特征峰[M+-57]显示了从这些内酯类化合物的分子离子失去饱和侧链-C4H9基团,这是川芎中具有饱和侧链内酯类化合物(如丁基酞内酯和川芎内酯A)的典型质谱特征.%Mass spectrometry plays a crucial role in the structure elucidation of those effec-tive substances from traditional Chinese medicine. Secure interpretation of the mass spec-trum of each compound requires an adequate understanding of the key fragmentation process of the mass spectrum. In this paper, the regular patterns of mass spectrometry of lactones with unsaturated side chain and with saturated side chain from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Were reported. The diagnostic peaks at [M+ -29] and [M+ -42] show the molecu-lar ion of the lactones losses a -C2H5 group and a -C3H6 group, respectively, the terminal alkyl groups from the unsaturated side chain. They are typical characteristic of the mass spectra of the lactones with unsaturated side chain from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , such as (Z)-ligustilide. (E)-ligustilide, butylidene phthalide and senkyunolide I. The char-acteristic peak at [M+ -57] displays the molecular ion of the lactones losses a -C4 H9 group from the saturated side chain. This is typical characteristic of the mass spectra of the lactones with saturated side chain from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , such as bu-tylphthalide and senkyunolide A.
Current advances in punctate inner choroidopathy%点状内层脉络膜病变研究进展
田蓉; 陈有信
2012-01-01
Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) is a rare inflammatory multifocal choroidopathy,which belongs to the white dot syndrome.The pathogenesis of PIC is still not clear.It may result from an immunogenetic predisposition and the development of an inappropriately directed immune response.PIC affects predominantly young moderately myopic women and is characterized by the presence of multiple,small,yellow-white fundus lesions frequently limited to the posterior pole in the absence of signs for anterior uveitis or hyalitis.Most patients with PIC do not require treatment because of its favorable prognosis.However,choroidal neovascularization (CNV),the primary complication of PIC,sometimes causes permanent severe vision loss.Treatment modalities that have been used to manage patients with PIC and CNV include corticosteroids,other immunosuppressant agents,photodynamic therapy,submacular surgery and,most recently,anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.In this article,the definition,historical background,pathogenesis,pathology,clinical features,diagnosis and differential diagnosis,management and prognosis of PIC are reviewed.%点状内层脉络膜病变(PIC)是一种罕见的炎症性多灶性脉络膜病变,归类于白点综合征.目前病因不清,可能与免疫遗传易感性和异常的免疫反应相关.主要发生于中度近视青年女性,以眼底后极部多发的黄白色小点状病灶为特征,缺乏前葡萄膜炎和玻璃体炎体征.大多数患者视力预后较好,无需治疗,但其主要并发症——脉络膜新生血管可引起永久、严重的视力损害.PIC的治疗方法主要有皮质类固醇类药物,其他的有免疫抑制剂、光动力疗法、黄斑下手术及最近兴起的抗血管内皮生长因子疗法.现就点状内层脉络膜病变的定义、研究背景、病因及发病机制、病理、临床表现、诊断和鉴别诊断、治疗以及预后做一综述.
Mulloy, B; Ribeiro, A C; Alves, A P; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A
1994-09-02
Sulfated fucans from echinoderms (sea cucumber and sea urchin) have a linear backbone of 1-->3-linked alpha-L-fucopyranose with some sulfate substitution at the 2- and 4-positions. NMR spectroscopy indicates that both polysaccharides have a tetrasaccharide repeat unit in which the separate residues differ only in the extent and position of their sulfate substitution. The sea urchin fucan has the structure, [formula: see text] This type of regular structure has not previously been described, and is in contrast with the random arrangement of substituents on the similar 1-->3-linked alpha-L-fucopyranose backbone of the fucoidans from brown algae.
Yong Hua LI; Hai Bin KAN; Bing Jun YU
2004-01-01
In this paper, a special kind of partial algebras called projective partial groupoids is defined.It is proved that the inverse image of all projections of a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup under the homomorphism induced by the maximum idempotent-separating congruence of a weak regular *-semigroup has a projective partial groupoid structure. Moreover, a weak regular *-product which connects a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup with corresponding projective partial groupoid is defined and characterized. It is finally proved that every weak regular *-product is in fact a weak regular *-semigroup and any weak regular *-semigroup is constructed in this way.
Regularity extraction from non-adjacent sounds
Alexandra eBendixen
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The regular behavior of sound sources helps us to make sense of the auditory environment. Regular patterns may, for instance, convey information on the identity of a sound source (such as the acoustic signature of a train moving on the rails. Yet typically, this signature overlaps in time with signals emitted from other sound sources. It is generally assumed that auditory regularity extraction cannot operate upon this mixture of signals because it only finds regularities between adjacent sounds. In this view, the auditory environment would be grouped into separate entities by means of readily available acoustic cues such as separation in frequency and location. Regularity extraction processes would then operate upon the resulting groups. Our new experimental evidence challenges this view. We presented two interleaved sound sequences which overlapped in frequency range and shared all acoustic parameters. The sequences only differed in their underlying regular patterns. We inserted deviants into one of the sequences to probe whether the regularity was extracted. In the first experiment, we found that these deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN component. Thus the auditory system was able to find the regularity between the non-adjacent sounds. Regularity extraction was not influenced by sequence cohesiveness as manipulated by the relative duration of tones and silent inter-tone-intervals. In the second experiment, we showed that a regularity connecting non-adjacent sounds was discovered only when the intervening sequence also contained a regular pattern, but not when the intervening sounds were randomly varying. This suggests that separate regular patterns are available to the auditory system as a cue for identifying signals coming from distinct sound sources. Thus auditory regularity extraction is not necessarily confined to a processing stage after initial sound grouping, but may precede grouping when other acoustic cues are unavailable.
崔宁; 谢春娥; 李安德; 王晓才; 张秋林
2011-01-01
as damp heat pattern,cold damp pattern and food retention in the stomach and intestine pattern. The other patterns accounted for less than 5 ％. Damp heat pattern in spring was predominated as compared with that in autumn. Cold damp pattern in winter was dominated as compared with that in spring. Damp heat pattern in summer was more popular than that in autumn. Cold damp pattern in autumn was more common than that in summer. Damp heat pattern in summer and autumn was more prevalent than that in spring and winter. Cold damp pattern in winter and spring were more obvious than that in summer and autumn. Conclusion The synthesis of seasonal distribution regularity of Chinese medicine patterns of acute diarrhea contributes to the analysis of the etiology and pathogenesis for the early stage of acute diarrhea and may provide much more objective evidences for pattern differentiation and treatment of acute diarrhea in terms of traditional Chinese medicine.
Zwintz, K; Guenther, D B; Ryabchikova, T; Baglin, A; Themessl, N; Barnes, T G; Matthews, J M; Auvergne, M; Bohlender, D; Chaintreuil, S; Kuschnig, R; Moffat, A F J; Rowe, J F; Rucinski, S M; Sasselov, D; Weiss, W W
2013-01-01
We concentrate on an asteroseismological study of HD 261711, a rather hot delta Scuti type pulsating member of the young open cluster NGC 2264 located at the blue border of the instability region. HD 261711 was discovered to be a pre-main sequence delta Scuti star using the time series photometry obtained by the MOST satellite in 2006. High-precision, time-series photometry of HD 261711 was obtained by the MOST and CoRoT satellites in 4 separate new observing runs that are put into context with the star's fundamental atmospheric parameters obtained from spectroscopy. With the new MOST data set from 2011/12 and the two CoRoT light curves from 2008 and 2011/12, the delta Scuti variability was confirmed and regular groups of frequencies were discovered. The two pulsation frequencies identified in the data from the first MOST observing run in 2006 are confirmed and 23 new delta Scuti-type frequencies were discovered using the CoRoT data. Weighted average frequencies for each group are related to l=0 and l=1 p-mod...
NOETHERIAN GR-REGULAR RINGS ARE REGULAR
LIHUISHI
1994-01-01
It is proved that for a left Noetherian z-graded ring A,if every finitely generated graded A-module has finite projective dimension(i.e-,A is gr-regular)then every finitely generated A-module has finite projective dimension(i.e.,A is regular).Some applications of this result to filtered rings and some classical cases are also given.
Regular Expression Pocket Reference
Stubblebine, Tony
2007-01-01
This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp
Dimensional regularization is generic
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2016-01-01
The absence of the quadratic divergence in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model in the dimensional regularization is usually regarded to be an exceptional property of a specific regularization. To understand what is going on in the dimensional regularization, we illustrate how to reproduce the results of the dimensional regularization for the $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory in the more conventional regularization such as the higher derivative regularization; the basic postulate involved is that the quadratically divergent induced mass, which is independent of the scale change of the physical mass, is kinematical and unphysical. This is consistent with the derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation, which is a comparison of two theories with slightly different masses, for the $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory without encountering the quadratic divergence. We thus suggest that the dimensional regularization is generic in a bottom-up approach starting with a successful low-energy theory. We also define a modified version of t...
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Behrens, F; Grüsser, O J; Weiss, L R
1999-02-01
Eye position and angular velocity were measured in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by means of the electromagnetic scleral search-coil technique. Horizontal sigma-optokinetic nystagmus (sigma-OKN) was elicited by a stationary, stroboscopically illuminated, periodic, vertical-stripe pattern lining a vertical cylinder. The relationship between the mean slow-phase eye angular velocity, Ve, of sigma-OKN and the product of pattern period, Ps, and flash frequency, f(s), was determined. When Ve approximated k x Ps x f(s) (deg x s(-1)) and k was an integer > or = 1, the sigma-paradigm was fulfilled. Sigma-OKN could be evoked in different "modes", whereby k approximated 1, 2,...n. The sigma-OKN properties of squirrel monkeys were similar to those measured for sigma-OKN in the "stare" mode in man, with the exception of a long-lasting optokinetic afternystagmus (sigma-OKAN) appearing in the monkey. A considerable amount of temporal variability in flash sequence intervals ("temporal noise"), causing retinal error signals that interfered with the sigma-paradigm, was accepted by the visuo-motor system without interruption of sigma-OKN. This observation was explained by the operation of a short memory device for perception of visual motion. The internal gain, g(i), which relates the retinal "error" displacement velocity, Vr, and Ve depended, in turn, on Vr according to a function resembling the known relationship between neuronal activity of NOT (nucleus of the optic tract) nerve cells and Vr. This observation may be taken as direct proof that sigma-OKN can be explained by a centrally preprogrammed relationship between the retinal velocity, Vr, and the OKN slow-phase eye velocity, Ve. It is stipulated that the sum of Vr and efference copy signals generated in cortical or subcortical gaze centers is the essential component controlling the perceived velocity of the sigma-movement, whereby a short-term integrator plays a role for squirrel monkey sigma-OKN. When the flash
Martire, Sarah I; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J
2015-02-01
When exposed to a diet containing foods that are rich in fat and sugar, rats eat to excess and gain weight. We examined the effects of alternating this diet with laboratory chow on intake of each type of diet, the eating elicited by a palatable food (biscuits), and the drinking elicited by sweet solutions that did (sucrose) or did not (saccharin) contain calories. Each week for 13 weeks, cycled rats were provided with the cafeteria diet for three successive days/nights and the chow diet for the remaining four days/nights, whereas other rats received continuous access to either the cafeteria or the chow diets. On each of the 13 weeks, cycled rats ate more across the first 24 hour exposure to the cafeteria diet than rats continuously fed this diet. In contrast, cycled rats ate less across the first 24 hour exposure to the chow diet than rats continuously fed this diet and ate less when presented a novel palatable biscuit than chow-fed rats. The three groups exhibited similar licks per cluster to saccharin, but cafeteria-fed and cycled rats showed fewer clusters than chow-fed rats. In contrast, chow-fed rats and cycled rats exhibited more licks per cluster to sucrose than cafeteria-fed rats, but all three groups had a similar number of clusters. The results were discussed in relation to the effects of diet cycling on eating patterns, body weight, and 'wanting' and 'liking'. These findings with rats may have important implications for yo-yo dieting in people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey
2016-04-01
Distribution of artificial radionuclides in the environment has long been used successfully for revealing migration pathways of their stable analogues. Migration of water in natural conjugated elementary landscapes characterizing the system of top-slope-resulting depression, has a specific structure and the radionuclide tracer is inevitably reflecting it by specific sorption and exchange processes. Other important issues are the concentration levels and the difference in characteristic time of chemical element dispersion. Modern biosphere has acquired its sustainable structure within a long period of time and is formed by basic macroelements allowing the water soluble portion of elements functioning as activators of chemical exchange. Water migration is controlled by gravitation, climate and relief while fixation depends upon the parameters of surfaces and chemical composition. The resulting structure depends on specificity and duration of the process. The long-term redistribution of chemical elements in terrestrial environment has led to a distinct geochemical structure of conjugated landscapes with a specific geometry of redistribution and accumulation of chemical elements. Migration of the newly born anthropogenic radionuclides followed natural pathways in biosphere. The initial deposition of the Chernobyl's radionuclides within the elementary landscape-geochemical system was even by condition of aerial deposition. But further exchange process is controlled by the strength of fixation and migration ability of the carriers. Therefore patterns of spatial distribution of artificial radionuclides in natural landscapes are considerably different as compared to those of the long-term forming the basic structure of chemical fields in biosphere. Our monitoring of Cs-137 radial and lateral distribution in the test plots characterizing natural undisturbed conjugated elementary landscapes performed in the period from 2005 until now has revealed a stable and specifically
Robust Sparse Analysis Regularization
Vaiter, Samuel; Dossal, Charles; Fadili, Jalal
2011-01-01
This paper studies the properties of L1-analysis regularization for the resolution of linear inverse problems. Most previous works consider sparse synthesis priors where the sparsity is measured as the L1 norm of the coefficients that synthesize the signal in a given dictionary. In contrast, the more general analysis regularization minimizes the L1 norm of the correlations between the signal and the atoms in the dictionary. The corresponding variational problem includes several well-known regularizations such as the discrete total variation and the fused lasso. We first prove that a solution of analysis regularization is a piecewise affine function of the observations. Similarly, it is a piecewise affine function of the regularization parameter. This allows us to compute the degrees of freedom associated to sparse analysis estimators. Another contribution gives a sufficient condition to ensure that a signal is the unique solution of the analysis regularization when there is no noise in the observations. The s...
Goyvaerts, Jan
2009-01-01
This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a
Regularization in kernel learning
Mendelson, Shahar; 10.1214/09-AOS728
2010-01-01
Under mild assumptions on the kernel, we obtain the best known error rates in a regularized learning scenario taking place in the corresponding reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). The main novelty in the analysis is a proof that one can use a regularization term that grows significantly slower than the standard quadratic growth in the RKHS norm.
Regular database update logics
Spruit, Paul; Wieringa, Roel; Meyer, John-Jules
2001-01-01
We study regular first-order update logic (FUL), which is a variant of regular dynamic logic in which updates to function symbols as well as to predicate symbols are possible. We fi1rst study FUL without making assumptions about atomic updates. Second, we look at relational algebra update logic (RAU
Regularization by External Variables
Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.
2016-01-01
Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....
Regular Expression Containment
Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse
2011-01-01
We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...
Regularities of Multifractal Measures
Hun Ki Baek
2008-05-01
First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in $\\mathbb{R}^d$. This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we give some properties related to multifractal Hausdorff and packing densities. Finally, we extend the density theorem in [6] to any measurable set.
T. (A)LVAREZ
2012-01-01
For a closed linear relation in a Banach space the concept of regularity is introduced and studied.It is shown that many of the results of Mbekhta and other authors for operators remain valid in the context of multivalued linear operators.We also extend the punctured neighbourhood theorem for operators to linear relations and as an application we obtain a characterization of semiFredholm linear relations which are regular.
郭星; 程方叙; 廖政; 张兴国; 曹原湘; 文便便
2008-01-01
[Objective] The experiment aimed to inquire into the regular pattern of the flavonoids content in erect type Ophiopogon jaonicus preliminarily. [Methods] In the main Ophiopogon jaonicus-produeing area, we use the method of home position dynamic method to gather sample for experiments, use UV to determine the flavonoids content in Ophiopogon jaonicus and use correlation and regression method to analyze the relation between flavonoids content and the growth period of Ophiopogon jaonicus. [Results] The relation between flavonoids content(y1) and the growth period(x//d) of erect type Ophio-pogon jaonicus is: y=1. 235 61nx-4.748 9(n=7, 50 ≤x≤730, 0≤y≤3. 128, r0.001=0.950 7, r=0.954 2). [Conclusion] During a determinate time (50≤x≤730), positive correlation exists between flavonoids content and the growth period of Ophiopogon jaonicus. Our research has a great importance in directing the scientific harvest and GAP production of erect type Ophiopogon jctonicus.
Regularized Structural Equation Modeling.
Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J; McArdle, John J
A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM's utility.
Maria Beatriz J. Camargo
2009-09-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso regular de serviços odontológicos entre adultos, identificando grupos nos quais esse comportamento é mais freqüente. O estudo foi realizado em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com desenho transversal de base populacional, envolvendo 2.961 indivíduos, que responderam um questionário estruturado. A prevalência de uso regular encontrada foi de 32,8%. Estiveram positivamente associadas ao uso de forma regular as seguintes características: ser do sexo feminino, ter idade The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of regular use of dental services by adults and identify groups where this behavior is more frequent. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in Pelotas, southern Brazil, including 2,961 individuals who answered a standardized questionnaire. Overall prevalence of regular use of dental services was 32.8%. The following variables were positively associated with regular use: female gender, age > 60 years, no partner, high educational level, high economic status, private service user, good/excellent self-rated oral health, and no perceived need for dental treatment. Those who had received orientation on prevention and expressed a favorable view towards the dentist had higher odds of being regular users. Especially among lower-income individuals, regular use was infrequent (15%. When restricting the analysis to users of public dental services, schooling was still positively associated with the outcome. Dental services, especially in the public sector, should develop strategies to increase regular and preventive use.
Faupin, Jeremy; Møller, Jacob Schach; Skibsted, Erik
2011-01-01
We study regularity of bound states pertaining to embedded eigenvalues of a self-adjoint operator H, with respect to an auxiliary operator A that is conjugate to H in the sense of Mourre. We work within the framework of singular Mourre theory which enables us to deal with confined massless Pauli–......–Fierz models, our primary example, and many-body AC-Stark Hamiltonians. In the simpler context of regular Mourre theory, our results boil down to an improvement of results obtained recently in [8, 9]....
Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.
Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding
2017-01-27
This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.
Annotation of Regular Polysemy
Martinez Alonso, Hector
Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...
Liu, Jinzhen; Ling, Lin; Li, Gang
2013-07-01
A Tikhonov regularization method in the inverse problem of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) often results in a smooth distribution reconstruction, with which we can barely make a clear separation between the inclusions and background. The recently popular total variation (TV)regularization method including the lagged diffusivity (LD) method can sharpen the edges, and is robust to noise in a small convergence region. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel regularization method combining the Tikhonov and LD regularization methods. Firstly, we clarify the implementation details of the Tikhonov, LD and combined methods in two-dimensional open EIT by performing the current injection and voltage measurement on one boundary of the imaging object. Next, we introduce a weighted parameter to the Tikhonov regularization method aiming to explore the effect of the weighted parameter on the resolution and quality of reconstruction images with the inclusion at different depths. Then, we analyze the performance of these algorithms with noisy data. Finally, we evaluate the effect of the current injection pattern on reconstruction quality and propose a modified current injection pattern.The results indicate that the combined regularization algorithm with stable convergence is able to improve the reconstruction quality with sharp contrast and more robust to noise in comparison to the Tikhonov and LD regularization methods solely. In addition, the results show that the current injection pattern with a bigger driver angle leads to a better reconstruction quality.
支有冉; 宗若雯; 王荣辉; 李松阳
2009-01-01
在火灾调查中,检测汽油成分并对其进行正确分类尤为重要.运用GC-MS对90#和93#两种普通汽油的共50个样本进行检测,所得的GC-MS原始数据通过PCA方法进行处理,以提取有用信息,避免冗余变量进入后续计算.在此基础上应用KNN方法对这两种汽油助燃剂进行分类.结果表明, KNN方法对这两种汽油的分类准确率达到100%,且当初始数据未经标准化预处理时也能达到同样准确的分类效果.研究表明:将模式识别方法正确地运用到助燃剂鉴定和分类工作中有助于火灾调查.%Detection and accurate classification of gasoline is very important in fire investigation. In this paper, a total of 50 samples of regular gasoline, covering two different grades (90# and 93 #), were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS data were treated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to distill the information from the original dataset in order to avoid the redundant variables to be calculated. And k-nearest neighbors algorithm (KNN) was further applied to classify the two types of accelerant. The results showed that KNN could classify the two types of gasoline effectively, with the 100% probability (no prediction error), whether the data were normalized or not. The results indicated that the proper application of pattern recognition to the identification and classification of accelerant provided positive help in fire investigation.
吴嘉瑞; 董玲; 张冰; 王璞; 邱雯焕
2012-01-01
目的 探讨中医美容处方的用药规律.方法 依托ACCESS数据库平台,建立中医美容处方数据库,并应用数据库软件对数据进行分析.结果 本研究共计录入中医美容方剂1821首,着重对其中的中医美容古代方、药膳方及痤疮、黄褐斑、雀斑等处方中药物使用频度进行分析,统计显示白芷、茯苓、枸杞子、蜂蜜、黑芝麻、黄芩、当归为较常用的七味中药.结论 中医美容用药以滋补人体气血阴阳为主,对皮肤病治疗则兼以清热解毒.%Objective To explore the regular pattern of TCM beauty prescription.Methods Based on the ACCESS database platform,we established TCM beauty prescription database and analyzed the information in detailed.Results The total number of beauty prescription in the database was 1821.We focused on analyzing the frequency of medicine application in ancient beauty prescriptions,medicinal diet,acne,chloasma and freckles prescriptions.Statistics showed that dahurian angelica root,indian bread,medlar,honey,black sesame,baical skullcap root,and Chinese angelica were the most commonly used seven kinds of Chinese herbs.Conclusion The main parts of Chinese medicines for making beauty were those herbs which can nourish yin and blood,supplement yang and qi; and the main parts of Chinese medicine for treating skin diseases were those herbs which can clear heat and detoxicate.
Sparse structure regularized ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-04-17
Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.
Regularized Reduced Order Models
Wells, David; Xie, Xuping; Iliescu, Traian
2015-01-01
This paper puts forth a regularization approach for the stabilization of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) reduced order models (ROMs) for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. Two regularized ROMs (Reg-ROMs) are proposed: the Leray ROM (L-ROM) and the evolve-then-filter ROM (EF-ROM). These new Reg-ROMs use spatial filtering to smooth (regularize) various terms in the ROMs. Two spatial filters are used: a POD projection onto a POD subspace (Proj) and a new POD differential filter (DF). The four Reg-ROM/filter combinations are tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient and the three-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder at a low Reynolds number (Re = 100). Overall, the most accurate Reg-ROM/filter combination is EF-ROM-DF. Furthermore, the DF generally yields better results than Proj. Finally, the four Reg-ROM/filter combinations are computationally efficient and generally more accurate than the standard Galerkin ROM.
Regularizing portfolio optimization
Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre
2010-07-01
The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.
Wen LIU; Jing LIN
2011-01-01
In this paper,we define a class of strongly connected digraph,called the k-walk-regular digraph,study some properties of it,provide its some algebraic characterization and point out that the O-walk-regular digraph is the same as the walk-regular digraph discussed BY Liu and Lin in 2010 and the D-walk-regular digraph is identical with the weakly distance-regular digraph defined by Comellas et al in 2004.
Annotation of Regular Polysemy
Martinez Alonso, Hector
Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... like “London” (Location/Organization) or “cup” (Container/Content). The goal of this dissertation is to assess whether metonymic sense underspecification justifies incorporating a third sense into our sense inventories, thereby treating the underspecified sense as independent from the literal...
From regular modules to von Neumann regular rings via coordinatization
Leonard Daus
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper we establish a very close link (in terms of von Neu- mann's coordinatization between regular modules introduced by Zel- manowitz, on one hand, and von Neumann regular rings, on the other hand: we prove that the lattice L^{fg}(M of all finitely generated submodules of a finitely generated regular module M, over an arbitrary ring, can be coordinatized as the lattice of all principal right ideals of some von Neumann regular ring S.
Modular Regularization Algorithms
Jacobsen, Michael
2004-01-01
The class of linear ill-posed problems is introduced along with a range of standard numerical tools and basic concepts from linear algebra, statistics and optimization. Known algorithms for solving linear inverse ill-posed problems are analyzed to determine how they can be decomposed into indepen......The class of linear ill-posed problems is introduced along with a range of standard numerical tools and basic concepts from linear algebra, statistics and optimization. Known algorithms for solving linear inverse ill-posed problems are analyzed to determine how they can be decomposed...... into independent modules. These modules are then combined to form new regularization algorithms with other properties than those we started out with. Several variations are tested using the Matlab toolbox MOORe Tools created in connection with this thesis. Object oriented programming techniques are explained...... and used to set up the illposed problems in the toolbox. Hereby, we are able to write regularization algorithms that automatically exploit structure in the ill-posed problem without being rewritten explicitly. We explain how to implement a stopping criteria for a parameter choice method based upon...
Structure for Regular Inclusions
Pitts, David R
2012-01-01
We study pairs (C,D) of unital C*-algebras where D is an abelian C*-subalgebra of C which is regular in C. When D is a MASA in C, there exists a unique completely positive unital map E of C into the injective envelope I(D) of D whose restriction to D is the identity on D. We show that the left kernel of E is the unique closed two-sided ideal of C maximal with respect to having trivial intersection with D. We introduce a new class of well behaved state extensions, the compatible states; we identify compatible states when D is a MASA in C in terms of groups constructed from local dynamics near a pure state on D. When C is separable, D is a MASA in C, and the pair (C,D) is regular, the set of pure states on D with unique state extensions to C is dense in D. The map E can be used as a substitute for a conditional expectation in the construction of coordinates for C relative to D. We show that certain classes of compatible states have natural groupoid operations, and we show that constructions of Kumjian and Renau...
Evolutionary internalized regularities.
Schwartz, R
2001-08-01
Roger Shepard's proposals and supporting experiments concerning evolutionary internalized regularities have been very influential in the study of vision and in other areas of psychology and cognitive science. This paper examines issues concerning the need, nature, explanatory role, and justification for postulating such internalized constraints. In particular, I seek further clarification from Shepard on how best to understand his claim that principles of kinematic geometry underlie phenomena of motion perception. My primary focus is on the ecological validity of Shepard's kinematic constraint in the context of ordinary motion perception. First, I explore the analogy Shepard draws between internalized circadian rhythms and the supposed internalization of kinematic geometry. Next, questions are raised about how to interpret and justify applying results from his own and others' experimental studies of apparent motion to more everyday cases of motion perception in richer environments. Finally, some difficulties with Shepard's account of the evolutionary development of his kinematic constraint are considered.
Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers
Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai
1997-01-01
We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo...
Jiang, Caigui
2015-10-27
We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.
Bambi, Cosimo
2013-01-01
The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this letter, we apply the Newman-Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type ...
Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn; Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn
2013-04-25
The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this Letter, we apply the Newman–Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type D, they are singularity free, but they violate the weak energy condition for a non-vanishing spin and their curvature invariants have different values at r=0 depending on the way one approaches the origin. We propose a natural prescription to have rotating solutions with a minimal violation of the weak energy condition and without the questionable property of the curvature invariants at the origin.
Ensemble manifold regularization.
Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng
2012-06-01
We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Understanding Regular Expressions
Doug Knox
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In this exercise we will use advanced find-and-replace capabilities in a word processing application in order to make use of structure in a brief historical document that is essentially a table in the form of prose. Without using a general programming language, we will gain exposure to some aspects of computational thinking, especially pattern matching, that can be immediately helpful to working historians (and others using word processors, and can form the basis for subsequent learning with more general programming environments.
Regular Bisimple ω2-semigroups
汪立民; 商宇
2008-01-01
@@ The regular semigroups S with an idempotent set Es = {e0,e1,…,en,…} such that e0 ＞ e1 ＞…＞ en ＞… is called a regular ω-semigroup. In [5] Reilly determined the structure of a regular bisimple ω-semigroup as BR(G,θ),which is the classical Bruck-Reilly extension of a group G.
Completely regular fuzzifying topological spaces
A. K. Katsaras
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Some of the properties of the completely regular fuzzifying topological spaces are investigated. It is shown that a fuzzifying topology ÃÂ„ is completely regular if and only if it is induced by some fuzzy uniformity or equivalently by some fuzzifying proximity. Also, ÃÂ„ is completely regular if and only if it is generated by a family of probabilistic pseudometrics.
On regular rotating black holes
Torres, R.; Fayos, F.
2017-01-01
Different proposals for regular rotating black hole spacetimes have appeared recently in the literature. However, a rigorous analysis and proof of the regularity of this kind of spacetimes is still lacking. In this note we analyze rotating Kerr-like black hole spacetimes and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the regularity of all their second order scalar invariants polynomial in the Riemann tensor. We also show that the regularity is linked to a violation of the weak energy conditions around the core of the rotating black hole.
Constrained and regularized system identification
Tor A. Johansen
1998-04-01
Full Text Available Prior knowledge can be introduced into system identification problems in terms of constraints on the parameter space, or regularizing penalty functions in a prediction error criterion. The contribution of this work is mainly an extension of the well known FPE (Final Production Error statistic to the case when the system identification problem is constrained and contains a regularization penalty. The FPECR statistic (Final Production Error with Constraints and Regularization is of potential interest as a criterion for selection of both regularization parameters and structural parameters such as order.
On regular rotating black holes
Torres, Ramon
2016-01-01
Different proposals for regular rotating black hole spacetimes have appeared recently in the literature. However, a rigorous analysis and proof of the regularity of this kind of spacetimes is still lacking. In this note we analyze rotating Kerr-like black hole spacetimes and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the regularity of all their second order scalar invariants polynomial in the Riemann tensor. We also show that the regularity is linked to a violation of the weak energy conditions around the core of the rotating black hole.
CHEN Huan Yin; LI Fu An
2002-01-01
In this paper, we investigate ideals of regular rings and give several characterizations for an ideal to satisfy the comparability. In addition, it is shown that, if Ⅰ is a minimal two-sided ideal of a regular ring R, then Ⅰ satisfies the comparability if and only if Ⅰ is separative. Furthermore, we prove that, for ideals with stable range one, Roth's problem has an affirmative solution. These extend the corresponding results on unit-regularity and one-sided unit-regularity.
Regularly timed events amid chaos
Blakely, Jonathan N.; Cooper, Roy M.; Corron, Ned J.
2015-11-01
We show rigorously that the solutions of a class of chaotic oscillators are characterized by regularly timed events in which the derivative of the solution is instantaneously zero. The perfect regularity of these events is in stark contrast with the well-known unpredictability of chaos. We explore some consequences of these regularly timed events through experiments using chaotic electronic circuits. First, we show that a feedback loop can be implemented to phase lock the regularly timed events to a periodic external signal. In this arrangement the external signal regulates the timing of the chaotic signal but does not strictly lock its phase. That is, phase slips of the chaotic oscillation persist without disturbing timing of the regular events. Second, we couple the regularly timed events of one chaotic oscillator to those of another. A state of synchronization is observed where the oscillators exhibit synchronized regular events while their chaotic amplitudes and phases evolve independently. Finally, we add additional coupling to synchronize the amplitudes, as well, however in the opposite direction illustrating the independence of the amplitudes from the regularly timed events.
Online co-regularized algorithms
Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.
2012-01-01
We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks
Online co-regularized algorithms
Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.
2012-01-01
We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks
Nonconvex Regularization in Remote Sensing
Tuia, Devis; Flamary, Remi; Barlaud, Michel
2016-11-01
In this paper, we study the effect of different regularizers and their implications in high dimensional image classification and sparse linear unmixing. Although kernelization or sparse methods are globally accepted solutions for processing data in high dimensions, we present here a study on the impact of the form of regularization used and its parametrization. We consider regularization via traditional squared (2) and sparsity-promoting (1) norms, as well as more unconventional nonconvex regularizers (p and Log Sum Penalty). We compare their properties and advantages on several classification and linear unmixing tasks and provide advices on the choice of the best regularizer for the problem at hand. Finally, we also provide a fully functional toolbox for the community.
Conservative regularization of compressible flow
Krishnaswami, Govind S; Thyagaraja, Anantanarayanan
2015-01-01
Ideal Eulerian flow may develop singularities in vorticity w. Navier-Stokes viscosity provides a dissipative regularization. We find a local, conservative regularization - lambda^2 w times curl(w) of compressible flow and compressible MHD: a three dimensional analogue of the KdV regularization of the one dimensional kinematic wave equation. The regulator lambda is a field subject to the constitutive relation lambda^2 rho = constant. Lambda is like a position-dependent mean-free path. Our regularization preserves Galilean, parity and time-reversal symmetries. We identify locally conserved energy, helicity, linear and angular momenta and boundary conditions ensuring their global conservation. Enstrophy is shown to remain bounded. A swirl velocity field is identified, which transports w/rho and B/rho generalizing the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Alfven theorems. A Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket formulation is given. The regularized equations are used to model a rotating vortex, channel flow, plane flow, a plane vortex ...
Approximate Sparse Regularized Hyperspectral Unmixing
Chengzhi Deng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Sparse regression based unmixing has been recently proposed to estimate the abundance of materials present in hyperspectral image pixel. In this paper, a novel sparse unmixing optimization model based on approximate sparsity, namely, approximate sparse unmixing (ASU, is firstly proposed to perform the unmixing task for hyperspectral remote sensing imagery. And then, a variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian algorithm is introduced to tackle the optimization problem. In ASU, approximate sparsity is used as a regularizer for sparse unmixing, which is sparser than l1 regularizer and much easier to be solved than l0 regularizer. Three simulated and one real hyperspectral images were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to l1 regularizer. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is more effective and accurate for hyperspectral unmixing than state-of-the-art l1 regularizer.
ZOU Zhi-Yun; MAO Bao-Hua; HAO Hai-Ming; GAO Jian-Zhi; YANG Jie-Jiao
2009-01-01
According to the deficiencies in Watts and Strogatz's small-world network model, we present a new regular model to establish the small-world network. Besides the property of the small-world, this model has other properties such as accuracy in controlling the average shortest path length L, and the average clustering coefficient C, also regular network topology as well as enhanced network robustness. This method improves the construction of the small-world network essentially, so that the regular small-world network closely resembles the actual network. We also present studies on the relationships among the quantities of a variety of edges, L and C in regular small-world network in detail. This research lays the foundation for the establishment of the regular small-world network and acts as a good guidance for further research of this model and its applications.
A Criterion for Regular Sequences
D P Patil; U Storch; J Stückrad
2004-05-01
Let be a commutative noetherian ring and $f_1,\\ldots,f_r \\in R$. In this article we give (cf. the Theorem in $\\mathcal{x}$2) a criterion for $f_1,\\ldots,f_r$ to be regular sequence for a finitely generated module over which strengthens and generalises a result in [2]. As an immediate consequence we deduce that if $V(g_1,\\ldots,g_r) \\subseteq V(f_1,\\ldots,f_r)$ in Spec and if $f_1,\\ldots,f_r$ is a regular sequence in , then $g_1,\\ldots,g_r$ is also a regular sequence in .
Huanyin CHEN
2009-01-01
The necessary and sufficient conditions under which a ring satisfies regular power-substitution are investigated. It is shown that a ring R satisfies regular power-substitution if and only if a(-～)b in R implies that there exist n ∈ N and a U ∈ GLn(R) such that aU =Ub if and only if for any regular x ∈ R there exist m,n ∈ N and U ∈ GLn(R) such that xmIn = xmUxm, where a(-～)b means that there exists x, y, z ∈ R such that a = ybx, b = xaz and x = xyx = xzx. It is proved that every directly finite simple ring satisfies regular power-substitution. Some applications for stably free R-modules are also obtained.
NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION
CHARTRAND, RICK [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-01-16
The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.
Regularization with a pruning prior
Goutte, Cyril; Hansen, Lars Kai
1997-01-01
We investigate the use of a regularization priorthat we show has pruning properties. Analyses areconducted both using a Bayesian framework and withthe generalization method, on a simple toyproblem. Results are thoroughly compared withthose obtained with a traditional weight decay.......We investigate the use of a regularization priorthat we show has pruning properties. Analyses areconducted both using a Bayesian framework and withthe generalization method, on a simple toyproblem. Results are thoroughly compared withthose obtained with a traditional weight decay....
Regular and Periodic Tachyon Kinks
Bazeia, D.; Menezes, R.; Ramos, J. G.
2004-01-01
We search for regular tachyon kinks in an extended model, which includes the tachyon action recently proposed to describe the tachyon field. The extended model that we propose adds a new contribution to the tachyon action, and seems to enrich the present scenario for the tachyon field. We have found stable tachyon kinks of regular profile, which may appropriately lead to the singular kink found by Sen sometime ago. Also, under specific conditions we may find periodic array of kink-antikink co...
Shervin Sahebi
2014-05-01
Full Text Available $R$ is called commuting regular ring (resp. semigroupif for each $x,y\\in R$ there exists $a\\in R$ such that$xy=yxayx$. In this paper, we introduce the concept ofcommuting $\\pi$-regular rings (resp. semigroups andstudy various properties of them.
Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.
Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala
2013-06-01
Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n" setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.
Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*
Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala
2012-01-01
Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197
Regularized Kernel Forms of Minimum Squared Error Method
XU Jian-hua; ZHANG Xue-gong; LI Yan-da
2006-01-01
Minimum squared error (MSE) algorithm is one of the classical pattern recognition and regression analysis methods,whose objective is to minimize the squared error summation between the output of linear function and the desired output.In this paper,the MSE algorithm is modified by using kernel functions satisfying the Mercer condition and regularization technique; and the nonlinear MSE algorithms based on kernels and regularization term,that is,the regularized kernel forms of MSE algorithm,are proposed.Their objective functions include the squared error summation between the output of nonlinear function based on kernels and the desired output and a proper regularization term.The regularization technique can handle ill-posed problems,reduce the solution space,and control the generalization.Three squared regularization terms are utilized in this paper.In accordance with the probabilistic interpretation of regularization terms,the difference among three regularization terms is given in detail.The synthetic and real data are used to analyze the algorithm performance.
Quotient Complexity of Regular Languages
Janusz Brzozowski
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The past research on the state complexity of operations on regular languages is examined, and a new approach based on an old method (derivatives of regular expressions is presented. Since state complexity is a property of a language, it is appropriate to define it in formal-language terms as the number of distinct quotients of the language, and to call it "quotient complexity". The problem of finding the quotient complexity of a language f(K,L is considered, where K and L are regular languages and f is a regular operation, for example, union or concatenation. Since quotients can be represented by derivatives, one can find a formula for the typical quotient of f(K,L in terms of the quotients of K and L. To obtain an upper bound on the number of quotients of f(K,L all one has to do is count how many such quotients are possible, and this makes automaton constructions unnecessary. The advantages of this point of view are illustrated by many examples. Moreover, new general observations are presented to help in the estimation of the upper bounds on quotient complexity of regular operations.
Ratanpal B S; Sharma Jaita
2016-03-01
The charged anisotropic star on paraboloidal space-time is reported by choosing a particular form of radial pressure and electric field intensity. The non-singular solution of Einstein–Maxwell system of equation has been derived and it is shown that the model satisfies all the physical plausibility conditions. It is observed that in the absence of electric field intensity, the model reducesto a particular case of uncharged Sharma and Ratanpal model. It is also observed that the parameter used in the electric field intensity directly affects mass of the star.
Efficient Hyperelastic Regularization for Registration
Darkner, Sune; Hansen, Michael Sass; Larsen, Rasmus;
2011-01-01
For most image registration problems a smooth one-to-one mapping is desirable, a diffeomorphism. This can be obtained using priors such as volume preservation, certain kinds of elasticity or both. The key principle is to regularize the strain of the deformation which can be done through penalizat......For most image registration problems a smooth one-to-one mapping is desirable, a diffeomorphism. This can be obtained using priors such as volume preservation, certain kinds of elasticity or both. The key principle is to regularize the strain of the deformation which can be done through...... penalization of the eigen values of the stress tensor. We present a computational framework for regularization of image registration for isotropic hyper elasticity. We formulate an efficient and parallel scheme for computing the principal stain based for a given parameterization by decomposing the left Cauchy...
Regular algebra and finite machines
Conway, John Horton
2012-01-01
World-famous mathematician John H. Conway based this classic text on a 1966 course he taught at Cambridge University. Geared toward graduate students of mathematics, it will also prove a valuable guide to researchers and professional mathematicians.His topics cover Moore's theory of experiments, Kleene's theory of regular events and expressions, Kleene algebras, the differential calculus of events, factors and the factor matrix, and the theory of operators. Additional subjects include event classes and operator classes, some regulator algebras, context-free languages, communicative regular alg
Near-Regular Structure Discovery Using Linear Programming
Huang, Qixing
2014-06-02
Near-regular structures are common in manmade and natural objects. Algorithmic detection of such regularity greatly facilitates our understanding of shape structures, leads to compact encoding of input geometries, and enables efficient generation and manipulation of complex patterns on both acquired and synthesized objects. Such regularity manifests itself both in the repetition of certain geometric elements, as well as in the structured arrangement of the elements. We cast the regularity detection problem as an optimization and efficiently solve it using linear programming techniques. Our optimization has a discrete aspect, that is, the connectivity relationships among the elements, as well as a continuous aspect, namely the locations of the elements of interest. Both these aspects are captured by our near-regular structure extraction framework, which alternates between discrete and continuous optimizations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework on a variety of problems including near-regular structure extraction, structure-preserving pattern manipulation, and markerless correspondence detection. Robustness results with respect to geometric and topological noise are presented on synthesized, real-world, and also benchmark datasets. © 2014 ACM.
Regularized Statistical Analysis of Anatomy
Sjöstrand, Karl
2007-01-01
This thesis presents the application and development of regularized methods for the statistical analysis of anatomical structures. Focus is on structure-function relationships in the human brain, such as the connection between early onset of Alzheimer’s disease and shape changes of the corpus cal...
Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning
Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael
2010-01-01
A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can displa
Singularities of slice regular functions
Stoppato, Caterina
2010-01-01
Beginning in 2006, G. Gentili and D.C. Struppa developed a theory of regular quaternionic functions with properties that recall classical results in complex analysis. For instance, in each Euclidean ball centered at 0 the set of regular functions coincides with that of quaternionic power series converging in the same ball. In 2009 the author proposed a classification of singularities of regular functions as removable, essential or as poles and studied poles by constructing the ring of quotients. In that article, not only the statements, but also the proving techniques were confined to the special case of balls centered at 0. In a subsequent paper, F. Colombo, G. Gentili, I. Sabadini and D.C. Struppa (2009) identified a larger class of domains, on which the theory of regular functions is natural and not limited to quaternionic power series. The present article studies singularities in this new context, beginning with the construction of the ring of quotients and of Laurent-type expansions at points other than ...
Regular inference as vertex coloring
Costa Florêncio, C.; Verwer, S.
2012-01-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of supervised learning of deterministic finite state automata, in the technical sense of identification in the limit from complete data, by finding a minimal DFA consistent with the data (regular inference). We solve this problem by translating it in its enti
Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis
Hwang, Heungsun
2009-01-01
Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…
Regular inference as vertex coloring
Costa Florêncio, C.; Verwer, S.
2012-01-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of supervised learning of deterministic finite state automata, in the technical sense of identification in the limit from complete data, by finding a minimal DFA consistent with the data (regular inference). We solve this problem by translating it in its
2011-01-20
... meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm Credit Administration in McLean, Virginia, on...Lean, Virginia 22102. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This meeting of the Board will be open to the ] public... CORPORATION Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board Regular Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of...
Recursively-regular subdivisions and applications
Rafel Jaume
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We generalize regular subdivisions (polyhedral complexes resulting from the projection of the lower faces of a polyhedron introducing the class of recursively-regular subdivisions. Informally speaking, a recursively-regular subdivision is a subdivision that can be obtained by splitting some faces of a regular subdivision by other regular subdivisions (and continue recursively. We also define the finest regular coarsening and the regularity tree of a polyhedral complex. We prove that recursively-regular subdivisions are not necessarily connected by flips and that they are acyclic with respect to the in-front relation. We show that the finest regular coarsening of a subdivision can be efficiently computed, and that whether a subdivision is recursively regular can be efficiently decided. As an application, we also extend a theorem known since 1981 on illuminating space by cones and present connections of recursive regularity to tensegrity theory and graph-embedding problems.
祖连平
2015-01-01
Objective To explore the clinical effect of punctate stripping in the treatment of great saphenous varicose veins. Methods 50 cases with great saphenous varicose veins admitted in Department of Varicose Veins of our hospital from March 2013 to March 2015 were selected as the subjects and randomly divided into two groups with 25 cases in each. Pa-tients in the control group were treated by cutting and stripping surgery, while those in the observation group were treated by punctate stripping surgery. And the treatment effect of two groups was compared. Results The operation time of the ob-servation group was (43.0±7.8) min, and that of the control group was (60.0±13) min; the amount of intraoperative blood transfusion of the observation group was (53.1±15.1)mL, and that of the control group was (135.0±33.8) mL; the length of hospital stay of the observation group was (7.1±2.1)d, and that of the control group was (9.5±2.5)d, the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Punctate stripping for great saphenous varicose veins can effectively improve the treatment effect, so it is worthy of promotion and application.%目的：探讨在大隐静脉曲张中使用下段点状抽剥治疗的临床效果。方法整群选取该院2013年3月—2015年3月静脉曲张专科中大隐静脉曲张50例患者为研究对象，随机分为2组，每组25例。对照组应用切开剥除技术，观察组应用点状抽剥技术，对比两组的治疗效果。结果观察观察组手术时间为（43.0±7.8） min，对照组手术时间为（60.0±13）min；对照组术中输血量为（135.0±33.8） ml，观察组术中输血量为（53.1±15.1） ml；对照组住院时间为(9.5±2.5) d，观察组住院时间为(7.1±2.1) d，差异有统计学意义（P＜0.05）。结论应用点状抽剥技术能有效提高病症治疗量，值得在临床进行推广使用。
José Wilson Viana Júnior
2010-11-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as características do ciclo menstrual e identificar a ocorrência de ovulação em mulheres jovens nuligestas portadoras de anemia falciforme (AF. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo de caso-controle, incluindo 26 mulheres nuligestas, durante a menacme, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo "Casos", contendo 13 portadoras de AF, e Grupo "Controle", com 13 mulheres saudáveis com mesmo intervalo desde a menarca. As características do ciclo menstrual foram informadas pelas participantes, que também foram submetidas a dosagens de progesterona sérica, curvas de temperatura basal e ecografias transabdominais em três ciclos consecutivos (total: 78 ciclos, com a finalidade de identificar a ocorrência de ovulação. Os resultados dos dois grupos foram comparados com o uso dos testes não paramétricos de Mann-Whitney ou Kruskal Wallis, sendo significativas as diferenças cujo valor p PURPOSE: to evaluate the characteristics of the menstrual cycle and to identify the occurrence of ovulation in nulliparous young women with sickle cell anemia (SCA. METHODS: we conducted a case-control study including 26 nulliparous women of reproductive age, divided into two groups: "cases", consisting of 13 women with SCA, and "Control" Group, consisting of 13 healthy women with the same interval since menarche. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle were reported by the participants, who were also submitted to measurements of serum progesterone, basal body temperature curves and transabdominal ultrasound in three consecutive cycles (total: 78 cycles in order to identify the occurrence of ovulation. The results were compared between groups using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney or Kruskal Wallis tests, and the differences were considered significant when p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in mean chronological age between the two groups (p = 0.2 in the pattern of the menstrual cycle when duration of flow (p = 0.4 and interval
温芳芳
2012-01-01
In recent years, University-Industry ( UI) collaboration has played a growing important role in the aspects oi enhancing innovation strength, speeding up patent transiorination, propelling economic development, as well as aroused widespread concern from aU circles. Based on co-inventive patent bibliometrics, this study reveals the present situation of UI collaboration in China and analyses its laws and patterns. Through the statistics of co-inventive patents, it is found that UI collaboration in China is still staying at the low-level with few participants. But it has confronted a good opportunity for development since 2006 and will be enhanced greatly in the future. Some active and influential units, such as Tsinghua University, Huawei Technologies and so on, have been detected through UI collaboration network analysis. It is also found that the UI collaboration has uneven distribution in different regions and presents obvious geographical orientation. Those findings can not only intuitively demonstrate the status and trend of UI collaboration in China but also provide quantitative reterence for the government,education and industry sectors.%近年来,校企合作在提高创新能力、加快成果转化、推动经济发展方面的功能日益显著,引起了社会各界的广泛关注.本文借助于校企联合申请专利情况的计量研究,对我国大陆地区高校和企业之间的技术合作现状及其所呈现出的模式与规律特征进行定量化的揭示和分析.通过校企合作专利分布规律研究,发现我国校企合作起步较晚、程度较低、基础薄弱,但自2006年以来呈现出良好的发展势头;通过校企合作网络研究,找出了清华大学、华为技术有限公司等一批具有较高活跃性与影响力的单位,并且发现校企合作关系及强度存在着区域分布不均衡问题和显著的地域倾向.以上研究发现有助于我们更好地认识和把握我国校企合作的发展现状、规
General inverse problems for regular variation
Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan
2014-01-01
Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...
RECONSTRUCTION OF SCATTERED FIELD FROM FAR-FIELD BY REGULARIZATION
Ji-jun Liu; Jin Cheng; G. Nakamura
2004-01-01
In this paper, we consider an inverse scattering problem for an obstacle D(∪)R2 with Robin boundary condition. By applying the point source, we give a regularizing method to recover the scattered field from the far-field pattern. Numerical implementations are also presented.
Regular Motions of Resonant Asteroids
Ferraz-Mello, S.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Se revisan resultados analiticos relativos a soluciones regulares del problema asteroidal eliptico promediados en la vecindad de una resonancia con jupiten Mencionamos Ia ley de estructura para libradores de alta excentricidad, la estabilidad de los centros de liberaci6n, las perturbaciones forzadas por la excentricidad de jupiter y las 6rbitas de corotaci6n. ABSTRAC This paper reviews analytical results concerning the regular solutions of the elliptic asteroidal problem averaged in the neighbourhood of a resonance with jupiter. We mention the law of structure for high-eccentricity librators, the stability of the libration centers, the perturbations forced by the eccentricity ofjupiter and the corotation orbits. Key words: ASThROIDS
Energy functions for regularization algorithms
Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.
1991-01-01
Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.
Physical model of dimensional regularization
Schonfeld, Jonathan F.
2016-12-15
We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4-ε on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity. (orig.)
Central charges in regular mechanics
Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Villanueva, V M
1997-01-01
We consider the algebra associated to a group of transformations which are symmetries of a regular mechanical system (i.e. system free of constraints). For time dependent coordinate transformations we show that a central extension may appear at the classical level which is coordinate and momentum independent. A cochain formalism naturally arises in the argument and extends the usual configuration space cochain concepts to phase space.
Fast regularized image interpolation method
Hongchen Liu; Yong Feng; Linjing Li
2007-01-01
The regularized image interpolation method is widely used based on the vector interpolation model in which down-sampling matrix has very large dimension and needs large storage consumption and higher computation complexity. In this paper, a fast algorithm for image interpolation based on the tensor product of matrices is presented, which transforms the vector interpolation model to matrix form. The proposed algorithm can extremely reduce the storage requirement and time consumption. The simulation results verify their validity.
Efficient Hyperelastic Regularization for Registration
Darkner, Sune; Hansen, Michael S; Larsen, Rasmus;
2011-01-01
For most image registration problems a smooth one-to-one mapping is desirable, a diffeomorphism. This can be obtained using priors such as volume preservation, certain kinds of elasticity or both. The key principle is to regularize the strain of the deformation which can be done through penalizat......For most image registration problems a smooth one-to-one mapping is desirable, a diffeomorphism. This can be obtained using priors such as volume preservation, certain kinds of elasticity or both. The key principle is to regularize the strain of the deformation which can be done through...... penalization of the eigen values of the stress tensor. We present a computational framework for regularization of image registration for isotropic hyper elasticity. We formulate an efficient and parallel scheme for computing the principal stain based for a given parameterization by decomposing the left Cauchy...... elastic priors such at the Saint Vernant Kirchoff model, the Ogden material model or Riemanian elasticity. We exemplify the approach through synthetic registration and special tests as well as registration of different modalities; 2D cardiac MRI and 3D surfaces of the human ear. The artificial examples...
From Dimensional to Cut-Off Regularization
Dillig, M
2006-01-01
We extent the standard approach of dimensional regularization of Feynman diagrams: we replace the transition to lower dimensions by a 'natural' cut-off regulator. Introducing an external regulator of mass Lambda^(2e), we regain in the limit e -> 0 and e > 0 the results of dimensional and cut-off regularization, respectively. We demonstrate the versatility and adequacy of the different regularization schemes for practical examples (such as non covariant regularization, the axial anomaly or regularization in effective field theories).
Quantification of fetal heart rate regularity using symbolic dynamics
van Leeuwen, P.; Cysarz, D.; Lange, S.; Geue, D.; Groenemeyer, D.
2007-03-01
Fetal heart rate complexity was examined on the basis of RR interval time series obtained in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. In each fetal RR interval time series, short term beat-to-beat heart rate changes were coded in 8bit binary sequences. Redundancies of the 28 different binary patterns were reduced by two different procedures. The complexity of these sequences was quantified using the approximate entropy (ApEn), resulting in discrete ApEn values which were used for classifying the sequences into 17 pattern sets. Also, the sequences were grouped into 20 pattern classes with respect to identity after rotation or inversion of the binary value. There was a specific, nonuniform distribution of the sequences in the pattern sets and this differed from the distribution found in surrogate data. In the course of gestation, the number of sequences increased in seven pattern sets, decreased in four and remained unchanged in six. Sequences that occurred less often over time, both regular and irregular, were characterized by patterns reflecting frequent beat-to-beat reversals in heart rate. They were also predominant in the surrogate data, suggesting that these patterns are associated with stochastic heart beat trains. Sequences that occurred more frequently over time were relatively rare in the surrogate data. Some of these sequences had a high degree of regularity and corresponded to prolonged heart rate accelerations or decelerations which may be associated with directed fetal activity or movement or baroreflex activity. Application of the pattern classes revealed that those sequences with a high degree of irregularity correspond to heart rate patterns resulting from complex physiological activity such as fetal breathing movements. The results suggest that the development of the autonomic nervous system and the emergence of fetal behavioral states lead to increases in not only irregular but also regular heart rate patterns. Using symbolic dynamics to
Regularized degenerate multi-solitons
Correa, Francisco
2016-01-01
We report complex PT-symmetric multi-soliton solutions to the Korteweg de-Vries equation that asymptotically contain one-soliton solutions, with each of them possessing the same amount of finite real energy. We demonstrate how these solutions originate from degenerate energy solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Technically this is achieved by the application of Darboux-Crum transformations involving Jordan states with suitable regularizing shifts. Alternatively they may be constructed from a limiting process within the context Hirota's direct method or on a nonlinear superposition obtained from multiple Baecklund transformations. The proposed procedure is completely generic and also applicable to other types of nonlinear integrable systems.
Academic Training Lecture - Regular Programme
PH Department
2011-01-01
Regular Lecture Programme 9 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Inner Tracking Detectors by Pippa Wells (CERN) 10 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Calorimeters (2/5) by Philippe Bloch (CERN) 11 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Muon systems (3/5) by Kerstin Hoepfner (RWTH Aachen) 12 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Particle Identification and Forward Detectors by Peter Krizan (University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia) 13 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Trigger and Data Acquisition (5/5) by Dr. Brian Petersen (CERN) from 11:00 to 12:00 at CERN ( Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant )
Regularization methods in Banach spaces
Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kazimierski, Kamil S
2012-01-01
Regularization methods aimed at finding stable approximate solutions are a necessary tool to tackle inverse and ill-posed problems. Usually the mathematical model of an inverse problem consists of an operator equation of the first kind and often the associated forward operator acts between Hilbert spaces. However, for numerous problems the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based rather on conventions than on an approprimate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, sparsity constraints using general Lp-norms or the B
First contact distributions for spatial patterns: regularity and estimation
Hansen, M.B.; Baddeley, A.J.; Gill, R.D.
2001-01-01
For applications in spatial statistics an important property of a random set X in Rk is its rst contact distribution This is the distribution of the distance from a xed point to the nearest point of X where distance is measured using scalar dilations of a xed test set B We show that if B is convex
Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community
Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.; Christensen, Katrine
2011-01-01
Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC...... partners is socio-cultural and geographical) proximity rather than marketing sub-discipline, pointing towards a very systematic tendency for EMAC members to be organised around institutions in the same or culturally related countries....
Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community
Christensen, Katrine; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.
2011-01-01
Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC...... partners is socio-cultural and geographical proximity rather than marketing sub-discipline, pointing towards a very systematic tendency for EMAC members to be organised around institutions in the same or culturally related countries....
Robust integral stabilization of regular linear systems
XU Chengzheng; FENG Dexing
2004-01-01
We consider regular systems with control and observation. We prove some necessary and sufficient condition for an exponentially stable regular system to admit an integral stabilizing controller. We propose also some robust integral controllers when they exist.
Generalization performance of regularized neural network models
Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai
1994-01-01
Architecture optimization is a fundamental problem of neural network modeling. The optimal architecture is defined as the one which minimizes the generalization error. This paper addresses estimation of the generalization performance of regularized, complete neural network models. Regularization...
A FAST CONVERGENT METHOD OF ITERATED REGULARIZATION
Huang Xiaowei; Wu Chuansheng; Wu Di
2009-01-01
This article presents a fast convergent method of iterated regularization based on the idea of Landweber iterated regularization, and a method for a-posteriori choice by the Morozov discrepancy principle and the optimum asymptotic convergence order of the regularized solution is obtained. Numerical test shows that the method of iterated regu-larization can quicken the convergence speed and reduce the calculation burden efficiently.
Weakly and Strongly Regular Near-rings
N.Argac; N.J.Groenewald
2005-01-01
In this paper, we prove some basic properties of left weakly regular near-rings.We give an affirmative answer to the question whether a left weakly regular near-ring with left unity and satisfying the IFP is also right weakly regular. In the last section, we use among others left 0-prime and left completely prime ideals to characterize strongly regular near-rings.
MAXIMAL POINTS OF A REGULAR TRUTH FUNCTION
Every canonical linearly separable truth function is a regular function, but not every regular truth function is linearly separable. The most...promising method of determining which of the regular truth functions are linearly separable r quires finding their maximal and minimal points. In this...report is developed a quick, systematic method of finding the maximal points of any regular truth function in terms of its arithmetic invariants. (Author)
Natural frequency of regular basins
Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.
2014-03-01
Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.
Regularized degenerate multi-solitons
Correa, Francisco; Fring, Andreas
2016-09-01
We report complex {P}{T} -symmetric multi-soliton solutions to the Korteweg de-Vries equation that asymptotically contain one-soliton solutions, with each of them possessing the same amount of finite real energy. We demonstrate how these solutions originate from degenerate energy solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Technically this is achieved by the application of Darboux-Crum transformations involving Jordan states with suitable regularizing shifts. Alternatively they may be constructed from a limiting process within the context Hirota's direct method or on a nonlinear superposition obtained from multiple Bäcklund transformations. The proposed procedure is completely generic and also applicable to other types of nonlinear integrable systems.
Modeling polycrystals with regular polyhedra
Paulo Rangel Rios
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Polycrystalline structure is of paramount importance to materials science and engineering. It provides an important example of a space-filling irregular network structure that also occurs in foams as well as in certain biological tissues. Therefore, seeking an accurate description of the characteristics of polycrystals is of fundamental importance. Recently, one of the authors (MEG published a paper in which a method was devised of representation of irregular networks by regular polyhedra with curved faces. In Glicksman's method a whole class of irregular polyhedra with a given number of faces, N, is represented by a single symmetrical polyhedron with N curved faces. This paper briefly describes the topological and metric properties of these special polyhedra. They are then applied to two important problems of irregular networks: the dimensionless energy 'cost' of irregular networks, and the derivation of a 3D analogue of the von Neumann-Mullins equation for the growth rate of grains in a polycrystal.
REGULARITY FOR CERTAIN QUASILINEARELLIPTIC SYSTEMS OF DIVERGENCESTRUCTURE
周树清; 冉启康
2001-01-01
The regularity of the gradient of H lder continuous solutions of quasi-linear elliptic systems of the form -Dj(aij(x, u, Du)Diuk) = -Difik + gkis investigated. Partial regularity and ε-regularity are shown to hold under the structural assumption-Dj(aij(x,u, Du)) = hi ∈ L∞.
Technology Corner: A Regular Expression Training App
Nick Flor
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Regular expressions enable digital forensic analysts to find information in files. The best way for an analyst to become proficient in writing regular expressions is to practice. This paper presents the code for an app that allows an analyst to practice writing regular expressions.
Counting Rooted Nearly 2-regular Planar Maps
郝荣霞; 蔡俊亮
2004-01-01
The number of rooted nearly 2-regular maps with the valency of rootvertex, the number of non-rooted vertices and the valency of root-face as three parameters is obtained. Furthermore, the explicit expressions of the special cases including loopless nearly 2-regular maps and simple nearly 2-regular maps in terms of the above three parameters are derived.
On the Construction of Regular Orthocryptogroups
Xiang Zhi KONG
2002-01-01
The aim of this paper is to study regular orthocryptogroups. After obtaining some charac-terizations of such semigroups, we establish the construction theorem of regular orthocryptogroups. Asan application, we give the construction theorem of right quasi-normal orthocryptogroups and studyhomomorphisms between two regular orthocryptogroups.
REGULAR RELATIONS AND MONOTONE NORMAL ORDERED SPACES
XU XIAOQUAN; LIU YINGMING
2004-01-01
In this paper the classical theorem of Zareckii about regular relations is generalized and an intrinsic characterization of regularity is obtained. Based on the generalized Zareckii theorem and the intrinsic characterization of regularity, the authors give a characterization of monotone normality of ordered spaces. A new proof of the UrysohnNachbin lemma is presented which is quite different from the classical one.
Regular Pentagons and the Fibonacci Sequence.
French, Doug
1989-01-01
Illustrates how to draw a regular pentagon. Shows the sequence of a succession of regular pentagons formed by extending the sides. Calculates the general formula of the Lucas and Fibonacci sequences. Presents a regular icosahedron as an example of the golden ratio. (YP)
Regularization of languages by adults and children: A mathematical framework.
Rische, Jacquelyn L; Komarova, Natalia L
2016-02-01
The fascinating ability of humans to modify the linguistic input and "create" a language has been widely discussed. In the work of Newport and colleagues, it has been demonstrated that both children and adults have some ability to process inconsistent linguistic input and "improve" it by making it more consistent. In Hudson Kam and Newport (2009), artificial miniature language acquisition from an inconsistent source was studied. It was shown that (i) children are better at language regularization than adults and that (ii) adults can also regularize, depending on the structure of the input. In this paper we create a learning algorithm of the reinforcement-learning type, which exhibits patterns reported in Hudson Kam and Newport (2009) and suggests a way to explain them. It turns out that in order to capture the differences between children's and adults' learning patterns, we need to introduce a certain asymmetry in the learning algorithm. Namely, we have to assume that the reaction of the learners differs depending on whether or not the source's input coincides with the learner's internal hypothesis. We interpret this result in the context of a different reaction of children and adults to implicit, expectation-based evidence, positive or negative. We propose that a possible mechanism that contributes to the children's ability to regularize an inconsistent input is related to their heightened sensitivity to positive evidence rather than the (implicit) negative evidence. In our model, regularization comes naturally as a consequence of a stronger reaction of the children to evidence supporting their preferred hypothesis. In adults, their ability to adequately process implicit negative evidence prevents them from regularizing the inconsistent input, resulting in a weaker degree of regularization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On the MSE Performance and Optimization of Regularized Problems
Alrashdi, Ayed
2016-11-01
The amount of data that has been measured, transmitted/received, and stored in the recent years has dramatically increased. So, today, we are in the world of big data. Fortunately, in many applications, we can take advantages of possible structures and patterns in the data to overcome the curse of dimensionality. The most well known structures include sparsity, low-rankness, block sparsity. This includes a wide range of applications such as machine learning, medical imaging, signal processing, social networks and computer vision. This also led to a specific interest in recovering signals from noisy compressed measurements (Compressed Sensing (CS) problem). Such problems are generally ill-posed unless the signal is structured. The structure can be captured by a regularizer function. This gives rise to a potential interest in regularized inverse problems, where the process of reconstructing the structured signal can be modeled as a regularized problem. This thesis particularly focuses on finding the optimal regularization parameter for such problems, such as ridge regression, LASSO, square-root LASSO and low-rank Generalized LASSO. Our goal is to optimally tune the regularizer to minimize the mean-squared error (MSE) of the solution when the noise variance or structure parameters are unknown. The analysis is based on the framework of the Convex Gaussian Min-max Theorem (CGMT) that has been used recently to precisely predict performance errors.
Effect of regularization parameters on geophysical reconstruction
Zhou Hui; Wang Zhaolei; Qiu Dongling; Li Guofa; Shen Jinsong
2009-01-01
In this paper we discuss the edge-preserving regularization method in the reconstruction of physical parameters from geophysical data such as seismic and ground-penetrating radar data.In the regularization method a potential function of model parameters and its corresponding functions are introduced.This method is stable and able to preserve boundaries, and protect resolution.The effect of regularization depends to a great extent on the suitable choice of regularization parameters.The influence of the edge-preserving parameters on the reconstruction results is investigated and the relationship between the regularization parameters and the error of data is described.
Regular Black Holes with Cosmological Constant
MO Wen-Juan; CAI Rong-Gen; SU Ru-Keng
2006-01-01
We present a class of regular black holes with cosmological constant Λ in nonlinear electrodynamics. Instead of usual singularity behind black hole horizon, all fields and curvature invariants are regular everywhere for the regular black holes. Through gauge invariant approach, the linearly dynamical stability of the regular black hole is studied. In odd-parity sector, we find that the Λ term does not appear in the master equations of perturbations, which shows that the regular black hole is stable under odd-parity perturbations. On the other hand, for the even-parity sector, the master equations are more complicated than the case without the cosmological constant. We obtain the sufficient conditions for stability of the regular black hole. We also investigate the thermodynamic properties of the regular black hole, and find that those thermodynamic quantities do not satisfy the differential form of first law of black hole thermodynamics. The reason for violating the first law is revealed.
Learning regularized LDA by clustering.
Pang, Yanwei; Wang, Shuang; Yuan, Yuan
2014-12-01
As a supervised dimensionality reduction technique, linear discriminant analysis has a serious overfitting problem when the number of training samples per class is small. The main reason is that the between- and within-class scatter matrices computed from the limited number of training samples deviate greatly from the underlying ones. To overcome the problem without increasing the number of training samples, we propose making use of the structure of the given training data to regularize the between- and within-class scatter matrices by between- and within-cluster scatter matrices, respectively, and simultaneously. The within- and between-cluster matrices are computed from unsupervised clustered data. The within-cluster scatter matrix contributes to encoding the possible variations in intraclasses and the between-cluster scatter matrix is useful for separating extra classes. The contributions are inversely proportional to the number of training samples per class. The advantages of the proposed method become more remarkable as the number of training samples per class decreases. Experimental results on the AR and Feret face databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Regularities of Formation of Ternary Intermetallic Compound between Transition Elements
Lixiu YAO; Jie YANG; Chenzhou YE; Nianyi CHEN
2001-01-01
Four parameters, φ (electronegativity), nws1/3 (valence electron density in Wagner-Seitz cell),R (Pauling's metallic radius) and Z (number of valence electrons in atom), and the pattern recognition methods were used to investigate the regularities of formation of ternary intermetallic compounds between three transition elements. The obtained mathematical model expressed by some inequalities can be used as a criterion of ternary compound formation in "unknown" phase diagrams of alloy systems.
Sparse regularization techniques provide novel insights into outcome integration processes.
Mohr, Holger; Wolfensteller, Uta; Frimmel, Steffi; Ruge, Hannes
2015-01-01
By exploiting information that is contained in the spatial arrangement of neural activations, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) can detect distributed brain activations which are not accessible by standard univariate analysis. Recent methodological advances in MVPA regularization techniques have made it feasible to produce sparse discriminative whole-brain maps with highly specific patterns. Furthermore, the most recent refinement, the Graph Net, explicitly takes the 3D-structure of fMRI data into account. Here, these advanced classification methods were applied to a large fMRI sample (N=70) in order to gain novel insights into the functional localization of outcome integration processes. While the beneficial effect of differential outcomes is well-studied in trial-and-error learning, outcome integration in the context of instruction-based learning has remained largely unexplored. In order to examine neural processes associated with outcome integration in the context of instruction-based learning, two groups of subjects underwent functional imaging while being presented with either differential or ambiguous outcomes following the execution of varying stimulus-response instructions. While no significant univariate group differences were found in the resulting fMRI dataset, L1-regularized (sparse) classifiers performed significantly above chance and also clearly outperformed the standard L2-regularized (dense) Support Vector Machine on this whole-brain between-subject classification task. Moreover, additional L2-regularization via the Elastic Net and spatial regularization by the Graph Net improved interpretability of discriminative weight maps but were accompanied by reduced classification accuracies. Most importantly, classification based on sparse regularization facilitated the identification of highly specific regions differentially engaged under ambiguous and differential outcome conditions, comprising several prefrontal regions previously associated with
Regularity and predictability of human mobility in personal space.
Daniel Austin
Full Text Available Fundamental laws governing human mobility have many important applications such as forecasting and controlling epidemics or optimizing transportation systems. These mobility patterns, studied in the context of out of home activity during travel or social interactions with observations recorded from cell phone use or diffusion of money, suggest that in extra-personal space humans follow a high degree of temporal and spatial regularity - most often in the form of time-independent universal scaling laws. Here we show that mobility patterns of older individuals in their home also show a high degree of predictability and regularity, although in a different way than has been reported for out-of-home mobility. Studying a data set of almost 15 million observations from 19 adults spanning up to 5 years of unobtrusive longitudinal home activity monitoring, we find that in-home mobility is not well represented by a universal scaling law, but that significant structure (predictability and regularity is uncovered when explicitly accounting for contextual data in a model of in-home mobility. These results suggest that human mobility in personal space is highly stereotyped, and that monitoring discontinuities in routine room-level mobility patterns may provide an opportunity to predict individual human health and functional status or detect adverse events and trends.
Ideal regularization for learning kernels from labels.
Pan, Binbin; Lai, Jianhuang; Shen, Lixin
2014-08-01
In this paper, we propose a new form of regularization that is able to utilize the label information of a data set for learning kernels. The proposed regularization, referred to as ideal regularization, is a linear function of the kernel matrix to be learned. The ideal regularization allows us to develop efficient algorithms to exploit labels. Three applications of the ideal regularization are considered. Firstly, we use the ideal regularization to incorporate the labels into a standard kernel, making the resulting kernel more appropriate for learning tasks. Next, we employ the ideal regularization to learn a data-dependent kernel matrix from an initial kernel matrix (which contains prior similarity information, geometric structures, and labels of the data). Finally, we incorporate the ideal regularization to some state-of-the-art kernel learning problems. With this regularization, these learning problems can be formulated as simpler ones which permit more efficient solvers. Empirical results show that the ideal regularization exploits the labels effectively and efficiently.
New Regularization Method in Electrical Impedance Tomography
侯卫东; 莫玉龙
2002-01-01
Image reconstruction in elecrical impedance tomography(EIT)is a highly ill-posed inverse problem,Regularization techniques must be used in order to solve the problem,In this paper,a new regularization method based on the spatial filtering theory is proposed.The new regularized reconstruction for EIT is independent of the estimation of impedance distribution,so it can be implemented more easily than the maxiumum a posteriori(MAP) method.The regularization level in our proposed method varies spatially so as to be suited to the correlation character of the object's impedance distribution.We implemented our regularization method with two dimensional computer simulations.The experimental results indicate that the quality of the reconstructed impedance images with the descibed regularization method based on spatial filtering theory is better than that with Tikhonov method.
Regularized Laplacian Estimation and Fast Eigenvector Approximation
Perry, Patrick O
2011-01-01
Recently, Mahoney and Orecchia demonstrated that popular diffusion-based procedures to compute a quick \\emph{approximation} to the first nontrivial eigenvector of a data graph Laplacian \\emph{exactly} solve certain regularized Semi-Definite Programs (SDPs). In this paper, we extend that result by providing a statistical interpretation of their approximation procedure. Our interpretation will be analogous to the manner in which $\\ell_2$-regularized or $\\ell_1$-regularized $\\ell_2$-regression (often called Ridge regression and Lasso regression, respectively) can be interpreted in terms of a Gaussian prior or a Laplace prior, respectively, on the coefficient vector of the regression problem. Our framework will imply that the solutions to the Mahoney-Orecchia regularized SDP can be interpreted as regularized estimates of the pseudoinverse of the graph Laplacian. Conversely, it will imply that the solution to this regularized estimation problem can be computed very quickly by running, e.g., the fast diffusion-base...
Total variation regularization with bounded linear variations
Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei; Kober, Vitaly
2016-09-01
One of the most known techniques for signal denoising is based on total variation regularization (TV regularization). A better understanding of TV regularization is necessary to provide a stronger mathematical justification for using TV minimization in signal processing. In this work, we deal with an intermediate case between one- and two-dimensional cases; that is, a discrete function to be processed is two-dimensional radially symmetric piecewise constant. For this case, the exact solution to the problem can be obtained as follows: first, calculate the average values over rings of the noisy function; second, calculate the shift values and their directions using closed formulae depending on a regularization parameter and structure of rings. Despite the TV regularization is effective for noise removal; it often destroys fine details and thin structures of images. In order to overcome this drawback, we use the TV regularization for signal denoising subject to linear signal variations are bounded.
Hidden Regular Variation: Detection and Estimation
Mitra, Abhimanyu
2010-01-01
Hidden regular variation defines a subfamily of distributions satisfying multivariate regular variation on $\\mathbb{E} = [0, \\infty]^d \\backslash \\{(0,0, ..., 0) \\} $ and models another regular variation on the sub-cone $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)} = \\mathbb{E} \\backslash \\cup_{i=1}^d \\mathbb{L}_i$, where $\\mathbb{L}_i$ is the $i$-th axis. We extend the concept of hidden regular variation to sub-cones of $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)}$ as well. We suggest a procedure of detecting the presence of hidden regular variation, and if it exists, propose a method of estimating the limit measure exploiting its semi-parametric structure. We exhibit examples where hidden regular variation yields better estimates of probabilities of risk sets.
A multiplicative regularization for force reconstruction
Aucejo, M.; De Smet, O.
2017-02-01
Additive regularizations, such as Tikhonov-like approaches, are certainly the most popular methods for reconstructing forces acting on a structure. These approaches require, however, the knowledge of a regularization parameter, that can be numerically computed using specific procedures. Unfortunately, these procedures are generally computationally intensive. For this particular reason, it could be of primary interest to propose a method able to proceed without defining any regularization parameter beforehand. In this paper, a multiplicative regularization is introduced for this purpose. By construction, the regularized solution has to be calculated in an iterative manner. In doing so, the amount of regularization is automatically adjusted throughout the resolution process. Validations using synthetic and experimental data highlight the ability of the proposed approach in providing consistent reconstructions.
Regular Disjunction-Free Default Theories
Xi-ShunZhao
2004-01-01
In this paper, the class of regular disjunction-free default theories is introduced and investigated. A transformation from regular default theories to normal default theories is established. The initial theory and the transformed theory have the same extensions when restricted to old variables. Hence, regular default theories enjoy some similar properties (e.g., existence of extensions, semi-monotonicity) as normal default theories. Then, a new algorithm for credulous reasoning of regular theories is developed. This algorithm runs in a time not more than O(1.45n), where n is the number of defaults. In case of regular prerequisite-free or semi-2CNF default theories, the credulous reasoning can be solved in polynomial time. However, credulous reasoning for semi-Horn default theories is shown to be NP-complete although it is tractable for Horn default theories. Moreover, skeptical reasoning for regular unary default theories is co-NP-complete.
Regular Disjunction-Free Default Theories
Xi-Shun Zhao
2004-01-01
In this paper, the class of regular disjunction-free default theories is introduced and investigated.A transformation from regular default theories to normal default theories is established. The initial theory and the transformed theory have the same extensions when restricted to old variables. Hence, regular default theories enjoy some similar properties (e.g., existence of extensions, semi-monotonicity) as normal default theories. Then,a new algorithm for credulous reasoning of regular theories is developed. This algorithm runs in a time not more than O(1.45n), where n is the number of defaults. In case of regular prerequisite-free or semi-2CNF default theories, the credulous reasoning can be solved in polynomial time. However, credulous reasoning for semi-Horn default theories is shown to be NP-complete although it is tractable for Horn default theories. Moreover, skeptical reasoning for regular unary default theories is co-NP-complete.
Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging
Geoffrey Blondelle
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM, but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30, 16 intermediate adults (40–55, and 25 older adults (65–80. The task, adapted from the Virtual Week, was designed to manipulate the regularity of the various activities of daily life that were to be recalled (regular repeated activities vs. irregular non-repeated activities. We examine the role of several cognitive functions including certain dimensions of executive functions (planning, inhibition, shifting, and binding, short-term memory, and retrospective episodic memory to identify those involved in PM, according to regularity and age. Results: A mixed-design ANOVA showed a main effect of task regularity and an interaction between age and regularity: an age-related difference in PM performances was found for irregular activities (older < young, but not for regular activities. All participants recalled more regular activities than irregular ones with no age effect. It appeared that recalling of regular activities only involved planning for both intermediate and older adults, while recalling of irregular ones were linked to planning, inhibition, short-term memory, binding, and retrospective episodic memory. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that planning capacities seem to play a major role in remembering to perform intended actions with advancing age. Furthermore, the age-PM-paradox may be attenuated when the experimental design is adapted by implementing a familiar context through the use of activities of daily living. The clinical
Ambiguities in Pauli-Villars regularization
Kleiss, Ronald H P
2014-01-01
We investigate regularization of scalar one-loop integrals in the Pauli- Villars subtraction scheme. The results depend on the number of sub- tractions, in particular the finite terms that survive after the diver- gences have been absorbed by renormalization. Therefore the process of Pauli-Villars regularization is ambiguous. We discuss how these am- biguities may be resolved by applying an asymptotically large number of subtractions, which results in a regularization that is automatically valid in any number of dimensions.
Regularized brain reading with shrinkage and smoothing
Wehbe, Leila; Ramdas, Aaditya; Steorts, Rebecca C.; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla
2014-01-01
Functional neuroimaging measures how the brain responds to complex stimuli. However, sample sizes are modest, noise is substantial, and stimuli are high dimensional. Hence, direct estimates are inherently imprecise and call for regularization. We compare a suite of approaches which regularize via shrinkage: ridge regression, the elastic net (a generalization of ridge regression and the lasso), and a hierarchical Bayesian model based on small area estimation (SAE). We contrast regularization w...
Hoyle, Rebecca
2006-03-01
From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples
Branch Processes of Regular Magnetic Monopole
MO Shu-Fan; REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao
2009-01-01
In this paper, by making use of Duan's topological current theory, the branch process of regular magnetic monopoles is discussed in detail Regular magnetic monopoles are found generating or annihilating at the limit point and encountering, splitting, or merging at the bifurcation point and the degenerate point systematically of the vector order parameter field φ(x).Furthermore, it is also shown that when regular magnetic monopoles split or merge at the degenerate point of field function φ, the total topological charges of the regular magnetic monopoles axe still unchanged.
Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2007-01-01
We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....
Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2006-01-01
We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....
Ideal-comparability over Regular Rings
Huan Yin CHEN; Miao Sen CHEN
2006-01-01
We introduce the concept of ideal-comparability condition for regular rings. Let I be an ideal of a regular ring R. If R satisfies the Ⅰ-comparability condition, then R is one-sided unit-regular if and only if so is R/I. Also, we show that a regular ring R satisfies the general comparability if and only if the following hold: (1) R/I satisfies the general comparability; (2) R satisfies the general Ⅰ-comparability condition; (3) The natural map B(R) → B(R/I) is surjective.
Local and Nonlocal Regularization to Image Interpolation
Yi Zhan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an image interpolation model with local and nonlocal regularization. A nonlocal bounded variation (BV regularizer is formulated by an exponential function including gradient. It acts as the Perona-Malik equation. Thus our nonlocal BV regularizer possesses the properties of the anisotropic diffusion equation and nonlocal functional. The local total variation (TV regularizer dissipates image energy along the orthogonal direction to the gradient to avoid blurring image edges. The derived model efficiently reconstructs the real image, leading to a natural interpolation which reduces blurring and staircase artifacts. We present experimental results that prove the potential and efficacy of the method.
Regularization and error assignment to unfolded distributions
Zech, Gunter
2011-01-01
The commonly used approach to present unfolded data only in graphical formwith the diagonal error depending on the regularization strength is unsatisfac-tory. It does not permit the adjustment of parameters of theories, the exclusionof theories that are admitted by the observed data and does not allow the com-bination of data from different experiments. We propose fixing the regulariza-tion strength by a p-value criterion, indicating the experimental uncertaintiesindependent of the regularization and publishing the unfolded data in additionwithout regularization. These considerations are illustrated with three differentunfolding and smoothing approaches applied to a toy example.
Bit-coded regular expression parsing
Nielsen, Lasse; Henglein, Fritz
2011-01-01
Regular expression parsing is the problem of producing a parse tree of a string for a given regular expression. We show that a compact bit representation of a parse tree can be produced efficiently, in time linear in the product of input string size and regular expression size, by simplifying...... the DFA-based parsing algorithm due to Dub ´e and Feeley to emit the bits of the bit representation without explicitly materializing the parse tree itself. We furthermore show that Frisch and Cardelli’s greedy regular expression parsing algorithm can be straightforwardly modified to produce bit codings...
The regularity of quotient paratopological groups
Banakh, Taras
2010-01-01
Let $H$ be a closed subgroup of a regular abelian paratopological group $G$. The group reflexion $G^\\flat$ of $G$ is the group $G$ endowed with the strongest group topology, weaker that the original topology of $G$. We show that the quotient $G/H$ is Hausdorff (and regular) if $H$ is closed (and locally compact) in $G^\\flat$. On the other hand, we construct an example of a regular abelian paratopological group $G$ containing a closed discrete subgroup $H$ such that the quotient $G/H$ is Hausdorff but not regular.
From Recreational to Regular Drug Use - Qualitative Interviews with Young Clubbers
Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe
2011-01-01
This article analyses the process of going from recreational use to regular and problematic use of illegal drugs. We present a model containing six career contingencies relevant for young people’s progress from recreational to regular drug use: the closing of social networks, changes in forms...... of parties, intoxication becoming a goal in itself, easier access to drugs, learning to recognise alternative effects of drugs and experiences of loss of control. The analysis shows that these dimensions are at play not only when young people develop a regular drug use pattern but also when they attempt...... to extricate themselves from this pattern. Hence, when regular drug users talk about their future, it is not a future characterised by total abstinence from illegal drugs but a future where they have rolled back their drug use career to the recreational drug use pattern they started out with. Empirically...
Regular Deployment of Wireless Sensors to Achieve Connectivity and Information Coverage
Cheng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jiang, Yi; Yin, Xipeng
2016-01-01
Coverage and connectivity are two of the most critical research subjects in WSNs, while regular deterministic deployment is an important deployment strategy and results in some pattern-based lattice WSNs. Some studies of optimal regular deployment for generic values of rc/rs were shown recently. However, most of these deployments are subject to a disk sensing model, and cannot take advantage of data fusion. Meanwhile some other studies adapt detection techniques and data fusion to sensing coverage to enhance the deployment scheme. In this paper, we provide some results on optimal regular deployment patterns to achieve information coverage and connectivity as a variety of rc/rs, which are all based on data fusion by sensor collaboration, and propose a novel data fusion strategy for deployment patterns. At first the relation between variety of rc/rs and density of sensors needed to achieve information coverage and connectivity is derived in closed form for regular pattern-based lattice WSNs. Then a dual triangular pattern deployment based on our novel data fusion strategy is proposed, which can utilize collaborative data fusion more efficiently. The strip-based deployment is also extended to a new pattern to achieve information coverage and connectivity, and its characteristics are deduced in closed form. Some discussions and simulations are given to show the efficiency of all deployment patterns, including previous patterns and the proposed patterns, to help developers make more impactful WSN deployment decisions. PMID:27529246
Continuum regularization of quantum field theory
Bern, Z.
1986-04-01
Possible nonperturbative continuum regularization schemes for quantum field theory are discussed which are based upon the Langevin equation of Parisi and Wu. Breit, Gupta and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the ''fifth-time'' of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, two difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. One problem is that the superficial quadratic divergences force a bottomless action for the noise. Another difficulty is that stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing is incompatible with Zwanziger's gauge fixing, which is the only known nonperturbaive covariant gauge fixing for nonabelian gauge theories. Finally, a successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest. Hopefully, the scheme will lend itself to nonperturbative analysis. 44 refs., 16 figs.
Regular Decompositions for H(div) Spaces
Kolev, Tzanio [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing; Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing
2012-01-01
We study regular decompositions for H(div) spaces. In particular, we show that such regular decompositions are closely related to a previously studied “inf-sup” condition for parameter-dependent Stokes problems, for which we provide an alternative, more direct, proof.
Adaptive regularization of noisy linear inverse problems
Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue
2006-01-01
In the Bayesian modeling framework there is a close relation between regularization and the prior distribution over parameters. For prior distributions in the exponential family, we show that the optimal hyper-parameter, i.e., the optimal strength of regularization, satisfies a simple relation: T...
12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person...
Fast and compact regular expression matching
Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin
2008-01-01
We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...
Regularity of harmonic maps with the potential
CHU; Yuming
2006-01-01
The aim of this work is to prove the partial regularity of the harmonic maps with potential. The main difficulty caused by the potential is how to find the equation satisfied by the scaling function. Under the assumption on the potential we can obtain the equation, however, for a general potential, even if it is smooth, the partial regularity is still open.
On the Equivalence of Regularization Schemes
YANG Ji-Feng
2002-01-01
We illustrate via the sunset diagram that dimensional regularization ‘deforms' the nonlocal contentsof multi-loop diagrams with its equivalence to cutoff regularization scheme recovered only after sub-divergence wassubtracted. Then we employed a differential equation approach for calculating loop diagrams to verify that dimensionalare argued especially in nonperturbativc perspective.
Regular Event Structures and Finite Petri Nets
Nielsen, M.; Thiagarajan, P.S.
2002-01-01
We present the notion of regular event structures and conjecture that they correspond exactly to finite 1-safe Petri nets. We show that the conjecture holds for the conflict-free case. Even in this restricted setting, the proof is non-trivial and involves a natural subclass of regular event...
Regularity Re-Revisited: Modality Matters
Tsapkini, Kyrana; Jarema, Gonia; Kehayia, Eva
2004-01-01
The issue of regular-irregular past tense formation was examined in a cross-modal lexical decision task in Modern Greek, a language where the orthographic and phonological overlap between present and past tense stems is the same for both regular and irregular verbs. The experiment described here is a follow-up study of previous visual lexical…
Regularization algorithms based on total least squares
Hansen, Per Christian; O'Leary, Dianne P.
1996-01-01
Discretizations of inverse problems lead to systems of linear equations with a highly ill-conditioned coefficient matrix, and in order to compute stable solutions to these systems it is necessary to apply regularization methods. Classical regularization methods, such as Tikhonov's method or trunc...
A regularized stationary mean-field game
Yang, Xianjin
2016-04-19
In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.
Channeling power across ecological systems: social regularities in community organizing.
Christens, Brian D; Inzeo, Paula Tran; Faust, Victoria
2014-06-01
Relational and social network perspectives provide opportunities for more holistic conceptualizations of phenomena of interest in community psychology, including power and empowerment. In this article, we apply these tools to build on multilevel frameworks of empowerment by proposing that networks of relationships between individuals constitute the connective spaces between ecological systems. Drawing on an example of a model for grassroots community organizing practiced by WISDOM—a statewide federation supporting local community organizing initiatives in Wisconsin—we identify social regularities (i.e., relational and temporal patterns) that promote empowerment and the development and exercise of social power through building and altering relational ties. Through an emphasis on listening-focused one-to-one meetings, reflection, and social analysis, WISDOM organizing initiatives construct and reinforce social regularities that develop social power in the organizing initiatives and advance psychological empowerment among participant leaders in organizing. These patterns are established by organizationally driven brokerage and mobilization of interpersonal ties, some of which span ecological systems.Hence, elements of these power-focused social regularities can be conceptualized as cross-system channels through which micro-level empowerment processes feed into macro-level exercise of social power, and vice versa. We describe examples of these channels in action, and offer recommendations for theory and design of future action research [corrected] .
Minimal regular 2-graphs and applications
FAN; Hongbing; LIU; Guizhen; LIU; Jiping
2006-01-01
A 2-graph is a hypergraph with edge sizes of at most two. A regular 2-graph is said to be minimal if it does not contain a proper regular factor. Let f2(n) be the maximum value of degrees over all minimal regular 2-graphs of n vertices. In this paper, we provide a structure property of minimal regular 2-graphs, and consequently, prove that f2(n) = n+3-i/3where 1 ≤i≤6, i=n (mod 6) andn≥ 7, which solves a conjecture posed by Fan, Liu, Wu and Wong. As applications in graph theory, we are able to characterize unfactorable regular graphs and provide the best possible factor existence theorem on degree conditions. Moreover, f2(n) and the minimal 2-graphs can be used in the universal switch box designs, which originally motivated this study.
Regular Expression Matching and Operational Semantics
Rathnayake, Asiri; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.3
2011-01-01
Many programming languages and tools, ranging from grep to the Java String library, contain regular expression matchers. Rather than first translating a regular expression into a deterministic finite automaton, such implementations typically match the regular expression on the fly. Thus they can be seen as virtual machines interpreting the regular expression much as if it were a program with some non-deterministic constructs such as the Kleene star. We formalize this implementation technique for regular expression matching using operational semantics. Specifically, we derive a series of abstract machines, moving from the abstract definition of matching to increasingly realistic machines. First a continuation is added to the operational semantics to describe what remains to be matched after the current expression. Next, we represent the expression as a data structure using pointers, which enables redundant searches to be eliminated via testing for pointer equality. From there, we arrive both at Thompson's lock...
A linear functional strategy for regularized ranking.
Kriukova, Galyna; Panasiuk, Oleksandra; Pereverzyev, Sergei V; Tkachenko, Pavlo
2016-01-01
Regularization schemes are frequently used for performing ranking tasks. This topic has been intensively studied in recent years. However, to be effective a regularization scheme should be equipped with a suitable strategy for choosing a regularization parameter. In the present study we discuss an approach, which is based on the idea of a linear combination of regularized rankers corresponding to different values of the regularization parameter. The coefficients of the linear combination are estimated by means of the so-called linear functional strategy. We provide a theoretical justification of the proposed approach and illustrate them by numerical experiments. Some of them are related with ranking the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia of diabetes patients.
On regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution
Hosseini, Bamdad; Nigam, Nilima; Stockie, John M.
2016-01-01
In this article we consider regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution with applications to prototypical elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). We study the convergence of a sequence of distributions SH to a singular term S as a parameter H (associated with the support size of SH) shrinks to zero. We characterize this convergence in both the weak-* topology of distributions and a weighted Sobolev norm. These notions motivate a framework for constructing regularizations of the delta distribution that includes a large class of existing methods in the literature. This framework allows different regularizations to be compared. The convergence of solutions of PDEs with these regularized source terms is then studied in various topologies such as pointwise convergence on a deleted neighborhood and weighted Sobolev norms. We also examine the lack of symmetry in tensor product regularizations and effects of dissipative error in hyperbolic problems.
Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation
Nevidimova, O.
2009-04-01
Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation Modern methods of the theory of complex systems allow to build mathematical models of complex systems where self-organizing processes are largely determined by nonlinear effects and feedback. However, there exist some factors that exert significant influence on the dynamics of geomorphosystems, but hardly can be adequately expressed in the language of mathematical models. Conceptual modeling allows us to overcome this difficulty. It is based on the methods of synergetic, which, together with the theory of dynamic systems and classical geomorphology, enable to display the dynamics of geomorphological systems. The most adequate for mathematical modeling of complex systems is the concept of model dynamics based on equilibrium. This concept is based on dynamic equilibrium, the tendency to which is observed in the evolution of all geomorphosystems. As an objective law, it is revealed in the evolution of fluvial relief in general, and in river channel processes in particular, demonstrating the ability of these systems to self-organization. Channel process is expressed in the formation of river reaches, rifts, meanders and floodplain. As floodplain is a periodically flooded surface during high waters, it naturally connects river channel with slopes, being one of boundary expressions of the water stream activity. Floodplain dynamics is inseparable from the channel dynamics. It is formed at simultaneous horizontal and vertical displacement of the river channel, that is at Y=Y(x, y), where х, y - horizontal and vertical coordinates, Y - floodplain height. When dу/dt=0 (for not lowering river channel), the river, being displaced in a horizontal plane, leaves behind a low surface, which flooding during high waters (total duration of flooding) changes from the maximum during the initial moment of time t0 to zero in the moment tn. In a similar manner changed is the total amount of accumulated material on the floodplain surface
Generalized uncertainty principles, effective Newton constant and regular black holes
Li, Xiang; Shen, You-Gen; Liu, Cheng-Zhou; He, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Lan-Fang
2016-01-01
In this paper, we explore the quantum spacetimes that are potentially connected with the generalized uncertainty principles. By analyzing the gravity-induced quantum interference pattern and the Gedanken for weighting photon, we find that the generalized uncertainty principles inspire the effective Newton constant as same as our previous proposal. A characteristic momentum associated with the tidal effect is suggested, which incorporates the quantum effect with the geometric nature of gravity. When the simplest generalized uncertainty principle is considered, the minimal model of the regular black holes is reproduced by the effective Newton constant. The black hole's tunneling probability, accurate to the second order correction, is carefully analyzed. We find that the tunneling probability is regularized by the size of the black hole remnant. Moreover, the black hole remnant is the final state of a tunneling process that the probability is minimized. A theory of modified gravity is suggested, by substituting...
Statistical regularities in the rank-citation profile of scientists
Petersen, Alexander M.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Succi, Sauro
2011-12-01
Recent science of science research shows that scientific impact measures for journals and individual articles have quantifiable regularities across both time and discipline. However, little is known about the scientific impact distribution at the scale of an individual scientist. We analyze the aggregate production and impact using the rank-citation profile ci(r) of 200 distinguished professors and 100 assistant professors. For the entire range of paper rank r, we fit each ci(r) to a common distribution function. Since two scientists with equivalent Hirsch h-index can have significantly different ci(r) profiles, our results demonstrate the utility of the βi scaling parameter in conjunction with hi for quantifying individual publication impact. We show that the total number of citations Ci tallied from a scientist's Ni papers scales as . Such statistical regularities in the input-output patterns of scientists can be used as benchmarks for theoretical models of career progress.
高伟; 陈为艳; 张宝泉; 杨新刚; 王守峰
2013-01-01
Objective Clinical effects of dot from body skin irradiated xenogeneic skin improved composite graft.Methods Selected 80 patients with severe burn patients randomized after admission on the basis of conventional treatment,3-5 days line Crust treatment group transplanted autologous point-like skin irradiation pigskin coverage.Results Treatment of patients in group one week dressing see irradiated pigskin Tiefu full two weeks the pigskin was dry scab-like.Wound healing treatment group (29 ± 5) days (P ＜ 0.01) was significantly shorter than the control group(39 ±4) days.Wound healing rate of treatment is significantly higher than the control group (P ＜0.01).Wound infection rate reduced greatly reduce labor intensity and dressing,and reduce pain.1 year after scar formation in patients with good flexibility and functionality.Conclusions Punctate since improved composite body skin irradiated xenogeneic skin transplantation can improve skin graft survival rate,promote wound healing,treatment of a large area of the burn wound repair is feasible and effective.%目的 探讨点状自体皮与辐照异种皮改良复合移植的临床效果.方法 对入选的80例大面积烧伤患者,采用分层随机分组的方法分为治疗组及对照组,每组40例,治疗组在常规治疗的基础上,入院后第3～5天行切削痂,点状自体皮移植后辐照异种皮覆盖；对照组40例,其中20例行点状自体皮移植网眼油纱覆盖后加压包扎,20例行点状自体皮移植新鲜猪皮覆盖.观察比较两组患者点状自体皮成活情况、辐照异种皮排斥、创面愈合时间及愈合率、换药工作量、患者疼痛度及1年后患者瘢痕及功能恢复情况.结果 治疗组术后1周换药见辐照异种皮贴服完整,2周辐照异种皮呈干痂状.4～5周干痂逐渐分离,创面愈合.创面愈合时间治疗组(29.5±5)d较对照组(39.6±4)d明显缩短(P＜0.01).创面愈合率治疗组(86.8±3.8)％较对照组(34.2±2.1)
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2012-11-19
Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
J-regular rings with injectivities
Shen, Liang
2010-01-01
A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.
Low power implementation of datapath using regularity
LAI Li-ya; LIU Peng
2005-01-01
Datapath accounts for a considerable part of power consumption in VLSI circuit design. This paper presents a method for physical implementation of datapath to achieve low power consumption. Regularity is a characteristic of datapath and the key of the proposed method, where synthesis is tightly combined with placement to make full use of regularity, so that low power consumption is achieved. In This paper, a new concept of Synthesis In Relative Placement (SIRP) is given to deal with the semi-regularity in some datapath. Experimental results of a sample circuit validated the proposed method.
REGULARIZATION OF SINGULAR SYSTEMS BY OUTPUT FEEDBACK
De-lin Chu; Da-yong Cai
2000-01-01
Problem of regularization of a singular system by derivative and proportional output feedback is studied. Necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained under which a singular system can be regularized into a closed-loop system that is regular and of index at most one. The reduced form is given that can easily explore the system properties as well as the feedback to be determined. The main results of the present paper are based on orthogonal transformations. Therefore, they can be implemented by numerically stable ways.
Limitations on Dimensional Regularization in Renyi Entropy
Bao, Ning
2016-01-01
Dimensional regularization is a common method used to regulate the UV divergence of field theoretic quantities. When it is used in the context of Renyi entropy, however, it is important to consider whether such a procedure eliminates the statistical interpretation thereof as a measure of entanglement of states living on a Hilbert space. We therefore examine the dimensionally regularized Renyi entropy of a 4d unitary CFT and show that it admits no underlying Hilbert space in the state-counting sense. This gives a concrete proof that dimensionally regularized Renyi entropy cannot always be obtained as a limit of the Renyi entropy of some finite-dimensional quantum system.
Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2007-01-01
We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success...
Could Regular Pot Smoking Harm Vision?
... fullstory_162441.html Could Regular Pot Smoking Harm Vision? Study suggests that it might slow signaling among ... may be linked to a limited degree of vision impairment, a new French study suggests. The finding ...
Regular-fat dairy and human health
Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas
2016-01-01
In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort...... dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk...... to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...
The regularization of Old English weak verbs
Marta Tío Sáenz
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This article deals with the regularization of non-standard spellings of the verbal forms extracted from a corpus. It addresses the question of what the limits of regularization are when lemmatizing Old English weak verbs. The purpose of such regularization, also known as normalization, is to carry out lexicological analysis or lexicographical work. The analysis concentrates on weak verbs from the second class and draws on the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which has incorporated the texts of the Dictionary of Old English Corpus. As regards the question of the limits of normalization, the solution adopted are, in the first place, that when it is necessary to regularize, normalization is restricted to correspondences based on dialectal and diachronic variation and, secondly, that normalization has to be unidirectional.
On π-regularity of General Rings
CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING
2010-01-01
A general ring means an associative ring with or without identity. An idempotent e in a general ring I is called left (right) semicentral if for every x∈ I,xe = exe (ex = exe). And I is called semiabelian ff every idempotent in I is left or right semicentral. It is proved that a semiabelian general ring I is π-regular if and only ff the set N(I) of nilpotent elements in I is an ideal of I and I/N(I) is regular. It follows that if I is a semiabelian general ring and K is an ideal of I,then I is π-regular if and only if both K and I/K are r-regular. Based on this we prove that every semiabelian GVNL-ring is an SGVNL-ring. These generalize several known results on the relevant subject. Furthermore we give a characterization of a semiabelian GVNL-ring.
A Biordered Set Representation of Regular Semigroups
Bing Jun YU; Mang XU
2005-01-01
In this paper, for an arbitrary regular biordered set E, by using biorder-isomorphisms between the ω-ideals of E, we construct a fundamental regular semigroup WE called NH-semigroup of E, whose idempotent biordered set is isomorphic to E. We prove further that WE can be used to give a new representation of general regular semigroups in the sense that, for any regular semigroup S with the idempotent biordered set isomorphic to E, there exists a homomorphism from S to WE whose kernel is the greatest idempotent-separating congruence on S and the image is a full symmetric subsemigroup of WE. Moreover, when E is a biordered set of a semilattice E0, WE is isomorphic to the Munn-semigroup TE0; and when E is the biordered set of a band B, WE is isomorphic to the Hall-semigroup WB.
Regularities and Radicals in Near-rings
N.J. Groenewald
2002-01-01
Let F be a regularity for near-rings and F(R) the largest FR-regular ideal in R. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the concepts of maximal Fmodular ideals and F-primitive near-rings to characterize F(R) for any near-ring regularity F. Under certain conditions, F(R) is equal to the intersection of all the maximal F-modular ideals of R. As examples, we apply this to the different analogs of the Brown-McCoy radicals and also the Behrens radicals. In the last part of this paper, we show that for certain regularities, the class of F-primitive near-rings forms a special class.
Spectral partitioning of random regular blockmodels
Barucca, Paolo
2016-01-01
Graph partitioning problems emerge in a wide variety of complex systems, ranging from biology to finance, but can be rigorously analyzed and solved only for a few graph ensembles. Here, an ensemble of random graphs with regular block structure is introduced, for which analytical results can be obtained. In particular, the spectral density of such random regular blockmodels is computed exactly for a modular, bipartite and core-periphery structure. McKay's law for random regular graphs is found analytically to apply also for regular modular and bipartite structures when blocks are homogeneous. In core-periphery structures, where blocks are intrinsically heterogeneous, a new law is found to apply for the spectral density. Exact solution to the inference problem is provided for the models discussed. All analytical results show perfect agreement with numerical experiments. Final discussion summarizes results and outlines the relevance of the results for the solution of graph partitioning problems in other graph en...
Comparability for ideals of regular rings
CHEN Huanyin
2005-01-01
In this paper we investigate necessary and sufficient conditions under which the ideals possess comparability structure. For regular rings, we prove that every square matrix over ideals satisfying general comparability admits a diagonal reduction by quasi invertible matrices.
Regularity of optimal transport maps and applications
Philippis, Guido
2013-01-01
In this thesis, we study the regularity of optimal transport maps and its applications to the semi-geostrophic system. The first two chapters survey the known theory, in particular there is a self-contained proof of Brenier’ theorem on existence of optimal transport maps and of Caffarelli’s Theorem on Holder continuity of optimal maps. In the third and fourth chapter we start investigating Sobolev regularity of optimal transport maps, while in Chapter 5 we show how the above mentioned results allows to prove the existence of Eulerian solution to the semi-geostrophic equation. In Chapter 6 we prove partial regularity of optimal maps with respect to a generic cost functions (it is well known that in this case global regularity can not be expected). More precisely we show that if the target and source measure have smooth densities the optimal map is always smooth outside a closed set of measure zero.
On Comparison of Adaptive Regularization Methods
Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai
2000-01-01
, a very flexible regularization may substitute the need for selection procedures. This paper investigates recently suggested adaptive regularization schemes. Some methods focus directly on minimizing an estimate of the generalization error (either algebraic or empirical), whereas others start from...... different criteria, e.g., the Bayesian evidence. The evidence expresses basically the probability of the model, which is conceptually different from generalization error; however, asymptotically for large training data sets they will converge. First the basic model definition, training and generalization...
*-Regular Leavitt Path Algebras of Arbitrary Graphs
Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Kulumani RANGASWAMY; Lia VA(S)
2012-01-01
If K is a field with involution and E an arbitrary graph,the involution from K naturally induces an involution of the Leavitt path algebra LK(E).We show that the involution on LK(E) is proper if the involution on K is positive-definite,even in the case when the graph E is not necessarily finite or row-finite.It has been shown that the Leavitt path algebra LK(E) is regular if and only if E is acyclic.We give necessary and sufficient conditions for LK(E) to be *-regular (i.e.,regular with proper involution).This characterization of *-regularity of a Leavitt path algebra is given in terms of an algebraic property of K,not just a graph-theoretic property of E.This differs from the.known characterizations of various other algebraic properties of a Leavitt path algebra in terms of graphtheoretic properties of E alone.As a corollary,we show that Handelman's conjecture (stating that every *-regular ring is unit-regular) holds for Leavitt path algebras.Moreover,its generalized version for rings with local units also continues to hold for Leavitt path algebras over arbitrary graphs.
Elementary abelian regular coverings of Platonic maps, Case I: ordinary representations
Jones, Gareth A
2012-01-01
We classify the orientably regular maps which are elementary abelian regular branched coverings of Platonic maps M, in the case where the covering group and the rotation group G of M have coprime orders. The method involves studying the representations of G on certain homology groups of the sphere, punctured at the branch-points. We give a complete classification for branching over faces (or, dually, vertices) of M, and outline how the method extends to other branching patterns.
Interactive facades analysis and synthesis of semi-regular facades
AlHalawani, Sawsan
2013-05-01
Urban facades regularly contain interesting variations due to allowed deformations of repeated elements (e.g., windows in different open or close positions) posing challenges to state-of-the-art facade analysis algorithms. We propose a semi-automatic framework to recover both repetition patterns of the elements and their individual deformation parameters to produce a factored facade representation. Such a representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Nasimi, Ali; Rees, Adrian
2010-12-01
The spike discharge regularity may be important in the processing of information in the auditory pathway. It has already been shown that many cells in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus fire regularly in response to monaural stimulation by the best frequency tones. The aim of this study was to find how the regularity of units was affected by adding ipsilateral tone, and how interaural intensity difference sensitivity is related to regularity. Single unit recordings were performed from 66 units in the inferior colliculus of the anaesthetized guinea pig in response to the best frequency tone. Regularity of firing was measured by calculating the coefficient of variation as a function of time of a unit's response. There was a positive correlation between coefficient of variation and interaural intensity difference sensitivity, indicating that highly regular units had very weak and irregular units had strong interaural intensity difference sensitivity responses. Three effects of binaural interaction on the sustained regularity were observed: constant coefficient of variation despite change in rate (66% of the units), negative (20%) and positive (13%) rate-CV relationships. A negative rate-coefficient of variation relationship was the dominant pattern of binaural interaction on the onset regularity.
Association Between Regular Cannabis Use and Ganglion Cell Dysfunction.
Schwitzer, Thomas; Schwan, Raymund; Albuisson, Eliane; Giersch, Anne; Lalanne, Laurence; Angioi-Duprez, Karine; Laprevote, Vincent
2017-01-01
Because cannabis use is a major public health concern and cannabis is known to act on central neurotransmission, studying the retinal ganglion cells in individuals who regularly use cannabis is of interest. To determine whether the regular use of cannabis could alter the function of retinal ganglion cells in humans. For this case-control study, individuals who regularly use cannabis, as well as healthy controls, were recruited, and data were collected from February 11 to October 28, 2014. Retinal function was used as a direct marker of brain neurotransmission abnormalities in complex mental phenomena. Amplitude and implicit time of the N95 wave on results of pattern electroretinography. Twenty-eight of the 52 participants were regular cannabis users (24 men and 4 women; median age, 22 years [95% CI, 21-24 years]), and the remaining 24 were controls (20 men and 4 women; median age, 24 years [95% CI, 23-27 years]). There was no difference between groups in terms of age (P = .13) or sex (P = .81). After adjustment for the number of years of education and alcohol use, there was a significant increase for cannabis users of the N95 implicit time on results of pattern electroretinography (median, 98.6 milliseconds [95% CI, 93.4-99.5]) compared with controls (median, 88.4 milliseconds [95% CI, 85.0-91.1]), with 8.4 milliseconds as the median of the differences (95% CI, 4.9-11.5; P cannabis users and controls in their corresponding group. The positive predictive value was 78.6% (95% CI, 60.5%-89.8%), and the negative predictive value was 75.0% (95% CI, 55.1%-88.0%). Our results demonstrate a delay in transmission of action potentials by the ganglion cells in regular cannabis users, which could support alterations in vision. Our findings may be important from a public health perspective since they could highlight the neurotoxic effects of cannabis use on the central nervous system as a result of how it affects retinal processing.
The Least Regular Order with Respect to a Regular Congruence on Ordered Γ-Semigroups
Manoj SIRIPITUKDET; Aiyared IAMPAN
2012-01-01
The motivation mainly comes from the conditions of congruences to be regular that are of importance and interest in ordered semigroups.In 1981,Sen has introduced the concept of the Γ-semigroups.We can see that any semigroup can be considered as a Γ-semigroup.In this paper,we introduce and characterize the concept of the regular congruences on ordered Γ-semigroups and prove the following statements on an ordered Γ-semigroup M:(1) Every ordered semilattice congruences is a regular congruence.(2) There exists the least regular order on the T-semigroup M/p with respect to a regular congruence p on M.(3) The regular congruences are not ordered semilattice congruences in general.
点状内层脉络膜炎光相干断层扫描图像特征分析%Image features of punctate inner choroiditis on optical coherence tomography
张昊; 孔丹丹; 裴勇; 柳维艳
2014-01-01
目的：观察分析不同时期点状内层脉络膜炎( PIC )光相干断层扫描图像特征。 方法：回顾性分析点状内层脉络膜炎患者24例33眼,其中女19例(79.2%)、双眼发病9例(37.5%)、年龄中位数29(16~47)岁、近视19例(79.2%)。所有患者均行眼底荧光素钠血管造影( FFA )和光相干断层扫描( OCT )检查,观察不同时期点状内层脉络膜炎OCT检查中OPL(外丛状层)和ONL (外核层)形态、IS/OS (视细胞内外节连接)层完整性、RPE(视网膜色素上皮)层反光带完整性和形态、脉络膜和巩膜反光的强度。 结果：点状内层脉络膜炎活动期和萎缩期可以表现为外丛状层和外核层向脉络膜方向凹陷、IS/OS层反光带减弱或局部消失、RPE反光带中断或模糊、RPE反光带向外核层小丘样隆起或外核层下的中等偏高反射团、病灶下局部脉络膜或巩膜反光增强。其中活动期出现上述表现的比率分别是9.1%,100%,100%,86.4%,77.3%,恢复期分别是81.8%,90.1%,81.8%,45.5%,90.1%。外核层下隆起的中等偏高的反射团在活动期更常见(P 结论：点状内层脉络膜炎活动期和萎缩期OCT表现有共同点但也有不同之处,提示了活动期和萎缩期外层神经上皮、视网膜色素上皮以及内层脉络膜炎症损伤再修复的病理过程。%AIM: To observe the image features of punctate inner choroiditis (PIC) at different stages by optical coherence tomography ( OCT) . METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 24 PIC patients (33 eyes) with the median age of 29 years old ( range: 16 - 47 ) , where 19 cases were female ( 79.2%) . Among the 24 cases, 9 cases were bilateral onset (37. 5%) and 19 cases were with myopia (79. 2%). All of the patients were given fundus fluorescein angiography ( FFA ) and optical coherence tomography ( OCT ) . Through OCT, patients with PIC at different stages were observed for morphology of outer plexiform layer (OPL) and outer
A Construction for P-Regular Semigroups
无
2000-01-01
@@A regular semigroup S with a special involution *, i.e., a unaryoperation on S satisfying (x*)*=x, xx*x=x, (xy)*=y*x* x, y S, is called a regular *-semigroup［1］. It has been shown by Yamada［2］ that a regular semigroup S is a regular *-semigroup if and only if ithas a P-system, that is to say, there is a subset P ofE(S) such that (c.1) (1) ( p, q P) pq E(S), pqp P; (2) ( a S) ( | a+ V(a)) aP1a+, a+P1a P.As a generalization of regular *-semigroup and orthodox semigroup,Yamada［3］ defined P-regular semigroup. Let S be a regularsemigroup. A subset P of E(S) is called a C-set in S if (c.2) (1) ( p, q P) pq E(S), pqp P; (2) ( a S) ( a+ V(a)) aP1a+, a+P1a P. In this case, (S,P) forms a P-regular semigroup, innotation S(P). The element a+ in(c.2) (2) is called a P-inverse of a. The set of all P-inverses of a is denoted by VP(a). S(P) is said to bestrongly, meanwhile P is called a strong C-set in S, ifVP(p) P for all p P. A partial groupoid E as well as its partial subgroupoid Pforms a P-regular partial band and is denoted by E(P) if itis exactly the subalgebra of the idempotents in some P-regularsemigroup S(P). In this case, S(P) is called an adjacentsemigroup E(P). All P-regular partial bands are obtained inZhang and He［4］.
Counting colorings of a regular graph
Galvin, David
2012-01-01
At most how many (proper) q-colorings does a regular graph admit? Galvin and Tetali conjectured that among all n-vertex, d-regular graphs with 2d|n, none admits more q-colorings than the disjoint union of n/2d copies of the complete bipartite graph K_{d,d}. In this note we give asymptotic evidence for this conjecture, giving an upper bound on the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph of the form a^n b^{n(1+o(1))/d} (where a and b depend on q and where o(1) goes to 0 as d goes to infinity) that agrees up to the o(1) term with the count of q-colorings of n/2d copies of K_{d,d}. An auxiliary result is an upper bound on the number of colorings of a regular graph in terms of its independence number. For example, we show that for all even q and fixed \\epsilon > 0 there is \\delta=\\delta(\\epsilon,q) such that the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph with no independent set of size n(1-\\epsilon)/2 is at most (a-\\delta)^n.
Modified sparse regularization for electrical impedance tomography.
Fan, Wenru; Wang, Huaxiang; Xue, Qian; Cui, Ziqiang; Sun, Benyuan; Wang, Qi
2016-03-01
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) aims to estimate the electrical properties at the interior of an object from current-voltage measurements on its boundary. It has been widely investigated due to its advantages of low cost, non-radiation, non-invasiveness, and high speed. Image reconstruction of EIT is a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem. Therefore, regularization techniques like Tikhonov regularization are used to solve the inverse problem. A sparse regularization based on L1 norm exhibits superiority in preserving boundary information at sharp changes or discontinuous areas in the image. However, the limitation of sparse regularization lies in the time consumption for solving the problem. In order to further improve the calculation speed of sparse regularization, a modified method based on separable approximation algorithm is proposed by using adaptive step-size and preconditioning technique. Both simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the image quality and real-time performance in the presence of different noise intensities and conductivity contrasts.
Regular Expression Matching and Operational Semantics
Asiri Rathnayake
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Many programming languages and tools, ranging from grep to the Java String library, contain regular expression matchers. Rather than first translating a regular expression into a deterministic finite automaton, such implementations typically match the regular expression on the fly. Thus they can be seen as virtual machines interpreting the regular expression much as if it were a program with some non-deterministic constructs such as the Kleene star. We formalize this implementation technique for regular expression matching using operational semantics. Specifically, we derive a series of abstract machines, moving from the abstract definition of matching to increasingly realistic machines. First a continuation is added to the operational semantics to describe what remains to be matched after the current expression. Next, we represent the expression as a data structure using pointers, which enables redundant searches to be eliminated via testing for pointer equality. From there, we arrive both at Thompson's lockstep construction and a machine that performs some operations in parallel, suitable for implementation on a large number of cores, such as a GPU. We formalize the parallel machine using process algebra and report some preliminary experiments with an implementation on a graphics processor using CUDA.
Mining High Utility Itemsets with Regular Occurrence
Komate Amphawan
2016-09-01
Full Text Available High utility itemset mining (HUIM plays an important role in the data mining community and in a wide range of applications. For example, in retail business it is used for finding sets of sold products that give high profit, low cost, etc. These itemsets can help improve marketing strategies, make promotions/ advertisements, etc. However, since HUIM only considers utility values of items/itemsets, it may not be sufficient to observe product-buying behavior of customers such as information related to “regular purchases of sets of products having a high profit margin”. To address this issue, the occurrence behavior of itemsets (in the term of regularity simultaneously with their utility values was investigated. Then, the problem of mining high utility itemsets with regular occurrence (MHUIR to find sets of co-occurrence items with high utility values and regular occurrence in a database was considered. An efficient single-pass algorithm, called MHUIRA, was introduced. A new modified utility-list structure, called NUL, was designed to efficiently maintain utility values and occurrence information and to increase the efficiency of computing the utility of itemsets. Experimental studies on real and synthetic datasets and complexity analyses are provided to show the efficiency of MHUIRA combined with NUL in terms of time and space usage for mining interesting itemsets based on regularity and utility constraints.
On a correspondence between regular and non-regular operator monotone functions
Gibilisco, P.; Hansen, Frank; Isola, T.
2009-01-01
We prove the existence of a bijection between the regular and the non-regular operator monotone functions satisfying a certain functional equation. As an application we give a new proof of the operator monotonicity of certain functions related to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information.......We prove the existence of a bijection between the regular and the non-regular operator monotone functions satisfying a certain functional equation. As an application we give a new proof of the operator monotonicity of certain functions related to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information....
Shadow of rotating regular black holes
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Ghosh, Sushant G
2016-01-01
We study the shadows cast by the different types of rotating regular black holes viz. Ay\\'on-Beato-Garc\\'ia {(ABG)}, Hayward, and Bardeen. These black holes have in addition to the total mass ($M$) and rotation parameter ($a$), different parameters as electric charge ($Q$), deviation parameter ($g$), and magnetic charge ($g_{*}$), respectively. Interestingly, the size of the shadow is affected by these parameters in addition to the rotation parameter. We found that the radius of the shadow in each case decreases monotonically and the distortion parameter increases when the value of these parameters increase. A comparison with the standard Kerr case is also investigated. We have also studied the influence of the plasma environment around regular black holes to discuss its shadow. The presence of the plasma affects the apparent size of the regular black hole's shadow to be increased due to two effects (i) gravitational redshift of the photons and (ii) radial dependence of plasma density.
Fractional Regularization Term for Variational Image Registration
Rafael Verdú-Monedero
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Image registration is a widely used task of image analysis with applications in many fields. Its classical formulation and current improvements are given in the spatial domain. In this paper a regularization term based on fractional order derivatives is formulated. This term is defined and implemented in the frequency domain by translating the energy functional into the frequency domain and obtaining the Euler-Lagrange equations which minimize it. The new regularization term leads to a simple formulation and design, being applicable to higher dimensions by using the corresponding multidimensional Fourier transform. The proposed regularization term allows for a real gradual transition from a diffusion registration to a curvature registration which is best suited to some applications and it is not possible in the spatial domain. Results with 3D actual images show the validity of this approach.
Obregón, O; Ryan, M P; Obregon, Octavio; Quevedo, Hernando; Ryan, Michael P.
2004-01-01
We construct a family of time and angular dependent, regular S-brane solutions which corresponds to a simple analytical continuation of the Zipoy-Voorhees 4-dimensional vacuum spacetime. The solutions are asymptotically flat and turn out to be free of singularities without requiring a twist in space. They can be considered as the simplest non-singular generalization of the singular S0-brane solution. We analyze the properties of a representative of this family of solutions and show that it resembles to some extent the asymptotic properties of the regular Kerr S-brane. The R-symmetry corresponds, however, to the general Lorentzian symmetry. Several generalizations of this regular solution are derived which include a charged S-brane and an additional dilatonic field.
Landweber iterative regularization for nearfield acoustic holography
BI Chuanxing; CHEN Xinzhao; ZHOU Rong; CHEN Jian
2006-01-01
On the basis of the distributed source boundary point method (DSBPM)-based nearfield acoustic holography (NAH), Landweber iterative regularization method is proposed to stabilize the NAH reconstruction process, control the influence of measurement errors on the reconstructed results and ensure the validity of the reconstructed results. And a new method, the auxiliary surface method, is proposed to determine the optimal iterative number for optimizing the regularization effect. Here, the optimal number is determined by minimizing the relative error between the calculated pressure on the auxiliary surface corresponding to each iterative number and the measured pressure. An experiment on a speaker is investigated to demonstrate the high sensitivity of the reconstructed results to measurement errors and to validate the chosen method of the optimal iterative number and the Landweber iterative regularization method for controlling the influence of measurement errors on the reconstructed results.
Robust super-resolution without regularization
Pham, T Q [Canon Information Systems Research Australia, 1 Thomas Holt drive, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Vliet, L J v [Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Imaging Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Schutte, K [Electro-Optics Group, TNO Defence, Security and Safety, PO Box 96864, 2509 JG The Hague (Netherlands)
2008-07-15
Super-resolution restoration is the problem of restoring a high-resolution scene from multiple degraded low-resolution images under motion. Due to imaging blur and noise, this problem is ill-posed. Additional constraints such as smoothness of the solution (i.e. regularization) is often required to obtain a stable solution. While regularizing the cost function is a standard practice in image restoration, we propose a restoration algorithm that does not require this extra regularization term. The robustness of the algorithm is achieved by a robust error norm that does not response to intensity outliers. With the outliers suppressed, our solution behaves similarly to a maximum-likelihood solution under the presence of Gaussian noise. The effectiveness of our algorithm is demonstrated with super-resolution restoration of real infrared image sequences under severe aliasing and intensity outliers.
Implementing regularization implicitly via approximate eigenvector computation
Mahoney, Michael W
2010-01-01
Regularization is a powerful technique for extracting useful information from noisy data. Typically, it is implemented by adding some sort of norm constraint to an objective function and then exactly optimizing the modified objective function. This procedure typically leads to optimization problems that are computationally more expensive than the original problem, a fact that is clearly problematic if one is interested in large-scale applications. On the other hand, a large body of empirical work has demonstrated that heuristics, and in some cases approximation algorithms, developed to speed up computations sometimes have the side-effect of performing regularization implicitly. Thus, we consider the question: What is the regularized optimization objective that an approximation algorithm is exactly optimizing? We address this question in the context of computing approximations to the smallest nontrivial eigenvector of a graph Laplacian; and we consider three random-walk-based procedures: one based on the heat ...
Nonlinear electrodynamics and regular black holes
Sajadi, S. N.; Riazi, N.
2017-03-01
In this work, an exact regular black hole solution in General Relativity is presented. The source is a nonlinear electromagnetic field with the algebraic structure T00=T11 for the energy-momentum tensor, partially satisfying the weak energy condition but not the strong energy condition. In the weak field limit, the EM field behaves like the Maxwell field. The solution corresponds to a charged black hole with q≤0.77 m. The metric, the curvature invariants, and the electric field are regular everywhere. The BH is stable against small perturbations of spacetime and using the Weinhold metric, geometrothermodynamical stability has been investigated. Finally we investigate the idea that the observable universe lives inside a regular black hole. We argue that this picture might provide a viable description of universe.
Regularization and Migration Policy in Europe
Philippe de Bruycker
2001-05-01
Full Text Available The following pages present, in a general way, the contents of Regularization of illegal immigrants in the European Union, which includes a comparative synthesis and statistical information for each of the eight countries involved; a description of actions since the beginning of the year 2000; and a systematic analysis of the different categories of foreigners, the types of regularization carried out, and the rules that have governed these actions.In relation to regularization, the author considers the political coherence of the actions taken by the member states as well as how they relate to two ever more crucial aspects of immigration policy –the integration of legal resident immigrants and the fight againstillegal immigration in the context of a control of migratory flows.
Width Distributions for Convex Regular Polyhedra
Finch, Steven R
2011-01-01
The mean width is a measure on three-dimensional convex bodies that enjoys equal status with volume and surface area [Rota]. As the phrase suggests, it is the mean of a probability density f. We verify formulas for mean widths of the regular tetrahedron and the cube. Higher-order moments of f_tetra and f_cube have not been examined until now. Assume that each polyhedron has edges of unit length. We deduce that the mean square width of the regular tetrahedron is 1/3+(3+sqrt(3))/(3*pi) and the mean square width of the cube is 1+4/pi.
Stability Analysis for Regularized Least Squares Regression
Rudin, Cynthia
2005-01-01
We discuss stability for a class of learning algorithms with respect to noisy labels. The algorithms we consider are for regression, and they involve the minimization of regularized risk functionals, such as L(f) := 1/N sum_i (f(x_i)-y_i)^2+ lambda ||f||_H^2. We shall call the algorithm `stable' if, when y_i is a noisy version of f*(x_i) for some function f* in H, the output of the algorithm converges to f* as the regularization term and noise simultaneously vanish. We consider two flavors of...
Interaction of Regular and Chaotic States
De Pace, A; Weidenmüller, H A
2006-01-01
Modelling the chaotic states in terms of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble of random matrices (GOE), we investigate the interaction of the GOE with regular bound states. The eigenvalues of the latter may or may not be embedded in the GOE spectrum. We derive a generalized form of the Pastur equation for the average Green's function. We use that equation to study the average and the variance of the shift of the regular states, their spreading width, and the deformation of the GOE spectrum non-perturbatively. We compare our results with various perturbative approaches.
Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times.
Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro
2014-06-01
In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system.
No finite $5$-regular matchstick graph exists
2014-01-01
A graph $G=(V,E)$ is called a unit-distance graph in the plane if there is an injective embedding of $V$ in the plane such that every pair of adjacent vertices are at unit distance apart. If additionally the corresponding edges are non-crossing and all vertices have the same degree $r$ we talk of a regular matchstick graph. Due to Euler's polyhedron formula we have $r\\le 5$. The smallest known $4$-regular matchstick graph is the so called Harborth graph consisting of $52$ vertices. In this ar...
Learning Rates for -Regularized Kernel Classifiers
Hongzhi Tong
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a family of classification algorithms generated from a regularization kernel scheme associated with -regularizer and convex loss function. Our main purpose is to provide an explicit convergence rate for the excess misclassification error of the produced classifiers. The error decomposition includes approximation error, hypothesis error, and sample error. We apply some novel techniques to estimate the hypothesis error and sample error. Learning rates are eventually derived under some assumptions on the kernel, the input space, the marginal distribution, and the approximation error.
Estrada, Ernesto; de la Pena, Jose A.
2013-01-01
Let G be a graph with set of vertices 1,...,n and adjacency matrix A of size nxn. Let d(i,j)=d, we say that f_d:N->N is a d-function on G if for every pair of vertices i,j and k>=d, we have a_ij^(k)=f_d(k). If this function f_d exists on G we say that G is d-walk regular. We prove that G is d-walk regular if and only if for every pair of vertices i,j at distance
Dynamic stabilization of regular linear systems
Weiss, G; Curtain, RF
We consider a general class of infinite-dimensional linear systems, called regular linear systems, for which convenient representations are known to exist both in time and in frequency domain, For this class of systems, we investigate the concepts of stabilizability and detectability, in particular,
Regular and context-free nominal traces
Mezzetti, Gianluca
2016-01-01
Two kinds of automata are presented, for recognising new classes of regular and context-free nominal languages. We compare their expressive power with analogous proposals in the literature, showing that they express novel classes of languages. Although many properties of classical languages hold ...
Neural Classifier Construction using Regularization, Pruning
Hintz-Madsen, Mads; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan;
1998-01-01
In this paper we propose a method for construction of feed-forward neural classifiers based on regularization and adaptive architectures. Using a penalized maximum likelihood scheme, we derive a modified form of the entropic error measure and an algebraic estimate of the test error. In conjunction...
Deconvolution and Regularization with Toeplitz Matrices
Hansen, Per Christian
2002-01-01
of these discretized deconvolution problems, with emphasis on methods that take the special structure of the matrix into account. Wherever possible, analogies to classical DFT-based deconvolution problems are drawn. Among other things, we present direct methods for regularization with Toeplitz matrices, and we show...
The moduli space of regular stable maps
Robbin, Joel; Salamon, Dietmar; 10.1007/s00209-007-0237-x
2012-01-01
The moduli space of regular stable maps with values in a complex manifold admits naturally the structure of a complex orbifold. Our proof uses the methods of differential geometry rather than algebraic geometry. It is based on Hardy decompositions and Fredholm intersection theory in the loop space of the target manifold.
Regular conformal system for Einstein equations
Choquet-Bruhat, Y.; Novello, M.
1987-06-21
We give a system of partial differential equations satisfied by a metric g conformal to an Einstein metric and by the conformal factor ..omega.., regular system in the sense that it does not contain negative powers of ..omega... We use the ideas of Friedrich but we obtain here a hyperbolic system in the sense of Leray, by a different method.
Optimal Regularizing Effect for Scalar Conservation Laws
Golse, François
2011-01-01
We investigate the regularity of bounded weak solutions of scalar conservation laws with uniformly convex flux in space dimension one, satisfying an entropy condition with entropy production term that is a signed Radon measure. The proof is based on the kinetic formulation of scalar conservation laws and on an interaction estimate in physical space.
Bayesian regularization of diffusion tensor images
Frandsen, Jesper; Hobolth, Asger; Østergaard, Leif;
2007-01-01
several directions. The measured diffusion coefficients and thereby the diffusion tensors are subject to noise, leading to possibly flawed representations of the three dimensional fibre bundles. In this paper we develop a Bayesian procedure for regularizing the diffusion tensor field, fully utilizing...
Regularity of rotational travelling water waves.
Escher, Joachim
2012-04-13
Several recent results on the regularity of streamlines beneath a rotational travelling wave, along with the wave profile itself, will be discussed. The survey includes the classical water wave problem in both finite and infinite depth, capillary waves and solitary waves as well. A common assumption in all models to be discussed is the absence of stagnation points.
Contour Propagation With Riemannian Elasticity Regularization
Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Sapru, W.;
2011-01-01
the planning CT onto the rescans and correcting to reflect actual anatomical changes. For deformable registration, a free-form, multi-level, B-spline deformation model with Riemannian elasticity, penalizing non-rigid local deformations, and volumetric changes, was used. Regularization parameters was defined...
NOTE ON REGULAR D-OPTIMAL MATRICES
李乔良
2003-01-01
Let A be aj ×d (0,1) matrix. It is known that ifj = 2k-1is odd, then det(AAT) ≤(j+1)((j+1)d/4j)j; ifj is even, then det(AAT) ≤ (j+1)((j+2)d/4(j+1))j. A is called a regularD-optimal matrix if it satisfies the equality of the above bounds. In this note, it is proved thatifj = 2k - 1 is odd, then A is a regular D-optimal matrix if and only if A is the adjacent matrixof a (2k - 1, k, (j + 1)d/4j)-BIBD; if j ＝ 2k is even, then A is a regular D-optimal matrix ifand only if A can be obtained from the adjacent matrix B of a (2k + 1, k + 1, (j + 2)d/4(j + 1))-BIBD by deleting any one row from B. Three 21 × 42 regular D-optimal matrices, which wereunknown in [11], are also provided.
A Note on Left Regular Semiring
N. Sulochana
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we have focused on the additive and multiplicative identity „e‟ and determine the additive and multiplicative semigroups. Here we established that, A semiring S in which (S, + and (S, • are left singular semigroups, then S is a left regular semiring. We have framed an example for this proposition by considering a two element set
Tikhonov Regularization and Total Least Squares
Golub, G. H.; Hansen, Per Christian; O'Leary, D. P.
2000-01-01
formulation involves a least squares problem, can be recast in a total least squares formulation suited for problems in which both the coefficient matrix and the right-hand side are known only approximately. We analyze the regularizing properties of this method and demonstrate by a numerical example that...
Creativity Workshops in the Regular Classroom.
Mildrum, Nancy King
2000-01-01
This article describes implementation of a creativity curriculum, Ten Lessons in Creativity, with gifted and typical students in elementary and middle school settings. It discusses creativity instruction as a bridge between gifted and regular education, ways that creativity workshops affirm the highly creative child, creativity and self-esteem,…
Regularization of turbulence - a comprehensive modeling approach
Geurts, B. J.
2011-12-01
Turbulence readily arises in numerous flows in nature and technology. The large number of degrees of freedom of turbulence poses serious challenges to numerical approaches aimed at simulating and controlling such flows. While the Navier-Stokes equations are commonly accepted to precisely describe fluid turbulence, alternative coarsened descriptions need to be developed to cope with the wide range of length and time scales. These coarsened descriptions are known as large-eddy simulations in which one aims to capture only the primary features of a flow, at considerably reduced computational effort. Such coarsening introduces a closure problem that requires additional phenomenological modeling. A systematic approach to the closure problem, know as regularization modeling, will be reviewed. Its application to multiphase turbulent will be illustrated in which a basic regularization principle is enforced to physically consistently approximate momentum and scalar transport. Examples of Leray and LANS-alpha regularization are discussed in some detail, as are compatible numerical strategies. We illustrate regularization modeling to turbulence under the influence of rotation and buoyancy and investigate the accuracy with which particle-laden flow can be represented. A discussion of the numerical and modeling errors incurred will be given on the basis of homogeneous isotropic turbulence.
Coprime factorization for regular linear systems
Curtain, R; Weiss, G; Weiss, M
1996-01-01
Mild sufficient conditions are given for the existence of a doubly coprime factorization of the transfer function of a regular linear system, as well as formulae for such a factorization. The results are illustrated by two examples of delay systems, one of which has infinitely many unstable poles. C
Dynamic stabilization of regular linear systems
Weiss, G; Curtain, RF
1997-01-01
We consider a general class of infinite-dimensional linear systems, called regular linear systems, for which convenient representations are known to exist both in time and in frequency domain, For this class of systems, we investigate the concepts of stabilizability and detectability, in particular,
Annotation of regular polysemy and underspecification
Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Bel, Núria
2013-01-01
We present the result of an annotation task on regular polysemy for a series of seman- tic classes or dot types in English, Dan- ish and Spanish. This article describes the annotation process, the results in terms of inter-encoder agreement, and the sense distributions obtained with two methods...
Strategies of Teachers in the Regular Classroom
De Leeuw, Renske Ria; De Boer, Anke Aaltje
2016-01-01
It is known that regular schoolteachers have difficulties in educating students with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD), mainly because of their disruptive behavior. In order to manage the disruptive behavior of students with SEBD many advices and strategies are provided in educational literature. However, very little is known…
Strategies of teachers in the regular classroom
de Leeuw, Renske Ria; de Boer, Anke Aaltje
2016-01-01
It is known that regular schoolteachers have difficulties in educating students with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD), mainly because of their disruptive behavior. In order to manage the disruptive behavior of students with SEBD many advices and strategies are provided in educati
On the regularity in some variational problems
Ragusa, Maria Alessandra; Tachikawa, Atsushi
2017-01-01
Our main goal is the study some regularity results where are considered estimates in Morrey spaces for the derivatives of local minimizers of variational integrals of the form 𝒜 (u ,Ω )= ∫Ω F (x ,u ,D u ) dx where Ω is a bounded domain in ℝm and the integrand F have some different forms.
Regular-fat dairy and human health
Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas;
2016-01-01
to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...
Regular Submanifolds in Conformal Space Qnp
Changxiong NIE; Chuanxi WU
2012-01-01
The authors study the regular submanifolds in the conformal space Qnp and introduce the submanifold theory in the conformal space Qnp.The first variation formula of the Willmore volume functional of pseudo-Riemannian submanifolds in the conformal space Qnp is given.Finally,the conformal isotropic submanifolds in the conformal space Qnp are classified.
On the regularization procedure in classical electrodynamics
Yaremko, Yu
2003-01-01
We consider the self-action problem in classical electrodynamics. A strict geometrical sense of commonly used renormalization of mass is made. A regularization procedure is proposed which relies on energy-momentum and angular momentum balance equations. We correct the expression for angular momentum tensor obtained by us in a previous paper (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 831).
The canonical controller and its regularity
Willems, Jan C.; Belur, Madhu N.; Anak Agung Julius, A.A.J.; Trentelman, Harry L.
2003-01-01
This paper deals with properties of canonical controllers. We first specify the behavior that they implement. It follows that a canonical controller implements the desired controlled behavior if and only if the desired behavior is implementable. We subsequently investigate the regularity of the cont
Stabilization, Pole Placement, and Regular Implementability
Belur, Madhu N.; Trentelman, H.L.
2002-01-01
In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a given linear differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable, regularl
Macek, M., E-mail: mmacek@Racah.phys.huji.ac.il; Leviatan, A., E-mail: ami@phys.huji.ac.il
2014-12-15
We present a comprehensive analysis of the emerging order and chaos and enduring symmetries, accompanying a generic (high-barrier) first-order quantum phase transition (QPT). The interacting boson model Hamiltonian employed, describes a QPT between spherical and deformed shapes, associated with its U(5) and SU(3) dynamical symmetry limits. A classical analysis of the intrinsic dynamics reveals a rich but simply-divided phase space structure with a Hénon–Heiles type of chaotic dynamics ascribed to the spherical minimum and a robustly regular dynamics ascribed to the deformed minimum. The simple pattern of mixed but well-separated dynamics persists in the coexistence region and traces the crossing of the two minima in the Landau potential. A quantum analysis discloses a number of regular low-energy U(5)-like multiplets in the spherical region, and regular SU(3)-like rotational bands extending to high energies and angular momenta, in the deformed region. These two kinds of regular subsets of states retain their identity amidst a complicated environment of other states and both occur in the coexistence region. A symmetry analysis of their wave functions shows that they are associated with partial U(5) dynamical symmetry (PDS) and SU(3) quasi-dynamical symmetry (QDS), respectively. The pattern of mixed but well-separated dynamics and the PDS or QDS characterization of the remaining regularity, appear to be robust throughout the QPT. Effects of kinetic collective rotational terms, which may disrupt this simple pattern, are considered.
Kuświk, Piotr; Ehresmann, Arno; Tekielak, Maria; Szymański, Bogdan; Sveklo, Iosif; Mazalski, Piotr; Engel, Dieter; Kisielewski, Jan; Lengemann, Daniel; Urbaniak, Maciej; Schmidt, Christoph; Maziewski, Andrzej; Stobiecki, Feliks
2011-03-04
Regularly arranged magnetic out-of-plane patterns in continuous and flat films are promising for applications in data storage technology (bit patterned media) or transport of individual magnetic particles. Whereas topographic magnetic structures are fabricated by standard lithographical techniques, the fabrication of regularly arranged artificial domains in topographically flat films is difficult, since the free energy minimization determines the existence, shape, and regularity of domains. Here we show that keV He(+) ion bombardment of Au/Co/Au layer systems through a colloidal mask of hexagonally arranged spherical polystyrene beads enables magnetic patterning of regularly arranged cylindrical magnetic monodomains with out-of-plane magnetization embedded in a ferromagnetic matrix with easy-plane anisotropy. This colloidal domain lithography creates artificial domains via periodic lateral anisotropy variations induced by periodic defect density modulations. Magnetization reversal of the layer system observed by magnetic force microscopy shows individual disc switching indicating monodomain states.
ZHANG; Xiaoxia; GUO; Maozheng
2005-01-01
In this paper, it is shown that the regular representation and regular covariant representation of the crossed products A×α G correspond to the twisted multiplicative unitary operators, where A is a Woronowicz C*-algebra acted upon by a discrete group G. Meanwhile, it is also shown that the regular covariant C*-algebra is the Woronowicz C*-algebra which corresponds to a multiplicative unitary. Finally, an explicit description of the multiplicative unitary operator for C(SUq(2))×α Z is given in terms of those of the Woronowicz C*-algebra C(SUq(2)) and the discrete group G.
Regularization and Iterative Methods for Monotone Variational Inequalities
Xiubin Xu
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We provide a general regularization method for monotone variational inequalities, where the regularizer is a Lipschitz continuous and strongly monotone operator. We also introduce an iterative method as discretization of the regularization method. We prove that both regularization and iterative methods converge in norm.
Hudson Kam, Carla L.; Chang, Ann
2009-01-01
When language learners are exposed to inconsistent probabilistic grammatical patterns, they sometimes impose consistency on the language instead of learning the variation veridically. The authors hypothesized that this regularization results from problems with word retrieval rather than from learning per se. One prediction of this, that easing the…
COMPARISON OF SCOURS IN FRONT OF VERTICAL BREAKWATERS DUE TO REGULAR AND IRREGULAR WAVES
无
2000-01-01
In this paper the scours of sand bed due to regular and irregular waves in front of vertical breakwaters, such as scouring patterns, scouring mechanisms, etc., are investigated. Thereby, the scours under the action of the two kinds of waves are compared connected.
Power-law regularities in human language
Mehri, Ali; Lashkari, Sahar Mohammadpour
2016-11-01
Complex structure of human language enables us to exchange very complicated information. This communication system obeys some common nonlinear statistical regularities. We investigate four important long-range features of human language. We perform our calculations for adopted works of seven famous litterateurs. Zipf's law and Heaps' law, which imply well-known power-law behaviors, are established in human language, showing a qualitative inverse relation with each other. Furthermore, the informational content associated with the words ordering, is measured by using an entropic metric. We also calculate fractal dimension of words in the text by using box counting method. The fractal dimension of each word, that is a positive value less than or equal to one, exhibits its spatial distribution in the text. Generally, we can claim that the Human language follows the mentioned power-law regularities. Power-law relations imply the existence of long-range correlations between the word types, to convey an especial idea.
Towards lattice-regularized Quantum Gravity
Diakonov, Dmitri
2011-01-01
Using the Cartan formulation of General Relativity, we construct a well defined lattice-regularized theory capable to describe large non-perturbative quantum fluctuations of the frame field (or the metric) and of the spin connection. To that end we need to present the tetrad by a composite field built as a bilinear combination of fermion fields. The theory is explicitly invariant under local Lorentz transformations and, in the continuum limit, under general covariant transformations, or diffeomorphisms. Being well defined for large and fast varying fields at the ultraviolet cutoff, the theory simultaneously has chances of reproducing standard General Relativity in the infrared continuum limit. The present regularization of quantum gravity opens new possibilities of its unification with the Standard Model.
Basic analysis of regularized series and products
Jorgenson, Jay A
1993-01-01
Analytic number theory and part of the spectral theory of operators (differential, pseudo-differential, elliptic, etc.) are being merged under amore general analytic theory of regularized products of certain sequences satisfying a few basic axioms. The most basic examples consist of the sequence of natural numbers, the sequence of zeros with positive imaginary part of the Riemann zeta function, and the sequence of eigenvalues, say of a positive Laplacian on a compact or certain cases of non-compact manifolds. The resulting theory is applicable to ergodic theory and dynamical systems; to the zeta and L-functions of number theory or representation theory and modular forms; to Selberg-like zeta functions; andto the theory of regularized determinants familiar in physics and other parts of mathematics. Aside from presenting a systematic account of widely scattered results, the theory also provides new results. One part of the theory deals with complex analytic properties, and another part deals with Fourier analys...
Extreme values, regular variation and point processes
Resnick, Sidney I
1987-01-01
Extremes Values, Regular Variation and Point Processes is a readable and efficient account of the fundamental mathematical and stochastic process techniques needed to study the behavior of extreme values of phenomena based on independent and identically distributed random variables and vectors It presents a coherent treatment of the distributional and sample path fundamental properties of extremes and records It emphasizes the core primacy of three topics necessary for understanding extremes the analytical theory of regularly varying functions; the probabilistic theory of point processes and random measures; and the link to asymptotic distribution approximations provided by the theory of weak convergence of probability measures in metric spaces The book is self-contained and requires an introductory measure-theoretic course in probability as a prerequisite Almost all sections have an extensive list of exercises which extend developments in the text, offer alternate approaches, test mastery and provide for enj...
Tracking magnetogram proper motions by multiscale regularization
Jones, Harrison P.
1995-01-01
Long uninterrupted sequences of solar magnetograms from the global oscillations network group (GONG) network and from the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO) satellite will provide the opportunity to study the proper motions of magnetic features. The possible use of multiscale regularization, a scale-recursive estimation technique which begins with a prior model of how state variables and their statistical properties propagate over scale. Short magnetogram sequences are analyzed with the multiscale regularization algorithm as applied to optical flow. This algorithm is found to be efficient, provides results for all the spatial scales spanned by the data and provides error estimates for the solutions. It is found that the algorithm is less sensitive to evolutionary changes than correlation tracking.
Chiral Perturbation Theory With Lattice Regularization
Ouimet, P P A
2005-01-01
In this work, alternative methods to regularize chiral perturbation theory are discussed. First, Long Distance Regularization will be considered in the presence of the decuplet of the lightest spin 32 baryons for several different observables. This serves motivation and introduction to the use of the lattice regulator for chiral perturbation theory. The mesonic, baryonic and anomalous sectors of chiral perturbation theory will be formulated on a lattice of space time points. The consistency of the lattice as a regulator will be discussed in the context of the meson and baryon masses. Order a effects will also be discussed for the baryon masses, sigma terms and magnetic moments. The work will close with an attempt to derive an effective Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangian for Wilson fermions at non-zero a. Following this discussion, there will be a proposal for a phenomenologically useful WZW Lagrangian at non-zero a.
Testing the Equivalence of Regular Languages
Marco Almeida
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The minimal deterministic finite automaton is generally used to determine regular languages equality. Antimirov and Mosses proposed a rewrite system for deciding regular expressions equivalence of which Almeida et al. presented an improved variant. Hopcroft and Karp proposed an almost linear algorithm for testing the equivalence of two deterministic finite automata that avoids minimisation. In this paper we improve the best-case running time, present an extension of this algorithm to non-deterministic finite automata, and establish a relationship between this algorithm and the one proposed in Almeida et al. We also present some experimental comparative results. All these algorithms are closely related with the recent coalgebraic approach to automata proposed by Rutten.
Least square regularized regression in sum space.
Xu, Yong-Li; Chen, Di-Rong; Li, Han-Xiong; Liu, Lu
2013-04-01
This paper proposes a least square regularized regression algorithm in sum space of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs) for nonflat function approximation, and obtains the solution of the algorithm by solving a system of linear equations. This algorithm can approximate the low- and high-frequency component of the target function with large and small scale kernels, respectively. The convergence and learning rate are analyzed. We measure the complexity of the sum space by its covering number and demonstrate that the covering number can be bounded by the product of the covering numbers of basic RKHSs. For sum space of RKHSs with Gaussian kernels, by choosing appropriate parameters, we tradeoff the sample error and regularization error, and obtain a polynomial learning rate, which is better than that in any single RKHS. The utility of this method is illustrated with two simulated data sets and five real-life databases.
Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction
Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis
2010-01-01
. Specifically, it is suggested that the phase differential of the source driving signals should be in agreement with the phase differential of the desired sound pressure field. The performance of the suggested method is compared with that of conventional effort regularization, wave field synthesis (WFS......In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...
Totally Corrective Boosting for Regularized Risk Minimization
Shen, Chunhua; Barnes, Nick
2010-01-01
Consideration of the primal and dual problems together leads to important new insights into the characteristics of boosting algorithms. In this work, we propose a general framework that can be used to design new boosting algorithms. A wide variety of machine learning problems essentially minimize a regularized risk functional. We show that the proposed boosting framework, termed CGBoost, can accommodate various loss functions and different regularizers in a totally-corrective optimization fashion. We show that, by solving the primal rather than the dual, a large body of totally-corrective boosting algorithms can actually be efficiently solved and no sophisticated convex optimization solvers are needed. We also demonstrate that some boosting algorithms like AdaBoost can be interpreted in our framework--even their optimization is not totally corrective. We empirically show that various boosting algorithms based on the proposed framework perform similarly on the UCIrvine machine learning datasets [1] that we hav...
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
A short proof of increased parabolic regularity
Stephen Pankavich
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.
Regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk
Cummings K
2002-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a large number of epidemiological studies have examined the role of aspirin in the chemoprevention of colon cancer and other solid tumors, there is a limited body of research focusing on the association between aspirin and lung cancer risk. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the role of regular aspirin use in lung cancer etiology. Study participants included 868 cases with primary, incident lung cancer and 935 hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions who completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Participants were classified as regular aspirin users if they had taken the drug at least once a week for at least one year. Results Results indicated that lung cancer risk was significantly lower for aspirin users compared to non-users (adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.41–0.78. Although there was no clear evidence of a dose-response relationship, we observed risk reductions associated with greater frequency of use. Similarly, prolonged duration of use and increasing tablet years (tablets per day × years of use was associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Risk reductions were observed in both sexes, but significant dose response relationships were only seen among male participants. When the analyses were restricted to former and current smokers, participants with the lowest cigarette exposure tended to benefit most from the potential chemopreventive effect of aspirin. After stratification by histology, regular aspirin use was significantly associated with reduced risk of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Conclusions Overall, results from this hospital-based case-control study suggest that regular aspirin use may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer.
Bouncing cosmology inspired by regular black holes
Neves, J. C. S.
2017-09-01
In this article, we present a bouncing cosmology inspired by a family of regular black holes. This scale-dependent cosmology deviates from the cosmological principle by means of a scale factor which depends on the time and the radial coordinate as well. The model is isotropic but not perfectly homogeneous. That is, this cosmology describes a universe almost homogeneous only for large scales, such as our observable universe.
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Stream Processing Using Grammars and Regular Expressions
Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp
Kleenex, a language for expressing high-performance streaming string processing programs as regular grammars with embedded semantic actions, and its compilation to streaming string transducers with worst-case linear-time performance. Its underlying theory is based on transducer decomposition into oracle...... is based on a bottom-up tabulation algorithm reformulated using least fixed points and evaluated using an instance of the chaotic iteration scheme by Cousot and Cousot....
Sparse regularization for force identification using dictionaries
Qiao, Baijie; Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Xuefeng
2016-04-01
The classical function expansion method based on minimizing l2-norm of the response residual employs various basis functions to represent the unknown force. Its difficulty lies in determining the optimum number of basis functions. Considering the sparsity of force in the time domain or in other basis space, we develop a general sparse regularization method based on minimizing l1-norm of the coefficient vector of basis functions. The number of basis functions is adaptively determined by minimizing the number of nonzero components in the coefficient vector during the sparse regularization process. First, according to the profile of the unknown force, the dictionary composed of basis functions is determined. Second, a sparsity convex optimization model for force identification is constructed. Third, given the transfer function and the operational response, Sparse reconstruction by separable approximation (SpaRSA) is developed to solve the sparse regularization problem of force identification. Finally, experiments including identification of impact and harmonic forces are conducted on a cantilever thin plate structure to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of SpaRSA. Besides the Dirac dictionary, other three sparse dictionaries including Db6 wavelets, Sym4 wavelets and cubic B-spline functions can also accurately identify both the single and double impact forces from highly noisy responses in a sparse representation frame. The discrete cosine functions can also successfully reconstruct the harmonic forces including the sinusoidal, square and triangular forces. Conversely, the traditional Tikhonov regularization method with the L-curve criterion fails to identify both the impact and harmonic forces in these cases.
Computational Topology for Regular Closed Sets
project, The I-TANGO; :; Peters, T J; Bisceglio, J.; Ferguson, D. R.; Hoffmann, C.M.; Maekawa, T.; Patrikalakis, N.M.; Sakkalis, T.; N F Stewart
2004-01-01
The Boolean algebra of regular closed sets is prominent in topology, particularly as a dual for the Stone-Cech compactification. This algebra is also central for the theory of geometric computation, as a representation for combinatorial operations on geometric sets. However, the issue of computational approximation introduces unresolved subtleties that do not occur within "pure" topology. One major effort towards reconciling this mathematical theory with computational practice is our ongoing ...
Hyperspectral Image Recovery via Hybrid Regularization
Arablouei, Reza; de Hoog, Frank
2016-12-01
Natural images tend to mostly consist of smooth regions with individual pixels having highly correlated spectra. This information can be exploited to recover hyperspectral images of natural scenes from their incomplete and noisy measurements. To perform the recovery while taking full advantage of the prior knowledge, we formulate a composite cost function containing a square-error data-fitting term and two distinct regularization terms pertaining to spatial and spectral domains. The regularization for the spatial domain is the sum of total-variation of the image frames corresponding to all spectral bands. The regularization for the spectral domain is the l1-norm of the coefficient matrix obtained by applying a suitable sparsifying transform to the spectra of the pixels. We use an accelerated proximal-subgradient method to minimize the formulated cost function. We analyze the performance of the proposed algorithm and prove its convergence. Numerical simulations using real hyperspectral images exhibit that the proposed algorithm offers an excellent recovery performance with a number of measurements that is only a small fraction of the hyperspectral image data size. Simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms an accelerated proximal-gradient algorithm that solves the classical basis-pursuit denoising problem to recover the hyperspectral image.
Charge-regularization effects on polyelectrolytes
Muthukumar, Murugappan
2012-02-01
When electrically charged macromolecules are dispersed in polar solvents, their effective net charge is generally different from their chemical charges, due to competition between counterion adsorption and the translational entropy of dissociated counterions. The effective charge changes significantly as the experimental conditions change such as variations in solvent quality, temperature, and the concentration of added small electrolytes. This charge-regularization effect leads to major difficulties in interpreting experimental data on polyelectrolyte solutions and challenges in understanding the various polyelectrolyte phenomena. Even the most fundamental issue of experimental determination of molar mass of charged macromolecules by light scattering method has been difficult so far due to this feature. We will present a theory of charge-regularization of flexible polyelectrolytes in solutions and discuss the consequences of charge-regularization on (a) experimental determination of molar mass of polyelectrolytes using scattering techniques, (b) coil-globule transition, (c) macrophase separation in polyelectrolyte solutions, (c) phase behavior in coacervate formation, and (d) volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels.
Regularization Parameter Selections via Generalized Information Criterion.
Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Runze; Tsai, Chih-Ling
2010-03-01
We apply the nonconcave penalized likelihood approach to obtain variable selections as well as shrinkage estimators. This approach relies heavily on the choice of regularization parameter, which controls the model complexity. In this paper, we propose employing the generalized information criterion (GIC), encompassing the commonly used Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC), for selecting the regularization parameter. Our proposal makes a connection between the classical variable selection criteria and the regularization parameter selections for the nonconcave penalized likelihood approaches. We show that the BIC-type selector enables identification of the true model consistently, and the resulting estimator possesses the oracle property in the terminology of Fan and Li (2001). In contrast, however, the AIC-type selector tends to overfit with positive probability. We further show that the AIC-type selector is asymptotically loss efficient, while the BIC-type selector is not. Our simulation results confirm these theoretical findings, and an empirical example is presented. Some technical proofs are given in the online supplementary material.
Statistical regularities in the rank-citation profile of scientists.
Petersen, Alexander M; Stanley, H Eugene; Succi, Sauro
2011-01-01
Recent science of science research shows that scientific impact measures for journals and individual articles have quantifiable regularities across both time and discipline. However, little is known about the scientific impact distribution at the scale of an individual scientist. We analyze the aggregate production and impact using the rank-citation profile c(i)(r) of 200 distinguished professors and 100 assistant professors. For the entire range of paper rank r, we fit each c(i)(r) to a common distribution function. Since two scientists with equivalent Hirsch h-index can have significantly different c(i)(r) profiles, our results demonstrate the utility of the β(i) scaling parameter in conjunction with h(i) for quantifying individual publication impact. We show that the total number of citations C(i) tallied from a scientist's N(i) papers scales as [Formula: see text]. Such statistical regularities in the input-output patterns of scientists can be used as benchmarks for theoretical models of career progress.
Statistical regularities in the rank-citation profile of scientists
Petersen, Alexander M; Succi, Sauro
2011-01-01
Recent "science of science" research shows common regularities in the publication patterns of scientific papers across time and discipline. Here we analyze the complete publication careers of 300 scientists and find remarkable regularity in the functional form of the rank-citation profile c_{i}(r) for each scientist i =1...300. We find that the rank-ordered citation distribution c_{i}(r) can be approximated by a discrete generalized beta distribution (DGBD) over the entire range of ranks r, which allows for the characterization and comparison of c_{i}(r) using a common framework. The functional form of the DGBD has two scaling exponents, beta_i and gamma_i, which determine the scaling behavior of c_{i}(r) for both small and large rank r. The crossover between two scaling regimes suggests a complex reinforcement or positive-feedback relation between the impact of a scientist's most famous papers and the impact of his/her other papers. Moreover, since two scientists with equivalent Hirsch h-index values may hav...
Traditional Islamic cities unveiled: the quest for urban design regularity
Jorge Correia
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Traditional Islamic cities have generally gathered orientalized gazes and perspectives, picking up from misconceptions and stereotypes that during the second half af the 19th century andwere perpectuated by colonialism. More recent scholarship has shed light on the urban organizationand composition of such tissues; most of them confined to old quarters or historical centres ofthriving contemporary cities within the Arab-Muslim world. In fact, one of the most striking featureshas been the unveiling of layered urban assemblages where exterior agents have somehowlaunched or interrupted an apparent islamicized continuum. Primarly, this paper wishes to search forexternal political factors that have designed regularly geometrized patterns in medium-sized Arabtowns. For that, two case studies from different geographies - Maghreb and the Near East - will bemorphologically analysed through updated urban surveys. Whereas Nablus (Palestine ows the urbanmatrix of its old town to its Roman past, in Azemmour’s medina (Morocco it is still possible to trackthe thin European early-modern colonial stratum. However, both cases show how regularity patternschallenge Western concepts of geometrical design to embrace levels of rationality related to tradionalIslamic urban forms, societal configurations and built environment. Urban morphology becomes afundamental tool for articulating the history with me processes of sedimentation and evolution in orderto read current urban prints and dynamics. Thus, the paper will also interpret alternative logics ofrational urban display in Azemmour and Nablus, linked to ways of living within the Islamic sphere.
PDGI-BASED REGULAR SWEPT SURFACE EXTRACTION FROM POINT CLOUD
LI Jiangxiong; KE Yinglin; LI An; ZHU Weidong
2006-01-01
A principal direction Gaussian image (PDGI)-based algorithm is proposed to extract the regular swept surface from point cloud. Firstly, the PDGI of the regular swept surface is constructed from point cloud, then the bounding box of the Gaussian sphere is uniformly partitioned into a number of small cubes (3D grids) and the PDGI points on the Gaussian sphere are associated with the corresponding 3D grids. Secondly, cluster analysis technique is used to sort out a group of 3D grids containing more PDGI points among the 3D grids. By the connected-region growing algorithm, the congregation point or the great circle is detected from the 3D grids. Thus the translational direction is determined by the congregation point and the direction of the rotational axis is determined by the great circle. In addition, the positional point of the rotational axis is obtained by the intersection of all the projected normal lines of the rotational surface on the plane being perpendicular to the estimated direction of the rotational axis. Finally, a pattern search method is applied to optimize the translational direction and the rotational axis. Some experiments are used to illustrate the feasibility of the above algorithm.
Yildiz, Cemil; ABBAS, Fadhil
2011-01-01
The concepts of fuzzy regular-I-closed set and fuzzy semi-I-regular set in fuzzy ideal topological spaces are investigated and some of their properties are obtained. Key words: Topological, Spaces, Fuzzy, Regular, Sets
Convergence and fluctuations of Regularized Tyler estimators
Kammoun, Abla
2015-10-26
This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter p. While a high value of p is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations n and/or their size N increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that N and n are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of n going to infinity with N fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult N and n large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when n → ∞ with N fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter.
Regular physical exercise: way to healthy life.
Siddiqui, N I; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A
2010-01-01
Any bodily activity or movement that enhances and maintains overall health and physical fitness is called physical exercise. Habit of regular physical exercise has got numerous benefits. Exercise is of various types such as aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and flexibility exercise. Aerobic exercise moves the large muscle groups with alternate contraction and relaxation, forces to deep breath, heart to pump more blood with adequate tissue oxygenation. It is also called cardiovascular exercise. Examples of aerobic exercise are walking, running, jogging, swimming etc. In anaerobic exercise, there is forceful contraction of muscle with stretching, usually mechanically aided and help to build up muscle strength and muscle bulk. Examples are weight lifting, pulling, pushing, sprinting etc. Flexibility exercise is one type of stretching exercise to improve the movements of muscles, joints and ligaments. Walking is a good example of aerobic exercise, easy to perform, safe, effective, does not require any training or equipment and less chance of injury. Regular 30 minutes brisk walking in the morning with 150 minutes per week is a good exercise. Regular exercise improves the cardiovascular status, reduces the risk of cardiac disease, high blood pressure and cerebrovascular disease. It reduces body weight, improves insulin sensitivity, helps in glycemic control, prevents obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is helpful for relieving anxiety, stress, brings a sense of well being and overall physical fitness. Global trend is mechanization, labor savings and leading to epidemic of long term chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases etc. All efforts should be made to create public awareness promoting physical activity, physically demanding recreational pursuits and providing adequate facilities.
Invariant Regularization of Supersymmetric Chiral Gauge Theory
Suzuki, H
1999-01-01
We present a regularization scheme which respects the supersymmetry and the maximal background gauge covariance in supersymmetric chiral gauge theories. When the anomaly cancellation condition is satisfied, the effective action in the superfield background field method automatically restores the gauge invariance without counterterms. The scheme also provides a background gauge covariant definition of composite operators that is especially useful in analyzing anomalies. We present several applications: The minimal consistent gauge anomaly; the super-chiral anomaly and the superconformal anomaly; as the corresponding anomalous commutators, the Konishi anomaly and an anomalous supersymmetric transformation law of the supercurrent (the ``central extension'' of N=1 supersymmetry algebra) and of the R-current.
Total-variation regularization with bound constraints
Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.
Regularizing mappings of Lévy measures
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Thorbjørnsen, Steen
2006-01-01
In this paper we introduce and study a regularizing one-to-one mapping from the class of one-dimensional Lévy measures into itself. This mapping appeared implicitly in our previous paper [O.E. Barndorff-Nielsen, S. Thorbjørnsen, A connection between free and classical infinite divisibility, Inf....... Dim. Anal. Quant. Probab. 7 (2004) 573–590], where we introduced a one-to-one mapping from the class of one-dimensional infinitely divisible probability measures into itself. Based on the investigation of in the present paper, we deduce further properties of . In particular it is proved that maps...
Multichannel image regularization using anisotropic geodesic filtering
Grazzini, Jacopo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
This paper extends a recent image-dependent regularization approach introduced in aiming at edge-preserving smoothing. For that purpose, geodesic distances equipped with a Riemannian metric need to be estimated in local neighbourhoods. By deriving an appropriate metric from the gradient structure tensor, the associated geodesic paths are constrained to follow salient features in images. Following, we design a generalized anisotropic geodesic filter; incorporating not only a measure of the edge strength, like in the original method, but also further directional information about the image structures. The proposed filter is particularly efficient at smoothing heterogeneous areas while preserving relevant structures in multichannel images.
Homology of powers of regular ideals
2003-01-01
For a commutative ring R with an ideal I, generated by a finite regular sequence, we construct differential graded algebras which provide R-free resolutions of I^s and of R/I^s for s>0 and which generalise the Koszul resolution. We derive these from a certain multiplicative double complex. By means of a Cartan-Eilenberg spectral sequence we express Tor_*^R(R/I,R/I^s) and Tor_*^R(R/I, I^s) in terms of exact sequences and find that they are free as R/I-modules. Except for R/I, their product str...
The regular state in higher order gravity
Cotsakis, Spiros; Kadry, Seifedine; Trachilis, Dimitrios
2016-08-01
We consider the higher-order gravity theory derived from the quadratic Lagrangian R + 𝜖R2 in vacuum as a first-order (ADM-type) system with constraints, and build time developments of solutions of an initial value formulation of the theory. We show that all such solutions, if analytic, contain the right number of free functions to qualify as general solutions of the theory. We further show that any regular analytic solution which satisfies the constraints and the evolution equations can be given in the form of an asymptotic formal power series expansion.
Regular collision of dilatonic inflating branes
Leeper, E; Maartens, R
2005-01-01
We demonstrate that a two brane system with a bulk scalar field driving power-law inflation on the branes has an instability in the radion. We solve for the resulting trajectory of the brane, and find that the instability can lead to collision. Brane quantities such as the scale factor are shown to be regular at this collision. In addition we describe the system using a low energy expansion. The low energy expansion accurately reproduces the known exact solution, but also identifies an alternative solution for the bulk metric and brane trajectory.
Limit cycle walking on a regularized ground
Jacobs, Henry O
2012-01-01
The singular nature of contact problems, such as walking, makes them difficult to analyze mathematically. In this paper we will "regularize" the contact problem of walking by approximating the ground with a smooth repulsive potential energy and a smooth dissipative friction force. Using this model we are able to prove the existence of a limit cycle for a periodically perturbed system which consists of three masses connected by springs. In particular, this limit cycle exists in a symmetry reduced phase. In the unreduced phase space, the motion of the masses resembles walking.
Two-pass greedy regular expression parsing
Grathwohl, Niels Bjørn Bugge; Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse;
2013-01-01
We present new algorithms for producing greedy parses for regular expressions (REs) in a semi-streaming fashion. Our lean-log algorithm executes in time O(mn) for REs of size m and input strings of size n and outputs a compact bit-coded parse tree representation. It improves on previous algorithms......-based prototype indicates that the superior performance of our lean-log algorithm can also be observed in practice; it is also surprisingly competitive with RE tools not performing full parsing, such as Grep....
Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2016-03-15
In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)
Accretion onto Some Well-Known Regular Black Holes
Jawad, Abdul
2016-01-01
In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherical symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black hole using Fermi-Dirac Distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black hole. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density and rate of change of mass for each regular black holes.
Algorithms for Hidden Markov Models Restricted to Occurrences of Regular Expressions
Tataru, Paula; Sand, Andreas; Hobolth, Asger;
2013-01-01
Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are widely used probabilistic models, particularly for annotating sequential data with an underlying hidden structure. Patterns in the annotation are often more relevant to study than the hidden structure itself. A typical HMM analysis consists of annotating the observed...... data using a decoding algorithm and analyzing the annotation to study patterns of interest. For example, given an HMM modeling genes in DNA sequences, the focus is on occurrences of genes in the annotation. In this paper, we define a pattern through a regular expression and present a restriction...
Multiple graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2013-10-01
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been widely used as a data representation method based on components. To overcome the disadvantage of NMF in failing to consider the manifold structure of a data set, graph regularized NMF (GrNMF) has been proposed by Cai et al. by constructing an affinity graph and searching for a matrix factorization that respects graph structure. Selecting a graph model and its corresponding parameters is critical for this strategy. This process is usually carried out by cross-validation or discrete grid search, which are time consuming and prone to overfitting. In this paper, we propose a GrNMF, called MultiGrNMF, in which the intrinsic manifold is approximated by a linear combination of several graphs with different models and parameters inspired by ensemble manifold regularization. Factorization metrics and linear combination coefficients of graphs are determined simultaneously within a unified object function. They are alternately optimized in an iterative algorithm, thus resulting in a novel data representation algorithm. Extensive experiments on a protein subcellular localization task and an Alzheimer\\'s disease diagnosis task demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Regularized Semiparametric Estimation for Ordinary Differential Equations.
Li, Yun; Zhu, Ji; Wang, Naisyin
2015-07-01
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are widely used in modeling dynamic systems and have ample applications in the fields of physics, engineering, economics and biological sciences. The ODE parameters often possess physiological meanings and can help scientists gain better understanding of the system. One key interest is thus to well estimate these parameters. Ideally, constant parameters are preferred due to their easy interpretation. In reality, however, constant parameters can be too restrictive such that even after incorporating error terms, there could still be unknown sources of disturbance that lead to poor agreement between observed data and the estimated ODE system. In this paper, we address this issue and accommodate short-term interferences by allowing parameters to vary with time. We propose a new regularized estimation procedure on the time-varying parameters of an ODE system so that these parameters could change with time during transitions but remain constants within stable stages. We found, through simulation studies, that the proposed method performs well and tends to have less variation in comparison to the non-regularized approach. On the theoretical front, we derive finite-sample estimation error bounds for the proposed method. Applications of the proposed method to modeling the hare-lynx relationship and the measles incidence dynamic in Ontario, Canada lead to satisfactory and meaningful results.
Tomographic laser absorption spectroscopy using Tikhonov regularization.
Guha, Avishek; Schoegl, Ingmar
2014-12-01
The application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) to flames with nonhomogeneous temperature and concentration fields is an area where only few studies exist. Experimental work explores the performance of tomographic reconstructions of species concentration and temperature profiles from wavelength-modulated TDLAS measurements within the plume of an axisymmetric McKenna burner. Water vapor transitions at 1391.67 and 1442.67 nm are probed using calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f). A single collimated laser beam is swept parallel to the burner surface, where scans yield pairs of line-of-sight (LOS) data at multiple radial locations. Radial profiles of absorption data are reconstructed using Tikhonov regularized Abel inversion, which suppresses the amplification of experimental noise that is typically observed for reconstructions with high spatial resolution. Based on spectral data reconstructions, temperatures and mole fractions are calculated point-by-point. Here, a least-squares approach addresses difficulties due to modulation depths that cannot be universally optimized due to a nonuniform domain. Experimental results show successful reconstructions of temperature and mole fraction profiles based on two-transition, nonoptimally modulated WMS-2f and Tikhonov regularized Abel inversion, and thus validate the technique as a viable diagnostic tool for flame measurements.
Regularized multiple criteria linear programs for classification
SHI Yong; TIAN YingJie; CHEN XiaoJun; ZHANG Peng
2009-01-01
Although multiple criteria mathematical program (MCMP), as an alternative method of classification, has been used in various real-life data mining problems, its mathematical structure of solvability is still challengeable. This paper proposes a regularized multiple criteria linear program (RMCLP) for two classes of classification problems. It first adds some regularization terms in the objective function of the known multiple criteria linear program (MCLP) model for possible existence of solution. Then the paper describes the mathematical framework of the solvability. Finally, a series of experimental tests are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed RMCLP with the existing methods: MCLP, multiple criteria quadratic program (MCQP), and support vector machine (SVM). The results of four publicly available datasets and a real-life credit dataset all show that RMCLP is a competitive method in classification. Furthermore, this paper explores an ordinal RMCLP (ORMCLP) model for ordinal multi-group problems. Comparing ORMCLP with traditional methods such as One-Against-One, One-Against-The rest on large-scale credit card dataset, experimental results show that both ORMCLP and RMCLP perform well.
Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently.
Wenfa Li
Full Text Available As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc.
Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently.
Li, Wenfa; Liu, Hongzhe; Yang, Peng; Xie, Wei
2016-01-01
As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc.
Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently
Li, Wenfa; Liu, Hongzhe; Yang, Peng; Xie, Wei
2016-01-01
As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc. PMID:27271738
Grouping by Closure Influences Subjective Regularity and Implicit Preference
Alexis Makin
2012-09-01
Full Text Available A reflection between a pair of contours is more rapidly detected than a translation, but this effect is stronger when the contours are closed to form a single object compared to when they are closed to form 2 objects with a gap between them. That is, grouping changes the relative salience of different regularities. We tested whether this manipulation would also change preference for reflection or translation. We measured preference for these patterns using the Implicit Association Test (IAT. On some trials, participants saw words that were either positive or negative and had to classify them as quickly as possible. On interleaved trials, they saw reflection or translation patterns and again had to classify them. Participants were faster when 1 button was used for reflection and positive words and another button was used for translation and negative words, compared to when the reverse response mapping was used (translation and positive vs. reflection and negative. This reaction time difference indicates an implicit preference for reflection over translation. However, the size of the implicit preference was significantly reduced in the Two-objects condition. We concluded that factors that affect perceptual sensitivity also systematically affect implicit preference formation.
COUNTING ROOTED NEAR-4-REGULAR EULERIAN MAPS ON SOME SURFACES
RenHan; LiuYanpei
1999-01-01
In this article the rooted planar near-4-regular Eulerian trails are enumerated and an explicit formula for such maps is presented. Further, the rooted near-4-regular Eulerian maps on the torus are counted in an exact way.
A distance regular graph of type E1 Ed
无
2000-01-01
In this note, the distance regular graph of type E1 Ed is considered and some characterization of the type graph is given. The results generalize the characterization of tight distance regular graphs.
The Penrose singularity theorem in regularity $C^{1,1}$
Kunzinger, Michael; Vickers, James A
2015-01-01
We extend the validity of the Penrose singularity theorem to spacetime metrics of regularity $C^{1,1}$. The proof is based on regularisation techniques, combined with recent results in low regularity causality theory.
Laplacian embedded regression for scalable manifold regularization.
Chen, Lin; Tsang, Ivor W; Xu, Dong
2012-06-01
Semi-supervised learning (SSL), as a powerful tool to learn from a limited number of labeled data and a large number of unlabeled data, has been attracting increasing attention in the machine learning community. In particular, the manifold regularization framework has laid solid theoretical foundations for a large family of SSL algorithms, such as Laplacian support vector machine (LapSVM) and Laplacian regularized least squares (LapRLS). However, most of these algorithms are limited to small scale problems due to the high computational cost of the matrix inversion operation involved in the optimization problem. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called Laplacian embedded regression by introducing an intermediate decision variable into the manifold regularization framework. By using ∈-insensitive loss, we obtain the Laplacian embedded support vector regression (LapESVR) algorithm, which inherits the sparse solution from SVR. Also, we derive Laplacian embedded RLS (LapERLS) corresponding to RLS under the proposed framework. Both LapESVR and LapERLS possess a simpler form of a transformed kernel, which is the summation of the original kernel and a graph kernel that captures the manifold structure. The benefits of the transformed kernel are two-fold: (1) we can deal with the original kernel matrix and the graph Laplacian matrix in the graph kernel separately and (2) if the graph Laplacian matrix is sparse, we only need to perform the inverse operation for a sparse matrix, which is much more efficient when compared with that for a dense one. Inspired by kernel principal component analysis, we further propose to project the introduced decision variable into a subspace spanned by a few eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian matrix in order to better reflect the data manifold, as well as accelerate the calculation of the graph kernel, allowing our methods to efficiently and effectively cope with large scale SSL problems. Extensive experiments on both toy and real
Adjacent strong edge colorings and total colorings of regular graphs
WOODALL; Douglas; R
2009-01-01
It is conjectured that χas(G) = χt(G) for every k-regular graph G with no C5 component (k 2). This conjecture is shown to be true for many classes of graphs, including: graphs of type 1; 2-regular, 3-regular and (|V (G)| - 2)-regular graphs; bipartite graphs; balanced complete multipartite graphs; k-cubes; and joins of two matchings or cycles.
Completely Regular Semigroups with Generalized Strong Semilattice Decompositions
Xiangzhi Kong; K.P. Shum
2005-01-01
The concept of ρG-strong semilattice of semigroups is introduced. By using this concept, we study Green's relation H on a completely regular semigroup S. Necessary and sufficient conditions for S/H to be a regular band or a right quasi-normal band are obtained. Important results of Petrich and Reilly on regular cryptic semigroups are generalized and enriched. In particular, characterization theorems of regular cryptogroups and normal cryptogroups are obtained.
Regularity properties of a class of hybrid methods
DaxueCHEN; AiguoXIAO
2000-01-01
The existence of spurious steady solutions and period-2 solutions in constant timestep is studied. The concepts of Rill-regularity and R-regularity of a class of hybrid methods for dynamical systems of ordinary differential equations are introduced and studied.Some conditions guaranteeing R-regularity and R-regularity of such methods applied to dynamical systems of ordinary differential equations with some important structures are given.
Invariant Regularization of Supersymmetric Chiral Gauge Theory
Hayashi, T; Okuyama, K; Suzuki, H; Hayashi, Takuya; Ohshima, Yoshihisa; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi
1998-01-01
We formulate a manifestly supersymmetric gauge-covariant regularization of supersymmetric chiral gauge theories. In our scheme, the effective action in the superfield background-field method above one-loop is always supersymmetric and gauge invariant. The gauge anomaly has the covariant form and can emerge only in one-loop diagrams with all the external lines are the background gauge superfield. We also present several illustrative applications in the one-loop approximation: The self-energy part of the chiral multiplet and the gauge multiplet; the super-chiral anomaly and the superconformal anomaly; as the corresponding anomalous commutators, the Konishi anomaly and the anomalous supersymmetric transformation law of the supercurrent (the ``central extension'' of N=1 supersymmetry algebra) and of the R-current.
Generalized equations of state and regular universes
Contreras, Felipe; González, Esteban
2015-01-01
We found non singular solutions for universes filled with a fluid which obey a Generalized Equation of State of the form $P(\\rho)=-A\\rho+\\gamma\\rho^{\\lambda}$. An emergent universe is obtained if $A=1$ and $\\lambda =1/2$. If the matter source is reinterpret as that of a scalar matter field with some potential, the corresponding potential is derived. For a closed universe, an exact bounce solution is found for $A=1/3$ and the same $\\lambda $. We also explore how the composition of theses universes can be interpreted in terms of known fluids. It is of interest to note that accelerated solutions previously found for the late time evolution also represent regular solutions at early times.
Transient Lunar Phenomena: Regularity and Reality
Crotts, Arlin P S
2007-01-01
Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled. A review of TLP reports shows regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by human observer effects, terrestrial atmospheric effects or processes tied to the lunar surface. I interrogate an extensive TLP catalog to determine if human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. I divide the sample according to variables which should produce varying results if determining factors involve humans e.g., historical epoch or geographical location of the observer, not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Regardless of how we split the ample, the results are similar: ~50% of the reports involve crater Aristarchus nd vicinity, ~16% from Plato, ~6% from other recent, major impacts, plus a few at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal for three of five averages of up to 7% of the reports (however, Crisium is an extended feature). The consistency in ...
Explicit formulas for regularized products and series
Jorgenson, Jay; Goldfeld, Dorian
1994-01-01
The theory of explicit formulas for regularized products and series forms a natural continuation of the analytic theory developed in LNM 1564. These explicit formulas can be used to describe the quantitative behavior of various objects in analytic number theory and spectral theory. The present book deals with other applications arising from Gaussian test functions, leading to theta inversion formulas and corresponding new types of zeta functions which are Gaussian transforms of theta series rather than Mellin transforms, and satisfy additive functional equations. Their wide range of applications includes the spectral theory of a broad class of manifolds and also the theory of zeta functions in number theory and representation theory. Here the hyperbolic 3-manifolds are given as a significant example.
Generalized equations of state and regular universes
Contreras, F.; Cruz, N.; González, E.
2016-05-01
We found non singular solutions for universes filled with a fluid which obey a Generalized Equation of State of the form P(ρ) = - Aρ + γρλ. An emergent universe is obtained if A =1 and λ = 1/2. If the matter source is reinterpret as that of a scalar matter field with some potential, the corresponding potential is derived. For a closed universe, an exact bounce solution is found for A = 1/3 and the same λ. We also explore how the composition of theses universes ean be interpreted in terms of known fluids. It is of interest to note that accelerated solutions previously found for the late time evolution also represent regular solutions at early times.
Sparse regularization in limited angle tomography
Frikel, Jürgen
2011-01-01
We investigate the reconstruction problem of limited angle tomography. Such problems arise naturally in applications like digital breast tomosynthesis, dental tomography, electron microscopy etc. Since the acquired tomographic data is highly incomplete, the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed and the traditional reconstruction methods, such as filtered backprojection (FBP), do not perform well in such situations. To stabilize the reconstruction procedure additional prior knowledge about the unknown object has to be integrated into the reconstruction process. In this work, we propose the use of the sparse regularization technique in combination with curvelets. We argue that this technique gives rise to an edge-preserving reconstruction. Moreover, we show that the dimension of the problem can be significantly reduced in the curvelet domain. To this end, we give a characterization of the kernel of limited angle Radon transform in terms of curvelets and derive a characterization of solutions obtained thr...
Trapping in dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers
Wu, Bin; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Chen, Guanrong
2012-01-01
Dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers are two classic families of macromolecules, which can be modeled by Cayley trees and Vicsek fractals, respectively. In this paper, we study the trapping problem in Cayley trees and Vicsek fractals with different underlying geometries, focusing on a particular case with a perfect trap located at the central node. For both networks, we derive the exact analytic formulas in terms of the network size for the average trapping time (ATT)---the average of node-to-trap mean first-passage time over the whole networks. The obtained closed-form solutions show that for both Cayley trees and Vicsek fractals, the ATT display quite different scalings with various system sizes, which implies that the underlying structure plays a key role on the efficiency of trapping in polymer networks. Moreover, the dissimilar scalings of ATT may allow to differentiate readily between dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers.
Regularization destriping of remote sensing imagery
R. Basnayake
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We illustrate the utility of variational destriping for ocean color images from both multispectral and hyperspectral sensors. In particular, we examine data from a filter spectrometer, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS on the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP orbiter, and an airborne grating spectrometer, the Jet Population Laboratory's (JPL hyperspectral Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM sensor. We solve the destriping problem using a variational regularization method by giving weights spatially to preserve the other features of the image during the destriping process. The target functional penalizes the neighborhood of stripes (strictly, directionally uniform features while promoting data fidelity, and the functional is minimized by solving the Euler–Lagrange equations with an explicit finite-difference scheme. We show the accuracy of our method from a benchmark data set which represents the sea surface temperature off the coast of Oregon, USA. Technical details, such as how to impose continuity across data gaps using inpainting, are also described.
Regularization destriping of remote sensing imagery
Basnayake, Ranil; Bollt, Erik; Tufillaro, Nicholas; Sun, Jie; Gierach, Michelle
2017-07-01
We illustrate the utility of variational destriping for ocean color images from both multispectral and hyperspectral sensors. In particular, we examine data from a filter spectrometer, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP) orbiter, and an airborne grating spectrometer, the Jet Population Laboratory's (JPL) hyperspectral Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) sensor. We solve the destriping problem using a variational regularization method by giving weights spatially to preserve the other features of the image during the destriping process. The target functional penalizes the neighborhood of stripes (strictly, directionally uniform features) while promoting data fidelity, and the functional is minimized by solving the Euler-Lagrange equations with an explicit finite-difference scheme. We show the accuracy of our method from a benchmark data set which represents the sea surface temperature off the coast of Oregon, USA. Technical details, such as how to impose continuity across data gaps using inpainting, are also described.
A regularity lemma and twins in words
Axenovich, Maria; Puzynina, Svetlana
2012-01-01
For a word $S$, let $f(S)$ be the largest integer $m$ such that there are two disjoints identical (scattered) subwords of length $m$. Let $f(n, \\Sigma) = \\min \\{f(S): S \\text{is of length} n, \\text{over alphabet} \\Sigma \\}$. Here, it is shown that \\[2f(n, \\{0,1\\}) = n-o(n)\\] using the regularity lemma for words. I.e., any binary word of length $n$ can be split into two identical subwords (referred to as twins) and, perhaps, a remaining subword of length $o(n)$. A similar result is proven for $k$ identical subwords of a word over an alphabet with at most $k$ letters.
Regular phantom black holes as gravitational lenses
Eiroa, Ernesto F
2015-01-01
The distortion of the spacetime structure in the surroundings of black holes affects the trajectories of light rays. As a consequence, black holes can act as gravitational lenses. Observations of type Ia supernovas, show that our Universe is in accelerated expansion. The usual explanation is that the Universe is filled with a negative pressure fluid called dark energy, which accounts for 70 % of its total density, which can be modeled by a self-interacting scalar field with a potential. We consider a class of spherically symmetric regular phantom black holes as gravitational lenses. We study large deflection angles, using the strong deflection limit, corresponding to an asymptotic logarithmic approximation. In this case, photons passing close to the photon sphere of the black hole experiment several loops around it before they emerge towards the observer, giving place to two infinite sets of relativistic images. Within this limit, we find analytical expressions for the positions and the magnifications of thes...
Local orientational mobility in regular hyperbranched polymers
Dolgushev, Maxim; Fürstenberg, Florian; Guérin, Thomas
2016-01-01
We study the dynamics of local bond orientation in regular hyperbranched polymers modeled by Vicsek fractals. The local dynamics is investigated through the temporal autocorrelation functions of single bonds and the corresponding relaxation forms of the complex dielectric susceptibility. We show that the dynamic behavior of single segments depends on their remoteness from the periphery rather than on the size of the whole macromolecule. Remarkably, the dynamics of the core segments (which are most remote from the periphery) shows a scaling behavior that differs from the dynamics obtained after structural average. We analyze the most relevant processes of single segment motion and provide an analytic approximation for the corresponding relaxation times. Furthermore, we describe an iterative method to calculate the orientational dynamics in the case of very large macromolecular sizes.
Stability of C-regularized Semigroups
Miao LI; Quan ZHENG
2004-01-01
Let T = (T(t))t≥0 be a bounded C-regularized semigroup generated by A on a Banachspace X and R(C) be dense in X. We show that if there is a dense subspace Y of X such that forevery x ∈ Y, σu(A, Cx), the set of all points λ∈ iR to which (λ - A)-1Cx can not be extendedholomorphically, is at most countable and σr(A) ∩ iR = φ, then T is stable. A stability result for the case of R(C) being non-dense is also given. Our results generalize the work on the stability of strongly continuous semigroups.
Vertex-antimagic Labelings of Regular Graphs
Ali AHMAD; Kashif ALI; Martin BA(C)A; Petr KOV(A)(R); Andrea SEMANI(C)OV(A)-FE(N)OV(C)(I)KOV(A)
2012-01-01
Let G =(V,E) be a finite,simple and undirected graph with p vertices and q edges.An (a,d)-vertex-antimagic total labeling of G is a bijection f from V(G).∪E(G) onto the set of consecutive integers 1,2,...,p + q,such that the vertex-weights form an arithmetic progression with the initial term a and difference d,where the vertex-weight of x is the sum of the value f(x) assigned to the vertex x together with all values f(xy) assigned to edges xy incident to x.Such labeling is called super if the smallest possible labels appear on the vertices.In this paper,we study the properties of such labelings and examine their existence for 2r-regular graphs when the difference d is 0,1,...,r + 1.
Regularized canonical correlation analysis with unlabeled data
Xi-chuan ZHOU; Hai-bin SHEN
2009-01-01
In standard canonical correlation analysis (CCA), the data from definite datasets are used to estimate their canonical correlation. In real applications, for example in bilingual text retrieval, it may have a great portion of data that we do not know which set it belongs to. This part of data is called unlabeled data, while the rest from definite datasets is called labeled data. We propose a novel method called regularized canonical correlation analysis (RCCA), which makes use of both labeled and unlabeled samples. Specifically, we learn to approximate canonical correlation as if all data were labeled. Then. we describe a generalization of RCCA for the multi-set situation. Experiments on four real world datasets, Yeast, Cloud, Iris, and Haberman, demonstrate that,by incorporating the unlabeled data points, the accuracy of correlation coefficients can be improved by over 30%.
Robust Clustering Using Outlier-Sparsity Regularization
Forero, Pedro A; Giannakis, Georgios B
2011-01-01
Notwithstanding the popularity of conventional clustering algorithms such as K-means and probabilistic clustering, their clustering results are sensitive to the presence of outliers in the data. Even a few outliers can compromise the ability of these algorithms to identify meaningful hidden structures rendering their outcome unreliable. This paper develops robust clustering algorithms that not only aim to cluster the data, but also to identify the outliers. The novel approaches rely on the infrequent presence of outliers in the data which translates to sparsity in a judiciously chosen domain. Capitalizing on the sparsity in the outlier domain, outlier-aware robust K-means and probabilistic clustering approaches are proposed. Their novelty lies on identifying outliers while effecting sparsity in the outlier domain through carefully chosen regularization. A block coordinate descent approach is developed to obtain iterative algorithms with convergence guarantees and small excess computational complexity with res...
The Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity
Butter, Daniel
2014-01-01
On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a $U(1)$ gauge transformation and under the T-duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three K\\"ahler moduli $T^i$ obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields...
Thermodynamics of regular accelerating black holes
Astorino, Marco
2017-03-01
Using the covariant phase space formalism, we compute the conserved charges for a solution, describing an accelerating and electrically charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. The metric is regular provided that the acceleration is driven by an external electric field, in spite of the usual string of the standard C-metric. The Smarr formula and the first law of black hole thermodynamics are fulfilled. The resulting mass has the same form of the Christodoulou-Ruffini irreducible mass. On the basis of these results, we can extrapolate the mass and thermodynamics of the rotating C-metric, which describes a Kerr-Newman-(A)dS black hole accelerated by a pulling string.
Homological Pisot Substitutions and Exact Regularity
Barge, Marcy; Jones, Leslie; Sadun, Lorenzo
2010-01-01
We consider one-dimensional substitution tiling spaces where the dilatation (stretching factor) is a degree d Pisot number, and where the first rational Cech cohomology is d-dimensional. We construct examples of such "homological Pisot" substitutions that do not have pure discrete spectra. These examples are not unimodular, and we conjecture that the coincidence rank must always divide a power of the norm of the dilatation. To support this conjecture, we show that homological Pisot substitutions exhibit an Exact Regularity Property (ERP), in which the number of occurrences of a patch for a return length is governed strictly by the length. The ERP puts strong constraints on the measure of any cylinder set in the corresponding tiling space.
Regularization of Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Computations
Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Van Vorst, D. G.; Ben Horin, Y.
2014-12-01
We compare two different methods of computation of a temporally local frequency:1) A stabilized instantaneous frequency using the theory of the analytic signal.2) A temporally variant centroid (or dominant) frequency estimated from a time-frequency decomposition.The first method derives from Taner et al (1979) as modified by Fomel (2007) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method computes the power centroid (Cohen, 1995) of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor or Stockwell Transform. Common to both methods is the necessity of division by a diagonal matrix, which requires appropriate regularization.We modify Fomel's (2007) method by explicitly penalizing the roughness of the estimate. Following Farquharson and Oldenburg (2004), we employ both the L curve and GCV methods to obtain the smoothest model that fits the data in the L2 norm.Using synthetic data, quarry blast, earthquakes and the DPRK tests, our results suggest that the optimal method depends on the data. One of the main applications for this work is the discrimination between blast events and earthquakesFomel, Sergey. " Local seismic attributes." , Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33.Cohen, Leon. " Time frequency analysis theory and applications." USA: Prentice Hall, (1995).Farquharson, Colin G., and Douglas W. Oldenburg. "A comparison of automatic techniques for estimating the regularization parameter in non-linear inverse problems." Geophysical Journal International 156.3 (2004): 411-425.Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. " Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063.
Regularization for Atmospheric Temperature Retrieval Problems
Velez-Reyes, Miguel; Galarza-Galarza, Ruben
1997-01-01
Passive remote sensing of the atmosphere is used to determine the atmospheric state. A radiometer measures microwave emissions from earth's atmosphere and surface. The radiance measured by the radiometer is proportional to the brightness temperature. This brightness temperature can be used to estimate atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water vapor content. These quantities are of primary importance for different applications in meteorology, oceanography, and geophysical sciences. Depending on the range in the electromagnetic spectrum being measured by the radiometer and the atmospheric quantities to be estimated, the retrieval or inverse problem of determining atmospheric parameters from brightness temperature might be linear or nonlinear. In most applications, the retrieval problem requires the inversion of a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind making this an ill-posed problem. The numerical solution of the retrieval problem requires the transformation of the continuous problem into a discrete problem. The ill-posedness of the continuous problem translates into ill-conditioning or ill-posedness of the discrete problem. Regularization methods are used to convert the ill-posed problem into a well-posed one. In this paper, we present some results of our work in applying different regularization techniques to atmospheric temperature retrievals using brightness temperatures measured with the SSM/T-1 sensor. Simulation results are presented which show the potential of these techniques to improve temperature retrievals. In particular, no statistical assumptions are needed and the algorithms were capable of correctly estimating the temperature profile corner at the tropopause independent of the initial guess.
Discriminative Elastic-Net Regularized Linear Regression.
Zhang, Zheng; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Wu, Jian; Xie, Guo-Sen
2017-03-01
In this paper, we aim at learning compact and discriminative linear regression models. Linear regression has been widely used in different problems. However, most of the existing linear regression methods exploit the conventional zero-one matrix as the regression targets, which greatly narrows the flexibility of the regression model. Another major limitation of these methods is that the learned projection matrix fails to precisely project the image features to the target space due to their weak discriminative capability. To this end, we present an elastic-net regularized linear regression (ENLR) framework, and develop two robust linear regression models which possess the following special characteristics. First, our methods exploit two particular strategies to enlarge the margins of different classes by relaxing the strict binary targets into a more feasible variable matrix. Second, a robust elastic-net regularization of singular values is introduced to enhance the compactness and effectiveness of the learned projection matrix. Third, the resulting optimization problem of ENLR has a closed-form solution in each iteration, which can be solved efficiently. Finally, rather than directly exploiting the projection matrix for recognition, our methods employ the transformed features as the new discriminate representations to make final image classification. Compared with the traditional linear regression model and some of its variants, our method is much more accurate in image classification. Extensive experiments conducted on publicly available data sets well demonstrate that the proposed framework can outperform the state-of-the-art methods. The MATLAB codes of our methods can be available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html.
Lower bound for the regularity index of fat points
Van Thien, Phan
2016-01-01
The problem to find an upper bound for the regularity index of fat points has been dealt with by many authors. In this paper we give a lower bound for the regularity index of fat points. It is useful for determining the regularity index.
Regular implementation in the space of compactly supported functions
Napp Avelli, D.; Shankar, Shiva; Trentelman, H.L.
2008-01-01
This article extends results on regular implementability in [P. Rocha, Canonical controllers and regular implementation of nd behaviors, in: Proceedings of the 16th IFAC World Congress, 20051 and [H.L. Trentelman, D. Napp Avelli, On the regular implementability of nD systems, Systems Control Lett. 5
On the Lipschitz Regularity in Signal Singularity Detection
LUO Li-chun
2003-01-01
The concepts of Lipschitz regularity and Hlder one are reviewed. They are not equivalent except for α＜1. A modification for Definition 1 on Lipschitz regularity in Ref.[1], which is not rigorous, is offered. Two propositions on Hlder regularity are given and proven.
The Iterated Regularization With Perturbed Operators and Noisy Data
陈宏; 侯宗义
1994-01-01
The method of iterated Tikhonov regularization with perturbed operators and noisy data for solving operators equations of the first kind is investigated. The rates of convergence of regularization approximation are achieved by using generalized Arcangeli’s method for the choice of the regularization parameter.
Brown, Joyceanne; And Others
1991-01-01
This survey of 201 regular education teachers found that the most frequently used prereferral strategies used to facilitate classroom adjustment and achievement were consultation with other professionals, parent conferences, and behavior management techniques. Elementary teachers implemented more strategies than secondary-level teachers.…
Regularity of weak solutions to the Landau-Lifshitz system in bounded regular domains
Kevin Santugini-Repiquet
2007-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the regularity, on the boundary, of weak solutions to the Landau-Lifshitz system in the framework of the micromagnetic model in the quasi-static approximation. We establish the existence of global weak solutions to the Landau-Lifshitz system whose tangential space gradient on the boundary is square integrable.
Visual mismatch negativity reveals automatic detection of sequential regularity violation
Gábor eStefanics
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Sequential regularities are abstract rules based on repeating sequences of environmental events, which are useful to make predictions about future events. As the processes underlying visual mismatch negativity (vMMN are sensitive to complex stimulus changes, this event-related potential component, like its auditory counterpart, may be an index of a primitive system of intelligence. Here we tested whether the visual system is capable to detect abstract sequential regularity in unattended stimulus sequences. In our first experiment we investigated the emergence of vMMN and other change-related activity to stimuli violating abstract rules. Red and green disk patterns were delivered in pairs. When in the majority of pairs the colors were identical within the pairs, deviant pairs with different colors for the second member of the pair elicited vMMN. Spatially more extended vMMN responses with longer latency were observed for deviants with 10% compared to 30% probability. In our second experiment utilizing oddball sequences, we tested the emergence of vMMN to violations of a concrete, feature-based rule of a repetition of a standard color. Deviant colors elicited a vMMN response in the oddball sequences. VMMN was larger for the second member of the pair, i.e. after a shorter stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA. This result corresponds to the expected SOA/(vMMN relationship. Our results show that the system underlying vMMN is sensitive to abstract probability rules and this component can be considered as a correlate of violated predictions about the characteristics of environmental events.
SVM based layout retargeting for fast and regularized inverse lithography
Kai-sheng LUO; Zheng SHI; Xiao-lang YAN; Zhen GENG
2014-01-01
Inverse lithography technology (ILT), also known as pixel-based optical proximity correction (PB-OPC), has shown promising capability in pushing the current 193 nm lithography to its limit. By treating the mask optimization process as an inverse problem in lithography, ILT provides a more complete exploration of the solution space and better pattern fidelity than the tradi-tional edge-based OPC. However, the existing methods of ILT are extremely time-consuming due to the slow convergence of the optimization process. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a support vector machine (SVM) based layout retargeting method for ILT, which is designed to generate a good initial input mask for the optimization process and promote the convergence speed. Supervised by optimized masks of training layouts generated by conventional ILT, SVM models are learned and used to predict the initial pixel values in the‘undefined areas’ of the new layout. By this process, an initial input mask close to the final optimized mask of the new layout is generated, which reduces iterations needed in the following optimization process. Manu-facturability is another critical issue in ILT;however, the mask generated by our layout retargeting method is quite irregular due to the prediction inaccuracy of the SVM models. To compensate for this drawback, a spatial filter is employed to regularize the retargeted mask for complexity reduction. We implemented our layout retargeting method with a regularized level-set based ILT (LSB-ILT) algorithm under partially coherent illumination conditions. Experimental results show that with an initial input mask generated by our layout retargeting method, the number of iterations needed in the optimization process and runtime of the whole process in ILT are reduced by 70.8%and 69.0%, respectively.
Personal continuous route pattern mining
Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN
2009-01-01
In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-20
Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), a popular part-based representation technique, does not capture the intrinsic local geometric structure of the data space. Graph regularized NMF (GNMF) was recently proposed to avoid this limitation by regularizing NMF with a nearest neighbor graph constructed from the input data set. However, GNMF has two main bottlenecks. First, using the original feature space directly to construct the graph is not necessarily optimal because of the noisy and irrelevant features and nonlinear distributions of data samples. Second, one possible way to handle the nonlinear distribution of data samples is by kernel embedding. However, it is often difficult to choose the most suitable kernel. To solve these bottlenecks, we propose two novel graph-regularized NMF methods, AGNMFFS and AGNMFMK, by introducing feature selection and multiple-kernel learning to the graph regularized NMF, respectively. Instead of using a fixed graph as in GNMF, the two proposed methods learn the nearest neighbor graph that is adaptive to the selected features and learned multiple kernels, respectively. For each method, we propose a unified objective function to conduct feature selection/multi-kernel learning, NMF and adaptive graph regularization simultaneously. We further develop two iterative algorithms to solve the two optimization problems. Experimental results on two challenging pattern classification tasks demonstrate that the proposed methods significantly outperform state-of-the-art data representation methods.
MRI reconstruction with joint global regularization and transform learning.
Tanc, A Korhan; Eksioglu, Ender M
2016-10-01
Sparsity based regularization has been a popular approach to remedy the measurement scarcity in image reconstruction. Recently, sparsifying transforms learned from image patches have been utilized as an effective regularizer for the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction. Here, we infuse additional global regularization terms to the patch-based transform learning. We develop an algorithm to solve the resulting novel cost function, which includes both patchwise and global regularization terms. Extensive simulation results indicate that the introduced mixed approach has improved MRI reconstruction performance, when compared to the algorithms which use either of the patchwise transform learning or global regularization terms alone.
UNI-VECTOR-SENSOR DIRECTION FINDING WITH REGULARIZED ESPRIT
无
2008-01-01
The regularized Least-Squares Estimation method of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (LS-ESPRIT) is herein proposed for Direction-Of-Arrival (DOA) estimation of non-Gaussian sources with only one acoustic vector-sensor. The Second-Order Statistics (SOS) and Higher-Order Statistics (HOS) of data are fused within a regularization framework. The steering vectors can be blindly identified by the regularized ESPRIT, from which the aim of DOA estimation can be achieved. Several variants of the regularized ESPRIT are discussed. A suboptimal scheme for determination of the regularization parameters is also given.
Iterative implementation of the adaptive regularization yields optimality
MA; Qinghua; WANG; Yanfei
2005-01-01
The adaptive regularization method is first proposed by Ryzhikov et al. for the deconvolution in elimination of multiples. This method is stronger than the Tikhonov regularization in the sense that itis adaptive, i.e. it eliminates the small eigenvalues of theadjoint operator when it is nearly singular. We will show in this paper that the adaptive regularization can be implemented iterately. Some properties of the proposed non-stationary iterated adaptive regularization method are analyzed. The rate of convergence for inexact data is proved. Therefore the iterative implementation of the adaptive regularization can yield optimality.
Regularization of Kepler Problem in $\\kappa$-spacetime
Guha, Partha; S., Zuhair N
2016-01-01
In this paper we regularize the Kepler problem on $\\kappa$-spacetime in several different ways. First, we perform a Moser-type regularization and then we proceed for the Ligon-Schaaf regularization to our problem. In particular, generalizing Heckman-de Laat (J. Symplectic Geom. 10, (2012), 463-473) in the noncommutative context we show that the Ligon-Schaaf regularization map follows from an adaptation of the Moser regularization can be generalized to the Kepler problem on $\\kappa$-spacetime.
Social origins of rhythm? Synchrony and temporal regularity in human vocalization.
Daniel L Bowling
Full Text Available Humans have a capacity to perceive and synchronize with rhythms. This is unusual in that only a minority of other species exhibit similar behavior. Study of synchronizing species (particularly anurans and insects suggests that simultaneous signal production by different individuals may play a critical role in the development of regular temporal signaling. Accordingly, we investigated the link between simultaneous signal production and temporal regularity in our own species. Specifically, we asked whether inter-individual synchronization of a behavior that is typically irregular in time, speech, could lead to evenly-paced or "isochronous" temporal patterns. Participants read nonsense phrases aloud with and without partners, and we found that synchronous reading resulted in greater regularity of durational intervals between words. Comparison of same-gender pairings showed that males and females were able to synchronize their temporal speech patterns with equal skill. These results demonstrate that the shared goal of synchronization can lead to the development of temporal regularity in vocalizations, suggesting that the origins of musical rhythm may lie in cooperative social interaction rather than in sexual selection.
Social origins of rhythm? Synchrony and temporal regularity in human vocalization.
Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Fitch, W Tecumseh
2013-01-01
Humans have a capacity to perceive and synchronize with rhythms. This is unusual in that only a minority of other species exhibit similar behavior. Study of synchronizing species (particularly anurans and insects) suggests that simultaneous signal production by different individuals may play a critical role in the development of regular temporal signaling. Accordingly, we investigated the link between simultaneous signal production and temporal regularity in our own species. Specifically, we asked whether inter-individual synchronization of a behavior that is typically irregular in time, speech, could lead to evenly-paced or "isochronous" temporal patterns. Participants read nonsense phrases aloud with and without partners, and we found that synchronous reading resulted in greater regularity of durational intervals between words. Comparison of same-gender pairings showed that males and females were able to synchronize their temporal speech patterns with equal skill. These results demonstrate that the shared goal of synchronization can lead to the development of temporal regularity in vocalizations, suggesting that the origins of musical rhythm may lie in cooperative social interaction rather than in sexual selection.
Stacey Rimikis
2015-05-01
Every day I run a mile. Just like every day, yesterday I ____ a mile”; N=800. Analyses A confidence score was calculated for each verb, representing the amount of lexical support for its inflectional pattern based on morphophonological rules (Albright & Hayes, 2003. Logistic-regression mixed-effects models were used to assess the impact of this confidence score on RMI’s production above that of other lexical variables. Accuracy and error patterns were analyzed separately for regular and irregular verbs. Results Confidence score was a significant predictor of performance for both regular and irregular verbs. For regular verbs, words with higher confidence scores were more likely to be produced accurately (see Figure 1. For irregular verbs, words with lower confidence scores were more likely to be regularized (i.e. affixation of –ed, e.g. "digged". Discussion For irregular verbs, lexical support for the particular morphophonological rule affected error type, with words with less support being more likely to regularize. Interestingly, our findings indicate that even regular verbs are sensitive to lexical support as words with less support for the regular pattern were more vulnerable to error. These findings provide additional evidence that morphophonological rules impact spoken production, and may be problematic for accounts in which a single, default rule is used in production.
Error analysis for matrix elastic-net regularization algorithms.
Li, Hong; Chen, Na; Li, Luoqing
2012-05-01
Elastic-net regularization is a successful approach in statistical modeling. It can avoid large variations which occur in estimating complex models. In this paper, elastic-net regularization is extended to a more general setting, the matrix recovery (matrix completion) setting. Based on a combination of the nuclear-norm minimization and the Frobenius-norm minimization, we consider the matrix elastic-net (MEN) regularization algorithm, which is an analog to the elastic-net regularization scheme from compressive sensing. Some properties of the estimator are characterized by the singular value shrinkage operator. We estimate the error bounds of the MEN regularization algorithm in the framework of statistical learning theory. We compute the learning rate by estimates of the Hilbert-Schmidt operators. In addition, an adaptive scheme for selecting the regularization parameter is presented. Numerical experiments demonstrate the superiority of the MEN regularization algorithm.
Learning rates of lq coefficient regularization learning with gaussian kernel.
Lin, Shaobo; Zeng, Jinshan; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben
2014-10-01
Regularization is a well-recognized powerful strategy to improve the performance of a learning machine and l(q) regularization schemes with 0 regularization leads to a smooth estimator, while l(1) regularization leads to a sparse estimator. Then how the generalization capability of l(q) regularization learning varies with q is worthy of investigation. In this letter, we study this problem in the framework of statistical learning theory. Our main results show that implementing l(q) coefficient regularization schemes in the sample-dependent hypothesis space associated with a gaussian kernel can attain the same almost optimal learning rates for all 0 regularization learning are asymptotically identical for all 0 < q < ∞. Our finding tentatively reveals that in some modeling contexts, the choice of q might not have a strong impact on the generalization capability. From this perspective, q can be arbitrarily specified, or specified merely by other nongeneralization criteria like smoothness, computational complexity or sparsity.
Total variation regularization for fMRI-based prediction of behaviour
Michel, Vincent; Varoquaux, Gaël; Eger, Evelyn; Thirion, Bertrand
2011-01-01
While medical imaging typically provides massive amounts of data, the extraction of relevant information for predictive diagnosis remains a difficult challenge. Functional MRI (fMRI) data, that provide an indirect measure of task-related or spontaneous neuronal activity, are classically analyzed in a mass-univariate procedure yielding statistical parametric maps. This analysis framework disregards some important principles of brain organization: population coding, distributed and overlapping representations. Multivariate pattern analysis, i.e., the prediction of behavioural variables from brain activation patterns better captures this structure. To cope with the high dimensionality of the data, the learning method has to be regularized. However, the spatial structure of the image is not taken into account in standard regularization methods, so that the extracted features are often hard to interpret. More informative and interpretable results can be obtained with the l_1 norm of the image gradient, a.k.a. its ...
Determinants of Scanpath Regularity in Reading.
von der Malsburg, Titus; Kliegl, Reinhold; Vasishth, Shravan
2015-09-01
Scanpaths have played an important role in classic research on reading behavior. Nevertheless, they have largely been neglected in later research perhaps due to a lack of suitable analytical tools. Recently, von der Malsburg and Vasishth (2011) proposed a new measure for quantifying differences between scanpaths and demonstrated that this measure can recover effects that were missed with the traditional eyetracking measures. However, the sentences used in that study were difficult to process and scanpath effects accordingly strong. The purpose of the present study was to test the validity, sensitivity, and scope of applicability of the scanpath measure, using simple sentences that are typically read from left to right. We derived predictions for the regularity of scanpaths from the literature on oculomotor control, sentence processing, and cognitive aging and tested these predictions using the scanpath measure and a large database of eye movements. All predictions were confirmed: Sentences with short words and syntactically more difficult sentences elicited more irregular scanpaths. Also, older readers produced more irregular scanpaths than younger readers. In addition, we found an effect that was not reported earlier: Syntax had a smaller influence on the eye movements of older readers than on those of young readers. We discuss this interaction of syntactic parsing cost with age in terms of shifts in processing strategies and a decline of executive control as readers age. Overall, our results demonstrate the validity and sensitivity of the scanpath measure and thus establish it as a productive and versatile tool for reading research.
Regularities development of entrepreneurial structures in regions
Julia Semenovna Pinkovetskaya
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Consider regularities and tendencies for the three types of entrepreneurial structures — small enterprises, medium enterprises and individual entrepreneurs. The aim of the research was to confirm the possibilities of describing indicators of aggregate entrepreneurial structures with the use of normal law distribution functions. Presented proposed by the author the methodological approach and results of construction of the functions of the density distribution for the main indicators for the various objects: the Russian Federation, regions, as well as aggregates ofentrepreneurial structures, specialized in certain forms ofeconomic activity. All the developed functions, as shown by the logical and statistical analysis, are of high quality and well-approximate the original data. In general, the proposed methodological approach is versatile and can be used in further studies of aggregates of entrepreneurial structures. The received results can be applied in solving a wide range of problems justify the need for personnel and financial resources at the federal, regional and municipal levels, as well as the formation of plans and forecasts of development entrepreneurship and improvement of this sector of the economy.
Information theoretic regularization in diffuse optical tomography.
Panagiotou, Christos; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Gibson, Adam P; Schweiger, Martin; Leahy, Richard M; Arridge, Simon R
2009-05-01
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) retrieves the spatially distributed optical characteristics of a medium from external measurements. Recovering the parameters of interest involves solving a nonlinear and highly ill-posed inverse problem. This paper examines the possibility of regularizing DOT via the introduction of a priori information from alternative high-resolution anatomical modalities, using the information theory concepts of mutual information (MI) and joint entropy (JE). Such functionals evaluate the similarity between the reconstructed optical image and the prior image while bypassing the multimodality barrier manifested as the incommensurate relation between the gray value representations of corresponding anatomical features in the two modalities. By introducing structural information, we aim to improve the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of the solution. We provide a thorough explanation of the theory from an imaging perspective, accompanied by preliminary results using numerical simulations. In addition we compare the performance of MI and JE. Finally, we have adopted a method for fast marginal entropy evaluation and optimization by modifying the objective function and extending it to the JE case. We demonstrate its use on an image reconstruction framework and show significant computational savings.
Global regularity for minimal sets and counterexamples
Liang, Xiangyu
2011-01-01
We discuss the global regularity for 2 dimensional minimal sets, that is, whether all global minimal sets in $\\R^n$ are cones or not. Every minimal set looks like a minimal cone $C$ at infinity, hence the main point is to use the topological properties of a minimal set at large scale to control its topology at smaller scales. Such arguments depend on the cone $C$, thus we have to discuss them one by one. Recall that this is the idea to prove that 1-dimensional Almgren-minimal sets in $\\R^n$, and 2-dimensional Mumford-Shah minimal sets in $\\R^3$ are cones. In this article we discuss three types of 2-dimensional minimal sets: Almgren-minimal set in $\\R^3$ whose blow-in limit is a $\\T$ set; topological minimal sets in $\\R^4$ whose blow-in limit is a $\\T$ set; and Almgren minimal sets in $\\R^4$ whose blow-in limit is the union $P_\\theta$ of two almost orthogonal planes. For the first one we eliminate an existing potential counterexample that was proposed by several people, and show that a real counterexample shou...
Manifold Regularized Experimental Design for Active Learning.
Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling
2016-12-02
Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.
Sparsity-regularized HMAX for visual recognition.
Xiaolin Hu
Full Text Available About ten years ago, HMAX was proposed as a simple and biologically feasible model for object recognition, based on how the visual cortex processes information. However, the model does not encompass sparse firing, which is a hallmark of neurons at all stages of the visual pathway. The current paper presents an improved model, called sparse HMAX, which integrates sparse firing. This model is able to learn higher-level features of objects on unlabeled training images. Unlike most other deep learning models that explicitly address global structure of images in every layer, sparse HMAX addresses local to global structure gradually along the hierarchy by applying patch-based learning to the output of the previous layer. As a consequence, the learning method can be standard sparse coding (SSC or independent component analysis (ICA, two techniques deeply rooted in neuroscience. What makes SSC and ICA applicable at higher levels is the introduction of linear higher-order statistical regularities by max pooling. After training, high-level units display sparse, invariant selectivity for particular individuals or for image categories like those observed in human inferior temporal cortex (ITC and medial temporal lobe (MTL. Finally, on an image classification benchmark, sparse HMAX outperforms the original HMAX by a large margin, suggesting its great potential for computer vision.
Flip to Regular Triangulation and Convex Hull.
Gao, Mingcen; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng
2017-02-01
Flip is a simple and local operation to transform one triangulation to another. It makes changes only to some neighboring simplices, without considering any attribute or configuration global in nature to the triangulation. Thanks to this characteristic, several flips can be independently applied to different small, non-overlapping regions of one triangulation. Such operation is favored when designing algorithms for data-parallel, massively multithreaded hardware, such as the GPU. However, most existing flip algorithms are designed to be executed sequentially, and usually need some restrictions on the execution order of flips, making them hard to be adapted to parallel computation. In this paper, we present an in depth study of flip algorithms in low dimensions, with the emphasis on the flexibility of their execution order. In particular, we propose a series of provably correct flip algorithms for regular triangulation and convex hull in 2D and 3D, with implementations for both CPUs and GPUs. Our experiment shows that our GPU implementation for constructing these structures from a given point set achieves up to two orders of magnitude of speedup over other popular single-threaded CPU implementation of existing algorithms.
Wave dynamics of regular and chaotic rays
McDonald, S.W.
1983-09-01
In order to investigate general relationships between waves and rays in chaotic systems, I study the eigenfunctions and spectrum of a simple model, the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation in a stadium boundary, for which the rays are ergodic. Statistical measurements are performed so that the apparent randomness of the stadium modes can be quantitatively contrasted with the familiar regularities observed for the modes in a circular boundary (with integrable rays). The local spatial autocorrelation of the eigenfunctions is constructed in order to indirectly test theoretical predictions for the nature of the Wigner distribution corresponding to chaotic waves. A portion of the large-eigenvalue spectrum is computed and reported in an appendix; the probability distribution of successive level spacings is analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions. The two principal conclusions are: 1) waves associated with chaotic rays may exhibit randomly situated localized regions of high intensity; 2) the Wigner function for these waves may depart significantly from being uniformly distributed over the surface of constant frequency in the ray phase space.
On bigraded regularities of Rees algebra
RAMAKRISHNA NANDURI
2017-09-01
For any homogeneous ideal $I$ in $K[x_{1}, . . . , x_{n}]$ of analytic spread $\\ell$, we show that for the Rees algebra $R(I)$, $\\rm{reg^{syz}_ {(0,1)}}\\sl(R(I)) = \\rm{reg^{T}_{(0,1)}}\\sl(R(I))$. We compute a formula for the (0, 1)-regularity of $R(I)$, which is a bigraded analog of Theorem1.1 of Aramova and Herzog $(\\it{Am. J. Math.} \\bf{122(4)} (2000) 689–719)$ and Theorem 2.2of Römer $(\\it{Ill. J. Math.} \\bf{45(4)} (2001) 1361–1376)$ to $R(I)$. We show that if the defect sequence, $e_{k} := {\\rm reg}(I^k)− k \\rho(I)$, is weakly increasing for $k\\geq\\rm{reg^{syz}_{(0,1)}}\\sl(R(I))$, then $\\rm{reg}\\sl(I^{j}) = j\\rho(I) + e$ for $j\\geq \\rm{reg^{syz}_{(0,1)}}\\sl(R(I)) + \\ell$, where $\\ell = {\\rm min}\\{\\mu(J)\\mid J \\subseteq I$ a graded minimal reduction of $I\\}$. This is an improvement of Corollary 5.9(i) of [16].
Regularities of formation of ternary alloy phases between non-transition metals
姚莉秀; 陈瑞亮; 钦佩; 陈念贻; 陆文聪
2000-01-01
Using a four-parameter model based on extended Miedema’ s cellular model of alloy phases and pattern recognition methods, the regularities of formation of ternary intermetallic compounds between non-transition metals have been investigated. The criterion of formation can be expressed as some empirical functions of Φ (electronegativity), nws1/3( valence electron density in Wagn-er-Seitz cell), R (Pauling’s metallic radius) and Z (number of valence electrons in atom).
Regularities of formation of ternary alloy phases between non-transition metals
无
2000-01-01
Using a four-parameter model based on extended Miedema's cellular model of alloy phases and pattern recognition methods, the regularities of formation of ternary intermetallic compounds between non-transition metals have been investigated. The criterion of formation can be expressed as some empirical functions of Ф (electronegativity), n1/3WS (valence electron density in Wagner-Seitz cell), R (Pauling's metallic radius) and Z (number of valence electrons in atom).
Keller, Kai Johannes
2010-01-01
The present work contains a consistent formulation of the methods of dimensional regularization (DimReg) and minimal subtraction (MS) in Minkowski position space. The methods are implemented into the framework of perturbative Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (pAQFT). The developed methods are used to solve the Epstein-Glaser recursion for the construction of time-ordered products in all orders of causal perturbation theory. A solution is given in terms of a forest formula in the sense of Zimmer...
Astrup, Arne; Rice Bradley, Beth H.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Delplanque, Bernadette; Ferry, Monique; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises
2016-01-01
In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014) in Canada, The American Society for Nutrition Annual Meeting held in conjunction with Experimental Biology (2015) in the United States, and The Federation of European Nutrition Societies (2015) in Germany. This synopsis of these symposia describes the complexity of dairy fat and the effects regular-fat dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted. PMID:27483308
Astrup, Arne; Rice Bradley, Beth H; Brenna, J Thomas; Delplanque, Bernadette; Ferry, Monique; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises
2016-07-29
In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014) in Canada, The American Society for Nutrition Annual Meeting held in conjunction with Experimental Biology (2015) in the United States, and The Federation of European Nutrition Societies (2015) in Germany. This synopsis of these symposia describes the complexity of dairy fat and the effects regular-fat dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted.
Multiple Kernel Learning for adaptive graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2012-01-01
Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been continuously evolving in several areas like pattern recognition and information retrieval methods. It factorizes a matrix into a product of 2 low-rank non-negative matrices that will define parts-based, and linear representation of non-negative data. Recently, Graph regularized NMF (GrNMF) is proposed to find a compact representation, which uncovers the hidden semantics and simultaneously respects the intrinsic geometric structure. In GNMF, an affinity graph is constructed from the original data space to encode the geometrical information. In this paper, we propose a novel idea which engages a Multiple Kernel Learning approach into refining the graph structure that reflects the factorization of the matrix and the new data space. The GrNMF is improved by utilizing the graph refined by the kernel learning, and then a novel kernel learning method is introduced under the GrNMF framework. Our approach shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art clustering algorithms like NMF, GrNMF, SVD etc.
Sleep quality assessment using polysomnography in children on regular hemodialysis
Ahmed M El-Refaey
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Studies examining sleep patterns in children on hemodialysis (HD are lacking. This cross-sectional, control-matched group study was performed to assess the sleep quality in children on HD. The assessment was made using a subjective sleep assessment and sleep questionnaire and objective analysis was made using full night polysomnography. A total of 25 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on HD were compared with 15 age- and sex-matched controls. The average age of the cases was 14 ± 4 years, 52% were males and the mean body mass index was 20 ± 3.8 kg/m². The average duration on dialysis was 2.6 ± 2 years. Analysis of subjective data revealed markedly affected sleep quality in HD patients, as evidenced by excessive day time sleepiness (P <0.005, night awakening (P <0.005, difficult morning arousal (P <0.005 and limb pains (P <0.005. Objective analysis showed differences in sleep architecture, less slow wave sleep in HD children, similar rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement, more sleep disordered breathing (P <0.0001 and more periodic limb movement disorders (P <0.0001. Our study suggests that children on regular HD have markedly affected objective as well as subjective quality of sleep.
Representing and computing regular languages on massively parallel networks
Miller, M.I.; O' Sullivan, J.A. (Electronic Systems and Research Lab., of Electrical Engineering, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (US)); Boysam, B. (Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (US)); Smith, K.R. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Southern Illinois Univ., Edwardsville, IL (US))
1991-01-01
This paper proposes a general method for incorporating rule-based constraints corresponding to regular languages into stochastic inference problems, thereby allowing for a unified representation of stochastic and syntactic pattern constraints. The authors' approach first established the formal connection of rules to Chomsky grammars, and generalizes the original work of Shannon on the encoding of rule-based channel sequences to Markov chains of maximum entropy. This maximum entropy probabilistic view leads to Gibb's representations with potentials which have their number of minima growing at precisely the exponential rate that the language of deterministically constrained sequences grow. These representations are coupled to stochastic diffusion algorithms, which sample the language-constrained sequences by visiting the energy minima according to the underlying Gibbs' probability law. The coupling to stochastic search methods yields the all-important practical result that fully parallel stochastic cellular automata may be derived to generate samples from the rule-based constraint sets. The production rules and neighborhood state structure of the language of sequences directly determines the necessary connection structures of the required parallel computing surface. Representations of this type have been mapped to the DAP-510 massively-parallel processor consisting of 1024 mesh-connected bit-serial processing elements for performing automated segmentation of electron-micrograph images.
Droplet impact on regular micro-grooved surfaces
Hu Hai-Bao; Huang Su-He; Chen Li-Bin
2013-01-01
We have investigated experimentally the process of a droplet impact on a regular micro-grooved surface.The target surfaces are patterned such that micro-scale spokes radiate from the center,concentric circles,and parallel lines on the polishing copper plate,using Quasi-LIGA molding technology.The dynamic behavior of water droplets impacting on these structured surfaces is examined using a high-speed camera,including the drop impact processes,the maximum spreading diameters,and the lengths and numbers of fingers at different values of Weber number.Experimental results validate that the spreading processes are arrested on all target surfaces at low velocity.Also,the experimental results at higher impact velocity demonstrate that the spreading process is conducted on the surface parallel to the micro-grooves,but is arrested in the direction perpendicular to the micro-grooves.Besides,the lengths of fingers increase observably,even when they are ejected out as tiny droplets along the groove direction,at the same time the drop recoil velocity is reduced by micro-grooves which are parallel to the spreading direction,but not by micro-grooves which are vertical to the spreading direction.
Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite
Trell, Erik
2008-10-01
The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it "is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation" also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)×O(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each
Gauge invariant Pauli-Villars regularization for chiral fermion
Okuyama, K; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi
1996-01-01
We re-examine the generalized Pauli--Villars regularization proposed by Frolov and Slavnov, a possible gauge invariant Lagrangian-level regularization for a chiral fermion. When a chiral fermion belongs to a (pseudo-)real representation of the gauge group, the formulation always provides a complete gauge invariant regularization; a chiral fermion in an anomaly free complex representation seems to be only partially regularized. For the pseudo-real representation, the formulation requires an infinite number of regulator fields, while for the real representation only a finite number of regulator fields is sufficient. For both cases, being gauge invariant, the regularization gives a transverse vacuum polarization tensor without any gauge variant counter terms. The covariant (or gauge invariant) form of the fermion number and the conformal anomalies are obtained in this regularization.
Regular Bases At Non-isolated Points And Metrization Theorems
Lin, Fucai; Junnila, Heikki
2011-01-01
In this paper, we define the spaces with a regular base at non-isolated points and discuss some metrization theorems. We firstly show that a space $X$ is a metrizable space, if and only if $X$ is a regular space with a $\\sigma$-locally finite base at non-isolated points, if and only if $X$ is a perfect space with a regular base at non-isolated points, if and only if $X$ is a $\\beta$-space with a regular base at non-isolated points. In addition, we also discuss the relations between the spaces with a regular base at non-isolated points and some generalized metrizable spaces. Finally, we give an affirmative answer for a question posed by F. C. Lin and S. Lin in \\cite{LL}, which also shows that a space with a regular base at non-isolated points has a point-countable base.
Characterization of Chain as a Regular Semi Group
R. Kehinde
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Problem Statement: There are some special classes of semi group namely: regular and eventually regular, abundant, orthodox, quasi-adequate. The objective of this study were to: (i Define a new class of semi group on a Poset and give related examples (ii Study and establish conditions that characterized Chain as a regular semi group. Approach: Tests of some of characteristics of semi group like associativity, commutativity, and regular semi group were carried out on this new class. Results: Conditions were obtained that showed it is associative and regular. Conclusion: Hence the results suggest that since Chain is regular, there are many other things we can still do this with class of semi group such as: (i Whether one can characterize all the Green's equivalences and their starred analogues (ii Whether one can characterize all the congruencies of the given semi group (iii Whether one characterize all the subsemigroups of the given semi group.
Therese A. O’Sullivan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09 per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90 per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995 and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03; these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.
O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H
2016-01-02
Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.
How to regularize a symplectic-energy-momentum integrator
Shibberu, Yosi
2005-01-01
We identify ghost trajectories of symplectic-energy-momentum (SEM) integration and show that the ghost trajectories are not time reversible. We explain how SEM integration can be regularized, in a SEM preserving manner, so that it is time reversible. We describe an algorithm for implementing the regularized SEM integrator. Simulation results for the pendulum are given. Coordinate invariance of the regularized SEM integrator is briefly discussed.
R-Unipotent Congruences on Eventually Regular Semigroups
Yanfeng Luo; Xiaoling Li
2007-01-01
A semigroup S is called an eventually regular semigroup if for every a ∈ S,there exists a positive integer n such that an is regular. In this paper, the R-unipotent,inverse semigroup and group congruences on an eventually regular semigroup S are described by means of certain congruence pairs (ξ, K), where ξ is a normal congruence on the subsemigroup generated by E(S), and K is a normal subsemigroup of S.
Semilattices of Nil-extensions of Simple Regular Semigroups
Stojan Bogdanovi(c); Miroslav (C)iri(c); Melanija Mitrovi(c)
2003-01-01
Semigroups decomposable into a semilattice of Archimedean semigroups, having certain additional properties such as the intra-, left, right and complete π-regularity, have been investigated in many papers. In the present paper, we study the π-regular ones. Among other things, we characterize them as semilattices of nil-extensions of simple regular semigroups. The obtained results generalize some results given by Munn, Putcha, Shevrin, Bogdanovic, Ciric, and others.
Verónica de Luca Sarobe
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Diuretic and natriuretic effects of renal dopamine (DA are well established. However, in volume expansion the pattern of renal DA release into urine (U DA V and the role of enzymes involved in DA synthesis/degradation have not yet been defined. The objective was to determine the pattern of U DA V during volume expansion and to characterize the involvement of monoamine-oxidase (MAO and aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC in this response. In this study male Wistar rats were expanded with NaCl 0.9% at a rate of 5% BWt per hour. At the beginning of expansion three groups received a single drug injection as follows: C (vehicle, Control, IMAO (MAO inhibitor Pargyline, 20 mg/kg BWt, i.v. and BNZ (AADC inhibitor Benserazide, 25 mg/kg BWt, i.v.. Results revealed that in C rats U DA V (ng/30 min/100g BWt increased in the first 30 min expansion from 11.5 ± 1.20 to 21.8 ± 3.10 (p La dopamina (DA intrarrenal ejerce efectos diuréticos y natriuréticos. Sin embargo, en los estado de expansión de volumen aún no está bien definido el patrón de liberación de dopamina renal hacia la orina y si cumplen un rol las enzimas involucradas en la síntesis o degradación de la amina. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el patrón de excreción urinaria de DA (U DA V durante la expansión de volumen, caracterizando la participación de las enzimas monoaminooxidasa (MAO y decarboxilasa de aminoácidos aromáticos (AADC en esta respuesta. Para ello ratas Wistar macho fueron expandidas de volumen con NaCl 0.9% al 5% del peso corporal por hora durante dos horas y divididas en tres grupos, los que al comienzo de la expansión recibieron: C (vehículo, Control, IMAO (Pargilina, inhibidor de MAO, 20 mg/kg PC, i.v. y BNZ (Benserazida, inhibidor de AADC, 25 mg/kg PC, i.v.. Se observó que en C la U DA V (ng/30min/100gPC aumentó durante los primeros 30 minutos de expansión de 11.5 ± 1.20 a 21.8 ± 3.10 (p < 0.05, disminuyendo posteriormente. IMAO mostr
Sequential Pattern Mining Using Formal Language Tools
R. S. Jadon
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In present scenario almost every system and working is computerized and hence all information and data are being stored in Computers. Huge collections of data are emerging. Retrieval of untouched, hidden and important information from this huge data is quite tedious work. Data Mining is a great technological solution which extracts untouched, hidden and important information from vast databases to investigate noteworthy knowledge in the data warehouse. An important problem in data mining is to discover patterns in various fields like medical science, world wide web, telecommunication etc. In the field of Data Mining, Sequential pattern mining is one of the method in which we retrieve hidden pattern linked with instant or other sequences. In sequential pattern mining we extract those sequential patterns whose support count are greater than or equal to given minimum support threshold value. In current scenario users are interested in only specific and interesting pattern instead of entire probable sequential pattern. To control the exploration space users can use many heuristics which can be represented as constraints. Many algorithms have been developed in the fields of constraint mining which generate patterns as per user expectation. In the present work we will be exploring and enhancing the regular expression constraints .Regular expression is one of the constraint and number of algorithm developed for sequential pattern mining which uses regular expression as a constraint. Some constraints are neither regular nor context free like cross-serial pattern anbmcndm used in Swiss German Data. We cannot construct equivalent deterministic finite automata (DFA or Push down automata (PDA for such type of patterns. We have proposed a new algorithm PMFLT (Pattern Mining using Formal Language Tools for sequential pattern mining using formal language tools as constraints. The proposed algorithm finds only user specific frequent sequence in efficient
Hamiltonian Cycles in Regular 2-Connected Claw-Free Graphs
李明楚
2003-01-01
A known result by Jackson Bill is that every 2-connected k-regular graph on at most 3k vertices is Hamiltonian. In this paper,it is proved that every 2-connected k-regular claw-free graph on at most 5k(k≥10)vertices is Hamiltonian. Moreover, the bound 5k is best possible. A counterexample of a 2-connected k-regular claw-free non-Hamiltonian graph on 5k+1 vertices is given, and it is conjectured that every 3-connected k-regular claw-free graph on at most 12k-7 vertices is Hamiltonian.
Regular Maps of Graphs of Order 4p
Jin Xin ZHOU; Yan Quan FENG
2012-01-01
A 2-cell embedding f:X → S of a graph X into a closed orientable surface S can be described combinatorially by a pair M =(X; p) called a map,where p is a product of disjoint cycle permutations each of which is the permutation of the arc set of X initiated at the same vertex following the orientation of S.It is well known that the automorphism group of M acts semi-regularly on the arc set of X and if the action is regular,then the map Mand the embedding f are called regular.Let p and q be primes.Duet al.[J.Algebraic Combin.,19,123-141 (2004)] classified the regular maps of graphs of order pq.In this paper all pairwise non-isomorphic regular maps of graphs of order 4p are constructed explicitly and the genera of such regular maps are computed.As a result,there are twelve sporadic and six infinite families of regular maps of graphs of order 4p; two of the infinite families are regular maps with the complete bipartite graphs K2p,2p as underlying graphs and the other four infinite families are regular balanced Cayley maps on the groups Z4p,Z22 × Zp and D4p.
Study on design of the regular concave surface profiles
2001-01-01
Regular concave surface profiles are adopted in many friction surfaces. But up to now,this is seldom tutored by the theory of lubrication. To design them, a model of the regular depthoptimization was provided. To determine the other size, two propositions are given. At same time,two main effect factors on lubrication were discussed in detail. A lubrication test for different regu-lar concave surface profiles was performed on a pin and ring tester. On the basis of theory analy-sis and experiment, a principle to design regular concave surface profiles is provided.
A. Hak (Tony); J. Dul (Jan)
2009-01-01
textabstractPattern matching is comparing two patterns in order to determine whether they match (i.e., that they are the same) or do not match (i.e., that they differ). Pattern matching is the core procedure of theory-testing with cases. Testing consists of matching an “observed pattern” (a pattern
Keller, Kai Johannes
2010-04-15
The present work contains a consistent formulation of the methods of dimensional regularization (DimReg) and minimal subtraction (MS) in Minkowski position space. The methods are implemented into the framework of perturbative Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (pAQFT). The developed methods are used to solve the Epstein-Glaser recursion for the construction of time-ordered products in all orders of causal perturbation theory. A solution is given in terms of a forest formula in the sense of Zimmermann. A relation to the alternative approach to renormalization theory using Hopf algebras is established. (orig.)
Kohyama, Hiroaki
2015-01-01
We study the regularization dependence on the quenched Schwinger-Dyson equations in general gauge by applying the two types of regularizations, the four and three dimensional momentum cutoffs. The obtained results indicate that the solutions are not drastically affected by the choice of two different cutoff prescriptions. We then think that both the regularizations can nicely be adopted in the analyses for the Schwinger-Dyson equations.
Full L1-regularized Traction Force Microscopy over whole cells.
Suñé-Auñón, Alejandro; Jorge-Peñas, Alvaro; Aguilar-Cuenca, Rocío; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Van Oosterwyck, Hans; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate
2017-08-10
Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) is a widespread technique to estimate the tractions that cells exert on the surrounding substrate. To recover the tractions, it is necessary to solve an inverse problem, which is ill-posed and needs regularization to make the solution stable. The typical regularization scheme is given by the minimization of a cost functional, which is divided in two terms: the error present in the data or data fidelity term; and the regularization or penalty term. The classical approach is to use zero-order Tikhonov or L2-regularization, which uses the L2-norm for both terms in the cost function. Recently, some studies have demonstrated an improved performance using L1-regularization (L1-norm in the penalty term) related to an increase in the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the recovered traction field. In this manuscript, we present a comparison between the previous two regularization schemes (relying in the L2-norm for the data fidelity term) and the full L1-regularization (using the L1-norm for both terms in the cost function) for synthetic and real data. Our results reveal that L1-regularizations give an improved spatial resolution (more important for full L1-regularization) and a reduction in the background noise with respect to the classical zero-order Tikhonov regularization. In addition, we present an approximation, which makes feasible the recovery of cellular tractions over whole cells on typical full-size microscope images when working in the spatial domain. The proposed full L1-regularization improves the sensitivity to recover small stress footprints. Moreover, the proposed method has been validated to work on full-field microscopy images of real cells, what certainly demonstrates it is a promising tool for biological applications.
Macek, M
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of the emerging order and chaos and enduring symmetries, accompanying a generic (high-barrier) first-order quantum phase transition (QPT). The interacting boson model Hamiltonian employed, describes a QPT between spherical and deformed shapes, associated with its U(5) and SU(3) dynamical symmetry limits. A~classical analysis of the intrinsic dynamics reveals a rich but simply-divided phase space structure with a H\\'enon-Heiles type of chaotic dynamics ascribed to the spherical minimum and a robustly regular dynamics ascribed to the deformed minimum. The simple pattern of mixed but well-separated dynamics persists in the coexistence region and traces the crossing of the two minima in the Landau potential. A quantum analysis discloses a number of regular low-energy U(5)-like multiplets in the spherical region, and regular SU(3)-like rotational bands extending to high energies and angular momenta, in the deformed region. These two kinds of regular subsets of states retain thei...
Dictionary learning-based spatiotemporal regularization for 3D dense speckle tracking
Lu, Allen; Zontak, Maria; Parajuli, Nripesh; Stendahl, John C.; Boutagy, Nabil; Eberle, Melissa; O'Donnell, Matthew; Sinusas, Albert J.; Duncan, James S.
2017-03-01
Speckle tracking is a common method for non-rigid tissue motion analysis in 3D echocardiography, where unique texture patterns are tracked through the cardiac cycle. However, poor tracking often occurs due to inherent ultrasound issues, such as image artifacts and speckle decorrelation; thus regularization is required. Various methods, such as optical flow, elastic registration, and block matching techniques have been proposed to track speckle motion. Such methods typically apply spatial and temporal regularization in a separate manner. In this paper, we propose a joint spatiotemporal regularization method based on an adaptive dictionary representation of the dense 3D+time Lagrangian motion field. Sparse dictionaries have good signal adaptive and noise-reduction properties; however, they are prone to quantization errors. Our method takes advantage of the desirable noise suppression, while avoiding the undesirable quantization error. The idea is to enforce regularization only on the poorly tracked trajectories. Specifically, our method 1.) builds data-driven 4-dimensional dictionary of Lagrangian displacements using sparse learning, 2.) automatically identifies poorly tracked trajectories (outliers) based on sparse reconstruction errors, and 3.) performs sparse reconstruction of the outliers only. Our approach can be applied on dense Lagrangian motion fields calculated by any method. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on a baseline block matching speckle tracking and evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm using tracking and strain accuracy analysis.
Stewart Santos
2011-04-01
Full Text Available We consider a problem of high-resolution array radar/SAR imaging formalized in terms of a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem of nonparametric estimation of the power spatial spectrum pattern (SSP of the random wavefield scattered from a remotely sensed scene observed through a kernel signal formation operator and contaminated with random Gaussian noise. First, the Sobolev-type solution space is constructed to specify the class of consistent kernel SSP estimators with the reproducing kernel structures adapted to the metrics in such the solution space. Next, the “model-free” variational analysis (VA-based image enhancement approach and the “model-based” descriptive experiment design (DEED regularization paradigm are unified into a new dynamic experiment design (DYED regularization framework. Application of the proposed DYED framework to the adaptive array radar/SAR imaging problem leads to a class of two-level (DEED-VA regularized SSP reconstruction techniques that aggregate the kernel adaptive anisotropic windowing with the projections onto convex sets to enforce the consistency and robustness of the overall iterative SSP estimators. We also show how the proposed DYED regularization method may be considered as a generalization of the MVDR, APES and other high-resolution nonparametric adaptive radar sensing techniques. A family of the DYED-related algorithms is constructed and their effectiveness is finally illustrated via numerical simulations.
The Corona Limit of Penrose Tilings Is a Regular Decagon
Akiyama, Shigeki; Imai, Katsunobu
2016-01-01
Part 2: Regular Papers; International audience; We define and study the corona limit of a tiling, by investigating the signal propagations on cellular automata (CA) on tilings employing the simple growth CA. In particular, the corona limit of Penrose tilings is the regular decagon.
A Gradient Regularization Method in Crosswell Seismic Tomography
Wang Shoudong
2006-01-01
Crosswell seismic tomography can be used to study the lateral variation of reservoirs, reservoir properties and the dynamic movement of fluids. In view of the instability of crosswell seismic tomography, the gradient method was improved by introducing regularization, and a gradient regularization method in presented in this paper. This method was verified by processing numerical simulation data and physical model data.
Analytic regularization of the Yukawa model at finite temperature
Malbouisson, A P C; Svaiter, N F
1996-01-01
We analyse the one-loop fermionic contribution for the scalar effective potential in the temperature dependent Yukawa model. In order to regularize the model a mix between dimensional and analytic regularization procedures is used. We find a general expression for the fermionic contribution in arbitrary spacetime dimension. It is found that in D=3 this contribution is finite.
Comments on "Regularization ambiguities and local gauge symmetries"
Casana, R
2004-01-01
We study the regularization ambiguities in an exact renormalized (1+1)-dimensional field theory. We show a relation between the regularization ambiguities and the coupling parameters of the theory as well as their role in the implementation of a local gauge symmetry at quantum level.
Comments on Regularization Ambiguities and Local Gauge Symmetries
Casana, R.; Pimentel, B. M.
We study the regularization ambiguities in an exact renormalized (1 +1)-dimensional field theory. We show a relation between the regularization ambiguities and the coupling parameters of the theory as well as their role in the implementation of a local gauge symmetry at quantum level.
Morrey Regularity of the Solution to the Dirichlet Problem
无
2000-01-01
@@To study the local regularity of solutions to second orderelliptic partial differential equations, Morrey in ［1］ introduced somefunction spaces, which are called the Morrey spaces today. Since then, manymathematicians have studied regularities of solutions to some kinds of secondorder elliptic equations in Morrey spaces.
A Splitting Algorithm for Directional Regularization and Sparsification
Rakêt, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads
2012-01-01
be computed pointwise and are easily implemented on massively parallel processors. Furthermore the splitting method allows for the computation of solutions to a large number of more advanced directional regularization problems. In particular we are able to handle robust, non-convex data terms, and to define...... a 0-harmonic regularization energy where we sparsify directions by means of an L0 norm....
Towards selecting a finite-range regularization scale
Young, Ross D; Leinweber, Derek B
2009-01-01
Extensive studies have demonstrated that finite-range regularization (FRR) offers significantly improved chiral extrapolations for lattice QCD. These studies have typically relied on selecting the finite-regularization scale based upon phenomenological input. Here we report on a preliminary investigation of a procedure to determine a preferred range of FRR scale based on nonperturbative lattice results -- without any phenomenological prejudice.
47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76.614 Section 76.614 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular monitoring. Cable television...
On the Regularity of Shear Thickening Viscous Fluids
Francesca CRISPO
2009-01-01
The aim of this note is to improve the regularity results obtained by H. Beirao da Veiga in 2008 for a class of p-fluid flows in a cubic domain. The key idea is exploiting the better regularity of solutions in the tangential directions with respect to the normal one, by appealing to anisotropic Sobolev embeddings.
Regular linear systems and their reciprocals : applications to Riccati equations
Curtain, RF
2003-01-01
For a regular linear system with zero in the resolvent set of the generator we introduce its reciprocal system, which has bounded generators. We show that there are close relationships between key system theoretic properties of such regular linear systems and their reciprocals. To illustrate the use
Vanishing non-local regularization of a scalar conservation law
Jerome Droniou
2003-11-01
Full Text Available We prove that the solution to the regularization of a scalar conservation law by a fractional power of the Laplacian converges, as the regularization vanishes, to the entropy solution of the hyperbolic problem. We also give an error estimate when the initial condition has bounded variation.
Spectral Characterizations of Some Distance-Regular Graphs
van Dam, E.R.; Haemers, W.H.
2000-01-01
When can one see from the spectrum of a graph whether it is distance-regular or not?We give some new results for when this is the case.As a consequence we find (among others) that the following distance-regular graphs are uniquely determined by their spectrum: The collinearity graphs of the generali
Mu-calculus-based deontic logic for regular actions
Broersen, Jan; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Meyer, John-Jules; Demolombe, R.; Hilpinen, R.
This paper introduces deontic logic of regular actions as a fragment of the modal mu calculus Semantic characterizations of deontic notions for regular actions are given in terms of conditions on mu calculus structures and mu calculus formulas capturing this semantics are constructed
Strictly-regular number system and data structures
Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki
2010-01-01
We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...
Chimeric mitochondrial peptides from contiguous regular and swinger RNA
Hervé Seligmann
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Previous mass spectrometry analyses described human mitochondrial peptides entirely translated from swinger RNAs, RNAs where polymerization systematically exchanged nucleotides. Exchanges follow one among 23 bijective transformation rules, nine symmetric exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A, multiplying by 24 DNA's protein coding potential. Abrupt switches from regular to swinger polymerization produce chimeric RNAs. Here, human mitochondrial proteomic analyses assuming abrupt switches between regular and swinger transcriptions, detect chimeric peptides, encoded by part regular, part swinger RNA. Contiguous regular- and swinger-encoded residues within single peptides are stronger evidence for translation of swinger RNA than previously detected, entirely swinger-encoded peptides: regular parts are positive controls matched with contiguous swinger parts, increasing confidence in results. Chimeric peptides are 200× rarer than swinger peptides (3/100,000 versus 6/1000. Among 186 peptides with >8 residues for each regular and swinger parts, regular parts of eleven chimeric peptides correspond to six among the thirteen recognized, mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Chimeric peptides matching partly regular proteins are rarer and less expressed than chimeric peptides matching non-coding sequences, suggesting targeted degradation of misfolded proteins. Present results strengthen hypotheses that the short mitogenome encodes far more proteins than hitherto assumed. Entirely swinger-encoded proteins could exist.
Chimeric mitochondrial peptides from contiguous regular and swinger RNA.
Seligmann, Hervé
2016-01-01
Previous mass spectrometry analyses described human mitochondrial peptides entirely translated from swinger RNAs, RNAs where polymerization systematically exchanged nucleotides. Exchanges follow one among 23 bijective transformation rules, nine symmetric exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C) and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A), multiplying by 24 DNA's protein coding potential. Abrupt switches from regular to swinger polymerization produce chimeric RNAs. Here, human mitochondrial proteomic analyses assuming abrupt switches between regular and swinger transcriptions, detect chimeric peptides, encoded by part regular, part swinger RNA. Contiguous regular- and swinger-encoded residues within single peptides are stronger evidence for translation of swinger RNA than previously detected, entirely swinger-encoded peptides: regular parts are positive controls matched with contiguous swinger parts, increasing confidence in results. Chimeric peptides are 200 × rarer than swinger peptides (3/100,000 versus 6/1000). Among 186 peptides with > 8 residues for each regular and swinger parts, regular parts of eleven chimeric peptides correspond to six among the thirteen recognized, mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Chimeric peptides matching partly regular proteins are rarer and less expressed than chimeric peptides matching non-coding sequences, suggesting targeted degradation of misfolded proteins. Present results strengthen hypotheses that the short mitogenome encodes far more proteins than hitherto assumed. Entirely swinger-encoded proteins could exist.
Monodromy groups of parameterized linear differential equations with regular singularities
Mitschi, Claude
2011-01-01
We study the notion of regular singularities for parameterized complex ordinary linear differential systems, prove an analogue of the Schlesinger theorem for systems with regular singularities and solve both a parameterized version of the weak Riemann-Hilbert Problem and a special case of the inverse problem in parameterized Picard-Vessiot theory.
Some Characterizations of Left Weakly Regular Ordered Semigroups
TANC JIAN; XIE XIANG-YUN
2011-01-01
In this paper,the notion of left weakly regular ordered semigroups is introduced.Furthermore,left weakly regular ordered semigroups are characterized by the properties of their left ideals,right ideals and (generalized) bi-ideals,and also by the properties of their fuzzy left ideals,fuzzy right ideals and fuzzy (generalized) bi-ideals.
Endemic infections are always possible on regular networks
Del Genio, Charo I
2013-01-01
We study the dependence of the largest component in regular networks on the clustering coefficient, showing that its size changes smoothly without undergoing a phase transition. We explain this behaviour via an analytical approach based on the network structure, and provide an exact equation describing the numerical results. Our work indicates that intrinsic structural properties always allow the spread of epidemics on regular networks.
Existence and regularity of positive solutions for an elliptic system
Abdelouahed El Khalil
2002-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence and regularity of positive solution for an elliptic system on a bounded and regular domain. The non linearities in this equation are functions of Caratheodory type satisfying some exponential growth conditions.
Adaptive Regularization of Neural Networks Using Conjugate Gradient
Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan
1998-01-01
Andersen et al. (1997) and Larsen et al. (1996, 1997) suggested a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts regularization parameters by minimizing validation error using simple gradient descent. In this contribution we present an improved algorithm based on the conjugate gradient technique........ Numerical experiments with feedforward neural networks successfully demonstrate improved generalization ability and lower computational cost...
Working for legality: employment and migrant regularization in Europe
Chauvin, S.; Garcés-Mascareñas, B.; Kraler, A.
2013-01-01
Recent programs to regularize undocumented migrants suggest the increasing role of employment as a requirement for foreigners to legally reside in Europe. Taking as illustrations the cases of Spain, France, Austria, Belgium and Germany, this article examines how regularization policies frame work. E
Regular implementability and its application to stabilization of system behaviors
Belur, M.N.; Trentelman, H.L.; Willems, J.C.
2001-01-01
In this paper we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a given linear differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding suitable, regularly i
The Regularity Estimates for the Elliptic Equations in Orlicz Classes
TAO Xiang-xing; FANG Yi
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to give the element proof of the regularity estimates in Orlicz classes for the second order derivatives of the solutions to the general second order elliptic equations.The global regularities in Orlicz for the second order derivatives of the solutions of the Dirichlet problems are also given.
On the Generating Power of Regularly Controlled Bidirectional Grammars
Asveld, Peter R.J.; Hogendorp, Jan Anne
1989-01-01
RCB-grammars or regularly controlled bidirectional grammars are context-free grammars of which the rules can be used in a productive and in a reductive fashion. In addition, the application of these rules is controlled by a regular language. Several modes of derivation can be distinguished for this
On the generating power of regularly controlled bidirection grammars
Asveld, P.R.J.; Hogendorp, J.A.
1991-01-01
RCB-grammars or regularly controlled bidirectional grammars are context-free grammars of which the rules can be used in a productive and in a reductive fashion. In addition, the application of these rules is controlled by a regular language. Several modes of derivation can be distinguished for this
Regular black hole metrics and the weak energy condition
Balart, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.balart@ufrontera.cl [I.C.B. – Institut Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209, CNRS, Faculté des Sciences Mirande, Université de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad de La Frontera, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Vagenas, Elias C., E-mail: elias.vagenas@ku.edu.kw [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)
2014-03-07
In this work we construct a family of spherically symmetric, static, charged regular black hole metrics in the context of Einstein-nonlinear electrodynamics theory. The construction of the charged regular black hole metrics is based on three requirements: (a) the weak energy condition should be satisfied, (b) the energy–momentum tensor should have the symmetry T{sub 0}{sup 0}=T{sub 1}{sup 1}, and (c) these metrics have to asymptotically behave as the Reissner–Nordström black hole metric. In addition, these charged regular black hole metrics depend on two parameters which for specific values yield regular black hole metrics that already exist in the literature. Furthermore, by relaxing the third requirement, we construct more general regular black hole metrics which do not behave asymptotically as a Reissner–Nordström black hole metric.
Regularized Regression and Density Estimation based on Optimal Transport
Burger, M.
2012-03-11
The aim of this paper is to investigate a novel nonparametric approach for estimating and smoothing density functions as well as probability densities from discrete samples based on a variational regularization method with the Wasserstein metric as a data fidelity. The approach allows a unified treatment of discrete and continuous probability measures and is hence attractive for various tasks. In particular, the variational model for special regularization functionals yields a natural method for estimating densities and for preserving edges in the case of total variation regularization. In order to compute solutions of the variational problems, a regularized optimal transport problem needs to be solved, for which we discuss several formulations and provide a detailed analysis. Moreover, we compute special self-similar solutions for standard regularization functionals and we discuss several computational approaches and results. © 2012 The Author(s).
Moving object detection via low-rank total variation regularization
Wang, Pengcheng; Chen, Qian; Shao, Na
2016-09-01
Moving object detection is a challenging task in video surveillance. Recently proposed Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) can recover the outlier patterns from the low-rank data under some mild conditions. However, the l-penalty in RPCA doesn't work well in moving object detection because the irrepresentable condition is often not satisfied. In this paper, a method based on total variation (TV) regularization scheme is proposed. In our model, image sequences captured with a static camera are highly related, which can be described using a low-rank matrix. Meanwhile, the low-rank matrix can absorb background motion, e.g. periodic and random perturbation. The foreground objects in the sequence are usually sparsely distributed and drifting continuously, and can be treated as group outliers from the highly-related background scenes. Instead of l-penalty, we exploit the total variation of the foreground. By minimizing the total variation energy, the outliers tend to collapse and finally converge to be the exact moving objects. The TV-penalty is superior to the l-penalty especially when the outlier is in the majority for some pixels, and our method can estimate the outlier explicitly with less bias but higher variance. To solve the problem, a joint optimization function is formulated and can be effectively solved through the inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (ALM) method. We evaluate our method along with several state-of-the-art approaches in MATLAB. Both qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that our proposed method works effectively on a large range of complex scenarios.
Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles
2000-01-01
Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...
Shkvarko Yuriy
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We address a new approach to solve the ill-posed nonlinear inverse problem of high-resolution numerical reconstruction of the spatial spectrum pattern (SSP of the backscattered wavefield sources distributed over the remotely sensed scene. An array or synthesized array radar (SAR that employs digital data signal processing is considered. By exploiting the idea of combining the statistical minimum risk estimation paradigm with numerical descriptive regularization techniques, we address a new fused statistical descriptive regularization (SDR strategy for enhanced radar imaging. Pursuing such an approach, we establish a family of the SDR-related SSP estimators, that encompass a manifold of existing beamforming techniques ranging from traditional matched filter to robust and adaptive spatial filtering, and minimum variance methods.
A morphometric analysis of vegetation patterns in dryland ecosystems
Mander, Luke; Dekker, Stefan C.; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Punyasena, Surangiw; Lenton, Timothy M.
2017-01-01
Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that
Spatial Patterns in Urban Systems
Huynh, Hoai Nguyen; Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Chew, Lock Yue
2016-01-01
Understanding the morphology of an urban system is an important step toward unveiling the dynamical processes of its growth and development. At the foundation of every urban system, transportation system is undeniably a crucial component in powering the life of the entire urban system. In this work, we study the spatial pattern of $73$ cities across the globe by analysing the distribution of public transport points within the cities. The analysis reveals that different spatial distributions of points could be classified into four groups with distinct features, indicating whether the points are clustered, dispersed or regularly distributed. From visual inspection, we observe that the cities with regularly distributed patterns do not have apparent centre in contrast to the other two types in which star-node structure, i.e. monocentric, can be clearly observed. Furthermore, the results provide evidence for the existence of two different types of urban system: well-planned and organically grown. We also study the...
What causes the experience of discrimination in non-regular workers?
Kang, Seong-Hoon; Song, Jin-Ho; Koh, Tae Hwan; Paek, Do Myung; Park, Jong-Tae; Chun, HoSun
2017-01-01
Discrimination based on type of employment against non-regular workers is still a social issue. However, there are few studies on job factors that affect the discrimination experience in each type of employment or the association between discrimination and health impact indicators. This study examined occupational health characteristics according to discrimination experience and relating factors that affect discrimination experience. This study used the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (2014) provided by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. Among the 50,000 workers, 7731 non-regular wage workers were selected as study population. To examine differences in discrimination experience, we used a t-test on occupational risk factors, occupational stress, occupational characteristics, health impact indicators. To identify the factors that affected discrimination experience, we performed binomial logistic regression analysis. The discrimination experience rate was significantly higher in male, aged less than 40 years old, above high school graduate than middle school graduate, higher wage level, shorter employment period and larger company's scale. As factors related to discrimination experience, they experienced discrimination more as occupational stress was higher and when they were temporary or daily workers rather than permanent workers, work patterns were not consistent, and the support of boss was low. It showed that physical, musculoskeletal, and mental occupational risk scores and subjective job instability were higher and work environment satisfaction was lower in discrimination experienced group. The present study showed that the demographic and occupational factors were complexly related to discrimination experience in non-regular workers. The experience of discrimination had increased when occupational stress was higher, they were temporary or daily workers rather than permanent workers, work patterns were not consistent, and their boss
Learning regularization parameters for general-form Tikhonov
Chung, Julianne; Español, Malena I.
2017-07-01
Computing regularization parameters for general-form Tikhonov regularization can be an expensive and difficult task, especially if multiple parameters or many solutions need to be computed in real time. In this work, we assume training data is available and describe an efficient learning approach for computing regularization parameters that can be used for a large set of problems. We consider an empirical Bayes risk minimization framework for finding regularization parameters that minimize average errors for the training data. We first extend methods from Chung et al (2011 SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33 3132-52) to the general-form Tikhonov problem. Then we develop a learning approach for multi-parameter Tikhonov problems, for the case where all involved matrices are simultaneously diagonalizable. For problems where this is not the case, we describe an approach to compute near-optimal regularization parameters by using operator approximations for the original problem. Finally, we propose a new class of regularizing filters, where solutions correspond to multi-parameter Tikhonov solutions, that requires less data than previously proposed optimal error filters, avoids the generalized SVD, and allows flexibility and novelty in the choice of regularization matrices. Numerical results for 1D and 2D examples using different norms on the errors show the effectiveness of our methods.
Semisupervised Support Vector Machines With Tangent Space Intrinsic Manifold Regularization.
Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong
2016-09-01
Semisupervised learning has been an active research topic in machine learning and data mining. One main reason is that labeling examples is expensive and time-consuming, while there are large numbers of unlabeled examples available in many practical problems. So far, Laplacian regularization has been widely used in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we propose a new regularization method called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization. It is intrinsic to data manifold and favors linear functions on the manifold. Fundamental elements involved in the formulation of the regularization are local tangent space representations, which are estimated by local principal component analysis, and the connections that relate adjacent tangent spaces. Simultaneously, we explore its application to semisupervised classification and propose two new learning algorithms called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized support vector machines (TiSVMs) and tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized twin SVMs (TiTSVMs). They effectively integrate the tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization consideration. The optimization of TiSVMs can be solved by a standard quadratic programming, while the optimization of TiTSVMs can be solved by a pair of standard quadratic programmings. The experimental results of semisupervised classification problems show the effectiveness of the proposed semisupervised learning algorithms.
Advanced morphological analysis of patterns of thin anodic porous alumina
Toccafondi, C. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanophysics, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanostructures, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Stępniowski, W.J. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Faculty of Advanced Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Leoncini, M. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanostructures, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Salerno, M., E-mail: marco.salerno@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanophysics, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy)
2014-08-15
Different conditions of fabrication of thin anodic porous alumina on glass substrates have been explored, obtaining two sets of samples with varying pore density and porosity, respectively. The patterns of pores have been imaged by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by innovative methods. The regularity ratio has been extracted from radial profiles of the fast Fourier transforms of the images. Additionally, the Minkowski measures have been calculated. It was first observed that the regularity ratio averaged across all directions is properly corrected by the coefficient previously determined in the literature. Furthermore, the angularly averaged regularity ratio for the thin porous alumina made during short single-step anodizations is lower than that of hexagonal patterns of pores as for thick porous alumina from aluminum electropolishing and two-step anodization. Therefore, the regularity ratio represents a reliable measure of pattern order. At the same time, the lower angular spread of the regularity ratio shows that disordered porous alumina is more isotropic. Within each set, when changing either pore density or porosity, both regularity and isotropy remain rather constant, showing consistent fabrication quality of the experimental patterns. Minor deviations are tentatively discussed with the aid of the Minkowski measures, and the slight decrease in both regularity and isotropy for the final data-points of the porosity set is ascribed to excess pore opening and consequent pore merging. - Highlights: • Thin porous alumina is partly self-ordered and pattern analysis is required. • Regularity ratio is often misused: we fix the averaging and consider its spread. • We also apply the mathematical tool of Minkowski measures, new in this field. • Regularity ratio shows pattern isotropy and Minkowski helps in assessment. • General agreement with perfect artificial patterns confirms the good manufacturing.
Fractional norm regularization: learning with very few relevant features.
Kaban, Ata
2013-06-01
Learning in the presence of a large number of irrelevant features is an important problem in high-dimensional tasks. Previous studies have shown that L1-norm regularization can be effective in such cases while L2-norm regularization is not. Furthermore, work in compressed sensing suggests that regularization by nonconvex (e.g., fractional) semi-norms may outperform L1-regularization. However, for classification it is largely unclear when this may or may not be the case. In addition, the nonconvex problem is harder to solve than the convex L1 problem. In this paper, we provide a more in-depth analysis to elucidate the potential advantages and pitfalls of nonconvex regularization in the context of logistic regression where the regularization term employs the family of Lq semi-norms. First, using results from the phenomenon of concentration of norms and distances in high dimensions, we gain intuition about the working of sparse estimation when the dimensionality is very high. Second, using the probably approximately correct (PAC)-Bayes methodology, we give a data-dependent bound on the generalization error of Lq-regularized logistic regression, which is applicable to any algorithm that implements this model, and may be used to predict its generalization behavior from the training set alone. Third, we demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by experiments and applications, where the PAC-Bayes bound is used to guide the choice of semi-norm in the regularization term. The results support the conclusion that the optimal choice of regularization depends on the relative fraction of relevant versus irrelevant features, and a fractional norm with a small exponent is most suitable when the fraction of relevant features is very small.
Hak, Tony; Dul, Jan
2009-01-01
textabstractPattern matching is comparing two patterns in order to determine whether they match (i.e., that they are the same) or do not match (i.e., that they differ). Pattern matching is the core procedure of theory-testing with cases. Testing consists of matching an “observed pattern” (a pattern of measured values) with an “expected pattern” (a hypothesis), and deciding whether these patterns match (resulting in a confirmation of the hypothesis) or do not match (resulting in a disconfirmat...
Understanding taxi travel patterns
Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming
2016-09-01
Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.
Klinger, Allen
2011-01-01
In this paper we propose numerical measures for evaluating the aesthetic interest of simple patterns. The patterns consist of elements (symbols, pixels, etc.) in regular square arrays. The measures depend on two characteristics of the patterns: the number of different types of element, and the number of symmetries in their arrangement. We define two complementary composite measures L and C for the degree of pattern in a design, and compute them here for 2x2 and 6x6 arrays. The results distinguish simple from high-variation cases. We suspect that the measure L corresponds to the degree that human beings intuitively feel a design to be "interesting", so this model would aid in quantifying the visual connection of two- dimensional designs with viewers. The other composite measure C based on these numerical properties characterizes the extent of randomness of an array. Combining symbol variety with symmetry calculations allows us to employ hierarchical scaling to count the relative impact of different levels of s...
Regularity for solutions of non local parabolic equations
Lara, Héctor A Chang
2011-01-01
We study the regularity of solutions of parabolic fully nonlinear nonlocal equations. We proof $C^\\a$ regularity in space and time and for translation invariant equations and under different assumptions on the kernels $C^{1,\\a}$ in space and time regularity. The proofs rely on a weak parabolic ABP inspired in recent work done by L. Silvestre and the classic ideas of K. Tso and L. Wang. Our results remain uniform as $\\s\\to2$ allowing us to understand the non local theory as an extension to the classical one.